Sample records for exploring irregular vibrations

  1. Exploring health implications associated with irregular migration ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although there have been several negative media reports on the plight of irregular migrants from Ghana, research on issues related to their health has been rather scanty. The study assesses health implications associated with irregular migration from Ghana using both the Techiman and Nkoranza Municipalities as a case ...

  2. An adaptive vibration control method to suppress the vibration of the maglev train caused by track irregularities (United States)

    Zhou, Danfeng; Yu, Peichang; Wang, Lianchun; Li, Jie


    The levitation gap of the urban maglev train is around 8 mm, which puts a rather high requirement on the smoothness of the track. In practice, it is found that the track irregularity may cause stability problems when the maglev train is traveling. In this paper, the dynamic response of the levitation module, which is the basic levitation structure of the urban maglev train, is investigated in the presence of track irregularities. Analyses show that due to the structural configuration of the levitation module, the vibration of the levitation gap may be amplified and "resonances" may be observed under some specified track wavelengths and train speeds; besides, it is found that the gap vibration of the rear levitation unit in a levitation module is more significant than that of the front levitation unit, which agrees well with practice. To suppress the vibration of the rear levitation gap, an adaptive vibration control method is proposed, which utilizes the information of the front levitation unit as a reference. A pair of mirror FIR (finite impulse response) filters are designed and tuned by an adaptive mechanism, and they produce a compensation signal for the rear levitation controller to cancel the disturbance brought by the track irregularity. Simulations under some typical track conditions, including the sinusoidal track profile, random track irregularity, as well as track steps, indicate that the adaptive vibration control scheme can significantly reduce the amplitude of the rear gap vibration, which provides a method to improve the stability and ride comfort of the maglev train.

  3. Random Vibration Analysis of Train Moving over Slab Track on Bridge under Track Irregularities and Earthquakes by Pseudoexcitation Method

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zeng, Zhiping; Zhu, Kunteng; He, Xianfeng; Xu, Wentao; Chen, Lingkun; Lou, Ping


      This paper investigates the random vibration and the dynamic reliability of operation stability of train moving over slab track on bridge under track irregularities and earthquakes by the pseudoexcitation method (PEM...

  4. Seismic Vibration Control of 3D Steel Frames with Irregular Plans Using Eccentrically Placed MR Dampers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuwen Hu


    Full Text Available There has been a significant increase in attention toward designing smart structures and vibration control of structures in recent decades, and numerous methods and algorithms have been developed and experimentally investigated. However, the majority of these studies used the shear frame models to represent structures. Since the simplified models do not reflect the realistic behavior of those structures with irregularity in plan and elevation, the traditional methods for designing an optimal control that guarantees a desirable performance is impossible. In this study, the behavior of a 10-story irregular steel frame building is investigated with and without controlling systems. Two pairs of eccentrically placed MR dampers on each story are used in order to mitigate the coupled translational–torsional vibration. The controlling forces are determined using active, passive-off, passive-on, and clipped optimal controls based on the linear quadratic regulator (LQR algorithm. The results demonstrate that using pairs of magneto-rheological (MR dampers with an appropriate distance on lower story levels significantly reduces the inter-story drifts for the corner columns, as well as the roof displacements and accelerations.

  5. Exploring Manycore Multinode Systems for Irregular Applications with FPGA Prototyping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ceriani, Marco; Palermo, Gianluca; Secchi, Simone; Tumeo, Antonino; Villa, Oreste


    We present a prototype of a multi-core architecture implemented on FPGA, designed to enable efficient execution of irregular applications on distributed shared memory machines, while maintaining high performance on regular workloads. The architecture is composed of off-the-shelf soft-core cores, local interconnection and memory interface, integrated with custom components that optimize it for irregular applications. It relies on three key elements: a global address space, multithreading, and fine-grained synchronization. Global addresses are scrambled to reduce the formation of network hot-spots, while the latency of the transactions is covered by integrating an hardware scheduler within the custom load/store buffers to take advantage from the availability of multiple executions threads, increasing the efficiency in a transparent way to the application. We evaluated a dual node system irregular kernels showing scalability in the number of cores and threads.

  6. Exploring Properties of HI Clouds in Dwarf Irregular Galaxies (United States)

    Berger, Clara; Hunter, Deidre Ann


    Dwarf Irregular galaxies form stars and maintain exponential stellar disks at extremely low gas densities. One proposed method of maintaining such regular outer disks is scattering stars off of HI clouds. In order to understand the processes present in dwarf irregular stellar disks, we present a survey of atomic hydrogen clouds in and around a subset of representative galaxies from the LITTLE THINGS survey. We apply a cloud identification program to the 21 cm HI line emission cubes and extract masses, radii, surface densities, and distances from the center of the galaxy in the plane of the galaxy of each cloud. Our data show a wide range of clouds characterized by low surface densities but varied in mass and size. The number of clouds found and the mass of the most massive cloud show no correlation to integrated star forming rates or luminosity in these galaxies. However, they will be used as input for models of stars scattering off of HI clouds to better understand the regular stellar disks in dwarf Irregular galaxies.We acknowledge support from the National Science Foundation grant AST-1461200 to Northern Arizona University for Research Experiences for Undergraduates summer internships.

  7. Random Vibration Analysis of Train Moving over Slab Track on Bridge under Track Irregularities and Earthquakes by Pseudoexcitation Method


    Zeng, Zhiping; Zhu, Kunteng; He, Xianfeng; Xu, Wentao; Chen, Lingkun; Lou, Ping


    This paper investigates the random vibration and the dynamic reliability of operation stability of train moving over slab track on bridge under track irregularities and earthquakes by the pseudoexcitation method (PEM). Each vehicle is modeled by multibody dynamics. The track and bridge is simulated by a rail-slab-girder-pier interaction finite element model. The coupling equations of motion are established based on the wheel-rail interaction relationship. The random excitations of the track i...

  8. Random Vibration Analysis of Train Moving over Slab Track on Bridge under Track Irregularities and Earthquakes by Pseudoexcitation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiping Zeng


    Full Text Available This paper investigates the random vibration and the dynamic reliability of operation stability of train moving over slab track on bridge under track irregularities and earthquakes by the pseudoexcitation method (PEM. Each vehicle is modeled by multibody dynamics. The track and bridge is simulated by a rail-slab-girder-pier interaction finite element model. The coupling equations of motion are established based on the wheel-rail interaction relationship. The random excitations of the track irregularities and seismic accelerations are transformed into a series of deterministic pseudoexcitations by PEM. The time-dependent power spectral densities (PSDs of the random vibration of the system are obtained by step-by-step integration method, and the corresponding dynamic reliability is estimated based on the first-passage failure criterion. A case study is then presented in which a high-speed train moves over a slab track resting on a simply supported girder bridge. The PSD characteristics of the random vibration of the bridge and train are analyzed, the influence of the wheel-rail-bridge interaction models on the random vibration of the bridge and train is discussed, and furthermore the influence of train speed, earthquake intensity, and pier height on the dynamic reliability of train operation stability is studied.

  9. Exploring Perception of Vibrations from Rail: An Interview Study. (United States)

    Maclachlan, Laura; Waye, Kerstin Persson; Pedersen, Eja


    Rail transport is an environmentally responsible approach and traffic is expected to increase in the coming decades. Little is known about the implications for quality of life of populations living close to railways. This study explores the way in which vibrations from rail are perceived and described by these populations. The study took place in the Västra Götaland and Värmland regions of Sweden. A qualitative study approach was undertaken using semi-structured interviews within a framework of predetermined questions in participants' homes. A 26.3% response rate was achieved and 17 participants were interviewed. The experience of vibrations was described in tangible terms through different senses. Important emerging themes included habituation to and acceptance of vibrations, worry about property damage, worry about family members and general safety. Participants did not reflect on health effects, however, chronic exposure to vibrations through multimodal senses in individual living environments may reduce the possibility for restoration in the home. Lack of empowerment to reduce exposure to vibrations was important. This may alter individual coping strategies, as taking actions to avoid the stressor is not possible. The adoption of other strategies, such as avoidance, may negatively affect an individual's ability to cope with the stressor and their health.

  10. Random vibration analysis of train-bridge under track irregularities and traveling seismic waves using train-slab track-bridge interaction model (United States)

    Zeng, Zhi-Ping; Zhao, Yan-Gang; Xu, Wen-Tao; Yu, Zhi-Wu; Chen, Ling-Kun; Lou, Ping


    The frequent use of bridges in high-speed railway lines greatly increases the probability that trains are running on bridges when earthquakes occur. This paper investigates the random vibrations of a high-speed train traversing a slab track on a continuous girder bridge subjected to track irregularities and traveling seismic waves by the pseudo-excitation method (PEM). To derive the equations of motion of the train-slab track-bridge interaction system, the multibody dynamics and finite element method models are used for the train and the track and bridge, respectively. By assuming track irregularities to be fully coherent random excitations with time lags between different wheels and seismic accelerations to be uniformly modulated, non-stationary random excitations with time lags between different foundations, the random load vectors of the equations of motion are transformed into a series of deterministic pseudo-excitations based on PEM and the wheel-rail contact relationship. A computer code is developed to obtain the time-dependent random responses of the entire system. As a case study, the random vibration characteristics of an ICE-3 high-speed train traversing a seven-span continuous girder bridge simultaneously excited by track irregularities and traveling seismic waves are analyzed. The influence of train speed and seismic wave propagation velocity on the random vibration characteristics of the bridge and train are discussed.

  11. Vibrational Locomotion Enabling Subsurface Exploration of Unconsolidated Regolith Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The idea of vibrational locomotion is based on vibrational-fluidization in ISRU reactor systems, which has proven very effective for regolith mixing. The vibrating...

  12. Exploring the Origin of Kinematically Irregular Galaxies with MaNGA (United States)

    Stark, David Vincent; Bundy, Kevin; Westfall, Kyle; Bershady, Matthew; Cheung, Edmond; Soler, Juan; Brinchmann, Jarle; Abraham, Roberto; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Masters, Karen; Weijmans, Anne-Marie; Chen, Yanmei; Jin, Yifei; Drory, Niv; Lopes, Alexandre Roman; Law, David


    Deviations from normal rotation in galaxies may have a number of potential drivers, including tidal interactions, gas inflows/outflows, spiral structure, bar/oval distortions, or other internally generated instabilities. Thanks to new massive IFU surveys like MaNGA, we can now characterize the gas and stellar kinematics of thousands of galaxies in the local universe, enabling statistical analyses on the frequency of disturbed kinematics, their origin, and their impact on their host galaxies. We present a census of kinematics in MaNGA using a modified version of the Radon transform to map radial variations in kinematic position angles (PA). We discuss the frequency of kinematically irregular disks, and describe commonly observed patterns in radial PA profiles. In order to constrain the drivers of these kinematic signatures, we analyze how they correlate with galaxy mass, environment, star formation history, and gas-phase metallicity.

  13. Exploring performance and energy tradeoffs for irregular applications: A case study on the Tilera many-core architecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panyala, Ajay; Chavarría-Miranda, Daniel; Manzano, Joseph B.; Tumeo, Antonino; Halappanavar, Mahantesh


    High performance, parallel applications with irregular data accesses are becoming a critical workload class for modern systems. In particular, the execution of such workloads on emerging many-core systems is expected to be a significant component of applications in data mining, machine learning, scientific computing and graph analytics. However, power and energy constraints limit the capabilities of individual cores, memory hierarchy and on-chip interconnect of such systems, thus leading to architectural and software trade-os that must be understood in the context of the intended application’s behavior. Irregular applications are notoriously hard to optimize given their data-dependent access patterns, lack of structured locality and complex data structures and code patterns. We have ported two irregular applications, graph community detection using the Louvain method (Grappolo) and high-performance conjugate gradient (HPCCG), to the Tilera many-core system and have conducted a detailed study of platform-independent and platform-specific optimizations that improve their performance as well as reduce their overall energy consumption. To conduct this study, we employ an auto-tuning based approach that explores the optimization design space along three dimensions - memory layout schemes, GCC compiler flag choices and OpenMP loop scheduling options. We leverage MIT’s OpenTuner auto-tuning framework to explore and recommend energy optimal choices for different combinations of parameters. We then conduct an in-depth architectural characterization to understand the memory behavior of the selected workloads. Finally, we perform a correlation study to demonstrate the interplay between the hardware behavior and application characteristics. Using auto-tuning, we demonstrate whole-node energy savings and performance improvements of up to 49:6% and 60% relative to a baseline instantiation, and up to 31% and 45:4% relative to manually optimized variants.

  14. Random vibration test of Mars Exploration Rover spacecraft (United States)

    Scharton, T.; Lee, D.


    The primary objective of the random vibration test was to identify any hardware problems, which might compromise the mission. The test objectives, configuration, and requirements are briefly described in this presentation, and a representative sample of the measured data is presented.

  15. Exploring Individual Differences in Irregular Word Recognition among Children with Early-Emerging and Late-Emerging Word Reading Difficulty (United States)

    Steacy, Laura M.; Kearns, Devin M.; Gilbert, Jennifer K.; Compton, Donald L.; Cho, Eunsoo; Lindstrom, Esther R.; Collins, Alyson A.


    Models of irregular word reading that take into account both child- and word-level predictors have not been evaluated in typically developing children and children with reading difficulty (RD). The purpose of the present study was to model individual differences in irregular word reading ability among 5th grade children (N = 170), oversampled for…

  16. Ionospheric irregularities (United States)

    Fejer, B. G.; Kelley, M. C.


    The paper describes in detail the recent experimental studies of the E and F region irregularities and also the extensive work on plasma instability theories developed to explain them. Both radio wave and spacecraft-borne experimental techniques are described in order to allow a common ground for the understanding of the data from ground-based and in situ experiments. To date, theoretical work has been mostly concentrated on the low-latitude irregularities and, together with computer simulations, has been able to explain many aspects of the experimental data. These theoretical efforts are also discussed in some detail.

  17. Exploring the making of a galactic wind in the star-bursting dwarf irregular galaxy IC 10 with LOFAR (United States)

    Heesen, V.; Rafferty, D. A.; Horneffer, A.; Beck, R.; Basu, A.; Westcott, J.; Hindson, L.; Brinks, E.; ChyŻy, K. T.; Scaife, A. M. M.; Brüggen, M.; Heald, G.; Fletcher, A.; Horellou, C.; Tabatabaei, F. S.; Paladino, R.; Nikiel-Wroczyński, B.; Hoeft, M.; Dettmar, R.-J.


    Low-mass galaxies are subject to strong galactic outflows, in which cosmic rays may play an important role; they can be best traced with low-frequency radio continuum observations, which are less affected by spectral ageing. We present a study of the nearby star burst dwarf irregular galaxy IC 10 using observations at 140 MHz with the LOw-Frequency ARray (LOFAR), at 1580 MHz with the Very Large Array (VLA) and at 6200 MHz with the VLA and the 100-m Effelsberg telescope. We find that IC 10 has a low-frequency radio halo, which manifests itself as a second component (thick disc) in the minor axis profiles of the non-thermal radio continuum emission at 140 and 1580 MHz. These profiles are then fitted with 1D cosmic-ray transport models for pure diffusion and advection. We find that a diffusion model fits best, with a diffusion coefficient of D = (0.4-0.8) × 1026(E/GeV)0.5 cm2 s-1, which is at least an order of magnitude smaller than estimates both from anisotropic diffusion and the diffusion length. In contrast, advection models, which cannot be ruled out due to the mild inclination, while providing poorer fits, result in advection speeds close to the escape velocity of ≈50 km s^{-1}, as expected for a cosmic-ray driven wind. Our favoured model with an accelerating wind provides a self-consistent solution, where the magnetic field is in energy equipartition with both the warm neutral and warm ionized medium with an important contribution from cosmic rays. Consequently, cosmic rays can play a vital role for the launching of galactic winds in the disc-halo interface.

  18. Irregular Neutrosophic Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasir Shah


    Full Text Available The concepts of neighbourly irregular neutrosophic graphs, neighbourly totally irregular neutrosophic graphs, highly irregular neutrosophic graphs and highly totally irregular neutrosophic graphs are introduced. A criteria for neighbourly irregular and highly irregular neutrosophic graphs to be equivalent is discussed.

  19. Exploring the vibrational fingerprint of the electronic excitation energy via molecular dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deyne, Andy Van Yperen-De; Pauwels, Ewald; Ghysels, An; Waroquier, Michel; Van Speybroeck, Veronique; Hemelsoet, Karen, E-mail: [Center for Molecular Modeling (CMM), Ghent University, Technologiepark 903, 9052 Zwijnaarde (Belgium); De Meyer, Thierry [Center for Molecular Modeling (CMM), Ghent University, Technologiepark 903, 9052 Zwijnaarde (Belgium); Department of Textiles, Ghent University, Technologiepark 907, 9052 Zwijnaarde (Belgium); De Clerck, Karen [Department of Textiles, Ghent University, Technologiepark 907, 9052 Zwijnaarde (Belgium)


    A Fourier-based method is presented to relate changes of the molecular structure during a molecular dynamics simulation with fluctuations in the electronic excitation energy. The method implies sampling of the ground state potential energy surface. Subsequently, the power spectrum of the velocities is compared with the power spectrum of the excitation energy computed using time-dependent density functional theory. Peaks in both spectra are compared, and motions exhibiting a linear or quadratic behavior can be distinguished. The quadratically active motions are mainly responsible for the changes in the excitation energy and hence cause shifts between the dynamic and static values of the spectral property. Moreover, information about the potential energy surface of various excited states can be obtained. The procedure is illustrated with three case studies. The first electronic excitation is explored in detail and dominant vibrational motions responsible for changes in the excitation energy are identified for ethylene, biphenyl, and hexamethylbenzene. The proposed method is also extended to other low-energy excitations. Finally, the vibrational fingerprint of the excitation energy of a more complex molecule, in particular the azo dye ethyl orange in a water environment, is analyzed.

  20. A seismic vibrator driven by linear synchronous motors : Developing a prototype vibrator, investigating the vibrator-ground contact and exploring robust signal design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noorlandt, R.P.


    The seismic method is an important indirect method to investigate the subsurface of the earth. By analyzing how the earth affects the propagation of mechanical waves, the structure of the earth and its seismic properties can be inferred. The seismic vibrator is the most commonly used land source in

  1. Ensuring Safe Exploration: Ares Launch Vehicle Integrated Vehicle Ground Vibration Testing (United States)

    Tuma, M. L.; Chenevert, D. J.


