Sample records for explosive flux compression

  1. Explosive Flux Compression: 50 Years of Los Alamos Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, C.M.; Thomson, D.B.; Garn, W.B.


    Los Alamos flux compression activities are surveyed, mainly through references in view of space limitations. However, two plasma physics programs done with Sandia National Laboratory are discussed in more detail.

  2. Cyclotron resonance on galliumnitride in fields up to 700 T generated by explosive driven flux compression (United States)

    Puhlmann, N.; Tatsenko, O. M.; Stolpe, I.; Markevtsev, I. M.; von Ortenberg, M.; Platonov, V. V.; Selemir, V. D.; Bykov, A. I.; Moiseenko, A. N.; Schikora, D.


    We report on the first successful cyclotron resonance experiment on a semiconductor in ultrahigh magnetic fields generated by explosive-driven flux compression. The sample under investigation was a p-type cubic GaN layer grown by plasma-assisted MBE on a (0 0 1)-GaAs substrate. We have used the magnetocumulative generator MC-1 for generating a magnetic field exceeding 700 T. A CO 2 laser with a fixed wavelength of λ=10.6 μm was used as radiation source. The transmitted radiation intensity was detected by use of a fast HgCdTe-detector. The experiment was performed at 270 K in Faraday geometry with the magnetic field oriented parallel to the [0 0 1]-direction of the epitaxial layer. Three distinct transmission minima at about 90 T, 270 T and 400-425 T with a resonance depth of a few percent only, are clearly resolved. The data in the lower field region correspond excellently to results derived previously from experiments in fields up to 275 T generated by use of the single-turn coil technique. The data are compared directly with the Landau level scheme of cubic GaN in the Luttinger model.

  3. Optimizing the Ranchero Coaxial Flux Compression Generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tasker, D.G.; Goforth, J.H.; Fowler, C.M.; Lopez, E.A.; Oona, H.; King, J.C.; Herrera, D.H.; Torres, D.T.; Reinovsky, R.E.; Martinez, E.C.; Stokes, J.L.; Tabaka, L.J.; Garcia, O.F.; Atchison, W.L.; Faehl, R.J.; Lindemuth, I.R.; Keinigs, R.K.; Miller, P.J.


    Ranchero is an explosively driven magnetic flux-compression generator that has been developed, over the last four years, as a versatile power source for high energy density physics experiments. It is coaxial, and comprises a 15 cm-diameter armature and a 30-cm stator, each aluminum. The length may be varied to suit the demands of each experiment; thus far, lengths of 0.43 m and 1.4 m have been used. The stator is filled and driven by a high performance cast explosive, and the ultimate performance of the device is limited by the smoothness of the armature expansion. The armature explosive is initiated on axis by PETN hemispheres, spaced at intervals of about 18 mm and 24.5 mm; each is simultaneously detonated by a slapper detonator system. Calculations of armature expansion predicted ripples less than 0.2 mm, and this was confirmed in early experiments. Yet, ripples approaching tens of millimeters were observed in some more recent experiments. The authors discuss the possible origins of the se large ripples, and the methods the authors have used to correct them.

  4. Design of a miniature explosive isentropic compression experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tasker, Douglas G [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    The purpose of this design study is to adapt the High Explosive Pulsed Power Isentropic Compression Experiment (HEPP-ICE) to milligram quantities of materials at stresses of {approx}100 GPa. For this miniature application we assume that a parallel plate stripline of {approx}2.5 mm width is needed to compress the samples. In any parallel plate load, the rising currents flow preferentially along the outside edges of the load where the specific impedance is a minimum [1]. Therefore, the peak current must be between 1 and 2 MA to reach a stress of 100 GPa in the center of a 2.5 mm wide parallel plate load; these are small relative to typical HEPP-ICE currents. We show that a capacitor bank alone exceeds the requirements of this miniature ICE experiment and a flux compression generator (FCG) is not necessary. The proposed circuit will comprise one half of the 2.4-MJ bank, i.e., the 6-mF, 20-kV, 1.2 MJ capacitor bank used in the original HEPP-ICE circuit. Explosive opening and closing switches will still be required because the rise time of the capacitor circuit would be of the order of 30 {micro}s without them. For isentropic loading in these small samples, stress rise times of {approx}200 ns are required.

  5. Renewed experimentation with Ranchero flux compression genereators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goforth, James H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Herrera, Dennis H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tasker, Douglas G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Torres, David T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Atchison, W. L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Colgate, S. A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Griego, J. R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Guzik, J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Holtkamp, D. B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Idzorek, G. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kaul, A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kirkpatrick, R. C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Menikoff, R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Meyer, R. K. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Oona, H. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Reardon, P. T. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Reinovsky, R. E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rousculp, C. L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sgro, A. G. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tabaka, L. J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Watt, R. G. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Riesman, D. B. [LLNL


    In the late 1990s, Los Alamos pursued a coaxial flux compression generator (FCG) concept that was described in several publications under the name 'Ranchero.' These FCGs were designed to be cost effective high current generators, and a variety of configurations were tested. The Ranchero armature is a 152 mm diameter aluminum cylinder with a 6 mm thick wall. The high explosive (HE) is detonated simultaneously on axis, and as the armature expands a factor of two, the wall thins to {approx}3 mm. At the final 300 mm diameter, the circumference is over 900 mm, and this should allow currents to be generated in the 90 MA range. No tests significantly over 50 MA have been performed but an experiment is planned. We have recently begun using Ranchero devices for a new application and we continue to improve the design. In this paper we describe recent tests of Ranchero and its subsystems. The load for our new application is an imploding aluminum liner that would deform due to the magnetic pressure applied during the initial flux loading. It will, however, implode properly when powered only during the {approx}29 {micro}s Ranchero flux compression time. This gives rise to a new system with explOSively formed fuse (EFF) opening switches and an integral closing switch that isolates the load. A capacitor bank delivers 2.8 MA to the Ranchero circuit in {approx}85 {micro}s. During this time, four parallel 63.5 mm wide EFFs, external to the coaxial system, complete the circuit. After armature motion begins, insulation which initially isolates the load is severed, connecting the load to the FCG in parallel with the EFFs. External HE charges are initiated on each of the EFFs to produce a resistance rise timed to not precede closure of the load isolation switch. The EFFs achieve significant resistance, and the flux remaining in the 191 nH generator and 3 nH transmission line is compressed to generate 30.85 MA in a {approx}12.5 nH static load. On three tests, the EFF system has

  6. An exploding foil shockwave technique for magnetic flux compression and high voltage pulse generation

    CERN Document Server

    Goh, S E


    This thesis describes a novel electromagnetic shockwave technique for use in compressing magnetic flux and to serve as the basis for a new approach to producing fast-rising voltage pulses with amplitudes of several hundred kV. The shockwave is produced by an exploding foil driven electric gun that accelerates a Mylar flyer to impact with a sample of aluminium powder. Both Japanese and Russian researchers have previously published experimental results for shockwave magnetic flux compression using an explosive driver. The present research considers replacing the explosive energy of this driver by the electrostatic energy stored in a capacitor bank, thereby enabling experiments to be performed in a laboratory environment. Differences in performance that arise from the use of explosive and electrical driver are examined. A conventional electric gun system in planar geometry is developed to study the insulator-to-metallic transition in shock-compressed aluminium powder. This provides data on the conducting shock f...

  7. Compressed magnetic flux amplifier with capacitive load

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuetzer, O.M.


    A first-order analysis is presented for a compressed magnetic flux (CMF) current amplifier working into a load with a capacitive component. Since the purpose of the investigation was to gain a general understanding of the arrangement, a number of approximations and limitations were accepted. The inductance of the transducer varies with time; the inductance/resistance/capacitance (LRC) circuit therefore is parametric and solutions are different for the stable regime (high C), the oscillation regime (low C), and the transition case. Solutions and performance depend strongly on circuit boundary conditions, i.e., energization of the circuit by either an injected current or by an applied capacitor charge. The behavior of current and energy amplification for the various cases are discussed in detail. A number of experiments with small CMF devices showed that the first-order theory presented predicts transducer performance well in the linear regime.

  8. Magnetic Flux Compression Concept for Nuclear Pulse Propulsion and Power (United States)

    Litchford, Ronald J.


    fusion micro-bursts with reasonable levels of input energy is an equally challenging scientific problem. It remains to be seen, however, whether an effective ignition driver can be developed which meets the requirements for practical spaceflight application (namely high power density, compactness, low weight, and low cost). In this paper, system level performance and design issues are examined including generator performance, magnetic flux compression processes, magnetic diffusion processes, high temperature superconductor (HTSC) material properties, plasmadynamic processes, detonation plasma expansion processes, magnetohydrodynamic instabilities, magnetic nozzle performance, and thrust production performance. Representative generator performance calculations based on a simplified skin layer formulation are presented as well as the results of exploratory small-scale laboratory experiments on magnetic flux diffusion in HTSC materials. In addition, planned follow-on scientific feasibility experiments are described which utilize high explosive detonations and high energy gas discharges to simulate the plasma conditions associated with thermonuclear micro-detonations.

  9. Compressibility Effects on the Passive Scalar Flux Within Homogeneous Turbulence (United States)

    Blaisdell, G. A.; Mansour, N. N.; Reynolds, W. C.


    Compressibility effects on turbulent transport of a passive scalar are studied within homogeneous turbulence using a kinematic decomposition of the velocity field into solenoidal and dilatational parts. It is found that the dilatational velocity does not produce a passive scalar flux, and that all of the passive scalar flux is due to the solenoidal velocity.

  10. Uncovering transportation networks from traffic flux by compressed sensing (United States)

    Tang, Si-Qi; Shen, Zhesi; Wang, Wen-Xu; Di, Zengru


    Transportation and communication networks are ubiquitous in nature and society. Uncovering the underlying topology as well as link weights, is fundamental to understanding traffic dynamics and designing effective control strategies to facilitate transmission efficiency. We develop a general method for reconstructing transportation networks from detectable traffic flux data using the aid of a compressed sensing algorithm. Our approach enables full reconstruction of network topology and link weights for both directed and undirected networks from relatively small amounts of data compared to the network size. The limited data requirement and certain resistance to noise allows our method to achieve real-time network reconstruction. We substantiate the effectiveness of our method through systematic numerical tests with respect to several different network structures and transmission strategies. We expect our approach to be widely applicable in a variety of transportation and communication systems.

  11. Induced current effects in Faraday's law and introduction to flux compression theories (United States)

    Namias, Victor


    The exact dynamical and electrical equations for a rod moving on conducting rails in a magnetic field are quite complicated and do not clearly reveal the nature of the physical processes involved, especially in regard to the electromechanical energy transfer taking place in the system. Considerable conceptual simplification is achieved by considering the two-dimensional version of the rod and rails system. The dynamics and the energy balance of the entire system can be established without difficulty in the most general conditions. The complete solution of the problem is obtained in one particular case. More importantly, such a two-dimensional model can provide a simplified but effective introduction to the field of flux compression theories, an active area of research concerned with the design and utilization of flux pumps and the generation of very intense or very weak magnetic fields. An idealized example is treated in detail. Finally, we use the simplified model to briefly discuss other new techniques and devices based on Faraday's induction law. Among these, the electromagnetic forming of metal sheets which uses the magnetic pressure of an expanding magnetic field to swage them into a desired shape has received a number of industrial applications. Another, more speculative field of interest concerns railguns and other electromagnetic launchers, which are still in the experimental stage, but may someday surpass the traditional chemical explosives or provide a more economical alternative to conventional rocket launching.

  12. Isentropic Compression of Argon and Krypton Using an MC1 Flux Compression Generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veeser, L.; Ekdahl, C.; Oona, H.; Rodriguez, P.; Schmitt, G.; Solem, J.; Younger, S.; Baker, S.; Hudson, C.; Lewis, W.; Marshall, B.; Turley, W.; Bykov, A.; Boriskov, G.; Dolotenko, M.; Egorov, N.; Kolokol' chikov, N.; Kozlov, M.; Kuropatkin, Y.; Volkov, A.


    LANL and VNIIEF are performing a set of joint experiments to explore the conductivity and possible metalization of argon and krypton compressed to up to five times normal solid density. The experiments use a magnetic field of several megagauss, generated by a Russian MC1 generator, to compress a metallic tube containing solidified argon or krypton. A probe in the center of the tube measures the electrical conductivity to the walls, and a 70-MeV betatron serves as an x-ray source for three radiographic measurements of the compression. Several of these experiments for argon compressed to around 4 to 5 times solid density indicate a conductivity in the range of 10 to 100 {Omega}{sup -1}cm{sup -1}, well below that of a metal. For krypton preliminary results show a conductivity of order 1000 or more, indicating likely metalization of the compressed sample.

  13. The 2007 and 2014 eruptions of Stromboli at match: monitoring the potential occurrence of effusion-driven basaltic paroxysmal explosions from a volcanic CO2 flux perspective (United States)

    Liuzzo, Marco; Aiuppa, Alessandro; Salerno, Giuseppe; Burton, Mike; Federico, Cinzia; Caltabiano, Tommaso; Giudice, Gaetano; Giuffrida, Giovanni


    The recent effusive unrests of Stromboli occurred in 2002 and 2007 were both punctuated by short-lived, violent paroxysmal explosions generated from the volcano's summit craters. When effusive activity recently resumed on Stromboli, on 6 August 2014, much concern was raised therefore on whether or not a paroxysm would have occurred again. The occurrence of these potentially hazardous events has stimulated research toward understanding the mechanisms through which effusive eruptions can perturb the volcano's plumbing system, to eventually trigger a paroxysm. The anomalously large CO2 gas emissions measured prior to the 15 March 2007 paroxysmal explosion of Stromboli [1] have first demonstrated the chance to predict days in advance the effusive-to-explosive transition. Here 2007 and 2014 volcanic CO2 flux records have been compared for exploring causes/conditions that had not triggered any paroxysm event in the 2014 case. We show that the 2007 and 2014 datasets shared both similarities and remarkable differences. The pre-eruptive trends of CO2 and SO2 flux emissions were strikingly similar in both 2007 and 2014, indicating similar conditions within the plumbing system prior to onset of both effusive crises. In both events, the CO2 flux substantially accelerated (relative to the pre-eruptive mean flux) after onset of the effusion. However, this CO2 flux acceleration was a factor 3 lower in 2014 than in 2007, and the excess CO2 flux (the fraction of CO2 not associated with the shallowly emplaced/erupted magma, and therefore contributed by the deep magmatic system) never returned to the very high levels observed prior to the 15 March 2007 paroxysm. We conclude therefore that, although similar quantities of magma were effusively erupted in 2007 and 2014, the deep magmatic system was far less perturbed in the most recent case. We speculate that the rate at which the deep magmatic system is decompressed, rather than the level of de-compression itself, determine if the deep

  14. The production of MMC materials by explosive compression. Final report; Herstellung von MMC-Werkstoffen durch Explosivverdichtung. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boettger, W.; Pruemmer, R.


    In the context of the project, the ability to produce aluminium reinforced with steel fibres, SiC fibres and C fibres by the process of explosive compression was proved. Of the systems examined, the compound material steel fibre-aluminium has advanced most and is securely managed for components with small dimensions. (MM) [Deutsch] Im Rahmen des Vorhabens konnte die Herstellbarkeit von Stahlfaser-, SiC-Faser- und C-Faser-verstaerktem Aluminium mit dem Verfahren der Explosivverdichtung nachgewiesen werden. Von den untersuchten Systemen ist der Verbundwerkstoff Stahlfaser-Aluminium am weitesten fortgeschritten und wird fuer Bauteile kleinerer Abmessungen sicher beherrscht. (MM)

  15. Triggering of explosive reconnection in a thick current sheet via current sheet compression: Less current sheet thinning, more temperature anisotropy (United States)

    Shimizu, K.; Shinohara, I.; Fujimoto, M.


    Two-dimensional kinetic simulations of compression of thick current sheets are performed to see how it can lead to triggering of explosive magnetic reconnection. The current sheet under study is simply in a Harris-like anti-paralell and symmetric geometry. A one-dimensional pre-study shows that the compression is more effective to make the plasma anisotropy than to thin the current sheet width. When the lobe magnetic field is amplified by a factor of 2, the plasma temperature anisotropy inside the current sheet reaches 2 but the current sheet thickness is reduced only by 1/sqrt(2). If a current sheet thickness needs to be comparable to the ion inertial scale for reconnection triggering take place, as is widely and frequently mentioned in the research community, the initial thickness cannot be more than a few ion scale for reconnection to set-in. On the other hand, the temperature anisotropy of 2 can be significant for the triggering problem. Two-dimensional simulations show explosive magnetic reconnection to take place even when the initial current sheet thickness more than an order of magnitude thicker than the ion scale, indicating the resilient triggering drive supplied by the temperature anisotropy. We also discuss how the reconnection triggering capability of the temperature anisotropy boosted tearing mode for thick current sheets compares with the instabilities in the plane orthogonal to the reconnecting field.

  16. Flux-Tube Texture of the Solar Wind: Weakly Compressible MHD Theory and Direct Numerical Simulations (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, A.; Sarkar, A.; Ebrahimi, F.


    Over the years, there has been a steady accumulation of observational evidence that the solar wind may be thought of as a network of individual magnetic flux tubes each with its own magnetic and plasma characteristics [Bartley et al. 1966, Marliani et al. 1973, Tu and Marsch 1990, Bruno et al. 2001, Borovsky 2008]. The weakly compressible MHD (WC-MHD) model [Bhattacharjee et al., 1998], which incorporates the effect of background spatial inhomogeneities, has been used recently to characterize the anisotropic magnetic fluctuation spectra (the so-called variance anisotropy) observed by ACE spacecraft. For a model of local pressure-driven interchange turbulence in a generic solar wind flux tube, the WC-MHD theory uses the Invariance Principle approach [Connor and Taylor 1997, Bhattacharjee and Hameiri 1988] to calculate explicitly the scaling of magnetic field fluctuations with plasma beta and other background plasma parameters. We test these theoretical predictions by direct numerical simulations of interchange turbulence in a flux tube using the DEBS MHD code. Synthetic variance anisotropy within a generic flux tube is computed in the high-Lundquist-number regime, and shows remarkable similarity with ACE observations.

  17. Compressible viscoelastodynamics: the Longman (1963) paradox and the long period tangential flux. (United States)

    Cambiotti, Gabriele; Roberto, Sabadini; Klemann, Volker


    The compressible viscoelastodynamics and the fluid behaviour of the Earth occupy an important position in the study of glacial isostatic adjustments (GIA). There, our understanding of these issues is incomplete and we still have to solve the Longman (1963) paradox concerning compressible inviscid solids, in order to describe correctly viscoelastic solids at large time scales or the fluid outer core. For compositional stratifications (the density increase with depth deviates from what should be expected from self-compression) static perturbations cannot involve volume changes. Thus the incremental pressure vanishes and loads could not be sustained, at least from a mathematical point of view. This conclusion is not physically sound and, obviously, load are sustained isostatically. For compressional stratifications instead, incremental pressure is allowed. However the differential system describing conservation of momentum and self-gravitation is not well posed and thus it is not completely solved. Smylie & Manshina (1971) and Chinnery (1975) proposed a way to avoid the Longman (1963) paradox in order to define core-mantle boundary (CMB) conditions. For compressional stratifications, we set up the system of differential equations controlling the perturbations of the inviscid fluid and we propose a new way to derive the CMB conditions able to determine also spatial and gravitational perturbations. Furthermore, we derive a new analytical solution for compressible Maxwell Earth models characterized both by stable and unstable compositional stratifications, as well as by compressional stratifications. This allows us to discover a new class of relaxation modes, the compositional C-modes, of which the unstable Rayleigh-Taylor modes are a subclass. If the stratification is unstable these modes describe the well known gravitational overturning, while, for stable stratification, they describe a long period tangential flux, which diverges in the fluid limit. Our findings make a

  18. Implementing and diagnosing magnetic flux compression on the Z pulsed power accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McBride, Ryan D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bliss, David E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gomez, Matthew R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hansen, Stephanie B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Martin, Matthew R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jennings, Christopher Ashley [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Slutz, Stephen A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rovang, Dean C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Knapp, Patrick F. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Schmit, Paul F. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Awe, Thomas James [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hess, M. H. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lemke, Raymond W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Dolan, D. H. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lamppa, Derek C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jobe, Marc Ronald Lee [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Fang, Lu [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hahn, Kelly D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Chandler, Gordon A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Cooper, Gary Wayne [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ruiz, Carlos L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Maurer, A. J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Robertson, Grafton Kincannon [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Cuneo, Michael E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sinars, Daniel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Tomlinson, Kurt [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Smith, Gary [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Paguio, Reny [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Intrator, Tom [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Weber, Thomas [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Greenly, John [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)


    We report on the progress made to date for a Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project aimed at diagnosing magnetic flux compression on the Z pulsed-power accelerator (0-20 MA in 100 ns). Each experiment consisted of an initially solid Be or Al liner (cylindrical tube), which was imploded using the Z accelerator's drive current (0-20 MA in 100 ns). The imploding liner compresses a 10-T axial seed field, B z ( 0 ) , supplied by an independently driven Helmholtz coil pair. Assuming perfect flux conservation, the axial field amplification should be well described by B z ( t ) = B z ( 0 ) x [ R ( 0 ) / R ( t )] 2 , where R is the liner's inner surface radius. With perfect flux conservation, B z ( t ) and dB z / dt values exceeding 10 4 T and 10 12 T/s, respectively, are expected. These large values, the diminishing liner volume, and the harsh environment on Z, make it particularly challenging to measure these fields. We report on our latest efforts to do so using three primary techniques: (1) micro B-dot probes to measure the fringe fields associated with flux compression, (2) streaked visible Zeeman absorption spectroscopy, and (3) fiber-based Faraday rotation. We also mention two new techniques that make use of the neutron diagnostics suite on Z. These techniques were not developed under this LDRD, but they could influence how we prioritize our efforts to diagnose magnetic flux compression on Z in the future. The first technique is based on the yield ratio of secondary DT to primary DD reactions. The second technique makes use of the secondary DT neutron time-of-flight energy spectra. Both of these techniques have been used successfully to infer the degree of magnetization at stagnation in fully integrated Magnetized Liner Inertial Fusion (MagLIF) experiments on Z [P. F. Schmit et al. , Phys. Rev. Lett. 113 , 155004 (2014); P. F. Knapp et al. , Phys. Plasmas, 22 , 056312 (2015)]. Finally, we present some recent developments for designing

  19. Explosive fragmentations of alumina (Al2O3 under quasistatic compressive loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Qingyan


    Full Text Available Quasistatic compression tests for alumina (Al2O3 cylinders were conducted for the investigations of the compressive strengths and the dynamic fragmentation properties of the material. We focused on the post-failure dynamic fragmentation phenomenon. Most of the fragments were collected after tests, the shapes and sizes of these fragments were measured and statistically analyzed. The fragments were divided into three types on basis of their shapes and sizes, namely: the flaky medium sized fragments, the tiny debris, and the remaining large blocks, each type of the fragments were formed at different stages of the compressive failure-fragmentation process. The tiny debris were mainly generated from the ”explosion” of the cylindrical specimen, in this stage the stored elastic energy within the specimen was released rapidly. The tiny fragments accounted the most part of the fragments in numbers. The average fragment size calculated by the proposed formula agree well with the experimental data.

  20. The search for a 100MA RancheroS magnetic flux compression generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watt, Robert Gregory [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    The Eulerian AMR rad-hydro-MHD code Roxane was used to investigate modifications to existing designs of the new RancheroS class of Magnetic Flux Compression Generators (FCGs) which might allow some members of this FCG family to exceed 100 MA driving a 10 nH static load. This report details the results of that study and proposes a specific generator modification which seems to satisfy both the peak current and desired risetime for the current pulse into the load. The details of the study and necessary modifications are presented. For details of the LA43S RancheroS FCG design and predictions for the first use of the generator refer to the relevant publications.

  1. Precise measurement of a magnetic field generated by the electromagnetic flux compression technique (United States)

    Nakamura, D.; Sawabe, H.; Matsuda, Y. H.; Takeyama, S.


    The precision of the values of a magnetic field generated by electromagnetic flux compression was investigated in ultra-high magnetic fields of up to 700 T. In an attempt to calibrate the magnetic field measured by pickup coils, precise Faraday rotation (FR) measurements were conducted on optical (quartz and crown) glasses. A discernible "turn-around" phenomenon was observed in the FR signal as well as the pickup coils before the end of a liner implosion. We found that the magnetic field measured by pickup coils should be corrected by taking into account the high-frequency response of the signal transmission line. Near the peak magnetic field, however, the pickup coils failed to provide reliable values, leaving the FR measurement as the only method to precisely measure extremely high magnetic fields.

  2. Results of explosively-driven isentropic compression experiments (HEPP-ICE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tasker, D. G. (Douglas G.); Goforth, J. H. (James H.); Oona, H. (Henn); Rigg, P. A. (Paulo A.); Dennis-Koller, D. (Darcie); King, J. C. (James Carrel); Torres, D. T. (David T); Herrera, D. H. (Dennis H.); Sena, F. C. (Francis C.); Abeyta, F. G. (Frank G.); Tabaka, L. J. (Leonard J.)


    Using the Los Alamos high explosive pulsed power (HEPP) system, isentropic equation of state (EOS) data may be obtained for a wide range of materials. Current pulses with risetimes of {approx}500 ns and current densities exceeding 400 MA/m, create continuous magnetic loading of samples at megabar pressures. We will summarize the technique and the problems that had to be overcome to perform the HEPP-ICE experiments at these pressures. We will then present our EOS results obtained with the conventional Lagrangian analysis and the Hayes 'Backward' integration method, and compare the data with the published principal isentrope of OFHC copper.

  3. Isentropic compression of metals, at multi-megabar pressures, using high explosive pulsed power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tasker, D. G. (Douglas G.); Goforth, J. H. (James H.); King, J. C. (James Carrel); Martinez, E. C. (Ernesto C.); Oona, H. (Hain); Sena, F. C. (Francis C.); Reisman, D. B. (David B.); Cauble, R. C. (Robert C.)


    Accurate, ultra-high pressure isentropic equation of state (EOS) data, are required for a variety of applications and materials. Asay reported a new method to obtain these data using pulsed magnetic loading on the Sandia Z-machine. Fast rising current pulses (risetimes from 100 to 30011s) at current densities exceeding many MNcm, create continuous magnetic loading up to a few Mbar. As part of a collaborative effort between the Los Alamos and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories we are adapting our high explosive pulsed power (HEPP) methods to obtain isentropic EOS data with the Asay technique. This year we plan to obtain isentropic EOS data for copper and tantalum at pressures up to -2 Mbar; eventually we hope to reach several tens of Mbar. We will describe the design of the HEPP systems and show out attempts to obtain EOS data to date.

  4. Explosively produced megagauss fields and recent solid state applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, C.M.; Freeman, B.L.; Hults, W.L.; King, J.C.; Mueller, F.M.; Rickel, D.G.; Smith, J.L. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Brooks, J.S.; Goettee, J.D. [Boston Univ., MA (United States). Dept. of Physics


    Large magnetic fields may be generated by compression of an initial magnetic flux generated over a large area at relatively low magnetic field into a region of smaller area. Following a discussion of flux compression principles, the authors discuss megagauss field systems in use at Los Alamos where chemical explosives are used to compress the flux. Their use in some solid state experiments will be discussed briefly, including a planned set of experiments on YBCO to be done jointly with a Russian team, whose aim is to determine the low temperature, critical magnetic field of YBCO.

  5. 3D simulations of rising magnetic flux tubes in a compressible rotating interior: The effect of magnetic tension (United States)

    Fournier, Y.; Arlt, R.; Ziegler, U.; Strassmeier, K. G.


    Context. Long-term variability in solar cycles represents a challenging constraint for theoretical models. Mean-field Babcock-Leighton dynamos that consider non-instantaneous rising flux tubes have been shown to exhibit long-term variability in their magnetic cycle. However a relation that parameterizes the rise-time of non-axisymmetric magnetic flux tubes in terms of stellar parameters is still missing. Aims: We aim to find a general parameterization of the rise-time of magnetic flux tubes for solar-like stars. Methods: By considering the influence of magnetic tension on the rise of non-axisymmetric flux tubes, we predict the existence of a control parameter referred as Γα1α2. This parameter is a measure of the balance between rotational effects and magnetic effects (buoyancy and tension) acting on the magnetic flux tube. We carry out two series of numerical experiments (one for axisymmetric rise and one for non-axisymmetric rise) and demonstrate that Γα1α2 indeed controls the rise-time of magnetic flux tubes. Results: We find that the rise-time follows a power law of Γα1α2 with an exponent that depends on the azimuthal wavenumber of the magnetic flux loop. Conclusions: Compressibility does not impact the rise of magnetic flux tubes, while non-axisymmetry does. In the case of non-axisymmetric rise, the tension force modifies the force balance acting on the magnetic flux tube. We identified the three independent parameters required to predict the rise-time of magnetic flux tubes, that is, the stellar rotation rate, the magnetic flux density of the flux tube, and its azimuthal wavenumber. We combined these into one single relation that is valid for any solar-like star. We suggest using this generalized relation to constrain the rise-time of magnetic flux tubes in Babcock-Leighton dynamo models.

  6. DCS - A High Flux Beamline for Time Resolved Dynamic Compression Science – Design Highlights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capatina, D.; D' Amico, Kevin L.; Nudell, J.; Collins, J.; Schmidt, Oliver


    The Dynamic Compression Sector (DCS) beamline, a national user facility for time resolved dynamic compression science supported by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) of the Department of Energy (DOE), has recently completed construction and is being commissioned at Sector 35 of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The beamline consists of a First Optics Enclosure (FOE) and four experimental enclosures. A Kirkpatrick–Baez focusing mirror system with 2.2 mrad incident angles in the FOE delivers pink beam to the experimental stations. A refocusing Kirkpatrick–Baez mirror system is situated in each of the two most downstream enclosures. Experiments can be conducted in either white, monochromatic, pink or monochromatic-reflected beam mode in any of the experimental stations by changing the position of two interlocked components in the FOE. The beamline Radiation Safety System (RSS) components have been designed to handle the continuous beam provided by two in-line revolver undulators with periods of 27 and 30 mm, at closed gap, 150 mA beam current, and passing through a power limiting aperture of 1.5 x 1.0 mm2. A novel pink beam end station stop [1] is used to stop the continuous and focused pink beam which can achieve a peak heat flux of 105 kW/mm2. A new millisecond shutter design [2] is used to deliver a quick pulse of beam to the sample, synchronized with the dynamic event, the microsecond shutter, and the storage ring clock.

  7. DCS - A high flux beamline for time resolved dynamic compression science – Design highlights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capatina, D., E-mail:; D’Amico, K., E-mail:; Nudell, J., E-mail:; Collins, J., E-mail:; Schmidt, O., E-mail: [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Lemont, IL 60439 (United States)


    The Dynamic Compression Sector (DCS) beamline, a national user facility for time resolved dynamic compression science supported by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) of the Department of Energy (DOE), has recently completed construction and is being commissioned at Sector 35 of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The beamline consists of a First Optics Enclosure (FOE) and four experimental enclosures. A Kirkpatrick–Baez focusing mirror system with 2.2 mrad incident angles in the FOE delivers pink beam to the experimental stations. A refocusing Kirkpatrick–Baez mirror system is situated in each of the two most downstream enclosures. Experiments can be conducted in either white, monochromatic, pink or monochromatic-reflected beam mode in any of the experimental stations by changing the position of two interlocked components in the FOE. The beamline Radiation Safety System (RSS) components have been designed to handle the continuous beam provided by two in-line revolver undulators with periods of 27 and 30 mm, at closed gap, 150 mA beam current, and passing through a power limiting aperture of 1.5 x 1.0 mm{sup 2}. A novel pink beam end station stop [1] is used to stop the continuous and focused pink beam which can achieve a peak heat flux of 105 kW/mm{sup 2}. A new millisecond shutter design [2] is used to deliver a quick pulse of beam to the sample, synchronized with the dynamic event, the microsecond shutter, and the storage ring clock.

  8. Initial signatures of magnetic field and energetic particle fluxes at tail reconfiguration - Explosive growth phase (United States)

    Ohtani, S.; Takahashi, K.; Zanetti, L. J.; Potemra, T. A.; Mcentire, R. W.; Iijima, T.


    The initial signatures of tail field reconfiguration observed in the near-earth magnetotail are examined using data obtained by the AMPTE/CCE magnetometer and the Medium Energy Particle Analyzer. It is found that the tail reconfiguration events could be classified as belonging to two types, Type I and Type II. In Type I events, a current disruption is immersed in a hot plasma region expanding from inward (earthward/equatorward) of the spacecraft; consequently, the spacecraft is immersed in a hot plasma region expanding from inward. The Type II reconfiguration event is characterized by a distinctive interval (explosive growth phase) just prior to the local commencement of tail phase.

  9. Modeling rainfall infiltration on hillslopes using Flux-concentration relation and time compression approximation (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Chen, Li; Yu, Zhongbo


    Rainfall infiltration on hillslopes is an important issue in hydrology, which is related to many environmental problems, such as flood, soil erosion, and nutrient and contaminant transport. This study aimed to improve the quantification of infiltration on hillslopes under both steady and unsteady rainfalls. Starting from Darcy's law, an analytical integral infiltrability equation was derived for hillslope infiltration by use of the flux-concentration relation. Based on this equation, a simple scaling relation linking the infiltration times on hillslopes and horizontal planes was obtained which is applicable for both small and large times and can be used to simplify the solution procedure of hillslope infiltration. The infiltrability equation also improved the estimation of ponding time for infiltration under rainfall conditions. For infiltration after ponding, the time compression approximation (TCA) was applied together with the infiltrability equation. To improve the computational efficiency, the analytical integral infiltrability equation was approximated with a two-term power-like function by nonlinear regression. Procedures of applying this approach to both steady and unsteady rainfall conditions were proposed. To evaluate the performance of the new approach, it was compared with the Green-Ampt model for sloping surfaces by Chen and Young (2006) and Richards' equation. The proposed model outperformed the sloping Green-Ampt, and both ponding time and infiltration predictions agreed well with the solutions of Richards' equation for various soil textures, slope angles, initial water contents, and rainfall intensities for both steady and unsteady rainfalls.

  10. β-distribution for Reynolds stress and turbulent heat flux in relaxation turbulent boundary layer of compression ramp (United States)

    Hu, YanChao; Bi, WeiTao; Li, ShiYao; She, ZhenSu


    A challenge in the study of turbulent boundary layers (TBLs) is to understand the non-equilibrium relaxation process after sep-aration and reattachment due to shock-wave/boundary-layer interaction. The classical boundary layer theory cannot deal with the strong adverse pressure gradient, and hence, the computational modeling of this process remains inaccurate. Here, we report the direct numerical simulation results of the relaxation TBL behind a compression ramp, which reveal the presence of intense large-scale eddies, with significantly enhanced Reynolds stress and turbulent heat flux. A crucial finding is that the wall-normal profiles of the excess Reynolds stress and turbulent heat flux obey a β-distribution, which is a product of two power laws with respect to the wall-normal distances from the wall and from the boundary layer edge. In addition, the streamwise decays of the excess Reynolds stress and turbulent heat flux also exhibit power laws with respect to the streamwise distance from the corner of the compression ramp. These results suggest that the relaxation TBL obeys the dilation symmetry, which is a specific form of self-organization in this complex non-equilibrium flow. The β-distribution yields important hints for the development of a turbulence model.

  11. Degassing vs. eruptive styles at Mt. Etna volcano (Sicily, Italy): Volatile stocking, gas fluxing, and the shift from low-energy to highly-explosive basaltic eruptions (United States)

    Moretti, Roberto; Métrich, Nicole; Di Renzo, Valeria; Aiuppa, Alessandro; Allard, Patrick; Arienzo, Ilenia


    Basaltic magmas can transport and release large amounts of volatiles into the atmosphere, especially in subduction zones, where slab-derived fluids enrich the mantle wedge. Depending on magma volatile content, basaltic volcanoes thus display a wide spectrum of eruptive styles, from common Strombolian-type activity to Plinian events. Mt. Etna in Sicily, is a typical basaltic volcano where the volatile control on such a variable activity can be investigated. Based on a melt inclusion study in products from Strombolian or lava-fountain activity to Plinian eruptions, here we show that for the same initial volatile content, different eruptive styles reflect variable degassing paths throughout the composite Etnean plumbing system. The combined influence of i) crystallization, ii) deep degassing and iii) CO2 gas fluxing can explain the evolution of H2O, CO2, S and Cl in products from such a spectrum of activity. Deep crystallization produces the CO2-rich gas fluxing the upward magma portions, which will become buoyant and easily mobilized in small gas-rich batches stored within the plumbing system. When reaching gas dominated conditions (i.e., a gas/melt mass ratio of 0.3 and CO2,gas/H2Ogas molar ratio 5 ), these will erupt effusively or mildly explosively, whilst in case of the 122 BC Plinian eruption, open-system degassing conditions took place within the plumbing system, such that continuous CO2-fluxing determined gas accumulation on top of the magmatic system. The emission of such a cap in the early eruptive phase triggered the arrival of deep H2O-rich whose fast decompression and bubble nucleation lead to the highly explosive character, enhanced by abundant microlite crystallization and consequent increase of magma effective viscosity. This could explain why open system basaltic systems like Etna may experience highly explosive or even Plinian episodes during eruptions that start with effusive to mildly explosive phases. The proposed mechanism also determines a

  12. Magneto Hydrodynamic Simulations of a Magnetic Flux Compression Generator Using ALE3D (United States)


    cylindrical armature where an explosive drives the armature radially and causes a drop in the inductance. In this report, the results of ALE3D magneto...require adequate resolution to ensure convergence of the solution. If the mesh resolution is too coarse, numerical errors may become significant and...Letter “A” marks the point of crowbar impact caused by the downward spike. The simulation result shows the end-effect (a bell-shaped contour of

  13. Experiments of cylindrical isentropic compression by ultrahigh magnetic field (United States)

    Gu, Zhuowei; Zhou, Zhongyu; Zhang, Chunbo; Tang, Xiaosong; Tong, Yanjin; Zhao, Jianheng; Sun, Chengwei


    The high Explosive Magnetic Flux Implosion Compression Generator (EMFICG) is a kind of unique high energy density dynamic technique with characters like ultrahigh pressure and low temperature rising and could be suitable as a tool of cylindrical isentropic compression. The Institute of Fluid Physics, Chinese Academy of Engineering Physics (IFP, CAEP) have developed EMFICG technique and realized cylindrical isentropic compression. In the experiments, a seed magnetic field of 5-6 Tesla were built first and compressed by a stainless steel liner which is driven by high explosive. The inner free surface velocity of sample was measured by PDV. The isentropic compression of a copper sample was verified and the isentropic pressure is over 100 GPa. The cylindrical isentropic compression process has been numerical simulated by 1D MHD code and the simulation results were compared with the experiments. Compared with the transitional X-ray flash radiograph measurement, this method will probably promote the data accuracy.

  14. Experiments of cylindrical isentropic compression by ultrahigh magnetic field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gu Zhuowei


    Full Text Available The high Explosive Magnetic Flux Implosion Compression Generator (EMFICG is a kind of unique high energy density dynamic technique with characters like ultrahigh pressure and low temperature rising and could be suitable as a tool of cylindrical isentropic compression. The Institute of Fluid Physics, Chinese Academy of Engineering Physics (IFP, CAEP have developed EMFICG technique and realized cylindrical isentropic compression. In the experiments, a seed magnetic field of 5–6 Tesla were built first and compressed by a stainless steel liner which is driven by high explosive. The inner free surface velocity of sample was measured by PDV. The isentropic compression of a copper sample was verified and the isentropic pressure is over 100 GPa. The cylindrical isentropic compression process has been numerical simulated by 1D MHD code and the simulation results were compared with the experiments. Compared with the transitional X-ray flash radiograph measurement, this method will probably promote the data accuracy.

  15. How vortices and shocks provide for a flux loop in two-dimensional compressible turbulence (United States)

    Falkovich, Gregory; Kritsuk, Alexei G.


    Large-scale turbulence in fluid layers and other quasi-two-dimensional compressible systems consists of planar vortices and waves. Separately, wave turbulence usually produces a direct energy cascade, while solenoidal planar turbulence transports energy to large scales by an inverse cascade. Here, we consider turbulence at finite Mach numbers when the interaction between acoustic waves and vortices is substantial. We employ solenoidal pumping at intermediate scales and show how both direct and inverse energy cascades are formed starting from the pumping scale. We show that there is an inverse cascade of kinetic energy up to a scale ℓ , where a typical velocity reaches the speed of sound; this creates shock waves, which provide for a compensating direct cascade. When the system size is less than ℓ , the steady state contains a system-size pair of long-living condensate vortices connected by a system of shocks. Thus turbulence in fluid layers processes energy via a loop: Most energy first goes to large scales via vortices and is then transported by waves to small-scale dissipation.

  16. Flux

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Ib

    Med udgangspunkt i kompleksistetsforskning og studiet af selvorganiserende systemer beskriver lb Ravn den fysiske og biologiske evolution og menneskets udvikling. Han fortolker begreber som kultur, sprog, frihed, værdier, mening, smerte og det ondes problem i lyset af en procesbaseret ontologi...... kanalisering af den flux eller energi, der strømmer igennem os og giver sig til kende i vore daglige aktiviteter. Skal vores tanker, handlinger, arbejde, samvær og politiske liv organiseres efter stramme og faste regelsæt, uden slinger i valsen? Eller skal de tværtimod forløbe ganske uhindret af regler og bånd...

  17. Explosive Pleuritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasdeep K Sharma


    Full Text Available The objective of the present paper is to describe the clinical and computed tomography features of 'explosive pleuritis', an entity first named by Braman and Donat in 1986, and to propose a case definition. A case report of a previously healthy, 45-year-old man admitted to hospital with acute onset pleuritic chest pain is presented. The patient arrived at the emergency room at 15:00 in mild respiratory distress; the initial chest x-ray revealed a small right lower lobe effusion. The subsequent clinical course in hospital was dramatic. Within 18 h of admission, he developed severe respiratory distress with oxygen desaturation to 83% on room air and dullness of the right lung field. A repeat chest x-ray, taken the morning after admission, revealed complete opacification of the right hemithorax. A computed tomography scan of the thorax demonstrated a massive pleural effusion with compression of pulmonary tissue and mediastinal shift. Pleural fluid biochemical analysis revealed the following concentrations: glucose 3.5 mmol/L, lactate dehydrogenase 1550 U/L, protein 56.98 g/L, amylase 68 U/L and white blood cell count 600 cells/mL. The pleural fluid cultures demonstrated light growth of coagulase-negative staphylococcus and viridans streptococcus, and very light growth of Candida albicans. Cytology was negative for malignant cells. Thoracotomy was performed, which demonstrated a loculated parapneumonic effusion that required decortication. The patient responded favourably to the empirical administration of intravenous levofloxacin and ceftriaxone, and conservative surgical methods in the management of the empyema. This report also discusses the patient's rapidly progressing pleural effusion and offers a potential case definition for explosive pleuritis. Explosive pleuritis is a medical emergency defined by the rapid development of a pleural effusion involving more than 90% of the hemithorax over 24 h, which causes compression of pulmonary tissue and

  18. Services Textbook of Explosives (United States)


    and shock effects is obtained by the use of ’primary’ (also known as ’initiatory’) explosives, among the most important of which are mercury fulminate ...Brown had discovered that compressed dry guncotton could be detonated by a mercury fulminate detonator, and a little later they found that compressed wet...of his powder (a mixture of mercury fulminate and potassium chlorate) enclosed in thin copper caps. This idea did not at once meet with the approval

  19. Peritumoral tissue compression is predictive of exudate flux in a rat model of cerebral tumor: an MRI study in an embedded tumor. (United States)

    Ewing, James R; Nagaraja, Tavarekere N; Aryal, Madhava P; Keenan, Kelly A; Elmghirbi, Rasha; Bagher-Ebadian, Hassan; Panda, Swayamprava; Lu, Mei; Mikkelsen, Tom; Cabral, Glauber; Brown, Stephen L


    MRI estimates of extracellular volume and tumor exudate flux in peritumoral tissue are demonstrated in an experimental model of cerebral tumor. Peritumoral extracellular volume predicted the tumor exudate flux. Eighteen RNU athymic rats were inoculated intracerebrally with U251MG tumor cells and studied with dynamic contrast enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) approximately 18 days post implantation. Using a model selection paradigm and a novel application of Patlak and Logan plots to DCE-MRI data, the distribution volume (i.e. tissue porosity) in the leaky rim of the tumor and that in the tissue external to the rim (the outer rim) were estimated, as was the tumor exudate flow from the inner rim of the tumor through the outer rim. Distribution volume in the outer rim was approximately half that of the inner adjacent region (p tumor exudate flow from the inner rim. Thus, peritumoral extracellular volume predicted the rate of tumor exudate flux. One explanation for these data is that perfusion, i.e. the delivery of blood to the tumor, was regulated by the compression of the mostly normal tissue of the tumor rim, and that the tumor exudate flow was limited by tumor perfusion. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Explosives tester (United States)

    Haas, Jeffrey S [San Ramon, CA; Howard, Douglas E [Livermore, CA; Eckels, Joel D [Livermore, CA; Nunes, Peter J [Danville, CA


    An explosives tester that can be used anywhere as a screening tool by non-technical personnel to determine whether a surface contains explosives. First and second explosives detecting reagent holders and dispensers are provided. A heater is provided for receiving the first and second explosives detecting reagent holders and dispensers.

  1. Modeling nuclear explosion (United States)

    Redd, Jeremy; Panin, Alexander


    As a result of the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, no nuclear explosion tests have been performed by the US since 1992. This appreciably limits valuable experimental data needed for improvement of existing weapons and development of new ones, as well as for use of nuclear devices in non-military applications (such as making underground oil reservoirs or compressed air energy storages). This in turn increases the value of numerical modeling of nuclear explosions and of their effects on the environment. We develop numerical codes simulating fission chain reactions in a supercritical U and Pu core and the dynamics of the subsequent expansion of generated hot plasma in order to better understand the impact of such explosions on their surroundings. The results of our simulations (of both above ground and underground explosions) of various energy yields are presented.

  2. Primary explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matyas, Robert; Pachman, Jiri [Pardubice Univ. (Czech Republic). Faculty of Chemical Technology


    The first chapter provides background such as the basics of initiation and differences between requirements on primary explosives used in detonators and igniters. The authors then clarify the influence of physical characteristics on explosive properties, focusing on those properties required for primary explosives. Furthermore, the issue of sensitivity is discussed. All the chapters on particular groups of primary explosives are structured in the same way, including introduction, physical and chemical properties, explosive properties, preparation and documented use.

  3. A THEMIS Survey of Flux Ropes and Traveling Compression Regions: Location of the Near-Earth Reconnection Site During Solar Minimum (United States)

    Imber, S. M.; Slavin, J. A.; Auster, H. U.; Angelopoulos, V.


    A statistical study of flux ropes and traveling compression regions (TCRs) during the Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS) second tail season has been performed. A combined total of 135 flux ropes and TCRs in the range GSM X approx -14 to -31 R(sub E) were identified, many of these occurring in series of two or more events separated by a few tens of seconds. Those occurring within 10 min of each other were combined into aggregated reconnection events. For the purposes of this survey, these are most likely the products of reconnect ion occurring simultaneously at multiple, closely spaced x-lines as opposed to statistically independent episodes of reconnection. The 135 flux ropes and TCRs were grouped into 87 reconnection events; of these, 28 were moving tailward and 59 were moving Earthward. The average location of the near-Earth x-line determined from statistical analysis of these reconnection events is (X(sub GSM), Y*(sub GSM)) = (-30R(sub E), 5R(sub E)), where Y* includes a correction for the solar aberration angle. A strong east-west asymmetry is present in the tailward events, with >80% being observed at GSM Y* > O. Our results indicate that the Earthward flows are similarly asymmetric in the midtail region, becoming more symmetric inside - 18 R(sub E). Superposed epoch analyses indicate that the occurrence of reconnection closer to the Earth, i.e., X > -20 R(sub E), is associated with elevated solar wind velocity and enhanced negative interplanetary magnetic field B(sub z). Reconnection events taking place closer to the Earth are also far more effective in producing geomagnetic activity, judged by the AL index, than reconnection initiated beyond X approx -25 R(sub E).

  4. Numerical Model for Hydrovolcanic Explosions. (United States)

    Mader, Charles; Gittings, Michael


    A hydrovolcanic explosion is generated by the interaction of hot magma with ground water. It is called Surtseyan after the 1963 explosive eruption off Iceland. The water flashes to steam and expands explosively. Liquid water becomes water gas at constant volume and generates pressures of about 3GPa. The Krakatoa hydrovolcanic explosion was modeled using the full Navier-Stokes AMR Eulerian compressible hydrodynamic code called SAGE [1] which includes the high pressure physics of explosions. The water in the hydrovolcanic explosion was described as liquid water heated by magma to 1100 K. The high temperature water is treated as an explosive with the hot liquid water going to water gas. The BKW [2] steady state detonation state has a peak pressure of 8.9 GPa, a propagation velocity of 5900 meters/sec and the water is compressed to 1.33 g/cc. [1] Numerical Modeling of Water Waves, Second Edition, Charles L. Mader, CRC Press 2004. [2] Numerical Modeling of Explosions and Propellants, Charles L. Mader, CRC Press 1998.

  5. Liquid explosives

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Jiping


    The book drawing on the author's nearly half a century of energetic materials research experience intends to systematically review the global researches on liquid explosives. The book focuses on the study of the conception, explosion mechanism, properties and preparation of liquid explosives. It provides a combination of theoretical knowledge and practical examples in a reader-friendly style. The book is likely to be interest of university researchers and graduate students in the fields of energetic materials, blasting engineering and mining.

  6. Predictions for the drive capabilities of the RancheroS Flux Compression Generator into various load inductances using the Eulerian AMR Code Roxane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watt, Robert Gregory [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    The Ranchero Magnetic Flux Compression Generator (FCG) has been used to create current pulses in the 10-­100 MA range for driving both “static” low inductance (0.5 nH) loads1 for generator demonstration purposes and high inductance (10-­20 nH) imploding liner loads2 for ultimate use in physics experiments at very high energy density. Simulations of the standard Ranchero generator have recently shown that it had a design issue that could lead to flux trapping in the generator, and a non-­ robust predictability in its use in high energy density experiments. A re-­examination of the design concept for the standard Ranchero generator, prompted by the possible appearance of an aneurism at the output glide plane, has led to a new generation of Ranchero generators designated the RancheroS (for swooped). This generator has removed the problematic output glide plane and replaced it with a region of constantly increasing diameter in the output end of the FCG cavity in which the armature is driven outward under the influence of an additional HE load not present in the original Ranchero. The resultant RancheroS generator, to be tested in LA43S-­L13, probably in early FY17, has a significantly increased initial inductance and may be able to drive a somewhat higher load inductance than the standard Ranchero. This report will use the Eulerian AMR code Roxane to study the ability of the new design to drive static loads, with a goal of providing a database corresponding to the load inductances for which the generator might be used and the anticipated peak currents such loads might produce in physics experiments. Such a database, combined with a simple analytic model of an ideal generator, where d(LI)/dt = 0, and supplemented by earlier estimates of losses in actual use of the standard Ranchero, scaled to estimate the increase in losses due to the longer current carrying perimeter in the RancheroS, can then be used to bound the expectations for the current drive one may

  7. Multi-megampere operation of plasma compression opening switches in planar geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goforth, J.H.; Erickson, D.J.; Williams, A.H.; Greene, A.E.


    Experiments are described in which a plasma compression opening switch is used in planar geometry to sharpen the output pulse of an explosive-driven magnetic flux compression generator. Included are data from tests where peak opening switch currents range from 5.7 to 9.3 MA. The switch is used to transfer current to a static low-inductance load (approx.10 nH) with an efficiency of 50% or better and a risetime as low as 0.45 Results related to current transfer are interpreted within a simple analytical model.

  8. Peritumoral Tissue Compression is Predictive of Exudate Flux in a Rat Model of Cerebral Tumor: an MRI Study in an Embedded Tumor


    Ewing, James R.; Nagaraja, Tavarekere N.; Aryal, Madhava P.; Keenan, Kelly A; Elmghirbi, Rasha; Bagher-Ebadian, Hassan; Panda, Swayamprava; Lu, Mei; Mikkelsen, Tom; Cabral, Glauber; Brown, Stephen L.


    MRI estimates of extracellular volume and tumor exudate flux in peritumoral tissue are demonstrated in an experimental model of cerebral tumor. Peritumoral extracellular volume predicted the tumor exudate flux.