    Integrated vehicle ground vibration testing (IVGVT) will be a vital component for ensuring the safety of NASA's next generation of exploration vehicles to send human beings to the Moon and beyond. A ground vibration test (GVT) measures the fundamental dynamic characteristics of launch vehicles during various phases of flight. The Ares Flight & Integrated Test Office (FITO) will be leading the IVGVT for the Ares I crew launch vehicle at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) from 2012 to 2014 using Test Stand (TS) 4550. MSFC conducted similar GVT for the Saturn V and Space Shuttle vehicles. FITO is responsible for performing the IVGVT on the Ares I crew launch vehicle, which will lift the Orion crew exploration vehicle to low Earth orbit, and the Ares V cargo launch vehicle, which can launch the lunar lander into orbit and send the combined Orionilander vehicles toward the Moon. Ares V consists of a six-engine core stage with two solid rocket boosters and an Earth departure stage (EDS). The same engine will power the EDS and the Ares I second stage. For the Ares IVGVT, the current plan is to test six configurations in three unique test positions inside TS 4550. Position 1 represents the entire launch stack at liftoff (using inert first stage segments). Position 2 consists of the entire launch stack at first stage burn-out (using empty first stage segments). Four Ares I second stage test configurations will be tested in Position 3, consisting of the Upper Stage and Orion crew module in four nominal conditions: J-2X engine ignition, post Launch Abort System (LAS) jettison, critical slosh mass, and J-2X burn-out. Because of long disuse, TS 4550 is being repaired and reactivated to conduct the Ares I IVGVT. The Shuttle-era platforms have been removed and are being replaced with mast climbers that provide ready access to the test articles and can be moved easily to support different positions within the test stand. The electrical power distribution system for TS 4550 was

  2. Irregular Migration of Egyptians


    ROMAN, Howaida


    Euro-Mediterranean Consortium for Applied Research on International Migration (CARIM) After defining irregular migration and tackling its different dimensions, the analytical note proposes to analyse the causes and dynamics of irregular migration in Egypt. It highlights furthermore the determinants of EU Policies in the realm of irregular migration, and Egypt’s policy-making approach towards irregular migrants. The conclusion emphasizes the necessity of forging coherent and effective polic...

  3. Focal Muscle Vibration and Physical Exercise in Postmastectomy Recovery: An Explorative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Celletti


    Full Text Available Background. Physical activity initiation and maintenance are particular challenges in the postmastectomy recovery and in particular Dragon Boat racing seems to be a useful sport activity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of focal muscle vibration as a proprioceptive input to improve upper limb functioning in a group of “paddlers” patients. Methods. A group of paddlers has been evaluated before vibratory treatment (T0, immediately after therapy (T1, after one week (T2, and after one month (T3 with DASH questionnaire, Body Image Scale, McGill pain questionnaire, Constant Scale, and Short Form 36 questionnaire. Results. Fourteen patients showed a significant reduction in disability score (p=0,001 using DASH scale, an improvement of upper limb function (p=0,001 using the Constant scale, and a reduction of pain (p=0,007 at the McGill pain questionnaire. The Mental Composite Score of the Short Form 36 questionnaire showed significant results (p=0,04 while no significant results had been found regarding the physical mental score (p=0,08. Conclusion. Focal muscle vibration may be a useful treatment in a postmastectomy recovery of upper limb functionality.

  4. Exploring the effect of vibronic contributions on light harvesting efficiency of NKX-2587 derivatives through vibrationally resolved electronic spectra (United States)

    Yang, Pan; Shen, Wei; Li, Ming; He, Rongxing


    The vibrationally resolved electronic spectra of five metal-free NKX-2587 derivatives containing heteroatom with different atomic sizes and electronegativity, were simulated within the Franck-Condon approximation including the Herzberg-Teller and Duschinsky effects, aimed at exploring the correlation of vibronic structure associated with the spectrum and efficiency of dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The parameters of short-circuit current density (Jsc) and open circuit voltage (Voc) involving efficiency of DSSCs, such as total dipole moments (μnormal), the light harvesting efficiency (LHE), injection driving force (Δ Ginject), and the number of electrons in the conduction band (nc), were calculated and discussed in detail. Results showed that the heteroatoms in the same period with large size and weak electronegativity and the ones in the same main group with large size and weak electronegativity are beneficial to Voc. The sizes and electronegativity of the heteroatoms have a weak effect on Jsc. The low-frequency modes play important roles in enhancing the intensities of the electronic spectra and structures can affect light harvesting efficiency (LHE). In this sense, our results provided guidance for understanding the sources of spectral intensities of dye molecules, and a valuable help for rational design of new molecules to improve the energy conversion efficiency (η) of DSSCs.

  5. An explorative analysis of process and formulation variables affecting comilling in a vibrational mill: The case of praziquantel. (United States)

    Beatrice Perissutti; Passerini, Nadia; Trastullo, Ramona; Keiser, Jennifer; Zanolla, Debora; Zingone, Guglielmo; Voinovich, Dario; Albertini, Beatrice


    Praziquantel, a BCS II class anthelmintic drug used for the treatment of schistosome infections, was coground in a vibrational mill with different polymers (linear and crosslinked povidone, copovidone and sodium starch glycolate). An explorative analysis of formulation variables (drug-polymer wt ratio and polymer type) and process parameters (type of grinding media, grinding time and frequency) was carried out with the help of an experimental screening design. The influence of the above mentioned factors on three PZQ characteristics (residual crystallinity, water solubility enhancement and drug recovery) was studied. The variation of carrier amount proved to be by far the most important variable affecting all the experimental responses. A lower impact and, in some cases, rather null effect, had the variation of the process variables. All coground systems were characterized by a high amorphous degree and a solubility significantly higher than the API. A very promising product was obtained by processing at 20Hz for 4h, using 3 spheres of 15mm as grinding media, i.e. a coground having a 50% API content, showing a 4.6-fold greater solubility at 20°C than pure praziquantel. This product maintained the same antischistosomal activity of pure API and was both physically and chemically stable for at least 6 months. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Irregular Hamiltonian Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Miskovic, O; Miskovic, Olivera; Zanelli, Jorge


    Hamiltonian systems with linearly dependent constraints (irregular systems), are classified according to their behavior in the vicinity of the constraint surface. For these systems, the standard Dirac procedure is not directly applicable. However, Dirac's treatment can be slightly modified to obtain, in some cases, a Hamiltonian description completely equivalent to the Lagrangian one. A recipe to deal with the different cases is provided, along with a few pedagogical examples.

  7. Restructuring surface tessellation with irregular boundary conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsung-Hsien Wang


    Full Text Available In this paper, the surface tessellation problem is explored, in particular, the task of meshing a surface with the added consideration of incorporating constructible building components. When a surface is tessellated into discrete counterparts, certain unexpected conditions usually occur at the boundary of the surface, in particular, when the surface is being trimmed. For example, irregularly shaped panels form at the trimmed edges. To reduce the number of irregular panels that may form during the tessellation process, this paper presents an algorithmic approach to restructuring the surface tessellation by investigating irregular boundary conditions. The objective of this approach is to provide an alternative way for freeform surface manifestation from a well-structured discrete model of the given surface.

  8. Irregular menstruation according to occupational status. (United States)

    Kwak, Yeunhee; Kim, Yoonjung


    This cross-sectional study explored associations of irregular menstruation with occupational characteristics, using secondary analyses of data from 4,731 women aged 19-54 years, collected from a nationally representative sample, the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey-V during 2010-2012. The associations between irregular menstruation and occupation were explored using multiple logistic regression. Compared to non-manual workers, service/sales workers had a greater odds of irregular menstruation (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 1.44; 95percent confidence interval [CI]: 1.04-1.99) as did manual workers and unemployed women (aOR: 1.56; 95percent CI: 1.10-2.22, aOR: 1.46; 95percent CI: 1.14-1.89, respectively). Compared to regular workers, temporary workers and unemployed women had aORs of 1.52 (95percent CI: 1.08-2.13) and 1.33 (95percent CI: 1.05-1.69), respectively. Also, when compared to full-time workers, part-time workers and unemployed women had greater odds of irregular menstruation (aOR: 1.41; 95percent CI: 1.00-2.00 and aOR: 1.29; 95percent CI: 1.03-1.63, respectively). Furthermore, compared to daytime workers, shift workers and unemployed women had greater odds irregular menstruation (aOR: 1.39; 95percent CI: 1.03-1.88 and aOR: 1.28; 95percent CI: 1.04-1.59, respectively). Women with these occupational characteristics should be screened for early diagnosis and intervention for irregular menstruation.

  9. Exploring health implications associated with irregular migration ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    When I arrived in Libya, I worked at a "connection house" (a place where social vices such as the sale of illicit drugs, gambling and commercial sex activities are common). This influenced me to engage in many bad habits like smoking all kinds of drugs, drinking, gambling and so on. One day there was a security swoop at ...

  10. Contraception and irregular menses. (United States)

    Hopayian, K; Houston, A; Cooke, I


    A fictitious patient with obesity, hirsutism and polycystic ovary syndrome is discussed by 3 British general practitioners to illuminate management of this type of case. The patient is 24 years old, expects to marry next year, has irregular menses averaging 6 weeks apart, and is requesting an explanation for her irregular periods as well as oral contraception. The 1st physician would exclude hypothyroidism, then evaluate polycystic ovary syndrome by assaying testosterone, LH, FSH and prolactin, next find out the significance of the patient's questions in her mind and finally prescribe a triphasic pill. The 2nd doctor would withhold the pill on the grounds that it might compromise future fertility if she has a primary endocrine imbalance. She would check rubella status, assay progesterone, LH, FSH, prolactin and testosterone on Day 19 of the cycle, and probably prescribe Marvelon oral contraceptives. The 3rd doctor would use a hirsutism score, investigate the polycystic ovary syndrome by ultrasound and an essay of sex hormone binding globulin and the LH:FSH and prolactin, next find out the significance of the patient's questions in her mind and finally prescribe a triphasic pill. The 2nd doctor would withhold the pill on the ground that it might compromise future fertility if she has a primary endocrine imbalance. She would check rubella status, assay progesterone, LH, FSH, prolactin and testosterone on Day 19 of the cycle, and probably prescribe Marvelon oral contraceptives. The 3rd doctor would use a hirsutism score, investigate the polycystic ovary syndrome by ultrasound and an assay of sex hormone binding globulin and the LH:FSH ration between Days 2-6 of the cycle, and rule out congenital adrenal hyperplasia with an assay for 17-alpha-OH-progesterone. Since the patient might be anovulatory because of obesity, major long-term weight lose is a priority. Prescription of pills would depend on family history, smoking, and the degree of hirsutism and endocrine status

  11. Exploration of peptides that fit into the thermally vibrating active site of cathepsin K protease by alternating artificial intelligence and molecular simulation (United States)

    Nishiyama, Katsuhiko


    Eighteen tripeptides that fit into the thermally vibrating active site of cathepsin K were discovered by alternating artificial intelligence and molecular simulation. The 18 tripeptides fit the active site better than the cysteine protease inhibitor E64, and a better inhibitor of cathepsin K could be designed considering these tripeptides. Among the 18 tripeptides, Phe-Arg-Asp and Tyr-Arg-Asp fit the active site the best and their structural similarity should be considered in the design process. Interesting factors emerged from the structure of the decision tree, and its structural information will guide exploration of potential inhibitor molecules for proteases.

  12. Time-frequency processing of track irregularities in high-speed train (United States)

    Ning, Jing; Lin, Jianhui; Zhang, Bing


    Track irregularities are the main source of vehicle vibration. With the increase in the speed, the track irregularities have become a more significant issue of concerned. The axle box acceleration signals can be obtained for analyzing the track irregularities, but the signals are usually non-stationary and signal processing results are not normally satisfied with the ordinary way. Thus, time-frequency distribution analysis is proposed to use in this study. To minimize the cross-terms, a new method based on Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) and Cohen's class distribution has been developed and advanced. This approach has been tested with three typical simulation signals and then applied to analyze the track irregularities. The result is consistent with the result from track inspection cars. This indicates this new algorithm is suitable for analyzing the track irregularities. It can be applied in rail irregularity measurement to compensate some shortages of the track inspection cars.

  13. Exploration of Treatment Features on Irregular Menstruation based on Synopsis of Golden Chamber%《金匮要略》论治月经不调特色探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈慧; 朱灿; 谭达全; 刘余; 罗桂香; 郭春秀


    This article starts from Women Miscellaneous Diseases Pulse Syndrome and Treatment chapter 22 and 21, to discuss the pathogenesis of Synopsis of Golden Chamber on the treatment of irregular menstruation. The characteristics of decoctions and Chinese medicines on the treatment of irregular menstruation in Synopsis of Golden Chamber are discussed. The academic thoughts of Synopsis of Golden Chamber on irregular menstruation are discussed systematically.%文章从《妇人杂病脉证并治第二十二》及《妇人产后病脉证治第二十一》入手,剖析《金匮要略》对月经不调病因病机的认识,探讨《金匮要略》治疗月经不调立方遣药的特色,系统探讨《金匮要略》论治月经不调的学术思想。

  14. Cartography of irregularly shaped satellites (United States)

    Batson, R. M.; Edwards, Kathleen


    Irregularly shaped satellites, such as Phobos and Amalthea, do not lend themselves to mapping by conventional methods because mathematical projections of their surfaces fail to convey an accurate visual impression of the landforms, and because large and irregular scale changes make their features difficult to measure on maps. A digital mapping technique has therefore been developed by which maps are compiled from digital topographic and spacecraft image files. The digital file is geometrically transformed as desired for human viewing, either on video screens or on hard copy. Digital files of this kind consist of digital images superimposed on another digital file representing the three-dimensional form of a body.

  15. The Irregular Moons of Saturn (United States)

    Denk, Tilmann; Mottola, Stefano; Tosi, Federico; Bottke, William; Hamilton, Douglas P.


    The 38 irregular moons of Saturn, all but Phoebe discovered between 2000 and 2007, outnumber the planet's classical satellites. Observations from the ground and from near-Earth space have revealed orbits, sizes, and colors and have hinted at the existence of dynamical families, indicative of collisional evolution and common progenitors. More recently, remote observations of many irregular satellites with the Cassini spacecraft produced lightcurves that helped determine rotational periods, coarse shape models, potential hemispheric color heterogeneities, and other basic properties.From Cassini, a total of 25 Saturnian irregulars have been observed with the ISS camera. Their rotational periods range from 5.45 h to 76.13 h. The absence of fast rotators is evident. Among main-belt asteroids of the same size range (~4 to ~45 km), one third of the objects have faster rotations, indicating that many irregulars should be low-density objects.While the origin of the irregulars is still debated, capture of comets via three-body interactions during giant planets encounters does the best job thus far at reproducing the observed prograde/retrograde orbits. Data from the ground, near-Earth spacecraft, and Cassini as well as modeling results suggest the population visible today has experienced substantial collisional evolution. It may be that only Phoebe has survived relatively intact. The small particle debris drifts toward Saturn by P-R drag, with most of it swept up by Titan. Only remnants of this process are visible today.Our current knowledge on the Saturnian irregulars will be summarized in a chapter [1] in the book "Enceladus and the Icy Moons of Saturn" [2]. The talk will give an overview on the chapter's content, which covers the following topics: Orbital "architecture" (a,e,i), sizes and colors, Cassini observations and results, Phoebe, origin, an outlook.[1] Denk, T., Mottola, S., Tosi, F., Bottke, W.F., Hamilton, D.P. (2018): The Irregular Satellites of Saturn. In

  16. Exploration (United States)

    Wilburn, D.R.


    Part of an annual review of mines and mineral resources in the U.S. An overview of nonfuel-mineral exploration in 2000 is presented. Principal exploration target was gold exploration in Latin America, Australia, and the U.S. There was a decrease of 18 percent in the exploration budget for gold as compared with the budget for 1999. Statistical information on nonfuel-mineral exploration worldwide is presented, analyzed, and interpreted.

  17. Analysis of irregularly distributed points

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartelius, Karsten


    The present thesis is on the analysis of irregularly distributed points. The main part of the thesis is concerned with enterpolating and restoration of irregularly distribyted points. The least squares methods of kriging and Kalman filtering and the Bayesian restoration method of iterated...... is described as a robust estimator which may be appled straightfor- wardly to a wide range of point patterns and processes when the correlation structure is known. We give a qualitative and quantitative comparison of kriging, Kalman filter and iterated conditional modes. The Kalman filter have in a case study...... on fusion of maps with different spatial resolution, shown to provide a powerful modelling of autocorrelated noise structures. The Kalman filter have shown to be superior to ordinary kriging in precision and computational speed. Simple kriging has same statistical properties as the Kalman filter...



    BROEKMANS, Tom; Roelants, Machteld; ALDERS, Geert; FEYS, Peter; THIJS, Herbert; OP 'T EIJNDE, Bert


    Objective To investigate the acute effects of long term whole body vibration on leg muscle performance and functional capacity in persons with multiple sclerosis Design A randomized controlled trial Subjects Twenty five patients with multiple sclerosis (mean age 47 9 +/- 1 9 years Expanded Disability Status Scale 4 3 +/- 0 2) were assigned randomly to whole body vibration training (n = 11) or to a control group (n = 14) Methods The whole body vibration group performed static and dynamic leg s...

  19. High-Latitude Ionospheric Irregularities. (United States)


    Owen, and J. A. Klobuchar , "Recent Studies of the Structure and Morphology of Auroral Zone F- Region Irregularities," Radio Sci., -8, 6, 1167-1180, 1983...We present observations of electron density variations in the F1 region of the ionosphere at two locations near the magnetic equator . Oscillations in...just off the magnetic equator during equatorial spread F conditions. One, a Javalin sounding rocket, was launched by NASA from Natal, Brazil, on 18

  20. Evaluating Terrain Irregularity by Robot Posture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Luneckas


    Full Text Available A method that allows evaluate the terrain irregularity by a robot posture is presented in this paper. A necessity to evaluate terrain irregularity is pointed out. Description of irregular terrain is given. A possibility to evaluate terrain irregularity by feet coordinate standard deviation is proposed. When deviation is σ = 0, all robots are in one plane. Bigger σ the more robot legs are scattered, meaning robot is walking in irregular terrain. A method to evaluate robot horizontality according to terrain by position of three planes is introduced.Article in Lithuanian

  1. The Relationships among Cognitive Correlates and Irregular Word, Non-Word, and Word Reading (United States)

    Abu-Hamour, Bashir; University, Mu'tah; Urso, Annmarie; Mather, Nancy


    This study explored four hypotheses: (a) the relationships among rapid automatized naming (RAN) and processing speed (PS) to irregular word, non-word, and word reading; (b) the predictive power of various RAN and PS measures, (c) the cognitive correlates that best predicted irregular word, non-word, and word reading, and (d) reading performance of…

  2. Acoustic and Linguistic Interdependencies of Irregular Phonation (United States)


    as in pronunciation of many consonants and during whispering. An example of irregular phonation at the end of an utterance is shown in Figure 4. The...Dilley, et. al. [23] and Pierrehumbert [24] have found that, "glottalization [roughly, irregular phonation] of word-initial vowels is influenced by full...intonational phrase boundaries significantly affects whether or not irregular phonation occurs during word-initial vowels . Specifically, they found that at

  3. The total irregularity of a graph

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdo, H.; Brandt, S.; Dimitrov, D.


    In this note a new measure of irregularity of a graph G is introduced. It is named the total irregularity of a graph and is defined as irr(t)(G) - 1/2 Sigma(u, v is an element of V(G)) vertical bar d(G)(u) - d(G)(v)vertical bar, where d(G)(u) denotes the degree of a vertex u is an element of V......(G). All graphs with maximal total irregularity are determined. It is also shown that among all trees of the same order the star has the maximal total irregularity....

  4. Signature analysis of roller bearing vibrations - Lubrication effects (United States)

    Su, Y.-T.; Sheen, Y.-T.; Lin, M.-H.

    This study investigates the vibration signature of roller bearings, induced by the surface irregularities of components, under various lubricating conditions. The bearing vibration is modeled as the output of the bearing assembly which is subjected to the excitations of surface irregularities through the oil-film. The oil-film acts as a spring between the roller and race. The stiffness of oil-film under different lubricating conditions is studied from the empirical equation of minimum oil-film thickness. It is shown that the vibration spectra of a normal roller bearing may have a pattern of equal frequency spacing distribution (EFSD) whose frequency information is similar to that of a damaged bearing. Under large loading and low running speed, the vibration energy is low if the lubricant viscosity is high. On the other hand, at high running speed, the vibration energy is high with high lubricant viscosity.

  5. Monitoring vibrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiryaki, B. [Hacettepe University (Turkey). Dept. of Mining Engineering


    The paper examines the prediction and optimisation of machine vibrations in longwall shearers. Underground studies were carried out at the Middle Anatolian Lignite Mine, between 1993 and 1997. Several shearer drums with different pick lacing arrangements were designed and tested on double-ended ranging longwall shearers employed at the mine. A computer program called the Vibration Analysis Program (VAP) was developed for analysing machine vibrations in longwall shearers. Shearer drums that were tested underground, as well as some provided by leading manufacturers, were analyzed using these programs. The results of the experiments and computer analyses are given in the article. 4 refs., 9 figs.

  6. Chirped-pulse Fourier transform millimeter-wave spectroscopy of ten vibrationally excited states of i-propyl cyanide: exploring the far-infrared region. (United States)

    Arenas, Benjamin E; Gruet, Sébastien; Steber, Amanda L; Giuliano, Barbara M; Schnell, Melanie


    We report here further spectroscopic investigation of the astrochemically relevant molecule i-propyl cyanide. We observed and analysed the rotational spectra of the ground state of the molecule and ten vibrationally excited states with energies between 180-500 cm(-1). For this, we used a segmented W-band spectrometer (75-110 GHz) and performed the experiments under room temperature conditions. This approach thus provides access to high-resolution, pure rotational data of vibrational modes that occur in the far-infrared fingerprint region, and that can be difficult to access with other techniques. The obtained, extensive data set will support further astronomical searches and identifications, such as in warmer regions of the interstellar space where contributions from vibrationally excited states become increasingly relevant.

  7. Processing of Irregular Polysemes in Sentence Reading (United States)

    Brocher, Andreas; Foraker, Stephani; Koenig, Jean-Pierre


    The degree to which meanings are related in memory affects ambiguous word processing. We examined irregular polysemes, which have related senses based on similar or shared features rather than a relational rule, like regular polysemy. We tested to what degree the related meanings of irregular polysemes ("wire") are represented with…

  8. default and irregular attendance at treatment centres

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a face to face interview. The questions covered .... dance behaviours — (regular versus irregular) — and the single most important reason month ... Phone. Hula. Nature. Job). 8. Table 2 shows the distribution of the regular 2 nd irregular attenders among the various occupational categories encountered in the present study.

  9. OGO 6 ion concentration irregularity studies (United States)

    Mcclure, J. P.


    Research is reported concerning the ionospheric F-region irregularities. The results are based on in-situ OGO-6 measurements of the total ion concentration N sub i. A proposed mechanism for the generation of equatorial F-region irregularities and the morphological results, and the occurrence of Fe(+) ions in the equatorial F-region are discussed. Related research papers are included.

  10. Vibrational Diver (United States)

    Kozlov, Victor; Ivanova, Alevtina; Schipitsyn, Vitalii; Stambouli, Moncef


    The paper is concerned with dynamics of light solid in cavity with liquid subjected to rotational vibration in the external force field. New vibrational phenomenon - diving of a light cylinder to the cavity bottom is found. The experimental investigation of a horizontal annulus with a partition has shown that under vibration a light body situated in the upper part of the layer is displaced in a threshold manner some distance away from the boundary. In this case the body executes symmetric tangential oscillations. An increase of the vibration intensity leads to a tangential displacement of the body near the external boundary. This displacement is caused by the tangential component of the vibrational lift force, which appears as soon as the oscillations lose symmetry. In this case the trajectory of the body oscillatory motion has the form of a loop. The tangential lift force makes stable the position of the body on the inclined section of the layer and even in its lower part. A theoretical interpretation has been proposed, which explains stabilization of a quasi-equilibrium state of a light body near the cavity bottom in the framework of vibrational hydromechanics.

  11. MAVEN Observations of Ionospheric Irregularities at Mars (United States)

    Fowler, C. M.; Andersson, L.; Shaver, S. R.; Thayer, J. P.; Huba, J. D.; Lillis, R.; Usanova, M. E.; Espley, J.; Ergun, R. E.; Mcfadden, J.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Connerney, J. E. P.; Benna, M.; Elrod, M.; Mitchell, D. L.; Mazelle, C.; Jakosky, B. M.


    Ionospheric irregularities associated with horizontal magnetic fields below 200 km altitude are observed at Mars. Plasma density modulations of up to 200% are observed during such events and appear correlated with fluctuations in the magnetic field. The observed fluctuations are likely Doppler shifted and represent spatial structures at length scales of 15-20 km or less. Conditions in the Martian ionosphere below 200 km are synonymous with the terrestrial E region, where ionospheric irregularities have been extensively studied. Interestingly, the irregularities at Mars appear to be electromagnetic in nature, in contrast to the electrostatic nature of irregularities at Earth. It is currently unclear what the primary drivers of these irregularities at Mars are, and further study is needed to explain these important phenomenon within the Martian ionosphere.

  12. Rupture Strength and Irregularity of Fracture Surfaces (United States)

    Ficker, Tomáš


    Textural irregularities of fracture surfaces of cement-based materials seem to be an interesting source of information on some mechanical properties. Besides compressive strength, the flexural strength is strongly correlated with height irregularities (i.e. roughness) of fracture surfaces of hydrated cement pastes. This correlation has been a subject of experimental study. An analytical relation between flexural strength and height irregularities has been inferred. The formula contains height parameters, which represent basic descriptors of surface irregularities of fracture surfaces of cement pastes. These irregularities are governed by the capillary porosity of cement pastes with different water-to-cement ratios. The relation yields values that are in agreement with the empirical formula published in the technical literature.

  13. Quantification of parametric uncertainties induced by irregular soil loading in orchard tower sprayer nonlinear dynamics (United States)

    Cunha, Americo; Palacios Felix, Jorge Luis; Balthazar, José Manoel


    This paper deals with the nonlinear stochastic dynamics of an orchard tower sprayer subjected to random excitations due to soil irregularities. A consistent stochastic model of uncertainties is constructed to describe random loadings and to predict variabilities in mechanical system response. The dynamics is addressed in time and frequency domains. Monte Carlo method is employed to compute the propagation of uncertainties through the stochastic model. Numerical simulations reveals a very rich dynamics, which is able to produce chaos. This numerical study also indicates that lateral vibrations follow a direct energy cascade law. A probabilistic analysis reveals the possibility of large lateral vibrations during the equipment operation.

  14. Influence of the pavement surface on the vibrations induced by heavy traffic in road bridges

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Paje, S.E; Vázquez, V.F; Camara, A; Ruiz-Teran, A.M


    The irregularity of the pavement surface governs the traffic-induced vibrations in road bridges, but it is either ignored or simulated by means of ideal pavements that differ significantly from real cases...

  15. Radar observations of ionospheric irregularities at Syowa Station, Antarctica: a brief overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Ogawa


    Full Text Available We briefly overview the radar observations that have been made for 30 years at Syowa Station, Antarctica for studying small-scale electron-density irregularities in the southern high-latitude E- and F-region ionosphere. Some observational results (i.e., long-term variations of radio aurora, Doppler spectra with narrow spectral widths and low Doppler velocities, and simultaneous observations of radar and optical auroras from VHF radars capable of detecting 1.3- to 3-m scale irregularities are presented. A new 50-MHz radar system equipped with phased-antenna arrays began operation in February 1995 to observe two-dimensional behaviours of E-region irregularities. An HF radar experiment also began in February 1995 to explore decameter-scale E- and F-region irregularities in the auroral zone and polar cap. These two radars will contribute to a better understanding of the ionospheric irregularities and ionospheric physics at southern high latitudes.

  16. Stochastic analysis model for vehicle-track coupled systems subject to earthquakes and track random irregularities (United States)

    Xu, Lei; Zhai, Wanming


    This paper devotes to develop a computational model for stochastic analysis and reliability assessment of vehicle-track systems subject to earthquakes and track random irregularities. In this model, the earthquake is expressed as non-stationary random process simulated by spectral representation and random function, and the track random irregularities with ergodic properties on amplitudes, wavelengths and probabilities are characterized by a track irregularity probabilistic model, and then the number theoretical method (NTM) is applied to effectively select representative samples of earthquakes and track random irregularities. Furthermore, a vehicle-track coupled model is presented to obtain the dynamic responses of vehicle-track systems due to the earthquakes and track random irregularities at time-domain, and the probability density evolution method (PDEM) is introduced to describe the evolutionary process of probability from excitation input to response output by assuming the vehicle-track system as a probabilistic conservative system, which lays the foundation on reliability assessment of vehicle-track systems. The effectiveness of the proposed model is validated by comparing to the results of Monte-Carlo method from statistical viewpoint. As an illustrative example, the random vibrations of a high-speed railway vehicle running on the track slabs excited by lateral seismic waves and track random irregularities are analyzed, from which some significant conclusions can be drawn, e.g., track irregularities will additionally promote the dynamic influence of earthquakes especially on maximum values and dispersion degree of responses; the characteristic frequencies or frequency ranges respectively governed by earthquakes and track random irregularities are greatly different, moreover, the lateral seismic waves will dominate or even change the characteristic frequencies of system responses of some lateral dynamic indices at low frequency.

  17. Bioinspired irregularly chirped broadband reflecting multilayers (United States)

    Chiadini, Francesco; Fiumara, Vincenzo; Scaglione, Antonio


    Dielectric multilayers consisting of alternating layers of two different materials with thicknesses irregularly decreasing with depth in the structure are included in the cuticle of some beetles whose shell exhibits broadband reflection in the optical wavelength range. Emulating these structures, we propose and numerically analyze irregularly chirped dielectric multilayers. Analysis was performed using a dedicated genetic algorithm (GA) that searches for the multilayer configurations maximizing the reflection for normal incidence over a large wavelength range. We found that the GA leads to the irregularly chirped reflectors that significantly outperform the regularly chirped ones proposed and analyzed in the literature.

  18. The irregularity of graphs under graph operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdo Hosam


    Full Text Available The irregularity of a simple undirected graph G was defined by Albertson [5] as irr(G = ∑uv∈E(G |dG(u − dG(v|, where dG(u denotes the degree of a vertex u ∈ V (G. In this paper we consider the irregularity of graphs under several graph operations including join, Cartesian product, direct product, strong product, corona product, lexicographic product, disjunction and sym- metric difference. We give exact expressions or (sharp upper bounds on the irregularity of graphs under the above mentioned operations

  19. Irregular Variability In Kepler Photometry (United States)

    Schlecker, Martin


    The transit method is the most successful tool for exoplanet discovery to date. With more than half of all known exoplanets discovered by Kepler using this method, the mission also revealed a number of objects with dimming events that defy the common explanations, the most prominent being KIC 8462852 aka ``Tabby's star''. I embarked on a search for objects with such irregular transit signatures in the data of K2, the two-wheeled successor mission of Kepler. My method is a combination of automated pre-selection of targets showing downward flux excursions and visual light curve inspection of the selected subset comprising about SI{1.5}% of the initial sample. In addition, I developed a tool to constrain the effective temperature of a planet-hosting star from photometry alone. This software finds broad application in any science case where a photometric spectral type estimate is necessary. I used existing transit models and Bayesian inference to perform a Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) analysis of a planetary candidate I discovered. This putative gas giant is in a SI{1.32}day circular orbit with an exceptionally tight orbital radius of a ≈ 0.012 AU. My analysis revealed a scaled planetary radius of R_{p}/R_star = 0.0927±0.0026 and an edge-on orientation with an inclination i=89.8+3.0-3.4. EPIC 217393088.01 is one of the closest-orbiting exoplanets ever detected and the first giant planet with such a small orbital radius. An additional major finding of my search is EPIC 220262993, which exhibits aperiodic, asymmetric dips in flux with rapid dimming rates and up to SI{˜25}% depth, lasting for SIrange{2}{4} day. In previous works based on optical and mid-infrared photometry, this object was inconsistently classified as a possible quasar or a white dwarf. We conducted follow-up observations both photometrically with GROND on the MPI/ESO SI{2.2} meter telescope in La Silla (Chile) and spectroscopically with FIRE on the Magellan/Baade SI{6.5} meter telescope. With

  20. Delay-driven irregular spatiotemporal patterns in a plankton system. (United States)

    Tian, Canrong; Zhang, Lai


    An inhomogeneous distribution of species density over physical space is a widely observed scenario in plankton systems. Understanding the mechanisms resulting in these spatial patterns is a central topic in plankton ecology. In this paper we explore the impact of time delay on spatiotemporal patterns in a prey-predator plankton system. We find that time delay can trigger the emergence of irregular spatial patterns via a Hopf bifurcation. Moreover, a phase transition from a regular spiral pattern to an irregular one was observed and the latter gradually replaced the former and persisted indefinitely. The characteristic length of the emergent spatial pattern is consistent with the scale of plankton patterns observed in field studies.

  1. Exploring Modeling Options and Conversion of Average Response to Appropriate Vibration Envelopes for a Typical Cylindrical Vehicle Panel with Rib-stiffened Design (United States)

    Harrison, Phil; LaVerde, Bruce; Teague, David


    Although applications for Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) techniques are more widely used in the aerospace industry today, opportunities to anchor the response predictions using measured data from a flight-like launch vehicle structure are still quite valuable. Response and excitation data from a ground acoustic test at the Marshall Space Flight Center permitted the authors to compare and evaluate several modeling techniques available in the SEA module of the commercial code VA One. This paper provides an example of vibration response estimates developed using different modeling approaches to both approximate and bound the response of a flight-like vehicle panel. Since both vibration response and acoustic levels near the panel were available from the ground test, the evaluation provided an opportunity to learn how well the different modeling options can match band-averaged spectra developed from the test data. Additional work was performed to understand the spatial averaging of the measurements across the panel from measured data. Finally an evaluation/comparison of two conversion approaches from the statistical average response results that are output from an SEA analysis to a more useful envelope of response spectra appropriate to specify design and test vibration levels for a new vehicle.

  2. Could Chocolate Guard Against an Irregular Heartbeat? (United States)

    ... Could Chocolate Guard Against an Irregular Heartbeat? 13-year study ... 23, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- There's delicious news for chocolate lovers: New research suggests the sweet might help ...

  3. Examining U.S. Irregular Warfare Doctrine

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kimbrough, IV, James M


    ... of insurgency and terrorism. In response to the associated strategic challenges, a growing debate occurred among military historians, strategists, and leaders about the proper principles necessary for contemporary irregular...

  4. The K-Spectrum of Ionospheric Irregularities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Angelo, N.; Pécseli, Hans; Petersen, P. I.


    Laboratory measurements in a cesium plasma device indicate that the wave number (power) spectrum of irregularities produced by the Farley instability is of the type P(K) ∝ K −β, where β ≃ 3.5-3.8.......Laboratory measurements in a cesium plasma device indicate that the wave number (power) spectrum of irregularities produced by the Farley instability is of the type P(K) ∝ K −β, where β ≃ 3.5-3.8....

  5. Vibrating minds

    CERN Document Server


    Ed Witten is one of the leading scientists in the field of string theory, the theory that describes elementary particles as vibrating strings. This week he leaves CERN after having spent a few months here on sabbatical. His wish is that the LHC will unveil supersymmetry.

  6. Locating irregularly shaped clusters of infection intensity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niko Yiannakoulias


    Full Text Available Patterns of disease may take on irregular geographic shapes, especially when features of the physical environment influence risk. Identifying these patterns can be important for planning, and also identifying new environmental or social factors associated with high or low risk of illness. Until recently, cluster detection methods were limited in their ability to detect irregular spatial patterns, and limited to finding clusters that were roughly circular in shape. This approach has less power to detect irregularly-shaped, yet important spatial anomalies, particularly at high spatial resolutions. We employ a new method of finding irregularly-shaped spatial clusters at micro-geographical scales using both simulated and real data on Schistosoma mansoni and hookworm infection intensities. This method, which we refer to as the “greedy growth scan”, is a modification of the spatial scan method for cluster detection. Real data are based on samples of hookworm and S. mansoni from Kitengei, Makueni district, Kenya. Our analysis of simulated data shows how methods able to find irregular shapes are more likely to identify clusters along rivers than methods constrained to fixed geometries. Our analysis of infection intensity identifies two small areas within the study region in which infection intensity is elevated, possibly due to local features of the physical or social environment. Collectively, our results show that the “greedy growth scan” is a suitable method for exploratory geographical analysis of infection intensity data when irregular shapes are suspected, especially at micro-geographical scales.

  7. Application of the pothole DAF method to vehicles traversing periodic roadway irregularities (United States)

    Pesterev, A. V.; Bergman, L. A.; Tan, C. A.; Yang, B.


    This paper is a sequel to the work discussed in Pesterev et al. (Journal of Sound and Vibration, in press). In that paper, it was suggested that the technique to determine the effect of a local road surface irregularity on the dynamics of a vehicle modelled as a linear multi-degree-of-freedom system relies on the so-called pothole dynamic amplification factor (DAF), which is a complex-valued function specific to the irregularity shape. This paper discusses the companion problem of how to determine the DAF function for an irregularity represented as a superposition of simpler ones. Another purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the application of the pothole DAF functions technique to finding a priori estimates of the effect of irregularities with a repeated structure. Specifically, we solve the problem of finding the conditions under which the dynamic effect of two identical potholes located one after another is greater than that due to the single pothole. We also find the estimate for the number of periods of a periodic irregularity that are sufficient in order to consider the oscillator response as steady state. The discussions are illustrated by numerical examples.

  8. Identifying equatorial ionospheric irregularities using in situ ion drifts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    R. A. Stoneback; R. A. Heelis


    Previous climatological investigations of ionospheric irregularity occurrence in the equatorial ionosphere have utilized in situ measurements of plasma density to identify the presence of an irregularity...