  9. Explosive compositions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craig, J.F.M.; Falconer, E.L.


    A thickening agent for an aqueous slurry explosive composition consists of the combination of a cross-linked galactomannan with psyllium flour in specific proportions. This thickener provides good fluidity and reduced tackiness. (7 claims)

  10. Explosive Welding of Pipes (United States)

    Drennov, Oleg; Drennov, Andrey; Burtseva, Olga


    For connection by welding it is suggested to use the explosive welding method. This method is rather new. Nevertheless, it has become commonly used among the technological developments. This method can be advantageous (saving material and physical resources) comparing to its statical analogs (electron-beam welding, argon-arc welding, plasma welding, gas welding, etc.), in particular, in hard-to-reach areas due to their geographic and climatic conditions. Explosive welding of cylindrical surfaces is performed by launching of welded layer along longitudinal axis of construction. During this procedure, it is required to provide reliable resistance against radial convergent strains. The traditional method is application of fillers of pipe cavity, which are dense cylindrical objects having special designs. However, when connecting pipes consecutively in pipelines by explosive welding, removal of the fillers becomes difficult and sometimes impossible. The suggestion is to use water as filler. The principle of non-compressibility of liquid under quasi-dynamic loading is used. In one-dimensional gasdynamic and elastic-plastic calculations we determined non-deformed mass of water (perturbations, which are moving in the axial direction with sound velocity, should not reach the layer end boundaries for 5-7 circulations of shock waves in the radial direction). Linear dimension of the water layer from the zone of pipe coupling along axis in each direction is >= 2R, where R is the internal radius of pipe.

  11. On the Violence of High Explosive Reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarver, C M; Chidester, S K


    High explosive reactions can be caused by three general energy deposition processes: impact ignition by frictional and/or shear heating; bulk thermal heating; and shock compression. The violence of the subsequent reaction varies from benign slow combustion to catastrophic detonation of the entire charge. The degree of violence depends on many variables, including the rate of energy delivery, the physical and chemical properties of the explosive, and the strength of the confinement surrounding the explosive charge. The current state of experimental and computer modeling research on the violence of impact, thermal, and shock-induced reactions is reviewed.

  12. High voltage pulses for high impedance loads using explosive formed fuses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Degnan, J.H.; Kiuttu, G.F.; Turchi, P.J. [Air Force Research Labs., Kirtland AFB, NM (United States). Phillips Research Site; Goforth, J.H.; Lopez, E.A.; Oona, H.; Tasker, D.G. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Graham, J.D.


    Explosive formed fuses (EFF`s) use conducting elements that are deformed by explosive pressure (typically, against dielectric dies). This causes the fuse geometry to change, so that the conducting element cross section decreases. This enables a higher ratio of current conduction to current interrupt time than for normal fuses, and it enables more control of when current interruption occurs. In combination with a suitable output closing switch, EFF`s can be used to obtain several hundred kilovolt voltage pulses from inductive stores to drive several ohm loads. With proper choices of inductive store, EFF geometry and material, and output closing switch features, such a voltage pulse can be approximately flat topped for microsecond duration and have a small fraction of microsecond risetime. The authors present theoretical analysis and circuit simulations which illustrate this, using scaled empirical EFF parameters for inductive stores in the 1 weber flux, several hundred nanohenry range. The circuit simulations were done using MicroCap-IV, with user defined elements. These simulations were done with static inductive stores and with explosive magnetic flux compression generators driving inductive stores.

  13. A new 40 MA ranchero explosive pulsed power system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goforth, James [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Herrera, Dennis [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Oona, Hank [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Torres, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Atchison, W L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Colgate, S A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Griego, J R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Guzik, J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Holtkamp, D B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Idzorek, G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kaul, A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kirkpatrick, R C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Menikoff, R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Reardon, P T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Reinovsky, R E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rousculp, C L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sgro, A G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tabaka, L J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tierney, T E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Watt, R G [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    We are developing a new high explosive pulsed power (HEPP) system based on the 1.4 m long Ranchero generator which was developed in 1999 for driving solid density z-pinch loads. The new application requires approximately 40 MA to implode similar liners, but the liners cannot tolerate the 65 {micro}s, 3 MA current pulse associated with delivering the initial magnetic flux to the 200 nH generator. To circumvent this problem, we have designed a system with an internal start switch and four explosively formed fuse (EFF) opening switches. The integral start switch is installed between the output glide plane and the armature. It functions in the same manner as a standard input crowbar switch when armature motion begins, but initially isolates the load. The circuit is completed during the flux loading phase using post hole convolutes. Each convolute attaches the inner (coaxial) output transmission line to the outside of the outer coax through a penetration of the outer coaxial line. The attachment is made with the conductor of an EFF at each location. The EFFs conduct 0.75 MA each, and are actuated just after the internal start switch connects to the load. EFFs operating at these parameters have been tested in the past. The post hole convolutes must withstand as much as 80 kV at peak dl/dt during the Ranchero load current pulse. We describe the design of this new HEPP system in detail, and give the experimental results available at conference time. In addition, we discuss the work we are doing to test the upper current limits of a single standard size Ranchero module. Calculations have suggested that the generator could function at up to {approx}120 MA, the rule of thumb we follow (1 MA/cm) suggests 90 MA, and simple flux compression calculations, along with the {approx}4 MA seed current available from our capacitor bank, suggests 118 MA is the currently available upper limit.

  14. Mesoscale modeling of metal-loaded high explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bdzil, John Bohdan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lieberthal, Brandon [UNIV OF ILLINOIS; Srewart, Donald S [UNIV OF ILLINOIS


    We describe a 3D approach to modeling multi-phase blast explosive, which is primarily condensed explosive by volume with inert embedded particles. These embedded particles are uniform in size and placed on the array of a regular lattice. The asymptotic theory of detonation shock dynamics governs the detonation shock propagation in the explosive. Mesoscale hydrodynamic simulations are used to show how the particles are compressed, deformed, and accelerated by the high-speed detonation products flow.

  15. Explosive Formulation Pilot Plant (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Pilot Plant for Explosive Formulation supports the development of new explosives that are comprised of several components. This system is particularly beneficial...

  16. Underground Explosions (United States)


    is viewed as a result of the propulsion of broken rock mass by explosion gas by-products. The physical model used to recreate the second and the third...period seismographs. Seismologists of the                                                              5  Edinaya  Sistema   Seismicheskih  Nablyudenii...d’explosifs chiniques dans le sable: Programme Dynasol, Centre d’etudes Nucl. De Grenoble Lab. D’applications Speciales de la Physique, Grenoble. 9

  17. Experimental validation of advanced explosive/metal interactions (United States)

    Lambert, D. E.


    The extremely high power density stored in explosives drives their selection of use in military, mining, demolition, cladding, shock consolidation of powders, shock-induced chemical synthesis and magnetic flux compression processes. The use of distributed initiation locations has emerged as a primary method to customize the detonation front and create desirable output. Explosive/metal systems with multiple, distributed initiation locations create detonation states that do not follow the simple line of sight, or Huygens model and, hence, advanced detonation physics with associated theory are required. The theory of detonation shock dynamics (DSD) is one such description used to provide high fidelity modeling of complex wave structures. A collection of experiments using simultaneous ultra-high speed digital framing and streak film cameras is presented as a means of obtaining spatial and temporal characteristics of complex detonation fronts that validate the DSD descriptions. The method of test, operational conditions and results are given to demonstrate the use of high rate imaging of detonation events and how this validates our understanding of the physics and the capability of advanced detonation wave tracking models.

  18. A study of explosively formed fuse (EFF) opening switch resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oona, Henn [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Goforth, James H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Herrera, Dennis H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tasker, Douglas G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Torres, D. T. [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    Many pulsed power experiments need pulse shaping to optimize the power flow from a flux compression generator (FCG) to an experimental load. In a laboratory environment this can be a simple task where the switches are not destroyed. However, in experiments with high explosives, where a large amount of damage occurs, a single use EFF opening switch may be a good choice. In an EFF, explosives are used to thin a current carrying sheet of aluminum as it is forced into a grooved dye. The current is modified by the time dependent changes in resistance as the aluminum is stretched. We will correlate the hydrodynamic effects with resistance. The hydrodynamic profile is determined by Mesa-2D, a well proven hydrodynamics computer code, and MA THEMA TICA is used convert material contours into total resistance using the resistivity as a function of time from various sources. Experimentally, we will determine the actual resistance and compare it with the calculated values. We have used these switches for decades but still do not understand the details of the physics. The resistance change may be due to several processes but in this paper we will concentrate on stretching as the most important contribution. Also, in this paper we will compare the details of the hydrodynamics with the details of experimental and calculated resistance and hopefully generate a predictive model for future designs with other geometries and materials.

  19. Chemical profiling of explosives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brust, G.M.H.


    The primary goal of this thesis is to develop analytical methods for the chemical profiling of explosives. Current methodologies for the forensic analysis of explosives focus on identification of the explosive material. However, chemical profiling of explosives becomes increasingly important, as

  20. Supernova explosions

    CERN Document Server

    Branch, David


    Targeting advanced students of astronomy and physics, as well as astronomers and physicists contemplating research on supernovae or related fields, David Branch and J. Craig Wheeler offer a modern account of the nature, causes and consequences of supernovae, as well as of issues that remain to be resolved. Owing especially to (1) the appearance of supernova 1987A in the nearby Large Magellanic Cloud, (2) the spectacularly successful use of supernovae as distance indicators for cosmology, (3) the association of some supernovae with the enigmatic cosmic gamma-ray bursts, and (4) the discovery of a class of superluminous supernovae, the pace of supernova research has been increasing sharply. This monograph serves as a broad survey of modern supernova research and a guide to the current literature. The book’s emphasis is on the explosive phases of supernovae. Part 1 is devoted to a survey of the kinds of observations that inform us about supernovae, some basic interpreta tions of such data, and an overview of t...

  1. A combined STM and SPA-LEED study of the "explosive" nucleation and collective diffusion in Pb/Si(111) (United States)

    Hattab, H.; Hupalo, M.; Hershberger, M. T.; Horn von Hoegen, M.; Tringides, M. C.


    A novel type of very fast nucleation was recently found in Pb/Si(111) with 4- to 7-layer high islands becoming crystalline in an "explosive" way, when the Pb deposited amount in the wetting layer is compressed to θc 1.22 ML, well above the metallic Pb(111) density. This "explosive" nucleation is very different from classical nucleation when island growth is more gradual and islands grow in size by single adatom aggregation [8]. In order to identify the key parameters that control the nucleation we used scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and spot profile analysis low energy electron diffraction (SPA-LEED). It was found that the number and duration of steps in iterative deposition used to approach θc and the flux rate have dramatic effects on the crystallization process. Larger depositions over shorter times induce greater spatial coverage fluctuations, so local areas can reach the critical coverage θc easier. This can trigger the collective motion of the wetting layer from far away to build the Pb islands "explosively". The SPA-LEED experiments show that even low flux experiments in iterative deposition experiments can trigger transfer of material to the superstable 7-layer islands, as seen from the stronger satellite rings close to the (00) spot.

  2. Circuit simulations of the use of explosive formed fuses to obtain high voltage pulses for high impedance loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Degnan, J.H.; Kiuttu, G.F.; Turchi, P.J. [Air Force Research Labs., Kirtland AFB, NM (United States). Phillips Research Site; Graham, J.D. [Maxwell Technologies, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Goforth, J.H.; Oona, H.; Lopez, E.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)


    Explosive Formed Fuses (EFF`s) use conducting elements that are deformed by explosive pressure (typically, against dielectric dies). This causes the fuse geometry to change, so that the conducting element cross section decreases. This enables a higher ratio of current conduction to current interrupt time than for normal fuses, and it enables more control of when current interruption occurs. In combination with a suitable output closing switch, EFF`s can be used to obtain several hundred kilovolt voltage pulses from inductive stores to drive several ohm loads. With proper choices of inductive store, EFF geometry and material, and output closing switch features, such a voltage pulse can be approximately flat topped for microsecond duration, and have a small fraction of microsecond risetime. The authors present theoretical analysis and circuit simulations which illustrate this, using scaled empirical EFF parameters, for inductive stores in the 1 Weber flux, several hundred nanohenry range. The circuit simulations were done using Microcap-4, with user defined elements. These simulations were done with static inductive stores, and with explosive magnetic flux compression generators driving inductive stores.

  3. Understanding vented gas explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lautkaski, R. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Systems


    The report is an introduction to vented gas explosions for nonspecialists, particularly designers of plants for flammable gases and liquids. The phenomena leading to pressure generation in vented gas explosions in empty and congested rooms are reviewed. The four peak model of vented gas explosions is presented with simple methods to predict the values of the individual peaks. Experimental data on the external explosion of dust and gas explosions is discussed. The empirical equation relating the internal and external peak pressures in vented dust explosions is shown to be valid for gas explosion tests in 30 m{sup 3} and 550 m{sup 3} chambers. However, the difficulty of predicting the internal peak pressure in large chambers remains. Methods of explosion relief panel design and principles of vent and equipment layout to reduce explosion overpressures are reviewed. (orig.) 65 refs.

  4. Spherical Solutions of an Underwater Explosion Bubble

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew B. Wardlaw


    Full Text Available The evolution of the 1D explosion bubble flow field out to the first bubble minimum is examined in detail using four different models. The most detailed is based on the Euler equations and accounts for the internal bubble fluid motion, while the simplest links a potential water solution to a stationary, Isentropic bubble model. Comparison of the different models with experimental data provides insight into the influence of compressibility and internal bubble dynamics on the behavior of the explosion bubble.

  5. Inspection tester for explosives (United States)

    Haas, Jeffrey S.; Simpson, Randall L.; Satcher, Joe H.


    An inspection tester that can be used anywhere as a primary screening tool by non-technical personnel to determine whether a surface contains explosives. It includes a body with a sample pad. First and second explosives detecting reagent holders and dispensers are operatively connected to the body and the sample pad. The first and second explosives detecting reagent holders and dispensers are positioned to deliver the explosives detecting reagents to the sample pad. A is heater operatively connected to the sample pad.

  6. 75 FR 5545 - Explosives (United States)


    ... for classifying, labeling, and providing safety data sheets for explosives. By withdrawing this.... OSHA-S031-2006-0665 and OSHA-S-031)] RIN 1218-AC09 Explosives AGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health... the rulemaking to amend its Explosives and Blasting Agents Standard at 29 CFR 1910.109. OSHA is taking...

  7. Compression embedding (United States)

    Sandford, M.T. II; Handel, T.G.; Bradley, J.N.


    A method and apparatus for embedding auxiliary information into the digital representation of host data created by a lossy compression technique and a method and apparatus for constructing auxiliary data from the correspondence between values in a digital key-pair table with integer index values existing in a representation of host data created by a lossy compression technique are disclosed. The methods apply to data compressed with algorithms based on series expansion, quantization to a finite number of symbols, and entropy coding. Lossy compression methods represent the original data as ordered sequences of blocks containing integer indices having redundancy and uncertainty of value by one unit, allowing indices which are adjacent in value to be manipulated to encode auxiliary data. Also included is a method to improve the efficiency of lossy compression algorithms by embedding white noise into the integer indices. Lossy compression methods use loss-less compression to reduce to the final size the intermediate representation as indices. The efficiency of the loss-less compression, known also as entropy coding compression, is increased by manipulating the indices at the intermediate stage. Manipulation of the intermediate representation improves lossy compression performance by 1 to 10%. 21 figs.

  8. Pressure correction schemes for compressible flows: application to baro-tropic Navier-Stokes equations and to drift-flux model; Methodes de correction de pression pour les ecoulements compressibles: application aux equations de Navier-Stokes barotropes et au modele de derive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gastaldo, L


    We develop in this PhD thesis a simulation tool for bubbly flows encountered in some late phases of a core-melt accident in pressurized water reactors, when the flow of molten core and vessel structures comes to chemically interact with the concrete of the containment floor. The physical modelling is based on the so-called drift-flux model, consisting of mass balance and momentum balance equations for the mixture (Navier-Stokes equations) and a mass balance equation for the gaseous phase. First, we propose a pressure correction scheme for the compressible Navier-Stokes equations based on mixed non-conforming finite elements. An ad hoc discretization of the advection operator, by a finite volume technique based on a dual mesh, ensures the stability of the velocity prediction step. A priori estimates for the velocity and the pressure yields the existence of the solution. We prove that this scheme is stable, in the sense that the discrete entropy is decreasing. For the conservation equation of the gaseous phase, we build a finite volume discretization which satisfies a discrete maximum principle. From this last property, we deduce the existence and the uniqueness of the discrete solution. Finally, on the basis of these works, a conservative and monotone scheme which is stable in the low Mach number limit, is build for the drift-flux model. This scheme enjoys, moreover, the following property: the algorithm preserves a constant pressure and velocity through moving interfaces between phases (i.e. contact discontinuities of the underlying hyperbolic system). In order to satisfy this property at the discrete level, we build an original pressure correction step which couples the mass balance equation with the transport terms of the gas mass balance equation, the remaining terms of the gas mass balance being taken into account with a splitting method. We prove the existence of a discrete solution for the pressure correction step. Numerical results are presented; they

  9. New Mix Explosives for Explosive Welding (United States)

    Andreevskikh, Leonid


    Suggested and tested were some mix explosives--powder mixtures of a brisant high explosive (HE = RDX, PETN) and an inert diluent (baking soda)--for use in explosive welding. RDX and PETN were selected in view of their high throwing ability and low critical diameter. Since the decomposition of baking soda yields a huge amount of gaseous products, its presence ensures (even at a low HE percentage) a throwing speed that is sufficient for realization of explosive welding, at a reduced brisant action of charge. Mix chargers containing 30-70 wt % HE (the rest baking soda) have been tested experimentally and optimized. For study of possibility to reduce critical diameter of HE mixture, the mixture was prepared where HE crystal sizes did not exceed 10 μm. The tests, which were performed with this HE, revealed that the mixture detonated stably with the velocity D ~ 2 km/s, if the layer thickness was d = 2 mm. The above explosives afford to markedly diminish deformations within the oblique impact zone and thus to carry out explosive welding of hollow items and thin metallic foils.

  10. Explosives tester with heater (United States)

    Del Eckels, Joel [Livermore, CA; Nunes, Peter J [Danville, CA; Simpson, Randall L [Livermore, CA; Whipple, Richard E [Livermore, CA; Carter, J Chance [Livermore, CA; Reynolds, John G [San Ramon, CA


    An inspection tester system for testing for explosives. The tester includes a body and a swab unit adapted to be removeably connected to the body. At least one reagent holder and dispenser is operatively connected to the body. The reagent holder and dispenser contains an explosives detecting reagent and is positioned to deliver the explosives detecting reagent to the swab unit. A heater is operatively connected to the body and the swab unit is adapted to be operatively connected to the heater.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles L. Mader


    Full Text Available Krakatoa exploded August 27, 1883 obliterating 5 square miles of land and leaving a crater 3.5 miles across and 200-300 meters deep. Thirty three feet high tsunami waves hit Anjer and Merak demolishing the towns and killing over 10,000 people. In Merak the wave rose to 135 feet above sea level and moved 100 ton coral blocks up on the shore.Tsunami waves swept over 300 coastal towns and villages killing 40,000 people. The sea withdrew at Bombay, India and killed one person in Sri Lanka.The tsunami was produced by a hydrovolcanic explosion and the associated shock wave and pyroclastic flows.A hydrovolcanic explosion is generated by the interaction of hot magma with ground water. It is called Surtseyan after the 1963 explosive eruption off Iceland. The water flashes to steam and expands explosively. Liquid water becoming water gas at constant volume generates a pressure of 30,000 atmospheres.The Krakatoa hydrovolcanic explosion was modeled using the full Navier-Stokes AMREulerian compressible hydrodynamic code called SAGE which includes the high pressure physics of explosions.The water in the hydrovolcanic explosion was described as liquid water heated by the magma to 1100 degree Kelvin or 19 kcal/mole. The high temperature water is an explosive with the hot liquid water going to a water gas. The BKW steady state detonation state has a peak pressure of 89 kilobars, a propagation velocity of 5900 meters/second and the water is compressed to 1.33 grams/cc.The observed Krakatoa tsunami had a period of less than 5 minutes and wavelength of less than 7 kilometers and thus rapidly decayed. The far field tsunami wave was negligible. The air shock generated by the hydrovolcanic explosion propagated around the world and coupled to the ocean resulting in the explosion being recorded on tide gauges around the world.

  12. Explosive Technology Group (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Explosive Technology Group (ETG) provides diverse technical expertise and an agile, integrated approach to solve complex challenges for all classes of energetic...

  13. Active explosion barrier performance against methane and coal dust explosions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    J. J. L. du Plessis


    Preventing the propagation of methane or coal dust explosions through the use of active explosion-suppression systems remains one of the most underutilised explosion controls in underground coal mines...

  14. Shock Initiation of Damaged Explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chidester, S K; Vandersall, K S; Tarver, C M


    Explosive and propellant charges are subjected to various mechanical and thermal insults that can increase their sensitivity over the course of their lifetimes. To quantify this effect, shock initiation experiments were performed on mechanically and thermally damaged LX-04 (85% HMX, 15% Viton by weight) and PBX 9502 (95% TATB, 5% Kel-F by weight) to obtain in-situ manganin pressure gauge data and run distances to detonation at various shock pressures. We report the behavior of the HMX-based explosive LX-04 that was damaged mechanically by applying a compressive load of 600 psi for 20,000 cycles, thus creating many small narrow cracks, or by cutting wedge shaped parts that were then loosely reassembled, thus creating a few large cracks. The thermally damaged LX-04 charges were heated to 190 C for long enough for the beta to delta solid - solid phase transition to occur, and then cooled to ambient temperature. Mechanically damaged LX-04 exhibited only slightly increased shock sensitivity, while thermally damaged LX-04 was much more shock sensitive. Similarly, the insensitive explosive PBX 9502 was mechanically damaged using the same two techniques. Since PBX 9502 does not undergo a solid - solid phase transition but does undergo irreversible or 'rachet' growth when thermally cycled, thermal damage to PBX 9502 was induced by this procedure. As for LX-04, the thermally damaged PBX 9502 demonstrated a greater shock sensitivity than mechanically damaged PBX 9502. The Ignition and Growth reactive flow model calculated the increased sensitivities by igniting more damaged LX-04 and PBX 9502 near the shock front based on the measured densities (porosities) of the damaged charges.

  15. Explosions and static electricity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonassen, Niels M


    The paper deals with the problem of electrostatic discharges as causes of ignition of vapor/gas and dust/gas mixtures. A series of examples of static-caused explosions will be discussed. The concepts of explosion limits, the incendiveness of various discharge types and safe voltages are explained...

  16. Cell phone explosion. (United States)

    Atreya, Alok; Kanchan, Tanuj; Nepal, Samata; Pandey, Bhuwan Raj


    Cell phone explosions and resultant burn injuries are rarely reported in the scientific literature. We report a case of cell phone explosion that occurred when a young male was listening to music while the mobile was plugged in for charging. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Steam explosion studies review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Moon Kyu; Kim, Hee Dong


    When a cold liquid is brought into contact with a molten material with a temperature significantly higher than the liquid boiling point, an explosive interaction due to sudden fragmentation of the melt and rapid evaporation of the liquid may take place. This phenomenon is referred to as a steam explosion or vapor explosion. Depending upon the amount of the melt and the liquid involved, the mechanical energy released during a vapor explosion can be large enough to cause serious destruction. In hypothetical severe accidents which involve fuel melt down, subsequent interactions between the molten fuel and coolant may cause steam explosion. This process has been studied by many investigators in an effort to assess the likelihood of containment failure which leads to large scale release of radioactive materials to the environment. In an effort to understand the phenomenology of steam explosion, extensive studies has been performed so far. The report presents both experimental and analytical studies on steam explosion. As for the experimental studies, both small scale tests which involve usually less than 20 g of high temperature melt and medium/large scale tests which more than 1 kg of melt is used are reviewed. For the modelling part of steam explosions, mechanistic modelling as well as thermodynamic modelling is reviewed. (author)

  18. Melt Cast High Explosives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Cudziło


    Full Text Available [b]Abstract[/b]. This paper reviews the current state and future developments of melt-cast high explosives. First the compositions, properties and methods of preparation of trinitrotoluene based (TNT conventional mixtures with aluminum, hexogen (RDX or octogen (HMX are described. In the newer, less sensitive explosive formulations, TNT is replaced with dinitroanisole (DNANDNANDNAN and nitrotriazolone (NTONTONTO, nitroguanidine (NG or ammonium perchlorate (AP are the replacement for RDRDX and HMX. Plasticized wax or polymer-based binder systems for melt castable explosives are also included. Hydroxyl terminated polybutadiene (HPTB is the binder of choice, but polyethylene glycol, and polycaprolactone with energetic plasticizers are also used. The most advanced melt-cast explosives are compositions containing energetic thermoplastic elastomers and novel highly energetic compounds (including nitrogen rich molecules in whose particles are nanosized and practically defect-less.[b]Keywords[/b]: melt-cast explosives, detonation parameters

  19. Parameters affecting the thermal behaviour of emulsion explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, D.E.G.; Feng, H.; Mintz, K.J.; Augsten, R.A. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Canadian Explosives Research Laboratory


    Accelerating rate calorimetry (ARC) and heat flux calorimetry (HFC) were used to study the sensitivity of ammonium nitrate (AN) and emulsion explosives to pressure and various other parameters. The explosives were evaluated in a series of experiments that examined the influence of pressure in both Argon and air environments at 5.4 MPa. Results of the study demonstrated that significantly lower onset temperatures were observed when the ammonium nitrate (AN) explosive was used in air. Results of the ARC study suggested that lower initial temperatures resulted in an elevated onset temperature. Lower onset temperatures observed in the study were attributed to oxidation of the oil phase in the emulsion. Onset temperatures for the AN explosive were lower than rates observed for the emulsion explosives. The size of the samples also influenced onset temperatures in both the ARC and HFC analyses. At heating rates of 0.1 degrees C per minute, the results of heat flux calorimetry revealed a complex exotherm pattern for the emulsion explosive in both Argon and in air. The high pressure of inert gas inhibited and delayed the exothermic reactions for the emulsion explosives. It was concluded that air-oxidative decomposition results in lower onset temperatures that are influenced by higher pressure rates. 8 refs., 3 tabs., 8 figs.

  20. Chemical explosive stimulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaRocca, S.J.; McLamore, R.T.; Spencer, A.M. Jr.


    A safe, reliable chemical explosive fracturing process has been demonstrated and prototype equipment for its use has been successfully field tested.Called the Astro-Flow II process, it utilizes a highly energetic, hydrazine-based family of liquid explosives known as Astrolite. A unique property of these explosives is that they can be divided into 2 nonexplosive pumpable components that can be handled safely. The 2 components are pumped independently and simultaneously into the well and blended together downhole to form the explosive which is circulated in place or displaced into formation fractures. Explosive hazards to surface equipment and personnel are eliminated. Extensive testing of the physical and chemical stability of the mixed explosive indicates that the material can be reliable and safely used at elevated temperatures, pressures, and in the adverse chemical environment often found in deep oil and gas wells. These tests of prototype equipment proved that the 2 components could be independently pumped with precision and blended together to form the desired explosive formulation. How the process works is described.



    KOYUNCU, Hülya


    Explosives are used on a large scale byboth the military and by various civilian industries (e.g. mining, high-energymetalwork, and civil engineering). Explosives utilization contributes to the high environmentalcontamination. TNT(2,4,6-trinitrotoluene), RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine), HMX (octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine) are found mainly in soils and surface waters; there havealso been cases of groundwater contamination. Most explosives are stable du...

  2. A legacy of the ""megagoule committee,"" thirty years of explosive pulsed power research and development at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goforth, James H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Oona, Henn [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Herrera, Dennis H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Torres, David T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tasker, D. G. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Meyer, R. K. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Atchison, W. L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rousculp, C. L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Reinovsky, R. E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sheppard, M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Turchi, P. J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Watt, R. G. [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    In 1980, Los Alamos formed the 'Megajoule Committee' with the expressed goal of developing a one Megajoule plasma radiation source. The ensuing research and development has given rise to a wide variety of high explosive pulsed power accomplishments, and there is a continuous stream of work that continues to the present. A variety of flux compression generators (FCGs or generators) have been designed and tested, and a number of pulse shortening schemes have been investigated. Supporting computational tools have been developed in parallel with experiments. No fewer that six unique systems have been developed and used for experiments. This paper attempts to pull together the technical details, achievements, and wisdom amassed during the intervening thirty years, and notes how we would push for increased performance in the future.

  3. Aging of civil explosives (Poster)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krabbendam-La Haye, E.L.M.; Klerk, W.P.C. de; Hoen, C. 't; Krämer, R.E.


    For the Dutch MoD and police, TNO composed sets with different kinds of civil explosives to train their detection dogs. The manufacturer of these explosives guarantees several years of stability of these explosives. These sets of explosives are used under different conditions, like temperature and

  4. Compressive beamforming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xenaki, Angeliki; Mosegaard, Klaus


    Sound source localization with sensor arrays involves the estimation of the direction-of-arrival (DOA) from a limited number of observations. Compressive sensing (CS) solves such underdetermined problems achieving sparsity, thus improved resolution, and can be solved efficiently with convex...

  5. Shock waves & explosions

    CERN Document Server

    Sachdev, PL


    Understanding the causes and effects of explosions is important to experts in a broad range of disciplines, including the military, industrial and environmental research, aeronautic engineering, and applied mathematics. Offering an introductory review of historic research, Shock Waves and Explosions brings analytic and computational methods to a wide audience in a clear and thorough way. Beginning with an overview of the research on combustion and gas dynamics in the 1970s and 1980s, the author brings you up to date by covering modeling techniques and asymptotic and perturbative methods and ending with a chapter on computational methods.Most of the book deals with the mathematical analysis of explosions, but computational results are also included wherever they are available. Historical perspectives are provided on the advent of nonlinear science, as well as on the mathematical study of the blast wave phenomenon, both when visualized as a point explosion and when simulated as the expansion of a high-pressure ...

  6. Explosive Components Facility (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The 98,000 square foot Explosive Components Facility (ECF) is a state-of-the-art facility that provides a full-range of chemical, material, and performance analysis...

  7. Intermittent Explosive Disorder (United States)

    ... Headache Intermittent explosive disorder Symptoms & causes Diagnosis & treatment Advertisement Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. ... a Job Site Map About This Site Twitter Facebook Google YouTube Pinterest Mayo Clinic is a not- ...

  8. Parametric Explosion Spectral Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, S R; Walter, W R


    Small underground nuclear explosions need to be confidently detected, identified, and characterized in regions of the world where they have never before occurred. We develop a parametric model of the nuclear explosion seismic source spectrum derived from regional phases that is compatible with earthquake-based geometrical spreading and attenuation. Earthquake spectra are fit with a generalized version of the Brune spectrum, which is a three-parameter model that describes the long-period level, corner-frequency, and spectral slope at high-frequencies. Explosion spectra can be fit with similar spectral models whose parameters are then correlated with near-source geology and containment conditions. We observe a correlation of high gas-porosity (low-strength) with increased spectral slope. The relationship between the parametric equations and the geologic and containment conditions will assist in our physical understanding of the nuclear explosion source.

  9. Ammonium nitrate explosion hazards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negovanović Milanka


    Full Text Available Ammonium nitrate (AN primarily is used as a fertilizer but it is also very important compound in the production of industrial explosives. The application of ammonium nitrate in the production of industrial explosives was related with the early era of Nobel dynamite and widely increased with the appearance of blasting agents such as ANFO and Slurry, in the middle of the last Century. Throughout the world millions of tons of ammonium nitrate are produced annually and handled without incident. Although ammonium nitrate generally is used safely, accidental explosions involving AN have high impact resulting in loss of lives and destruction of property. The paper presents the basic properties of ammonium nitrate as well as hazards in handling of ammonium nitrate in order to prevent accidents. Several accidents with explosions of ammonium nitrate resulted in catastrophic consequences are listed in the paper as examples of non-compliance with prescribed procedures.

  10. Intermittent Explosive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lut Tamam


    Full Text Available Intermittent explosive disorder is an impulse control disorder characterized by the occurrence of discrete episodes of failure to resist aggressive impulses that result in violent assault or destruction of property. Though the prevalence intermittent explosive disorder has been reported to be relatively rare in frontier studies on the field, it is now common opinion that intermittent explosive disorder is far more common than previously thought especially in clinical psychiatry settings. Etiological studies displayed the role of both psychosocial factors like childhood traumas and biological factors like dysfunctional neurotransmitter systems and genetics. In differential diagnosis of the disorder, disorders involving agression as a symptom such as alcohol and drug intoxication, antisocial and borderline personality disorders, personality changes due to general medical conditions and behavioral disorder should be considered. A combination of pharmacological and psychotherapeutic approaches are suggested in the treatment of the disorder. This article briefly reviews the historical background, diagnostic criteria, epidemiology, etiology and treatment of intermittent explosive disorder.

  11. Explosion suppression system (United States)

    Sapko, Michael J.; Cortese, Robert A.


    An explosion suppression system and triggering apparatus therefor are provided for quenching gas and dust explosions. An electrically actuated suppression mechanism which dispenses an extinguishing agent into the path ahead of the propagating flame is actuated by a triggering device which is light powered. This triggering device is located upstream of the propagating flame and converts light from the flame to an electrical actuation signal. A pressure arming device electrically connects the triggering device to the suppression device only when the explosion is sensed by a further characteristic thereof beside the flame such as the pioneer pressure wave. The light powered triggering device includes a solar panel which is disposed in the path of the explosion and oriented between horizontally downward and vertical. Testing mechanisms are also preferably provided to test the operation of the solar panel and detonator as well as the pressure arming mechanism.

  12. Polymeric binder for explosives (United States)

    Bissell, E. R.


    Chemical reaction for producing a polymer which can be mixed with explosives to produce a rigid material is discussed. Physical and chemical properties of polymers are described and chemical structure of the polymer is illustrated.

  13. ) Mold Fluxes (United States)

    Seo, Myung-Duk; Shi, Cheng-Bin; Cho, Jung-Wook; Kim, Seon-Hyo


    The effects of basicity (CaO/SiO2), B2O3, and Li2O addition on the crystallization behaviors of lime-silica-based mold fluxes have been investigated by non-isothermal differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), field emission scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and single hot thermocouple technique. It was found that the crystallization temperature of cuspidine increased with increasing the basicity of mold fluxes. The crystallization of wollastonite was suppressed with increasing the mold flux basicity due to the enhancement of cuspidine crystallization. The addition of B2O3 suppresses the crystallization of mold flux. The crystallization temperature of mold flux decreases with Li2O addition. The size of cuspidine increases, while the number of cuspidine decreases with increasing mold flux basicity. The morphology of cuspidine in mold fluxes with lower basicity is largely dendritic. The dendritic cuspidine in mold fluxes is composed of many fine cuspidine crystals. On the contrary, in mold fluxes with higher basicity, the cuspidine crystals are larger in size with mainly faceted morphology. The crystalline phase evolution was also calculated using a thermodynamic database, and compared with the experimental results determined by DSC and XRD. The results of thermodynamic calculation of crystalline phase formation are in accordance with the results determined by DSC and XRD.

  14. Five to ten MA experiments using flat plate explosive generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caird, R. S.; Fowler, C. M.; King, J. C. (James Carrel); Oona, H. (Henn); Tasker, D. G. (Douglas G.); Goforth, J. H. (James H.)


    High explosive pulsed power (HEPP) techniques can address a wide range of pulsed power needs. The basis for HEPP techniques is the use of high explosives to reduce the inductance of a current-carrying circuit, thus multiplying the current due to magnetic flux conservation. For the past twenty years at Los Alamos, our high energy density physics (HEDP) program has followed a path leading to more sophisticated and higher current (and often power) systems. Twenty years ago, we had the capability of conducting tests at 10, or even 30 MA, with no power conditioning and low inductance loads. The time scale of the experiment was the time it took to compress the flux explosively, and our fastest generator with high current capability was a plate generator. The operating time of the generator is less than 15 {micro}s, and flux loading requires either an additional {approx}60 {micro}s or a reduced-efficiency inductive coupling scheme. We could also deliver shortened pulses to select loads by completing our generator circuit, initially, with a relatively high inductance circuit element, then switching in a lower inductance with 2-3 {micro}s left of the generator pulse. Figure 1 shows the results of such a test. The test was conducted in 1974 to investigate our capability to drive plasma z-pinch experiments for the production of soft x-rays, and was a pulsed power success. However, our understanding of vacuum power flow issues was not mature enough at that time to design a functioning plasma z-pinch load. There was a renewed need for such a system in 1980, and at that time we began assembling a complete set of techniques required for success. We first fielded a baseline test using a simplified version of the HEPP system that generated the Figure 1 data. Subsequent tests followed a 'bite size' philosophy. That is, we first designed a complete system for a level of complexity at which we believed success could be achieved. We conducted tests of that system, and once it

  15. Fluid Interactions with Explosion-Induced Fractures (United States)

    Swanson, E.; Sussman, A. J.; Wilson, J.; Broome, S.


    Fluids can chemically interact with the fractures they flow through, a process that may affect the movement of fluids in the subsurface. This is a topic of interest to a large variety of research areas, including (but not limited to) production of oil and gas, contaminant tracking, geothermal energy production, CO2 sequestration, and nuclear test monitoring. A study performed as part of the Source Physics Experiment, designed to look at the effects of underground chemical explosions, provides a rare opportunity to compare cores from pre-shot and post-shot rock, from damage created in situ. We present data on the variability of microfracture density with distance from the explosion, as well as the occurrence of fractures that either open or contain clay infill. We find that both open and filled fractures occur more frequently within the post-shot samples (by a factor of up to 4x), with similar spatial distributions. This calls into question the validity of the commonly made assumption that all filled fractures were present prior to the explosive shot, and only open fractures can represent explosion-induced damage. These results suggest that fluid-rock interactions might have a significant influence on the permeabilities that result from explosions, even within a few weeks. Additional data on the mechanical properties of the pre-shot and post-shot core samples show an unexpected pattern during unconfined compressive strength tests: the samples retrieved following 2 successive shots failed at higher stresses than did samples retrieved after 1 shot. We present these results, along with some evidence this behavior may arise from trace differences in water content during testing.

  16. Speech Compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerry D. Gibson


    Full Text Available Speech compression is a key technology underlying digital cellular communications, VoIP, voicemail, and voice response systems. We trace the evolution of speech coding based on the linear prediction model, highlight the key milestones in speech coding, and outline the structures of the most important speech coding standards. Current challenges, future research directions, fundamental limits on performance, and the critical open problem of speech coding for emergency first responders are all discussed.

  17. Explosion containment device (United States)

    Benedick, William B.; Daniel, Charles J.


    The disclosure relates to an explosives storage container for absorbing and containing the blast, fragments and detonation products from a possible detonation of a contained explosive. The container comprises a layer of distended material having sufficient thickness to convert a portion of the kinetic energy of the explosion into thermal energy therein. A continuous wall of steel sufficiently thick to absorb most of the remaining kinetic energy by stretching and expanding, thereby reducing the momentum of detonation products and high velocity fragments, surrounds the layer of distended material. A crushable layer surrounds the continuous steel wall and accommodates the stretching and expanding thereof, transmitting a moderate load to the outer enclosure. These layers reduce the forces of the explosion and the momentum of the products thereof to zero. The outer enclosure comprises a continuous pressure wall enclosing all of the layers. In one embodiment, detonation of the contained explosive causes the outer enclosure to expand which indicates to a visual observer that a detonation has occurred.

  18. Surface explosion cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Benusiglio, Adrien; Clanet, Christophe


    We present a fluid dynamics video on cavities created by explosions of firecrackers at the water free surface. We use three types of firecrackers containing 1, 1.3 and 5 g of flash powder. The firecrackers are held with their center at the surface of water in a cubic meter pool. The movies are recorded from the side with a high-speed video camera. Without confinement the explosion produces an hemispherical cavity. Right after the explosion this cavity grows isotropically, the bottom then stops while the sides continue to expand. In the next phase the bottom of the cavity accelerates backwards to the surface. During this phase the convergence of the flow creates a central jet that rises above the free surface. In the last part of the video the explosion is confined in a vertical open tube made of glass and of centimetric diameter. The explosion creates a cylindrical cavity that develops towards the free end of the tube. Depending on the charge, the cavity can either stop inside the tube or at its exit, but nev...

  19. 78 FR 64246 - Commerce in Explosives; List of Explosives Materials (United States)


    ... hydrocarbons. Explosive organic nitrate mixtures. Explosive powders. F Flash powder. ] Fulminate of mercury. Fulminate of silver. Fulminating gold. Fulminating mercury. Fulminating platinum. Fulminating silver. G... fulminate. Mercury oxalate. Mercury tartrate. Metriol trinitrate. Minol-2 . MMAN ; methylamine nitrate...

  20. Method to prevent/mitigate steam explosions in casting pits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taleyarkhan, Rusi P. (Knoxville, TN)


    Steam explosions can be prevented or mitigated during a metal casting process by the placement of a perforated flooring system in the casting pit. An upward flow of compressed gas through this perforated flooring system is introduced during the casting process to produce a buffer layer between any spilled molten metal and the cooling water in the reservoir. This buffer layer provides a hydrodynamic layer which acts to prevent or mitigate steam explosions resulting from hot, molten metal being spilled into or onto the cooling water.

  1. Methane Flux (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Methane (CH4) flux is the net rate of methane exchange between an ecosystem and the atmosphere. Data of this variable were generated by the USGS LandCarbon project...

  2. Explosive microfractures induced by K-metasomatism (United States)

    Xu, Xing-Wang; Cai, Xin-Ping; Zhang, Bao-Lin; Wang, Jie


    Ultra-fine mineral aggregates in K-metasomatic rocks of the Hougou area, northwestern Hebei Province, China contain peculiar and distinct intergranular and intragranular geometries, compositions, and textures. These features indicate solidification of expanded and enclosed relict fluids within tensile microfractures. Two basic morphologic types of textures are present: saw-toothed and wheel-shaped, and several composite patterns also are present, such as X-shaped, grid, and network. The appearance of these features indicate explosion from an instantaneous force. These microscopic explosive microfractures are directly related to the enclosed relict fluids. Theoretical estimates show that volume expansion induced by mineral replacements during K-metasomatism may have caused the K-metasomatic fluids to be confined and strongly compressed in order to build up powerful forces that produced the ultra-fine mineral aggregates and explosive microfractures. The thick-walled texture of K-metasomatic rocks confined fractures that propagated only in the replaced rocks with the lowest strength. Both pumping pressures and the propagation of the K-metasomatism were self-governed and controlled by introduced chemical elements, specially K +.

  3. XIT Commercial Explosives Identification Tool (United States)


    Explosives Identification Tool (XIT) was supported by the Canadian Safety and Security Program ( CSSP ) which is led by Defence Research and Development...Explosives Training Unit, and Toronto Police Service, Explosives Disposal Unit. CSSP is a federally-funded program to strengthen Canada’s ability to

  4. Explosive detection technology (United States)

    Doremus, Steven; Crownover, Robin


    The continuing proliferation of improvised explosive devices is an omnipresent threat to civilians and members of military and law enforcement around the world. The ability to accurately and quickly detect explosive materials from a distance would be an extremely valuable tool for mitigating the risk posed by these devices. A variety of techniques exist that are capable of accurately identifying explosive compounds, but an effective standoff technique is still yet to be realized. Most of the methods being investigated to fill this gap in capabilities are laser based. Raman spectroscopy is one such technique that has been demonstrated to be effective at a distance. Spatially Offset Raman Spectroscopy (SORS) is a technique capable of identifying chemical compounds inside of containers, which could be used to detect hidden explosive devices. Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Spectroscopy (CARS) utilized a coherent pair of lasers to excite a sample, greatly increasing the response of sample while decreasing the strength of the lasers being used, which significantly improves the eye safety issue that typically hinders laser-based detection methods. Time-gating techniques are also being developed to improve the data collection from Raman techniques, which are often hindered fluorescence of the test sample in addition to atmospheric, substrate, and contaminant responses. Ultraviolet based techniques have also shown significant promise by greatly improved signal strength from excitation of resonance in many explosive compounds. Raman spectroscopy, which identifies compounds based on their molecular response, can be coupled with Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) capable of characterizing the sample's atomic composition using a single laser.

  5. High-explosive-driven delay line pulse generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shearer, J.W.


    The inclusion of a delay line circuit into the design of a high-explosive-driven generator shortens the time constant of the output pulse. After a brief review of generator concepts and previously described pulse-shortening methods, a geometry is presented which incorporates delay line circuit techcniques into a coil generator. The circuit constants are adjusted to match the velocity of the generated electromagnetic wave to the detonation velocity of the high explosive. The proposed generator can be modeled by adding a variable inductance term to the telegrapher's equation. A particular solution of this equation is useful for exploring the operational parameters of the generator. The duration of the electromagnetic pulse equals the radial expansion time of the high-explosive-driven armature until it strikes the coil. Because the impedance of the generator is a constant, the current multiplication factor is limited only by nonlinear effects such as voltage breakdown, diffusion, and compression at high energies.

  6. Development of ammonium nitrate based explosives to optimize explosive properties and explosive welding parameters used during explosion cladding (United States)

    Hurley, Christoph

    The ability to accurately measure and predict the velocity of explosively driven flyer plates has been a subject of significant work by the explosives community for some time. The majority of this work has focused on the use of high-energy, ideal explosives that are of interest for defense applications. Several attempts have been made to modify the experimental methods developed for these ideal explosives for use in testing low-energy, non-ideal explosive compounds (including industrially useful mixtures of ammonium nitrate, fuels, and additives) with varying degrees of success. The detonation properties of non-ideal explosives are difficult to measure precisely due to the effect of physical, environmental, and geometric factors on the detonation of these materials. The work presented in this document attempts to mitigate the variability inherent in measurements of non-ideal, ammonium nitrate-based explosives by performing testing using charge geometry similar to that used in the industrial process of explosion welding. A method to measure flyer plate velocity with optical high-speed imaging using commercially available equipment is described. Flyer plate velocity data from both experimental measurements and numerical modeling is presented. A new formula for predicting explosive energy based on the detonation velocity of an ammonium nitrate based explosive in a planar geometry is proposed and applied to a theoretical explosive cladding scenario.

  7. Biodegradation of nitro-explosives. (United States)

    Kanekar, Pradnya; Dautpure, Premlata; Sarnaik, Seema


    Environmental contamination by nitro compounds is associated principally with the explosives industry. However, global production and use of explosives is unavoidable. The presently widely used nitro-explosives are TNT (Trinitrotoluene), RDX (Royal Demolition Explosive) and HMX (High Melting Explosive). Nevertheless, the problems of these nitro-explosives are almost parallel due to their similarities of production processes, abundance of nitro-explosives and resembling chemical structures. The nitro-explosives per se as well as their environmental transformation products are toxic, showing symptoms as methaemoglobinaemia, kidney trouble, jaundice etc. Hence their removal/degradation from soil/water is essential. Aerobic and anaerobic degradation of TNT and RDX have been reported, while for HMX anaerobic or anoxic degradation have been described in many studies. A multisystem involvement using plants in remediation is gaining importance. Thus the information about degradation of nitro-explosives is available in jigsaw pieces which needs to be arranged and lacunae filled to get concrete degradative schemes so that environmental pollution from nitro-explosives can be dealt with more successfully at a macroscale. An overview of the reports on nitro-explosives degradation, future outlook and studies done by us are presented in this review.

  8. Explosive pulsed power system for new radiation sources.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oona, H. (Henn); Goforth, J. H. (James H.); Idzorek, G. C. (George C.); Herrera, D. H. (Dennis H.); King, J. C. (James Carrel); Lopez, E. A. (Emmanuel A.); Tasker, D. G. (Douglas G.); Torres, D. T. (David T)


    High explosive pulsed power (HEPP) systems are capable of accessing very high energy densities and can reach conditions that are not possible with capacitor bank systems. The Procyon system was developed and used for experiments over a period of six years, and is exemplary of the capabilities of HEPP systems for state-of-the-art research. In this paper we will summarize some of the more interesting aspects of the work done in the past but will suggest ideas toward applications for future research. One of the main, unique features of HEPP systems is that they integrate easily to a particular physics experiment and the power flow can be optimized for a specific test. Magnetic flux compression generators have been an ideal power source for both high current plasma physics and hydrodynamic experimental loads. These experiments have contributed greatly to the understanding of high temperature and density plasmas and more recently to the understanding of instability growth in thick ({approx}1 mm) imploding metal cylinders. Common to all these experiments is the application of a large current pulse to a cylindrically symmetric load. The resulting Lorenz force compresses the load to produce hydrodynamic motion and/or high temperature, high density plasma. In the plasma physics experiments, plasma thermalizes on axis and a black body distribution of x-rays is produced. To get better access to the radiation pulse, the load electrode geometry was modified. For example, by shaping the plasma implosion glide planes, a mass depletion region was formed along one electrode at pinch time which generated a very large voltage drop across a 1-2 mm segment of the pinch, and also produced a high energy ion beam on axis. These results were predicted by magneto-hydro-dynamic (MHD) codes and verified with framing camera and x-ray, pinhole, camera pictures. We have not previously published these features but will take another look and propose possible scenarios for studying and generating

  9. Generation of flux tube waves in stellar convection zones. 1: Longitudinal tube waves (United States)

    Musielak, Z. E.; Rosner, R.; Ulmschneider, P.


    The source functions and the energy fluxes are derived for wave generation in magnetic flux tubes embedded in an otherwise magnetic- field free, turbulent, and compressible fluid. Specific results for the generation of longitudinal tube waves are presented.

  10. Compression limits in cascaded quadratic soliton compression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bache, Morten; Bang, Ole; Krolikowski, Wieslaw


    Cascaded quadratic soliton compressors generate under optimal conditions few-cycle pulses. Using theory and numerical simulations in a nonlinear crystal suitable for high-energy pulse compression, we address the limits to the compression quality and efficiency.......Cascaded quadratic soliton compressors generate under optimal conditions few-cycle pulses. Using theory and numerical simulations in a nonlinear crystal suitable for high-energy pulse compression, we address the limits to the compression quality and efficiency....

  11. Explosives signatures and analysis (United States)

    Fountain, Augustus Way, III; Oyler, Jonathan M.; Ostazeski, Stanley A.


    The challenge of sampling explosive materials for various high threat military and civilian operational scenarios requires the community to identify and exploit other chemical compounds within the mixtures that may be available to support stand-off detection techniques. While limited surface and vapor phase characterization of IEDs exist, they are insufficient to guide the future development and evaluation of field deployable explosives detection (proximity and standoff) capabilities. ECBC has conducted a limited investigation of three artillery ammunition types to determine what chemical vapors, if any, are available for sensing; the relative composition of the vapors which includes the more volatile compounds in munitions, i.e., plastersizers and binders; and the sensitivity needed detect these vapors at stand-off. Also in partnership with MIT-Lincoln Laboratory, we performed a background measurement campaign at the National Training Center to determine the baseline ambient amounts and variability of nitrates and nitro-ester compounds as vapors, particulates, and on surfaces; as well as other chemical compounds related to non-energetic explosive additives. Environmental persistence studies in contexts relevant to counter-IED sensing operations, such as surface residues, are still necessary.

  12. 46 CFR 194.20-15 - Chemical stores other than compressed gases. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Chemical stores other than compressed gases. 194.20-15... VESSELS HANDLING, USE, AND CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Chemical Stores and/or Storerooms § 194.20-15 Chemical stores other than compressed gases. (a) Flammable liquids are excluded from...

  13. 29 CFR 1926.913 - Blasting in excavation work under compressed air. (United States)


    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Blasting in excavation work under compressed air. 1926.913... Use of Explosives § 1926.913 Blasting in excavation work under compressed air. (a) Detonators and... use in wet holes shall be water-resistant and shall be Fume Class 1. (g) When tunnel excavation in...

  14. Screening method to assess the risk of explosive spalling on fire exposed concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lars Schiøtt


    At the Technical University of Denmark (BYG.DTU)a new test set-up is under development to screen various concretes to assess their risk of explosive spalling. The test exposes a standard cylinder to compressive ring stresses together with rapid heating of the cylinder end.......At the Technical University of Denmark (BYG.DTU)a new test set-up is under development to screen various concretes to assess their risk of explosive spalling. The test exposes a standard cylinder to compressive ring stresses together with rapid heating of the cylinder end....