  9. Characterizing and Exploring the Implications of Maritime Irregular Warfare (United States)


    efforts to catch SPSSs is the fact that crews tend to scuttle the vessels after each drop-off. Generally, the crew loads the cargo onto a Mexican ...drug- trafficking ship, sinks the SPSS, boards the Mexican ship, and is taken to somewhere along Mexico’s western coast. While the range of adver...enough to carry eight tons of cocaine and four crew members in its air-conditioned interior and included a small kitchen ; it was able to dive up to

  10. Irregular behavior in an excitatory-inhibitory neuronal network. (United States)

    Park, Choongseok; Terman, David


    Excitatory-inhibitory networks arise in many regions throughout the central nervous system and display complex spatiotemporal firing patterns. These neuronal activity patterns (of individual neurons and/or the whole network) are closely related to the functional status of the system and differ between normal and pathological states. For example, neurons within the basal ganglia, a group of subcortical nuclei that are responsible for the generation of movement, display a variety of dynamic behaviors such as correlated oscillatory activity and irregular, uncorrelated spiking. Neither the origins of these firing patterns nor the mechanisms that underlie the patterns are well understood. We consider a biophysical model of an excitatory-inhibitory network in the basal ganglia and explore how specific biophysical properties of the network contribute to the generation of irregular spiking. We use geometric dynamical systems and singular perturbation methods to systematically reduce the model to a simpler set of equations, which is suitable for analysis. The results specify the dependence on the strengths of synaptic connections and the intrinsic firing properties of the cells in the irregular regime when applied to the subthalamopallidal network of the basal ganglia. (c) 2010 American Institute of Physics.

  11. Illumination of mesospheric irregularity by lightning discharge (United States)

    Füllekrug, Martin; Mezentsev, Andrew; Soula, Serge; Velde, Oscar; Evans, Adrian


    Theoretical model calculations recently predicted the existence of mesospheric irregularities which assist the initiation of sprites. Here we report the experimental detection of a ˜3-19 km3 large mesospheric irregularity at ˜80-85 km height which is illuminated by the electromagnetic field of an intense positive cloud-to-ground lightning discharge. While the lightning discharge causes a prompt group of four sprites above the lightning discharge, the mesospheric irregularity is found at a horizontal distance at least ˜15-20 km away from the sprite group and it rebrightens ˜40-60 ms after the sprite group occurrence. This rebrightening is driven by a local quasi-static electric field enhancement with a charge moment ˜4-20 Ckm which causes the irregularity to develop a downward descending luminous column from ˜75-85 km height. The quasi-static electric field enhancement is caused by the reorganization of residual charge inside the thundercloud during a high-level activity of intracloud discharges with ˜10-20 pulses per ms. Such mesospheric irregularities might have an effect on the wave propagation of 100 kHz radio waves which are used for atomic time transfer and marine navigation.

  12. Informal labor and irregular migrant workers


    Meeteren, Masja


    textabstractIrregular migrants, also referred to as “undocumented migrants” or “illegal migrants,” are immigrants who do not have legal permission to stay in the country they have migrated to and frequently take on informal and precarious employment. They may have entered the country legally – on a tourist visa for example – but are not allowed to reside or work there. There is broad consensus that the numbers and the global scale of irregular migration have increased over the last decades. A...

  13. Ensemble forecasting of irregular leadership change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Beger


    Full Text Available Using updated Archigos Data, as well as structural and event data, we construct a split-population duration model of irregular leadership changes. These are leadership changes that occur outside of the normal, legal framework for leadership transitions. Our model was estimated in March 2014 and produced probability estimates of leadership changes in many countries in the world. We used a wisdom-of-the-crowds approach to combining estimates from various different models. Ukraine and Thailand are among those in which we had the highest predictions for irregular change of leaders.

  14. Urban vibrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morrison, Ann; Knudsen, L.; Andersen, Hans Jørgen


      lab   studies   in   that   we   found   a   decreased   detection   rate   in   busy   environments.   Here   we   test   with   a   much   larger   sample   and   age   range,   and   contribute   with   the   first   vibration  sensitivity  testing  outside  the  lab  in  an  urban   public...

  15. Linking Poverty, Irregular Migration and Human Trafficking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Migration literature suggests that poverty, irregular migration and human trafficking are causally linked. However, empirical studies linking these aspects of migration are scarce. This is because, as clandestine activities, data collection on these aspects of migration presents serious challenges. As a result of these ...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IRREGULAR REPRODUCTIVE CYCLES IN THE TONGALAND. LOGGERHEAD SEA-TURTLE, CARETTA CARETTA L. (CRYPTODIRA: CHELONIDAE). G. R. HUGHES. Natal Parks, Game and Fish Preservation Board, Pietermaritzburg. ABSTRACT. The concept of sea-turtles exhibiting regular reproductive cycles is widely ...

  17. Spelling Pronunciations: Transforming Irregularity into Regularity (United States)

    Landerl, Karin; Thaler, Verena; Reitsma, Pieter


    In a 10-day training, the efficacy of spelling pronunciations on German speaking 5th-graders' spelling skills for irregular words was examined. Poor spellers were less efficient in learning the spelling pronunciations than age-adequate spellers. On post-tests, 1 week after the last training day and between 5 and 12 weeks after post-test 1, poor…

  18. Extracting Periodic Signals From Irregularly Sampled Data (United States)

    Wilcox, Jaroslava Z.


    Successive approximations formed in Fourier space. Algorithm extracts periodic signals from sparse, irregularly sampled sets of measurement data. Pertains to data processed via fast Fourier transforms (FFTs). Data represents signal components with initially unknown frequencies spanning large spectral range and includes frequencies not integer multiples of minimum FFT frequency.

  19. Synchronizing data from irregularly sampled sensors (United States)

    Uluyol, Onder


    A system and method include receiving a set of sampled measurements for each of multiple sensors, wherein the sampled measurements are at irregular intervals or different rates, re-sampling the sampled measurements of each of the multiple sensors at a higher rate than one of the sensor's set of sampled measurements, and synchronizing the sampled measurements of each of the multiple sensors.

  20. Spelling pronunciations: transforming irregularity into regularity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Landerl, K.; Thaler, V.; Reitsma, P.


    In a 10-day training, the efficacy of spelling pronunciations on German speaking 5th-graders' spelling skills for irregular words was examined. Poor spellers were less efficient in learning the spelling pronunciations than age-adequate spellers. On post-tests, 1 week after the last training day and

  1. Locating irregularly shaped clusters of infection intensity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yiannakoulias, Niko; Wilson, Shona; Kariuki, H. Curtis


    Patterns of disease may take on irregular geographic shapes, especially when features of the physical environment influence risk. Identifying these patterns can be important for planning, and also identifying new environmental or social factors associated with high or low risk of illness. Until r...

  2. Smoking and respiratory irregularity in panic disorder. (United States)

    Caldirola, Daniela; Bellodi, Laura; Cammino, Stefania; Perna, Giampaolo


    The biological mechanisms underlying the link between smoking and panic attacks are unknown. Smoking might increase the risk of panic by impairing respiratory system function. We evaluated the effect of smoking on respiratory irregularity in patients with panic disorder (PD) and healthy comparison subjects and the role of the respiratory disorders in this effect. We applied the Approximate Entropy index (ApEn), a nonlinear measure of irregularity, to study breath-by-breath baseline respiratory patterns in our sample. Both smoker and nonsmoker patients had more irregular respiratory patterns than healthy subjects. Smoker patients showed higher ApEn indices of baseline respiratory rate and tidal volume than nonsmoker patients (R = 5.4, df = 2,55, p smoking in healthy subjects did not influence the regularity of respiratory patterns. Respiratory disorders did not account for the influence of smoking on respiratory irregularity. Smokers had more severe panic attacks than nonsmokers. Smoking may impair vulnerable respiratory function and act as disruptive factor on intrinsic baseline respiratory instability in patients with PD, possibly influencing the onset or maintenance of the disorder.

  3. Finite element modelling of low-speed femur reaming using reamers with irregular tooth spacing (United States)

    Towfighian, S.; Behdinan, K.; Papini, M.; Saghir, Z.; Zalzal, P.; de Beer, J.


    Reaming of the cancellous bone of the femur is performed in certain orthopaedic procedures, in order to accommodate insertion of implants such as intramedullary nails. In such processes, the reamers spin at a maximum of 250 rev/min resulting in low-frequency vibrations, which can result in the formation of multicornered holes or non-cylindrical holes. These non-cylindrical holes can lead to improper fixation, which increases healing duration. Simulation of low-speed reaming in the femur analogue was conducted by using a finite element model of the reamer with two different models for reamer blade loads: concentrated forces on the tool tip and distributed forces on the engagement length of the reamer. The model of the process is quasi-static in a characteristic form. The specific cutting pressure, an important parameter in the governing equation, was found experimentally for this purpose. The effects of reaming condition, reamer size, and irregular tooth spacing on stability were investigated. An optimum irregular tooth spacing for a common six-flute reamer, resulting in the most stable reaming process was proposed. Hole profiles and tool axis trajectory of the tool were simulated for both regular and optimum irregular tooth spacing cases. The improvements in the hole quality from using the proposed irregular tooth spacing; benefits of which include expedition of post-operative healing, were demonstrated through simulated three-dimensional hole profiles.

  4. Fitting Irregular Shape Figures into Irregular Shape Areas for the Nesting Problem in the Leather Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guevara-Palma Luis


    Full Text Available The nesting problem of irregular shapes within irregular areas has been studied from several approaches due to their application in different industries. The particular case of cutting leather involves several restrictions that add complexity to this problem, it is necessary to generate products that comply with the quality required by customers This paper presents a methodology for the accommodation of irregular shapes in an irregular area (leather considering the constraints set by the footwear industry, and the results of this methodology when applied by a computer system. The scope of the system is to develop a working prototype that operates under the guidelines of a commercial production line of a sponsor company. Preliminary results got a reduction of 70% of processing time and improvement of 5% to 7% of the area usage when compared with manual accommodation.

  5. Theory of vibration protection

    CERN Document Server

    Karnovsky, Igor A


    This text is an advancement of the theory of vibration protection of mechanical systems with lumped and distributed parameters. The book offers various concepts and methods of solving vibration protection problems, discusses the advantages and disadvantages of different methods, and the fields of their effective applications. Fundamental approaches of vibration protection, which are considered in this book, are the passive, parametric and optimal active vibration protection. The passive vibration protection is based on vibration isolation, vibration damping and dynamic absorbers. Parametric vibration protection theory is based on the Shchipanov-Luzin invariance principle. Optimal active vibration protection theory is based on the Pontryagin principle and the Krein moment method. The book also contains special topics such as suppression of vibrations at the source of their occurrence and the harmful influence of vibrations on humans. Numerous examples, which illustrate the theoretical ideas of each chapter, ar...

  6. Parallel Programming Strategies for Irregular Adaptive Applications (United States)

    Biswas, Rupak; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)


    Achieving scalable performance for dynamic irregular applications is eminently challenging. Traditional message-passing approaches have been making steady progress towards this goal; however, they suffer from complex implementation requirements. The use of a global address space greatly simplifies the programming task, but can degrade the performance for such computations. In this work, we examine two typical irregular adaptive applications, Dynamic Remeshing and N-Body, under competing programming methodologies and across various parallel architectures. The Dynamic Remeshing application simulates flow over an airfoil, and refines localized regions of the underlying unstructured mesh. The N-Body experiment models two neighboring Plummer galaxies that are about to undergo a merger. Both problems demonstrate dramatic changes in processor workloads and interprocessor communication with time; thus, dynamic load balancing is a required component.

  7. Generating Performance Models for Irregular Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friese, Ryan D.; Tallent, Nathan R.; Vishnu, Abhinav; Kerbyson, Darren J.; Hoisie, Adolfy


    Many applications have irregular behavior --- non-uniform input data, input-dependent solvers, irregular memory accesses, unbiased branches --- that cannot be captured using today's automated performance modeling techniques. We describe new hierarchical critical path analyses for the \\Palm model generation tool. To create a model's structure, we capture tasks along representative MPI critical paths. We create a histogram of critical tasks with parameterized task arguments and instance counts. To model each task, we identify hot instruction-level sub-paths and model each sub-path based on data flow, instruction scheduling, and data locality. We describe application models that generate accurate predictions for strong scaling when varying CPU speed, cache speed, memory speed, and architecture. We present results for the Sweep3D neutron transport benchmark; Page Rank on multiple graphs; Support Vector Machine with pruning; and PFLOTRAN's reactive flow/transport solver with domain-induced load imbalance.

  8. Investigation of ionospheric irregularities by radio holography (United States)

    Tereshchenko, E. D.; Popov, A. A.; Tereshchenko, A. D.; Khudukon, B. Z.

    Methodological aspects of the design of a radio-holography experiment for the investigation of ionospheric irregularities are considered on the basis of a theoretical examination of the formation of a diffraction field by two coherent satellite signals. The equipment needed to implement such an experiment is described, and results of first observations performed at high latitudes (in the Murmansk region) on February 8, 1978 are examined.

  9. Equatorial Ionospheric Irregularities Study from ROCSAT Data (United States)


    DISTRIBUTION A. Approved for public release: distribution unlimited. Fig. 1. Density observations from the polar orbiting satellite SWARM-A on...propagation and co-planed LEO and GPS orbits . P1i (rk) is the kth occulting LEO position from the ith GPS satellite within a RO observation, and P2i(rk...shows data taken by ESA SWARM satellite on March 16 and 17 indicating density irregularity was observed on March 17 but not on March 16 at Indian

  10. Irregular Wavelike Structure in Saturn's Rings (United States)

    Pollard, Benjamin J.


    We have searched Saturn's A, B, and C rings for irregular wavelike structure using Voyager Photopolarimeter (PPS), Ultraviolet Spectrometer (UVS), and Radio Science (RSS) occultation datasets, as well as ring reflectivity profiles derived from Voyager images. A maximum entropy technique for conducting spectral analysis was used to estimate wave frequency power in relation to radial location for each dataset. Using this method we have found irregular structure in the PPS and UVS inner B Ring occultation datasets previously identified in Voyager imaging data. Both finer structure, with a wavelength of around 20 km, and large structure with wavelengths of 200 to 1000 km, are visible in the occultation data and appear similar to that seen in the imaging data. After removing ringlets from the C-Ring data, we have identified what appears to be a 1000-km wave sustained throughout the ring. The large dominant wavelength appears in all datasets; however, tests are currently being conducted in an attempt to verify its existence. Irregular structure with a wavelength of approximately 20 km has been observed in the C Ring reflectivity profiles, but not within the occultation datasets. This leads us to doubt it is caused by ring surface mass density fluctuations detectable by the occultation experiments.

  11. Parallel Computing Strategies for Irregular Algorithms (United States)

    Biswas, Rupak; Oliker, Leonid; Shan, Hongzhang; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)


    Parallel computing promises several orders of magnitude increase in our ability to solve realistic computationally-intensive problems, but relies on their efficient mapping and execution on large-scale multiprocessor architectures. Unfortunately, many important applications are irregular and dynamic in nature, making their effective parallel implementation a daunting task. Moreover, with the proliferation of parallel architectures and programming paradigms, the typical scientist is faced with a plethora of questions that must be answered in order to obtain an acceptable parallel implementation of the solution algorithm. In this paper, we consider three representative irregular applications: unstructured remeshing, sparse matrix computations, and N-body problems, and parallelize them using various popular programming paradigms on a wide spectrum of computer platforms ranging from state-of-the-art supercomputers to PC clusters. We present the underlying problems, the solution algorithms, and the parallel implementation strategies. Smart load-balancing, partitioning, and ordering techniques are used to enhance parallel performance. Overall results demonstrate the complexity of efficiently parallelizing irregular algorithms.

  12. Low-frequency vibration control of floating slab tracks using dynamic vibration absorbers (United States)

    Zhu, Shengyang; Yang, Jizhong; Yan, Hua; Zhang, Longqing; Cai, Chengbiao


    This study aims to effectively and robustly suppress the low-frequency vibrations of floating slab tracks (FSTs) using dynamic vibration absorbers (DVAs). First, the optimal locations where the DVAs are attached are determined by modal analysis with a finite element model of the FST. Further, by identifying the equivalent mass of the concerned modes, the optimal stiffness and damping coefficient of each DVA are obtained to minimise the resonant vibration amplitudes based on fixed-point theory. Finally, a three-dimensional coupled dynamic model of a metro vehicle and the FST with the DVAs is developed based on the nonlinear Hertzian contact theory and the modified Kalker linear creep theory. The track irregularities are included and generated by means of a time-frequency transformation technique. The effect of the DVAs on the vibration absorption of the FST subjected to the vehicle dynamic loads is evaluated with the help of the insertion loss in one-third octave frequency bands. The sensitivities of the mass ratio of DVAs and the damping ratio of steel-springs under the floating slab are discussed as well, which provided engineers with the DVA's adjustable room for vibration mitigation. The numerical results show that the proposed DVAs could effectively suppress low-frequency vibrations of the FST when tuned correctly and attached properly. The insertion loss due to the attachment of DVAs increases as the mass ratio increases, whereas it decreases with the increase in the damping ratio of steel-springs.

  13. Decomposing graphs into a constant number of locally irregular subgraphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bensmail, Julien; Merker, Martin; Thomassen, Carsten


    A graph is locally irregular if no two adjacent vertices have the same degree. The irregular chromatic index χirr′(G) of a graph G is the smallest number of locally irregular subgraphs needed to edge-decompose G. Not all graphs have such a decomposition, but Baudon, Bensmail, Przybyło, and Woźnia...

  14. Runtime buffer management to improve the performance in irregular ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper presents a heterogeneous adaptable router to reduce latency in irregular mesh Network-on-Chip (NoC) architectures. Regular mesh-based NoC architecture may become irregular due to variable sized IPs and needs new routing algorithms to ensure throughput. Therefore, an irregular NoC mesh is considered ...

  15. On irregularity strength of disjoint union of friendship graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ahmad


    Full Text Available We investigate the vertex total and edge total modication of the well-known irregularity strength of graphs. We have determined the exact values of the total vertex irregularity strength and the total edge irregularity strength of a disjoint union of friendship graphs.

  16. 16 CFR 501.6 - Cellulose sponges, irregular dimensions. (United States)


    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cellulose sponges, irregular dimensions. 501... REQUIREMENTS AND PROHIBITIONS UNDER PART 500 § 501.6 Cellulose sponges, irregular dimensions. Variety packages of cellulose sponges of irregular dimensions, are exempted from the requirements of § 500.25 of this...

  17. Model Predictive Vibration Control Efficient Constrained MPC Vibration Control for Lightly Damped Mechanical Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Takács, Gergely


    Real-time model predictive controller (MPC) implementation in active vibration control (AVC) is often rendered difficult by fast sampling speeds and extensive actuator-deformation asymmetry. If the control of lightly damped mechanical structures is assumed, the region of attraction containing the set of allowable initial conditions requires a large prediction horizon, making the already computationally demanding on-line process even more complex. Model Predictive Vibration Control provides insight into the predictive control of lightly damped vibrating structures by exploring computationally efficient algorithms which are capable of low frequency vibration control with guaranteed stability and constraint feasibility. In addition to a theoretical primer on active vibration damping and model predictive control, Model Predictive Vibration Control provides a guide through the necessary steps in understanding the founding ideas of predictive control applied in AVC such as: ·         the implementation of ...

  18. Study of the vibration of bulkhead-stiffened cylindrical shells by laser-based methods (United States)

    Zhu, Ninghui

    The first part of this dissertation work deals with an experimental study of the vibration behavior of bulkhead stiffened cylindrical shells by using laser-based vibration measurement methods. Holographic interferometry and laser speckle photography are first demonstrated on revealing the dynamic behavior of a 22 ft long cylindrical shell. These methods are thereafter further explored to study the vibration characteristic of cylindrical shells with different stiffeners such as a full bulkhead or a partial bulkhead. Many experimentally obtained holograms and specklegrams reveal interesting features of the vibration of bulkhead stiffened cylindrical shells. The experimentally obtained results are compared with those obtained from a finite element model developed by General Dynamic Electric Boat Division, and the finite element model is generally validated. Mode localization theory is used to explain some interesting findings in experiments and the reason of some discrepancies between the finite element analysis and experiment results. The presence of irregularities in a weakly coupled structure such as a bulkhead-stiffened cylindrical shell is shown to be able to localize the modes of vibration and inhibit the propagation of vibration within the shell. A numerical simulation based on the finite element modal analysis indicates the validation of this explanation of the experimental findings. Thereafter, the eigensolutions of disordered, plate-stiffened cylindrical shell stiffened are derived by the use of receptance method. Numerical calculations are thereafter performed based upon this model and indeed reveal the exist of localized vibration in this kind of structure. This analytical study provides physical insights into the mode localization phenomenon in stiffened cylindrical shell type of structures from a more systematic manner. The conditions and the effect of mode localization on natural frequencies and mode shapes of cylindrical shell structure are also

  19. Geophysical properties of the ionospheric irregularities responsible for radio scintillation (United States)

    Mcclure, J. P.


    The properties of F-region ionospheric irregularities are described based on in-situ measurements of the actual waveforms of ion concentration. The spectral properties of the irregularities are discussed. In high, middle and low latitudes most of the irregularities observed fall into a single 'noiselike' category having power spectra which can be approximated by f to the negative n-th power and S to the n-th power, where S is the irregularity scale size and n is approximately 2. Thus the spectral components have a maximum gradient which is almost independent of their size. Other categories of irregularities are also observed occasionally.

  20. Optical sizing of irregular snow grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Kokhanovsky


    Full Text Available We discuss a possibility of snow grain size determination using spectral reflectance measurements in the near-infrared part of the electromagnetic spectrum. Errors related to often made assumption of the sphericity of grains are studied. Also we introduce a new method for the snow albedo and snow pollution monitoring using measurements in the visible part of the electromagnetic theory. Both exact and approximate methods of the radiative transfer are used for the solution of corresponding inverse problem. It is assumed that snow grains can be presented as randomly distributed irregular fractal particles. The developed techniques are applied to both ground and satellite data.

  1. Legal aspects of the EU policy on irregular immigration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voinikov Vadim


    Full Text Available This article addresses the issues pertaining to the adoption and development of legislation on irregular migration in the context of uncontrolled growth in the number of immigrants from North Africa and the Middle East to the EU. The article attempts at studying the EU legislation on irregular migration, classifying it, and analysing the prospects of EU migration legislation in the light of an increase in irregular immigration into the EU. The author systematises, classifies the current EU legislation on irregular immigration, and analyses the conditions, in which this legislation was developed. Using the legislation analysis method, the author proposes the following system of EU legislation on irregular immigration: rules preventing assistance to irregular immigration, rules preventing employment of irregular immigrants, rules on the return of irregular migrants and readmission, rules on border control, and rules on collaboration with third countries. The author pays special attention to analysing the current state of irregular immigration to the EU, which was dubbed the ‘greatest migration crisis in Europe’. The conclusion is that the European Union succeeded in the development of pioneering legislation on irregular immigration, which can serve as the basis for reception by other states. However, changes in the political and economic situation in the EU’s southern borderlands made the current legal mechanisms incapable of withstanding new threats. It necessitates a radical reform of the legislation on irregular immigration.

  2. Vibration analysis of structural elements using differential quadrature method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Nassar


    Full Text Available The method of differential quadrature is employed to analyze the free vibration of a cracked cantilever beam resting on elastic foundation. The beam is made of a functionally graded material and rests on a Winkler–Pasternak foundation. The crack action is simulated by a line spring model. Also, the differential quadrature method with a geometric mapping are applied to study the free vibration of irregular plates. The obtained results agreed with the previous studies in the literature. Further, a parametric study is introduced to investigate the effects of geometric and elastic characteristics of the problem on the natural frequencies.

  3. Computing proton dose to irregularly moving targets (United States)

    Phillips, Justin; Gueorguiev, Gueorgui; Shackleford, James A.; Grassberger, Clemens; Dowdell, Stephen; Paganetti, Harald; Sharp, Gregory C.


    Purpose: While four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) and deformable registration can be used to assess the dose delivered to regularly moving targets, there are few methods available for irregularly moving targets. 4DCT captures an idealized waveform, but human respiration during treatment is characterized by gradual baseline shifts and other deviations from a periodic signal. This paper describes a method for computing the dose delivered to irregularly moving targets based on 1D or 3D waveforms captured at the time of delivery. Methods: The procedure uses CT or 4DCT images for dose calculation, and 1D or 3D respiratory waveforms of the target position at time of delivery. Dose volumes are converted from their Cartesian geometry into a beam-specific radiological depth space, parameterized in 2D by the beam aperture, and longitudinally by the radiological depth. In this new frame of reference, the proton doses are translated according to the motion found in the 1D or 3D trajectory. These translated dose volumes are weighted and summed, then transformed back into Cartesian space, yielding an estimate of the dose that includes the effect of the measured breathing motion. The method was validated using a synthetic lung phantom and a single representative patient CT. Simulated 4DCT was generated for the phantom with 2 cm peak-to-peak motion. Results: A passively-scattered proton treatment plan was generated using 6 mm and 5 mm smearing for the phantom and patient plans, respectively. The method was tested without motion, and with two simulated breathing signals: a 2 cm amplitude sinusoid, and a 2 cm amplitude sinusoid with 3 cm linear drift in the phantom. The tumor positions were equally weighted for the patient calculation. Motion-corrected dose was computed based on the mid-ventilation CT image in the phantom and the peak exhale position in the patient. Gamma evaluation was 97.8% without motion, 95.7% for 2 cm sinusoidal motion, 95.7% with 3 cm drift in the

  4. Tunable Passive Vibration Suppressor (United States)

    Boechler, Nicholas (Inventor); Dillon, Robert Peter (Inventor); Daraio, Chiara (Inventor); Davis, Gregory L. (Inventor); Shapiro, Andrew A. (Inventor); Borgonia, John Paul C. (Inventor); Kahn, Daniel Louis (Inventor)


    An apparatus and method for vibration suppression using a granular particle chain. The granular particle chain is statically compressed and the end particles of the chain are attached to a payload and vibration source. The properties of the granular particles along with the amount of static compression are chosen to provide desired filtering of vibrations.

  5. Vibrations and Eigenvalues

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We make music by causing strings, membranes, or air columns to vibrate. Engineers design safe structures by control- ling vibrations. I will describe to you a very simple vibrating system and the mathematics needed to analyse it. The ideas were born in the work of Joseph-Louis Lagrange (1736–1813), and I begin by quot-.

  6. Shape Properties of Irregular Surface Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The presented work of this paper addresses the two shape properties, positivity and monotonicity of irregular surface data. The data is initially triangulated and a side-vertex scheme is adopted to interpolate the data over each triangle. Each boundary and radial curve is a rational function with three parameters facilitating 18 parameters in each triangular patch. The presence of these parameters leads to an automotive scheme for shape preservation and shape control. The data dependent constraints are derived on 6 of these parameters for preservation of positive and monotone properties of data, while, remaining 12 are free for shape modification. This scheme is local, does not constrain step length and derivatives, equally applicable to both data and data with derivatives.

  7. Irregular activity arises as a natural consequence of synaptic inhibition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terman, D., E-mail: [Department of Mathematics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Rubin, J. E., E-mail: [Department of Mathematics, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15260 (United States); Diekman, C. O., E-mail: [Department of Mathematical Sciences, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, New Jersey 07102 (United States)


    Irregular neuronal activity is observed in a variety of brain regions and states. This work illustrates a novel mechanism by which irregular activity naturally emerges in two-cell neuronal networks featuring coupling by synaptic inhibition. We introduce a one-dimensional map that captures the irregular activity occurring in our simulations of conductance-based differential equations and mathematically analyze the instability of fixed points corresponding to synchronous and antiphase spiking for this map. We find that the irregular solutions that arise exhibit expansion, contraction, and folding in phase space, as expected in chaotic dynamics. Our analysis shows that these features are produced from the interplay of synaptic inhibition with sodium, potassium, and leak currents in a conductance-based framework and provides precise conditions on parameters that ensure that irregular activity will occur. In particular, the temporal details of spiking dynamics must be present for a model to exhibit this irregularity mechanism and must be considered analytically to capture these effects.

  8. Logistic Incentive Structures Reflected in Irregular Logistic Procedures (United States)


    34 Washington Head- quarters Services, Directorate for Information Operations and Reports, 14 November. Festinger , Leon . (1950) Social Pressures in...Group Norms and Responsibility for Property A-22 3.3 Communication Networks and Irregular Logistic Procedures A-23 4.0 The Psychological Dimension A-25...Irregular Logistic Procedures A-31 4.2 Motivational Psychology Perspective A-32 4.2.1 Job-Related Incentives and Irregular Logistic Procedures A-33

  9. Irregular Shaped Building Design Optimization with Building Information Modelling


    Lee, Xia Sheng; Yan, Chung Pui; See, Zi Siang


    This research is to recognise the function of Building Information Modelling (BIM) in design optimization for irregular shaped buildings. The study focuses on a conceptual irregular shaped “twisted” building design similar to some existing sculpture-like architectures. Form and function are the two most important aspects of new buildings, which are becoming more sophisticated as parts of equally sophisticated “systems” that we are living in. Nowadays, it is common to have irregular shaped or ...

  10. Avoiding irregularities on the nasal dorsum in rhinoplasty. (United States)

    Casanueva, Fernando Javier; Cardemil, Felipe


    Palpable irregularities along the nasal dorsum are a frequent complication of dorsal handling in rhinoplasty because resection techniques are used. This is often a result of improper management of the dorsum after resection. The surgical technique for handling of dorsal irregularities following dorsal resection is described. The key steps to avoid irregularities are diamond rasps, autospreader and morselized cartilage as camouflage. Following resection of the hump, the anatomy of the nasal dorsum should be adequately restructured; thereby we achieve an adequate aesthetic result and ideally preventing irregularities on palpation.

  11. Drug Intoxicated Irregular Fighters: Complications, Dangers, and Responses

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kan, Paul R


    .... Although the nonmedical use of drugs by combatants has a long history, recent encounters of professional armed forces have demonstrated the need to reinvestigate the reasons irregular combatants...

  12. Vibration analysis of cryocoolers (United States)

    Tomaru, Takayuki; Suzuki, Toshikazu; Haruyama, Tomiyoshi; Shintomi, Takakazu; Yamamoto, Akira; Koyama, Tomohiro; Li, Rui


    The vibrations of Gifford-McMahon (GM) and pulse-tube (PT) cryocoolers were measured and analyzed. The vibrations of the cold-stage and cold-head were measured separately to investigate their vibration mechanisms. The measurements were performed while maintaining the thermal conditions of the cryocoolers at a steady state. We found that the vibration of the cold-head for the 4 K PT cryocooler was two orders of magnitude smaller than that of the 4 K GM cryocooler. On the other hand, the vibration of the cold-stages for both cryocoolers was of the same order of magnitude. From a spectral analysis of the vibrations and a simulation, we concluded that the vibration of the cold-stage is caused by an elastic deformation of the pulse tubes (or cylinders) due to the pressure oscillation of the working gas.

  13. Vibration analysis of cryocoolers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomaru, Takayuki; Suzuki, Toshikazu; Haruyama, Tomiyoshi; Shintomi, Takakazu; Yamamoto, Akira [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Koyama, Tomohiro; Rui Li [Sumitomo Heavy Industries Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    The vibrations of Gifford-McMahon (GM) and pulse-tube (PT) cryocoolers were measured and analyzed. The vibrations of the cold-stage and cold-head were measured separately to investigate their vibration mechanisms. The measurements were performed while maintaining the thermal conditions of the cryocoolers at a steady state. We found that the vibration of the cold-head for the 4 K PT cryocooler was two orders of magnitude smaller than that of the 4 K GM cryocooler. On the other hand, the vibration of the cold-stages for both cryocoolers was of the same order of magnitude. From a spectral analysis of the vibrations and a simulation, we concluded that the vibration of the cold-stage is caused by an elastic deformation of the pulse tubes (or cylinders) due to the pressure oscillation of the working gas. (Author)

  14. Vibration of hydraulic machinery

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Yulin; Liu, Shuhong; Dou, Hua-Shu; Qian, Zhongdong


    Vibration of Hydraulic Machinery deals with the vibration problem which has significant influence on the safety and reliable operation of hydraulic machinery. It provides new achievements and the latest developments in these areas, even in the basic areas of this subject. The present book covers the fundamentals of mechanical vibration and rotordynamics as well as their main numerical models and analysis methods for the vibration prediction. The mechanical and hydraulic excitations to the vibration are analyzed, and the pressure fluctuations induced by the unsteady turbulent flow is predicted in order to obtain the unsteady loads. This book also discusses the loads, constraint conditions and the elastic and damping characters of the mechanical system, the structure dynamic analysis, the rotor dynamic analysis and the system instability of hydraulic machines, including the illustration of monitoring system for the instability and the vibration in hydraulic units. All the problems are necessary for vibration pr...

  15. Advances in electron dosimetry of irregular fields; Avances en dosimetria de electrones de campos irregulares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendez V, J. [Departamento de Radioterapia, Instituto de Enfermedades Neoplasicas, Avenida Angamos Este 2520, Lima 34 (Peru)


    In this work it is presented an advance in Electron dosimetry of irregular fields for beams emitted by linear accelerators. At present diverse methods exist which are coming to apply in the Radiotherapy centers. In this work it is proposed a method for irregular fields dosimetry. It will be allow to calculate the dose rate absorbed required for evaluating the time for the treatment of cancer patients. Utilizing the results obtained by the dosimetric system, it has been possible to prove the validity of the method describe for 12 MeV energy and for square field 7.5 x 7.5 cm{sup 2} with percentile error less than 1 % . (Author)

  16. Causes of Irregular Energy Density in $f(R,T)$ Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Yousaf, Z; Bhatti, M Zaeem ul Haq


    We investigate irregularity factors for a self-gravitating spherical star evolving in the presence of imperfect fluid. We explore the gravitational field equations and the dynamical equations with the systematic construction in $f(R,T)$ gravity, where $T$ is the trace of the energy-momentum tensor. Furthermore, we analyze two well-known differential equations (which occupy principal importance in the exploration of causes of energy density inhomogeneities) with the help of the Weyl tensor and the conservation laws. The irregularity factors for a spherical star are examined for particular cases of dust, isotropic and anisotropic fluids in dissipative and non-dissipative regimes in the framework of $f(R,T)$ gravity. It is found that as the complexity in the matter with the anisotropic stresses increases, the inhomogeneity factor has more correspondences to one of the structure scalars.

  17. Irregular migration and informal economy in Southern and Central-Eastern Europe: breaking the vicious cycle? (United States)

    Maroukis, Thanos; Iglicka, Krystyna; Gmaj, Katarzyna


    The flexible and cheap labour that European “post-industrial” economies are in need of is often facilitated by undeclared labour. The undocumented migrant, from his/her part, relatively easily finds work that suits his -- at least initial -- plans. What lies behind this nexus between irregular migration and informal economy? To what extent can this nexus be attributed to the structural features of the so-called “secondary”, as opposed to “primary”, labour market? And how does migration policy correlate with this economic context and lead to the entrapment of migrants in irregularity? Finally, can this vicious cycle of interests and life-strategies be broken and what does the experience of the migrants indicate in this respect? This paper addresses these questions via an exploration of the grounds upon which irregular migration and the shadow economy complement each other in southern Europe (SE) and central and Eastern Europe (CEE) (two regions at different points in the migration cycle). In doing so, the dynamic character of the nexus between informal economy and irregular migration will come to the fore, and the abstract identity of the “average” undocumented migrant will be deconstructed.

  18. Ince-Strutt stability charts for ship parametric roll resonance in irregular waves (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao; Yang, He-zhen; Xiao, Fei; Xu, Pei-ji


    Ince-Strutt stability chart of ship parametric roll resonance in irregular waves is conducted and utilized for the exploration of the parametric roll resonance in irregular waves. Ship parametric roll resonance will lead to large amplitude roll motion and even wreck. Firstly, the equation describing the parametric roll resonance in irregular waves is derived according to Grim's effective theory and the corresponding Ince-Strutt stability charts are obtained. Secondly, the differences of stability charts for the parametric roll resonance in irregular and regular waves are compared. Thirdly, wave phases and peak periods are taken into consideration to obtain a more realistic sea condition. The influence of random wave phases should be taken into consideration when the analyzed points are located near the instability boundary. Stability charts for different wave peak periods are various. Stability charts are helpful for the parameter determination in design stage to better adapt to sailing condition. Last, ship variables are analyzed according to stability charts by a statistical approach. The increase of the metacentric height will help improve ship stability.

  19. Regularities and irregularities in order flow data (United States)

    Theissen, Martin; Krause, Sebastian M.; Guhr, Thomas


    We identify and analyze statistical regularities and irregularities in the recent order flow of different NASDAQ stocks, focusing on the positions where orders are placed in the order book. This includes limit orders being placed outside of the spread, inside the spread and (effective) market orders. Based on the pairwise comparison of the order flow of different stocks, we perform a clustering of stocks into groups with similar behavior. This is useful to assess systemic aspects of stock price dynamics. We find that limit order placement inside the spread is strongly determined by the dynamics of the spread size. Most orders, however, arrive outside of the spread. While for some stocks order placement on or next to the quotes is dominating, deeper price levels are more important for other stocks. As market orders are usually adjusted to the quote volume, the impact of market orders depends on the order book structure, which we find to be quite diverse among the analyzed stocks as a result of the way limit order placement takes place.

  20. Irregular Homogeneity Domains in Ternary Intermetallic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Marc Joubert


    Full Text Available Ternary intermetallic A–B–C systems sometimes have unexpected behaviors. The present paper examines situations in which there is a tendency to simultaneously form the compounds ABx, ACx and BCx with the same crystal structure. This causes irregular shapes of the phase homogeneity domains and, from a structural point of view, a complete reversal of site occupancies for the B atom when crossing the homogeneity domain. This work reviews previous studies done in the systems Fe–Nb–Zr, Hf–Mo–Re, Hf–Re–W, Mo–Re–Zr, Re–W–Zr, Cr–Mn–Si, Cr–Mo–Re, and Mo–Ni–Re, and involving the topologically close-packed Laves, χ and σ phases. These systems have been studied using ternary isothermal section determination, DFT calculations, site occupancy measurement using joint X-ray, and neutron diffraction Rietveld refinement. Conclusions are drawn concerning this phenomenon. The paper also reports new experimental or calculated data on Co–Cr–Re and Fe–Nb–Zr systems.