  15. Dynamic and quasi-static measurements of C-4 and primasheet P1000 explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Geoffrey W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Thompson, Darla G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; De Luca, Racci [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rae, Philip J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Cady, Carl M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Todd, Steven N [SNL


    We have measured dynamic and quasi-static mechanical properties of C-4 and Primasheet P1000 explosive materials to provide input data for modeling efforts. Primasheet P1000 is a pentaerythritol tetranitrate-based rubberized explosive. C-4 is a RDX-based moldable explosive. Dynamic measurements included acoustic and split-Hopkinson pressure bar tests. Quasi-static testing was done in compression on load frames and on a dynamic mechanical analyzer. Split-Hopkinson and quasi-static tests were done at five temperatures from -50 C to 50 C. Acoustic velocities were measured at, above, and below room temperature.

  16. Photoacoustic Sensing of Explosives (United States)


    weight (6 kg), and its power require- ments (24 W) allow for the high portability of the system. Laser vibrometer measurement, 2 meters from target...2515 P ar tic le v el oc ity (× 1 0 μ m /s ) −1 −2 2 0 1 −1 −2 2 0 1 −1 −2 2 0 1 The laser vibrometer and processing algorithms clearly...technique is depicted for a moving system. Note that the laser vibrometer measures the vibrations caused by the explosive vaporization process. At the same

  17. Exploring the explosive-effusive transition using permanent ultraviolet cameras (United States)

    Delle Donne, D.; Tamburello, G.; Aiuppa, A.; Bitetto, M.; Lacanna, G.; D'Aleo, R.; Ripepe, M.


    Understanding the mechanisms that cause effusive eruptions is the key to mitigating their associated hazard. Here we combine results from permanent ultraviolet (UV) cameras, and from other geophysical observations (seismic very long period, thermal, and infrasonic activity), to characterize volcanic SO2 flux regime in the period prior, during, and after Stromboli's August-November 2014 effusive eruption. We show that, in the 2 months prior to effusion onset, the SO2 flux levels are 2 times average level. We explain this anomalously high SO2 regime as primarily determined by venting of rapidly rising, pressurized SO2-rich gas pockets produced by strombolian explosions being more frequent and intense than usual. We develop a procedure to track (and count), in the UV camera record, the SO2 flux pulses produced by individual explosions and puffing activity (active degassing). We find that these SO2 pulses are far more numerous (67 ± 47 events per hour) before the effusion onset than during normal activity (20 ± 15 events per hour). This observation, combined with geophysical evidence, demonstrates an elevated gas bubble supply to the shallow conduits, causing elevated explosive and puffing activity. This increase (≥0.1 m3 s-1) in magma transport rate in the north-east feeding conduits finally triggers effusion onset. Active degassing remains elevated also during the effusive phase, supporting the persistence of explosive and puffing activity during the effusive eruption, deep in the volcanic conduit. Our results demonstrate that permanent UV cameras can valuably contribute to monitoring at high-sampling frequency gas dynamics and fluxes, thus opening the way to direct comparison with more established geophysical observations.

  18. Laser machining of explosives (United States)

    Perry, Michael D.; Stuart, Brent C.; Banks, Paul S.; Myers, Booth R.; Sefcik, Joseph A.


    The invention consists of a method for machining (cutting, drilling, sculpting) of explosives (e.g., TNT, TATB, PETN, RDX, etc.). By using pulses of a duration in the range of 5 femtoseconds to 50 picoseconds, extremely precise and rapid machining can be achieved with essentially no heat or shock affected zone. In this method, material is removed by a nonthermal mechanism. A combination of multiphoton and collisional ionization creates a critical density plasma in a time scale much shorter than electron kinetic energy is transferred to the lattice. The resulting plasma is far from thermal equilibrium. The material is in essence converted from its initial solid-state directly into a fully ionized plasma on a time scale too short for thermal equilibrium to be established with the lattice. As a result, there is negligible heat conduction beyond the region removed resulting in negligible thermal stress or shock to the material beyond a few microns from the laser machined surface. Hydrodynamic expansion of the plasma eliminates the need for any ancillary techniques to remove material and produces extremely high quality machined surfaces. There is no detonation or deflagration of the explosive in the process and the material which is removed is rendered inert.

  19. Nitrous Oxide Explosive Hazards (United States)


    characteristics. Concerns about pure liquid N2O reaction initiation by “water hammering” and “ bubble collapse” (6) seem unlikely due to liquid N2O being a...interesting observations about behavior of N2O, particularly, interactions when mixed with combustible materials. That is: - Glycerin is used as a...for pure N2O. That is, water hammering and bubble collapse. Liquid N2O compressibility would be a factor when subjected to a water hammer process

  20. Explosives detection for aviation security. (United States)

    Fainberg, A


    The threat of terrorism against commercial aviation has received much attention in the past few years. In response, new ways to detect explosives and to combine techniques based on different phenomena into integrated security systems are being developed to improve aviation security. Several leading methods for explosives and weapons detection are presented.

  1. Introduction to High Explosives Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skidmore, Cary Bradford [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Preston, Daniel N. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    These are a set of slides for educational outreach to children on high explosives science. It gives an introduction to the elements involved in this science: carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen. Combined, these form the molecule HMX. Many pictures are also included to illustrate explosions.

  2. Microbial bioreporters of trace explosives. (United States)

    Shemer, Benjamin; Koshet, Ori; Yagur-Kroll, Sharon; Belkin, Shimshon


    Since its introduction as an explosive in the late 19th century, 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), along with other explosive compounds, has left numerous environmental marks. One of these is widespread soil and water pollution by trace explosives in military proving grounds, manufacturing facilities, or actual battlefields. Another dramatic impact is that exerted by the millions of landmines and other explosive devices buried in large parts of the world, causing extensive loss of life, injuries, and economical damage. In this review we highlight recent advances in the design and construction of microbial bioreporters, molecularly engineered to generate a quantifiable dose-dependent signal in the presence of trace amounts of explosives. Such sensor strains may be employed for monitoring environmental pollution as well as for the remote detection of buried landmines. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Caribbean AIDS explosion examined. (United States)


    Homophobia, sex tourism, infidelity, and poverty are major factors causing a rapid explosion of AIDS and increasingly infecting women in the Caribbean. The region has the second largest incidence of AIDS in the world after Africa. The number of people with the HIV virus is likely greater than 500,000 and could be as high as 700,000, about twice the previously reported figures. Societal norms encourage homosexuals to have heterosexual relationships, and married men to have extramarital affairs, while poverty forces men and women to prostitution, often with tourists. In addition, a survey of 8100 school children in 4 English-speaking Caribbean islands revealed that 42% of the children had experienced sex before the age of 10 years; 62% had experienced it by age 12. This finding may reflect a high rate of child molestation in the region.

  4. Nucleosynthesis in stellar explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woosley, S.E.; Axelrod, T.S.; Weaver, T.A.


    The final evolution and explosion of stars from 10 M/sub solar/ to 10/sup 6/ M/sub solar/ are reviewed with emphasis on factors affecting the expected nucleosynthesis. We order our paper in a sequence of decreasing mass. If, as many suspect, the stellar birth function was peaked towards larger masses at earlier times (see e.g., Silk 1977; but also see Palla, Salpeter, and Stahler 1983), this sequence of masses might also be regarded as a temporal sequence. At each stage of Galactic chemical evolution stars form from the ashes of preceding generations which typically had greater mass. A wide variety of Type I supernova models, most based upon accreting white dwarf stars, are also explored using the expected light curves, spectra, and nucleosynthesis as diagnostics. No clearly favored Type I model emerges that is capable of simultaneously satisfying all three constraints.

  5. Mixing in explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhl, A.L.


    Explosions always contain embedded turbulent mixing regions, for example: boundary layers, shear layers, wall jets, and unstable interfaces. Described here is one particular example of the latter, namely, the turbulent mixing occurring in the fireball of an HE-driven blast wave. The evolution of the turbulent mixing was studied via two-dimensional numerical simulations of the convective mixing processes on an adaptive mesh. Vorticity was generated on the fireball interface by baroclinic effects. The interface was unstable, and rapidly evolved into a turbulent mixing layer. Four phases of mixing were observed: (1) a strong blast wave phase; (2) and implosion phase; (3) a reshocking phase; and (4) an asymptotic mixing phase. The flowfield was azimuthally averaged to evaluate the mean and r.m.s. fluctuation profiles across the mixing layer. The vorticity decayed due to a cascade process. This caused the corresponding enstrophy parameter to increase linearly with time -- in agreement with homogeneous turbulence calculations of G.K. Batchelor.

  6. Hydroelastic behaviour of a structure exposed to an underwater explosion (United States)

    Colicchio, G.; Greco, M.; Brocchini, M.; Faltinsen, O. M.


    The hydroelastic interaction between an underwater explosion and an elastic plate is investigated num- erically through a domain-decomposition strategy. The three-dimensional features of the problem require a large computational effort, which is reduced through a weak coupling between a one-dimensional radial blast solver, which resolves the blast evolution far from the boundaries, and a three-dimensional compressible flow solver used where the interactions between the compression wave and the boundaries take place and the flow becomes three-dimensional. The three-dimensional flow solver at the boundaries is directly coupled with a modal structural solver that models the response of the solid boundaries like elastic plates. This enables one to simulate the fluid–structure interaction as a strong coupling, in order to capture hydroelastic effects. The method has been applied to the experimental case of Hung et al. (2005 Int. J. Impact Eng. 31, 151–168 (doi:10.1016/j.ijimpeng.2003.10.039)) with explosion and structure sufficiently far from other boundaries and successfully validated in terms of the evolution of the acceleration induced on the plate. It was also used to investigate the interaction of an underwater explosion with the bottom of a close-by ship modelled as an orthotropic plate. In the application, the acoustic phase of the fluid–structure interaction is examined, highlighting the need of the fluid–structure coupling to capture correctly the possible inception of cavitation. PMID:25512585

  7. Hydrogen-poor superluminous stellar explosions. (United States)

    Quimby, R M; Kulkarni, S R; Kasliwal, M M; Gal-Yam, A; Arcavi, I; Sullivan, M; Nugent, P; Thomas, R; Howell, D A; Nakar, E; Bildsten, L; Theissen, C; Law, N M; Dekany, R; Rahmer, G; Hale, D; Smith, R; Ofek, E O; Zolkower, J; Velur, V; Walters, R; Henning, J; Bui, K; McKenna, D; Poznanski, D; Cenko, S B; Levitan, D


    Supernovae are stellar explosions driven by gravitational or thermonuclear energy that is observed as electromagnetic radiation emitted over weeks or more. In all known supernovae, this radiation comes from internal energy deposited in the outflowing ejecta by one or more of the following processes: radioactive decay of freshly synthesized elements (typically (56)Ni), the explosion shock in the envelope of a supergiant star, and interaction between the debris and slowly moving, hydrogen-rich circumstellar material. Here we report observations of a class of luminous supernovae whose properties cannot be explained by any of these processes. The class includes four new supernovae that we have discovered and two previously unexplained events (SN 2005ap and SCP 06F6) that we can now identify as members of the same class. These supernovae are all about ten times brighter than most type Ia supernova, do not show any trace of hydrogen, emit significant ultraviolet flux for extended periods of time and have late-time decay rates that are inconsistent with radioactivity. Our data require that the observed radiation be emitted by hydrogen-free material distributed over a large radius (∼10(15) centimetres) and expanding at high speeds (>10(4) kilometres per second). These long-lived, ultraviolet-luminous events can be observed out to redshifts z > 4.

  8. Field Observations of the Effects of Explosives on Snow Properties (United States)

    Wooldridge, R.; Hendrikx, J.; Miller, D. A.; Birkeland, K.


    Explosives are a critically important component of avalanche control programs. They are used to both initiate avalanches and to test snowpack instability by ski areas, highway departments and other avalanche programs around the world. Current understanding of the effects of explosives on snow is mainly limited to shock wave behavior demonstrated through stress wave velocities, pressures and attenuation. This study seeks to enhance current knowledge of how explosives physically alter snow by providing practical, field-based observations and analyses that quantify the effect of explosives on snow density, snow hardness and snow stability test results. Density, hardness and stability test results were evaluated both before and after the application of 0.9 kg cast pentolite boosters as air blasts. Changes in these properties were evaluated at specified distances up to 4 meters (m) from the blast center using a density gauge, hand hardness, Compression Tests (CTs), and Extended Column Tests (ECTs). Statistically significant density increases occurred out to a distance of 1.5 m from the blast center and down to a depth of 60 centimeters (cm). Statistically significant density increases were also observed at the surface (down to 20 cm) out to a distance of 4 m. Hardness increased slightly at the surface and at the bottom of the snowpack (depths of 80-100 cm), while decreasing slightly in the middle of the snowpack (depths of 30-60 cm). Results from CTs showed a decrease in the number of taps needed for column failure in the post explosive tests, while a smaller data set of ECT results showed no overall change in ECT score. The findings of this study provide a better understanding of the physical changes in snow following explosives, which may lead to more effective and efficient avalanche risk mitigation.

  9. Discriminating between explosions and earthquakes (United States)

    Cho, Kwang-Hyun


    Earthquake, explosion, and a nuclear test data are compared with forward modeling and band-pass filtered surface wave amplitude data for exploring methodologies to improve earthquake-explosion discrimination. The proposed discrimination method is based on the solutions of a double integral transformation in the wavenumber and frequency domains. Recorded explosion data on June 26, 2001 (39.212°N, 125.383°E) and October 30, 2001 (38.748°N, 125.267°E), a nuclear test on October 9, 2006 (41.275°N, 129.095°E), and two earthquakes on April 14, 2002 (39.207°N, 125.686°E) and June 7, 2002 (38.703°N, 125.638°E), all in North Korea, are used to discriminate between explosions and earthquakes by seismic wave analysis and numerical modeling. The explosion signal is characterized by first P waves with higher energy than that of S waves. Rg waves are clearly dominant at 0.05-0.5 Hz in the explosion data but not in the earthquake data. This feature is attributed to the dominant P waves in the explosion and their coupling with the SH components.

  10. A Compressive Superresolution Display

    KAUST Repository

    Heide, Felix


    In this paper, we introduce a new compressive display architecture for superresolution image presentation that exploits co-design of the optical device configuration and compressive computation. Our display allows for superresolution, HDR, or glasses-free 3D presentation.

  11. Explosive signatures: Pre & post blast (United States)

    Bernier, Evan Thomas

    Manuscripts 1 and 2 of this dissertation both involve the pre-blast detection of trace explosive material. The first manuscript explores the analysis of human hair as an indicator of exposure to explosives. Field analysis of hair for trace explosives is quick and non-invasive, and could prove to be a powerful linkage to physical evidence in the form of bulk explosive material. Individuals tested were involved in studies which required handling or close proximity to bulk high explosives such as TNT, PETN, and RDX. The second manuscript reports the results of research in the design and application of canine training aids for non-traditional, peroxide-based explosives. Organic peroxides such as triacetonetriperoxide (TATP) and hexamethylenetriperoxidediamine (HMTD) can be synthesized relatively easily with store-bought ingredients and have become popular improvised explosives with many terrorist groups. Due to the hazards of handling such sensitive compounds, this research established methods for preparing training aids which contained safe quantities of TATP and HMTD for use in imprinting canines with their characteristic odor. Manuscripts 3 and 4 of this dissertation focus on research conducted to characterize pipe bombs during and after an explosion (post-blast). Pipe bombs represent a large percentage of domestic devices encountered by law enforcement. The current project has involved the preparation and controlled explosion of over 90 pipe bombs of different configurations in order to obtain data on fragmentation patterns, fragment velocity, blast overpressure, and fragmentation distance. Physical data recorded from the collected fragments, such as mass, size, and thickness, was correlated with the relative power of the initial device. Manuscript 4 explores the microstructural analysis of select pipe bomb fragments. Shock-loading of the pipe steel led to plastic deformation and work hardening in the steel grain structure as evidenced by optical microscopy and

  12. Compressing Binary Decision Diagrams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rune Hansen, Esben; Srinivasa Rao, S.; Tiedemann, Peter

    The paper introduces a new technique for compressing Binary Decision Diagrams in those cases where random access is not required. Using this technique, compression and decompression can be done in linear time in the size of the BDD and compression will in many cases reduce the size of the BDD to 1......-2 bits per node. Empirical results for our compression technique are presented, including comparisons with previously introduced techniques, showing that the new technique dominate on all tested instances....

  13. Compressing Binary Decision Diagrams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Esben Rune; Satti, Srinivasa Rao; Tiedemann, Peter


    The paper introduces a new technique for compressing Binary Decision Diagrams in those cases where random access is not required. Using this technique, compression and decompression can be done in linear time in the size of the BDD and compression will in many cases reduce the size of the BDD to 1......-2 bits per node. Empirical results for our compression technique are presented, including comparisons with previously introduced techniques, showing that the new technique dominate on all tested instances...

  14. Fire and explosion hazards to flora and fauna from explosives. (United States)

    Merrifield, R


    Deliberate or accidental initiation of explosives can produce a range of potentially damaging fire and explosion effects. Quantification of the consequences of such effects upon the surroundings, particularly on people and structures, has always been of paramount importance. Information on the effects on flora and fauna, however, is limited, with probably the weakest area lying with fragmentation of buildings and their effects on different small mammals. Information has been used here to gain an appreciation of the likely magnitude of the potential fire and explosion effects on flora and fauna. This is based on a number of broad assumptions and a variety of data sources including World War II bomb damage, experiments performed with animals 30-40 years ago, and more recent field trials on building break-up under explosive loading.

  15. Hyperspectral data compression

    CERN Document Server

    Motta, Giovanni; Storer, James A


    Provides a survey of results in the field of compression of remote sensed 3D data, with a particular interest in hyperspectral imagery. This work covers topics such as compression architecture, lossless compression, lossy techniques, and more. It also describes a lossless algorithm based on vector quantization.

  16. Testing of Confining Pressure Impacton Explosion Energy of Explosive Materials (United States)

    Drzewiecki, Jan; Myszkowski, Jacek; Pytlik, Andrzej; Pytlik, Mateusz


    This paper presents the results of testing the explosion effects of two explosive charges placed in an environment with specified values of confining pressure. The aim of this study is to determine the impact of variable environmental conditions on the suitability of particular explosives for their use in the prevention of natural hazards in hard coal mining. The research results will contribute to improving the efficiency of currently adopted technologies of natural hazard prevention and aid in raising the level of occupational safety. To carry out the subject matter measurements, a special test stand was constructed which allows the value of the initial pressure inside the chamber, which constitutes its integral part, to be altered before the detonation of the charge being tested. The obtained characteristics of the pressure changes during the explosion of the analysed charge helped to identify the work (energy) which was produced during the process. The test results are a valuable source of information, opening up new possibilities for the use of explosives, the development of innovative solutions for the construction of explosive charges and their initiation.

  17. Onset of the Magnetic Explosion in Solar Polar Coronal X-Ray Jets (United States)

    Moore, Ronald L.; Sterling, Alphonse C.; Panesar, Navdeep


    We examine the onset of the driving magnetic explosion in 15 random polar coronal X-ray jets. Each eruption is observed in a coronal X-ray movie from Hinode and in a coronal EUV movie from Solar Dynamics Observatory. Contrary to the Sterling et al (2015, Nature, 523, 437) scenario for minifilament eruptions that drive polar coronal jets, these observations indicate: (1) in most polar coronal jets (a) the runaway internal tether-cutting reconnection under the erupting minifilament flux rope starts after the spire-producing breakout reconnection starts, not before it, and (b) aleady at eruption onset, there is a current sheet between the explosive closed magnetic field and ambient open field; and (2) the minifilament-eruption magnetic explosion often starts with the breakout reconnection of the outside of the magnetic arcade that carries the minifilament in its core. On the other hand, the diversity of the observed sequences of occurrence of events in the jet eruptions gives further credence to the Sterlling et al (2015, Nature, 523, 437) idea that the magnetic explosions that make a polar X-ray jet work the same way as the much larger magnetic explosions that make and flare and CME. We point out that this idea, and recent observations indicating that magnetic flux cancelation is the fundamental process that builds the field in and around pre-jet minifilaments and triggers the jet-driving magnetic explosion, together imply that usually flux cancelation inside the arcade that explodes in a flare/CME eruption is the fundamental process that builds the explosive field and triggers the explosion.This work was funded by the Heliophysics Division of NASA's Science Mission Directorate through its Living With a Star Targeted Research and Technology Program, its Heliophsyics Guest Investigators Program, and the Hinode Project.

  18. [Causation, prevention and treatment of dust explosion]. (United States)

    Dong, Maolong; Jia, Wenbin; Wang, Hongtao; Han, Fei; Li, Xiao-Qiang; Hu, Dahai


    With the development of industrial technology, dust explosion accidents have increased, causing serious losses of people's lives and property. With the development of economy, we should lay further emphasis on causation, prevention, and treatment of dust explosion. This article summarizes the background, mechanism, prevention, and treatment of dust explosion, which may provide some professional knowledge and reference for the treatment of dust explosion.

  19. Explosives mimic for testing, training, and monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, John G.; Durban, Matthew M.; Gash, Alexander E.; Grapes, Michael D.; Kelley, Ryan S.; Sullivan, Kyle T.


    Additive Manufacturing (AM) is used to make mimics for explosives. The process uses mixtures of explosives and matrices commonly used in AM. The explosives are formulated into a mixture with the matrix and printed using AM techniques and equipment. The explosive concentrations are kept less than 10% by wt. of the mixture to conform to requirements of shipping and handling.

  20. Microglass spheres in ammonium nitrate explosives


    Y. Kazakov; G. Turesheva; Olga Golovchenko; N. Bergeneva; R. Seisembayev


    Developed consisting the explosive ammonium nitrate, paraffin and mikrosteklosfer. Due to the input of the explosive paraffin increased water resistance of explosives to 60 minutes. By entering into the explosive mikrosteklosfers been improved caking indices, since steklomikrosfers and paraffin was formed seal between the granules of ammonium nitrate.

  1. Microglass spheres in ammonium nitrate explosives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Kazakov


    Full Text Available Developed consisting the explosive ammonium nitrate, paraffin and mikrosteklosfer. Due to the input of the explosive paraffin increased water resistance of explosives to 60 minutes. By entering into the explosive mikrosteklosfers been improved caking indices, since steklomikrosfers and paraffin was formed seal between the granules of ammonium nitrate.

  2. Properties and Behavior of Geopolymer Concrete Subjected to Explosive Air Blast Loading: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Mortar Nurul Aida


    Full Text Available The severe damage to civilian buildings, public area, jet aircraft impact and defense target under explosive blast loading can cause a huge property loss. Most of researcher discusses the topics on design the concrete material model to sustain againts the explosive detonation. The implementation of modern reinforcement steels and fibres in ordinary Portland cement (OPC concrete matrix can reduce the extreme loading effects. However, most researchers have proved that geopolymer concrete (GPC has better mechanical properties towards high performance concrete, compared to OPC. GPC has the high early compressive strength and high ability to resist the thermal energy from explosive detonation. In addition, OPC production is less environmental friendly than geopolymer cement. Geopolymer used can lead to environmental protection besides being improved in mechanical properties. Thus, this paper highlighted on an experimental, numerical and the analytical studies cause of the explosive detonation impact to concrete structures.

  3. Explosively Generated Plasmas: Measurement and Models of Shock Generation and Material Interactions (United States)

    Emery, Samuel; Elert, Mark; Giannuzzi, Paul; Le, Ryan; McCarthy, Daniel; Schweigert, Igor


    Explosively generated plasmas (EGPs) are created by the focusing of a shock produced from an explosive driver via a conical waveguide. In the waveguide, the gases from the explosive along with the trapped air are accelerated and compressed (via Mach stemming) to such extent that plasma is produced. These EGPs have been measured in controlled experiments to achieve temperatures on the order of 1 eV and velocities as high as 25 km/s. We have conducted a combined modeling and measurement effort to increase the understanding for design purposes of the shock generation of EGPs and the interaction of EGP with explosive materials. Such efforts have led to improved measures of pressure and temperature, spatial structure of the plasma, and the decomposition/deflagration behavior of RDX upon exposure to an EGP. Funding provided by the Environmental Security Technology Certification Program (ESTCP) Munitions Response program area.

  4. Suppression of stratified explosive interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meeks, M.K.; Shamoun, B.I.; Bonazza, R.; Corradini, M.L. [Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering and Engineering Physics


    Stratified Fuel-Coolant Interaction (FCI) experiments with Refrigerant-134a and water were performed in a large-scale system. Air was uniformly injected into the coolant pool to establish a pre-existing void which could suppress the explosion. Two competing effects due to the variation of the air flow rate seem to influence the intensity of the explosion in this geometrical configuration. At low flow rates, although the injected air increases the void fraction, the concurrent agitation and mixing increases the intensity of the interaction. At higher flow rates, the increase in void fraction tends to attenuate the propagated pressure wave generated by the explosion. Experimental results show a complete suppression of the vapor explosion at high rates of air injection, corresponding to an average void fraction of larger than 30%. (author)

  5. Explosive Blast Neuropathology and Seizures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Krisztian eKovacs


    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI due to explosive blast exposure is a leading combat casualty. It is also implicated as a key contributor to war related mental health diseases. A clinically important consequence of all types of TBI is a high risk for development of seizures and epilepsy. Seizures have been reported in patients who have suffered blast injuries in the Global War on Terror but the exact prevalence is unknown. The occurrence of seizures supports the contention that explosive blast leads to both cellular and structural brain pathology. Unfortunately, the exact mechanism by which explosions cause brain injury is unclear, which complicates development of meaningful therapies and mitigation strategies. To help improve understanding, detailed neuropathological analysis is needed. For this, histopathological techniques are extremely valuable and indispensable. In the following we will review the pathological results, including those from immunohistochemical and special staining approaches, from recent preclinical explosive blast studies.

  6. Causes of the Cambrian Explosion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    M. Paul Smith; David A. T. Harper


    .... Recent hypotheses for the Cambrian explosion fall into three main categories: developmental/genetic, ecologic, and abiotic/environmental, with geochemical hypotheses forming an abundant and distinctive subset of the last...

  7. Furball Explosive Breakout Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll, Joshua David [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    For more than 30 years the Onionskin test has been the primary way to study the surface breakout of a detonation wave. Currently the Onionskin test allows for only a small, one dimensional, slice of the explosive in question to be observed. Asymmetrical features are not observable with the Onionskin test and its one dimensional view. As a result, in 2011, preliminary designs for the Hairball and Furball were developed then tested. The Hairball used shorting pins connected to an oscilloscope to determine the arrival time at 24 discrete points. This limited number of data points, caused by the limited number of oscilloscope channels, ultimately led to the Hairball’s demise. Following this, the Furball was developed to increase the number of data points collected. Instead of shorting pins the Furball uses fiber optics imaged by a streak camera to determine the detonation wave arrival time for each point. The original design was able to capture the detonation wave’s arrival time at 205 discrete points with the ability to increase the number of data points if necessary.

  8. Lidar Detection of Explosives Traces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobrovnikov Sergei M.


    Full Text Available The possibility of remote detection of traces of explosives using laser fragmentation/laser-induced fluorescence (LF/LIF is studied. Experimental data on the remote visualization of traces of trinitrotoluene (TNT, hexogen (RDX, trotyl-hexogen (Comp B, octogen (HMX, and tetryl with a scanning lidar detector of traces of nitrogen-containing explosives at a distance of 5 m are presented.

  9. Intraperitoneal explosion following gastric perforation. (United States)

    Mansfield, Scott K; Borrowdale, Roderick


    The object of this study is to report a rare case of explosion during laparotomy where diathermy ignited intraperitoneal gas from a spontaneous stomach perforation. Fortunately, the patient survived but the surgeon experienced a finger burn. A literature review demonstrates other examples of intraoperative explosion where gastrointestinal gases were the fuel source. Lessons learned from these cases provide recommendations to prevent this potentially lethal event from occurring. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Intraperitoneal explosion following gastric perforation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott K. Mansfield


    Full Text Available The object of this study is to report a rare case of explosion during laparotomy where diathermy ignited intraperitoneal gas from a spontaneous stomach perforation. Fortunately, the patient survived but the surgeon experienced a finger burn. A literature review demonstrates other examples of intraoperative explosion where gastrointestinal gases were the fuel source. Lessons learned from these cases provide recommendations to prevent this potentially lethal event from occurring.

  11. exLOPA for explosion risks assessment. (United States)

    Markowski, Adam S


    The European Union regulations require safety and health protection of workers who are potentially at risk from explosive atmosphere areas. According to the requirements, the operators of installations where potentially explosive atmosphere can occur are obliged to produce an explosion protection document. The key objective of this document is the assessment of explosion risks. This paper is concerned with the so-called explosion layer of protection analysis (exLOPA), which allows for semi-quantitative explosion risk assessment for process plants where explosive atmospheres occur. The exLOPA is based on the original work of CCPS for LOPA but takes into account some typical factors appropriate for explosion, like the probability that an explosive atmosphere will occur, probability that sources of ignition will be present and become effective as well as the probability of failure on demand for appropriate explosion prevention and mitigation means.

  12. Approximate String Matching with Compressed Indexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Morales


    Full Text Available A compressed full-text self-index for a text T is a data structure requiring reduced space and able to search for patterns P in T. It can also reproduce any substring of T, thus actually replacing T. Despite the recent explosion of interest on compressed indexes, there has not been much progress on functionalities beyond the basic exact search. In this paper we focus on indexed approximate string matching (ASM, which is of great interest, say, in bioinformatics. We study ASM algorithms for Lempel-Ziv compressed indexes and for compressed suffix trees/arrays. Most compressed self-indexes belong to one of these classes. We start by adapting the classical method of partitioning into exact search to self-indexes, and optimize it over a representative of either class of self-index. Then, we show that a Lempel- Ziv index can be seen as an extension of the classical q-samples index. We give new insights on this type of index, which can be of independent interest, and then apply them to a Lempel- Ziv index. Finally, we improve hierarchical verification, a successful technique for sequential searching, so as to extend the matches of pattern pieces to the left or right. Most compressed suffix trees/arrays support the required bidirectionality, thus enabling the implementation of the improved technique. In turn, the improved verification largely reduces the accesses to the text, which are expensive in self-indexes. We show experimentally that our algorithms are competitive and provide useful space-time tradeoffs compared to classical indexes.

  13. The Quiet Explosion (United States)


    A European-led team of astronomers are providing hints that a recent supernova may not be as normal as initially thought. Instead, the star that exploded is now understood to have collapsed into a black hole, producing a weak jet, typical of much more violent events, the so-called gamma-ray bursts. The object, SN 2008D, is thus probably among the weakest explosions that produce very fast moving jets. This discovery represents a crucial milestone in the understanding of the most violent phenomena observed in the Universe. Black Hole ESO PR Photo 23a/08 A Galaxy and two Supernovae These striking results, partly based on observations with ESO's Very Large Telescope, will appear tomorrow in Science Express, the online version of Science. Stars that were at birth more massive than about 8 times the mass of our Sun end their relatively short life in a cosmic, cataclysmic firework lighting up the Universe. The outcome is the formation of the densest objects that exist, neutron stars and black holes. When exploding, some of the most massive stars emit a short cry of agony, in the form of a burst of very energetic light, X- or gamma-rays. In the early afternoon (in Europe) of 9 January 2008, the NASA/STFC/ASI Swift telescope discovered serendipitously a 5-minute long burst of X-rays coming from within the spiral galaxy NGC 2770, located 90 million light-years away towards the Lynx constellation. The Swift satellite was studying a supernova that had exploded the previous year in the same galaxy, but the burst of X-rays came from another location, and was soon shown to arise from a different supernova, named SN 2008D. Researchers at the Italian National Institute for Astrophysics (INAF), the Max-Planck Institute for Astrophysics (MPA), ESO, and at various other institutions have observed the supernova at great length. The team is led by Paolo Mazzali of INAF's Padova Observatory and MPA. "What made this event very interesting," says Mazzali, "is that the X-ray signal was very

  14. Propagation of a spherical shock wave in mixture of non-ideal gas and small solid particles under gravitational field with conductive and radiative heat fluxes (United States)

    Nath, Gorakh

    compressibility of the medium, due to which it is compressed and therefore the distance between the piston and the shock surface is reduced. The shock waves in dusty gas under a gravitational field can be important for description of shocks in supernova explosions, in the study of central part of star burst galaxies, nuclear explosion, star formation in shocks, shocks in supernova explosions and shocks in stellar explosion, rupture of a pressurized vessels and explosion in the ionosphere etc. A comparison is made between the solutions in the cases of the gravitating and the non-gravitating medium.

  15. Critical flux determination by flux-stepping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beier, Søren; Jonsson, Gunnar Eigil


    In membrane filtration related scientific literature, often step-by-step determined critical fluxes are reported. Using a dynamic microfiltration device, it is shown that critical fluxes determined from two different flux-stepping methods are dependent upon operational parameters such as step...... length, step height, and.flux start level. Filtrating 8 kg/m(3) yeast cell suspensions by a vibrating 0.45 x 10(-6) m pore size microfiltration hollow fiber module, critical fluxes from 5.6 x 10(-6) to 1.2 x 10(-5) m/s have been measured using various step lengths from 300 to 1200 seconds. Thus...

  16. Molecular Outflows: Explosive versus Protostellar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zapata, Luis A.; Rodríguez, Luis F.; Palau, Aina; Loinard, Laurent [Instituto de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, UNAM, Apdo. Postal 3-72 (Xangari), 58089 Morelia, Michoacán, México (Mexico); Schmid-Burgk, Johannes [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121, Bonn (Germany)


    With the recent recognition of a second, distinctive class of molecular outflows, namely the explosive ones not directly connected to the accretion–ejection process in star formation, a juxtaposition of the morphological and kinematic properties of both classes is warranted. By applying the same method used in Zapata et al., and using {sup 12}CO( J = 2-1) archival data from the Submillimeter Array, we contrast two well-known explosive objects, Orion KL and DR21, to HH 211 and DG Tau B, two flows representative of classical low-mass protostellar outflows. At the moment, there are only two well-established cases of explosive outflows, but with the full availability of ALMA we expect that more examples will be found in the near future. The main results are the largely different spatial distributions of the explosive flows, consisting of numerous narrow straight filament-like ejections with different orientations and in almost an isotropic configuration, the redshifted with respect to the blueshifted components of the flows (maximally separated in protostellar, largely overlapping in explosive outflows), the very-well-defined Hubble flow-like increase of velocity with distance from the origin in the explosive filaments versus the mostly non-organized CO velocity field in protostellar objects, and huge inequalities in mass, momentum, and energy of the two classes, at least for the case of low-mass flows. Finally, all the molecular filaments in the explosive outflows point back to approximately a central position (i.e., the place where its “exciting source” was located), contrary to the bulk of the molecular material within the protostellar outflows.

  17. Suprathermal Charged Particle Acceleration by Small-scale Flux Ropes. (United States)

    Zank, G. P.; le Roux, J. A.; Webb, G. M.


    We consider different limits of our recently developed kinetic transport theory to investigate the potential of super-Alvenic solar wind regions containing several small-scale flux ropes to explain the acceleration of suprathermal ions to power-law spectra as observations show. Particle acceleration is modeled in response to flux-rope activity involving contraction, merging (reconnection), and collisions in the limit where the particle gyoradius is smaller than the characteristic flux-rope scale length. The emphasis is mainly on the statistical variance in the electric fields induced by flux-rope dynamics rather than on the mean electric field induced by multiple flux ropes whose acceleration effects are discussed elsewhere. Our steady-state analytical solutions suggest that particle drift acceleration by flux ropes, irrespective of whether displaying incompressible or compressible behavior, can yield power laws asymptotically at higher energies whereas an exponential spectral rollover results asymptotically when field-aligned guiding center motion acceleration occur by reconnection electric fields from merging flux ropes. This implies that at sufficiently high particle energies, drift acceleration might dominate. We also expect compressive flux ropes to yield harder power-law spectra than incompressible flux ropes. Preliminary results will be discussed to illustrate how particle acceleration might be affected when both diffusive shock and small-scale flux acceleration occur simultaneously at interplanetary shocks.

  18. Shock compression of water and solutions of ammonium nitrate


    Morley, Michael James


    Modern mining explosives employ solutions of ammonium nitrate, where the solution is the oxidising component of a fuel/oxidiser mixture. This thesis is primarily concerned with the shock response of water and of aqueous solutions of ammonium nitrate. Of particular interest are the temperatures induced through shock compression. An experimental facility, using a single stage gas gun in the ‘plate impact’ configuration, is described, along with associated experimental diagnostics. Measurements ...

  19. Celiac Artery Compression Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Muqeetadnan


    Full Text Available Celiac artery compression syndrome is a rare disorder characterized by episodic abdominal pain and weight loss. It is the result of external compression of celiac artery by the median arcuate ligament. We present a case of celiac artery compression syndrome in a 57-year-old male with severe postprandial abdominal pain and 30-pound weight loss. The patient eventually responded well to surgical division of the median arcuate ligament by laparoscopy.

  20. Wavelet image compression

    CERN Document Server

    Pearlman, William A


    This book explains the stages necessary to create a wavelet compression system for images and describes state-of-the-art systems used in image compression standards and current research. It starts with a high level discussion of the properties of the wavelet transform, especially the decomposition into multi-resolution subbands. It continues with an exposition of the null-zone, uniform quantization used in most subband coding systems and the optimal allocation of bitrate to the different subbands. Then the image compression systems of the FBI Fingerprint Compression Standard and the JPEG2000 S

  1. Compressed sensing & sparse filtering

    CERN Document Server

    Carmi, Avishy Y; Godsill, Simon J


    This book is aimed at presenting concepts, methods and algorithms ableto cope with undersampled and limited data. One such trend that recently gained popularity and to some extent revolutionised signal processing is compressed sensing. Compressed sensing builds upon the observation that many signals in nature are nearly sparse (or compressible, as they are normally referred to) in some domain, and consequently they can be reconstructed to within high accuracy from far fewer observations than traditionally held to be necessary. Apart from compressed sensing this book contains other related app

  2. The concurrence of atmospheric rivers and explosive cyclogenesis in the North Atlantic and North Pacific basins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Eiras-Barca


    Full Text Available The explosive cyclogenesis of extratropical cyclones and the occurrence of atmospheric rivers are characteristic features of a baroclinic atmosphere, and are both closely related to extreme hydrometeorological events in the mid-latitudes, particularly on coastal areas on the western side of the continents. The potential role of atmospheric rivers in the explosive cyclone deepening has been previously analysed for selected case studies, but a general assessment from the climatological perspective is still missing. Using ERA-Interim reanalysis data for 1979–2011, we analyse the concurrence of atmospheric rivers and explosive cyclogenesis over the North Atlantic and North Pacific basins for the extended winter months (ONDJFM. Atmospheric rivers are identified for almost 80 % of explosive deepening cyclones. For non-explosive cyclones, atmospheric rivers are found only in roughly 40 % of the cases. The analysis of the time evolution of the high values of water vapour flux associated with the atmospheric river during the cyclone development phase leads us to hypothesize that the identified relationship is the fingerprint of a mechanism that raises the odds of an explosive cyclogenesis occurrence and not merely a statistical relationship. These new insights on the relationship between explosive cyclones and atmospheric rivers may be helpful to a better understanding of the associated high-impact weather events.

  3. Compressible dynamic stall vorticity flux control using a dynamic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    be thought of as arising from the rapidly changing strong pressure gradient near the leading edge due to its unsteady motion. Thus, even though the vorticity is produced by the unsteady surface motion, it appears that its subsequent convection through the boundary layer over the airfoil upper surface can only be managed ...

  4. Hydrodynamic Liner Experiments Using the Ranchero Flux Compression Generator System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goforth, J.H.; Atchison, W.L.; Fowler, C.M.; Lopez, E.A.; Oona, H.; Tasker, D.G.; King, J.C.; Herrera, D.H.; Torres, D.T.; Sena, F.C.; McGuire, J.A.; Reinovsky, R.E.; Stokes, J.L.; Tabaka, L.J.; Garcia, O.F.; Faehl, R.J.; Lindemuth, I.R.; Keinigs, R.K.; Broste, B.


    The authors have developed a system for driving hydrodynamic liners at currents approaching 30 MA. Their 43 cm module will deliver currents of interest, and when fully developed, the 1.4 m module will allow similar currents with more total system inductance. With these systems they can perform interesting physics experiments and support the Atlas development effort.

  5. Thickened aqueous slurry explosive composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craig, J.F.M.; Matts, T.C.; Seto, P.F.L.


    A thickened slurry explosive composition consists of water, inorganic oxidizing salt, fuel, and thickener wherein the thickener is a mixture of an unmodified guar gum and a hydroxypropyl-modified guar gum. The thickener mixture improves the stability and rheologic properties of the explosive. The preferred thickener mixture contains from 15 to 85% by weight of unmodified guar to 15 to 85% by weight of hydroxypropyl-modified guar and the composition preferably comprises 0.2% to 2.0% by weight of the thickener mixture. The thickener mixture is especially effective in explosive compositions sensitized with gas bubbles or with water-soluble organic nitrate for example, ethylene glycol mononitrate, propylene glycol mononitrate, ethanolamine nitrate, propanolamine nitrate, methylamine nitrate, ethylamine nitrate, ethylenediamine dinitrate, urea nitrate, or aniline nitrate. 14 claims.

  6. Optimal dynamic detection of explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, David Steven [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mcgrane, Shawn D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Greenfield, Margo T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Scharff, R J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rabitz, Herschel A [PRINCETON UNIV; Roslund, J [PRINCETON UNIV


    The detection of explosives is a notoriously difficult problem, especially at stand-off distances, due to their (generally) low vapor pressure, environmental and matrix interferences, and packaging. We are exploring optimal dynamic detection to exploit the best capabilities of recent advances in laser technology and recent discoveries in optimal shaping of laser pulses for control of molecular processes to significantly enhance the standoff detection of explosives. The core of the ODD-Ex technique is the introduction of optimally shaped laser pulses to simultaneously enhance sensitivity of explosives signatures while reducing the influence of noise and the signals from background interferents in the field (increase selectivity). These goals are being addressed by operating in an optimal nonlinear fashion, typically with a single shaped laser pulse inherently containing within it coherently locked control and probe sub-pulses. With sufficient bandwidth, the technique is capable of intrinsically providing orthogonal broad spectral information for data fusion, all from a single optimal pulse.

  7. Similarity solution for the flow behind a shock wave in a non-ideal gas with heat conduction and radiation heat-flux in magnetogasdynamics (United States)

    Nath, G.; Vishwakarma, J. P.


    The propagation of a spherical (or cylindrical) shock wave in a non-ideal gas with heat conduction and radiation heat-flux, in the presence of a spacially decreasing azimuthal magnetic field, driven out by a moving piston is investigated. The heat conduction is expressed in terms of Fourier's law and the radiation is considered to be of the diffusion type for an optically thick grey gas model. The thermal conductivity K and the absorption coefficient αR are assumed to vary with temperature and density. The gas is assumed to have infinite electrical conductivity and to obey a simplified van der Waals equation of state. The shock wave moves with variable velocity and the total energy of the wave is non-constant. Similarity solutions are obtained for the flow-field behind the shock and the effects of variation of the heat transfer parameters, the parameter of the non-idealness of the gas, both, decreases the compressibility of the gas and hence there is a decrease in the shock strength. Further, it is investigated that with an increase in the parameters of radiative and conductive heat transfer the tendency of formation of maxima in the distributions of heat flux, density and isothermal speed of sound decreases. The pressure and density vanish at the inner surface (piston) and hence a vacuum is form at the center of symmetry. The shock waves in conducting non-ideal gas with conductive and radiative heat fluxes can be important for description of shocks in supernova explosions, in the study of central part of star burst galaxies, nuclear explosion, chemical detonation, rupture of a pressurized vessels, in the analysis of data from exploding wire experiments, and cylindrically symmetric hypersonic flow problems associated with meteors or reentry vehicles, etc. The findings of the present works provided a clear picture of whether and how the non-idealness parameter, conductive and radiative heat transfer parameters and the magnetic field affect the flow behind the shock

  8. Temperature measurementin gaseous and liquid reacting media in the case of their shock compression (United States)

    Pai, V. V.; Gulevich, M. A.; Yakovlev, I. V.; Lysak, V. I.; Kuz'min, S. V.; Khaustov, S. V.


    This paper describes the results of measuring the temperatures of gaseous and liquid reacting media, which was carried out by the thermocouple method with the use of a battery (copper-Constantan-copper) of planar thermocouples, placed in the medium under study. It is shown that convective heat transfer lasting for 0.5-1.5 μs equalizes the temperatures of the "hot" thermocouple junctions and the environment. The relationship between the voltage occurring on the thermobattery during this heating and time was determined using a pulse oscilloscope. The measured maximum voltage was used to determine the temperature of the medium. A series of experiments was carried out on measuring the temperatures of water and emulsion explosive matrix, which were compressed by a shock wave, as well as the detonation products of ammonite with sodium hydrogen carbonate at various mass ratios. The estimates of heat fluxes from the detonation products to the metallic surfaces of the thermobattery contacting with them are obtained.

  9. Experiments in gasdynamics of explosions. (United States)

    Oppenheim, A. K.; Soloukhin, R. I.


    Various topics concerning recent accomplishments in experimental studies of gasdynamics of explosions are reviewed. Detonations, shocks, and blast waves form these topics. The most important feature of current studies is the particular attention paid to transient processes and the concomitant progress made in the development of novel experimental means for the study of such processes. The most exciting prospects for the future are associated with possibilities of exploiting knowledge of explosion phenomena for the development of such interesting devices as the gasdynamic laser and the apparatus based on the use of lasers to achieve controlled thermonuclear reaction.

  10. Intravesical explosion during transurethral electrosurgery. (United States)

    Georgios, Kallinikas; Evangelos, Boulinakis; Helai, Habib; Ioannis, Gerzelis


    Intravesical explosion is a very rare complication of transurethral resection of prostate and transurethral resection of bladder tumour operations. In vitro studies have shown that the gases produced during the procedure could result in a blast once they are mixed with air from the atmosphere. A 79-year-old male experienced an explosion in his bladder while undergoing a transurethral resection of bladder tumour. The case is presented as well as the way that it was treated as an emergency. Precautions of such events are finally suggested. © The Author(s) 2015 Reprints and permissions:

  11. Tree compression with top trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li; Landau, Gad M.


    We introduce a new compression scheme for labeled trees based on top trees. Our compression scheme is the first to simultaneously take advantage of internal repeats in the tree (as opposed to the classical DAG compression that only exploits rooted subtree repeats) while also supporting fast...... navigational queries directly on the compressed representation. We show that the new compression scheme achieves close to optimal worst-case compression, can compress exponentially better than DAG compression, is never much worse than DAG compression, and supports navigational queries in logarithmic time....

  12. Tree compression with top trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li; Landau, Gad M.


    We introduce a new compression scheme for labeled trees based on top trees [3]. Our compression scheme is the first to simultaneously take advantage of internal repeats in the tree (as opposed to the classical DAG compression that only exploits rooted subtree repeats) while also supporting fast...... navigational queries directly on the compressed representation. We show that the new compression scheme achieves close to optimal worst-case compression, can compress exponentially better than DAG compression, is never much worse than DAG compression, and supports navigational queries in logarithmic time....

  13. Anisotropic Concrete Compressive Strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustenhoff Hansen, Søren; Jørgensen, Henrik Brøner; Hoang, Linh Cao


    When the load carrying capacity of existing concrete structures is (re-)assessed it is often based on compressive strength of cores drilled out from the structure. Existing studies show that the core compressive strength is anisotropic; i.e. it depends on whether the cores are drilled parallel...

  14. Experiments with automata compression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daciuk, J.; Yu, S; Daley, M; Eramian, M G


    Several compression methods of finite-state automata are presented and evaluated. Most compression methods used here are already described in the literature. However, their impact on the size of automata has not been described yet. We fill that gap, presenting results of experiments carried out on

  15. Deformation and shock consolidation of various sands under explosive loading (United States)

    Weckert, S. A.; Resnyansky, A. D.


    Transmission of a shock wave through various geological materials is important in military applications, for assessing the effects from a buried explosive device to an above-ground target. The composition of a real soil is complex and involves multiple constituents that undergo a number of physical and mechanical transformations during the shock loading. The present study analyzes several model soils represented by limestone sand, silica sand, and a small aggregate soil. The soils are compressed using two different steel encapsulation assemblies subject to explosive compression. These set-ups attempt to vary the level of applied load to the encapsulated soil and the length of the high-temperature effects. The assemblies are instrumented with embedded manganin gauges within the encapsulation casing for comparative analysis of the waves propagating through the soil and steel encapsulation. A comparative analysis of the recovered soil samples, including a microstructural analysis focusing on the grain breakage, soil compaction and consolidation, is correlated with a CTH numerical analysis employing a multi-phase rate sensitive material model.

  16. Short-pulse shock initiation of granular explosives. [PBX-9404

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Setchell, R. E.


    An experimental investigation has examined how different rates of unloading affect the release of chemical energy in a granular explosive experiencing transient shock compression. A compressed-gas gun was used to generate two types of short-pulse shocks in the explosive PBX-9404. A shock pressure of 3.2 GPa sustained for 0.37 was produced in both cases, but differences in flyer-plate properties resulted in different unloading histories. In one case the impact interface was rapidly unloaded by the initial release wave, while in the second case the unloading required multiple release waves over several microseconds. A VISAR system was used to observe the evolution of these two waves for distances up to 10 mm. The recorded waveforms showed that the unloading rates had a dominant effect on chemical energy release and growth towards detonation. This effect is important for considerations of critical impact criteria, and should provide a strong test for predictive shock-initiation models.

  17. HERMES: A Model to Describe Deformation, Burning, Explosion, and Detonation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reaugh, J E


    HERMES (High Explosive Response to MEchanical Stimulus) was developed to fill the need for a model to describe an explosive response of the type described as BVR (Burn to Violent Response) or HEVR (High Explosive Violent Response). Characteristically this response leaves a substantial amount of explosive unconsumed, the time to reaction is long, and the peak pressure developed is low. In contrast, detonations characteristically consume all explosive present, the time to reaction is short, and peak pressures are high. However, most of the previous models to describe explosive response were models for detonation. The earliest models to describe the response of explosives to mechanical stimulus in computer simulations were applied to intentional detonation (performance) of nearly ideal explosives. In this case, an ideal explosive is one with a vanishingly small reaction zone. A detonation is supersonic with respect to the undetonated explosive (reactant). The reactant cannot respond to the pressure of the detonation before the detonation front arrives, so the precise compressibility of the reactant does not matter. Further, the mesh sizes that were practical for the computer resources then available were large with respect to the reaction zone. As a result, methods then used to model detonations, known as {beta}-burn or program burn, were not intended to resolve the structure of the reaction zone. Instead, these methods spread the detonation front over a few finite-difference zones, in the same spirit that artificial viscosity is used to spread the shock front in inert materials over a few finite-difference zones. These methods are still widely used when the structure of the reaction zone and the build-up to detonation are unimportant. Later detonation models resolved the reaction zone. These models were applied both to performance, particularly as it is affected by the size of the charge, and to situations in which the stimulus was less than that needed for reliable

  18. Pulmonary contusion and hemothorax due to explosion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Baeza-Herrera, Carlos; Sanjuán-Fabián, Héctor; Medellín-Sierra, Ulises Darío; Nájera-Garduño, Heladio; García-Cabello, Luis Manuel


    .... Such is the case of gunpowder explosive objects used during celebration holidays. We present a 14-year-old male who suffered a pulmonary contusion as a consequence of an explosion of "huevo de codorniz...

  19. Cylindrical isentropic compression by ultrahigh magnetic field (United States)

    Gu, Zhuowei; Luo, Hao; Zhang, Hengdi; Zhao, Shichao; Tang, Xiaosong; Tong, Yanjin; Song, Zhenfei; Tan, Fuli; Zhao, Jianheng; Sun, Chengwei


    The cylindrical isentropic compression by ultrahigh magnetic field (MC-1) is a kind of unique high energy density technique. It has characters like ultrahigh pressure and low temperature rising, and would have widely used in areas like high pressure physics, new material synthesis and ultrahigh magnetic field physics. The Institute of Fluid Physics, Chinese Academy of Engineering Physics (IFP, CAEP) has begun the experiment since 2011 and a primary experimental device had been set-up. In the experiments, a seed magnetic field of 5 Tesla were set-up first and compressed by a stainless steel liner which is driven by high explosive initiated synchronously. The internal diameter of the liner is 97 mm, and its thickness is 1.5 mm. The movement of liner was recorded optically and a typical turnaround phenomenon was observed. From the photography results the liner was compressed smoothly and evenly and its average velocity was about 5-6 km/s. In the experiment a axial magnetic field of over 1400 Tesla has been recorded. The MC-1 process was numerical simulated by 1D MHD code MC11D and the simulations are in accord with the experiments.

  20. Experimental Investigations of Multiphase Explosions (United States)

    Carney, Joel R.; Lightstone, James M.; McGrath, Thomas P.