  1. Multiresolution Analysis Adapted to Irregularly Spaced Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anissa Mokraoui


    Full Text Available This paper investigates the mathematical background of multiresolution analysis in the specific context where the signal is represented by irregularly sampled data at known locations. The study is related to the construction of nested piecewise polynomial multiresolution spaces represented by their corresponding orthonormal bases. Using simple spline basis orthonormalization procedures involves the construction of a large family of orthonormal spline scaling bases defined on consecutive bounded intervals. However, if no more additional conditions than those coming from multiresolution are imposed on each bounded interval, the orthonormal basis is represented by a set of discontinuous scaling functions. The spline wavelet basis also has the same problem. Moreover, the dimension of the corresponding wavelet basis increases with the spline degree. An appropriate orthonormalization procedure of the basic spline space basis, whatever the degree of the spline, allows us to (i provide continuous scaling and wavelet functions, (ii reduce the number of wavelets to only one, and (iii reduce the complexity of the filter bank. Examples of the multiresolution implementations illustrate that the main important features of the traditional multiresolution are also satisfied.

  2. Decomposing graphs into a constant number of locally irregular subgraphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bensmail, Julien; Merker, Martin; Thomassen, Carsten


    . This is the first general constant upper bound on the irregular chromatic index of bipartite graphs. Combining this result with Przybyło’s result, we show that χirr′(G)≤328 for every graph G which admits a decomposition into locally irregular subgraphs. Finally, we show that χirr′(G)≤2 for every 16-edge...

  3. Characteristics of low latitude ionospheric E-region irregularities ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The autocorrelation functions, power spectral densities, signal de-correlation times are computed to study the temporal features of ionospheric E-region irregularities linked with daytime scintillations. Derived spectral index ranges between −2 and −9. Assuming velocity of irregularities, the characteristic lengths of the ...

  4. An investigation into design of fair surfaces over irregular domains ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Design of fair surfaces over irregular domains is a fundamental problem in computer-aided geometric design (CAGD), and has applications in engineering sciences (in aircraft, automobile, ship science etc.). In the design of fair surfaces over irregular domains defined over scattered data, it was widely accepted till recently ...

  5. Irregular Migrants in Belgium and the Netherlands. Aspirations and incorporation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meeteren, van M.J.


    In 'Irregular Migrants in Belgium and the Netherlands', Masja van Meeteren studies the different ways in which irregular migrants live in Belgium and the Netherlands. The book offers an empirically grounded theoretical critique of the dominant research practice that focuses on 'survival strategies',

  6. Irregular Migration and Vulnerability to HIV&AIDS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Oct 31, 2012 ... 123. Maphosa: Irregular Migration and Vulnerability to HIV&AIDS. The increase in the number of women migrants is a growing trend in international migration worldwide. Migration in Southern Africa is also experiencing this trend (Dobson 2000; Zinyama 2000). Migrant women, especially the irregular ones, ...

  7. Over rough and smooth : Amputee gait on an irregular surface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curtze, Carolin; Hof, At L.; Postema, Klaas; Otten, Bert

    When negotiating irregular surfaces, the control of dynamic stability is challenged. In this study, we compared the adjustments in stepping behaviour and arm-swing of 18 unilateral transtibial amputees and 17 able-bodied participants when walking on flat and irregular surfaces. Experimental findings

  8. Effects of irregularity and anisotropy on the propagation of shear ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The propagation of shear waves differs between geo-media due to layer's structure and irregularity present in different layers. This paper studies the propagation of shear waves in a monoclinic layer with irregularity lying between two isotropic semiinfinite elastic medium. The displacement in the monoclinic layer is obtained ...

  9. Caring for the Unseen: Using Linking Social Capital to Improve Healthcare Access to Irregular Migrants in Spain. (United States)

    Mason, Deanna Marie


    To describe a novel strategy using linking social capital to provide healthcare access to irregular migrants with low literacy, low numeracy, and limited cultural assimilation in a European metropolitan area. Public data show numerous shortcomings in meeting the healthcare needs of refugees and irregular migrants surging into Europe. Many irregular migrants living in European communities are unable to access information, care, or services due to lack of social capital. An overview of the problem and traditional charity strategies, including their barriers, are briefly described. A novel strategy using linking social capital to improve healthcare access of irregular migrants is explored and described. Information regarding the impact of this approach on the target population is provided. The discussion of nursing's role in employing linking social capital to care for the vulnerable is presented. Immigration and refugee data show that issues related to migration will continue. The novel strategy presented can be implemented by nurses with limited financial and physical resources in small community settings frequented by irregular migrants to improve health care. The health and well-being of irregular migrants has an impact on community health. Nurses must be aware of and consider implementing novel strategies to ensure that all community members' healthcare needs, which are a basic human right, are addressed. © 2016 The Author. Journal of Nursing Scholarship published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Sigma Theta Tau International The Honor Society of Nursing.

  10. Decomposing Oriented Graphs into Six Locally Irregular Oriented Graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bensmail, Julien; Renault, Gabriel


    An undirected graph G is locally irregular if every two of its adjacent vertices have distinct degrees. We say that G is decomposable into k locally irregular graphs if there exists a partition E1∪E2∪⋯∪Ek of the edge set E(G) such that each Ei induces a locally irregular graph. It was recently...... conjectured by Baudon et al. that every undirected graph admits a decomposition into at most three locally irregular graphs, except for a well-characterized set of indecomposable graphs. We herein consider an oriented version of this conjecture. Namely, can every oriented graph be decomposed into at most...... three locally irregular oriented graphs, i.e. whose adjacent vertices have distinct outdegrees? We start by supporting this conjecture by verifying it for several classes of oriented graphs. We then prove a weaker version of this conjecture. Namely, we prove that every oriented graph can be decomposed...

  11. Effect of small ionospheric irregularities on radio wave absorption (United States)

    Chen, H. C.; Fejer, J. A.


    The ionospheric absorption of a radio wave caused by small-scale irregularities with a gaussian autocorrelation function is calculated for various values of the linear scale height, the radio frequency, the scale size of the irregularities, and the mean-square fractional electron density fluctuations. The absorption is due to scattering of the radio wave into plasma oscillations by the irregularities. It is concluded that the absorption due to such irregularities with a mean-square fractional electron density deviation greater than about 0.000001 exceeds the normal collisional height-integrated absorption. Absorption of this type could play a significant part in heating experiments or in an ionosphere containing naturally occurring irregularities.

  12. Noninvasive monitoring of vocal fold vertical vibration using the acoustic Doppler effect. (United States)

    Tao, Chao; Jiang, Jack J; Wu, Dan; Liu, Xiaojun; Chodara, Ann


    To validate a proposed method of noninvasively monitoring vocal fold vertical vibration through utilization of the acoustic Doppler effect and the waveguide property of the vocal tract. Validation case-control study. In this device, an ultrasound beam is generated and directed into the mouth. The vocal tract, acting as a natural waveguide, guides the ultrasound beam toward the vibrating vocal folds. The vertical velocity of vocal fold vibration is then recovered from the Doppler frequency of the reflected ultrasound. One subject (age 32, male) was studied and measurements were taken under three modes of vocal fold vibration: breathing (no vibration), whispering (irregular vibration), and normal phonation (regular vibration). The peak-to-peak amplitude of the measured velocity of vocal fold vertical vibration was about 0.16 m/s, and the fundamental frequency was 172 Hz; the extracted velocity information showed a reasonable waveform and value in comparison with the previous studies. In all three modes of phonation, the Doppler frequencies derived from the reflected ultrasound corresponded with the vertical velocity of vocal fold vibration as expected. The proposed method can accurately represent the characteristics of different phonation modes such as no phonation, whisper and normal phonation. The proposed device could be used in daily monitoring and assessment of vocal function and vocal fold vibration. Copyright © 2012 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. On irregular singularity wave functions and superconformal indices (United States)

    Buican, Matthew; Nishinaka, Takahiro


    We generalize, in a manifestly Weyl-invariant way, our previous expressions for irregular singularity wave functions in two-dimensional SU(2) q-deformed Yang-Mills theory to SU( N). As an application, we give closed-form expressions for the Schur indices of all ( A N - 1 , A N ( n - 1)-1) Argyres-Douglas (AD) superconformal field theories (SCFTs), thus completing the computation of these quantities for the ( A N , A M ) SCFTs. With minimal effort, our wave functions also give new Schur indices of various infinite sets of "Type IV" AD theories. We explore the discrete symmetries of these indices and also show how highly intricate renormalization group (RG) flows from isolated theories and conformal manifolds in the ultraviolet to isolated theories and (products of) conformal manifolds in the infrared are encoded in these indices. We compare our flows with dimensionally reduced flows via a simple "monopole vev RG" formalism. Finally, since our expressions are given in terms of concise Lie algebra data, we speculate on extensions of our results that might be useful for probing the existence of hypothetical SCFTs based on other Lie algebras. We conclude with a discussion of some open problems.

  14. Mechanically Milled Irregular Zinc Nanoparticles for Printable Bioresorbable Electronics. (United States)

    Mahajan, Bikram K; Yu, Xiaowei; Shou, Wan; Pan, Heng; Huang, Xian


    Bioresorbable electronics is predominantly realized by complex and time-consuming anhydrous fabrication processes. New technology explores printable methods using inks containing micro- or nano-bioresorbable particles (e.g., Zn and Mg). However, these particles have seldom been obtained in the context of bioresorbable electronics using cheap, reliable, and effective approaches with limited study on properties essential to printable electronics. Here, irregular nanocrystalline Zn with controllable sizes and optimized electrical performance is obtained through ball milling approach using polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) as a process control agent to stabilize Zn particles and prevent cold welding. Time and PVP dependence of the ball milled particles are studied with systematic characterizations of morphology and composition of the nanoparticles. The results reveal crystallized Zn nanoparticles with a size of ≈34.834 ± 1.76 nm and low surface oxidation. The resulting Zn nanoparticles can be readily printed onto bioresorbable substrates and sintered at room temperature using a photonic sintering approach, leading to a high conductivity of 44 643 S m -1 for printable zinc nanoparticles. The techniques to obtain Zn nanoparticles through ball milling and processing them through photonic sintering may potentially lead to a mass fabrication method for bioresorbable electronics and promote its applications in healthcare, environmental protection, and consumer electronics. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. On the edge irregularity strength of corona product of cycle with isolated vertices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Tarawneh


    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate the new graph characteristic, the edge irregularity strength, denoted as es, as a modification of the well known irregularity strength, total edge irregularity strength and total vertex irregularity strength. As a result, we obtain the exact value of an edge irregularity strength of corona product of cycle with isolated vertices.

  16. A self-adaptive anti-vibration pipeline-filtering algorithm (United States)

    Wu, Houde; Wang, Bin; Zhao, Ming; Xu, Wenhai


    The mobile pipeline-filtering algorithm is a real-time algorithm that performs well in detecting small dim targets, but it is particularly sensitive to interframe vibration of sequence images. When searching for small dim targets at sea based on an infrared imaging system, irregular and random vibration of the airborne imaging platform causes huge interference problems for the mobile pipeline-filtering. This paper puts forward a pipeline-filtering algorithm that has a good performance on self-adaptive anti-vibration. In the block matching method using the normalized cross-correlations coefficient (NCC), the interframe vibration of sequence images is acquired in real time and used to correct coordinates of the single-frame detection results, and then the corrected detection results are used to complete the mobile pipelinefiltering. Experimental results show that the algorithm can overcome the problem of interframe vibration of sequence images, thus realizing accurate detection of small dim maritime targets.

  17. Combinatorial Processing of Irregular Verbs: Evidence from Aphasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacey Rimikis


    Taken together, the results of Experiments 1 and 2 indicate a combinatorial morphological deficit affecting both regular and irregular verb production. The errors in producing irregularly-inflected verbs are similar to the production of regular verbs, and not similar to phonologically-matched monomorphemic words. These findings are consistent with full-decomposition accounts of morphological processing and inconsistent with accounts that posit differential processing of regular and irregular verbs. We will present additional analyses from these tasks and related tasks involving morphological comprehension and production across modalities.

  18. Model Indepedent Vibration Control


    Yuan, Jing


    A NMIFC system is proposed for broadband vibration control. It has two important features. Feature F1 is that the NMIFC is stable without introducing any invasive effects, such as probing signals or controller perturbations, into the vibration system; feature F2 is

  19. Vibration Theory, Vol. 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren R. K.

    The present textbook has been written based on previous lecture notes for a course on stochastic vibration theory that is being given on the 9th semester at Aalborg University for M. Sc. students in structural engineering. The present 4th edition of this textbook on linear stochastic vibration...

  20. Vibration Theory, Vol. 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren R. K.

    The present textbook has been written based on previous lecture notes for a course on stochastic vibration theory that is being given on the 9th semester at Aalborg University for M. Sc. students in structural engineering. The present 2nd edition of this textbook on linear stochastic vibration...

  1. Hydroelastic Vibrations of Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Juncher; Folsø, Rasmus


    A formula for the necessary hull girder bending stiffness required to avoid serious springing vibrations is derived. The expression takes into account the zero crossing period of the waves, the ship speed and main dimensions. For whipping vibrations the probability of exceedance for the combined...

  2. Gearbox vibration diagnostic analyzer (United States)


    This report describes the Gearbox Vibration Diagnostic Analyzer installed in the NASA Lewis Research Center's 500 HP Helicopter Transmission Test Stand to monitor gearbox testing. The vibration of the gearbox is analyzed using diagnostic algorithms to calculate a parameter indicating damaged components.

  3. Mechanical vibration and shock analysis, sinusoidal vibration

    CERN Document Server

    Lalanne, Christian


    Everything engineers need to know about mechanical vibration and one authoritative reference work! This fully updated and revised 3rd edition addresses the entire field of mechanical vibration and shock as one of the most important types of load and stress applied to structures, machines and components in the real world. Examples include everything from the regular and predictable loads applied to turbines, motors or helicopters by the spinning of their constituent parts to the ability of buildings to withstand damage from wind loads or explosions, and the need for cars to m

  4. Orbital maneuvers around irregular shaped bodies (United States)

    Venditti, Flaviane; Rocco, E. M.; Almeida Prado, A. B.


    Abstract (2,250 Maximum Characters): In the solar system there are many small bodies called asteroids. The large majority of these bodies are located in the asteroid belt, between the orbits of the planets Mars and Jupiter. The Near- Earth Objects, or NEOs, are objects with perihelion below 1.3AU, which include comets and asteroids. The NEOs are considered to have orbits passing close to the Earth’s orbit and, in the case of asteroids, are called Near-Earth Asteroids (NEAs). Among the NEAs there are bodies considered potentially hazardous asteroids (PHAs), whose minimum orbit intersection distance with Earth is 0.05AU and that have absolute magnitude (H) of 22, which would mean an asteroid of at least 110-240 meters, depending on its albedo. One of the major characteristic of the asteroids is the irregular shape, causing the dynamics of orbits around these bodies to be different from a spherical shaped one. The fact that an object is not spherical generates a perturbation on the gravitational field. The disturbing force can be determined considering the shape of the specific body. A satellite orbiting this body would suffer the effects of this perturbation, but knowing the disturbing force, it’s possible to correct and control the orbit according to the desired mission. The polyhedron method is a traditional way to model an asteroid by dividing the object into smaller parts. The data used on this work are composed by a combination of triangular faces. The total disturbing force is a sum of the force on each piece of the model. Therefore, after the simulations are obtained, it’s possible to apply the desired corrections of the perturbation using continuous low thrust in closed loop, making it possible to perform maneuvers near these bodies. One of the important applications of the study shown above is in the ASTER mission, that is under study by INPE and several other Brazilian academic institutions, which goal is to send a spacecraft to an asteroid and then

  5. Vibrations of rotating machinery

    CERN Document Server

    Matsushita, Osami; Kanki, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Masao; Keogh, Patrick


    This book opens with an explanation of the vibrations of a single degree-of-freedom (dof) system for all beginners. Subsequently, vibration analysis of multi-dof systems is explained by modal analysis. Mode synthesis modeling is then introduced for system reduction, which aids understanding in a simplified manner of how complicated rotors behave. Rotor balancing techniques are offered for rigid and flexible rotors through several examples. Consideration of gyroscopic influences on the rotordynamics is then provided and vibration evaluation of a rotor-bearing system is emphasized in terms of forward and backward whirl rotor motions through eigenvalue (natural frequency and damping ratio) analysis. In addition to these rotordynamics concerning rotating shaft vibration measured in a stationary reference frame, blade vibrations are analyzed with Coriolis forces expressed in a rotating reference frame. Other phenomena that may be assessed in stationary and rotating reference frames include stability characteristic...

  6. Genetic variation among populations of Pythium irregulare in southern Australia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Harvey, P. R; Butterworth, P. J; Hawke, B. G; Pankhurst, C. E


    Isolates of Pythium irregulare were sampled from seven cereal crops throughout South Australia to determine the extent of genetic diversity within this pathogen and the scale of genetic differentiation among populations...

  7. Approximate design calculation methods for radiation streaming in shield irregularities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miura, Toshimasa; Hirao, Yoshihiro [Ship Research Inst., Mitaka, Tokyo (Japan); Yoritsune, Tsutomu


    Investigation and assessment are made for approximate design calculation methods of radiation streaming in shield irregularities. Investigation is made for (1) source, (2) definition of streaming radiation components, (3) calculation methods of streaming radiation, (4) streaming formulas for each irregularity, (5) difficulties in application of streaming formulas, etc. Furthermore, investigation is made for simple calculation codes and albedo data. As a result, it is clarified that streaming calculation formulas are not enough to cover various irregularities and their accuracy or application limit is not sufficiently clear. Accurate treatment is not made in the formulas with respect to the radiation behavior for slant incidence, bend part, offset etc., that results in too much safety factors in the design calculation and distrust of the streaming calculation. To overcome the state and improve the accuracy of the design calculation for shield irregularities, it is emphasized to assess existing formulas and develop better formulas based on systematic experimental studies. (author)

  8. Irregular Community Discovery for Social CRM in Cloud Computing (United States)

    Liu, Jin; Liu, Fei; Zhou, Jing; He, Chengwan

    Social CRM is critical in utilities services provided by cloud computing. These services rely on virtual customer communities forming spontaneously and evolving continuously. Thus clarifying the explicit boundaries of these communities is quite essential to the quality of utilities services in cloud computing. Communities with overlapping feature or projecting vertexes are usually typical irregular communities. Traditional community identification algorithms are limited in discovering irregular topological structures from a CR networks. These uneven shapes usually play a prominent role in finding prominent customer which is usually ignored in social CRM. A novel method of discovering irregular community based on density threshold and similarity degree. It finds and merges primitive maximal cliques from the first. Irregular features of overlapping and prominent sparse vertex are further considered. An empirical case and a method comparison test indicates its efficiency and feasibility.

  9. School setting and irregular lunch consumption among adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagh Pedersen, Trine; Holstein, Bjørn Evald; Rasmussen, Mette

    level variables and irregular lunch consumption. Lunch consumption was measured by lunch frequency questions. Results: We found that the school level factors, “Availability to canteen” and “Adult present in lunch breaks” were associated with irregular lunch consumption. Students with no access...... the association. Conclusion: The structural setting of the school was associated with children and adolescents’ regularity of lunch consumption in a multilevel model controlled for individual level factors. From the findings we can conclude that availability of canteen and school stall did not promote regular......Abstract Background: There is little knowledge of the association between the structural setting of the school and irregular lunch consumption among adolescents. Objectives: To study whether the structural setting of the school was associated with adolescents’ irregular lunch consumption...

  10. Land Elevation TINs (Triangulated Irregular Networks) for Jefferson County, WI (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Land Elevation TINs (Triangulated Irregular Networks) in this directory are generated from 2 foot contour lines from Jefferson County. Little is known about the...

  11. Irregular Warfare: Impact on Future Professional Military Education

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Paschal, David G


    ... to operate effectively in an irregular warfare environment. The utility of a decisive war between nation states continues to decline and will eventually reach critical mass based upon the extreme imbalance of military power and a U.S. monopoly...

  12. NEOWISE: Observations of the Irregular Satellites of Jupiter and Saturn


    Grav, Tommy; Bauer, James M.; Mainzer, Amy K.; Masiero, Joe R.; Nugent, Carrie R.; Cutri, Roc M.; Sonnet, Sarah; Kramer, Emily


    We present thermal model fits for 11 Jovian and 3 Saturnian irregular satellites based on measurements from the WISE/NEOWISE data set. Our fits confirm spacecraft-measured diameters for the objects with in situ observations (Himalia and Phoebe) and provide diameters and albedo for 12 previously unmeasured objects, 10 Jovian and 2 Saturnian irregular satellites. The best-fit thermal model beaming parameters are comparable to what is observed for other small bodies in the outer solar system, wh...

  13. Edge irregular total labellings for graphs of linear size

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Stephan; Rautenbach, D.; Miškuf, J.


    As an edge variant of the well-known irregularity strength of a graph G = (V, E) we investigate edge irregular total labellings, i.e. functions f : V ∪ E → {1, 2, ..., k} such that f (u) + f (u v) + f (v) ≠ f (u) + f (u v) + f (v) for every pair of different edges u v, u v ∈ E. The smallest possi...

  14. Development of S-wave portable vibrator; S ha potable vibrator shingen no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaida, Y.; Matsubara, Y. [OYO Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Nijhof, V.; Brouwer, J.


    An S-wave portable vibrator to serve as a seismic source has been developed for the purpose of applying the shallow-layer reflection method to the study of the soil ground. The author, et al., who previously developed a P-wave portable vibrator has now developed an S-wave version, considering the advantage of the S-wave over the P-wave in that, for example, the S-wave velocity may be directly compared with the N-value representing ground strength and that the S-wave travels more slowly than the P-wave through sticky soil promising a higher-resolution exploration. The experimentally constructed S-wave vibrator consists of a conventional P-wave vibrator and an L-type wooden base plate combined therewith. Serving as the monitor for vibration is a conventional accelerometer without any modification. The applicability test was carried out at a location where a plank hammering test was once conducted for reflection aided exploration, and the result was compared with that of the plank hammering test. As the result, it was found that after some preliminary treatment the results of the two tests were roughly the same but that both reflected waves were a little sharper in the S-wave vibrator test than in the plank hammering test. 4 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Effect of irregular interproximal dental restorations on periodontal status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matvijenko Vladimir B.


    Full Text Available Introduction. Research of effects that irregular interproximal dental restoration have on supporting structures of the teeth and examination of evolution and course of changes in tissue structure is quite a poorly studied topic. Aim of this study is to examine and assess clinical and radiological changes in periodontal tissue caused by irregular interproximal dental restoration in particular group of patients with different age and sex. Methods. Irregularities which were assesed in this study are divided into two groups: a gap (cracks occurring between dental restorations and the gingival walls in Class II cavities, b prominence of dental fillings out of the teeth anatomical sphere, resulting with the positive step in gum third of tooth in Class II cavities. The study was based on whether in the particular forms of irregularities of the dental restorations are differences in the degree of change in the periodontal tissue, depending on the material from which the restoration is made, and the materials used were composite fillings and amalgams. Results of this study show that irregular dental fillings significantly affect the inflammatory response in periodontal tissue. Irregularities in the form of unfilled space cause major changes in periodontal tissue. Composite fillings cause a higher degree of inflammation in relation to amalgam fillings. Conclusion. Improper tooth fillings cause periodontal tissue damages.

  16. Formation and detection of high latitude ionospheric irregularities (United States)

    Lee, M. C.; Buchau, J.; Carlson, H. C., Jr.; Klobuchar, J. A.; Weber, E. J.


    Measurements of Total Electron Content (TEC) and airglow variations show that large scale plasma patches appearing in the high-latitude ionsophere have irregular structures evidenced by the satellite phase and amplitude scintillations. Whistler waves, intense quasi-DC electric field, and atmospheric gravity waves can become potential sources of various plamsa instabilities. The role of thermal effects in generating ionospheric irregularities by these sources is discussed. Meter-scale irregularities in the ionospheric E and F regions can be excited parametrically with lower hybrid waves by intense whistler waves. Ohmic dissipation of Pedersen current in the electron gas is able to create ionospheric F region irregularities in plasma blobs or plasma patches (i.e., high ambient plasma density environment) with broad scale lengths ranging from tens of meters to a few kilometers. Through the neutral-charged particle collisions, gravity waves can excite large-scale (less than tens of kilometers) ionospheric irregularities simultaneously with forced ion acoustic modes in the E region. The large-scale ionospheric density fluctuations produced in the E region can extend subsequently alogn the earth's magnetic field to the F region and the topside ionospheric regions. These mechanisms characterized by various thermal effects can contribute additively with other processes to the formation of ionospheric irregularities in the high latitude region.

  17. Design Optimization of Irregular Cellular Structure for Additive Manufacturing (United States)

    Song, Guo-Hua; Jing, Shi-Kai; Zhao, Fang-Lei; Wang, Ye-Dong; Xing, Hao; Zhou, Jing-Tao


    Irregularcellular structurehas great potential to be considered in light-weight design field. However, the research on optimizing irregular cellular structures has not yet been reporteddue to the difficulties in their modeling technology. Based on the variable density topology optimization theory, an efficient method for optimizing the topology of irregular cellular structures fabricated through additive manufacturing processes is proposed. The proposed method utilizes tangent circles to automatically generate the main outline of irregular cellular structure. The topological layoutof each cellstructure is optimized using the relative density informationobtained from the proposed modified SIMP method. A mapping relationship between cell structure and relative densityelement is builtto determine the diameter of each cell structure. The results show that the irregular cellular structure can be optimized with the proposed method. The results of simulation and experimental test are similar for irregular cellular structure, which indicate that the maximum deformation value obtained using the modified Solid Isotropic Microstructures with Penalization (SIMP) approach is lower 5.4×10-5 mm than that using the SIMP approach under the same under the same external load. The proposed research provides the instruction to design the other irregular cellular structure.

  18. Investigating the origins of the Irregular satellites using Cladistics (United States)

    Holt, Timothy; Horner, Jonti; Tylor, Christopher; Nesvorny, David; Brown, Adrian; Carter, Brad


    The irregular satellites of Jupiter and Saturn are thought to be objects captured during a period of instability in the early solar system. However, the precise origins of these small bodies remain elusive. We use cladistics, a technique traditionally used by biologists, to help constrain the origins of these bodies. Our research contributes to a growing body of work that uses cladistics in astronomy, collectively called astrocladistics. We present one of the first instances of cladistics being used in a planetary science context. The analysis uses physical and compositional characteristics of three prograde Jovian irregular satellites (Themisto, Leda & Himalia), five retrograde Jovian irregular satellites (Ananke, Carme, Pasiphae, Sinope & Callirrhoe), along with Phoebe, a retrograde irregular satellite of Saturn, and several other regular Jovian and Saturnian satellites. Each of these members are representatives of their respective taxonomic groups. The irregular satellites are compared with other well-studied solar system bodies, including satellites, terrestrial planets, main belt asteroids, comets, and minor planets. We find that the Jovian irregular satellites cluster with asteroids and Ceres. The Saturnian satellites studied here are found to form an association with the comets, adding to the narrative of exchange between the outer solar system and Saturnian orbital space. Both of these results demonstrate the utility of cladistics as an analysis tool for the planetary sciences.

  19. Analysis of micro vibration in gas film of aerostatic guide way based on molecule collision theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Shao Hua


    Full Text Available Micro vibration of the aerostatic guide way has a significant impact on its dynamic characteristics and stability, which limits the development of pneumatic component. High pressure gas molecules have been collided with the supporting surface and the internal surface of the throttle during the flow process. Variable impulse of the surfaces aside for the gas film are affected by the changes of impulse which formed irregular impact force in horizontal and vertical direction. Micro-vibration takes place based on the natural frequency of the system and its frequency doubling. In this paper, the vibration model was established to describe the dynamic characteristics of the gas film, and the formation mechanism of micro vibration in the film is defined. Through the simulation analysis and experimental comparison, formation mechanism of the micro vibration in the gas film is confirmed. It was proposed that the micro vibration of gas film can be produced no matter whether there is a gas chamber or not in the throttle. Under the same conditions, the micro vibration of the guide way with air chamber is greater than that without any chamber. The frequency points of the vibration peaks are almost the same, as well as the vibration pattern in the frequency domain.

  20. An Optimization Algorithm for the Design of an Irregularly-Shaped Bridge Based on the Orthogonal Test and Analytic Hierarchy Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanbing Liu


    Full Text Available Irregularly-shaped bridges are usually adopted to connect the main bridge and ramps in urban overpasses, which are under significant flexion-torsion coupling effects and in complicated stress states. In irregular-shaped bridge design, the parameters such as ramp radius, bifurcation diaphragm stiffness, box girder height, and supporting condition could affect structural performance in different manners. In this paper, the influence of various parameters on three indices, including maximum stress, the stress variation coefficient, and the fundamental frequency of torsional vibration, is investigated and analyzed based on orthogonal test method. Through orthogonal analysis, the major influence parameters and corresponding optimal values for these indices are achieved. Combining with the analytic hierarchy process (AHP, the hierarchical structure model of the multi-indices orthogonal test is established and a comprehensive weight analysis method is proposed to reflect the parameter influence on overall mechanical properties of an irregularly-shaped bridge. Influence order and optimal values of parameters for overall mechanical properties are determined based on the weight of factors and levels calculated by the comprehensive weight analysis method. The results indicate that the comprehensive weight analysis method is superior to the overall balance method, which verifies the effectiveness and accuracy of the comprehensive weight analysis in the parameter optimization of the multi-indices orthogonal test for an irregularly-shaped bridge. Optimal parameters obtained in this paper can provide reference and guidance for parameter control in irregularly-shaped bridge design.

  1. Structural Stability and Vibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiggers, Sine Leergaard; Pedersen, Pauli

    This book offers an integrated introduction to the topic of stability and vibration. Strikingly, it describes stability as a function of boundary conditions and eigenfrequency as a function of both boundary conditions and column force. Based on a post graduate course held by the author at the Uni......This book offers an integrated introduction to the topic of stability and vibration. Strikingly, it describes stability as a function of boundary conditions and eigenfrequency as a function of both boundary conditions and column force. Based on a post graduate course held by the author...... and their derivation, thus stimulating them to write interactive and dynamic programs to analyze instability and vibrational modes....

  2. Topography-guided transepithelial photorefractive keratectomy for irregular astigmatism using a 213 nm solid-state laser. (United States)

    Allan, Bruce D; Hassan, Hala


    To explore the use of the Pulsar Z1 solid-state 213 nm photorefractive laser platform in topography-guided transepithelial photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) for irregular astigmatism. Moorfields Eye Hospital, London, United Kingdom. Prospective clinical case series. Patients with irregular astigmatism after previous refractive surgery or corneal transplantation were treated with topography-guided transepithelial PRK. Preoperatively and 1-year postoperatively, corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA) and secondary outcome measures (including manifest refraction, contrast sensitivity, haze score, index of surface variation, root-mean-square higher-order aberrations, and subjective visual change) were compared between groups. Adjunctive mitomycin-C was not used. Seven patients had previous refractive surgery, and 7 had previous corneal transplantation. All but 2 patients with a marked haze response had subjective gains in vision and improved CDVA. Gains in CDVA for patients with irregular astigmatism after previous refractive surgery (median 2 lines gain; range 0 to 2 lines gained) were higher than for patients with irregular astigmatism after keratoplasty (median 0 lines; range 5 lines lost to 4 lines gained). Trends in secondary outcome measures were similar, with greater variation in post-keratoplasty patients. Haze scores were higher in post-keratoplasty patients. 213 nm topography-guided transepithelial PRK was easy to perform and well tolerated by patients with irregular astigmatism. Most patients gained CDVA; however, increased haze responses were observed in post-keratoplasty cases. Copyright © 2012 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Vibration Analysis and the Accelerometer (United States)

    Hammer, Paul


    Have you ever put your hand on an electric motor or motor-driven electric appliance and felt it vibrate? Ever wonder why it vibrates? What is there about the operation of the motor, or the object to which it is attached, that causes the vibrations? Is there anything "regular" about the vibrations, or are they the result of random causes? In this…

  4. Vibrations and Stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jon Juel

    About this textbook An ideal text for students that ties together classical and modern topics of advanced vibration analysis in an interesting and lucid manner. It provides students with a background in elementary vibrations with the tools necessary for understanding and analyzing more complex...... dynamical phenomena that can be encountered in engineering and scientific practice. It progresses steadily from linear vibration theory over various levels of nonlinearity to bifurcation analysis, global dynamics and chaotic vibrations. It trains the student to analyze simple models, recognize nonlinear...... phenomena and work with advanced tools such as perturbation analysis and bifurcation analysis. Explaining theory in terms of relevant examples from real systems, this book is user-friendly and meets the increasing interest in non-linear dynamics in mechanical/structural engineering and applied mathematics...

  5. Ionospheric irregularities over Bahir Dar, Ethiopia during selected geomagnetic storms (United States)

    Kassa, Tsegaye; Damtie, Baylie


    We have analyzed the effect of geomagnetic storms on the occurrence of ionospheric irregularities by considering seven case studies in the period of 2013-2014 over Bahir Dar, Ethiopia (11° N , 38° E). We inferred the irregularity indices from GPS phase fluctuation by computing the median of 1-min rate of change of total electron content (fp) along the ray paths from all satellites observed. The Fp -index was calculated as an hourly average fp -index values along the ray paths from all satellites observed during each hour. Our results revealed that the irregularity level was inhibited during post sunset hours of the main phase of the storms we considered. On average, the irregularity index has dropped from 400 (0.4 TECU/min) during quiet time to 50 (0.05 TECU/min) on disturbed time with an amount of 350 (0.35 TECU/min). However, in some of the cases, immediately after the onset of the storm, we observed the enhancement of irregularities. We found that only the observations on 01 June 2013 and 19 February 2014 exhibited a correspondence of the time of occurrence of the minimum of the Dst-index with inhibition of irregularities noted by other researchers. Our observations of the enhancement of irregularities on 17 March 2013 and 19 February 2014 can partly be explained by the orientation of the IMF BZ . Other measurements such as neutral wind, electric field are required to explain the observations on 29 June 2013, 06 July 2013, 09 November 2013 and 27 February 2014.

  6. Memori English Irregular Verbs Berdasarkan Frekuensi Pengulangan dan Jenis Kelamin Santri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Sribagus


    Full Text Available Abstract: Retention of English Irregular Verbs in Relation to Repetition Frequency and Sex. The study explores the most effective and preferred repetition frequency to facilitate memorizing English ir­regular verbs (EIV by students of different sexes, 35 male students and 30 female students of an Islamic boarding school in West Nusa Tenggara. The data for this experimental study were collected through VCD that records EIV, tests, questionnaires, and interviews. The results of the two-way ANOVA analysis indicate that male students had a higher degree of EIV memory based on repetition frequency, with two-time repetition as the most preferred frequency. For male students, the higher the frequency, the lower the memory. Abstrak: Memori English Irregular Verbs Berdasarkan Frekuensi Pengulangan dan Jenis Kelamin Santri. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menentukan frekuensi pengulangan yang efektif dan disukai untuk meningkatkan memori EIV berdasarkan jenis kelamin. Data penelitian eksperimen ini dikumpulkan melalui video compact disk (VCD yang merekam English Irregular Verb, tes, angket dan wawancara terhadap 35 santri putra dan 30 santri putri di pondok pesantren di Nusa Tenggara Barat. Kemudian data dianalisis dengan Anava-dua Jalur. Ditemukan bahwa ada perbedaan taraf memori EIV berdasarkan frekuensi pengulangan antara santri putra dan santri putriMemori EIV santri putra lebih tinggi daripada santri putri. Frekuensi pengulangan yang paling efektif adalah dua kali. Semakin tinggi frekuensi pengulangan, semakin rendah memori. Urutan pilihan frekuensi santri putra adalah 2-4-6, sedangkan santri putri 2-6-4.

  7. Surface Vibration Reconstruction using Inverse Numerical Acoustics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Martinus


    Full Text Available This paper explores the use of inverse numerical acoustics to reconstruct the surface vibration of a noise source. Inverse numerical acoustics is mainly used for source identification. This approach uses the measured sound pressure at a set of field points and the Helmholtz integral equation to reconstruct the normal surface velocity. The number of sound pressure measurements is considerably less than the number of surface vibration nodes. An overview of inverse numerical acoustics is presented and compared with other holography techniques such as nearfield acoustical holography and the Helmholtz equation least squares method. In order to obtain an acceptable reproduction of the surface vibration, several critical factors such as the field point selection and the effect of experimental errors have to be handled properly. Other practical considerations such as the use of few measured velocities and regularization techniques will also be presented. Examples will include a diesel engine, a transmission housing and an engine cover.

  8. A new galactic chemical evolution model with dust: results for dwarf irregular galaxies and DLA systems (United States)

    Gioannini, L.; Matteucci, F.; Vladilo, G.; Calura, F.


    We present a galactic chemical evolution model which adopts updated prescriptions for all the main processes governing the dust cycle. We follow in detail the evolution of the abundances of several chemical species (C, O, S, Si, Fe and Zn) in the gas and dust of a typical dwarf irregular galaxy. The dwarf irregular galaxy is assumed to evolve with a low but continuous level of star formation and experience galactic winds triggered by supernova (SN) explosions. We predict the evolution of the gas to dust ratio in such a galaxy and discuss critically the main processes involving dust, such as dust production by asymptotic giant branch stars and Type II SNe, destruction and accretion (gas condensation in clouds). We then apply our model to damped Lyman α (DLA) systems which are believed to be dwarf irregulars, as witnessed by their abundance patterns. Our main conclusions are the following. (i) We can reproduce the observed gas to dust ratio in dwarf galaxies. (ii) We find that the process of dust accretion plays a fundamental role in the evolution of dust and in certain cases it becomes the dominant process in the dust cycle. On the other hand, dust destruction seems to be a negligible process in irregulars. (iii) Concerning DLA systems, we show that the observed gas-phase abundances of silicon, normalized to volatile elements (zinc and sulfur), are in agreement with our model. (iv) The abundances of iron and silicon in DLA systems suggest that the two elements undergo a different history of dust formation and evolution. Our work casts light on the nature of iron-rich dust: the observed depletion pattern of iron is well reproduced only when an additional source of iron dust is considered. Here we explore the possibility of a contribution from Type Ia SNe as well as an efficient accretion of iron nanoparticles.