    The addition of solid fuel particles to explosive formulations generally reduces the detonation velocity, but can enhance the blast performance if prompt combustion of the particles occurs in the detonation products and surrounding air early enough to support the shock. The degree to which fuel particles burn heavily depends on their dispersal throughout the explosion field and access to oxidizers. To distinguish the factors affecting the dispersal of fuel particles from those controlling their combustion, we began by analyzing the dispersal of equivalent mock inert particles. Solid glass spheres embedded in detonating small explosive charges were tracked using high-speed digital shadowgraphy. Two different particle sizes, 3 and 30 μm, and different mass fractions in the explosive compositions were considered. Shadowgraphs and pressure measurements were compared to the predictions of a newly developed multiphase numerical model. Reactive aluminum particles in the range of 1 to 120 μm in diameter were also analyzed. During the first 50 μs of the expansion, the general trend for both reactive and inert particles is for the smaller particles to expand near or beyond the leading shock wave to a greater extent than the larger particles. Expansion beyond the initial shock from the detonation is presumed to occur when particles agglomerate. The results are consistent with the predictions of the numerical models, highlighting the role of simple factors such as particle size and density in the early time expansion and mixing of fuels for enhanced blast applications.

  1. Explosive micro-bubble actuator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, D.M.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt


    Explosive evaporation occurs when a thin layer of liquid reaches a very high temperature in a very short time. At these temperatures homogeneous nucleation takes place. The nucleated bubbles almost instantly coalesce forming a vapour film followed by rapid growth due to the pressure impulse and

  2. Risperidone and Explosive Aggressive Autism. (United States)

    Horrigan, Joseph P.; Barnhill, L. Jarrett


    In this study, 11 males with autism and mental retardation were administered risperidone. Substantial clinical improvement was noted almost immediately; patients with aggression, self-injury, explosivity, and poor sleep hygiene were most improved. The modal dose for optimal response was 0.5 mg bid. Weight gain was a significant side effect.…

  3. Lead-free primary explosives (United States)

    Huynh, My Hang V.


    Lead-free primary explosives of the formula (cat).sub.Y[M.sup.II(T).sub.X(H.sub.2O).sub.6-X].sub.Z, where T is 5-nitrotetrazolate, and syntheses thereof are described. Substantially stoichiometric equivalents of the reactants lead to high yields of pure compositions thereby avoiding dangerous purification steps.

  4. The Core-Collapse Supernova Explosion Mechanism (United States)

    Müller, Bernhard


    The explosion mechanism of core-collapse supernovae is a long-standing problem in stellar astrophysics. We briefly outline the main contenders for a solution and review recent efforts to model core-collapse supernova explosions by means of multi-dimensional simulations. Focusing on the neutrino-driven mechanism, we summarize currents efforts to predict supernova explosion and remnant properties.

  5. 30 CFR 7.100 - Explosion tests. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Explosion tests. 7.100 Section 7.100 Mineral... Underground Coal Mines Where Permissible Electric Equipment is Required § 7.100 Explosion tests. (a) Test... agree. (ii) Remove all parts that do not contribute to the operation or ensure the explosion-proof...

  6. Flux-P: Automating Metabolic Flux Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgitta E. Ebert


    Full Text Available Quantitative knowledge of intracellular fluxes in metabolic networks is invaluable for inferring metabolic system behavior and the design principles of biological systems. However, intracellular reaction rates can not often be calculated directly but have to be estimated; for instance, via 13C-based metabolic flux analysis, a model-based interpretation of stable carbon isotope patterns in intermediates of metabolism. Existing software such as FiatFlux, OpenFLUX or 13CFLUX supports experts in this complex analysis, but requires several steps that have to be carried out manually, hence restricting the use of this software for data interpretation to a rather small number of experiments. In this paper, we present Flux-P as an approach to automate and standardize 13C-based metabolic flux analysis, using the Bio-jETI workflow framework. Exemplarily based on the FiatFlux software, it demonstrates how services can be created that carry out the different analysis steps autonomously and how these can subsequently be assembled into software workflows that perform automated, high-throughput intracellular flux analysis of high quality and reproducibility. Besides significant acceleration and standardization of the data analysis, the agile workflow-based realization supports flexible changes of the analysis workflows on the user level, making it easy to perform custom analyses.

  7. Compression fractures of the back (United States)

    ... most effective way to prevent compression or insufficiency fractures. Getting regular load-bearing exercise (such as walking) can help you avoid bone loss. Alternative Names Vertebral compression fractures Images Compression fracture References Cosman F, de Beur ...

  8. Explosion Power and Pressure Desensitization Resisting Property of Emulsion Explosives Sensitized by MgH2 (United States)

    Cheng, Yangfan; Ma, Honghao; Liu, Rong; Shen, Zhaowu


    Due to low detonation power and pressure desensitization problems that traditional emulsion explosives encounter in utilization, a hydrogen-based emulsion explosives was devised. This type of emulsion explosives is sensitized by hydrogen-containing material MgH2, and MgH2 plays a double role as a sensitizer and an energetic material in emulsion explosives. Underwater explosion experiments and shock wave desensitization experiments show that an MgH2 emulsion explosives has excellent detonation characteristics and is resistant to pressure desensitization. The pressure desensitization-resistant mechanism of MgH2 emulsion explosives was investigated using scanning electron microscopy.

  9. Study on the effect of temperature rise on grain refining during fabrication of nanocrystalline copper under explosive loading (United States)

    Wang, Jinxiang; Yang, Rui; Jiang, Li; Wang, Xiaoxu; Zhou, Nan


    Nanocrystalline (NC) copper was fabricated by severe plastic deformation of coarse-grained copper at a high strain rate under explosive loading. The feasibility of grain refinement under different explosive loading and the influence of overall temperature rise on grain refinement under impact compression were studied in this paper. The calculation model for the macroscopic temperature rise was established according to the adiabatic shock compression theory. The calculation model for coarse-grained copper was established by the Voronoi method and the microscopic temperature rise resulted from severe plastic deformation of grains was calculated by ANSYS/ls-dyna finite element software. The results show that it is feasible to fabricate NC copper by explosively dynamic deformation of coarse-grained copper and the average grain size of the NC copper can be controlled between 200˜400 nm. The whole temperature rise would increase with the increasing explosive thickness. Ammonium nitrate fuel oil explosive was adopted and five different thicknesses of the explosive, which are 20 mm, 25 mm, 30 mm, 35 mm, 45 mm, respectively, with the same diameter using 20 mm to the fly plate were adopted. The maximum macro and micro temperature rise is up to 532.4 K, 143.4 K, respectively, which has no great effect on grain refinement due to the whole temperature rise that is lower than grain growth temperature according to the high pressure melting theory.

  10. High flux diffractometers on reactor neutron sources (United States)

    Hewat, Alan W.


    Continuous neutron sources such as reactors can deliver a very high time-averaged flux to the sample using a relatively wide band of wavelengths, while still retaining good resolution. For example, the D20 diffractometer at ILL Grenoble, the world's highest flux neutron powder machine, can collect complete patterns at 100 ms intervals, and this has been important for the real time study of explosive SHS reactions. New very large 2D detectors, such as those recently installed on D2B and D19 at ILL, are up to an order of magnitude larger than previous designs, and will provide unmatched speed of data collection from very small samples, opening up new scientific perspectives for powder and single crystal diffraction. We will discuss future reactor based diffractometers designed for rapid data collection from small samples in special environments.

  11. Historical Background of Ultrahigh Pressure Shock Compression Experiments at LLNL: 1973 to 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nellis, W.J.


    My purpose is to recount the historical development of ultrahigh pressure shock compression experiments at LLNL, which I experienced in the period 1973 to 2000. I used several experimental techniques: shock-impedance-match experiments using planar shock waves driven by nuclear explosives (NIMs), the Janus Laser, a railgun, and a two-stage light-gas gun.

  12. 46 CFR 194.15-17 - Compressed gases other than inert gases. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compressed gases other than inert gases. 194.15-17 Section 194.15-17 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS HANDLING, USE, AND CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Chemistry Laboratory and...

  13. 46 CFR 194.15-15 - Chemicals other than compressed gases. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Chemicals other than compressed gases. 194.15-15 Section 194.15-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS HANDLING, USE, AND CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Chemistry Laboratory and...

  14. Clustering of Emerging Flux (United States)

    Ruzmaikin, A.


    Observations show that newly emerging flux tends to appear on the Solar surface at sites where there is flux already. This results in clustering of solar activity. Standard dynamo theories do not predict this effect.

  15. Explosive dome eruptions modulated by periodic gas-driven inflation (United States)

    Johnson, Jeffrey B.; Lyons, John; Andrews, B. J.; Lees, J.M.


    Volcan Santiaguito (Guatemala) “breathes” with extraordinary regularity as the edifice's conduit system accumulates free gas, which periodically vents to the atmosphere. Periodic pressurization controls explosion timing, which nearly always occurs at peak inflation, as detected with tiltmeters. Tilt cycles in January 2012 reveal regular 26 ± 6 min inflation/deflation cycles corresponding to at least ~101 kg/s of gas fluxing the system. Very long period (VLP) earthquakes presage explosions and occur during cycles when inflation rates are most rapid. VLPs locate ~300 m below the vent and indicate mobilization of volatiles, which ascend at ~50 m/s. Rapid gas ascent feeds pyroclast-laden eruptions lasting several minutes and rising to ~1 km. VLPs are not observed during less rapid inflation episodes; instead, gas vents passively through the conduit producing no infrasound and no explosion. These observations intimate that steady gas exsolution and accumulation in shallow reservoirs may drive inflation cycles at open-vent silicic volcanoes.

  16. Molecular Dynamics Simulations of the First Reactions in Nitrate Ester-based Explosives (United States)

    Cawkwell, Marc; Kober, Ed; Myers, Thomas; Manner, Virginia


    In order to better understand and manipulate explosive sensitivity, we have prepared and analyzed a series of pentaerythritol tetranitrate-based explosives with systematic changes to the molecular structure. Reactive, extended Lagrangian Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics simulations have been performed on this series of molecules in the condensed phase to understand how the reactivity changes with the molecular modifications. The net reactions occurring over the first few hundred picoseconds under conditions of static high temperature and shock compression have been identified by an innovative analysis of coordination geometry changes and reaction types rather than attempting to detail each individual reaction. The evolution of temperature and pressure owing to evolving chemistry in the shock compressed materials were also captured accurately. Changes in exothermicity and the populations of intermediate and product moieties are connected to the systematic changes in stoichiometry. The results of the simulations are compared to preliminary estimates of sensitivity derived from small scale impact tests on materials synthesized recently at LANL.

  17. Dynamic ignition regime of condensed system by radiate heat flux (United States)

    Arkhipov, V. A.; Zolotorev, N. N.; Korotkikh, A. G.; Kuznetsov, V. T.


    The main ignition characteristics of high-energy materials are the ignition time and critical heat flux allowing evaluation of the critical conditions for ignition, fire and explosive safety for the test solid propellants. The ignition process is typically studied in stationary conditions of heat input at constant temperature of the heating surface, environment or the radiate heat flux on the sample surface. In real conditions, ignition is usually effected at variable time-dependent values of the heat flux. In this case, the heated layer is formed on the sample surface in dynamic conditions and significantly depends on the heat flux change, i.e. increasing or decreasing falling heat flux in the reaction period of the propellant sample. This paper presents a method for measuring the ignition characteristics of a high-energy material sample in initiation of the dynamic radiant heat flux, which includes the measurement of the ignition time when exposed to a sample time varying radiant heat flux given intensity. In case of pyroxyline containing 1 wt. % of soot, it is shown that the ignition times are reduced by 20-50 % depending on the initial value of the radiant flux density in initiation by increasing or decreasing radiant heat flux compared with the stationary conditions of heat supply in the same ambient conditions.

  18. High-temperature explosive development for geothermal well stimulation. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, E.W.; Mars, J.E.; Wang, C.


    A two-component, temperature-resistant liquid explosive called HITEX has been developed which is capable of withstanding 561/sup 0/K (550/sup 0/F) for 24 hours in a geothermal environment. The explosive is intended for the stimulation of nonproducing or marginally producing geothermal (hot dry rock, vapor-dominated or hydrothermal) reservoirs by fracturing the strata in the vicinity of a borehole. The explosive is inherently safe because it is mixed below ground downhole from two nondetonable liquid components. Development and safety tests included differential scanning calorimetry, thermal stability, minerals compatibility, drop-weight sensitivity, adiabatic compression, electrostatic discharge sensitivity, friction sensitivity, detonation arrest capability, cook-off tests, detonability at ambient and elevated pressure, detonation velocity and thin film propagation in a wedge.

  19. Polarisation Spectral Synthesis For Type Ia Supernova Explosion Models (United States)

    Bulla, Mattia


    Despite their relevance across a broad range of astrophysical research topics, Type Ia supernova explosions are still poorly understood and answers to the questions of when, why and how these events are triggered remain unclear. In this respect, polarisation offers a unique opportunity to discriminate between the variety of possible scenarios. The observational evidence that Type Ia supernovae are associated with rather low polarisation signals (smaller than a few per cent) places strong constraints for models and calls for modest asphericities in the progenitor system and/or explosion mechanism.The goal of this thesis is to assess the validity of contemporary Type Ia supernova explosion models by testing whether their predicted polarisation signatures can account for the small signals usually observed. To this end, we have implemented and tested an innovative Monte Carlo scheme in the radiative transfer code artis. Compared to previous Monte Carlo approaches, this technique produces synthetic observables (light curves, flux and polarisation spectra) with a substantial reduction in the Monte Carlo noise and therefore in the required computing time. This improvement is particularly crucial for our study as we aim to extract very weak polarisation signals, comparable to those detected in Type Ia supernovae. We have also demonstrated the applicability of this method to other classes of supernovae via a preliminary study of the first spectropolarimetry observations of superluminous supernovae.Using this scheme, we have calculated synthetic spectropolarimetry for three multi-dimensional explosion models recently proposed as promising candidates to explain Type Ia supernovae. Our findings highlight the power of spectropolarimetry in testing and discriminating between different scenarios. While all the three models predict light curves and flux spectra that are similar to each others and reproduce those observed in Type Ia supernovae comparably well, polarisation does

  20. Gas segregation and two-phase flow in basaltic explosive activity (United States)

    Pioli, L.; Cashman, K.; Wallace, P.


    Basaltic explosive activity is highly variable in intensity, ranging from less energetic fire fountaining and intermittent strombolian explosions, to more energetic ash-forming violent strombolian, subplinian and plinian activity. Moreover, unlike silicic volcanism, there is no direct relationship between explosivity and magma flux, due to the complex interplay between gas segregation and initial gas content of the magma, ascent rate, and gas segregation. Highly explosive activity is particularly common in mafic arc volcanoes, where magmas contain abundant water and higher gas fluxes are expected. Gas segregation and two-phase flow processes play a fundamental role in the explosive dynamics of basaltic magma. Passive degassing and bubble bursts are common in lava lakes or lava-filled vents, that is, in nearly static lava ponds. This style of activity indicates the rise of discrete bubbles through the low viscosity liquid. With an increase in the magma supply rate and initial water content, activity changes to that of contemporaneous lava emission and explosive activity, as is typical in many cinder cone eruptions. This paired activity illustrates preferential segregation of gas into the vertical conduit with respect to a lateral dyke system; the result is eruptive activity that is referred to as either transitional or violent strombolian. When magma rise rate exceeds values of the order of 104-5 kg/s, gas segregation is no longer possible and eruptive activity takes the form of sustained columns (subplinian to plinian activity). This summary illustrates the role of liquid and gas fluxes on the development of two-phase flow patterns in the conduit, which, in turn affects the eruption dynamics. For example, discrete explosions are generated when the pattern is periodic (characterized by regular temporal and spatial fluctuations), due to formation of gas slugs or void fraction waves, whereas strong fluctuations in the eruptive dynamics may be related to flow

  1. Compressed Video Segmentation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kobla, Vikrant; Doermann, David S; Rosenfeld, Azriel


    ... changes in content and camera motion. The analysis is performed in the compressed domain using available macroblock and motion vector information, and if necessary, discrete cosine transform (DCT) information...

  2. Compressive light field displays. (United States)

    Wetzstein, Gordon; Lanman, Douglas; Hirsch, Matthew; Heidrich, Wolfgang; Raskar, Ramesh


    Light fields are the multiview extension of stereo image pairs: a collection of images showing a 3D scene from slightly different perspectives. Depicting high-resolution light fields usually requires an excessively large display bandwidth; compressive light field displays are enabled by the codesign of optical elements and computational-processing algorithms. Rather than pursuing a direct "optical" solution (for example, adding one more pixel to support the emission of one additional light ray), compressive displays aim to create flexible optical systems that can synthesize a compressed target light field. In effect, each pixel emits a superposition of light rays. Through compression and tailored optical designs, fewer display pixels are necessary to emit a given light field than a direct optical solution would require.

  3. Reference Based Genome Compression

    CERN Document Server

    Chern, Bobbie; Manolakos, Alexandros; No, Albert; Venkat, Kartik; Weissman, Tsachy


    DNA sequencing technology has advanced to a point where storage is becoming the central bottleneck in the acquisition and mining of more data. Large amounts of data are vital for genomics research, and generic compression tools, while viable, cannot offer the same savings as approaches tuned to inherent biological properties. We propose an algorithm to compress a target genome given a known reference genome. The proposed algorithm first generates a mapping from the reference to the target genome, and then compresses this mapping with an entropy coder. As an illustration of the performance: applying our algorithm to James Watson's genome with hg18 as a reference, we are able to reduce the 2991 megabyte (MB) genome down to 6.99 MB, while Gzip compresses it to 834.8 MB.

  4. Compressive Optical Image Encryption (United States)

    Li, Jun; Sheng Li, Jiao; Yang Pan, Yang; Li, Rong


    An optical image encryption technique based on compressive sensing using fully optical means has been proposed. An object image is first encrypted to a white-sense stationary noise pattern using a double random phase encoding (DRPE) method in a Mach-Zehnder interferometer. Then, the encrypted image is highly compressed to a signal using single-pixel compressive holographic imaging in the optical domain. At the receiving terminal, the encrypted image is reconstructed well via compressive sensing theory, and the original image can be decrypted with three reconstructed holograms and the correct keys. The numerical simulations show that the method is effective and suitable for optical image security transmission in future all-optical networks because of the ability of completely optical implementation and substantially smaller hologram data volume. PMID:25992946

  5. Sensitivity to friction for primary explosives. (United States)

    Matyáš, Robert; Šelešovský, Jakub; Musil, Tomáš


    The sensitivity to friction for a selection of primary explosives has been studied using a small BAM friction apparatus. The probit analysis was used for the construction of a sensitivity curve for each primary explosive tested. Two groups of primary explosives were chosen for measurement (a) the most commonly used industrially produced primary explosives (e.g. lead azide, tetrazene, dinol, lead styphnate) and (b) the most produced improvised primary explosives (e.g. triacetone triperoxide, hexamethylenetriperoxide diamine, mercury fulminate, acetylides of heavy metals). A knowledge of friction sensitivity is very important for determining manipulation safety for primary explosives. All the primary explosives tested were carefully characterised (synthesis procedure, shape and size of crystals). The sensitivity curves obtained represent a unique set of data, which cannot be found anywhere else in the available literature. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Spot test kit for explosives detection (United States)

    Pagoria, Philip F; Whipple, Richard E; Nunes, Peter J; Eckels, Joel Del; Reynolds, John G; Miles, Robin R; Chiarappa-Zucca, Marina L


    An explosion tester system comprising a body, a lateral flow membrane swab unit adapted to be removeably connected to the body, a first explosives detecting reagent, a first reagent holder and dispenser operatively connected to the body, the first reagent holder and dispenser containing the first explosives detecting reagent and positioned to deliver the first explosives detecting reagent to the lateral flow membrane swab unit when the lateral flow membrane swab unit is connected to the body, a second explosives detecting reagent, and a second reagent holder and dispenser operatively connected to the body, the second reagent holder and dispenser containing the second explosives detecting reagent and positioned to deliver the second explosives detecting reagent to the lateral flow membrane swab unit when the lateral flow membrane swab unit is connected to the body.

  7. Deep Blind Compressed Sensing


    Singh, Shikha; Singhal, Vanika; Majumdar, Angshul


    This work addresses the problem of extracting deeply learned features directly from compressive measurements. There has been no work in this area. Existing deep learning tools only give good results when applied on the full signal, that too usually after preprocessing. These techniques require the signal to be reconstructed first. In this work we show that by learning directly from the compressed domain, considerably better results can be obtained. This work extends the recently proposed fram...

  8. Compressed Sensing in Astronomy (United States)

    Bobin, Jérôme; Starck, Jean-Luc; Ottensamer, Roland


    Recent advances in signal processing have focused on the use of sparse representations in various applications. A new field of interest based on sparsity has recently emerged: compressed sensing. This theory is a new sampling framework that provides an alternative to the well-known Shannon sampling theory. In this paper, we investigate how compressed sensing (CS) can provide new insights into astronomical data compression. We first give a brief overview of the compressed sensing theory which provides very simple coding process with low computational cost, thus favoring its use for real-time applications often found onboard space mission. In practical situations, owing to particular observation strategies (for instance, raster scans) astronomical data are often redundant; in that context, we point out that a CS-based compression scheme is flexible enough to account for particular observational strategies. Indeed, we show also that CS provides a new fantastic way to handle multiple observations of the same field view, allowing us to recover low level details, which is impossible with standard compression methods. This kind of CS data fusion concept could lead to an elegant and effective way to solve the problem ESA is faced with, for the transmission to the earth of the data collected by PACS, one of the instruments onboard the Herschel spacecraft which will launched in late 2008/early 2009. We show that CS enables to recover data with a spatial resolution enhanced up to 30% with similar sensitivity compared to the averaging technique proposed by ESA.

  9. Studying stellar explosions with Athena (United States)

    O'Brien, P.; Jonker, P.

    Athena is the second large mission selected in the ESA Cosmic Vision plan. With its large collecting area, high spectral-energy resolution (X-IFU instrument) and impressive grasp (WFI instrument), Athena will truly revolutionise X-ray astronomy. The most prodigious sources of high-energy photons are often transitory in nature. Athena will provide the sensitivity and spectral resolution coupled with rapid response to enable the study of the dynamic sky. Potential sources include: distant Gamma-Ray Bursts to probe the reionisation epoch and find missing baryons in the cosmic web; tidal disruption events to reveal dormant supermassive and intermediate-mass black holes; and supernova explosions to understand progenitors and their environments. We illustrate Athenas capabilities and show how it will be able to constrain the nature of explosive transients including gas metallicity and dynamics.

  10. Ranchero Explosive Pulsed Power Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goforth, J.H.; Atchison, W.L.; Deninger, W.J.; Fowler, C.M.; Herrera, D.H.; King, J.C.; Lopez, E.A.; Oona, H.; Reinovsky, R.E.; Stokes, J.L.; Sena, F.C.; Tabaka, L.J.; Tasker, D.G.; Torres, D.T.; Lindemuth, I.R.; Faehl, R.J.; Keinigs, R.K.; Taylor, A.J.; Rodriguez, G.; Oro, D.M.; Garcia, O.F.; parker, J.V.; Broste, W.B.


    The authors are developing the Ranchero high explosive pulsed power (HEPP) system to power cylindrically imploding solid-density liners for hydrodynamics experiments. The near-term goal is to conduct experiments in the regime pertinent to the Atlas Capacitor bank. That is, they will attempt to implode liners of {approximately}50 g mass at velocities approaching 15 km/sec. The basic building block of the HEPP system is a coaxial generator with a 304.8 mm diameter stator, and an initial armature diameter of 152 mm. The armature is expanded by a high explosive (HE) charge detonated simultaneously along its axis. They have reported a variety of experiments conducted with generator modules 43 cm long and have presented an initial design for hydrodynamic liner experiments. In this paper they give a synopsis of their first system test, and a status report on the development of a generator module that is 1.4 m long.

  11. RANCHERO explosive pulsed power experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Goforth, J H; Armijo, E V; Atchison, W L; Bartos, Yu; Clark, D A; Day, R D; Deninger, W J; Faehl, R J; Fowler, C M; García, F P; García, O F; Herrera, D H; Herrera, T J; Keinigs, R K; King, J C; Lindemuth, I R; López, E; Martínez, E C; Martínez, D; McGuire, J A; Morgan, D; Oona, H; Oro, D M; Parker, J V; Randolph, R B; Reinovsky, R E; Rodríguez, G; Stokes, J L; Sena, F C; Tabaka, L J; Tasker, D G; Taylor, A J; Torres, D T; Anderson, H D; Broste, W B; Johnson, J B; Kirbie, H C


    The authors are developing the RANCHERO high explosive pulsed power (HEPP) system to power cylindrically imploding solid-density liners for hydrodynamics experiments. Their near-term goal is to conduct experiments in the regime pertinent to the Atlas capacitor bank. That is, they will attempt to implode liners of ~50 g mass at velocities approaching 15 km/sec. The basic building block of the HEPP system is a coaxial generator with a 304.8 mm diameter stator, and an initial armature diameter of 152 mm. The armature is expanded by a high explosive (HE) charge detonated simultaneously along its axis. The authors have reported a variety of experiments conducted with generator modules 43 cm long and have presented an initial design for hydrodynamic liner experiments. In this paper, they give a synopsis of their first system test, and a status report on the development of a generator module that is 1.4 m long. (6 refs).

  12. Propagation of a spherical shock wave in mixture of non-ideal gas and small solid particles under the influence of gravitational field with conductive and radiative heat fluxes (United States)

    Nath, G.


    Self-similar solutions are obtained for one-dimensional unsteady adiabatic flow behind a spherical shock wave propagating in a dusty gas with conductive and radiative heat fluxes under the influence of a gravitational field. The shock is assumed to be driven out by a moving piston and the dusty gas to be a mixture of non-ideal gas and small solid particles, in which solid particles are uniformly distributed. It is assumed that the equilibrium flow-conditions are maintained and variable energy input is continuously supplied by the piston. The heat conduction is expressed in terms of Fourier's law and the radiation is considered to be of the diffusion type for an optically thick grey gas model. The thermal conductivity K and the absorption coefficient αR are assumed to vary with temperature and density. The medium is assumed to be under the influence of a gravitational field due to central mass ( bar{m} ) at the origin (Roche Model). It is assumed that the gravitational effect of the mixture itself can be neglected compared with the attraction of the central mass. The initial density of the ambient medium is taken to be always constant. The effects of the variation of the gravitational parameter and nonidealness of the gas in the mixture are investigated. Also, the effects of an increase in (i) the mass concentration of solid particles in the mixture and (ii) the ratio of the density of solid particles to the initial density of the gas on the flow variables are investigated. It is shown that due to an increase in the gravitational parameter the compressibility of the medium at any point in the flow-field behind the shock decreases and all other flow variables and the shock strength are increased. Further, it is found that the presence of gravitational field increases the compressibility of the medium, due to which it is compressed and therefore the distance between the piston and the shock surface is reduced. The shock waves in dusty gas under the influence of a

  13. Explosives Removal from Munitions Wastewaters (United States)


    Rohm and Haas Company, Philadelphia, Pa., 19105 2 Background Generally, pollation in munitions plant waste water stems from washing and steam cleaning...290131 EXPLOSIVES REMOVAL FROM MUNITIONS WST- WATERS B. W. STEVENS, R. P. MCDONNELL ROHM. AND HAAS CO?*ANY, PHILAD2ELPHIA, PENNSYLVANIA R. K. PXDREN...operations. Waste water from a typical TNT manufacturing J21 plant may contain from 40 to 120 ppm of TNT and lesser aimounts of 2,4, DNT. K. Waste

  14. Shell and explosive hydrogen burning

    CERN Document Server

    Boeltzig, A; Cavanna, F; Cristallo, S; Davinson, T; Depalo, R; deBoer, R J; Di Leva, A; Ferraro, F; Imbriani, G; Marigo, P; Terrasi, F; Wiescher, M


    The nucleosynthesis of light elements, from helium up to silicon, mainly occurs in Red Giant and Asymptotic Giant Branch stars and Novae. The relative abundances of the synthesized nuclides critically depend on the rates of the nuclear processes involved, often through non-trivial reaction chains, combined with complex mixing mechanisms. In this review, we summarize the contributions made by LUNA experiments in furthering our understanding of nuclear reaction rates necessary for modeling nucleosynthesis in AGB stars and Novae explosions.

  15. Conduit speed limit promotes formation of explosive `super slugs' (United States)

    Llewellin, E. W.; Burton, M. R.; Mader, H. M.; Polacci, M.


    Strombolian activity - characterized by discrete, impulsive explosions - is common at basaltic volcanoes. The explosions are caused by the arrival, at the volcanic vent, of over-pressured `slugs' of magmatic gas, which have ascended the volcanic conduit. We present data from large-scale analogue experiments which reveal a previously-undescribed process which promotes the formation of large, highly over-pressured `super slugs'. We propose that these large slugs may drive the most violent Strombolian eruptions. Experiments were performed at the Large Analogue Volcano Apparatus at Durham University, UK, which comprises a 13m tall, 24cm diameter transparent conduit, surmounting a reservoir of analogue magma held at constant pressure. We simulate a vesiculation event deep in the sub-volcanic plumbing system by fluxing gas into the reservoir. Magma analogues with a range of viscosities are used, giving slug Reynolds numbers in the range 16 to 140,000. At moderate-to-high Reynolds number, we find that the gas rapidly self-organizes to form a conduit-filling lead slug; this slug ascends the column slowly, at a velocity limited by the flux of the falling film of liquid around it. Trailing bubbles, which ascend through the wake of the lead slug, rise much more rapidly. As they catch and coalesce with the lead slug, it grows and becomes increasingly over-pressured. This mechanism causes large slugs to form rapidly and we propose that it underpins the formation of the very large slugs that are responsible for the most explosive strombolian eruptions.

  16. Nuclear Explosions 1945-1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergkvist, Nils-Olov; Ferm, Ragnhild


    The main part of this report is a list of nuclear explosions conducted by the United States, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, France, China, India and Pakistan in 1945-98. The list includes all known nuclear test explosions and is compiled from a variety of sources including officially published information from the USA, Russia and France. The details given for each explosion (date, origin time, location, yield, type, etc.) are often compiled from more than one source because the individual sources do not give complete information. The report includes a short background to nuclear testing and provides brief information on the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty and the verification regime now being established to verify compliance with the treaty. It also summarizes nuclear testing country by country. The list should be used with some caution because its compilation from a variety of sources means that some of the data could be incorrect. This report is the result of cooperation between the Defence Research Establishment (FOA) and the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI)

  17. Data base of chemical explosions in Kazakhstan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demin, V.N. [National Nuclear Center of Republic of Kazakhstan Institute of Geophysical Researches (Kazakhstan); Malahova, M.N. [National Nuclear Center of Republic of Kazakhstan Institute of Geophysical Researches (Kazakhstan); Martysevich, P.N. [National Nuclear Center of Republic of Kazakhstan Institute of Geophysical Researches (Kazakhstan); Mihaylova, N.N. [National Nuclear Center of Republic of Kazakhstan Institute of Geophysical Researches (Kazakhstan); Nurmagambetov, A. [National Nuclear Center of Republic of Kazakhstan Institute of Geophysical Researches (Kazakhstan); Kopnichev, Yu.F. D. [National Nuclear Center of Republic of Kazakhstan Institute of Geophysical Researches (Kazakhstan); Edomin, V.I. [National Nuclear Center of Republic of Kazakhstan Institute of Geophysical Researches (Kazakhstan)


    Within the bounds of this report, the following works were done: (1) Information about explosion quarries, located in Southern, Eastern and Northern Kasakstan was summarized. (2) The general information about seismicity of areas of location of explosion quarries was adduced. (3) The system of observation and seismic apparatus, recording the local earthquakes and quarry explosions at the territory of Kazakstan were described. (4) Data base of quarry explosions, that were carried out in Southern, Eastern and Northern Kazakstan during 1995 and first half of 1996 year was adduced. (5) Upon the data of registration of explosions in Southern Kazakstan the correlative dependences between power class of explosions and summary weight of charge were constructed. (6) Seismic records of quarry explosions were adduced. It is necessary to note, that the collection of data about quarry explosions in Kazakstan in present time is very difficult task. Organizations, that makes these explosions, are always suffering reorganizations and sometimes it is actually impossible to receive all the necessary information. Some quarries are situated in remote, almost inaccessible regions, and within the bounds of supplier financing not the every quarry was in success to visit. So the present data base upon the chemical explosions for 1995 is not full and in further it`s expansion is possible.

  18. Stability of volcanic conduits during explosive eruptions (United States)

    Aravena, Álvaro; de'Michieli Vitturi, Mattia; Cioni, Raffaello; Neri, Augusto


    Geological evidences of volcanic conduit widening are common in most pyroclastic deposits (e.g. presence of lithic fragments from different depths), suggesting a continuous modification of the conduit geometry during volcanic eruptions. However, the controlling factors of the mechanisms driving conduit enlargement (e.g. erosion, local collapse) are still partially unclear, as well as the influence of conduit geometry on the eruptive dynamics. Although numerical models have been systematically employed to study volcanic conduits, their mechanical stability and the eruptive dynamics related to non-cylindrical conduits have been poorly addressed. We present here a 1D steady-state model which includes the main processes experimented by ascending magmas (i.e. crystallization, rheological changes, fragmentation, drag forces, outgassing and degassing), and the application of two mechanical stability criteria (Mohr-Coulomb and Mogi-Coulomb), in order to study the collapse conditions of volcanic conduits during a representative explosive rhyolitic eruption. It emerges that mechanical stability of volcanic conduits is mainly controlled by its radial dimension, and a minimum radius for reaching stable conditions can be computed, as a function of water content and inlet overpressure. Additionally, for a set of input parameters thought typical of explosive rhyolitic volcanism, we estimated a minimum magma flux for developing a mechanically stable conduit ( 7 • 107 - 3 • 108 kg/s). Results are consistent with the unsteady character usually observed in sub-Plinian eruptions, opposite to mainly stationary Plinian eruptions, commonly characterized by higher magma discharge rates. We suggest that cylindrical conduits represent a mechanically stable configuration only for large radii. Because the instability conditions are not uniform along the conduit, the widening processes probably lead to conduit geometries with depth-varying width. Consequently, as our model is able to

  19. Dynamic Characterization of Mock Explosive Material Using Reverse Taylor Impact Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferranti, L; Gagliardi, F J; Cunningham, B J; Vandersall, K S


    The motivation for the current study is to evaluate the dynamic loading response of an inert mock explosive material used to replicate the physical and mechanical properties of LX-17-1 and PBX 9502 insensitive high explosives. The evaluation of dynamic material parameters is needed for predicting the deformation behavior including the onset of failure and intensity of fragmentation resulting from high velocity impact events. These parameters are necessary for developing and validating physically based material constitutive models that will characterize the safety and performance of energetic materials. The preliminary study uses a reverse Taylor impact configuration that was designed to measure the dynamic behavior of the explosive mock up to and including associated fragmentation. A stationary rod-shaped specimen was impacted using a compressed-gas gun by accelerating a rigid steel anvil attached to a sabot. The impact test employed high-speed imaging and velocity interferometry diagnostics for capturing the transient deformation of the sample at discrete times. Once established as a viable experimental technique with mock explosives, future studies will examine the dynamic response of insensitive high explosives and propellants.

  20. Numerical simulations in astrophysics:Supernovae explosions, magnetorotational model and neutrino emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. S. Bisnovatyi-Kogan


    Full Text Available Theories of stellar evolution and stellar explosion are based on results of numerical simulations and even qualitative results are not available to get analytically. Supernovae are the last stage in the evolution of massive stars, following the onset of instability, collapse and formation of a neutron star. Formation of a neutron star is accompanied by a huge amount of energy, approximately 20% of the rest mass energy of the star, but almost all this energy is released in the form of weakly interacting and hardly registrated neutrino. About 0.1% of the released neutrino energy would be enough for producing a supernovae explosion, but even transformation of such a small part of the neutrino energy into the kinetic energy of matter meets serious problems. Two variants are investigated for obtaining explosion. The first one is based on development of convective instability, and more effective heating of the outer layers by a neutrino flux.

  1. Estimation of body exposure to explosion. (United States)

    Oliver, William R; Baker, Andrew M; Powell, James D; Cotone, Chris M; Meeker, Jeffrey


    An ordnance-disposal expert was killed while disposing of a cache of explosives. The likely position of the body was reconstructed by modeling the explosion as an omnidirectional emission of particles from a model of the explosion site and noting the distribution of particles on a model of a human. The applications and limitations of this method in reconstructing the events and correlation with the injuries noted at autopsy are discussed.

  2. 75 FR 70291 - Commerce in Explosives; List of Explosive Materials (2010R-27T) (United States)


    ... hydrocarbons. Explosive organic nitrate mixtures. Explosive powders. F Flash powder. Fulminate of mercury. Fulminate of silver. Fulminating gold. Fulminating mercury. Fulminating platinum. Fulminating silver. G... fulminate. Mercury oxalate. Mercury tartrate. Metriol trinitrate. Minol-2 . MMAN ; methylamine nitrate...

  3. 77 FR 58410 - Commerce in Explosives; List of Explosive Materials (2012R-10T) (United States)


    ... hydrocarbons. Explosive organic nitrate mixtures. Explosive powders. F Flash powder. ] Fulminate of mercury. Fulminate of silver. Fulminating gold. Fulminating mercury. Fulminating platinum. Fulminating silver. G... fulminate. Mercury oxalate. Mercury tartrate. Metriol trinitrate. Minol-2 . MMAN ; methylamine nitrate...

  4. Graph Compression by BFS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Apostolico


    Full Text Available The Web Graph is a large-scale graph that does not fit in main memory, so that lossless compression methods have been proposed for it. This paper introduces a compression scheme that combines efficient storage with fast retrieval for the information in a node. The scheme exploits the properties of the Web Graph without assuming an ordering of the URLs, so that it may be applied to more general graphs. Tests on some datasets of use achieve space savings of about 10% over existing methods.

  5. Anisotropic Concrete Compressive Strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustenhoff Hansen, Søren; Jørgensen, Henrik Brøner; Hoang, Linh Cao


    When the load carrying capacity of existing concrete structures is (re-)assessed it is often based on compressive strength of cores drilled out from the structure. Existing studies show that the core compressive strength is anisotropic; i.e. it depends on whether the cores are drilled parallel...... correlation to the curing time. The experiments show no correlation between the anisotropy and the curing time and a small strength difference between the two drilling directions. The literature shows variations on which drilling direction that is strongest. Based on a Monto Carlo simulation of the expected...

  6. Chromospheric and Coronal Wave Generation in a Magnetic Flux Sheath (United States)

    Kato, Yoshiaki; Steiner, Oskar; Hansteen, Viggo; Gudiksen, Boris; Wedemeyer, Sven; Carlsson, Mats


    Using radiation magnetohydrodynamic simulations of the solar atmospheric layers from the upper convection zone to the lower corona, we investigate the self-consistent excitation of slow magneto-acoustic body waves (slow modes) in a magnetic flux concentration. We find that the convective downdrafts in the close surroundings of a two-dimensional flux slab “pump” the plasma inside it in the downward direction. This action produces a downflow inside the flux slab, which encompasses ever higher layers, causing an upwardly propagating rarefaction wave. The slow mode, excited by the adiabatic compression of the downflow near the optical surface, travels along the magnetic field in the upward direction at the tube speed. It develops into a shock wave at chromospheric heights, where it dissipates, lifts the transition region, and produces an offspring in the form of a compressive wave that propagates further into the corona. In the wake of downflows and propagating shock waves, the atmosphere inside the flux slab in the chromosphere and higher tends to oscillate with a period of ν ≈ 4 mHz. We conclude that this process of “magnetic pumping” is a most plausible mechanism for the direct generation of longitudinal chromospheric and coronal compressive waves within magnetic flux concentrations, and it may provide an important heat source in the chromosphere. It may also be responsible for certain types of dynamic fibrils.

  7. High Explosives Research and Development (HERD) Facility (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The purpose is to provide high explosive formulation, chemical analysis, safety and performance testing, processing, X-ray, quality control and loading support for...

  8. Explosives detection technology for commercial aviation security (United States)

    Schafrik, Robert E.


    The threat posed to commercial aviation by small, concealed plastic explosives is particularly onerous. Small amounts of these highly energetic explosives are difficult to reliably detect using current technologies. But they can cause significant damage to an aircraft that can result in the destruction of the aircraft, resulting in loss of life. The key issues regarding explosive detection technologies include: What methods can detect plastic explosives? How do these methods perform in practice? How can the different methods be best employed to counter the terrorist threat?

  9. Magnetic Compression Experiment at General Fusion with Simulation Results (United States)

    Dunlea, Carl; Khalzov, Ivan; Hirose, Akira; Xiao, Chijin; Fusion Team, General


    The magnetic compression experiment at GF was a repetitive non-destructive test to study plasma physics applicable to Magnetic Target Fusion compression. A spheromak compact torus (CT) is formed with a co-axial gun into a containment region with an hour-glass shaped inner flux conserver, and an insulating outer wall. External coil currents keep the CT off the outer wall (levitation) and then rapidly compress it inwards. The optimal external coil configuration greatly improved both the levitated CT lifetime and the rate of shots with good compressional flux conservation. As confirmed by spectrometer data, the improved levitation field profile reduced plasma impurity levels by suppressing the interaction between plasma and the insulating outer wall during the formation process. We developed an energy and toroidal flux conserving finite element axisymmetric MHD code to study CT formation and compression. The Braginskii MHD equations with anisotropic heat conduction were implemented. To simulate plasma / insulating wall interaction, we couple the vacuum field solution in the insulating region to the full MHD solution in the remainder of the domain. We see good agreement between simulation and experiment results. Partly funded by NSERC and MITACS Accelerate.

  10. Theoretical basis of explosion effects using al - granules in bulk explosives


    Dambov, Risto; Nikolic, Miroslav; Dambov, Ilija; Cacarov, Vladimir


    Use of bulk explosives such as AN-FO, heavy AN-FO, SLLURY and various Emulsions significantly improves explosive energy efficiency in the rock massif. Many operating engineers have the opportunity to examine and modify the technical characteristics of explosives and technologists especially, in the production of explosives where the main goal is improvement, the energy capacity by adding various components. The question is when is technically and economically most suitable to use ...

  11. Explosive transition in amorphous microwire (United States)

    Borisenko, I. Yu.; Tulin, V. A.


    An amorphous microwire in a glass shell offers a quick thermal response and can be rapidly heated to the crystallization point. When heated by a current pulse with a small amplitude and duration, the wire passes from the amorphous to microcrystalline state. The crystallization of the amorphous state may represent a slow or explosive process depending on the parameters of the pulse. In the latter case, the emission of electromagnetic waves (flash of light) and a sharp rise in the resistance are observed. The rate of propagation of the crystallization front in our experiments has been found to be about 1 m/s.

  12. Explosives detection using nanoporous coatings (United States)

    Pina, María P.; Pellejero, Ismael; Urbiztondo, Miguel; Sesé, Javier; Santamaría, J.


    Zeolite-coated cantilevers provided with internal heating elements have been developed and used for the selective detection of nitroderivates, in particular o-nitrotoluene as an example of an explosive-related molecule. In particular, Co exchanged commercial BEA zeolites have been deployed of rectangular Si cantilevers by microdropping technique. In particular, two different strategies have been demonstrated to increase the zeolite modified cantilevers performance: the sensing coating and the operating temperature. As a result, o-nitrotoluene LOD values below 1 ppm are attained at room temperature conditions; whereas the interference of toluene at concentrations below 1000 ppm is completely suppressed by heating the cantilever.

  13. Supernova Explosions Stay In Shape (United States)


    At a very early age, children learn how to classify objects according to their shape. Now, new research suggests studying the shape of the aftermath of supernovas may allow astronomers to do the same. A new study of images from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory on supernova remnants - the debris from exploded stars - shows that the symmetry of the remnants, or lack thereof, reveals how the star exploded. This is an important discovery because it shows that the remnants retain information about how the star exploded even though hundreds or thousands of years have passed. "It's almost like the supernova remnants have a 'memory' of the original explosion," said Laura Lopez of the University of California at Santa Cruz, who led the study. "This is the first time anyone has systematically compared the shape of these remnants in X-rays in this way." Astronomers sort supernovas into several categories, or "types", based on properties observed days after the explosion and which reflect very different physical mechanisms that cause stars to explode. But, since observed remnants of supernovas are leftover from explosions that occurred long ago, other methods are needed to accurately classify the original supernovas. Lopez and colleagues focused on the relatively young supernova remnants that exhibited strong X-ray emission from silicon ejected by the explosion so as to rule out the effects of interstellar matter surrounding the explosion. Their analysis showed that the X-ray images of the ejecta can be used to identify the way the star exploded. The team studied 17 supernova remnants both in the Milky Way galaxy and a neighboring galaxy, the Large Magellanic Cloud. For each of these remnants there is independent information about the type of supernova involved, based not on the shape of the remnant but, for example, on the elements observed in it. The researchers found that one type of supernova explosion - the so-called Type Ia - left behind relatively symmetric, circular

  14. The gas dynamics of explosions

    CERN Document Server

    Lee,\tJohn H S


    Explosions, and the non-steady shock propagation associated with them, continue to interest researchers working in different fields of physics and engineering (such as astrophysics and fusion). Based on the author's course in shock dynamics, this book describes the various analytical methods developed to determine non-steady shock propagation. These methods offer a simple alternative to the direct numerical integration of the Euler equations and offer a better insight into the physics of the problem. Professor Lee presents the subject systematically and in a style that is accessible to graduate students and researchers working in shock dynamics, combustion, high-speed aerodynamics, propulsion and related topics.

  15. Power of TATP based explosives. (United States)

    Matyás, Robert; Selesovský, Jakub


    The power of various explosive mixtures based on triacetone triperoxide (3,3,6,6,9,9-hexamethyl-1,2,4,5,7,8-hexoxonane, TATP), ammonimum nitrate (AN), urea nitrate (UrN) and water (W), namely TATP/AN, oil/AN, TATP/UrN, TATP/W and TATP/AN/W, was studied using the ballistic mortar test. The ternary mixtures of TATP/AN/W have relatively high power in case of the low water contents. Their power decrease significantly with increasing the water content in the mixture to more than 30%.

  16. 27 CFR 70.445 - Commerce in explosives. (United States)


    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Commerce in explosives. 70... Cartridges, and Explosives § 70.445 Commerce in explosives. Part 55 of title 27 CFR contains the regulations..., explosives, (b) Permits for users who buy or transport explosives in interstate or foreign commerce, (c...

  17. 29 CFR 1926.902 - Surface transportation of explosives. (United States)


    ... of explosives shall be equipped with a fully charged fire extinguisher, in good condition. An... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Surface transportation of explosives. 1926.902 Section 1926... Explosives § 1926.902 Surface transportation of explosives. (a) Transportation of explosives shall meet the...

  18. Deformation and shock consolidation of various sands under explosive loading (United States)

    Weckert, S. A.; Resnyansky, A. D.


    The response of various geological materials to shock loading is important in both military and industrial applications. The composition of a real soil is complex and involves multiple constituents that undergo a number of physical and mechanical transformations during the shock loading. The present study analyzes several sands, a limestone sand both wet and dry, and a dry silica sand representing simplified model system for the soil. The sands are compressed using two different steel encapsulation assemblies subject to loading by explosive detonation products. These set-ups attempt to vary the magnitude and duration of applied pressure and temperature to the encapsulated sand. A comparative analysis of the recovered sand samples, including a microstructural analysis focusing on the grain breakage, compaction and consolidation, is correlated with a CTH numerical analysis employing a multi-phase rate sensitive material model.



    Luchko, Ivan Andriiovych; Pashkov, Anatolii Pavlovych


    Dangerous factors at the handling ammonium nitrate explosives are covered. Dependence of influence of critical diameter for detonation on degree of compaction of the explosives is specified, causes of self-ignition of liquid explosive mixes are determined and measures according to their elimination are recommended.

  20. A structured approach to forensic study of explosions: The TNO Inverse Explosion Analysis tool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voort, M.M. van der; Wees, R.M.M. van; Brouwer, S.D.; Jagt-Deutekom, M.J. van der; Verreault, J.


    Forensic analysis of explosions consists of determining the point of origin, the explosive substance involved, and the charge mass. Within the EU FP7 project Hyperion, TNO developed the Inverse Explosion Analysis (TNO-IEA) tool to estimate the charge mass and point of origin based on observed damage

  1. Nonlinear Frequency Compression (United States)

    Scollie, Susan; Glista, Danielle; Seelisch, Andreas


    Frequency lowering technologies offer an alternative amplification solution for severe to profound high frequency hearing losses. While frequency lowering technologies may improve audibility of high frequency sounds, the very nature of this processing can affect the perceived sound quality. This article reports the results from two studies that investigated the impact of a nonlinear frequency compression (NFC) algorithm on perceived sound quality. In the first study, the cutoff frequency and compression ratio parameters of the NFC algorithm were varied, and their effect on the speech quality was measured subjectively with 12 normal hearing adults, 12 normal hearing children, 13 hearing impaired adults, and 9 hearing impaired children. In the second study, 12 normal hearing and 8 hearing impaired adult listeners rated the quality of speech in quiet, speech in noise, and music after processing with a different set of NFC parameters. Results showed that the cutoff frequency parameter had more impact on sound quality ratings than the compression ratio, and that the hearing impaired adults were more tolerant to increased frequency compression than normal hearing adults. No statistically significant differences were found in the sound quality ratings of speech-in-noise and music stimuli processed through various NFC settings by hearing impaired listeners. These findings suggest that there may be an acceptable range of NFC settings for hearing impaired individuals where sound quality is not adversely affected. These results may assist an Audiologist in clinical NFC hearing aid fittings for achieving a balance between high frequency audibility and sound quality. PMID:23539261

  2. Distributed Compressive Sensing (United States)


    more powerful algorithms like SOMP can be used. The ACIE algorithm is similar in spirit to other iterative estimation algorithms, such as turbo...Mitchell, “JPEG: Still image data compression standard,” Van Nostrand Reinhold , 1993. [11] D. S. Taubman and M. W. Marcellin, JPEG 2000: Image

  3. Temporal compressive sensing systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, Bryan W.


    Methods and systems for temporal compressive sensing are disclosed, where within each of one or more sensor array data acquisition periods, one or more sensor array measurement datasets comprising distinct linear combinations of time slice data are acquired, and where mathematical reconstruction allows for calculation of accurate representations of the individual time slice datasets.

  4. Compression of Infrared images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mantel, Claire; Forchhammer, Søren


    This paper investigates the compression of infrared images with three codecs: JPEG2000, JPEG-XT and HEVC. Results are evaluated in terms of SNR, Mean Relative Squared Error (MRSE) and the HDR-VDP2 quality metric. JPEG2000 and HEVC perform fairy similar and better than JPEG-XT. JPEG2000 performs...

  5. Compressive CFAR radar detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anitori, L.; Otten, M.P.G.; Rossum, W.L. van; Maleki, A.; Baraniuk, R.


    In this paper we develop the first Compressive Sensing (CS) adaptive radar detector. We propose three novel architectures and demonstrate how a classical Constant False Alarm Rate (CFAR) detector can be combined with ℓ1-norm minimization. Using asymptotic arguments and the Complex Approximate

  6. Centrifugal Gas Compression Cycle (United States)

    Fultun, Roy


    A centrifuged gas of kinetic, elastic hard spheres compresses isothermally and without flow of heat in a process that reverses free expansion. This theorem follows from stated assumptions via a collection of thought experiments, theorems and other supporting results, and it excludes application of the reversible mechanical adiabatic power law in this context. The existence of an isothermal adiabatic centrifugal compression process makes a three-process cycle possible using a fixed sample of the working gas. The three processes are: adiabatic mechanical expansion and cooling against a piston, isothermal adiabatic centrifugal compression back to the original volume, and isochoric temperature rise back to the original temperature due to an influx of heat. This cycle forms the basis for a Thomson perpetuum mobile that induces a loop of energy flow in an isolated system consisting of a heat bath connectable by a thermal path to the working gas, a mechanical extractor of the gas's internal energy, and a device that uses that mechanical energy and dissipates it as heat back into the heat bath. We present a simple experimental procedure to test the assertion that adiabatic centrifugal compression is isothermal. An energy budget for the cycle provides a criterion for breakeven in the conversion of heat to mechanical energy.

  7. Fingerprints in compressed strings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li; Cording, Patrick Hagge


    In this paper we show how to construct a data structure for a string S of size N compressed into a context-free grammar of size n that supports efficient Karp–Rabin fingerprint queries to any substring of S. That is, given indices i and j, the answer to a query is the fingerprint of the substring S...

  8. Fingerprints in Compressed Strings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Cording, Patrick Hagge; Gørtz, Inge Li


    The Karp-Rabin fingerprint of a string is a type of hash value that due to its strong properties has been used in many string algorithms. In this paper we show how to construct a data structure for a string S of size N compressed by a context-free grammar of size n that answers fingerprint queries...

  9. Generator modification and characterization of the Ranchero explosive generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oona, Henn [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Goforth, James H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tasker, Douglas G [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    Magnetic Flux Compression Generators (FCG) have been used as a power source for plasma and metal liner implosions over several decades. We have used the cost effective Ranchero generator to study hydrodynamic effects and instability growth in aluminium liners. Sometimes it is useful to tailor the shape of the current and voltage pulse. Modifications to the geometry can facilitate this task. Changes in the geometrical features of the generator can be used to allow the desired current waveform to be delivered to the load region.

  10. Planar Shock compaction of ceramic powders with mining explosives (United States)

    Stuivinga, M.


    Shock compaction experiments of B_4C powders have been performed using a planar configuration. The powders were contained between metal plates, with a layer of mining explosives on top of the upper plate, whose thickness was about 10 mm. For this configuration, computer simulations have been performed with use of the hydrocode Autodyn. In comparison with the cylindrical compaction process the planar compaction process appears to be quite different. The reason is the very low detonation velocity of the used mining explosive (2.2km/s), which is much lower than the sound and shock speeds of the steel plate, in combination with the relatively large thickness of the metal layer. As a result, the nature of the compaction process of the powder initially more resembles a quasi-static compaction process than a shock compaction process. Due to the quasi-state nature of the compaction the pressure release in the powder after compression is very gradual. No strong rarefaction waves leading to high tensile stresses in the compact arise, and therefore the risk of the generation of cracks, which is a great problem for cylindrical compaction methods, is small in this configuration. Flat plates (10 x 10 x 0.8 cm) of Al (30 vol.-this configuration.

  11. Implementation of strength and burn models for plastic-bonded explosives and propellants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reaugh, J E


    We have implemented the burn model in LS-DYNA. At present, the damage (porosity and specific surface area) is specified as initial conditions. However, history variables that are used by the strength model are reserved as placeholders for the next major revision, which will be a completely interactive model. We have implemented an improved strength model for explosives based on a model for concrete. The model exhibits peak strength and subsequent strain softening in uniaxial compression. The peak strength increases with increasing strain rate and/or reduced ambient temperature. Under triaxial compression compression, the strength continues to increase (or at least not decrease) with increasing strain. This behaviour is common to both concrete and polymer-bonded explosives (PBX) because the microstructure of these composites is similar. Both have aggregate material with a broad particle size distribution, although the length scale for concrete aggregate is two orders of magnitude larger than for PBX. The (cement or polymer) binder adheres to the aggregate, and is both pressure and rate sensitive. There is a larger bind binder content in concrete, compared to the explosive, and the aggregates have different hardness. As a result we expect the parameter values to differ, but the functional forms to be applicable to both. The models have been fit to data from tests on an AWE explosive that is HMX based. The decision to implement the models in LS-DYNA was based on three factors: LS-DYNA is used routinely by the AWE engineering analysis group and has a broad base of experienced users; models implemented in LS-DYNA can be transferred easily to LLNL's ALE 3D using a material model wrapper developed by Rich Becker; and LS-DYNA could accommodate the model requirements for a significant number of additional history variables without the significant time delay associated with code modification.

  12. Compressed Sensing for Chemistry (United States)

    Sanders, Jacob Nathan

    Many chemical applications, from spectroscopy to quantum chemistry, involve measuring or computing a large amount of data, and then compressing this data to retain the most chemically-relevant information. In contrast, compressed sensing is an emergent technique that makes it possible to measure or compute an amount of data that is roughly proportional to its information content. In particular, compressed sensing enables the recovery of a sparse quantity of information from significantly undersampled data by solving an ℓ 1-optimization problem. This thesis represents the application of compressed sensing to problems in chemistry. The first half of this thesis is about spectroscopy. Compressed sensing is used to accelerate the computation of vibrational and electronic spectra from real-time time-dependent density functional theory simulations. Using compressed sensing as a drop-in replacement for the discrete Fourier transform, well-resolved frequency spectra are obtained at one-fifth the typical simulation time and computational cost. The technique is generalized to multiple dimensions and applied to two-dimensional absorption spectroscopy using experimental data collected on atomic rubidium vapor. Finally, a related technique known as super-resolution is applied to open quantum systems to obtain realistic models of a protein environment, in the form of atomistic spectral densities, at lower computational cost. The second half of this thesis deals with matrices in quantum chemistry. It presents a new use of compressed sensing for more efficient matrix recovery whenever the calculation of individual matrix elements is the computational bottleneck. The technique is applied to the computation of the second-derivative Hessian matrices in electronic structure calculations to obtain the vibrational modes and frequencies of molecules. When applied to anthracene, this technique results in a threefold speed-up, with greater speed-ups possible for larger molecules. The

  13. High temperature two component explosive (United States)

    Mars, James E.; Poole, Donald R.; Schmidt, Eckart W.; Wang, Charles


    A two component, high temperature, thermally stable explosive composition comprises a liquid or low melting oxidizer and a liquid or low melting organic fuel. The oxidizer and fuel in admixture are incapable of substantial spontaneous exothermic reaction at temperatures on the order of K. At temperatures on the order of K., the oxidizer and fuel in admixture have an activation energy of at least about 40 kcal/mol. As a result of the high activation energy, the preferred explosive compositions are nondetonable as solids at ambient temperature, and become detonable only when heated beyond the melting point. Preferable oxidizers are selected from alkali or alkaline earth metal nitrates, nitrites, perchlorates, and/or mixtures thereof. Preferred fuels are organic compounds having polar hydrophilic groups. The most preferred fuels are guanidinium nitrate, acetamide and mixtures of the two. Most preferred oxidizers are eutectic mixtures of lithium nitrate, potassium nitrate and sodium nitrate, of sodium nitrite, sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate, and of potassium nitrate, calcium nitrate and sodium nitrate.

  14. Geotechnical Aspects of Explosive Compaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Shakeran


    Full Text Available Explosive Compaction (EC is the ground modification technique whereby the energy released from setting off explosives in subsoil inducing artificial earthquake effects, which compact the soil layers. The efficiency of EC predominantly depends on the soil profile, grain size distribution, initial status, and the intensity of energy applied to the soil. In this paper, in order to investigate the geotechnical aspects, which play an important role in performance of EC, a database has been compiled from thirteen-field tests or construction sites around the world, where EC has been successfully applied for modifying soil. This research focuses on evaluation of grain size distribution and initial stability status of deposits besides changes of soil penetration resistance due to EC. Results indicated suitable EC performance for unstable and liquefiable deposits having particle sizes ranging from gravel to silty sand with less than 40% silt content and less than 10% clay content. However, EC is most effective in fine-to-medium sands with a fine content less than 5% and hydraulically deposited with initial relative density ranging from 30% to 60%. Moreover, it has been observed that EC can be an effective method to improve the density, stability, and resistance of the target soils.

  15. Advances IN Explosive Nuclear Astrophysics (United States)

    Lotay, Gavin


    Breathtaking results from the Planck satellite mission and Hubble space telescope have highlighted the key role modern Astronomy is playing for our understanding of Big Bang Cosmology. However, not so widely publicized is the similar wealth of observational data now available on explosive stellar phenomena, such as X-ray bursts, novae and Supernovae. These astronomical events are responsible for the synthesis of almost all the chemical elements we find on Earth and observe in our Galaxy, as well as energy generation throughout the cosmos. Regrettably, understanding the latest collection of observational data is severely hindered by the current, large uncertainties in the underlying nuclear physics processes that drive such stellar scenarios. In order to resolve this issue, it is becoming increasingly clear that there is a need to explore the unknown properties and reactions of nuclei away from the line of stability. Consequently, state-of-the-art radioactive beam facilities have become terrestrial laboratories for the reproduction of explosive astrophysical events. In this talk, both direct and indirect methods for studying key astrophysical reactions using radioactive beams will be discussed.

  16. Electron heat flux instability (United States)

    Saeed, Sundas; Sarfraz, M.; Yoon, P. H.; Lazar, M.; Qureshi, M. N. S.


    The heat flux instability is an electromagnetic mode excited by a relative drift between the protons and two-component core-halo electrons. The most prominent application may be in association with the solar wind where drifting electron velocity distributions are observed. The heat flux instability is somewhat analogous to the electrostatic Buneman or ion-acoustic instability driven by the net drift between the protons and bulk electrons, except that the heat flux instability operates in magnetized plasmas and possesses transverse electromagnetic polarization. The heat flux instability is also distinct from the electrostatic counterpart in that it requires two electron species with relative drifts with each other. In the literature, the heat flux instability is often called the 'whistler' heat flux instability, but it is actually polarized in the opposite sense to the whistler wave. This paper elucidates all of these fundamental plasma physical properties associated with the heat flux instability starting from a simple model, and gradually building up more complexity towards a solar wind-like distribution functions. It is found that the essential properties of the instability are already present in the cold counter-streaming electron model, and that the instability is absent if the protons are ignored. These instability characteristics are highly reminiscent of the electron firehose instability driven by excessive parallel temperature anisotropy, propagating in parallel direction with respect to the ambient magnetic field, except that the free energy source for the heat flux instability resides in the effective parallel pressure provided by the counter-streaming electrons.

  17. Stochastic flux freezing and magnetic dynamo. (United States)

    Eyink, Gregory L


    Magnetic flux conservation in turbulent plasmas at high magnetic Reynolds numbers is argued neither to hold in the conventional sense nor to be entirely broken, but instead to be valid in a statistical sense associated to the "spontaneous stochasticity" of Lagrangian particle trajectories. The latter phenomenon is due to the explosive separation of particles undergoing turbulent Richardson diffusion, which leads to a breakdown of Laplacian determinism for classical dynamics. Empirical evidence is presented for spontaneous stochasticity, including numerical results. A Lagrangian path-integral approach is then exploited to establish stochastic flux freezing for resistive hydromagnetic equations and to argue, based on the properties of Richardson diffusion, that flux conservation must remain stochastic at infinite magnetic Reynolds number. An important application of these results is the kinematic, fluctuation dynamo in nonhelical, incompressible turbulence at magnetic Prandtl number (Pr(m)) equal to unity. Numerical results on the Lagrangian dynamo mechanisms by a stochastic particle method demonstrate a strong similarity between the Pr(m)=1 and 0 dynamos. Stochasticity of field-line motion is an essential ingredient of both. Finally, some consequences for nonlinear magnetohydrodynamic turbulence, dynamo, and reconnection are briefly considered. © 2011 American Physical Society

  18. Fire and explosion hazards of oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The US Bureau of Mines publication presents the results of investigations into the fire and explosion hazards of oil shale rocks and dust. Three areas have been examined: the explosibility and ignitability of oil shale dust clouds, the fire hazards of oil shale dust layers on hot surfaces, and the ignitability and extinguishment of oil shale rubble piles. 10 refs., 54 figs., 29 tabs.

  19. Sensitivity to friction for primary explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matyas, Robert, E-mail: [Institute of Energetic Materials, Faculty of Chemical Technology, University of Pardubice, Pardubice 532 10 (Czech Republic); Selesovsky, Jakub; Musil, Tomas [Institute of Energetic Materials, Faculty of Chemical Technology, University of Pardubice, Pardubice 532 10 (Czech Republic)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The friction sensitivity of 14 samples of primary explosives was determined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The same apparatus (small scale BAM) and the same method (probit analysis) was used. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The crystal shapes and sizes were documented with microscopy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Almost all samples are less sensitive than lead azide, which is commercially used. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The organic peroxides (TATP, DADP, HMTD) are not as sensitive as often reported. - Abstract: The sensitivity to friction for a selection of primary explosives has been studied using a small BAM friction apparatus. The probit analysis was used for the construction of a sensitivity curve for each primary explosive tested. Two groups of primary explosives were chosen for measurement (a) the most commonly used industrially produced primary explosives (e.g. lead azide, tetrazene, dinol, lead styphnate) and (b) the most produced improvised primary explosives (e.g. triacetone triperoxide, hexamethylenetriperoxide diamine, mercury fulminate, acetylides of heavy metals). A knowledge of friction sensitivity is very important for determining manipulation safety for primary explosives. All the primary explosives tested were carefully characterised (synthesis procedure, shape and size of crystals). The sensitivity curves obtained represent a unique set of data, which cannot be found anywhere else in the available literature.

  20. Explosive Joining for Nuclear-Reactor Repair (United States)

    Bement, L. J.; Bailey, J. W.


    In explosive joining technique, adapter flange from fuel channel machined to incorporate a V-notch interface. Ribbon explosive, 1/2 inch (1.3 cm) in width, drives V-notched wall of adapter into bellows assembly, producing atomic-level metallurgical bond. Ribbon charge yields joint with double parent metal strength.

  1. Forecasting volcanic explosions based on seismic quiescence (United States)

    Roman, D.; La Femina, P.; Rodgers, M.; Geirsson, H.; Tenorio, V.


    Volcanic eruptions are generally forecast based on strong increases in monitoring parameters such as seismicity or gas emissions above a relatively low background level. Because of this, forecasting individual explosions during an ongoing eruption, or at persistently restless volcanoes, is difficult as seismicity, gas emissions, and other indicators of unrest are already in a heightened state. Therefore, identification of short-term precursors to individual explosions at volcanoes already in heightened states of unrest, and an understanding of explosion trigger mechanisms, is important for the reduction of volcanic risk worldwide. Seismic and visual observations at Telica Volcano, Nicaragua, demonstrate that a) episodes of seismic quiescence reliably preceded explosions during an eruption in May 2011 and b) the duration of precursory quiescence and the energy released in the ensuing explosion were strongly correlated. Precursory seismic quiescence is interpreted as the result of sealing of shallow gas pathways, leading to pressure accumulation and eventual catastrophic failure of the system, culminating in an explosion. Longer periods of sealing and pressurization lead to greater energy release in the ensuing explosion. Near-real-time observations of seismic quiescence at restless or erupting volcanoes can thus be useful for both timely eruption warnings and for forecasting the energy of impending explosions.

  2. Some analytical methods for explosives: Part 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selig, W.


    This report is the second compilation of methods for analyzing explosives. All the methods were developed for routine performance by techniques, and an attempt has therefore been made to keep them as simple as possible. Methods are presented for analyzing plastic-bonded explosives based on sym-cyclomethylenetetra-nitramine (HMX), based on viton in addition to HMX, and based on pentraerythritol tetranitrate (PETN).

  3. Detection and dispersal of explosives by ants (United States)

    McFee, John E.; Achal, Steve; Faust, Anthony A.; Puckrin, Eldon; House, Andrew; Reynolds, Damon; McDougall, William; Asquini, Adam


    The ability of animals to detect explosives is well documented. Mammalian systems, insects and even single celled organisms have all been studied and in a few cases employed to detect explosives. This paper will describe the potential ability of ants to detect, disperse and possibly neutralize bulk explosives. In spring 2008 a team of DRDC and Itres scientists conducted experiments on detecting surface-laid and buried landmines, improvised explosive devices (IEDs) and their components. Measurements were made using state-of-the-art short wave and thermal infrared hyperspectral imagers mounted on a personnel lift. During one of the early morning measurement sessions, a wispy, long linear trail was seen to emanate several meters from piles of explosives that were situated on the ground. Upon close visual inspection, it was observed that ants had found the piles of explosives and were carrying it to their ant hill, a distance of almost 20 meters from the piles. Initial analysis of the hyperspectral images clearly revealed the trail to the ant hill of explosives, despite being present in quantities not visible to the unaided eye. This paper details these observations and discusses them in the context of landmine and IED detection and neutralization. Possible reasons for such behaviour are presented. A number of questions regarding the behaviour, many pertinent to the use of ants in a counter-landmine/IED role, are presented and possible methods of answering them are discussed. Anecdotal evidence from deminers of detection and destruction of explosives by ants are presented.

  4. 76 FR 8923 - Explosive Siting Requirements (United States)


    ... launch site in Title 14, Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) part 420. Part of the application for a... operational requirements of other regulatory regimes, they do not pose a risk of fire or explosion. Isolating... explosion due to the mixing of the two. In accordance with current DDESB and National Fire Protection...

  5. Characterization of mock high-explosive powder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt, C.R.; Dorsey, G.F.


    Analytical characterization and explosibility tests were made on a simulative high-explosive powder consisting of cyanuric acid, melamine, nitrocellulose, and tris-(..beta..-chloroethyl)-phosphate. Tests indicated that the powder presents no unusual safety or health hazards in isostatic-pressing and dry-machining operations.

  6. Explosion risks and consequences for tunnels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weerheijm, J.; Berg, A.C. van den


    Tunnel accidents with transports of dangerous goods may lead to explosions. Risk assessment for these accidents is complicated because of the low probability and the unknown, but disastrous effects expected. Especially the lack of knowledge on the strength of the explosion and the consequences for

  7. 33 CFR 401.67 - Explosive vessels. (United States)


    ... TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Dangerous Cargo § 401.67 Explosive vessels. A vessel carrying explosives, either Government or commercial, as defined in the Dangerous Cargo Act of the United States and in the International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code, Class 1, Divisions 1.1 to 1.5 inclusive...

  8. 49 CFR 173.54 - Forbidden explosives. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Forbidden explosives. 173.54 Section 173.54 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Definitions, Classification and Packaging for Class 1 § 173.54 Forbidden explosives...

  9. The St Marys fragmentation grenade explosion. (United States)

    Nocera, A


    The accidental explosion of a fragmentation grenade in a munitions factory at St Marys injured four workers, two critically. The prompt response by ambulances and physician-staffed helicopter emergency medical service prevented deaths, but the incident suggests lessons for the future handling of urban explosions.

  10. TEM Video Compressive Sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, Andrew; Kovarik, Libor; Abellan, Patricia; Yuan, Xin; Carin, Lawrence; Browning, Nigel D.


    One of the main limitations of imaging at high spatial and temporal resolution during in-situ TEM experiments is the frame rate of the camera being used to image the dynamic process. While the recent development of direct detectors has provided the hardware to achieve frame rates approaching 0.1ms, the cameras are expensive and must replace existing detectors. In this paper, we examine the use of coded aperture compressive sensing methods [1, 2, 3, 4] to increase the framerate of any camera with simple, low-cost hardware modifications. The coded aperture approach allows multiple sub-frames to be coded and integrated into a single camera frame during the acquisition process, and then extracted upon readout using statistical compressive sensing inversion. Our simulations show that it should be possible to increase the speed of any camera by at least an order of magnitude. Compressive Sensing (CS) combines sensing and compression in one operation, and thus provides an approach that could further improve the temporal resolution while correspondingly reducing the electron dose rate. Because the signal is measured in a compressive manner, fewer total measurements are required. When applied to TEM video capture, compressive imaging couled improve acquisition speed and reduce the electron dose rate. CS is a recent concept, and has come to the forefront due the seminal work of Candès [5]. Since the publication of Candès, there has been enormous growth in the application of CS and development of CS variants. For electron microscopy applications, the concept of CS has also been recently applied to electron tomography [6], and reduction of electron dose in scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) imaging [7]. To demonstrate the applicability of coded aperture CS video reconstruction for atomic level imaging, we simulate compressive sensing on observations of Pd nanoparticles and Ag nanoparticles during exposure to high temperatures and other environmental conditions

  11. Hydrodynamics of Explosion Experiments and Models

    CERN Document Server

    Kedrinskii, Valery K


    Hydronamics of Explosion presents the research results for the problems of underwater explosions and contains a detailed analysis of the structure and the parameters of the wave fields generated by explosions of cord and spiral charges, a description of the formation mechanisms for a wide range of cumulative flows at underwater explosions near the free surface, and the relevant mathematical models. Shock-wave transformation in bubbly liquids, shock-wave amplification due to collision and focusing, and the formation of bubble detonation waves in reactive bubbly liquids are studied in detail. Particular emphasis is placed on the investigation of wave processes in cavitating liquids, which incorporates the concepts of the strength of real liquids containing natural microinhomogeneities, the relaxation of tensile stress, and the cavitation fracture of a liquid as the inversion of its two-phase state under impulsive (explosive) loading. The problems are classed among essentially nonlinear processes that occur unde...

  12. [Explosion injuries - prehospital care and management]. (United States)

    Holsträter, Thorsten; Holsträter, Susanne; Rein, Daniela; Helm, Matthias; Hossfeld, Björn


    Explosion injuries are not restricted to war-like military conflicts or terrorist attacks. The emergency physician may also encounter such injuries in the private or industrial fields, injuries caused by fireworks or gas explosions. In such cases the injury patterns are especially complex and may consist of blunt and penetrating injuries as well as thermal damage. Emergency medical personnel must be prepared to cope with explosion trauma not only in individual cases but also in major casualty incidents (MCI). This necessitates a sound knowledge about the mechanisms and processes of an explosion as well as the particular pathophysiological relationships of explosion injuries in order to be able to initiate the best possible, guideline-conform trauma therapy. © Georg Thieme Verlag Stuttgart · New York.

  13. Independence day explosion on lovers key. (United States)

    Harding, Brett A; Wolf, Barbara C


    The display of fireworks is a popular holiday celebration in the United States. Because injuries due to recreational fireworks-related explosions among private consumers are relatively common, the sale of fireworks is regulated by the federal government and is also limited by state and local laws. In contrast, because fireworks display companies are under tight safety regulations, explosions in the professional pyrotechnics industry are uncommon occurrences, and the literature contains rare reports of injuries and fatalities resulting from such explosions. We report the 2003 Fourth of July commercial fireworks explosion on Lovers Key in southwest Florida that resulted in five fatalities. Events occurring during the investigation of the scene of this explosion illustrate the unique considerations and hazards for medicolegal death investigators, law enforcement and other investigative agencies. Additionally, this case demonstrates unusual aspects of the postmortem examinations performed on victims of fireworks-related incidents.

  14. Explosion interaction with water in a tube (United States)

    Homae, T.; Sugiyama, Y.; Wakabayashi, K.; Matsumura, T.; Nakayama, Y.


    As proposed and legislated in Japan, subsurface magazines have an explosive storage chamber, a horizontal passageway, and a vertical shaft for a vent. The authors found that a small amount of water on the floor of the storage chamber mitigated blast pressure remarkably. The mitigation mechanism has been examined more closely. To examine the effect of water, the present study assesses explosions in a transparent, square cross section, and a straight tube. A high-speed camera used to observe the tube interior. Blast pressure in and around the tube was also measured. Images obtained using the high-speed camera revealed that water inside the tube did not move after the explosion. Differences between cases of tubes without water and with water were unclear. Along with blast pressure measurements, these study results suggest that blast pressure mitigation by water occurs because of interaction between the explosion and the water near the explosion point.

  15. Local Explosion Monitoring using Rg (United States)

    O'Rourke, C. T.; Baker, G. E.


    Rg is the high-frequency fundamental-mode Rayleigh wave, which is only excited by near-surface events. As such, an Rg detection indicates that a seismic source is shallow, generally less than a few km depending on the velocity structure, and so likely man-made. Conversely, the absence of Rg can indicate that the source is deeper and so likely naturally occurring. We have developed a new automated method of detecting Rg arrivals from various explosion sources at local distances, and a process for estimating the likelihood that a source is not shallow when no Rg is detected. Our Rg detection method scans the spectrogram of a seismic signal for a characteristic frequency peak. We test this on the Bighorn Arch Seismic Experiment data, which includes earthquakes, active source explosions in boreholes, and mining explosions recorded on a dense network that spans the Bighorn Mountains and Powder River Basin. The Rg passbands used were 0.4-0.8 Hz for mining blasts and 0.8-1.2 Hz for borehole shots. We successfully detect Rg across the full network for most mining blasts. The lower-yield shots are detectable out to 50 km. We achieve methods that use cross-correlation to detect retrograde motion of the surface waves. Our method shows more complete detection across the network, especially in the Powder River Basin where Rg exhibits prograde motion that does not trigger the existing detector. We also estimate the likelihood that Rg would have been detected from a surface source, based on the measured P amplitude. For example, an event with a large P wave and no detectable Rg would have a high probability of being a deeper event, whereas we cannot confidently determine whether an event with a small P wave and no Rg detection is shallow or not. These results allow us to detect Rg arrivals, which indicate a shallow source, and to use the absence of Rg to estimate the likelihood that a source in a calibrated region is not shallow enough to be man-made.

  16. Isentropic compression studies using the NHMFL single turn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tasker, Douglas G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mielke, Charles [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rodriguez, George [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rickel, Dwight [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    Magnetic isentropic compression experiments (ICE) provide the most accurate shock free compression data for materials at megabar stresses. Recent ICE experiments performed on the Sandia Z-machine (Asay, 1999) and at the Los Alamos High Explosive Pulsed Power facility (Tasker, 2006) are providing our nation with data on material properties in extreme dynamic high stress environments. The LANL National High Magnetic Field Laboratory (NHMFL) can offer a less complex ICE experiment at high stresses (up to {approx}1Mbar) with a high sample throughput and relatively low cost. This is not to say that the NHMFL technique will replace the other methods but rather complement them. For example, NHMFL-ICE is ideal for the development of advanced diagnostics, e.g., to detect phase changes. We will discuss the physics of the NHMFL-ICE experiments and present data from the first proof-of-principle experiments that were performed in September 2010.

  17. Explosion probability of unexploded ordnance: expert beliefs. (United States)

    MacDonald, Jacqueline Anne; Small, Mitchell J; Morgan, M G


    This article reports on a study to quantify expert beliefs about the explosion probability of unexploded ordnance (UXO). Some 1,976 sites at closed military bases in the United States are contaminated with UXO and are slated for cleanup, at an estimated cost of $15-140 billion. Because no available technology can guarantee 100% removal of UXO, information about explosion probability is needed to assess the residual risks of civilian reuse of closed military bases and to make decisions about how much to invest in cleanup. This study elicited probability distributions for the chance of UXO explosion from 25 experts in explosive ordnance disposal, all of whom have had field experience in UXO identification and deactivation. The study considered six different scenarios: three different types of UXO handled in two different ways (one involving children and the other involving construction workers). We also asked the experts to rank by sensitivity to explosion 20 different kinds of UXO found at a case study site at Fort Ord, California. We found that the experts do not agree about the probability of UXO explosion, with significant differences among experts in their mean estimates of explosion probabilities and in the amount of uncertainty that they express in their estimates. In three of the six scenarios, the divergence was so great that the average of all the expert probability distributions was statistically indistinguishable from a uniform (0, 1) distribution-suggesting that the sum of expert opinion provides no information at all about the explosion risk. The experts' opinions on the relative sensitivity to explosion of the 20 UXO items also diverged. The average correlation between rankings of any pair of experts was 0.41, which, statistically, is barely significant (p= 0.049) at the 95% confidence level. Thus, one expert's rankings provide little predictive information about another's rankings. The lack of consensus among experts suggests that empirical studies

  18. Nuclear explosives testing readiness evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valk, T.C.


    This readiness evaluation considers hole selection and characterization, verification, containment issues, nuclear explosive safety studies, test authorities, event operations planning, canister-rack preparation, site preparation, diagnostic equipment setup, device assembly facilities and processes, device delivery and insertion, emplacement, stemming, control room activities, readiness briefing, arming and firing, test execution, emergency response and reentry, and post event analysis to include device diagnostics, nuclear chemistry, and containment. This survey concludes that the LLNL program and its supporting contractors could execute an event within six months of notification, and a second event within the following six months, given the NET group`s evaluation and the following three restraints: (1) FY94 (and subsequent year) funding is essentially constant with FY93, (2) Preliminary work for the initial event is completed to the historical sic months status, (3) Critical personnel, currently working in dual use technologies, would be recallable as needed.

  19. Compressive Spectral Renormalization Method

    CERN Document Server

    Bayindir, Cihan


    In this paper a novel numerical scheme for finding the sparse self-localized states of a nonlinear system of equations with missing spectral data is introduced. As in the Petviashivili's and the spectral renormalization method, the governing equation is transformed into Fourier domain, but the iterations are performed for far fewer number of spectral components (M) than classical versions of the these methods with higher number of spectral components (N). After the converge criteria is achieved for M components, N component signal is reconstructed from M components by using the l1 minimization technique of the compressive sampling. This method can be named as compressive spectral renormalization (CSRM) method. The main advantage of the CSRM is that, it is capable of finding the sparse self-localized states of the evolution equation(s) with many spectral data missing.

  20. Numerical modelling of the effect of using multi-explosives on the explosive forming of steel cones


    De Vuyst, T; Kong, K.; Djordjevic, N.; Vignjevic, R.; Campbell, JC; Hughes, K


    Modelling and analysis of underwater explosive forming process by using FEM and SPH formulation is presented in this work. The explosive forming of a steel cone is studied. The model setup includes a low carbon steel plate, plate holder, forming die as well as water and C4 explosive. The effect of multiple explosives on rate of targets deformation has been studied. Four different multi-explosives models have been developed and compared to the single explosive model. The formability of the ste...

  1. MAPS Image Compression. (United States)


    SUMMARY MICRO-ADAPTIVE PICTURE SEQUENCING (MAPS) is a digital image data compression technique which originated at Control Data Corporation and underwent...w w Figure 1-3. Test Imagery Set 6 L.( The MAPS process is clearly sensitive to contrast but not to the Mean gray scale in the image . Thus, all images ...BUFFERED WORD TRANSFER RATES image processing Typical computa- tional functions which can be solved e DUAL 16-BIT INTERNAL DATA BUS SYSTEM with this

  2. Differential Privacy with Compression


    Zhou, Shuheng; Ligett, Katrina; Wasserman, Larry


    This work studies formal utility and privacy guarantees for a simple multiplicative database transformation, where the data are compressed by a random linear or affine transformation, reducing the number of data records substantially, while preserving the number of original input variables. We provide an analysis framework inspired by a recent concept known as differential privacy (Dwork 06). Our goal is to show that, despite the general difficulty of achieving the differential privacy guaran...

  3. Compressibility of solids (United States)

    Vinet, P.; Ferrante, J.; Rose, J. H.; Smith, J. R.


    A universal form is proposed for the equation of state (EOS) of solids. Good agreement is found for a variety of test data. The form of the EOS is used to suggest a method of data analysis, which is applied to materials of geophysical interest. The isothermal bulk modulus is discussed as a function of the volume and of the pressure. The isothermal compression curves for materials of geophysical interest are examined.

  4. Could a nearby supernova explosion have caused a mass extinction? (United States)

    Ellis, J; Schramm, D N


    We examine the possibility that a nearby supernova explosion could have caused one or more of the mass extinctions identified by paleontologists. We discuss the possible rate of such events in the light of the recent suggested identification of Geminga as a supernova remnant less than 100 parsec (pc) away and the discovery of a millisecond pulsar about 150 pc away and observations of SN 1987A. The fluxes of gamma-radiation and charged cosmic rays on the Earth are estimated, and their effects on the Earth's ozone layer are discussed. A supernova explosion of the order of 10 pc away could be expected as often as every few hundred million years and could destroy the ozone layer for hundreds of years, letting in potentially lethal solar ultraviolet radiation. In addition to effects on land ecology, this could entail mass destruction of plankton and reef communities, with disastrous consequences for marine life as well. A supernova extinction should be distinguishable from a meteorite impact such as the one that presumably killed the dinosaurs at the "KT boundary." The recent argument that the KT event was exceedingly large and thus quite rare supports the need for other catastrophic events.

  5. Hydrogeomorphic effects of explosive volcanic eruptions on drainage basins (United States)

    Pierson, Thomas C.; Major, Jon J.


    Explosive eruptions can severely disturb landscapes downwind or downstream of volcanoes by damaging vegetation and depositing large volumes of erodible fragmental material. As a result, fluxes of water and sediment in affected drainage basins can increase dramatically. System-disturbing processes associated with explosive eruptions include tephra fall, pyroclastic density currents, debris avalanches, and lahars—processes that have greater impacts on water and sediment discharges than lava-flow emplacement. Geo-morphic responses to such disturbances can extend far downstream, persist for decades, and be hazardous. The severity of disturbances to a drainage basin is a function of the specific volcanic process acting, as well as distance from the volcano and magnitude of the eruption. Postdisturbance unit-area sediment yields are among the world's highest; such yields commonly result in abundant redeposition of sand and gravel in distal river reaches, which causes severe channel aggradation and instability. Response to volcanic disturbance can result in socioeconomic consequences more damaging than the direct impacts of the eruption itself.

  6. Could a nearby supernova explosion have caused a mass extinction?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, J. [European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland); Schramm, D.N. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States)]|[Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States)


    We examine the possibility that a nearby supernova explosion could have caused one or more of the mass extinctions identified by paleontologists. We discuss the possible rate of such events in the light of the recent suggested identification of Geminga as a supernova remnant less than 100 parsec (pc) away and the discovery of a millisecond pulsar about 150 pc away and observations of SN 1987A. The fluxes of {gamma}-radiation and charged cosmic rays on the Earth are estimated, and their effects on the Earth`s ozone layer are discussed. A supernova explosion of the order of 10 pc away could be expected as often as every few hundred million years and could destroy the ozone layer for hundreds of years, letting in potentially lethal solar ultraviolet radiation. In addition to effects on land ecology, this could entail mass destruction of plankton and reef communities, with disastrous consequences for marine life as well. A supernova extinction should be distinguishable from a meteorite impact such as the one that presumably killed the dinosaurs at the {open_quotes}KT boundary.{close_quotes} The recent argument that the KT event was exceedingly large and thus quite rare supports the need for other catastrophic events. 24 refs.

  7. Could a nearby supernova explosion have caused a mass extinction?

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, Jonathan Richard


    We examine the possibility that a nearby supernova explosion could have caused one or more of the mass extinctions identified by palaeontologists. We discuss the likely rate of such events in the light of the recent identification of Geminga as a supernova remnant less than 100 pc away and the discovery of a millisecond pulsar about 150 pc away, and observations of SN 1987A. The fluxes of $\\gamma$ radiation and charged cosmic rays on the Earth are estimated, and their effects on the Earth's ozone layer discussed. A supernova explosion of the order of 10 pc away could be expected every few hundred million years, and could destroy the ozone layer for hundreds of years, letting in potentially lethal solar ultraviolet radiation. In addition to effects on land ecology, this could entail mass destruction of plankton and reef communities, with disastrous consequences for marine life as well. A supernova extinction should be distinguishable from a meteorite impact such as the one that presumably killed the dinosaurs.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galen Gisler


    Full Text Available Kick-em Jenny, in the Eastern Caribbean, is a submerged volcanic cone that has erupted a dozen or more times since its discovery in 1939. The most likely hazard posed by this volcano is to shipping in the immediate vicinity (through volcanic missiles or loss-of-buoyancy, but it is of interest to estimate upper limits on tsunamis that might be produced by a catastrophic explosive eruption. To this end, we have performed two-dimensional simulations of such an event in a geometry resembling that of Kick-em Jenny with our SAGE adaptive mesh Eulerian multifluid compressible hydrocode. We use realistic equations of state for air, water, and basalt, and follow the event from the initial explosive eruption, through the generation of a transient water cavity and the propagation of waves away from the site. We find that even for extremely catastrophic explosive eruptions, tsunamis from Kick-em Jenny are unlikely to pose significant danger to nearby islands. For comparison, we have also performed simulations of explosive eruptions at the much larger shield volcano Vailulu'u in the Samoan chain, where the greater energy available can produce a more impressive wave. In general, however, we conclude that explosive eruptions do not couple well to water waves. The waves that are produced from such events are turbulent and highly dissipative, and don't propagate well. This is consistent with what we have found previously in simulations of asteroid-impact generated tsunamis. Non-explosive events, however, such as landslides or gas hydrate releases, do couple well to waves, and our simulations of tsunamis generated by sub- aerial and sub-aqueous landslides demonstrate this.

  9. Two-dimensional simulations of explosive eruptions of Kick-em Jenny and other submarine volcanos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gisler, Galen R.; Weaver, R. P. (Robert P.); Mader, Charles L.; Gittings, M. L. (Michael L.)


    Kick-em Jenny, in the Eastern Caribbean, is a submerged volcanic cone that has erupted a dozen or more times since its discovery in 1939. The most likely hazard posed by this volcano is to shipping in the immediate vicinity (through volcanic missiles or loss-of-buoyancy), but it is of interest to estimate upper limits on tsunamis that might be produced by a catastrophic explosive eruption. To this end, we have performed two-dimensional simulations of such an event in a geometry resembling that of Kick-em Jenny with our SAGE adaptive mesh Eulerian multifluid compressible hydrocode. We use realistic equations of state for air, water, and basalt, and follow the event from the initial explosive eruption, through the generation of a transient water cavity and the propagation of waves away from the site. We find that even for extremely catastrophic explosive eruptions, tsunamis from Kick-em Jenny are unlikely to pose significant danger to nearby islands. For comparison, we have also performed simulations of explosive eruptions at the much larger shield volcano Vailuluu in the Samoan chain, where the greater energy available can produce a more impressive wave. In general, however, we conclude that explosive eruptions do not couple well to water waves. The waves that are produced from such events are turbulent and highly dissipative, and don't propagate well. This is consistent with what we have found previously in simulations of asteroid-impact generated tsunamis. Non-explosive events, however, such as landslides or gas hydrate releases, do couple well to waves, and our simulations of tsunamis generated by subaerial and sub-aqueous landslides demonstrate this.

  10. Compression Amplification in Hearing Aids. (United States)

    Hickson, L M


    In this tutorial, the characteristics of compression amplification in analog hearing aids and the experimental results obtained with single- and multichannel compression amplification systems are reviewed. Single-channel compression systems are classified into four broad groups on the basis of their static and dynamic characteristics: compression limiters, syllabic compressors, automatic volume control (AVC) systems, and "others," those with adaptive recovery time (aRT) and dual frontend automatic gain control (AGC) (Moore, 1990; Moore & Glasberg, 1988). Multichannel compression devices have, to date, used a variety of different types of compression, with syllabic compression in each frequency channel being the most popular. Experimental evidence suggests that compression limiting is generally superior to peak clipping as a means of controlling output, except for some individuals with severe to profound hearing loss. There is some evidence that syllabic compression and AVC systems enhance speech perception in quiet compared to conventional linear amplification; however, this improvement is not consistently maintained in the presence of background noise. The majority of recent research has focused on multichannel compression, and favorable results have been obtained with some systems. Research findings about the efficacy of using compression amplification for people with hearing loss have been extremely variable, and possible reasons for this are discussed.

  11. Fast Chromatographic Method for Explosive Profiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre-Hugues Stefanuto


    Full Text Available Security control is becoming a major global issue in strategic locations, such as airports, official buildings, and transit stations. The agencies responsible for public security need powerful and sensitive tools to detect warfare agents and explosives. Volatile signature detection is one of the fastest and easiest ways to achieve this task. However, explosive chemicals have low volatility making their detection challenging. In this research, we developed and evaluated fast chromatographic methods to improve the characterization of volatile signatures from explosives samples. The headspace of explosives was sampled with solid phase micro-extraction fiber (SPME. Following this step, classical gas chromatography (GC and comprehensive two-dimensional GC (GC×GC were used for analysis. A fast GC approach allows the elution temperature of each analyte to be decreased, resulting in decreased thermal degradation of sensitive compounds (e.g., nitro explosives. Using fast GC×GC, the limit of detection is further decreased based on the cryo-focusing effect of the modulator. Sampling of explosives and chromatographic separation were optimized, and the methods then applied to commercial explosives samples. Implementation of fast GC methods will be valuable in the future for defense and security forensics applications.

  12. Aeronet Solar Flux (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SolRad-Net (Solar Radiation Network) is an established network of ground-based sensors providing high-frequency solar flux measurements in quasi-realtime to the...

  13. Net Ecosystem Carbon Flux (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Net Ecosystem Carbon Flux is defined as the year-over-year change in Total Ecosystem Carbon Stock, or the net rate of carbon exchange between an ecosystem and the...

  14. Nitrous Oxide Flux (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Nitrous Oxide (N20) flux is the net rate of nitrous oxide exchange between an ecosystem and the atmosphere. Data of this variable were generated by the USGS...

  15. Flux in Tallinn

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae


    Rahvusvahelise elektroonilise kunsti sümpoosioni ISEA2004 klubiõhtu "Flux in Tallinn" klubis Bon Bon. Eestit esindasid Ropotator, Ars Intel Inc., Urmas Puhkan, Joel Tammik, Taavi Tulev (pseud. Wochtzchee). Klubiõhtu koordinaator Andres Lõo

  16. Flux Emergence (Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark C. M. Cheung


    Full Text Available Magnetic flux emergence from the solar convection zone into the overlying atmosphere is the driver of a diverse range of phenomena associated with solar activity. In this article, we introduce theoretical concepts central to the study of flux emergence and discuss how the inclusion of different physical effects (e.g., magnetic buoyancy, magnetoconvection, reconnection, magnetic twist, interaction with ambient field in models impact the evolution of the emerging field and plasma.

  17. Generic flux coupling analysis


    Reimers, Arne; Goldstein, Y.; Bockmayr, A.


    htmlabstractFlux coupling analysis (FCA) has become a useful tool for aiding metabolic reconstructions and guiding genetic manipulations. Originally, it was introduced for constraint-based models of metabolic networks that are based on the steady-state assumption. Recently, we have shown that the steady-state assumption can be replaced by a weaker lattice-theoretic property related to the supports of metabolic fluxes. In this paper, we further extend our approach and develop an efficient algo...

  18. Plasma compression in magnetic reconnection regions in the solar corona

    CERN Document Server

    Provornikova, Elena; Lukin, Vyacheslav S


    It has been proposed that particles bouncing between magnetized flows converging in a reconnection region can be accelerated by the first order Fermi mechanism. Analytical considerations of this mechanism have shown that the spectral index of accelerated particles is related to the total plasma compression within the reconnection region similarly to the case of diffusive shock acceleration mechanism. As a first step to investigate the efficiency of Fermi acceleration in reconnection regions in producing hard energy spectra of particles in the solar corona, we explore the degree of plasma compression that can be achieved at reconnection sites. In particular, we aim to determine the conditions for the strong compressions to form. Using a two-dimensional resistive MHD numerical model we consider a set of magnetic field configurations where magnetic reconnection can occur including a Harris current sheet, a force-free current sheet, and two merging flux ropes. Plasma parameters are taken to be characteristic of t...

  19. Metal explosion chambers: designing, manufacturing, application (United States)

    Stoyanovskii, O. I.; Zlobin, B. S.; Shtertser, A. A.; Meshcheryakov, Y. P.


    Designing of explosion chambers is based on research investigations of the chamber body stress-strain state, which is determined by numerical computation and experimentally by the strain gage technique. Studies show that chamber bottoms are the most loaded elements, and maximal stresses arise in chamber poles. Increasing the shell thickness around poles by welding-in an insert is a simple and saving way to solve this problem. There are structural solutions, enabling reliable hermetic closure and preventing leakage of detonation products from the chamber. Explosion chambers are employed in scientific research and in different industrial applications: explosive welding and hardening, synthesis of new materials, disposal of expired ammunition, and etc.

  20. Wave dynamics of electric explosion in solids (United States)

    Burkin, V. V.; Kuznetsova, N. S.; Lopatin, V. V.


    A mathematical model of an electric explosion is developed that consistently describes the expansion of the explosion channel with regard to the parameters of the discharge circuit of a high-voltage pulse generator, radiation, and propagation of stress waves in a solid. The dynamics of conversion of the stored energy to a wave and the formation of mechanical stresses due to electric explosion in a solid immersed in a liquid are considered. In the context of electro-discharge destruction of hard materials, the resulting stress field and the relationship between the discharge circuit parameters and characteristics of the wave are analyzed and the most efficient discharge modes are determined.

  1. The mathematical modeling of supernova explosion (United States)

    Denisov, A. A.; Koldoba, A. V.; Poveshchenko, Iu. A.; Popov, Iu. P.; Chechetkin, V. M.

    An essentially two-dimensional model of supernova explosion is developed, with emphasis on the role of rotation in the thermonuclear explosion process. Attention is given to a star with a carbon-oxygen core, which is transformed into a nickel core as a result of nuclear reaction. In this case, the development of thermal instability leads to the generation of a detonation wave propagating to the periphery of the star. Rapid rotation is found to produce a strong asymmetry of the hydrodynamic processs of the explosion.

  2. Water waves generated by underwater explosion

    CERN Document Server

    Mehaute, Bernard Le


    This is the first book on explosion-generated water waves. It presents the theoretical foundations and experimental results of the generation and propagation of impulsively generated waves resulting from underwater explosions. Many of the theories and concepts presented herein are applicable to other types of water waves, in particular, tsunamis and waves generated by the fall of a meteorite. Linear and nonlinear theories, as well as experimental calibrations, are presented for cases of deep and shallow water explosions. Propagation of transient waves on dissipative, nonuniform bathymetries to

  3. Explosive Detection and Identification by PGNAA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E.H. Seabury; A.J. Caffrey


    The goal of this project was to determine the feasibility of using field-portable prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) to detect and identify explosives in improvised nuclear devices (INDs). The studies were carried out using the Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) code developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The model results were tested experimentally using explosive simulants and the PINS PGNAA system developed at Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The results of the MCNP calculations and PINS measurements are presented in this report. The calculations and measurements were in good agreement and indicate that most explosives are readily distinguishable from one another.

  4. Plastic deformation and wave formation on the interface of metals welded by ultrasound-assisted explosive welding (United States)

    Kuz’min, E. V.; Kuz’min, S. V.; Lysak, V. I.; Lata, A. N.


    This paper presents the influence of the effect of ultrasound on the wave formation and plastic deformation in the metals welded by ultrasound-assisted explosive welding. It has been established that the influence of high-frequency acoustic waves on the metal leads to a reduction of the dynamic yield stress, which in turn leads to changes in the properties of the surface layers of metal and in the conditions of bonding between the collided plates upon explosive welding. It has been shown that the changes in the length and amplitude of waves that arise in the weld joint upon the explosive welding with the simultaneous action of ultrasonic vibrations is connected with a decrease in the magnitude of the deforming pulse and time of action of the compressive stresses that exceed the dynamic yield stress behind the point of contact.

  5. Study of the initiation and the escalade phases of a vapour explosion; Etude de la phase d'initiation et d'escalade d'une explosion de vapeur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamome, J


    The steam explosion triggering issue is discussed here by studying at the thermal fragmentation (small pressure perturbation) of a hot water droplet surrounded by a stable steam film. Fragmentation seems to be the consequence of local contacts between the droplet and the coolant. However, the exact mechanism altering the droplet following the above mentioned contacts is uncertain. After a study of the proportions in place, we realized a contact can fragment the droplet in a very short period of time. Therefore, we adopted an approach considering the contact as the explosion criteria. In order to validate this approach, we researched the explosion levels of the experimental variations based on the surrounding pressure and on the coolant's temperature. The model found again the experimental variations, the levels were found again with some uncertainty. The contact is obtained by 2 mechanisms inducing liquid's proximity: a steam film global compression due to the disturbance and the amplification of the interface defaults between the coolant and the steam. It appears it is the mechanism of global compression that explains mostly the experimental variations. Following these results, we conducted model's extrapolations in order to come as close as possible of the conditions in which steam explosion can occur on an industrial scale (i.e. in the water pressured nuclear reactors). (author)

  6. Mammographic compression in Asian women (United States)

    Lau, Susie; Abdul Aziz, Yang Faridah; Ng, Kwan Hoong


    Objectives To investigate: (1) the variability of mammographic compression parameters amongst Asian women; and (2) the effects of reducing compression force on image quality and mean glandular dose (MGD) in Asian women based on phantom study. Methods We retrospectively collected 15818 raw digital mammograms from 3772 Asian women aged 35–80 years who underwent screening or diagnostic mammography between Jan 2012 and Dec 2014 at our center. The mammograms were processed using a volumetric breast density (VBD) measurement software (Volpara) to assess compression force, compression pressure, compressed breast thickness (CBT), breast volume, VBD and MGD against breast contact area. The effects of reducing compression force on image quality and MGD were also evaluated based on measurement obtained from 105 Asian women, as well as using the RMI156 Mammographic Accreditation Phantom and polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) slabs. Results Compression force, compression pressure, CBT, breast volume, VBD and MGD correlated significantly with breast contact area (pimage quality (p>0.05). Conclusions Force-standardized protocol led to widely variable compression parameters in Asian women. Based on phantom study, it is feasible to reduce compression force up to 32.5% with minimal effects on image quality and MGD. PMID:28419125

  7. International magnetic pulse compression (United States)

    Kirbie, H. C.; Newton, M. A.; Siemens, P. D.


    Although pulsed-power engineering traditionally has been practiced by a fairly small, close community in the areas of defense and energy research, it is becoming more common in high-power, high-energy commercial pursuits such as material processing and lasers. This paper is a synopsis of the Feb. 12-14, 1990 workshop on magnetic switching as it applies primarily to pulse compression (power transformation). During the course of the Workshop at Granlibakken, a great deal of information was amassed and a keen insight into both the problems and opportunities as to the use of this switching approach was developed. The segmented workshop format proved ideal for identifying key aspects affecting optimum performance in a variety of applications. Individual groups of experts addressed network and system modeling, magnetic materials, power conditioning, core cooling and dielectrics, and finally circuits and application. At the end, they came together to consolidate their input and formulate the workshop's conclusions, identifying roadblocks or suggesting research projects, particularly as they apply to magnetic switching's trump card - its high-average-power-handling capability (at least on a burst-mode basis). The workshop was especially productive both in the quality and quantity of information transfer in an environment conducive to a free and open exchange of ideas. We will not delve into the organization proper of this meeting, rather we wish to commend to the interested reader this volume, which provides the definitive and most up-to-date compilation on the subject of magnetic pulse compression from underlying principles to current state of the art as well as the prognosis for the future of magnetic pulse compression as a consensus of the workshop's organizers and participants.

  8. Compressive Transient Imaging

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Qilin


    High resolution transient/3D imaging technology is of high interest in both scientific research and commercial application. Nowadays, all of the transient imaging methods suffer from low resolution or time consuming mechanical scanning. We proposed a new method based on TCSPC and Compressive Sensing to achieve a high resolution transient imaging with a several seconds capturing process. Picosecond laser sends a serious of equal interval pulse while synchronized SPAD camera\\'s detecting gate window has a precise phase delay at each cycle. After capturing enough points, we are able to make up a whole signal. By inserting a DMD device into the system, we are able to modulate all the frames of data using binary random patterns to reconstruct a super resolution transient/3D image later. Because the low fill factor of SPAD sensor will make a compressive sensing scenario ill-conditioned, We designed and fabricated a diffractive microlens array. We proposed a new CS reconstruction algorithm which is able to denoise at the same time for the measurements suffering from Poisson noise. Instead of a single SPAD senor, we chose a SPAD array because it can drastically reduce the requirement for the number of measurements and its reconstruction time. Further more, it not easy to reconstruct a high resolution image with only one single sensor while for an array, it just needs to reconstruct small patches and a few measurements. In this thesis, we evaluated the reconstruction methods using both clean measurements and the version corrupted by Poisson noise. The results show how the integration over the layers influence the image quality and our algorithm works well while the measurements suffer from non-trival Poisson noise. It\\'s a breakthrough in the areas of both transient imaging and compressive sensing.

  9. Fast Compressive Tracking. (United States)

    Zhang, Kaihua; Zhang, Lei; Yang, Ming-Hsuan


    It is a challenging task to develop effective and efficient appearance models for robust object tracking due to factors such as pose variation, illumination change, occlusion, and motion blur. Existing online tracking algorithms often update models with samples from observations in recent frames. Despite much success has been demonstrated, numerous issues remain to be addressed. First, while these adaptive appearance models are data-dependent, there does not exist sufficient amount of data for online algorithms to learn at the outset. Second, online tracking algorithms often encounter the drift problems. As a result of self-taught learning, misaligned samples are likely to be added and degrade the appearance models. In this paper, we propose a simple yet effective and efficient tracking algorithm with an appearance model based on features extracted from a multiscale image feature space with data-independent basis. The proposed appearance model employs non-adaptive random projections that preserve the structure of the image feature space of objects. A very sparse measurement matrix is constructed to efficiently extract the features for the appearance model. We compress sample images of the foreground target and the background using the same sparse measurement matrix. The tracking task is formulated as a binary classification via a naive Bayes classifier with online update in the compressed domain. A coarse-to-fine search strategy is adopted to further reduce the computational complexity in the detection procedure. The proposed compressive tracking algorithm runs in real-time and performs favorably against state-of-the-art methods on challenging sequences in terms of efficiency, accuracy and robustness.

  10. Formation of a spall cavity in a dielectric during electrical explosion (United States)

    Burkin, V. V.; Kuznetsova, N. S.; Lopatin, V. V.


    The wave dynamics of the stress-strain state of a solid dielectric during electrical explosion near its surface is analyzed. A quantitative model of an electrical explosion is developed which describes the operation of a high-voltage generator, the expansion of the discharge channel, and the generation and distribution of shock-wave perturbations. Two mechanisms of formation of a spall cavity on the surface of the solid are considered: the less energetic mechanism implemented by means of the waves reflected from the surface, and the more energetic mechanism in which result from the action of a direct wave of compressive stresses. The effects of the reflection surface shape and the mode of energy input into the channel on the possible fracture pattern are estimated.

  11. Metal Hydride Compression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Terry A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Bowman, Robert [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Smith, Barton [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Anovitz, Lawrence [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jensen, Craig [Hawaii Hydrogen Carriers LLC, Honolulu, HI (United States)


    Conventional hydrogen compressors often contribute over half of the cost of hydrogen stations, have poor reliability, and have insufficient flow rates for a mature FCEV market. Fatigue associated with their moving parts including cracking of diaphragms and failure of seal leads to failure in conventional compressors, which is exacerbated by the repeated starts and stops expected at fueling stations. Furthermore, the conventional lubrication of these compressors with oil is generally unacceptable at fueling stations due to potential fuel contamination. Metal hydride (MH) technology offers a very good alternative to both conventional (mechanical) and newly developed (electrochemical, ionic liquid pistons) methods of hydrogen compression. Advantages of MH compression include simplicity in design and operation, absence of moving parts, compactness, safety and reliability, and the possibility to utilize waste industrial heat to power the compressor. Beyond conventional H2 supplies of pipelines or tanker trucks, another attractive scenario is the on-site generating, pressuring and delivering pure H2 at pressure (≥ 875 bar) for refueling vehicles at electrolysis, wind, or solar generating production facilities in distributed locations that are too remote or widely distributed for cost effective bulk transport. MH hydrogen compression utilizes a reversible heat-driven interaction of a hydride-forming metal alloy with hydrogen gas to form the MH phase and is a promising process for hydrogen energy applications [1,2]. To deliver hydrogen continuously, each stage of the compressor must consist of multiple MH beds with synchronized hydrogenation & dehydrogenation cycles. Multistage pressurization allows achievement of greater compression ratios using reduced temperature swings compared to single stage compressors. The objectives of this project are to investigate and demonstrate on a laboratory scale a two-stage MH hydrogen (H2) gas compressor with a

  12. Analysis by compression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meredith, David

    MEL is a geometric music encoding language designed to allow for musical objects to be encoded parsimoniously as sets of points in pitch-time space, generated by performing geometric transformations on component patterns. MEL has been implemented in Java and coupled with the SIATEC pattern discov...... discovery algorithm to allow for compact encodings to be generated automatically from in extenso note lists. The MEL-SIATEC system is founded on the belief that music analysis and music perception can be modelled as the compression of in extenso descriptions of musical objects....

  13. Compressive Fatigue in Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clorius, Christian Odin; Pedersen, Martin Bo Uhre; Hoffmeyer, Preben


    An investigation of fatigue failure in wood subjected to load cycles in compression parallel to grain is presented. Small clear specimens of spruce are taken to failure in square wave formed fatigue loading at a stress excitation level corresponding to 80% of the short term strength. Four...... frequencies ranging from 0.01 Hz to 10 Hz are used. The number of cycles to failure is found to be a poor measure of the fatigue performance of wood. Creep, maximum strain, stiffness and work are monitored throughout the fatigue tests. Accumulated creep is suggested identified with damage and a correlation...

  14. The flux-flux correlation function for anharmonic barriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goussev, Arseni; Schubert, Roman; Waalkens, Holger; Wiggins, Stephen


    The flux-flux correlation function formalism is a standard and widely used approach for the computation of reaction rates. In this paper we introduce a method to compute the classical and quantum flux-flux correlation functions for anharmonic barriers essentially analytically through the use of the

  15. 30 CFR 75.1314 - Sheathed explosive units. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sheathed explosive units. 75.1314 Section 75... explosive units. (a) A separate instantaneous detonator shall be used to fire each sheathed explosive unit. (b) Sheathed explosive units shall be primed and placed in position for firing only by a qualified...

  16. Detection of Nuclear Explosions Using Infrasound Techniques

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Christie, D. R; Kennett, B. L


    The performance of typical IMS infrasound monitoring stations has been examined in detail in order to evaluate the detection capability of the global network for regional and distant nuclear explosions...

  17. Isolator fragmentation and explosive initiation tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickson, Peter [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Rae, Philip John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Foley, Timothy J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Novak, Alan M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Armstrong, Christopher Lee [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Baca, Eva V. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Gunderson, Jake Alfred [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    Three tests were conducted to evaluate the effects of firing an isolator in proximity to a barrier or explosive charge. The tests with explosive were conducted without a barrier, on the basis that since any barrier will reduce the shock transmitted to the explosive, bare explosive represents the worst-case from an inadvertent initiation perspective. No reaction was observed. The shock caused by the impact of a representative plastic material on both bare and cased PBX 9501 is calculated in the worst-case, 1-D limit, and the known shock response of the HE is used to estimate minimum run-to-detonation lengths. The estimates demonstrate that even 1-D impacts would not be of concern and that, accordingly, the divergent shocks due to isolator fragment impact are of no concern as initiating stimuli.

  18. Electronic cigarette explosions involving the oral cavity. (United States)

    Harrison, Rebecca; Hicklin, David


    The use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) is a rapidly growing trend throughout the United States. E-cigarettes have been linked to the risk of causing explosion and fire. Data are limited on the associated health hazards of e-cigarette use, particularly long-term effects, and available information often presents conflicting conclusions. In addition, an e-cigarette explosion and fire can pose a unique treatment challenge to the dental care provider because the oral cavity may be affected heavily. In this particular case, the patient's injuries included intraoral burns, luxation injuries, and alveolar fractures. This case report aims to help clinicians gain an increased knowledge about e-cigarette design, use, and risks; discuss the risk of spontaneous failure and explosion of e-cigarettes with patients; and understand the treatment challenges posed by an e-cigarette explosion. Copyright © 2016 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Explosives Detection and Identification by PGNAA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. H. Seabury; A. J. Caffrey


    The feasibility of using field-portable prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) to detect and identify explosives in improvised nuclear devices has been studied computationally, using the Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) code developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The Monte Carlo results, in turn were tested experimentally using explosive simulants and the PINS PGNAA system developed at Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The results of the MCNP calculations and PINS measurements have been previously reported. In this report we describe measurements performed on actual explosives and compare the results with calculations. The calculations and measurements were in good agreement and indicate that most explosives are readily distinguishable from one another by PGNAA

  20. Highly explosive nanosilicon-based composite materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clement, D.; Diener, J.; Gross, E.; Kuenzner, N.; Kovalev, D. [Technical University of Munich, Physics Department, James-Franck-Str., 85747 Garching (Germany); Timoshenko, V.Yu. [Moscow State M.V. Lomonosov University, Physics Department, 119899 Moscow (Russian Federation)


    We present a highly explosive binary system based on porous silicon layers with their pores filled with solid oxidizers. The porous layers are produced by a standard electrochemical etching process and exhibit properties that are different from other energetic materials. Its production is completely compatible with the standard silicon technology and full bulk silicon wafers can be processed and therefore a large number of explosive elements can be produced simultaneously. The application-relevant parameters: the efficiency and the long-term stability of various porous silicon/oxidizer systems have been studied in details. Structural properties of porous silicon, its surface termination, the atomic ratio of silicon to oxygen and the chosen oxidizers were optimized to achieve the highest efficiency of the explosive reaction. This explosive system reveals various possible applications in different industrial fields, e.g. as a novel, very fast airbag igniter. (copyright 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  1. Hamiltonian approach for explosive percolation. (United States)

    Moreira, A A; Oliveira, E A; Reis, S D S; Herrmann, H J; Andrade, J S


    We present a cluster growth process that provides a clear connection between equilibrium statistical mechanics and an explosive percolation model similar to the one recently proposed by D. Achlioptas [Science 323, 1453 (2009)]. We show that the following two ingredients are sufficient for obtaining an abrupt (first-order) transition in the fraction of the system occupied by the largest cluster: (i) the size of all growing clusters should be kept approximately the same, and (ii) the inclusion of merging bonds (i.e., bonds connecting vertices in different clusters) should dominate with respect to the redundant bonds (i.e., bonds connecting vertices in the same cluster). Moreover, in the extreme limit where only merging bonds are present, a complete enumeration scheme based on treelike graphs can be used to obtain an exact solution of our model that displays a first-order transition. Finally, the presented mechanism can be viewed as a generalization of standard percolation that discloses a family of models with potential application in growth and fragmentation processes of real network systems.

  2. Regional Seismic Methods of Identifying Explosions (United States)

    Walter, W. R.; Ford, S. R.; Pasyanos, M.; Pyle, M. L.; Hauk, T. F.


    A lesson from the 2006, 2009 and 2013 DPRK declared nuclear explosion Ms:mb observations is that our historic collection of data may not be representative of future nuclear test signatures (e.g. Selby et al., 2012). To have confidence in identifying future explosions amongst the background of other seismic signals, we need to put our empirical methods on a firmer physical footing. Here we review the two of the main identification methods: 1) P/S ratios and 2) Moment Tensor techniques, which can be applied at the regional distance (200-1600 km) to very small events, improving nuclear explosion monitoring and confidence in verifying compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). Amplitude ratios of seismic P-to-S waves at sufficiently high frequencies (~>2 Hz) can identify explosions among a background of natural earthquakes (e.g. Walter et al., 1995). However the physical basis for the generation of explosion S-waves, and therefore the predictability of this P/S technique as a function of event properties such as size, depth, geology and path, remains incompletely understood. Calculated intermediate period (10-100s) waveforms from regional 1-D models can match data and provide moment tensor results that separate explosions from earthquakes and cavity collapses (e.g. Ford et al. 2009). However it has long been observed that some nuclear tests produce large Love waves and reversed Rayleigh waves that complicate moment tensor modeling. Again the physical basis for the generation of these effects from explosions remains incompletely understood. We are re-examining regional seismic data from a variety of nuclear test sites including the DPRK and the former Nevada Test Site (now the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS)). Newer relative amplitude techniques can be employed to better quantify differences between explosions and used to understand those differences in term of depth, media and other properties. We are also making use of the Source Physics

  3. Effects of Explosions in Underground Magazines (United States)


    values of confined explosion gas pressure for PETN in air at sea level.. 23 2.3 An example of the scaling procedure employed to predict peak pressures in...compared to -thoso currently eowployed in the 1980 Department of )fise, O0D) - Amunititon and Explosivo Safety Standards (Refotetce 1). The details are...comparisons of Proctor’s (1974, Reference 5) theoretical predictions with experimontal data for TNT and PETN explosives. Stromsoo (Reference 8) calculated

  4. Non-shock initiation of explosives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Asay, B. W


    ... explosives. Before 1942, explosives were used in munitions and commercial pursuits that demanded proper chemistry and confinement for the necessary effect, but little else. The needs and requirements of the Manhattan project were of a much more precise and specific nature. Spatial and temporal specifications were reduced from centimeters and milliseconds to micrometers and nanoseconds. New theory and computational tools were required along with a raft of new experimental techniques and novel ways of interpreting...

  5. Weapons Experiments Division Explosives Operations Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laintz, Kenneth E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    Presentation covers WX Division programmatic operations with a focus on JOWOG-9 interests. A brief look at DARHT is followed by a high level overview of explosives research activities currently being conducted within in the experimental groups of WX-Division. Presentation covers more emphasis of activities and facilities at TA-9 as these efforts have been more traditionally aligned with ongoing collaborative explosive exchanges covered under JOWOG-9.

  6. Explosively Bonded Gun Tube Liner Development (United States)


    some concern was the occasional appearance of iron-Ta intermetallics near the liner-steel interface. This is a brittle phase and subject to...Montgomery JS, de Rosset WS. Examination of intermetallic phases and residual stresses resulting from explosive bonding of refractory metal gun tube...caliber smoothbore gun tube. The metallic bond produced by explosive bonding is extremely strong and presumably would keep the liner in place. In Phase

  7. Grain-scale Dynamics in Explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reaugh, J E


    High explosives can have reactions to external stimuli that range from mild pressure bursts to full detonation. The ability to predict these responses is important for understanding the performance as well as the safety and reliability of these important materials. At present, we have only relatively simple phenomenological computational models for the behavior of high explosives under these conditions. These models are limited by the assumption that the explosive can be treated as homogeneous. In reality the explosive is a highly heterogeneous composite of irregular crystallites and plastic binder. The heterogeneous nature of explosives is responsible for many of their unique mechanical and chemical properties. We use computational models to simulate the response of explosives to external mechanical stimuli at the grain-scale level. The ultimate goal of this work is to understand the detailed processes involved with the material response, so that we can develop realistic material models, which can be used in a hydrodynamics/multi-physics code to model real systems. The new material models will provide a more realistic description of the explosive system during the most critical period of ignition and initiation. The focus of this work is to use the results of grain-scale simulations to develop an advanced macroscopic reactive flow model that is consistent with our understanding of the grain-scale details, and that can incorporate such information quantitatively. The objective is to connect changes to observed properties of the explosive (grain size distribution, binder thickness distribution, void shape, size, and separation distribution, binder mechanical properties, etc.) with predictions of the resulting sensitivity and performance.

  8. Flux Pinning in Superconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Matsushita, Teruo


    The book covers the flux pinning mechanisms and properties and the electromagnetic phenomena caused by the flux pinning common for metallic, high-Tc and MgB2 superconductors. The condensation energy interaction known for normal precipitates or grain boundaries and the kinetic energy interaction proposed for artificial Nb pins in Nb-Ti, etc., are introduced for the pinning mechanism. Summation theories to derive the critical current density are discussed in detail. Irreversible magnetization and AC loss caused by the flux pinning are also discussed. The loss originally stems from the ohmic dissipation of normal electrons in the normal core driven by the electric field induced by the flux motion. The readers will learn why the resultant loss is of hysteresis type in spite of such mechanism. The influence of the flux pinning on the vortex phase diagram in high Tc superconductors is discussed, and the dependencies of the irreversibility field are also described on other quantities such as anisotropy of supercondu...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. N. Lukyanov


    Full Text Available Subject of Study.We present a method for heat flux measuring with the use of polarization properties of ferroelectric ceramics. Heat flux innovative sensor is developed on the basis of the proposed method. Its experimental verification is carried out. Method. The measurements are based on maintaining a balance between the processes caused by thermal energy and the energy of the electric field in the ferroelectric ceramics. Main Results. The testing of the proposed heat flux sensor has been organized in two stages. At the first stage the primary calibration has been performed by calibrated sensors ITP MG4.03/x(y “Potok”. At the second stage the testing of heat flux sensor has been carried out for calculating the quantity of heat. The comparison of the results to the readings of serial heat meters VKT-7 and STK-15 has been performed. Experiments have shown that the polarization properties of the ferroelectric ceramics can be used to measure the heat flow. Practical Relevance. The proposed sensor can be recommended as an apartment-level heat meter. The calibration of the proposed heat flux sensor with more accurate measurement tools gives the possibility to include it on the State Register of Measuring Instruments.

  10. Flux pinning in superconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Matsushita, Teruo


    The book covers the flux pinning mechanisms and properties and the electromagnetic phenomena caused by the flux pinning common for metallic, high-Tc and MgB2 superconductors. The condensation energy interaction known for normal precipitates or grain boundaries and the kinetic energy interaction proposed for artificial Nb pins in Nb-Ti, etc., are introduced for the pinning mechanism. Summation theories to derive the critical current density are discussed in detail. Irreversible magnetization and AC loss caused by the flux pinning are also discussed. The loss originally stems from the ohmic dissipation of normal electrons in the normal core driven by the electric field induced by the flux motion. The readers will learn why the resultant loss is of hysteresis type in spite of such mechanism. The influence of the flux pinning on the vortex phase diagram in high Tc superconductors is discussed, and the dependencies of the irreversibility field are also described on other quantities such as anisotropy of supercondu...

  11. Compressive Sensing DNA Microarrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheikh Mona A


    Full Text Available Compressive sensing microarrays (CSMs are DNA-based sensors that operate using group testing and compressive sensing (CS principles. In contrast to conventional DNA microarrays, in which each genetic sensor is designed to respond to a single target, in a CSM, each sensor responds to a set of targets. We study the problem of designing CSMs that simultaneously account for both the constraints from CS theory and the biochemistry of probe-target DNA hybridization. An appropriate cross-hybridization model is proposed for CSMs, and several methods are developed for probe design and CS signal recovery based on the new model. Lab experiments suggest that in order to achieve accurate hybridization profiling, consensus probe sequences are required to have sequence homology of at least 80% with all targets to be detected. Furthermore, out-of-equilibrium datasets are usually as accurate as those obtained from equilibrium conditions. Consequently, one can use CSMs in applications in which only short hybridization times are allowed.

  12. What factors control superficial lava dome explosivity? (United States)

    Boudon, Georges; Balcone-Boissard, Hélène; Villemant, Benoît; Morgan, Daniel J


    Dome-forming eruption is a frequent eruptive style and a major hazard on numerous volcanoes worldwide. Lava domes are built by slow extrusion of degassed, viscous magma and may be destroyed by gravitational collapse or explosion. The triggering of lava dome explosions is poorly understood: here we propose a new model of superficial lava-dome explosivity based upon a textural and geochemical study (vesicularity, microcrystallinity, cristobalite distribution, residual water contents, crystal transit times) of clasts produced by key eruptions. Superficial explosion of a growing lava dome may be promoted through porosity reduction caused by both vesicle flattening due to gas escape and syn-eruptive cristobalite precipitation. Both processes generate an impermeable and rigid carapace allowing overpressurisation of the inner parts of the lava dome by the rapid input of vesiculated magma batches. The relative thickness of the cristobalite-rich carapace is an inverse function of the external lava dome surface area. Explosive activity is thus more likely to occur at the onset of lava dome extrusion, in agreement with observations, as the likelihood of superficial lava dome explosions depends inversely on lava dome volume. This new result is of interest for the whole volcanological community and for risk management.

  13. Statistical estimation of loads from gas explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeiset, Stian


    In the design of structures in the offshore and process industries, the possibility of a gas explosion must always be considered. The main uncertainties in computerized simulation of gas explosions are the assumptions of the gas cloud, the location of the ignition point and the properties of the simulator itself. This thesis quantifies the levels of these uncertainties by performing a large number of simulations on three offshore modules and one onshore plant. It is found that (1) there is an approximate linear relation between pressure and gas volume, (2) it may be possible to find a linear relation between pressure and impulse, (3) there is an inverse relation between pressure and duration, (4) the response of offshore structures exposed to gas explosions are rarely in the impulsive regime, (5) loading rates vary widely in magnitude, (6) an assumption of a triangular explosion pulse is often correct, (7) louvres increase pressure, impulse and duration of an explosion. The effect of ignition point location is studied in detail. It is possible to derive an ignition point uncertainty load factor that shows predictable behaviour by generalizing the non-parametric properties of the explosion pressure. A model for taking into account the uncertainties regarding gas volume, ignition point location and simulator imperfectness is proposed. The model is intended to produce a characteristic load for structural design. 68 refs., 51 figs., 36 tabs.

  14. Experimental Explosive Characterization for Counterterrorist Investigation (United States)

    Etayo, D.; Maestrojuan, I.; Teniente, J.; Ederra, I.; Gonzalo, R.


    A THz spectral characterization of different explosives of special interest for the Spanish National Security Forces "Guardia Civil" is presented in this paper. This forensic analysis has been done in the frequency range from 0.060 THz to 3.5 THz using the Teraview TPS Spectra 3000 system in laboratory conditions. With this equipment the refractive index, absorbance and complex permittivity of the explosive samples have been obtained. In this study, some of the most common used explosives (Bullet gunpowder, mine gunpowder, PETN, TNT, RDX) are analysed paying special attention to differences related to the manufacturing process used to elaborate some of them and to the purity of the samples. The different fabrication processes of the explosives lead to the same spectral behaviour and characteristics. At the same time, the inclusion of some additives in the explosive samples does not alter their main electromagnetic properties. The sensitivity limit of the measurement system has been found to be to 10 mg of explosives. These results will be used to design future THz imaging systems that allow to detect and identify them in security and defence applications and/or to complete laboratory studies after a terrorist action.

  15. Thermal explosion in oscillating ambient conditions (United States)

    Novozhilov, Vasily


    Thermal explosion problem for a medium with oscillating ambient temperature at its boundaries is considered. This is a new problem in thermal explosion theory, not previously considered in a distributed system formulation, but important for combustion and fire science. It describes autoignition of wide range of fires (such as but not limited to piles of biosolids and other organic matter; storages of munitions, explosives, propellants) subjected to temperature variations, such as seasonal or day/night variation. The problem is considered in formulation adopted in classical studies of thermal explosion. Critical conditions are determined by frequency and amplitude of ambient temperature oscillations, as well as by a number of other parameters. Effects of all the parameters on critical conditions are quantified. Results are presented for the case of planar symmetry. Development of thermal explosion in time is also considered, and a new type of unsteady thermal explosion development is discovered where thermal runaway occurs after several periods of temperature oscillations within the medium. PMID:27443235

  16. Solid Rocket Launch Vehicle Explosion Environments (United States)

    Richardson, E. H.; Blackwood, J. M.; Hays, M. J.; Skinner, T.


    Empirical explosion data from full scale solid rocket launch vehicle accidents and tests were collected from all available literature from the 1950s to the present. In general data included peak blast overpressure, blast impulse, fragment size, fragment speed, and fragment dispersion. Most propellants were 1.1 explosives but a few were 1.3. Oftentimes the data from a single accident was disjointed and/or missing key aspects. Despite this fact, once the data as a whole was digitized, categorized, and plotted clear trends appeared. Particular emphasis was placed on tests or accidents that would be applicable to scenarios from which a crew might need to escape. Therefore, such tests where a large quantity of high explosive was used to initiate the solid rocket explosion were differentiated. Also, high speed ground impacts or tests used to simulate such were also culled. It was found that the explosions from all accidents and applicable tests could be described using only the pressurized gas energy stored in the chamber at the time of failure. Additionally, fragmentation trends were produced. Only one accident mentioned the elusive "small" propellant fragments, but upon further analysis it was found that these were most likely produced as secondary fragments when larger primary fragments impacted the ground. Finally, a brief discussion of how this data is used in a new launch vehicle explosion model for improving crew/payload survival is presented.

  17. Introduction to compressible fluid flow

    CERN Document Server

    Oosthuizen, Patrick H


    IntroductionThe Equations of Steady One-Dimensional Compressible FlowSome Fundamental Aspects of Compressible FlowOne-Dimensional Isentropic FlowNormal Shock WavesOblique Shock WavesExpansion Waves - Prandtl-Meyer FlowVariable Area FlowsAdiabatic Flow with FrictionFlow with Heat TransferLinearized Analysis of Two-Dimensional Compressible FlowsHypersonic and High-Temperature FlowsHigh-Temperature Gas EffectsLow-Density FlowsBibliographyAppendices

  18. Shock compression of precompressed deuterium (United States)

    Armstrong, Michael; Crowhurst, Jonathan; Goncharov, Alexander; Zaug, Joseph; Bastea, Sorin; Militzer, Burkhard


    Here we report quasi-isentropic dynamic compression and thermodynamic characterization of solid, precompressed deuterium over an ultra fast time scale (< 100 ps) and a microscopic length scale (< 1 ìm). We further report a fast transition in dynamically compressed solid deuterium that is consistent with the ramp to shock transition, with a time scale of less than 10 ps. These results suggest that high density dynamic compression of hydrogen may be possible on microscopic length scales.

  19. Green primary explosives: 5-Nitrotetrazolato-N2-ferrate hierarchies


    Huynh, My Hang V.; Coburn, Michael D.; Meyer, Thomas J.; Wetzler, Modi


    The sensitive explosives used in initiating devices like primers and detonators are called primary explosives. Successful detonations of secondary explosives are accomplished by suitable sources of initiation energy that is transmitted directly from the primaries or through secondary explosive boosters. Reliable initiating mechanisms are available in numerous forms of primers and detonators depending upon the nature of the secondary explosives. The technology of initiation devices used for mi...

  20. Magnetic flux tubes as sources of wave generation (United States)

    Musielak, Z. E.; Rosner, R.; Ulmschneider, P.


    The structure of solar, and very likely stellar, surface magnetic fields is highly inhomogeneous: at the photospheric level, the fields are locally strong, and show concentration into a flux tube structure. In this case, the wave energy generated in stellar convection zones may be largely carried away by flux tube waves, which can then become important sources for the heating of the outer atmospheric layers. Such flux tube wave generation may help to explain the UV and X-ray fluxes observed by the IUE and Einstein observatories. The generation of longitudinal tube waves in magnetic flux tubes embedded in an otherwise magnetic field-free, turbulent, and stratified medium was considered. It is shown that compressible tube waves are generated by dipole emission and that the generation efficiency is a strong function of the magnetic field strength. Energy flux calculations are presented for different magnetic flux tubes, and show how the results depend on the magnetic field strength and the characteristics of the convective turbulence.

  1. Spectroscopic insight for tablet compression. (United States)

    Lakio, S; Ylinärä, H; Antikainen, O; Räikkönen, H; Yliruusi, J


    Tablet compression process has been studied over the years from various perspectives. However what exactly happens to material during compression is still unknown. In this study a novel compression die which enables real-time spectroscopic measurements during the compression of material is represented. Both near infrared and Raman spectroscope probes can be attached to the die. In this study the usage of the die is demonstrated by using Raman spectroscopy. Eicosane, d-glucose anhydrate, α-lactose monohydrate and xylitol were used in the study because their compression behavior and bonding properties during compression were assumed to be different. The intensity of the Raman signal changed during compression with all of the materials. However, the intensity changes were different within the materials. The biggest differences were within the xylitol spectra. It was noticed that some peaks disappeared with higher compression pressures indicating that the pressure affected variously on different bonds in xylitol structure. These reversible changes were supposed to relate the changes in conformation and crystal structure. As a conclusion, the die was found to be a significant addition for studying compression process in real-time. It can help to reveal Process induced transformations (PITs) occurring during powder compaction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Lossless Compression of Broadcast Video

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Bo; Eriksen, N.; Faber, E.


    We investigate several techniques for lossless and near-lossless compression of broadcast video.The emphasis is placed on the emerging international standard for compression of continous-tone still images, JPEG-LS, due to its excellent compression performance and moderatecomplexity. Except for one...... artificial sequence containing uncompressible data all the 4:2:2, 8-bit test video material easily compresses losslessly to a rate below 125 Mbit/s. At this rate, video plus overhead can be contained in a single telecom 4th order PDH channel or a single STM-1 channel. Difficult 4:2:2, 10-bit test material...

  3. Solar Coronal Heating and the Magnetic Flux Content of the Network (United States)

    Moore, R. L.; Falconer, D. A.; Porter, J. G.; Hathaway, D. H.


    We investigate the heating of the quiet corona by measuring the increase of coronal luminosity with the amount of magnetic flux in the underlying network at solar minimum when there were no active regions on the face of the Sun. The coronal luminosity is measured from Fe IX/X-Fe XII pairs of coronal images from SOHO/EIT. The network magnetic flux content is measured from SOHO/MDI magnetograms. We find that the luminosity of the corona in our quiet regions increases roughly in proportion to the square root of the magnetic flux content of the network and roughly in proportion to the length of the perimeter of the network magnetic flux clumps. From (1) this result, (2) other observations of many fine-scale explosive events at the edges of network flux clumps, and (3) a demonstration that it is energetically feasible for the heating of the corona in quiet regions to be driven by explosions of granule-sized sheared-core magnetic bipoles embedded in the edges of network flux clumps, we infer that in quiet regions that are not influenced by active regions the corona is mainly heated by such magnetic activity in the edges of the network flux clumps. Our observational results together with our feasibility analysis allow us to predict that (1) at the edges of the network flux clumps there are many transient sheared-core bipoles of the size and lifetime of granules and having transverse field strengths greater than approximately - 100 G, (2) approximately 30 of these bipoles are present per supergranule, and (3) most spicules are produced by explosions of these bipoles.

  4. Upgrade of the Detector for Imaging of Explosions (United States)

    Shekhtman, L. I.; Aulchenko, V. M.; Kudryavtsev, V. N.; Kutovenko, V. D.; Titov, V. M.; Zhulanov, V. V.; Pruuel, E. L.; Ten, K. A.; Tolochko, B. P.

    Methods of dynamic imaging of explosions at a synchrotron radiation (SR) beam and small-angle X-ray scattering experiments with exploding samples are being developed in the Siberian Synchrotron Radiation Center (SSRC) at the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics for more than fifteen years. The detector for imaging of explosions (DIMEX) was developed for these purposes and successfully operating at the beam line 0 at the VEPP-3 storage ring and at the beam line 8 at the VEPP-4 M storage ring. The DIMEX is based on gas technology and allow to measure SR flux as a function of position and time with spatial resolution of ∼200 μm (FWHM), maximum frame rate of 2 MHz and time resolution of ∼80 ns. Maximum value of the SR flux that can be measured by the present detector corresponds to ∼5000 photons/(channel*bunch) (20 keV average energy, channel area 0.1x0.5 mm2, bunch revolution frequency 4 MHz). Maximum number of frames that can be stored in the present detector is 32 and the number of channels with 0.1 mm width is 512. In order to significantly improve the precision of data obtained by the DIMEX an upgrade of the detector has been started. The electronics of the gaseous version of the detector has been changed such that the new detector is able to operate with frame rate of 8 MHz and store data in up to 100 frames. A new ASIC was developed for this purpose called DMXG64A that includes 64 channels with low noise integrator and 100 analogue memory cells in each channel. Input charge can be stored to and read out from analogue cells with maximum frequency 10 MHz. This new version of the detector is called the DIMEX-G and is planned to be used at the VEPP-3 storage ring and for SAXS studies at the VEPP-4 M storage ring. For imaging of explosions at the beam line 8 at the VEPP-4 M storage ring, where SR flux is expected to be about 10-100 times higher than at the VEPP-3, a new detector based on Si micro-strip technology is being developed. Si micro-strip sensors with


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmytro Ostroushko


    Full Text Available The work deals with evaluation of joint of stainless steel 304 SS (sheet and commercially pure Ti both after welding explosion and followed-up annealing at 600°C/1.5h/air. The bonding line shows sinusoidal character with curls in crest unlike the trough of the sine curve. The heat treatment does not change the character of the interface. In work amplitude, wave length and the interface thickness were measured. Thickness of compressed cladded matrix of Ti was measured in area of crests and troughs. In crest of joint melted zones were studied, where complex oxides and intermetallic phases were revealed.

  6. Explosions in Majestic Spiral Beauties (United States)


    Images of beautiful galaxies, and in particular of spiral brethren of our own Milky Way, leaves no-one unmoved. It is difficult indeed to resist the charm of these impressive grand structures. Astronomers at Paranal Observatory used the versatile VIMOS instrument on the Very Large Telescope to photograph two magnificent examples of such "island universes", both of which are seen in a southern constellation with an animal name. But more significantly, both galaxies harboured a particular type of supernova, the explosion of a massive star during a late and fatal evolutionary stage. The first image (PR Photo 33a/04) is of the impressive spiral galaxy NGC 6118 [1], located near the celestial equator, in the constellation Serpens (The Snake). It is a comparatively faint object of 13th magnitude with a rather low surface brightness, making it pretty hard to see in small telescopes. This shyness has prompted amateur astronomers to nickname NGC 6118 the "Blinking Galaxy" as it would appear to flick into existence when viewed through their telescopes in a certain orientation, and then suddenly disappear again as the eye position shifted. There is of course no such problem for the VLT's enormous light-collecting power and ability to produce sharp images, and this magnificent galaxy is here seen in unequalled detail. The colour photo is based on a series of exposures behind different optical filters, obtained with the VIMOS multi-mode instrument on the 8.2-m VLT Melipal telescope during several nights around August 21, 2004. About 80 million light-years away, NGC 6118 is a grand-design spiral seen at an angle, with a very small central bar and several rather tightly wound spiral arms (it is classified as of type "SA(s)cd" [2]) in which large numbers of bright bluish knots are visible. Most of them are active star-forming regions and in some, very luminous and young stars can be perceived. Of particular interest is the comparatively bright stellar-like object situated directly

  7. Compressible MHD Turbulence in the Slow Solar Wind: Energy Transfer Rate (United States)

    Sahraoui, F.; Andres, N.; Hadid, L.; Galtier, S.; Dmitruk, P.; Mininni, P. D.


    The role of compressible fluctuations in the MHD turbulence is investigated using direct numerical simulations and in-situ spacecraft in the solar wind. A focus is put on verifying the exact third-order law derived for compressible isothermal turbulence by Banerjee and Galtier, 2013. The numerical simulations use a 3D compressible MHD code in the isothermal limit ( =1) with low sonic Mach numbers (Ms<1). The main goal is to evaluate the relative importance of the new flux and source terms involved in the derived law. Direct comparison with spacecraft observations from the Themis spacecraft in the fast and slow solar wind will be made.

  8. Adaptively Compressed Exchange Operator

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Lin


    The Fock exchange operator plays a central role in modern quantum chemistry. The large computational cost associated with the Fock exchange operator hinders Hartree-Fock calculations and Kohn-Sham density functional theory calculations with hybrid exchange-correlation functionals, even for systems consisting of hundreds of atoms. We develop the adaptively compressed exchange operator (ACE) formulation, which greatly reduces the computational cost associated with the Fock exchange operator without loss of accuracy. The ACE formulation does not depend on the size of the band gap, and thus can be applied to insulating, semiconducting as well as metallic systems. In an iterative framework for solving Hartree-Fock-like systems, the ACE formulation only requires moderate modification of the code, and can be potentially beneficial for all electronic structure software packages involving exchange calculations. Numerical results indicate that the ACE formulation can become advantageous even for small systems with tens...

  9. Waves and compressible flow

    CERN Document Server

    Ockendon, Hilary


    Now in its second edition, this book continues to give readers a broad mathematical basis for modelling and understanding the wide range of wave phenomena encountered in modern applications.  New and expanded material includes topics such as elastoplastic waves and waves in plasmas, as well as new exercises.  Comprehensive collections of models are used to illustrate the underpinning mathematical methodologies, which include the basic ideas of the relevant partial differential equations, characteristics, ray theory, asymptotic analysis, dispersion, shock waves, and weak solutions. Although the main focus is on compressible fluid flow, the authors show how intimately gasdynamic waves are related to wave phenomena in many other areas of physical science.   Special emphasis is placed on the development of physical intuition to supplement and reinforce analytical thinking. Each chapter includes a complete set of carefully prepared exercises, making this a suitable textbook for students in applied mathematics, ...

  10. Central cooling: compressive chillers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christian, J.E.


    Representative cost and performance data are provided in a concise, useable form for three types of compressive liquid packaged chillers: reciprocating, centrifugal, and screw. The data are represented in graphical form as well as in empirical equations. Reciprocating chillers are available from 2.5 to 240 tons with full-load COPs ranging from 2.85 to 3.87. Centrifugal chillers are available from 80 to 2,000 tons with full load COPs ranging from 4.1 to 4.9. Field-assemblied centrifugal chillers have been installed with capacities up to 10,000 tons. Screw-type chillers are available from 100 to 750 tons with full load COPs ranging from 3.3 to 4.5.

  11. Studies of the laser-induced fluorescence of explosives and explosive compositions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hargis, Philip Joseph, Jr. (,; .); Thorne, Lawrence R.; Phifer, Carol Celeste; Parmeter, John Ethan; Schmitt, Randal L.


    Continuing use of explosives by terrorists throughout the world has led to great interest in explosives detection technology, especially in technologies that have potential for standoff detection. This LDRD was undertaken in order to investigate the possible detection of explosive particulates at safe standoff distances in an attempt to identify vehicles that might contain large vehicle bombs (LVBs). The explosives investigated have included the common homogeneous or molecular explosives, 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN), cyclonite or hexogen (RDX), octogen (HMX), and the heterogeneous explosive, ammonium nitrate/fuel oil (ANFO), and its components. We have investigated standard excited/dispersed fluorescence, laser-excited prompt and delayed dispersed fluorescence using excitation wavelengths of 266 and 355 nm, the effects of polarization of the laser excitation light, and fluorescence imaging microscopy using 365- and 470-nm excitation. The four nitro-based, homogeneous explosives (TNT, PETN, RDX, and HMX) exhibit virtually no native fluorescence, but do exhibit quenching effects of varying magnitude when adsorbed on fluorescing surfaces. Ammonium nitrate and fuel oil mixtures fluoresce primarily due to the fuel oil, and, in some cases, due to the presence of hydrophobic coatings on ammonium nitrate prill or impurities in the ammonium nitrate itself. Pure ammonium nitrate shows no detectable fluorescence. These results are of scientific interest, but they provide little hope for the use of UV-excited fluorescence as a technique to perform safe standoff detection of adsorbed explosive particulates under real-world conditions with a useful degree of reliability.

  12. Transmission of compressed video (United States)

    Pasch, H. L.


    An overview of video coding is presented. The aim is not to give a technical summary of possible coding techniques, but to address subjects related to video compression in general and to the transmission of compressed video in more detail. Bit rate reduction is in general possible by removing redundant information; removing information the eye does not use anyway; and reducing the quality of the video. The codecs which are used for reducing the bit rate, can be divided into two groups: Constant Bit rate Codecs (CBC's), which keep the bit rate constant, but vary the video quality; and Variable Bit rate Codecs (VBC's), which keep the video quality constant by varying the bit rate. VBC's can be in general reach a higher video quality than CBC's using less bandwidth, but need a transmission system that allows the bandwidth of a connection to fluctuate in time. The current and the next generation of the PSTN does not allow this; ATM might. There are several factors which influence the quality of video: the bit error rate of the transmission channel, slip rate, packet loss rate/packet insertion rate, end-to-end delay, phase shift between voice and video, and bit rate. Based on the bit rate of the coded video, the following classification of coded video can be made: High Definition Television (HDTV); Broadcast Quality Television (BQTV); video conferencing; and video telephony. The properties of these classes are given. The video conferencing and video telephony equipment available now and in the next few years can be divided into three categories: conforming to 1984 CCITT standard for video conferencing; conforming to 1988 CCITT standard; and conforming to no standard.

  13. The research of press drop of compressed air foam flow through the bend (United States)

    Chen, Y.; Chen, T.; Hu, C.; Fu, X. C.; Bao, Z. M.; Zhang, X. Z.; Xia, J. J.


    Compressed air foam system (CAFS) had obvious advantages in engineering. The flow model of compressed air foam in the pipeline was different from water flow model because the foam was the gas-liquid two phase flow with non-Newtonian fluid properties and compressibility, and, the water supply theory was not suitable for foam press pipeline transport. At present, there was little research on non-Newtonian fluid flow, especially the foam flow. This study researched the effect of foam flux, end valve and foam type on the press in the straight pipe and bend. The press drop in straight pipes and bends filled with compressed air foam was analyzed, and the result could provide experimental support for theoretical calculation of compressed air foam in bend.

  14. High-strain rate Brazilian testing of an explosive simulant using speckle metrology (United States)

    Grantham, S. G.; Siviour, C. R.; Proud, W. G.; Field, J. E.


    The application of high-speed photography and image correlation has allowed dynamic Brazilian tests to be carried out using the split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) on PBS9501, an explosive simulant. The essential features of low-rate Brazilian tests are found to occur in the high-rate experiments, with the samples reaching equilibrium quickly and remaining in equilibrium throughout the experiment. The advantage of the approach described here is the ability to make tensile stress/strain measurements in the high-strain rate regime using a compression Hopkinson bar. This allows smaller sample sizes, making testing of expensive or dangerous materials easier, while expanding the capabilities of the compression bar.

  15. Generic flux coupling analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.C. Reimers (Arne); Y. Goldstein; A. Bockmayr


    htmlabstractFlux coupling analysis (FCA) has become a useful tool for aiding metabolic reconstructions and guiding genetic manipulations. Originally, it was introduced for constraint-based models of metabolic networks that are based on the steady-state assumption. Recently, we have shown that the

  16. Flux Vacua and Supermanifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Grassi, P A


    As been recently pointed out, physically relevant models derived from string theory require the presence of non-vanishing form fluxes besides the usual geometrical constraints. In the case of NS-NS fluxes, the Generalized Complex Geometry encodes these informations in a beautiful geometrical structure. On the other hand, the R-R fluxes call for supergeometry as the underlying mathematical framework. In this context, we analyze the possibility of constructing interesting supermanifolds recasting the geometrical data and RR fluxes. To characterize these supermanifolds we have been guided by the fact topological strings on supermanifolds require the super-Ricci flatness of the target space. This can be achieved by adding to a given bosonic manifold enough anticommuting coordinates and new constraints on the bosonic sub-manifold. We study these constraints at the linear and non-linear level for a pure geometrical setting and in the presence of p-form field strengths. We find that certain spaces admit several supe...

  17. Soluble organic nutrient fluxes (United States)

    Robert G. Qualls; Bruce L. Haines; Wayne Swank


    Our objectives in this study were (i) compare fluxes of the dissolved organic nutrients dissolved organic carbon (DOC), DON, and dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP) in a clearcut area and an adjacent mature reference area. (ii) determine whether concentrations of dissolved organic nutrients or inorganic nutrients were greater in clearcut areas than in reference areas,...

  18. Generic flux coupling analysis. (United States)

    Reimers, Arne C; Goldstein, Yaron; Bockmayr, Alexander


    Flux coupling analysis (FCA) has become a useful tool for aiding metabolic reconstructions and guiding genetic manipulations. Originally, it was introduced for constraint-based models of metabolic networks that are based on the steady-state assumption. Recently, we have shown that the steady-state assumption can be replaced by a weaker lattice-theoretic property related to the supports of metabolic fluxes. In this paper, we further extend our approach and develop an efficient algorithm for generic flux coupling analysis that works with any kind of qualitative pathway model. We illustrate our method by thermodynamic flux coupling analysis (tFCA), which allows studying steady-state metabolic models with loop-law thermodynamic constraints. These models do not satisfy the lattice-theoretic properties required in our previous work. For a selection of genome-scale metabolic network reconstructions, we discuss both theoretically and practically, how thermodynamic constraints strengthen the coupling results that can be obtained with classical FCA. A prototype implementation of tFCA is available at Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Tight bounds for top tree compression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Fernstrøm, Finn; Gørtz, Inge Li


    We consider compressing labeled, ordered and rooted trees using DAG compression and top tree compression. We show that there exists a family of trees such that the size of the DAG compression is always a logarithmic factor smaller than the size of the top tree compression (even for an alphabet...

  20. Phase Equilibria Impetus For Large-Volume Explosive Volcanic Eruptions (United States)

    Fowler, S. J.; Spera, F. J.; Bohrson, W. A.; Ghiorso, M. S.


    We have investigated the phase equilibria and associated variations in melt and magma thermodynamic and transport properties of seven large-volume silicic explosive volcanic systems through application of the MELTS (Ghiorso &Sack, 1995) algorithm. Each calculation is based on fractional crystallization along an oxygen buffer at low-pressure (0.1 - 0.3 GPa), starting from a mafic parental liquid. Site-specific geological constraints provide starting conditions for each system. We have performed calculations for seven tuffs; the Otowi (~400 km3) and Tshirege (~200 km3) members of the Bandelier Tuff, the ~600 km3 Bishop Tuff, and the 2500, 300, and 1000 km3 Yellowstone high-silica rhyolite tuffs. These represent the six largest eruptions within North America over the past ~2 million years. The seventh tuff, the 39.3 ka Campanian Ignimbrite, a 200 km3 trachytic to phonolitic ignimbrite located near Naples, Italy, is the largest explosive eruption in the Mediterranean area in the last 200 kyr. In all cases, MELTS faithfully tracks the liquid line of descent as well as the identity and composition of phenocrysts. The largest discrepancy between predicted and observed melt compositions is for CaO in all calculations. A key characteristic for each system is a pseudoinvariant temperature, Tinv, where abrupt shifts in crystallinity (1-fm, where fm is the fraction of melt), volume fraction of supercritical fluid (θ), magma compressibility, melt and magma density, and viscosity occur over a small temperature interval of order 1 - 10 K. In particular, the volume fraction of vapor increases from θ ~0.1 just below Tinv to θ >0.7 just above Tinv for each case. The rheological transition between melt-dominated (high viscosity) and bubble-dominated (low viscosity) magma occurs at θ ~0.6. We emphasize that this effect is observed under isobaric conditions and is distinct from the oft-studied phenomenon of volatile exsolution accompanying magma decompression and subsequent

  1. Application specific compression : final report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melgaard, David Kennett; Byrne, Raymond Harry; Myers, Daniel S.; Harrison, Carol D.; Lee, David S.; Lewis, Phillip J.; Carlson, Jeffrey J.


    With the continuing development of more capable data gathering sensors, comes an increased demand on the bandwidth for transmitting larger quantities of data. To help counteract that trend, a study was undertaken to determine appropriate lossy data compression strategies for minimizing their impact on target detection and characterization. The survey of current compression techniques led us to the conclusion that wavelet compression was well suited for this purpose. Wavelet analysis essentially applies a low-pass and high-pass filter to the data, converting the data into the related coefficients that maintain spatial information as well as frequency information. Wavelet compression is achieved by zeroing the coefficients that pertain to the noise in the signal, i.e. the high frequency, low amplitude portion. This approach is well suited for our goal because it reduces the noise in the signal with only minimal impact on the larger, lower frequency target signatures. The resulting coefficients can then be encoded using lossless techniques with higher compression levels because of the lower entropy and significant number of zeros. No significant signal degradation or difficulties in target characterization or detection were observed or measured when wavelet compression was applied to simulated and real data, even when over 80% of the coefficients were zeroed. While the exact level of compression will be data set dependent, for the data sets we studied, compression factors over 10 were found to be satisfactory where conventional lossless techniques achieved levels of less than 3.

  2. Recent progress in compressible turbulence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, S.; Xia, Z.; Wang, Jianchun; Yang, Yantao


    In this paper, we review some recent studies on compressible turbulence conducted by the authors’ group, which include fundamental studies on compressible isotropic turbulence (CIT) and applied studies on developing a constrained large eddy simulation (CLES) for wall-bounded turbulence. In the first

  3. Streaming Compression of Hexahedral Meshes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isenburg, M; Courbet, C


    We describe a method for streaming compression of hexahedral meshes. Given an interleaved stream of vertices and hexahedral our coder incrementally compresses the mesh in the presented order. Our coder is extremely memory efficient when the input stream documents when vertices are referenced for the last time (i.e. when it contains topological finalization tags). Our coder then continuously releases and reuses data structures that no longer contribute to compressing the remainder of the stream. This means in practice that our coder has only a small fraction of the whole mesh in memory at any time. We can therefore compress very large meshes - even meshes that do not file in memory. Compared to traditional, non-streaming approaches that load the entire mesh and globally reorder it during compression, our algorithm trades a less compact compressed representation for significant gains in speed, memory, and I/O efficiency. For example, on the 456k hexahedra 'blade' mesh, our coder is twice as fast and uses 88 times less memory (only 3.1 MB) with the compressed file increasing about 3% in size. We also present the first scheme for predictive compression of properties associated with hexahedral cells.

  4. On the generation of flux tube waves in stellar convection zones. I - Longitudinal tube waves driven by external turbulence (United States)

    Musielak, Z. E.; Rosner, R.; Ulmschneider, P.


    The source functions and the energy fluxes for wave generation in magnetic flux tubes embedded in an otherwise magnetic field-free, turbulent, and compressible fluid are derived. The calculations presented here assume that the tube interior is not itself turbulent, e.g., that motions within the flux tube are due simply to external excitation. Specific results for the generation of longitudinal tube waves are presented.

  5. Simulating thermal explosion of RDX-based explosives: Model comparison with experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoh, J J; McClelland, M A; Maienschein, J L; Wardell, J F; Tarver, C M


    We compare two-dimensional model results with measurements for the thermal, chemical and mechanical behavior in a thermal explosion experiment. Confined high explosives are heated at a rate of 1 C per hour until an explosion is observed. The heating, ignition, and deflagration phases are modeled using an Arbitrarily Lagrangian-Eulerian code (ALE3D) that can handle a wide range of time scales that vary from a structural to a dynamic hydro time scale. During the pre-ignition phase, quasi-static mechanics and diffusive thermal transfer from a heat source to the HE are coupled with the finite chemical reactions that include both endothermic and exothermic processes. Once the HE ignites, a hydro dynamic calculation is performed as a burn front propagates through the HE. Two RDX-based explosives, C-4 and PBXN-109, are considered, whose chemical-thermal-mechanical models are constructed based on measurements of thermal and mechanical properties along with small scale thermal explosion measurements. The simulated dynamic response of HE confinement during the explosive phase is compared to measurements in large scale thermal explosion tests. The explosion temperatures for both HE's are predicted to within 5 C. Calculated and measured wall strains provide an indication of vessel pressurization during the heating phase and violence during the explosive phase. During the heating phase, simulated wall strains provide only an approximate representation of measured values indicating a better numerical treatment is needed to provide accurate results. The results also show that more numerical accuracy is needed for vessels with lesser confinement strength. For PBXN-109, the measured wall strains during the explosion are well represented by the ALE3D calculations.

  6. Thermal Impulse Sensors for use in Explosions (United States)

    Eilers, Hergen; Gunawidjaja, Ray; Anderson, Benjamin


    We have developed temperature and thermal impulse (temperature and duration) sensors for use in explosive fireballs. These sensors are seeded into an explosive fireball and record temperature and duration via morphological phase changes that are optically probed. The thermal impulse sensors include two sensor materials with different phase transition kinetics, and may include a reference material which does not undergo temperature-induced phase changes, and can aid in the optical analysis. Analyzing the sensor materials allows us to determine heating temperature and heating duration of an explosion. The temperature sensors and thermal impulse sensors were recently tested and showed promising results. However, we found that the different components of the thermal impulse sensors tend to get separated during the explosion. We are now evaluating several approaches for redesigning our thermal impulse sensors so that the components remain together during the explosion. These approaches include a core/shell assembly, crosslinking, and co-synthesis. The integrity of the chemically bonded components is evaluated by subjecting the sensors to dispersing forces, while temperature-dependent phase changes of these sensors are assessed by rapid heating using a CO2 laser.

  7. Toxicology of explosives and fireworks in small animals. (United States)

    Gahagan, Patti; Wismer, Tina


    Intoxication with explosives or fireworks in dogs or cats is not common, but serious toxicosis can result from exposure to different types of explosives depending on the chemical class of explosive involved. This article will discuss the different types of materials/chemicals, clinical signs of toxicosis, and their treatment. Despite the complexities of explosives and plethora of different devices currently in use worldwide, the toxic potential is more easily explained by looking at the relatively short list of chemical classes used to produce these materials. This article combines structurally similar explosives into different groups and focuses on the toxicity of the most commonly available explosives.

  8. Designing for Compressive Sensing: Compressive Art, Camouflage, Fonts, and Quick Response Codes (United States)


    ARL-TR-8281 ● JAN 2018 US Army Research Laboratory Designing for Compressive Sensing: Compressive Art , Camouflage, Fonts, and...Compressive Sensing: Compressive Art , Camouflage, Fonts, and Quick Response Codes by Michael L Don Weapons and Materials Research Directorate, ARL...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Designing for Compressive Sensing: Compressive Art , Camouflage, Fonts, and Quick Response Codes 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b

  9. Evaluation on thermal explosion induced by slightly exothermic interface reaction. (United States)

    Yu, Ma-Hong; Li, Yong-Fu; Sun, Jin-Hua; Hasegawa, Kazutoshi


    An asphalt-salt mixture (ASM), which once caused a fire and explosion in a reprocessing plant, was prepared by imitating the real bituminization process of waste on a lab scale to evaluate its actual thermal hazards. Heat flux reaction calorimeters were used to measure the release of heat for the simulated ASM at a constant heating rate and at a constant temperature, respectively. Experimental results show that the reaction in the ASM below about 250 degrees C is a slightly exothermic interface reaction between the asphalt and the salt particles contained in the asphalt, and that the heat release rate increases sharply above about 250 degrees C due to melting of the salt particles. The reaction rates were formulated on the basis of an assumed reaction model, and the kinetic parameters were determined. Using the model with the kinetic parameters, temperature changes with time and drum-radius axes for the ASM-filled drum were numerically simulated assuming a one-dimensional infinite cylinder system, where the drum was being cooled at an ambient temperature of 50 degrees C. The minimum filling temperature, at which the runaway reaction (MFTRR) can occur for the simulated ASM in the drum is about 194 degrees C. Furthermore, a very good linear correlation exists between this MFTRR and the initial radius of salt particles formed in the bituminization product. The critical filling temperature to the runaway reaction is about 162 degrees C for the asphalt-salt mixture, containing zero-size salt particles, filled in the same drum at an ambient temperature of 50 degrees C. Thus, the runaway reaction will never occur in the drum filled with the asphalt-salt mixture under the conditions of the filling temperature below 162 degrees C and a constant ambient temperature of 50 degrees C. As a consequence, the ASM explosion occurred in the reprocessing plant likely was due to a slightly exothermically reaction and self heating.

  10. Detection of drugs and plastic explosives using neutron tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, F.J.O. [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], E-mail:; Crispim, V.R; Silva, A.X. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear], E-mail:, E-mail:


    The unique ability of neutrons to image certain elements and isotopes that are either completely undetectable or poorly detected by other Non-Destructive-Assay (NDA) methods makes neutron radiography an important tool for the NDA community. Neutron radiography, like other imaging techniques takes a number of different forms (i.e. / that is film, radioscopic, transfer methods, tomography, etc.) In this work report the Neutron Tomography System developed, which will allow inspections NDA of samples with high efficiency, in terms of minors measure time and the result analysis, and the application for detection of drugs and plastic explosives, which is very important for the combat to the terrorism and drug trafficking. The neutron tomography system developed is third generation. Therefore a rotary table driven by a step motor connected to a computerized motion control system has been installed at the sample position. In parallel to this a suitable electronic imaging device has been designed and can be controlled by a computer in order to synchronize the software the detector and of the rotary table with the aim of an automation of measurements. To obtain 2D tomography image, a system with an electronic imaging system for producing real time neutron radiography. Images are processing digital for cancel random noise effects and to optimize spatial resolution. Finally, using a (ARIEN) algorithm reconstruction of tomography images by finite element maximum entropy. The system was installed adjacent to the exit of the J-9 irradiation channel of the Argonauta Reactor in the Nuclear Engineering Institute (IEN) - which is an organ of the National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN - Brazil).The Argonauta reactor operates at 340 watts, being that the characteristics of the neutron beam on the plane of the image: thermal neutron flux 4,46 x10{sup 5} n/cm{sup 2}s. In the tomography assays, several encapsulated samples of paste, rock and cocaine powder and plastic explosives devices

  11. Analysis of GOSAT XCO2 in explosive volcanic plumes (United States)

    Popp, Christoph; Andrews, Benjamin J.; Carn, Simon A.; Chance, Kelly; Cottrell, Elizabeth; Schwandner, Florian M.


    In this study, we analyze columnar averaged dry air mole fraction of CO2 (XCO2) in volcanic gas plumes after major eruptions using space-borne near-infrared measurements from the Japanese Greenhouse gas Observing SATellite (GOSAT). Volcanic emissions are assumed to dominate the flux from the deep Earth to the surface but those global emissions as well as the partitioning between eruptive and non-eruptive emissions are to date highly uncertain. Satellite measurements are an indispensable complement to ground-based measurements of volcanic CO2 emissions because they are performed globally and regularly and they therefore have the potential to significantly broaden our knowledge of volcanic CO2 releases. However, the remote sensing of volcanic CO2 is challenging for various reasons, including the increasingly high atmospheric background, relatively coarse spatial resolution and/or sampling, and scattering effects of aerosols and clouds. We mined existing standard product level 2 GOSAT XCO2 data sets for a volcanic CO2 signal in the gas plumes of the largest volcanic eruptions since GOSAT's launch in 2009. These eruptions include the Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) 4 events of Sarychev Peak (Kuril Islands, Russia) in June 2009, Nabro (Ethiopia) in June 2011, and Puyehue-Cordon Caulle (Chile) in June 2011. GOSAT background and plume soundings are distinguished using corresponding Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) SO2 retrievals taking advantage of the usually low atmospheric SO2 background abundance. A volcanic CO2 signal in the GOSAT products can subsequently be found by comparing GOSAT XCO2 for the plume and background soundings. Possible XCO2 enhancements in the volcanic plumes are converted to an estimated CO2 release of the investigated eruptions. Based on this analysis, the current capabilities and added value of GOSAT TANSO-FTS to detect and quantify CO2 emissions from explosive volcanism are outlined.

  12. Sourcing explosives: a multi-isotope approach. (United States)

    Widory, David; Minet, Jean-Jacques; Barbe-Leborgne, Martine


    Although explosives are easily identified with current instrumental techniques, it is generally impossible to distinguish between sources of the same substance. To alleviate this difficulty, we present a multi-stable isotope (delta13C, delta15N, delta18O, deltaD) approach for appraising the possibility of discriminating explosives. The results from 30 distinct PETN, TNT and ANFO samples show that the different families of explosives are clearly differentiated by both their specific isotope signatures and their combination with corresponding element concentrations. Coupling two or more of the studied isotope systematics yields an even more precise differentiation on the basis of their raw-material origin and/or manufacturing process.

  13. Criticality safety in high explosives dissolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troyer, S.D.


    In 1992, an incident occurred at the Pantex Plant in which the cladding around a fissile material component (pit) cracked during dismantlement of the high explosives portion of a nuclear weapon. Although the event did not result in any significant contamination or personnel exposures, concerns about the incident led to the conclusion that the current dismantlement process was unacceptable. Options considered for redesign, dissolution tooling design considerations, dissolution tooling design features, and the analysis of the new dissolution tooling are summarized. The final tooling design developed incorporated a number of safety features and provides a simple, self-contained, low-maintenance method of high explosives removal for nuclear explosive dismantlement. Analyses demonstrate that the tooling design will remain subcritical under normal, abnormal, and credible accident scenarios. 1 fig.

  14. Magnetorotational Explosions of Core-Collapse Supernovae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gennady S. Bisnovatyi-Kogan


    Full Text Available Core-collapse supernovae are accompanied by formation of neutron stars. The gravitation energy is transformed into the energy of the explosion, observed as SN II, SN Ib,c type supernovae. We present results of 2-D MHD simulations, where the source of energy is rotation, and magnetic eld serves as a "transition belt" for the transformation of the rotation energy into the energy of the explosion. The toroidal part of the magnetic energy initially grows linearly with time due to dierential rotation. When the twisted toroidal component strongly exceeds the poloidal eld, magneto-rotational instability develops, leading to a drastic acceleration in the growth of magnetic energy. Finally, a fast MHD shock is formed, producing a supernova explosion. Mildly collimated jet is produced for dipole-like type of the initial field. At very high initial magnetic field no MRI development was found.

  15. [First aid to persons with explosion trauma]. (United States)

    Shapovalov, V M; Samokhvalov, I M


    Modern organization providing medical aid to victims of explosion trauma in peace time, the success of which largely depends on the timely and professional interaction among the structures involeved into emergency relief operation is represented in the article. Content and sequence of events providing emergency medical and first medical aid to victims of the explosions, and the appropriateness of allocation affected groups, based on the predicted effectiveness of medical care is analyzed. The algorithm, currently used by ambulance crews, of assistance to victims with explosion and order evacuations is analyzed. The content of therapeutic measures in receipt of the wounded on the steps of skilled and specialized surgical care in accordance with the idea of a separation surgery on three stages (damage control). The content of the main levels of damage control orthopedics is introduced.

  16. PINS Testing and Modification for Explosive Identification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E.H. Seabury; A.J. Caffrey


    The INL's Portable Isotopic Neutron Spectroscopy System (PINS)1 non-intrusively identifies the chemical fill of munitions and sealed containers. PINS is used routinely by the U.S. Army, the Defense Threat Reduction Agency, and foreign military units to determine the contents of munitions and other containers suspected to contain explosives, smoke-generating chemicals, and chemical warfare agents such as mustard and nerve gas. The objects assayed with PINS range from softball-sized M139 chemical bomblets to 200 gallon DOT 500X ton containers. INL had previously examined2 the feasibility of using a similar system for the identification of explosives, and based on this proof-of-principle test, the development of a dedicated system for the identification of explosives in an improvised nuclear device appears entirely feasible. INL has been tasked by NNSA NA-42 Render Safe Research and Development with the development of such a system.

  17. Securing Infrastructure from High Explosive Threats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glascoe, L; Noble, C; Reynolds, J; Kuhl, A; Morris, J


    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is working with the Department of Homeland Security's Science and Technology Directorate, the Transportation Security Administration, and several infrastructure partners to characterize and help mitigate principal structural vulnerabilities to explosive threats. Given the importance of infrastructure to the nation's security and economy, there is a clear need for applied research and analyses (1) to improve understanding of the vulnerabilities of these systems to explosive threats and (2) to provide decision makers with time-critical technical assistance concerning countermeasure and mitigation options. Fully-coupled high performance calculations of structural response to ideal and non-ideal explosives help bound and quantify specific critical vulnerabilities, and help identify possible corrective schemes. Experimental validation of modeling approaches and methodologies builds confidence in the prediction, while advanced stochastic techniques allow for optimal use of scarce computational resources to efficiently provide infrastructure owners and decision makers with timely analyses.

  18. Ex-Vessel corium coolability and steam explosion energetics in nordic light water reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinh, T.N.; Ma, W.M.; Karbojian, A.; Kudinov, P.; Tran, C.T.; Hansson, C.R. [Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), (Sweden)


    This report presents advances and insights from the KTH's study on corium pool heat transfer in the BWR lower head; debris bed formation; steam explosion energetics; thermal hydraulics and coolability in bottom-fed and heterogeneous debris beds. Specifically, for analysis of heat transfer in a BWR lower plenum an advanced threedimensional simulation tool was developed and validated, using a so-called effective convectivity approach and Fluent code platform. An assessment of corium retention and coolability in the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) lower plenum by means of water supplied through the Control Rod Guide Tube (CRGT) cooling system was performed. Simulant material melt experiments were performed in an intermediate temperature range (1300-1600K) on DEFOR test facility to study formation of debris beds in high and low subcooled water pools characteristic of in-vessel and ex-vessel conditions. Results of the DEFOR-E scoping experiments and related analyses strongly suggest that porous beds formed in ex-vessel from a fragmented high-temperature debris is far from homogeneous. Calculation results of bed thermal hydraulics and dryout heat flux with a two-dimensional thermal-hydraulic code give the first basis to evaluate the extent by which macro and micro inhomogeneity can enhance the bed coolability. The development and validation of a model for two-phase natural circulation through a heated porous medium and its application to the coolability analysis of bottom-fed beds enables quantification of the significant effect of dryout heat flux enhancement (by a factor of 80-160%) due to bottom coolant injection. For a qualitative and quantitative understanding of steam explosion, the SHARP system and its image processing methodology were used to characterize the dynamics of a hot liquid (melt) drop fragmentation and the volatile liquid (coolant) vaporization. The experimental results provide a basis to suggest that the melt drop preconditioning is instrumental to

  19. Explosive fragmentation of liquids in spherical geometry (United States)

    Milne, A.; Longbottom, A.; Frost, D. L.; Loiseau, J.; Goroshin, S.; Petel, O.


    Rapid acceleration of a spherical shell of liquid following central detonation of a high explosive causes the liquid to form fine jets that are similar in appearance to the particle jets that are formed during explosive dispersal of a packed layer of solid particles. Of particular interest is determining the dependence of the scale of the jet-like structures on the physical parameters of the system, including the fluid properties (e.g., density, viscosity, and surface tension) and the ratio of the mass of the liquid to that of the explosive. The present paper presents computational results from a multi-material hydrocode describing the dynamics of the explosive dispersal process. The computations are used to track the overall features of the early stages of dispersal of the liquid layer, including the wave dynamics, and motion of the spall and accretion layers. The results are compared with new experimental results of spherical charges surrounded by a variety of different fluids, including water, glycerol, ethanol, and vegetable oil, which together encompass a significant range of fluid properties. The results show that the number of jet structures is not sensitive to the fluid properties, but primarily dependent on the mass ratio. Above a certain mass ratio of liquid fill-to-explosive burster ( F / B), the number of jets is approximately constant and consistent with an empirical model based on the maximum thickness of the accretion layer. For small values of F / B, the number of liquid jets is reduced, in contrast with explosive powder dispersal, where small F / B yields a larger number of particle jets. A hypothetical explanation of these features based on the nucleation of cavitation is explored numerically.

  20. Jet noise recorded during discrete explosive eruptions (United States)

    Scarlato, P.; Sesterhenn, J.; Taddeucci, J.


    Most commonly, acoustic studies of explosive volcanic activity focus on the infrasonic range, as related to large volumetric changes mostly associated with the liberation of pressurized gas. However, there are multiple potential sources of sound that accompany explosive activity, expected to cover a broad range of frequencies. Among the audible range are several mechanisms, generating sound in high-velocity jets of gas or gas-particle mixture entering the atmosphere. This types of sound, well-documented and investigated in physics and engineering literature, has been so far mostly neglected in the study of explosive eruptions, due to the high energy content of the jet noise in the infrasonic regime, despite the potential it holds for parameterizing and understanding eruption processes. High-speed imaging of Strombolian and Vulcanian explosive eruptions at several volcanoes allowed the visualization of acoustic waves generated during the emission of the eruptive gas-pyroclast mixture. The waves, visible only when travelling within dilute gas/aerosol plumes, are thought to cause a temporary phase change in the travel medium. Image analysis allows direct measurement of the apparent (projected) trajectory, wavelength and travel velocity of the waves. Synchronized audio recording from the same eruptions include frequency contents in agreement with the observed waves. The general features of the observed waves are compatible with jet noise originated by the gas-pyroclast mixture entering the atmosphere, opening the way for future comparison with the results of numerical simulations of explosive eruptions, and possibly setting the basis for new acoustic monitoring tools for explosive eruptions.

  1. Atmospheric lepton fluxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaisser Thomas K.


    Full Text Available This review of atmospheric muons and neutrinos emphasizes the high energy range relevant for backgrounds to high-energy neutrinos of astrophysical origin. After a brief historical introduction, the main distinguishing features of atmospheric νμ and νe are discussed, along with the implications of the muon charge ratio for the νµ / ν̅µ ratio. Methods to account for effects of the knee in the primary cosmic-ray spectrum and the energy-dependence of hadronic interactions on the neutrino fluxes are discussed and illustrated in the context of recent results from IceCube. A simple numerical/analytic method is proposed for systematic investigation of uncertainties in neutrino fluxes arising from uncertainties in the primary cosmic-ray spectrum/composition and hadronic interactions.

  2. Advances in compressible turbulent mixing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dannevik, W.P.; Buckingham, A.C.; Leith, C.E. [eds.


    This volume includes some recent additions to original material prepared for the Princeton International Workshop on the Physics of Compressible Turbulent Mixing, held in 1988. Workshop participants were asked to emphasize the physics of the compressible mixing process rather than measurement techniques or computational methods. Actual experimental results and their meaning were given precedence over discussions of new diagnostic developments. Theoretical interpretations and understanding were stressed rather than the exposition of new analytical model developments or advances in numerical procedures. By design, compressibility influences on turbulent mixing were discussed--almost exclusively--from the perspective of supersonic flow field studies. The papers are arranged in three topical categories: Foundations, Vortical Domination, and Strongly Coupled Compressibility. The Foundations category is a collection of seminal studies that connect current study in compressible turbulent mixing with compressible, high-speed turbulent flow research that almost vanished about two decades ago. A number of contributions are included on flow instability initiation, evolution, and transition between the states of unstable flow onset through those descriptive of fully developed turbulence. The Vortical Domination category includes theoretical and experimental studies of coherent structures, vortex pairing, vortex-dynamics-influenced pressure focusing. In the Strongly Coupled Compressibility category the organizers included the high-speed turbulent flow investigations in which the interaction of shock waves could be considered an important source for production of new turbulence or for the enhancement of pre-existing turbulence. Individual papers are processed separately.

  3. Measuring the compression of mortality. (United States)

    Kannisto, V


    Compression of mortality is measured here in four ways: 1) by standard deviation of the age at death above the mode; 2) by standard deviation of the age at death in the highest quartile; 3) by the inter-quartile range; and 4) by the shortest age interval in which a given proportion of deaths take place. The two first-mentioned are directed at old ages, while the other two measure compression over the entire age range. The fourth alternative is recommended as the most suitable for general use and offers several variations, called the C-family of compression indicators. Applied to historical and modern populations, all four measures show convincingly that the secular transition from high to low mortality has been accompanied by general and massive compression of mortality. In recent decades, however, this development has come close to stagnation even when life expectancy continues to increase. This has happened at a level where compression is still so incomplete that the shortest age interval in which 90% of deaths occur, is 35 years. It seems unrealistic to expect human mortality ever to be compressed into so narrow an age interval that the survival curve would even approximately rectangular. It is considered useful to monitor changes in the compression of mortality because the indicators describe relevant aspects of the length of life and may acquire new significance as indicators of population heterogeneity.

  4. Measuring the compression of mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available Compression of mortality is measured here in four ways: (1 by standard deviation of the age at death above the mode; (2 by standard deviation of the age at death in the highest quartile; (3 by the inter-quartile range; and (4 by the shortest age interval in which a given proportion of deaths take place. The two first-mentioned are directed at old ages while the other two measure compression over the entire age range. The fourth alternative is recommended as the most suitable for general use and offers several variations, called the C-family of compression indicators. Applied to historical and modern populations, all four measures show convincingly that the secular transition from high to low mortality has been accompanied by general and massive compression of mortality. In recent decades, however, this development has come close to stagnation even when life expectancy continues to increase. This has happened at a level where compression is still so incomplete that the shortest age interval in which 90 percent of deaths occur, is more than 35 years. It seems unrealistic to expect human mortality ever to be compressed into so narrow an age interval that the survival curve would be even approximately rectangular. It is considered useful to monitor changes in the compression of mortality because the indicators describe relevant aspects of the length of life and may acquire new significance as indicators of population heterogeneity.

  5. Venting of gas explosion through relief ducts: interaction between internal and external explosions. (United States)

    Ferrara, G; Willacy, S K; Phylaktou, H N; Andrews, G E; Di Benedetto, A; Salzano, E; Russo, G


    Relief ducts fitted to venting openings is a widespread configuration in the industrial practice. The presence of a duct has been reported to severely increase the violence of the vented explosion posing a problem for the proper design of the venting device. Several studies have reported the leading importance--in the whole complex explosion phenomenology--of a secondary explosion in the duct. Modern approaches in the study of simply vented explosions (without ducts) have focused on the study of the interaction between internal and external explosion as a key issue in the mechanisms of pressure generation. The issue is even more relevant when a duct is fitted to the vent due the confined nature of the external explosion. In this work the interaction between internal and external events is experimentally investigated for gas explosions vented through a relief duct. The work has aimed at studying mechanisms underlying the pressure rise of this venting configuration. The study has put the emphasis on the mutual nature of the interaction. A larger scale than laboratory has been investigated allowing drawing results with a greater degree of generality with respect to data so far presented in literature.

  6. Potential explosion hazard of carbonaceous nanoparticles: Explosion parameters of selected materials. (United States)

    Turkevich, Leonid A; Dastidar, Ashok G; Hachmeister, Zachary; Lim, Michael


    Following a previous explosion screening study, we have conducted concentration and ignition energy scans on several carbonaceous nanopowders: fullerene, SWCNT, carbon black, MWCNT, graphene, CNF, and graphite. We have measured minimum explosive concentration (MEC), minimum ignition energy (MIE), and minimum ignition temperature (MITcloud) for these materials. The nanocarbons exhibit MEC ~10(1)-10(2) g/m(3), comparable to the MEC for coals and for fine particle carbon blacks and graphites. The nanocarbons are confirmed mainly to be in the St-1 explosion class, with fullerene, at K(St) ~200 bar-m/s, borderline St-1/St-2. We estimate MIE ~ 10(2)-10(3) J, an order of magnitude higher than the MIE for coals but an order of magnitude lower than the MIE for fine particle graphites. While the explosion severity of the nanocarbons is comparable to that of the coals, their explosion susceptibility (ease of ignition) is significantly less (i.e., the nanocarbons have higher MIEs than do the coals); by contrast, the nanocarbons exhibit similar explosion severity to the graphites but enhanced explosion susceptibility (i.e., the nanocarbons have lower MIEs than do the graphites). MIT(cloud) > 550 °C, comparable to that of the coals and carbon blacks. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Bioslurry treatment of explosives contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zappi, M.; Gunnison, D.; Pennington, J.; Teeter, C. [USAE Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, MS (United States). Environmental Lab.; Coyle, C.; Rope, C. [Army Engineer, Kansas City, MO (United States)


    Explosives contamination represents a widespread problem to the US Department of Defense (DOD) due to military activities associated with national defense. The US Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station (WES) has evaluated the potential of several aerobic bioslurry process formulations for biotreatment of explosives compounds. This effort was conducted using five liter bench scale bioslurry reactors. Results were that the addition of a commercially available surfactant dramatically improved the treatment effectiveness of aerobic bioslurry. The surfactant amended bioreactors achieved an approximate 100 percent decrease in TNT half-life.

  8. Explosive opening switch work at Westinghouse (United States)

    Aivaliotis, E.; Peterhans, M.


    An explosive switch that commutated 315 kA into a resistor and a second version designed to switch up to 1 MA into an HPG (homopolar generator)-driven railgun system are presented. These switches are located very near the load and consist of a set of main busbars in a low-inductance configuration shorted by a thinner switch busbar. Linear-shaped charges are used to sever this switch busbar at several locations when a preselected current level is attained, commutating the current into the load. The feasibility of multishot explosive switches for electromagnetic-launch systems is also considered.

  9. Explosive Outflows from Forming Massive Stars


    Bally, J.; Ginsburg, A.; Kasliwal, M. M.


    AO imaging of the near IR [Fe ii] and H_2 lines and ALMA CO J = 2 − 1 data confirms the explosive nature of the BN/KL outflow in Orion. N-body interactions in compact groups may be responsible for the production of powerful, explosive protostellar outflows and luminous infrared flares. The Orion event may have been triggered by a protostellar merger. First results of a search for Orion-like events in 200 nearby galaxies with the SPitzer InfraRed Intensive Transients Survey (SPIRITS) are brief...

  10. Nanopowder synthesis based on electric explosion technology (United States)

    Kryzhevich, D. S.; Zolnikov, K. P.; Korchuganov, A. V.; Psakhie, S. G.


    A computer simulation of the bicomponent nanoparticle formation during the electric explosion of copper and nickel wires was carried out. The calculations were performed in the framework of the molecular dynamics method using many-body potentials of interatomic interaction. As a result of an electric explosion of dissimilar metal wires, bicomponent nanoparticles having different stoichiometry and a block structure can be formed. It is possible to control the process of destruction and the structure of the formed bicomponent nanoparticles by varying the distance between the wires and the loading parameters.

  11. Explosive detection using infrared laser spectroscopy (United States)

    Hildenbrand, J.; Herbst, J.; Wöllenstein, J.; Lambrecht, A.


    Stand-off and extractive explosive detection methods for short distances are investigated using mid-infrared laser spectroscopy. A quantum cascade laser (QCL) system for TATP-detection by open path absorption spectroscopy in the gas phase was developed. In laboratory measurements a detection limit of 5 ppm*m was achieved. For explosives with lower vapor pressure an extractive hollow fiber based measurement system was investigated. By thermal desorption gaseous TATP or TNT is introduced into a heated fiber. The small sample volume and a fast gas exchange rate enable fast detection. TNT and TATP detection levels below 100 ng are feasible even in samples with a realistic contaminant background.

  12. Anisotropic sensitivity of RDX and HMX from compressive shear reactive dynamics study (United States)

    Zhou, Tingting; An, Qi; Liu, Yi; Zybin, Sergey V.; Goddard, William A., III; Materials Process Simulation Center, Caltech Team


    The ReaxFF reactive force field was applied to study the mechanical and chemical behavior of RDX and HMX under combined compression and shear load. We use it to predict the anisotropic shock sensitivity of RDX and HMX single crystals. After compressed uniaxially along different shock directions, several preferable slip systems are chosen based on the maximum resolved shear stress. The pure shear deformation is applied at constant rate on these slip systems to relax the mechanical stresses until the crystal becomes amorphous. We find that the shear on a slip system with larger steric hindrance between molecules leads to larger shear stress overshoot and faster temperature increase resulting in early bond-breaking processes and initiation of chemical reactions. Our simulations confirm the effect of steric hindrance to shear on shock anisotropy of sensitivity and capture the thermochemical processes dominating the phenomena of shear-induced chemical initiation of shock- compressed explosives.

  13. Testing panels in shear and biaxial compression (United States)

    Neary, J. K.


    Hydraulic jacks simultaneously apply torsion, axial compression, and lateral compression to structural panels. Jacks are suitable for testing large panels used in aircraft, lightweight trucks, and buses.

  14. Designing experiments through compressed sensing.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, Joseph G.; Ridzal, Denis


    In the following paper, we discuss how to design an ensemble of experiments through the use of compressed sensing. Specifically, we show how to conduct a small number of physical experiments and then use compressed sensing to reconstruct a larger set of data. In order to accomplish this, we organize our results into four sections. We begin by extending the theory of compressed sensing to a finite product of Hilbert spaces. Then, we show how these results apply to experiment design. Next, we develop an efficient reconstruction algorithm that allows us to reconstruct experimental data projected onto a finite element basis. Finally, we verify our approach with two computational experiments.

  15. Compressive sensing for urban radar

    CERN Document Server

    Amin, Moeness


    With the emergence of compressive sensing and sparse signal reconstruction, approaches to urban radar have shifted toward relaxed constraints on signal sampling schemes in time and space, and to effectively address logistic difficulties in data acquisition. Traditionally, these challenges have hindered high resolution imaging by restricting both bandwidth and aperture, and by imposing uniformity and bounds on sampling rates.Compressive Sensing for Urban Radar is the first book to focus on a hybrid of two key areas: compressive sensing and urban sensing. It explains how reliable imaging, tracki

  16. Space-time discontinuous Galerkin method for the compressible Navier-Stokes equations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaij, C.M.; van der Vegt, Jacobus J.W.; van der Ven, H.


    A space–time discontinuous Galerkin finite element method for the compressible Navier–Stokes equations is presented. We explain the space–time setting, derive the weak formulation and discuss our choices for the numerical fluxes. The resulting numerical method allows local grid adaptation as well as

  17. Space-time discontinuous Galerkin method for the compressible Navier-Stokes equations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaij, C.M.; van der Vegt, Jacobus J.W.; van der Ven, H.


    A space-time discontinuous Galerkin finite element method for the compressible Navier-Stokes equations is presented. We explain the space-time setting, derive the weak formulation and discuss our choices for the numerical fluxes. The resulting numerical method allows local grid adaptation as well as

  18. Compression for venous leg ulcers. (United States)

    O'Meara, Susan; Cullum, Nicky A; Nelson, E Andrea


    Around one percent of people in industrialised countries will suffer from a leg ulcer at some time. The majority of these leg ulcers are due to problems in the veins, resulting in an accumulation of blood in the legs. Leg ulcers arising from venous problems are called venous (varicose or stasis) ulcers. The main treatment has been a firm compression garment (bandage or stocking) in order to aid venous return. There is a large number of compression garments available and it is unclear whether they are effective in treating venous ulcers and which compression garment is the most effective. To undertake a systematic review of all randomised controlled trials of the clinical effectiveness of compression bandage or stocking systems in the treatment of venous leg ulceration.Specific questions addressed by the review are:1. Does the application of compression bandages or stockings aid venous ulcer healing? 2. Which compression bandage or stocking system is the most effective? For this update we searched the Cochrane Wounds Group Specialised Register (14/10/08); The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library Issue 4 2008); Ovid MEDLINE (1950 to October Week 1 2008); Ovid EMBASE (1980 to 2008 Week 41) and Ovid CINAHL (1982 to October Week 1 2008). No date or language restrictions were applied. Randomised controlled trials recruiting people with venous leg ulceration that evaluated any type of compression bandage system or compression hosiery were eligible for inclusion. Comparators included no compression (e.g. primary dressing alone, non-compressive bandage) or an alternative type of compression. Trials had to report an objective measure of ulcer healing in order to be included (primary outcome for the review). Secondary outcomes of the review included ulcer recurrence, costs, quality of life, pain, adverse events and withdrawals. There was no restriction on date, language or publication status of trials. Details of eligible studies were

  19. Implementation of Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics for Detonation of Explosive with Application to Rock Fragmentation (United States)

    Pramanik, R.; Deb, D.


    The paper presents a methodology in the SPH framework to analyze physical phenomena those occur in detonation process of an explosive. It mainly investigates the dynamic failure mechanism in surrounding brittle rock media under blast-induced stress wave and expansion of high pressure product gases. A program burn model is implemented along with JWL equation of state to simulate the reaction zone in between unreacted explosive and product gas. Numerical examples of detonation of one- and two-dimensional explosive slab have been carried out to investigate the effect of reaction zone in detonation process and outward dispersion of gaseous product. The results are compared with those obtained from existing solutions. A procedure is also developed in SPH framework to apply continuity conditions between gas and rock interface boundaries. The modified Grady-Kipp damage model for the onset of tensile yielding and Drucker-Prager model for shear failure are implemented for elasto-plastic analysis of rock medium. The results show that high compressive stress causes high crack density in the vicinity of blast hole. The major principal stress (tensile) is responsible for forming radial cracks from the blast hole. Spalling zones are also developed due to stress waves reflected from the free surfaces.



    Turuchko, Ivan Ivanovych; Korshun, M.M.; Hubar, Inna Volodymyrivna


    The sanitary and hygienic characteristics of industrial explosives and their components are considered, the types of combinations of harmful substances in the air of the working zone at different technological stages of manufacturing explosives

  1. Efficient Lossy Compression for Compressive Sensing Acquisition of Images in Compressive Sensing Imaging Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangwei Li


    Full Text Available Compressive Sensing Imaging (CSI is a new framework for image acquisition, which enables the simultaneous acquisition and compression of a scene. Since the characteristics of Compressive Sensing (CS acquisition are very different from traditional image acquisition, the general image compression solution may not work well. In this paper, we propose an efficient lossy compression solution for CS acquisition of images by considering the distinctive features of the CSI. First, we design an adaptive compressive sensing acquisition method for images according to the sampling rate, which could achieve better CS reconstruction quality for the acquired image. Second, we develop a universal quantization for the obtained CS measurements from CS acquisition without knowing any a priori information about the captured image. Finally, we apply these two methods in the CSI system for efficient lossy compression of CS acquisition. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed solution improves the rate-distortion performance by 0.4~2 dB comparing with current state-of-the-art, while maintaining a low computational complexity.

  2. Satellite image compression using wavelet (United States)

    Santoso, Alb. Joko; Soesianto, F.; Dwiandiyanto, B. Yudi


    Image data is a combination of information and redundancies, the information is part of the data be protected because it contains the meaning and designation data. Meanwhile, the redundancies are part of data that can be reduced, compressed, or eliminated. Problems that arise are related to the nature of image data that spends a lot of memory. In this paper will compare 31 wavelet function by looking at its impact on PSNR, compression ratio, and bits per pixel (bpp) and the influence of decomposition level of PSNR and compression ratio. Based on testing performed, Haar wavelet has the advantage that is obtained PSNR is relatively higher compared with other wavelets. Compression ratio is relatively better than other types of wavelets. Bits per pixel is relatively better than other types of wavelet.

  3. Compressed sensing for distributed systems

    CERN Document Server

    Coluccia, Giulio; Magli, Enrico


    This book presents a survey of the state-of-the art in the exciting and timely topic of compressed sensing for distributed systems. It has to be noted that, while compressed sensing has been studied for some time now, its distributed applications are relatively new. Remarkably, such applications are ideally suited to exploit all the benefits that compressed sensing can provide. The objective of this book is to provide the reader with a comprehensive survey of this topic, from the basic concepts to different classes of centralized and distributed reconstruction algorithms, as well as a comparison of these techniques. This book collects different contributions on these aspects. It presents the underlying theory in a complete and unified way for the first time, presenting various signal models and their use cases. It contains a theoretical part collecting latest results in rate-distortion analysis of distributed compressed sensing, as well as practical implementations of algorithms obtaining performance close to...

  4. Comparison of Artificial Compressibility Methods (United States)

    Kiris, Cetin; Housman, Jeffrey; Kwak, Dochan


    Various artificial compressibility methods for calculating the three-dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are compared. Each method is described and numerical solutions to test problems are conducted. A comparison based on convergence behavior, accuracy, and robustness is given.

  5. Compressibility effects in turbulence modeling (United States)

    Rubesin, M. W.


    Numerical turbulence modeling is discussed with attention given to fluid property variations caused by compressibility in an adiabatic flow. The models are considered in terms of integral quantities expressed by ordinary differential equations and by those formulated as partial differential equations. Compressibility corrections for both integral and partial differential methods are reviewed. Eddy-viscosity models are explored for their capability to characterize the mass-weighted Reynolds stress, which can be accounted for with primitive and/or mass-weighted variables. Compressible flow simulations are currently constrained to low Re and zero mean dilation. The effects of compressibility are defined in wave number space by resolving the Fourier transforms of the velocity vectors into components which are perpendicular and parallel to the wave number vector. Statistical correlations then permit obtaining a value for each contribution.

  6. Evaluation of the Thermochemical Code - CHEETAH 2.0 for Modelling Explosives Performance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lu, Jing


    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory CHEETAH 2.0 program has been used to analyse a number of conventional ideal explosive ingredients, ideal explosive compositions, non-ideal explosive compositions, and new and proposed explosives...

  7. Landmine Detection Technologies to TraceExplosive Vapour Detection Techniques


    J. C. Kapoor; G. K. Kannan


    Large quantity of explosive is manufactured worldwide for use in various types of ammunition,arms, and mines, and used in armed conflicts. During manufacturing and usage of the explosiveequipment, some of the explosive residues are released into the environment in the form ofcontaminated effluents, unburnt explosives fumes and vapours. Limited but uncontrolledcontinuous release of trace vapours also takes place when explosive-laden landmines are deployedin the field. One of the major technolo...

  8. A Study of the behaviour of emulsion explosives


    Allum, J


    This study investigated the formulation and characterisation of emulsion explosives. This included the manufacture of more than 120kg of emulsion explosive of which around 105kg was used on the explosive ordnance range in over 350 individual firings. For each emulsion composition, an average of eight firings was undertaken with which to substantiate the explosive performance data. The formulation was varied to determine the effects of water content upon the physical characte...

  9. Source analysis of underground chemical explosions (United States)

    Chiang, A.; Ford, S. R.; Pitarka, A.


    Several physical mechanisms have been proposed to explain the generation of S-waves from underground explosions, such as asymmetries in the source, release of tectonic pre-stress, interactions with the free-surface, and heterogeneities in the Earth. An accurate description of the explosion source processes is an important step towards understanding which of these plausible mechanisms are actively contributing to the generation of S-waves and under what conditions. In this study we investigate the sensitivity of far-field waveforms to seismic source mechanisms by comparing simulated and recorded data from underground chemical explosions performed during the Source Physics Experiment. We use both forward and inverse waveform modeling approaches to estimate the source properties of the explosions, and compare solutions using different velocity models and at different frequency bands and distances. 1D and 3D velocity models are used to characterize wave propagation between the source and receiver. The 3D velocity models are constructed using available geological and geophysical data, and ambient noise seismic tomography. The 3D Green's functions are computed using a numerical finite-difference approach. We will investigate the sensitivity of far-field ground motion to different levels of source complexities, such as a single isotropic source or complex sources with non-isotropic radiation in the frequency range of 0.5 to 6 Hz.

  10. 78 FR 1143 - Explosive Siting Requirements; Correction (United States)


    ... increases flexibility for launch site operators in site planning for the storage and handling of energetic... this final rule, contact Laura Montgomery, AGC 200, ] Senior Attorney for Commercial Space... in site planning for the storage and handling of energetic liquids and explosives. In the discussion...

  11. DOD Ammunition and Explosives Safety Standards (United States)


    following: bulk lead azide, lead styphnate, mercury fulminate , tetracene, dry cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine (RDX) (also known as cyclonite, hexogen, or...primary explosives are lead azide and mercury fulminate . AP1.191. Primary fragment. A fragment from material in intimate contact with reacting AE

  12. Wave forming mechanisms in explosive welding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carton, E.P.


    Experimental results of wavy metal interfaces obtained by explosive welding are presented and used to determine which wave forming mechanism occurred. It was found that for small collision angles (smaller than about 20°) the Von Karman or jet indentation mechanism occurs, while for large collision

  13. Detection of Nuclear Explosions Using Infrasound Techniques (United States)


    state-of-the- art wind-noise reduction systems, turbulent wind noise will prevent the detection of infrasonic signals from atmospheric explosions over...D.R., J.A. Vivas Veloso, P. Campus, M. Bell, T. Hoffmann, A. Langlois, P. Martysevich, E. Demirovic and J. Carvalho (2001). Detection of atmospheric

  14. Explosives safety research in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voort, M.M. van der; Weerheijm, J.; Wees, R.M.M. van; Dongen. P. van


    The handling of explosives and ammunition introduces a safety risk for personnel and third parties. Accidents related to storage, transport and transhipment may result in severe injury and material damage. TNO has developed a number of tools to quantify the consequences and risks of accidental

  15. EUExNet - A European Explosives Network (United States)


    Tallinn Technical University (EE) • University of Latvia (LV) • Sprengschule Dresden (DE) • LEDAP (PT) • Irish Industrial Explosives (IR) • EFEE (EU...Univ. Latvia WP2 DISSEMINATION Chair KCEM WP3 QC and QA Chair KAU WP4 National nodes Chair IExpE WP5 Certification Chair LEDAP WP6 European

  16. Java: An Explosion on the Internet. (United States)

    Read, Tim; Hall, Hazel

    Summer 1995 saw the release, with considerable media attention, of draft versions of Sun Microsystems' Java computer programming language and the HotJava browser. Java has been heralded as the latest "killer" technology in the Internet explosion. Sun Microsystems and numerous companies including Microsoft, IBM, and Netscape have agreed…

  17. Differential thermal analysis microsystem for explosive detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jesper Kenneth; Greve, Anders; Senesac, L.


    A micro differential thermal analysis (DTA) system is used for detection of trace explosive particles. The DTA system consists of two silicon micro chips with integrated heaters and temperature sensors. One chip is used for reference and one for the measurement sample. The sensor is constructed a...... of the Xsense project at the Technical University of Denmark (DTU) which combines four independent sensing techniques, these micro DNT sensors will be included in handheld explosives detectors with applications in homeland security and landmine clearance.......A micro differential thermal analysis (DTA) system is used for detection of trace explosive particles. The DTA system consists of two silicon micro chips with integrated heaters and temperature sensors. One chip is used for reference and one for the measurement sample. The sensor is constructed...... as a small silicon nitride membrane incorporating heater elements and a temperature measurement resistor. In this manuscript the DTA system is described and tested by measuring calorimetric response of 3 different kinds of explosives (TNT, RDX and PETN). This project is carried out under the framework...

  18. Developments in vapour cloud explosion blast modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mercx, W.P.M.; Berg, A.C. van den; Hayhurst, C.J.; Robertson, N.J.; Moran, K.C.


    TNT Equivalency methods are widely used for vapour cloud explosion blast modeling. Presently, however, other types of models are available which do not have the fundamental objections TNT Equivalency models have. TNO Multi-Energy method is increasingly accepted as a more reasonable alternative to be

  19. Explosion proof vehicle for tank inspection (United States)

    Zollinger, William T [Idaho Falls, ID; Klingler, Kerry M [Idaho Falls, ID; Bauer, Scott G [Idaho Falls, ID


    An Explosion Proof Vehicle (EPV) having an interior substantially filled with an inert fluid creating an interior pressure greater than the exterior pressure. One or more flexible tubes provide the inert fluid and one or more electrical conductors from a control system to the vehicle. The vehicle is preferably used in subsurface tank inspection, whereby the vehicle is submerged in a volatile fluid.

  20. The Physics, Chemistry and Dynamics of Explosions (United States)


    is to follow. 2. Fundamentals The basis of our present understanding began with the experimental observations of Berthelot & Vieille [1] and Mallard...carried out. References 1 Berthelot , M. & Vieille, P. 1881 On the propagation velocity of explosion phenomena. Acad. Sci. Comptes Rendus Math. 93, 18–22. 2

  1. Construction of hydrogenation stalls for explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raichle, L.


    This report contained explanations for different questions that had been asked by the Association of Chemical Manufacturers. The first item discussed was the pressure occurring in hydrogenation stalls in hydrogen explosions. The pressures actually used were much smaller than the maximum design pressure due to burning gases being allowed to escape from the top and front of the stalls since these areas were open and it could not be assumed that the whole stall space was filled with a 32% hydrogen concentration at the beginning of an explosion. The second item discussed was specifications and rules for the building of hydrogenation stalls. These included the calculations for simple wind pressure according to the Building Code with the usual safety factors and the calculations for an inner pressure of 300 kg/m/sup 2/ with the usual safety factors. An explanation of a stall explosion in Poelitz and reinforced stall construction in Poelitz were two other items that were discussed. Appendix I of the report involved maximum pressures and temperature in hydrogen explosions. Diagram I was involved with this. Appendix II discussed the behavior of a hydrogen flame at high emerging velocities and Appendix III discussed stall construction at Poelitz.

  2. Compressive sensing for spatial and spectral flame diagnostics (United States)

    Starling, David; Ranalli, Joseph


    Compressive sensing has been a valuable resource for use in quantum imaging, low light level depth mapping of natural scenes, object tracking and even for the improvement of miniature spectrometers via post processing. Experimentally, many optical compressive sensing techniques utilize a single pixel camera composed of a digital micromirror device or spatial light modulator coupled to one shot-noise limited detector. This method has the advantages of fast acquisition time and high signal to noise ratio. One currently unexplored area of study is the use of these techniques in the context of flame diagnostics. Optical diagnostics are employed for a variety of purposes in flames, including imaging of the heat release region (via chemiluminescence) and spatially resolved species and temperature measurement (via spontaneous Raman scattering). Compressive sensing has a dual role in this field, where the signals of interest are generally sparse and the mean photon flux is very low at the appropriate wavelengths. We show here that compressive sensing is beneficial in particular for the study of laminar, steady flames using Raman spectroscopy and flame chemiluminescence imaging, without the use of intensified CCDs, commercial spectrometers or high intensity pulse lasers. We present results from a theoretical study with experimental data to follow.

  3. 75 FR 1085 - Commerce in Explosives; List of Explosive Materials (2009R-18T) (United States)


    ... mixtures. Explosive powders. F Flash powder. Fulminate of mercury. Fulminate of silver. Fulminating gold. Fulminating mercury. Fulminating platinum. Fulminating silver. G Gelatinized nitrocellulose. Gem-dinitro...-dinitropentanoate]. MEAN [monoethanolamine nitrate]. Mercuric fulminate. Mercury oxalate. Mercury tartrate. Metriol...

  4. 76 FR 64974 - Commerce in Explosives; List of Explosive Materials (2011R-18T) (United States)


    ... Flash powder. Fulminate of mercury. Fulminate of silver. Fulminating gold. Fulminating mercury. Fulminating platinum. Fulminating silver. G Gelatinized nitrocellulose. Gem-dinitro aliphatic explosive.... MDNP . MEAN . Mercuric fulminate. Mercury oxalate. Mercury tartrate. Metriol trinitrate. Minol-2 . MMAN...

  5. Determination of explosive blast loading equivalencies with an explosively driven shock tube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, Scott I [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hill, Larry G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Morris, John S [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    Recently there has been significant interest in evaluating the potential of many different non-ideal energetic materials to cause blast damage. We present a method intended to quantitatively compare the blast loading generated by different energetic materials through use of an explosively driven shock tube. The test explosive is placed at the closed breech end of the tube and initiated with a booster charge. The resulting shock waves are then contained and focused by the tube walls to form a quasi-one-dimensional blast wave. Pressure transducers along the tube wall measure the blast overpressure versus distance from the source and allow the use of the one-dimensional blast scaling relationship to determine the energy deposited into the blast wave per unit mass of test explosive. These values are then compared for different explosives of interest and to other methods of equivalency determination.

  6. Expediency of application of explosion-relief constructions to ensure explosion resistance of production buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyapin Anton


    Full Text Available The article presents a model of economic evaluation and selection of explosion-relief constructions (ERC, as well as determination of explosion protection efficiency of buildings and structures provided on a stage of construction. It has been shown that definition of economic efficiency of ERС is the evaluation of its application for buildings with remote or automatically controlled production. It has been determined that an important role in design of explosive industrial facilities is played by selection of the economically feasible and effective materials for ERC. When selecting materials it is necessary to consider probability and yield of explosions. Necessity to create the methods allow considering such probability has been revealed.

  7. Modeling cookoff of HMX based PBX explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobbs, Michael L.


    We have previously developed a PBX 9501 cookoff model for the plastic bonded explosive PBX 9501 consisting of 95 wt% octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazoncine (HMX), 2.5 wt% Estane® 5703 (a polyurethane thermoplastic), and 2.5 wt% of a nitroplasticizer (NP): BDNPA/F, a 50/50 wt% eutectic mixture bis(2,2-dinitropropyl)-acetal (BDNPA) and bis(2,2-dinitropropyl)-formal (BDNPF). This fivestep model includes desorption of water, decomposition of the NP to form NO2, reaction of the NO2 with Estane and HMX, and decomposition of HMX [1]. This model has been successfully validated with data from six laboratories with scales ranging from 2 g to more than 2.5 kg of explosive. We have determined, that the PBX 9501 model can be used to predict cookoff of other plastic bonded explosives containing HMX and an inert binder, such as LX-04 consisting of 85 wt% HMX and 15 wt% Viton A (vinylidine fluoride/hexafluoropropylene copolymer), LX-07 (90 wt% HMX and 10 wt% Viton A), LX- 10-0 (95 wt% HMX and 5 wt% Viton A), and LX-14 consisting of 95.5 wt % HMX and 4.5 wt% Estane® 5702-F1 (a polyurethane thermoplastic). Normally our cookoff models are verified using Sandia’s Instrumented Thermal Initiation (SITI) experiment. However, SITI data for LX-04, LX-07, LX-10-0, and LX-14 are not available at pressed density; although, some molding powder SITI data on LX-10-0 and LX-14 exists. Tarver and Tran [2] provide some one-dimensional time-to-explosion (ODTX) data for these explosives. The applicability of the PBX 9501 model to LX-04, LX-07, LX-10-0, AND LX-14 was made using this ODTX data [2]. The PBX 9501 model is applied to these other explosives by accounting for the correct amount of HMX in the explosive and limiting the NP reaction. We have found the PBX 9501 model to be useful for predicting the response of these PBXs to abnormal thermal environments such as fire.

  8. Micro-explosion of compound drops (United States)

    Chen, Chun-Kuei; Lin, Ta-Hui


    Introducing water into spray combustion systems, by either water-in-oil emulsification or supplementary water injection, is one of the major techniques for combustion improvement and NOx reduction. Plentiful researches are available on combustion of water-in-oil emulsion fuel drops. The emulsified liquid is a heterogeneous mixture of immiscible liquids. One component forms the continuous phase and the other component forms the discrete phase. The discrete phase consists of globules of the one fluid that are suspended in the continuous phase fluid. Water-in-oil emulsions are commonly considered for combustion applications because emulsions can result in micro-explosion, thereby reducing the average drop diameter to enhance liquid vaporization, and suppressing the formation of soot and NOx. However, the water addition generally does not exceed about 20% for smooth engine operations[!, 21. The combustion characteristics and micro-explosion of emulsion drop were studied by many researchers. The micro-explosion of water in fuel emulsion drops was caused by very fast growth of superheated water vapor bubbles, its superheat limits must be lower than the boiling point temperature of the fuel. These bubbles were primarily governed by the pressure difference between the superheated vapor and the liquid, and by the inertia imparted to the liquid by the motion of the bubble surface[3 6 In this study, we used a coaxial nozzle to generation the multi-component drop. The different type of water-in-oil fuel drops called the compound drops. Unlike an emulsion drop, a compound drop consists of a water core and a fuel shell, which can originate from the phase separation of emulsion[7, 81 or a water drop colliding with a fuel drop[9, 101 Burning and micro-explosion of compound drops have been found to be distinct from those of emulsion drops[9-111 Wang et al.[9 , 101 studied the combustion characteristics of collision merged alkane-water drops. The merged drops appeared in adhesive

  9. Increase of water resistance of ammonium nitrate explosives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulkhair Mansurov


    Full Text Available Developed a method of kapsulating of ammonium nitrate with liquid paraffin increase finding explosives in water for 60 minutes. Placing explosives in the plastic shell, the explosive was, as in standing or running water during the day. When conducting field tests failures were absent.

  10. an experimental investigation into the explosive forming of square ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ES Obe


    Mar 1, 1981 ... The explosive forming of steel blanks into a perforated square die of side 200 mm and depth 40 mm has been investigated. ... quantity of explosive needed for successful forming. The results also show that the indentation of ..... the Use of. Vented Dies in Explosive Forming of. Metal Sheets" ,Presented at the.

  11. Recent Advances in the Synthesis of High Explosive Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse J. Sabatini


    Full Text Available This review discusses the recent advances in the syntheses of high explosive energetic materials. Syntheses of some relevant modern primary explosives and secondary high explosives, and the sensitivities and properties of these molecules are provided. In addition to the synthesis of such materials, processing improvement and formulating aspects using these ingredients, where applicable, are discussed in detail.

  12. 49 CFR 173.57 - Acceptance criteria for new explosives. (United States)


    ... appendix D to this part), a non-gelatin dynamite loses more than 3 percent by weight of the liquid explosive or a gelatin dynamite loses more than 10 percent by weight of the liquid explosive; or (3) During... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Acceptance criteria for new explosives. 173.57...

  13. 30 CFR 77.304 - Explosion release vents. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Explosion release vents. 77.304 Section 77.304... Dryers § 77.304 Explosion release vents. Drying chambers, dry-dust collectors, ductwork connecting dryers... explosion release vents which open directly to the outside atmosphere, and all such vents shall be: (a...

  14. 30 CFR 19.7 - Protection against explosion hazard. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Protection against explosion hazard. 19.7..., EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC CAP LAMPS § 19.7 Protection against explosion hazard. Unless properly designed, electric cap lamps may present two sources of probable explosion hazards...

  15. A model to assess dust explosion occurrence probability. (United States)

    Hassan, Junaid; Khan, Faisal; Amyotte, Paul; Ferdous, Refaul


    Dust handling poses a potential explosion hazard in many industrial facilities. The consequences of a dust explosion are often severe and similar to a gas explosion; however, its occurrence is conditional to the presence of five elements: combustible dust, ignition source, oxidant, mixing and confinement. Dust explosion researchers have conducted experiments to study the characteristics of these elements and generate data on explosibility. These experiments are often costly but the generated data has a significant scope in estimating the probability of a dust explosion occurrence. This paper attempts to use existing information (experimental data) to develop a predictive model to assess the probability of a dust explosion occurrence in a given environment. The pro-posed model considers six key parameters of a dust explosion: dust particle diameter (PD), minimum ignition energy (MIE), minimum explosible concentration (MEC), minimum ignition temperature (MIT), limiting oxygen concentration (LOC) and explosion pressure (Pmax). A conditional probabilistic approach has been developed and embedded in the proposed model to generate a nomograph for assessing dust explosion occurrence. The generated nomograph provides a quick assessment technique to map the occurrence probability of a dust explosion for a given environment defined with the six parameters. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Forensic analysis of explosions: Inverse calculation of the charge mass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voort, M.M. van der; Wees, R.M.M. van; Brouwer, S.D.; Jagt-Deutekom, M.J. van der; Verreault, J.


    Forensic analysis of explosions consists of determining the point of origin, the explosive substance involved, and the charge mass. Within the EU fP7 project Hyperion, TNO developed the Inverse Explosion Analysis (TNO-IEA) tool to estïmate the charge mass and point of origin based on observed damage

  17. 30 CFR 75.1311 - Transporting explosives and detonators. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Transporting explosives and detonators. 75.1311... Transporting explosives and detonators. (a) When explosives and detonators are to be transported underground... transported by any cars or vehicles— (1) The cars or vehicles shall be marked with warnings to identify the...

  18. 27 CFR 555.63 - Explosives magazine changes. (United States)


    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Explosives magazine... § 555.63 Explosives magazine changes. (a) General. (1) The requirements of this section are applicable to magazines used for other than temporary (under 24 hours) storage of explosives. (2) A magazine is...

  19. Increase of water resistance of ammonium nitrate explosives


    Zulkhair Mansurov; Y. Kazakov; Roza Abdulkarimova; A. Kosmaganbetova


    Developed a method of kapsulating of ammonium nitrate with liquid paraffin increase finding explosives in water for 60 minutes. Placing explosives in the plastic shell, the explosive was, as in standing or running water during the day. When conducting field tests failures were absent.

  20. Reactor flux calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lhuillier, D. [Commissariat à l' Énergie Atomique et aux Énergies Alternatives, Centre de Saclay, IRFU/SPhN, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)


    The status of the prediction of reactor anti-neutrino spectra is presented. The most accurate method is still the conversion of total β spectra of fissionning isotopes as measured at research reactors. Recent re-evaluations of the conversion process led to an increased predicted flux by few percent and were at the origin of the so-called reactor anomaly. The up to date predictions are presented with their main sources of error. Perspectives are given on the complementary ab-initio predictions and upcoming experimental cross-checks of the predicted spectrum shape.

  1. Action Replay of Powerful Stellar Explosion (United States)


    Astronomers have made the best ever determination of the power of a supernova explosion that was visible from Earth long ago. By observing the remnant of a supernova and a light echo from the initial outburst, they have established the validity of a powerful new method for studying supernovas. Using data from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory, ESA's XMM-Newton Observatory, and the Gemini Observatory, two teams of researchers studied the supernova remnant and the supernova light echo that are located in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), a small galaxy about 160,000 light years from Earth. They concluded that the supernova occurred about 400 years ago (in Earth’s time frame), and was unusually bright and energetic. X-ray Image of SNR 0509-67.5 X-ray Image of SNR 0509-67.5 This result is the first time two methods - X-ray observations of a supernova remnant and optical observations of the expanding light echoes from the explosion - have both been used to estimate the energy of a supernova explosion. Up until now, scientists had only made such an estimate using the light seen soon after a star exploded, or using remnants that are several hundred years old, but not from both. "People didn't have advanced telescopes to study supernovas when they went off hundreds of years ago," said Armin Rest of Harvard University, who led the light echo observations using Gemini. "But we've done the next best thing by looking around the site of the explosion and constructing an action replay of it." People Who Read This Also Read... Milky Way's Super-efficient Particle Accelerators Caught in The Act Oldest Known Objects Are Surprisingly Immature Discovery of Most Recent Supernova in Our Galaxy NASA Unveils Cosmic Images Book in Braille for Blind Readers In 2004, scientists used Chandra to determine that a supernova remnant, known as SNR 0509-67.5 in the LMC, was a so-called Type Ia supernova, caused by a white dwarf star in a binary system that reaches a critical mass and explodes. In

  2. Rise and Collapse of Volcanic Plumes Produced By Explosive Basaltic Fissure Eruptions (United States)

    Paillat, S.; Kaminski, E. C.


    Explosive basaltic fissure eruptions, which release large amounts of sulfur gases in the atmosphere, can have a big impact on climate. The effect on climate depends on the rate of gas injection above the tropopause. The key parameter is the height reached by the eruptive plume as a function of mass flux and entrainment rate. We propose a model of entrainment in 2D volcanic plumes based on lab scale experiments on turbulent jets and plumes. In this model, entrainment varies with the Richardson number and we predict that the height of the column critically depends on the source buoyancy flux determined by the eruptive temperature and the amount of gas in the volcanic mixture at the vent. We obtain that "hot" basaltic planar plumes form stable eruptive columns, even for large eruption rates. Only if fragmentation is not efficient enough, the column collapse will prevent the injection of gas in the stratosphere.

  3. 27 CFR 555.180 - Prohibitions relating to unmarked plastic explosives. (United States)


    ...) Plastic explosive means an explosive material in flexible or elastic sheet form formulated with one or... unmarked plastic explosives. 555.180 Section 555.180 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES...

  4. Double-compression method for biomedical images (United States)

    Antonenko, Yevhenii A.; Mustetsov, Timofey N.; Hamdi, Rami R.; Małecka-Massalska, Teresa; Orshubekov, Nurbek; DzierŻak, RóŻa; Uvaysova, Svetlana


    This paper describes a double compression method (DCM) of biomedical images. A comparison of image compression factors in size JPEG, PNG and developed DCM was carried out. The main purpose of the DCM - compression of medical images while maintaining the key points that carry diagnostic information. To estimate the minimum compression factor an analysis of the coding of random noise image is presented.

  5. Development in the Detection and Identification of Explosive Residues. (United States)

    Beveridge, A D


    In the past 2 decades, developments in the sensitivity and selectivity of instrument detectors have significantly improved the detection limits for explosives, particularly nitrated organic compounds. Significant improvements have also been made in clean up and recovery procedures for explosive residues. Methods which also have met the criterion of proven effectiveness in identifying explosive components in "real-world" residues from test explosions have been incorporated into systematic analysis protocols for explosive residues. This article first reviews developments in the application of both traditional and novel methods to analysis of unreacted explosives and explosive residues. Compounds used to formulate commercial, military, and "homemade" explosives are then cross-referenced to the analytical methods that have been specifically applied to them, both as pure chemicals and in explosive mixtures. The subsequent focus is on the combinations of methods used to systematically analyze and positively identify residues from improvised explosive devices, from handswabs derived from persons suspected of handling explosives, and from organic gunshot residue. Technology is available to positively identify virtually any unreacted explosive in residue, but no one method can detect all components of all explosives. Investigators and the courts are best served by well-equipped forensic science laboratories staffed with scientists who have gained experience by the successful analysis of post-blast residues from an explosives range and have comprehensive reference collections of physical material, analytical data, and literature. The greatest progress has been made with respect to nitrated organic compounds, but the new generation of commercial explosive slurries and emulsions which are primarily formulated with inorganic salts and non-nitrated organic compounds offer an ongoing challenge. Copyright © 1992 Central Police University.

  6. The Young Massive Stellar Cluster Sandage-96 after the Explosion of SN 2004DJ in NGC 2403 (United States)

    Vinko, J.; Sarneczky, K.; Balog, Z.; Immler, S.; Sugerman, B.; Brown, P. J.; Misselt, K.; Szabo, Gy. M.; Klagyivik, P.; Kun, M.; hide


    The bright supernova 2004dj occurred within the young massive stellar cluster Sandage-96 in a spiral arm of NGC 2403, close to other star-forming complexes. New multi-wavelength observations obtained with several ground-based- and space telescopes are combined to study the radiation from Sandage-96 after SN 2004dj faded away. The late-time light curves show that Sandage-96 started to dominate the flux in the optical bands after September, 2006 (+800 days after explosion). The optical fluxes are equal to the pre-explosion ones, suggesting that Sandage-96 has survived the explosion without significant changes in its stellar population. An optical Keck-spectrum obtained at +900 days after explosion shows the dominant blue continuum from the cluster stars shortward of 6000 A as well as strong SN nebular emission lines redward. The integrated SED of the cluster has been extended into the UV-region by archival XMM-Newton and new Swift observations, and compared with theoretical models. The outer parts of the cluster have been resolved by HST allowing the construction of a color-magnitude diagram. The fitting of the cluster SED with theoretical isochrones results in two possible solutions with ages being 9+/-1 Myr and 30+/-10 Myr, depending on the assumed metallicity and the theoretical model family. The isochrone fitting of the color-magnitude diagram indicates that the outer part of the cluster consists of stars having an age dispersion of 16 explosion SEDs suggest a progenitor mass of 15 < or equal to M(sub prog) < 25 Stellar Mass.

  7. Can we observe neutrino flares in coincidence with explosive transients? (United States)

    Guépin, C.; Kotera, K.


    The new generation of powerful instruments is reaching sensitivities and temporal resolutions that will allow multi-messenger astronomy of explosive transient phenomena, with high-energy neutrinos as a central figure. We derive general criteria for the detectability of neutrinos from powerful transient sources for given instrument sensitivities. In practice, we provide the minimum photon flux necessary for neutrino detection based on two main observables: the bolometric luminosity and the time variability of the emission. This limit can be compared to the observations in specified wavelengths in order to target the most promising sources for follow-ups. Our criteria can also help distinguishing false associations of neutrino events with a flaring source. We find that relativistic transient sources such as high- and low-luminosity gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), blazar flares, tidal disruption events, and magnetar flares could be observed with IceCube, as they have a good chance to occur within a detectable distance. Of the nonrelativistic transient sources, only luminous supernovae appear as promising candidates. We caution that our criterion should not be directly applied to low-luminosity GRBs and type Ibc supernovae, as these objects could have hosted a choked GRB, leading to neutrino emission without a relevant counterpart radiation. We treat the concrete example of PKS 1424-418 major outburst and the possible association with an IceCube event IC 35.

  8. Can we observe neutrino flares in coincidence with explosive transients? (United States)

    Guépin, Claire; Kotera, Kumiko


    The new generation of powerful instruments is reaching sensitivities and temporal resolutions that will allow multi-messenger astronomy of explosive transient phenomena, with high-energy neutrinos as a central figure. We derive general criteria for the detectability of neutrinos from powerful transient sources for given instrument sensitivities. In practice, we provide the minimum photon flux necessary for neutrino detection based on two main observables: the bolometric luminosity and the time variability of the emission. This limit can be compared to the observations in specified wavelengths in order to target the most promising sources for follow-ups. Our criteria can also help distinguishing false associations of neutrino events with a flaring source. We find that relativistic transient sources such as high- and low-luminosity gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), blazar flares, tidal disruption events, and magnetar flares could be observed with IceCube, as they have a good chance to occur within a detectable distance. Of the nonrelativistic transient sources, only luminous supernovae appear as promising candidates. We caution that our criterion should not be directly applied to low-luminosity GRBs and type Ibc supernovae, as these objects could have hosted a choked GRB, leading to neutrino emission without a relevant counterpart radiation. We treat a set of concrete examples and show that several transients, some of which are being monitored by IceCube, are far from meeting the criterion for detectability (e.g., Crab flares or Swift J1644+57).

  9. DOE TMD transportation training module 14 transportation of explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffith, R.L. Jr.


    The Department of Energy Transportation Management Division has developed training module 14, entitled {open_quotes}Transportation of Explosives{close_quotes} to compliment the basic {open_quotes}core ten{close_quotes} training modules of the Hazardous Materials Modular Training Program. The purpose of this training module is to increase awareness of the Department of Transportation (DOT) requirements concerning the packaging and transportation of explosives. Topics covered in module 14 include the classification of explosives, approval and registration of explosives, packaging requirements, hazard communication requirements, separation and segregation compatibility requirements, loading and unloading operations, as well as safety measures required in the event of a vehicle accident involving explosives.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matej MENČÍK


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to approximate danger of dust clouds normally occur by determining their explosion characteristics. Nowadays, dusty environment is phenomenon in the industry. In general, about 70% of dust produced is explosive. Dust reduction in companies is the main purpose of the national and European legislative. Early identification and characterization of dust in companies may reduce the risk of explosion. It could be used to identify hazards in industrial production where an explosive dust is produced. For this purpose several standards for identification and characterization of explosion characteristics of industrial dust are being used.

  11. Building indifferentiable compression functions from the PGV compression functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gauravaram, P.; Bagheri, Nasour; Knudsen, Lars Ramkilde


    , Rogaway and Shrimpton formally proved this result in the ideal cipher model. However, in the indifferentiability security framework introduced by Maurer, Renner and Holenstein, all these 12 schemes are easily differentiable from a fixed input-length random oracle (FIL-RO) even when their underlying block...... are indifferentiable from a FIL-RO. To our knowledge, this is the first result showing that two independent block ciphers are sufficient to design indifferentiable single-block-length compression functions.......Preneel, Govaerts and Vandewalle (PGV) analysed the security of single-block-length block cipher based compression functions assuming that the underlying block cipher has no weaknesses. They showed that 12 out of 64 possible compression functions are collision and (second) preimage resistant. Black...

  12. 76 FR 4338 - Research and Development Strategies for Compressed & Cryo-Compressed Hydrogen Storage Workshops (United States)


    ... Research and Development Strategies for Compressed & Cryo- Compressed Hydrogen Storage Workshops AGENCY... hosting two days of workshops on compressed and cryo-compressed hydrogen storage in the Washington, DC... perspectives, and overviews of carbon fiber development and recent costs analyses. The cryo-compressed hydrogen...

  13. Fast and Slow Solar Wind: Energy Transfer Rate in Compressible MHD Turbulence (United States)

    Hadid, L.; Sahraoui, F.; Galtier, S.; Banerjee, S.


    The role of compressible fluctuations in the energy cascade in the fast and slow solar wind is investigated. A focus is put on comparing the energy cascade rates estimated using the exact laws derived for incompressible MHD turbulence [Politano and Pouquet, 1998] (PP98) and for compressible isothermal turbulence recently derived by Galtier and Banerjee, 2013 (BG13). New features are evidenced using the BG13 model in comparison with the PP98 model: i) broader inertial range (more than two decades of scales); ii) higher energy cascade rate (up to 4 times); iii) less anisotropic cascade rates (along and perpendicular to the local mean field). Furthermore, a term-by-term analysis of the compressible model emphasized the relative importance of the new flux term in the BG13 model, and provided new insight into the role played by the compressible fluctuations in the solar wind.

  14. Fast and Slow solar wind: Energy transferrate in compressible MHD trubulence. (United States)

    Hadid, Lina; Sahraoui, Fouad; Galtier, Sebastien; Banerjee, Supratik


    The role of compressible fluctuations in the energy cascade in the fast and slow solar wind is investigated. A focus is put on comparing the energy cascade rates estimated using the exact laws derived for incompressible MHD turbulence [Politano and Pouquet, 1998] (PP98) and for compressible isothermal turbulence recently derived by Galtier and Banerjee, PRE, 2013 (BG13). New features are evidenced using the BG13 model in comparison with the PP98 model: i) broader inertial range (more than two decades of scales); ii) higher energy cascade rate (up to 4 times); iii) less anisotropic cascade rates (along and perpendicular to the local mean field). Furthermore, a term-by-term analysis of the compressible model emphasized the relative importance of the new flux term in the BG13 model, and provided new insight into the role played by the compressible fluctuations in the solar wind.

  15. Numerical aspects of compressible turbulence simulations (United States)

    Honein, Albert Edward

    Nonlinear instabilities present a long standing hurdle for compact, high order, non dissipative, finite difference computation of compressible turbulence. The spectral-like accuracy of these schemes, while attractive, results in significant aliasing errors that corrupt the solution. As a result, successful simulations have been limited to moderate Reynolds numbers ( Re) and low-order or upwind schemes with inherent numerical dissipation. However, resorting to dissipative schemes in discretizing the nonlinear terms was shown to have a detrimental effect on turbulence. A recent LES approach is to abandon the subgrid model altogether and rely on the scheme dissipation to mimic the effect of small scales. A dissipative monotone integrated LES (MILES) algorithm based on a multidimensional flux-corrected transport (FCT) algorithm has been developed and tested for decaying compressible isotropic turbulence. Agreement with the benchmark experiments of Comte-Bellot and Corrsin is very sensitive to the parameters involved in the FCT algorithm, while the evolution of thermodynamic fluctuations do not compare well with direct numerical simulations. An under-resolved simulation of inviscid, compressible, isotropic turbulence at low Mach number is chosen as a severe benchmark to investigate the nonlinear stability properties of nondissipative schemes. The behavior of this benchmark is predicted by performing a fully de-aliased spectral simulation on a 32 3 grid with turbulent Mach number of Mto = 0.07. The kinetic energy and thermodynamic fluctuations are found to decay for finite Re, and remain constant at infinite Re for a long time before the occurrence of numerical shocks. Extending the proof of Kraichnan (Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 27(3), 1955), this inviscid statistical equilibrium is demonstrated to be a consequence of the discrete equivalent of the Liouville theorem of classical statistical mechanics. Several existing non-dissipative methods are


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Levin Vladimir


    Full Text Available This problem is related to the safety problem in the area of forest fires. It is well known that is possible to extinguish a fire, for example, by means of a powerful air stream. Such flow arises from the explosive shock wave. To enhance the im- pact of the blast wave can be used an explosive charge of annular shape. The shock wave, produced by the explosion, in- creased during moves to the center and can serve as a means of transportation dust in the seat of the fire. In addition, emerging after the collapse of a converging shock wave strong updraft can raise dust on a greater height and facilitate fire extinguishing, precipitating dust over a large area. This updraft can be dangerous for aircraft that are in the sky above the fire. To determine the width and height of the danger zone performed the numerical simulation of the ring of the explosion and the subsequent movement of dust and gas mixtures. The gas is considered ideal and perfect. The explosion is modeled as an instantaneous increase in the specific internal energy in an annular zone on the value of the specific heat of explosives. The flow is consid- ered as two-dimensional, and axisymmetric. The axis of symmetry perpendicular to the Earth surface. This surface is considered to be absolutely rigid and is considered as the boundary of the computational domain. On this surface is exhibited the condition of no motion. For the numerical method S. K. Godunov is used a movable grid. One system of lines of this grid is moved in accordance with movement of the shock wave. Others lines of this grid are stationary. The calculations were per- formed for different values of the radii of the annular field and for different sizes of rectangular cross-sectional of the annular field. Numerical results show that a very strong flow is occurring near the axis of symmetry and the particles rise high above the surface. These calculations allow us to estimate the sizes of the zone of danger in specific

  17. Inelastic processes in seismic wave generation by underground explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodean, H.C.


    Theories, computer calculations, and measurements of spherical stress waves from explosions are described and compared, with emphasis on the transition from inelastic to almost-elastic relations between stress and strain. Two aspects of nonspherical explosion geometry are considered: tectonic strain release and surface spall. Tectonic strain release affects the generation of surface waves; spall closure may also. The reduced-displacement potential is a common solution (the equivalent elastic source) of the forward and inverse problems, assuming a spherical source. Measured reduced-displacement potentials are compared with potentials calculated as solutions of the direct and inverse problems; there are significant differences between the results of the two types of calculations and between calculations and measurements. The simple spherical model of an explosion is not sufficient to account for observations of explosions over wide ranges of depth and yield. The explosion environment can have a large effect on explosion detection and yield estimation. The best sets of seismic observations for use in developing discrimination techniques are for high-magnitude high-yield explosions; the identification problem is most difficult for low-magnitude low-yield explosions. Most of the presently available explosion data (time, medium, depth, yield, etc.) are for explosions in a few media at the Nevada Test Site; some key questions concerning magnitude vs yield and m/sub b/ vs M/sub s/ relations can be answered only by data for explosions in other media at other locations.

  18. Explosion characteristics of flammable organic vapors in nitrous oxide atmosphere. (United States)

    Koshiba, Yusuke; Takigawa, Tomihisa; Matsuoka, Yusaku; Ohtani, Hideo


    Despite unexpected explosion accidents caused by nitrous oxide have occurred, few systematic studies have been reported on explosion characteristics of flammable gases in nitrous oxide atmosphere compared to those in air or oxygen. The objective of this paper is to characterize explosion properties of mixtures of n-pentane, diethyl ether, diethylamine, or n-butyraldehyde with nitrous oxide and nitrogen using three parameters: explosion limit, peak explosion pressure, and time to the peak explosion pressure. Then, similar mixtures of n-pentane, diethyl ether, diethylamine, or n-butyraldehyde with oxygen and nitrogen were prepared to compare their explosion characteristics with the mixtures containing nitrous oxide. The explosion experiments were performed in a cylindrical vessel at atmospheric pressure and room temperature. The measurements showed that explosion ranges of the mixtures containing nitrous oxide were narrow compared to those of the mixtures containing oxygen. On the other hand, the maximum explosion pressures of the mixtures containing nitrous oxide were higher than those of the mixtures containing oxygen. Moreover, our experiments revealed that these mixtures differed in equivalence ratios at which the maximum explosion pressures were observed: the pressures of the mixtures containing nitrous oxide were observed at stoichiometry; in contrast, those of the mixtures containing oxygen were found at fuel-rich area. Chemical equilibrium calculations confirmed these behaviors. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. An overview of semantic compression (United States)

    Schmalz, Mark S.


    We live in such perceptually rich natural and manmade environments that detection and recognition of objects is mediated cerebrally by attentional filtering, in order to separate objects of interest from background clutter. In computer models of the human visual system, attentional filtering is often restricted to early processing, where areas of interest (AOIs) are delineated around anomalies of interest, then the pixels within each AOI's subtense are isolated for later processing. In contrast, the human visual system concurrently detects many targets at multiple levels (e.g., retinal center-surround filters, ganglion layer feature detectors, post-retinal spatial filtering, and cortical detection / filtering of features and objects, to name but a few processes). Intracranial attentional filtering appears to play multiple roles, including clutter filtration at all levels of processing - thus, we process individual retinal cell responses, early filtering response, and so forth, on up to the filtering of objects at high levels of semantic complexity. Computationally, image compression techniques have progressed from emphasizing pixels, to considering regions of pixels as foci of computational interest. In more recent research, object-based compression has been investigated with varying rate-distortion performance and computational efficiency. Codecs have been developed for a wide variety of applications, although the majority of compression and decompression transforms continue to concentrate on region- and pixel-based processing, in part because of computational convenience. It is interesting to note that a growing body of research has emphasized the detection and representation of small features in relationship to their surrounding environment, which has occasionally been called semantic compression. In this paper, we overview different types of semantic compression approaches, with particular interest in high-level compression algorithms. Various algorithms and

  20. Observations of FRC Trapped Flux Lifetime Relative to Its Prolateness (United States)

    Grabowski, Chris; Degnan, James; Domonkos, Matthew; Amdahl, David; Ruden, Edward; Wurden, Glen; Weber, Thomas


    The Field-Reversed Configuration Heating Experiment (FRCHX) explored scientific issues associated with HED laboratory plasmas (HEDLPs) and phenomena relevant to magneto-inertial fusion in a closed-field-line plasma. To create the HEDLP conditions, a field-reversed configuration (FRC) of moderate density was formed via reversed-field theta pinch, translated into a solid liner where it was trapped between two magnetic mirrors, and then adiabatically compressed by solid liner implosion. Shortly following formation, the FRCs typically had a separatrix radius of 3 3.5 cm, peak density of 1017 cm-3, and temperature of 200 eV. The lifetime of trapped flux within the plasma was initially 13-16 μs following formation, or 8-11 μs once the FRC settled within the capture region. This was too short to allow complete compression by the solid liner, even when starting implosion before FRC formation. By moving the mirror coils 10 cm further apart, the magnetic well width increased by 6 8 cm, which resulted in an increase in the trapped flux lifetime by 4 5 μs. This presentation describes characteristics of the FRC plasmas prior to and following the lengthening of the capture region. From the literature, conclusions are made linking FRC stability and prolateness to FRC trapped flux lifetime. This work was supported by DOE Office of Fusion Energy Sciences.

  1. Seismic and source characteristics of large chemical explosions. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adushkin, V.V.; Kostuchenko, V.N.; Pernik, L.M.; Sultanov, D.D.; Zcikanovsky, V.I.


    From the very beginning of its arrangement in 1947, the Institute for Dynamics of the Geospheres RAS (former Special Sector of the Institute for physics of the Earth, RAS) was providing scientific observations of effects of nuclear explosions, as well as large-scale detonations of HE, on environment. This report presents principal results of instrumental observations obtained from various large-scale chemical explosions conducted in the Former-Soviet Union in the period of time from 1957 to 1989. Considering principal aim of the work, tamped and equivalent chemical explosions have been selected with total weights from several hundreds to several thousands ton. In particular, the selected explosions were aimed to study scaling law from excavation explosions, seismic effect of tamped explosions, and for dam construction for hydropower stations and soil melioration. Instrumental data on surface explosions of total weight in the same range aimed to test military technics and special objects are not included.

  2. Numerical simulation of explosive welding using Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Feng


    Full Text Available In order to investigate the mechanism of explosive welding and the influences of explosive welding parameters on the welding quality, this paper presents numerical simulation of the explosive welding of Al-Mg plates using Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics method. The multi-physical phenomena of explosive welding, including acceleration of the flyer plate driven by explosive detonation, oblique collision of the flyer and base plates, jetting phenomenon and the formation of wavy interface can be reproduced in the simulation. The characteristics of explosive welding are analyzed based on the simulation results. The mechanism of wavy interface formation is mainly due to oscillation of the collision point on the bonding surfaces. In addition, the impact velocity and collision angle increase with the increase of the welding parameters, such as explosive thickness and standoff distance, resulting in enlargement of the interfacial waves.

  3. One-Dimensional Time to Explosion (Thermal Sensitivity) of ANPZ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hust, G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); McClelland, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Gresshoff, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)


    Incidents caused by fire and combat operations can heat energetic materials that may lead to thermal explosion and result in structural damage and casualty. Some explosives may thermally explode at fairly low temperatures (< 100 C) and the violence from thermal explosion may cause a significant damage. Thus it is important to understand the response of energetic materials to thermal insults. The One Dimensional Time to Explosion (ODTX) system at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has been used for decades to measure times to explosion, threshold thermal explosion temperature, and determine kinetic parameters of energetic materials. Samples of different configurations (pressed part, powder, paste, and liquid) can be tested in the system. The ODTX testing can also provide useful data for assessing the thermal explosion violence of energetic materials. This report summarizes the recent ODTX experimental data and modeling results for 2,6-diamino-3,5-dintropyrazine (ANPZ).

  4. Analysis of the internal explosion affecting building barriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarosław Siwiński


    Full Text Available In this paper we considered the action of an internal explosion onto building barriers. Determination of the maximum peak pressure on the forehead of an internal wave explosion was presented on the basis of the analysis of reflected waves. Variability in time of the action of an internal explosion describes overpressure phase only. Load analysis of internal cargo detonation was carried out for the standard atmosphere undisturbed conditions. We developed the tabulated algorithm for determination of loadings taking into account the geometric characteristics of the building barriers and rooms in which the detonation occurs and parameters of explosion environment.[b]Keywords[/b]: civil engineering, explosive actions, internal explosion, concentrate explosive

  5. Optimal fluxes and Reynolds stresses

    CERN Document Server

    Jimenez, Javier


    It is remarked that fluxes in conservation laws, such as the Reynolds stresses in the momentum equation of turbulent shear flows, or the spectral energy flux in isotropic turbulence, are only defined up to an arbitrary solenoidal field. While this is not usually significant for long-time averages, it becomes important when fluxes are modelled locally in large-eddy simulations, or in the analysis of intermittency and cascades. As an example, a numerical procedure is introduced to compute fluxes in scalar conservation equations in such a way that their total integrated magnitude is minimised. The result is an irrotational vector field that derives from a potential, thus minimising sterile flux `circuits'. The algorithm is generalised to tensor fluxes and applied to the transfer of momentum in a turbulent channel. The resulting instantaneous Reynolds stresses are compared with their traditional expressions, and found to be substantially different.

  6. Specific features of explosive decomposition of pentaerythritol tetranitrate exposed to an electron beam with an explosive emission cathode (United States)

    Aduev, B. P.; Belokurov, G. M.; Krechetov, A. G.; Liskov, I. Yu.


    A comparative examination of the critical energy density of explosive decomposition of pentaerythritol tetranitrate exposed either to an electron beam of a GIN-600 accelerator (240 keV, 20 ns) with an explosive emission cathode or to this beam combined with metal low-temperature diode plasma has been performed. It has been demonstrated that the contribution of plasma to the development of explosive decomposition is appreciable at explosion probabilities P ≤ 0.2. At higher energy densities and explosion probabilities P ≥ 0.5, the contribution of plasma to the overall beam energy density did not exceed 10%.

  7. Graphene thermal flux transistor. (United States)

    Shafranjuk, S E


    Insufficient flexibility of existing approaches to controlling the thermal transport in atomic monolayers limits their capability for use in many applications. Here, we examine the means of electrode doping to control the thermal flux Q due to phonons propagating along the atomic monolayer. We found that the frequency of the electron-restricted phonon scattering strongly depends on the concentration nC. of the electric charge carriers, established by the electric potentials applied to local gates. As a result of the electrode doping, nC is increased, causing a sharp rise in both the electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient, while the thermal conductivity tumbles. Therefore, the effect of the thermal transistor improves the figure of merit of nanoelectronic circuits.

  8. Mechanical and microstructural characterization of a HMX-based pressed explosive: Effects of combined high pressure and strain rate (United States)

    Trumel, H.; Lambert, P.; Biessy, M.


    The paper presents a study of the combined effects of strain rate and confining pressure on the behaviour and microstructure evolutions of a HMX-based explosive. Hopkinson bar compression experiments are carried-out on samples confined with a brass sleeve. The latter is instrumented in order to determine the confining pressure on the explosive sample, directly function of the sleeve thickness and yield strength. A sample confined at 75 MPa and deformed at 250s-1 is recovered, cross-sectioned and studied using optical microscopy. Distributed microplasticity and microcracking appear similar to those induced by confined quasi-static experiments, indicating that stress triaxiality is the most important loading parameter. The sample also displays a large shear macrocrack, resulting from the formation of an adiabatic shear band. Shear banding seems to proceed by strong plastic strain gradients, followed by dynamic re-crystallization. Further strong thermal effects are observed, resulting in local reactive melting.

  9. Mechanical and microstructural characterization of a HMX-based pressed explosive: Effects of combined high pressure and strain rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biessy M.


    Full Text Available The paper presents a study of the combined effects of strain rate and confining pressure on the behaviour and microstructure evolutions of a HMX-based explosive. Hopkinson bar compression experiments are carried-out on samples confined with a brass sleeve. The latter is instrumented in order to determine the confining pressure on the explosive sample, directly function of the sleeve thickness and yield strength. A sample confined at 75 MPa and deformed at 250s−1 is recovered, cross-sectioned and studied using optical microscopy. Distributed microplasticity and microcracking appear similar to those induced by confined quasi-static experiments, indicating that stress triaxiality is the most important loading parameter. The sample also displays a large shear macrocrack, resulting from the formation of an adiabatic shear band. Shear banding seems to proceed by strong plastic strain gradients, followed by dynamic re-crystallization. Further strong thermal effects are observed, resulting in local reactive melting.

  10. Neutron fluxes in test reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youinou, Gilles Jean-Michel [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)


    Communicate the fact that high-power water-cooled test reactors such as the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR), the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) or the Jules Horowitz Reactor (JHR) cannot provide fast flux levels as high as sodium-cooled fast test reactors. The memo first presents some basics physics considerations about neutron fluxes in test reactors and then uses ATR, HFIR and JHR as an illustration of the performance of modern high-power water-cooled test reactors.

  11. Seismic explosion sources on an ice cap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shulgin, Alexey; Thybo, Hans


    Controlled source seismic investigation of crustal structure below ice covers is an emerging technique. We have recently conducted an explosive refraction/wide-angle reflection seismic experiment on the ice cap in east-central Greenland. The data-quality is high for all shot points and a full...... crustal model can be modelled. A crucial challenge for applying the technique is to control the sources. Here, we present data that describe the efficiency of explosive sources in the ice cover. Analysis of the data shows, that the ice cap traps a significant amount of energy, which is observed...... as a strong ice wave. The ice cap leads to low transmission of energy into the crust such that charges need be larger than in conventional onshore experiments to obtain reliable seismic signals. The strong reflection coefficient at the base of the ice generates strong multiples which may mask for secondary...

  12. Initiation and Propagation in Primary Explosives (United States)

    Dickson, P. M.; Field, J. E.


    The initiation and propagation of deflagration and detonation in mercury fulminate, lead azide, mercuric-5-nitrotetrazole and silver-5-nitrotetrazole have been studied using various techniques. Streak and framing high-speed photography were used to observe these events directly. The main aim has been to investigate the factors which affect deflagration-to-detonation transition (DDT) and the related phenomenon of dead-pressing, which may be regarded as a failure of the DDT process at high pressed densities. These factors include the variable properties of pressed density, void structure, confinement and charge dimension and geometry, and also fixed properties (for a given explosive) such as shock and thermal sensitivities, heat of explosion and the quantity and state of the reaction products. The nature and strength of the initiating stimulus also have a major effect on the subsequent reaction.

  13. Ignitability and explosibility of gases and vapors

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Tingguang


    The book provides a systematic view on flammability and a collection of solved engineering problems in the fields of dilution and purge, mine gas safety, clean burning safety and gas suppression modeling. For the first time, fundamental principles of energy conservation are used to develop theoretical flammability diagrams and are then explored to understand various safety-related mixing problems. This provides the basis for a fully-analytical solution to any flammability problem. Instead of the traditional view that flammability is a fundamental material property, here flammability is discovered to be a result of the explosibility of air and the ignitability of fuel, or a process property. By exploring the more fundamental concepts of explosibility and ignitability, the safety targets of dilution and purge can be better defined and utilized for guiding safe operations in process safety. This book provides various engineering approaches to mixture flammability, benefiting not only the safety students, but al...

  14. Study on Explosive Forming of Aluminum Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Iyama


    Full Text Available Now, the aluminum alloy is often used as auto parts, for example, body, engine. For example, there are the body, a cylinder block, a piston, a connecting rod, interior, exterior parts, etc. These are practical used the characteristic of a light and strong aluminum alloy efficiently. However, although an aluminum alloy is lighter than steel, the elongation is smaller than that. Therefore, in press forming, some problems often occur. We have proposed use of explosive forming, in order to solve this problem. In the explosive forming, since a blank is formed at high speed, a strain rate effect becomes large and it can be made the elongation is larger. Then, in order to clarify this feature, we carried out experimental research and numerical analysis. In this paper, these contents will be discussed.

  15. Lower head integrity under steam explosion loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theofanous, T.G.; Yuen, W.W.; Angelini, S.; Freeman, K.; Chen, X.; Salmassi, T. [Center for Risk Studies and Safety, Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Sienicki, J.J.


    Lower head integrity under steam explosion loads in an AP600-like reactor design is considered. The assessment is the second part of an evaluation of the in-vessel retention idea as a severe accident management concept, the first part (DOE/ID-10460) dealing with thermal loads. The assessment is conducted in terms of the Risk Oriented Accident Analysis Methodology (ROAAM), and includes the comprehensive evaluation of all relevant severe accident scenarios, melt conditions and timing of release from the core region, fully 3D mixing and explosion wave dynamics, and lower head fragility under local, dynamic loading. All of these factors and brought together in a ROAAM Probabilistic Framework to evaluate failure likelihood. The conclusion is that failure is `physically unreasonable`. (author)

  16. The First Man-Made Nuclear Explosion (United States)

    Worth Seagondollar, L.


    This talk is part Nuclear Physics, part description of the greatest war-time experience possible for a young graduate student, and part eye-witness description of the 1945 plutonium fission devise explosion in the New Mexico desert. Living and working in the secret Manhattan District laboratory was truly unique. Hearing talks by Nobel Laureates (past & future), participating in nuclear experiments that determined the critical masses for U-235 and Pu-239, having near-catastrophic accidents, working with an armed guard watching you, having Enrico Fermi ask you to come to his office--these are unforgettable memories. There will be a description of 3 days in the New Mexico desert and a description of the early morning nuclear explosion at the Trinity Site and a description of that Site 30 days later.

  17. SERS substrate for detection of explosives. (United States)

    Chou, Alison; Jaatinen, Esa; Buividas, Ricardas; Seniutinas, Gediminas; Juodkazis, Saulius; Izake, Emad L; Fredericks, Peter M


    A novel gold coated femtosecond laser nanostructured sapphire surface - an "optical nose" - based on surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) for detecting vapours of explosive substances was investigated. Four different nitroaromatic vapours at room temperature were tested. Sensor responses were unambiguous and showed response in the range of 0.05-15 μM at 25 °C. The laser fabricated substrate nanostructures produced up to an eight-fold increase in Raman signal over that observed on the unstructured portions of the substrate. This work demonstrates a simple sensing system that is compatible with commercial manufacturing practices to detect taggants in explosives which can undertake as part of an integrated security or investigative mission.

  18. Quantum cascade laser FM spectroscopy of explosives (United States)

    Gutmann, Zach; Clasp, Trocia; Lue, Chris; Johnson, Tiffani; Ingle, Taylor; Jamison, Janet; Buchanan, Roger; Reeve, Scott


    Polyisobutylene is an industrial polymer that is widely used in a number of applications including the manufacture of military grade explosives. We have examined the vapor emanating from a series of different molecular weight samples of polyisobutylene using high resolution Quantum Cascade Laser FM spectroscopy. The vapor phase spectra all exhibit a rovibrational structure similar to that for the gas phase isobutylene molecule. We have assigned the structure in the 890 cm-1 and 1380 cm-1 regions to the isobutylene ν28 and ν7 fundamental bands respectively. These spectroscopic signatures may prove useful for infrared sensing applications. Here we will present the infrared signatures along with recent GCMS data from a sample of C4, utilizing solid-phase microextraction vapor collection fibers, which confirm the presence of isobutylene as one of the volatile bouquet species in RDX-based explosives.

  19. Explosive magnetorotational instability in Keplerian disks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shtemler, Yu., E-mail:; Liverts, E., E-mail:; Mond, M., E-mail: [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel)


    Differentially rotating disks under the effect of axial magnetic field are prone to a nonlinear explosive magnetorotational instability (EMRI). The dynamic equations that govern the temporal evolution of the amplitudes of three weakly detuned resonantly interacting modes are derived. As distinct from exponential growth in the strict resonance triads, EMRI occurs due to the resonant interactions of an MRI mode with stable Alfvén–Coriolis and magnetosonic modes. Numerical solutions of the dynamic equations for amplitudes of a triad indicate that two types of perturbations behavior can be excited for resonance conditions: (i) EMRI which leads to infinite values of the three amplitudes within a finite time, and (ii) bounded irregular oscillations of all three amplitudes. Asymptotic explicit solutions of the dynamic equations are obtained for EMRI regimes and are shown to match the numerical solutions near the explosion time.

  20. Electronic Nose for Detection of Explosives. (United States)

    Oakes, Landon; Dobrokhotov, Vladimir


    The ability to sense the environment is of critical importance for a broad array of applications ranging from ecosystem health, hazardous materials avoidance/chemical warfare to medical applications. In this research project we use the self-assembled monolayer (SAM)-functionalized nanoparticle-decorated nanosprings as a novel design for sensing vapors associated with explosives. The common requirements for any sensor application are sensitivity, selectivity, refreshability, repeatability, low cost of manufacture, and ease of use. The project goal is to answer these needs through the use of mats of functionalized metal nanoparticle-coated nanosprings as a novel type of low-cost nanomaterials-based gas sensor. The advantage of this approach is that very dilute quantities of airborne explosive products can be accumulated over a few seconds to a few minutes onto our high surface area nanospring electrodes. This will facilitate electronic detection, which in contrast to optical detection methods reduces false positive signals, reduces detector sizes and complexity.

  1. Facial trauma caused by electronic cigarette explosion. (United States)

    Vaught, Brian; Spellman, Joseph; Shah, Anil; Stewart, Alexander; Mullin, David


    Electronic cigarettes are increasingly popular as a supposed safer alternative to tobacco cigarettes or a smoking cessation tool. Research and debate have focused primarily on possible adverse effects caused by the inhaled aerosol produced by electronic cigarettes and on smoking cessation efficacy. Few reports in the medical literature describe injuries secondary to device malfunction. We present a case of electronic cigarette explosion, with a projectile fracturing the patient's right naso-orbital-ethmoid complex and anterior and posterior frontal sinus tables, with frontal sinus outflow tract involvement. The patient underwent combined open and endoscopic repair, including open reduction internal fixation, with reconstitution and preservation of the frontal sinus and frontal sinus outflow tract. Additionally, we review the available data on electronic cigarette malfunction-including fires, explosions, associated injuries, and possible reasons for device malfunction-and discuss new 2016 U.S. Food and Drug Administration regulations pertaining to electronic cigarettes.

  2. The November 2009 paroxysmal explosions at Stromboli (United States)

    Andronico, Daniele; Pistolesi, Marco


    Two paroxysmal explosions occurred at Stromboli volcano (Italy) on 8 and 24 November 2009. Analysis of recordings (from video-camera surveillance) indicates that each paroxysm consisted of multiple bursts from different vents. Field surveys, carried out within a few days after the two paroxysmal events, allowed us to gather crucial data on eruptive deposits and document morphological variations occurring at the source vents. Integration of video-analysis and field observations allowed making inferences on the eruptive dynamics of each explosive paroxysm. The 24 November event, in particular, erupted a larger volume and coarser products dispersed further from the summit area, resulting in a more hazardous event compared to the 8 November event that was largely confined to the upper part of the volcano.

  3. Detecting underwater improvised explosive threats (DUIET) (United States)

    Feeley, Terry


    Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs) have presented a major threat in the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq. These devices are powerful homemade land mines that can be small and easily hidden near roadsides. They are then remotely detonated when Coalition Forces pass by either singly or in convoys. Their rapid detection, classification and destruction is key to the safety of troops in the area. These land based bombs will have an analogue in the underwater theater especially in ports, lakes, rivers and streams. These devices may be used against Americans on American soil as an element of the global war on terrorism (GWOT) Rapid detection and classification of underwater improvised explosive devices (UIED) is critical to protecting innocent lives and maintaining the day to day flow of commerce. This paper will discuss a strategy and tool set to deal with this potential threat.

  4. Compressive Sensing for MIMO Radar

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Yao; Poor, H Vincent


    Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radar systems have been shown to achieve superior resolution as compared to traditional radar systems with the same number of transmit and receive antennas. This paper considers a distributed MIMO radar scenario, in which each transmit element is a node in a wireless network, and investigates the use of compressive sampling for direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation. According to the theory of compressive sampling, a signal that is sparse in some domain can be recovered based on far fewer samples than required by the Nyquist sampling theorem. The DOA of targets form a sparse vector in the angle space, and therefore, compressive sampling can be applied for DOA estimation. The proposed approach achieves the superior resolution of MIMO radar with far fewer samples than other approaches. This is particularly useful in a distributed scenario, in which the results at each receive node need to be transmitted to a fusion center for further processing.

  5. Compressive Sensing in Communication Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fyhn, Karsten


    . The need for cheaper, smarter and more energy efficient wireless devices is greater now than ever. This thesis addresses this problem and concerns the application of the recently developed sampling theory of compressive sensing in communication systems. Compressive sensing is the merging of signal......Wireless communication is omnipresent today, but this development has led to frequency spectrum becoming a limited resource. Furthermore, wireless devices become more and more energy-limited, due to the demand for continual wireless communication of higher and higher amounts of information...... acquisition and compression. It allows for sampling a signal with a rate below the bound dictated by the celebrated Shannon-Nyquist sampling theorem. In some communication systems this necessary minimum sample rate, dictated by the Shannon-Nyquist sampling theorem, is so high it is at the limit of what...

  6. Instability of ties in compression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch-Hansen, Thomas Cornelius


    Masonry cavity walls are loaded by wind pressure and vertical load from upper floors. These loads results in bending moments and compression forces in the ties connecting the outer and the inner wall in a cavity wall. Large cavity walls are furthermore loaded by differential movements from...... the temperature gradient between the outer and the inner wall, which results in critical increase of the bending moments in the ties. Since the ties are loaded by combined compression and moment forces, the loadbearing capacity is derived from instability equilibrium equations. Most of them are iterative, since......-connectors in cavity walls was developed. The method takes into account constraint conditions limiting the free length of the wall tie, and the instability in case of pure compression which gives an optimal load bearing capacity. The model is illustrated with examples from praxis....

  7. Compressive behavior of fine sand.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Bradley E. (Air Force Research Laboratory, Eglin, FL); Kabir, Md. E. (Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN); Song, Bo; Chen, Wayne (Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN)


    The compressive mechanical response of fine sand is experimentally investigated. The strain rate, initial density, stress state, and moisture level are systematically varied. A Kolsky bar was modified to obtain uniaxial and triaxial compressive response at high strain rates. A controlled loading pulse allows the specimen to acquire stress equilibrium and constant strain-rates. The results show that the compressive response of the fine sand is not sensitive to strain rate under the loading conditions in this study, but significantly dependent on the moisture content, initial density and lateral confinement. Partially saturated sand is more compliant than dry sand. Similar trends were reported in the quasi-static regime for experiments conducted at comparable specimen conditions. The sand becomes stiffer as initial density and/or confinement pressure increases. The sand particle size become smaller after hydrostatic pressure and further smaller after dynamic axial loading.

  8. Compressive sensing and hyperspectral imaging (United States)

    Barducci, A.; Guzzi, D.; Lastri, C.; Marcoionni, P.; Nardino, V.; Pippi, I.


    Compressive sensing (sampling) is a novel technology and science domain that exploits the option to sample radiometric and spectroscopic signals at a lower sampling rate than the one dictated by the traditional theory of ideal sampling. In the paper some general concepts and characteristics regarding the use of compressive sampling in instruments devoted to Earth observation is discussed. The remotely sensed data is assumed to be constituted by sampled images collected by a passive device in the optical spectral range from the visible up to the thermal infrared, with possible spectral discrimination ability, e.g. hyperspectral imaging. According to recent investigations, compressive sensing necessarily employs a signal multiplexing architecture, which in spite of traditional expectations originates a significant SNR disadvantage.

  9. Potential hazards of compressed air energy storage in depleted natural gas reservoirs.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, Paul W.; Grubelich, Mark Charles; Bauer, Stephen J.


    This report is a preliminary assessment of the ignition and explosion potential in a depleted hydrocarbon reservoir from air cycling associated with compressed air energy storage (CAES) in geologic media. The study identifies issues associated with this phenomenon as well as possible mitigating measures that should be considered. Compressed air energy storage (CAES) in geologic media has been proposed to help supplement renewable energy sources (e.g., wind and solar) by providing a means to store energy when excess energy is available, and to provide an energy source during non-productive or low productivity renewable energy time periods. Presently, salt caverns represent the only proven underground storage used for CAES. Depleted natural gas reservoirs represent another potential underground storage vessel for CAES because they have demonstrated their container function and may have the requisite porosity and permeability; however reservoirs have yet to be demonstrated as a functional/operational storage media for compressed air. Specifically, air introduced into a depleted natural gas reservoir presents a situation where an ignition and explosion potential may exist. This report presents the results of an initial study identifying issues associated with this phenomena as well as possible mitigating measures that should be considered.

  10. DOE explosives safety manual. Revision 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This manual prescribes the Department of Energy (DOE) safety rules used to implement the DOE safety policy for operations involving explosives. This manual is applicable to all DOE facilities engaged in operations of development, manufacturing, handling, storage, transportation, processing, or testing of explosives, pyrotechnics and propellants, or assemblies containing these materials. The standards of this manual deal with the operations involving explosives, pyrotechnics and propellants, and the safe management of such operations. The design of all new explosives facilities shall conform to the requirements established in this manual and implemented in DOE 6430.1A, ``General Design Criteria Manual.`` It is not intended that existing physical facilities be changed arbitrarily to comply with these provisions, except as required by law. Existing facilities that do not comply with these standards may continue to be used for the balance of their functional life, as long as the current operation presents no significantly greater risk than that assumed when the facility was originally designed and it can be demonstrated clearly that a modification to bring the facility into compliance is not feasible. However, in the case of a major renovation, the facility must be brought into compliance with current standards. The standards are presented as either mandatory or advisory. Mandatory standards, denoted by the words ``shall,`` ``must,`` or ``will,`` are requirements that must be followed unless written authority for deviation is granted as an exemption by the DOE. Advisory standards denoted by ``should`` or ``may`` are standards that may be deviated from with a waiver granted by facility management.

  11. Risk-Based Explosive Safety Analysis (United States)


    REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form Approved OMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for this collection of information is estimated to average 1...currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 30 November 2016 2. REPORT TYPE...Technical Paper 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 01 November 2016 – 30 November 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Risk-Based Explosive Safety Analysis 5a

  12. Explosive Infrasonic Events: Sensor Comparison Experiment (SCE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schnurr, J. M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Garces, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Rodgers, A. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)


    SCE (sensor comparison experiment) 1 through 4 consists of a series of four controlled above-ground explosions designed to provide new data for overpressure propagation. Infrasound data were collected by LLNL iPhones and other sensors. Origin times, locations HOB, and yields are not being released at this time and are therefore not included in this report. This preliminary report will be updated as access to additional data changes, or instrument responses are determined.

  13. Surface detonation in type Ia supernova explosions?


    Roepke, F. K.; Woosley, S. E.


    We explore the evolution of thermonuclear supernova explosions when the progenitor white dwarf star ignites asymmetrically off-center. Several numerical simulations are carried out in two and three dimensions to test the consequences of different initial flame configurations such as spherical bubbles displaced from the center, more complex deformed configurations, and teardrop-shaped ignitions. The burning bubbles float towards the surface while releasing energy due to the nuclear reactions. ...

  14. Polyurethane Binder Systems for Polymer Bonded Explosives (United States)


    Trimethylol propane TPB Triphenyl Bismuth DSTO-GD-0492 1. Introduction The desire for increased safety in explosives handling, storage and...HTPB) 7.346 Dioctyl adipate (DOA) 7.346 Antioxidant 2246 (AO) 0.10 N,N 2-Hydroxyethyl dimethyl-hydantoin (DHE) 0.26 Triphenyl bismuth (TBP) 0.02...with water and the liberated acetic acid is titrated against 0.5 N alcoholic potassium hydroxide solution. The following solutions are required

  15. Explosive detection technologies for airline security


    Maruyama, Xavier K.


    Aviation safety and security has become a topic of paramount national concern. Informed decision making requires an appreciation of trends in technology in response to projected future terrorist activities. In the area of security, explosive detection is made possible by a bewildering array of newly offered equipment. This document describes the science and engineering of the various technologies. The information presented here was written for airline security, but it applies also to a wi...

  16. Optimization of Composting for Explosives Contaminated Soil (United States)


    required for implementation of j composting as a cost- effective alternative to incineration. All three explosives present at UMDA demonstrated...into the mixture to be composted and/or the contaminants must be degraded at a higher rate. To increase the rates of degradation either more effective ...microorganisms with more effective metabolic pathways/enzymes are available and will function well in a compost matrix), optimizing the composition of the

  17. Composting of Explosives-Contaminated Soil Technology (United States)


    dinitrotoluenes) and to evaluate the influence of temperature upon composting effectiveness . This study demonstrated that the bioconversion of explosives under... effected primarily by mechanical turning of the compost , clcsely regulated temperature regimes in such a system may be difficult to achieve. In aerated...treatment processes, the feasibility and economics of composting will be directly influenced by the length of time required for treatment. Treatment

  18. Dynamic Fracture Simulations of Explosively Loaded Cylinders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthur, Carly W. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering; Goto, D. M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)


    This report documents the modeling results of high explosive experiments investigating dynamic fracture of steel (AerMet® 100 alloy) cylinders. The experiments were conducted at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) during 2007 to 2008 [10]. A principal objective of this study was to gain an understanding of dynamic material failure through the analysis of hydrodynamic computer code simulations. Two-dimensional and three-dimensional computational cylinder models were analyzed using the ALE3D multi-physics computer code.

  19. Youngest Stellar Explosion in Our Galaxy Discovered (United States)


    Astronomers have found the remains of the youngest supernova, or exploded star, in our Galaxy. The supernova remnant, hidden behind a thick veil of gas and dust, was revealed by the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array (VLA) and NASA's Chandra X-Ray Observatory, which could see through the murk. The object is the first example of a "missing population" of young supernova remnants. 1985 and 2008 VLA Images Move cursor over image to blink. VLA Images of G1.9+0.3 in 1985 and 2008: Circle for size comparison. CREDIT: Green, et al., NRAO/AUI/NSF From observing supernovae in other galaxies, astronomers have estimated that about three such stellar explosions should occur in our Milky Way every century. However, the most recent one known until now occurred around 1680, creating the remnant called Cassiopeia A. The newly-discovered object is the remnant of an explosion only about 140 years ago. "If the supernova rate estimates are correct, there should be the remnants of about 10 supernova explosions in the Milky Way that are younger than Cassiopeia A," said David Green of the University of Cambridge in the UK, who led the VLA study. "It's great to finally track one of them down." Supernova explosions, which mark the violent death of a star, release tremendous amounts of energy and spew heavy elements such as calcium and iron into interstellar space. They thus seed the clouds of gas and dust from which new stars and planets are formed and, through their blast shocks, can even trigger such formation. The lack of evidence for young supernova remnants in the Milky Way had caused astronomers to wonder if our Galaxy, which appears otherwise normal, differed in some unknown way from others. Alternatively, scientists thought that the "missing" Milky Way supernovae perhaps indicated that their understanding of the relationship between supernovae and other galactic processes was in error. The astronomers made their discovery by measuring the expansion of the debris from

  20. Synthesis of Magnetized Nuclei at Supernova Explosion (United States)

    Kondratyev, V. N.; Nurtayeva, U. M.; Zhomartova, A. Zh.; Mishenina, T. V.

    Influence of magnetorotational instabilities in astrophysical plasma at supernova explosion on synthesis of chemical elements is investigated. At field strength less than 10 teratesla nuclear magnetic susceptibility exhibits linear regime with enhanced nuclear binding energy for open shell nuclei. Effects of ultra-strong nuclear magnetization are demonstrated to enhance the portion of titanium product. The relation to an excess of titanium isotopes revealed from the Integral mission data and galactic chemical evolution is discussed.