  9. The effect of different investment techniques on the surface roughness and irregularities of gold palladium alloy castings. (United States)

    Bedi, Abhayjit; Michalakis, Konstantinos X; Hirayama, Hiroshi; Stark, Paul C


    Surface roughness and irregularities can affect the fit of a restoration. It is unknown whether different investment techniques have an effect on surface roughness and irregularities of gold palladium alloy castings. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the surface roughness and irregularities of gold palladium alloy castings obtained using different investment techniques. Forty disk-shaped wax patterns were prepared and divided into 4 groups. A phosphate-bonded, carbon-free investment was used for the investment procedures. Twenty specimens were invested using a vacuum mixer, while the remainder were invested using a vacuum mixer and investor. The specimens in both broad categories were divided evenly to set in 2 different conditions of pressure. Half were left to set under atmospheric pressure for 1 hour, while the rest were placed in a compression chamber under a pressure of 3 bars for 24 minutes, then allowed to bench set for another 36 minutes. A profilometer was used to evaluate the surface roughness (mum) of the castings. The specimens were also studied under x10 magnification for surface irregularities. Two-way ANOVA was used to examine the relationships among surface roughness, investing, and pressure (alpha=.05). Logistic regression was used to explore the relationships among surface irregularities, investing, and pressure. Two-way ANOVA for surface roughness did not reveal any statistically significant differences. However, there was a trend for the specimens set under atmospheric pressure to present lower values of surface roughness than the specimens set under positive pressure (P=.095). The logistic regression for surface irregularities showed a highly significant impact of pressure. The odds of any surface irregularities for specimens under atmospheric pressure were 9.12 times higher than the odds for specimens under positive pressure (P=.016). Within the limitations of this study, the results suggest that specimens set under atmospheric

  10. Novel Method for Border Irregularity Assessment in Dermoscopic Color Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Jaworek-Korjakowska


    Full Text Available Background. One of the most important lesion features predicting malignancy is border irregularity. Accurate assessment of irregular borders is clinically important due to significantly different occurrence in benign and malignant skin lesions. Method. In this research, we present a new approach for the detection of border irregularities, as one of the major parameters in a widely used diagnostic algorithm the ABCD rule of dermoscopy. The proposed work is focused on designing an efficient automatic algorithm containing the following steps: image enhancement, lesion segmentation, borderline calculation, and irregularities detection. The challenge lies in determining the exact borderline. For solving this problem we have implemented a new method based on lesion rotation and borderline division. Results. The algorithm has been tested on 350 dermoscopic images and achieved accuracy of 92% indicating that the proposed computational approach captured most of the irregularities and provides reliable information for effective skin mole examination. Compared to the state of the art, we obtained improved classification results. Conclusions. The current study suggests that computer-aided system is a practical tool for dermoscopic image assessment and could be recommended for both research and clinical applications. The proposed algorithm can be applied in different fields of medical image analysis including, for example, CT and MRI images.

  11. Combining synchronous averaging with a Gaussian mixture model novelty detection scheme for vibration-based condition monitoring of a gearbox

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Heyns, T


    Full Text Available This paper investigates how Gaussian mixture models (GMMs) may be used to detect and trend fault induced vibration signal irregularities, such as those which might be indicative of the onset of gear damage. The negative log likelihood (NLL...

  12. Active Vibration Control of a Monopile Offshore Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren R. K.; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Thesbjerg, L.


    of the fluid velocity relative to the platform, and only this quantity need to be measured, which is easily performed by a flow meter fixed to the platform. The efficiency of the described closed loop control system has been verified by model tests in a wave flume in both regular and irregular wave conditions......In the Danish part of the North Sea monopile platforms with a cylindrical shaft have been used at the exploitation of marginal fields. In the paper a new principle for active vibration control of such structures is suggested. The principle is based on a control of the boundary layer flow around...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grav, T. [Planetary Science Institute, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Bauer, J. M.; Mainzer, A. K.; Masiero, J. R.; Sonnett, S.; Kramer, E. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Nugent, C. R.; Cutri, R. M., E-mail: [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)


    We present thermal model fits for 11 Jovian and 3 Saturnian irregular satellites based on measurements from the WISE/NEOWISE data set. Our fits confirm spacecraft-measured diameters for the objects with in situ observations (Himalia and Phoebe) and provide diameters and albedo for 12 previously unmeasured objects, 10 Jovian and 2 Saturnian irregular satellites. The best-fit thermal model beaming parameters are comparable to what is observed for other small bodies in the outer solar system, while the visible, W1, and W2 albedos trace the taxonomic classifications previously established in the literature. Reflectance properties for the irregular satellites measured are similar to the Jovian Trojan and Hilda Populations, implying common origins.

  14. Edge-partitioning graphs into regular and locally irregular components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bensmail, Julien; Stevens, Brett


    -partition into χ'irr(G) classes, each of which induces a locally irregular graph. In particular, they conjectured that χ'irr(G) ≤3 for every G, unless G belongs to a well-characterized family of non-decomposable graphs. This conjecture is far from being settled, as notably (1) no constant upper bound on χ'irr(G......A graph is locally irregular if every two adjacent vertices have distinct degrees. Recently, Baudon et al. introduced the notion of decomposition into locally irregular subgraphs. They conjectured that for almost every graph G, there exists a minimum integer χ'irr(G) such that G admits an edge......) is known for G bipartite, and (2) no satisfactory general upper bound on χ'irr(G) is known. We herein investigate the consequences on this question of allowing a decomposition to include regular components as well. As a main result, we prove that every bipartite graph admits such a decomposition...

  15. Regulation of Irregular Neuronal Firing by Autaptic Transmission (United States)

    Guo, Daqing; Wu, Shengdun; Chen, Mingming; Perc, Matjaž; Zhang, Yangsong; Ma, Jingling; Cui, Yan; Xu, Peng; Xia, Yang; Yao, Dezhong


    The importance of self-feedback autaptic transmission in modulating spike-time irregularity is still poorly understood. By using a biophysical model that incorporates autaptic coupling, we here show that self-innervation of neurons participates in the modulation of irregular neuronal firing, primarily by regulating the occurrence frequency of burst firing. In particular, we find that both excitatory and electrical autapses increase the occurrence of burst firing, thus reducing neuronal firing regularity. In contrast, inhibitory autapses suppress burst firing and therefore tend to improve the regularity of neuronal firing. Importantly, we show that these findings are independent of the firing properties of individual neurons, and as such can be observed for neurons operating in different modes. Our results provide an insightful mechanistic understanding of how different types of autapses shape irregular firing at the single-neuron level, and they highlight the functional importance of autaptic self-innervation in taming and modulating neurodynamics.

  16. Track Irregularity Time Series Analysis and Trend Forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Chaolong


    Full Text Available The combination of linear and nonlinear methods is widely used in the prediction of time series data. This paper analyzes track irregularity time series data by using gray incidence degree models and methods of data transformation, trying to find the connotative relationship between the time series data. In this paper, GM (1,1 is based on first-order, single variable linear differential equations; after an adaptive improvement and error correction, it is used to predict the long-term changing trend of track irregularity at a fixed measuring point; the stochastic linear AR, Kalman filtering model, and artificial neural network model are applied to predict the short-term changing trend of track irregularity at unit section. Both long-term and short-term changes prove that the model is effective and can achieve the expected accuracy.

  17. Low frequency sound reproduction in irregular rooms using CABS (Control Acoustic Bass System)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Celestinos, Adrian; Nielsen, Sofus Birkedal


    of an irregular room model using the FDTD (Finite Difference Time Domain) method has been presented. CABS has been simulated in the irregular room model. Measurements of CABS in a real irregular room have been performed. The performance of CABS was affected by the irregular shape of the room due to the corner...

  18. Vibration and Deflection Behavior of a Coal Auger Working Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songyong Liu


    Full Text Available Because coal auger working mechanism faces problems such as excessive vibration, serious deflection, and low drilling efficiency, a new five-bit coal auger working mechanism test model was established to explore the influence factor on vibration and deflection under different conditions. Additionally, a simulation model was built to further research the effect of partial load and stabilizer arrangement, the correctness of which was proved by experiments. The results show that the vibration and deflection increase with drilling depth in the x direction, and they first increase and then gradually become stable in the y direction. In addition, the vibration, deflection, and deflection force increase with the partial load. By arranging the stabilizer every five drill-rod section intervals, the vibration and deflection can be decreased by 30% and 40% in the x direction and by 14.3% and 65.7% in y direction, respectively.

  19. Modeling of Plasma Irregularities in Expanding Ionospheric Dust Clouds (United States)

    Fu, H.; Scales, W.; Mahmoudian, A.; Bordikar, M. R.


    Natural dust layers occur in the earth’s mesosphere (50km-85km). Plasma irregularities are associated with these natural dust layers that produce radar echoes. Recently, an Ionospheric sounding rocket experiment was performed to investigate the plasma irregularities in upper atmospheric dust layers. The Charged Aerosol Release Experiment (CARE) uses a rocket payload injection of particles in the ionosphere to determine the mechanisms for enhanced radar scatter from plasma irregularities embedded in artificial dusty plasma in space. A 2-D hybrid computational model is described that may be used to study a variety of irregularities in dusty space plasmas which may lead to radar echoes. In this model, the dust and ions are both treated with Particle-In-Cell method while the dust charge varies with time based on the standard dust Orbit Motion Limited charging model. A stochastic model is adopted to remove particle ions due to the dust charging process. Electrons are treated with a fluid model including the parallel dynamics of magnetic fields. Fourier spectral methods with a predictor-corrector time advance are used to solve it. This numerical model will be used to investigate the electrodynamics and several possible plasma irregularity generation mechanisms after the creation of an artificial dust layer. The first is the dust ion-acoustic instability due to the drift of dust relative to the plasma. The instability saturates by trapping some ions. The effects of dust radius and dust drift velocity on plasma irregularities will be analyzed further. Also, a shear- driven instability in expanding dusty clouds is investigated.

  20. Criticality predicts maximum irregularity in recurrent networks of excitatory nodes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahya Karimipanah

    Full Text Available A rigorous understanding of brain dynamics and function requires a conceptual bridge between multiple levels of organization, including neural spiking and network-level population activity. Mounting evidence suggests that neural networks of cerebral cortex operate at a critical regime, which is defined as a transition point between two phases of short lasting and chaotic activity. However, despite the fact that criticality brings about certain functional advantages for information processing, its supporting evidence is still far from conclusive, as it has been mostly based on power law scaling of size and durations of cascades of activity. Moreover, to what degree such hypothesis could explain some fundamental features of neural activity is still largely unknown. One of the most prevalent features of cortical activity in vivo is known to be spike irregularity of spike trains, which is measured in terms of the coefficient of variation (CV larger than one. Here, using a minimal computational model of excitatory nodes, we show that irregular spiking (CV > 1 naturally emerges in a recurrent network operating at criticality. More importantly, we show that even at the presence of other sources of spike irregularity, being at criticality maximizes the mean coefficient of variation of neurons, thereby maximizing their spike irregularity. Furthermore, we also show that such a maximized irregularity results in maximum correlation between neuronal firing rates and their corresponding spike irregularity (measured in terms of CV. On the one hand, using a model in the universality class of directed percolation, we propose new hallmarks of criticality at single-unit level, which could be applicable to any network of excitable nodes. On the other hand, given the controversy of the neural criticality hypothesis, we discuss the limitation of this approach to neural systems and to what degree they support the criticality hypothesis in real neural networks. Finally

  1. Irregular Shaped Building Design Optimization with Building Information Modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Xia Sheng


    Full Text Available This research is to recognise the function of Building Information Modelling (BIM in design optimization for irregular shaped buildings. The study focuses on a conceptual irregular shaped “twisted” building design similar to some existing sculpture-like architectures. Form and function are the two most important aspects of new buildings, which are becoming more sophisticated as parts of equally sophisticated “systems” that we are living in. Nowadays, it is common to have irregular shaped or sculpture-like buildings which are very different when compared to regular buildings. Construction industry stakeholders are facing stiff challenges in many aspects such as buildability, cost effectiveness, delivery time and facility management when dealing with irregular shaped building projects. Building Information Modelling (BIM is being utilized to enable architects, engineers and constructors to gain improved visualization for irregular shaped buildings; this has a purpose of identifying critical issues before initiating physical construction work. In this study, three variations of design options differing in rotating angle: 30 degrees, 60 degrees and 90 degrees are created to conduct quantifiable comparisons. Discussions are focused on three major aspects including structural planning, usable building space, and structural constructability. This research concludes that Building Information Modelling is instrumental in facilitating design optimization for irregular shaped building. In the process of comparing different design variations, instead of just giving “yes or no” type of response, stakeholders can now easily visualize, evaluate and decide to achieve the right balance based on their own criteria. Therefore, construction project stakeholders are empowered with superior evaluation and decision making capability.

  2. [Artificial cycle therapy of acupuncture and moxibustion for irregular menstruation]. (United States)

    Wu, Jie; Yang, Lijie; Chen, Yajie; Li, Qing; Chen, Lin


    Through the discussion on TCM physiological characters of females in follicular, ovulatory, luteal and menstrual phases and treatment principles, the clinical application of artificial cycle therapy of acupuncture and moxibustion was introduced for irregular menstruation and the typical cases were attached. It is suggested that the menstrual cycle follows the growth-consumption rule of yin, yang, qi and blood. The corresponding treatment principles should be applied in accordance with the change rule of menstrual cycle. Hence, it is worth to adopt the artificial cycle therapy of acupuncture and moxibustion for irregular menstruation in clinical application.

  3. Geometric Filtering Effect of Vertical Vibrations in Railway Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mădălina Dumitriu


    Full Text Available The paper herein examines the geometric filtering effect coming from the axle base of a railway vehicle upon the vertical vibrations behavior, due to the random irregularities of the track. For this purpose, the complete model of a two-level suspension and flexible carbody vehicle has been taken into account. Following the modal analysis, the movement equations have been treated in an original manner and brought to a structure that points out at the symmetrical and anti-symmetrical decoupled movements of vehicle and their excitation modes. There has been shown that the geometric filtering has a selective behavior in decreasing the level of vibrations, and its contribution is affected by the axle base magnitude, rolling speed and frequency range.

  4. Chaotic vibrations of heated plates (United States)

    Fermen-Coker, Muge


    In recent years, the investigation of dynamical behavior of plates under thermal loads has become important due to the high temperatures reached on external skin panels of hypersonic vehicles. It has been shown by other researchers that the skin panels may encounter chaotic vibrations about their thermally buckled positions. In this research, the chaotic vibrations of simply supported plates under thermal and sinusoidal excitation is studied in order to predict the vibratory behavior of a representative class of such skin panels. A method for the development of equations of motion, that forms a foundation for further investigation of the response of elastic panels under general thermal, mechanical and aerodynamic loading and various boundary conditions, is presented and discussed. The boundaries of regular and chaotic regions of motion are defined and the sensitivity of these boundaries to changes in design parameters is explored for the purpose of developing useful design criteria. The onset of chaos is predicted through the computation of Lyapunov exponents. The sensitivity of Lyapunov exponent calculations to the choice of numerical method of integration, numerical precision and the magnitude of coefficients as functions of design variables, is discussed. The effects of thermal moment, thermal buckling, amplitude and frequency of excitation, damping, thickness and length to width ratio of panels on the onset of chaos is studied. The results of the research are presented as a contribution to the panel design of hypersonic vehicles.

  5. Vibrational spectroscopy of resveratrol (United States)

    Billes, Ferenc; Mohammed-Ziegler, Ildikó; Mikosch, Hans; Tyihák, Ernő


    In this article the authors deal with the experimental and theoretical interpretation of the vibrational spectra of trans-resveratrol (3,5,4'-trihydroxy- trans-stilbene) of diverse beneficial biological activity. Infrared and Raman spectra of the compound were recorded; density functional calculations were carried out resulting in the optimized geometry and several properties of the molecule. Based on the calculated force constants, a normal coordinate analysis yielded the character of the vibrational modes and the assignment of the measured spectral bands.

  6. Bumblebee vibration activated foraging


    Su, Dan Kuan-Nien


    The ability use vibrational signals to activate nestmate foraging is found in the highly social bees, stingless bees and honey bees, and has been hypothesized to exist in the closely related, primitively eusocial bumble bees. We provide the first strong and direct evidence that this is correct. Inside the nest, bumble bee foragers produce brief bursts of vibration (foraging activation pulses) at 594.5 Hz for 63±26 ms (velocityRMS=0.46±0.02mm/s, forceRMS=0.8±0.2 mN. Production of these vibrati...

  7. Man-Induced Vibrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, Jeppe; Hansen, Lars Pilegaard


    concerned with spectator-induced vertical vibrations on grandstands. The idea is to use impulse response analysis and base the load description on the load impulse. If the method is feasable, it could be used in connection with the formulation of requirements in building codes. During the last two decades...... work has been done on the measurement of the exact load functions and related reponse analysis. A recent work using a spectral description has been performed by Per-Erik Erikson and includes a good literature survey. Bachmann and Ammann give a good overview of vibrations caused by human activity. Other...

  8. Vibrations and waves

    CERN Document Server

    Kaliski, S


    This book gives a comprehensive overview of wave phenomena in different media with interacting mechanical, electromagnetic and other fields. Equations describing wave propagation in linear and non-linear elastic media are followed by equations of rheological models, models with internal rotational degrees of freedom and non-local interactions. Equations for coupled fields: thermal, elastic, electromagnetic, piezoelectric, and magneto-spin with adequate boundary conditions are also included. Together with its companion volume Vibrations and Waves. Part A: Vibrations this work provides a wealth

  9. Acoustic vibration can enhance bacterial biofilm formation. (United States)

    Murphy, Mark F; Edwards, Thomas; Hobbs, Glyn; Shepherd, Joanna; Bezombes, Frederic


    This paper explores the use of low-frequency-low-amplitude acoustic vibration on biofilm formation. Biofilm development is thought to be governed by a diverse range of environmental signals and much effort has gone into researching the effects of environmental factors including; nutrient availability, pH and temperature on the growth of biofilms. Many biofilm-forming organisms have evolved to thrive in mechanically challenging environments, for example soil yet, the effects of the physical environment on biofilm formation has been largely ignored. Exposure of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to vibration at 100, 800 and 1600 Hz for 48 h, resulted in a significant increase in biofilm formation compared with the control, with the greatest growth seen at 800 Hz vibration. The results also show that this increase in biofilm formation is accompanied with an increase in P. aeruginosa cell number. Acoustic vibration was also found to regulate the spatial distribution of biofilm formation in a frequency-dependent manner. Exposure of Staphylococcus aureus to acoustic vibration also resulted in enhanced biofilm formation with the greatest level of biofilm being formed following 48 h exposure at 1600 Hz. These results show that acoustic vibration can be used to control biofilm formation and therefore presents a novel and potentially cost effective means to manipulate the development and yield of biofilms in a range of important industrial and medical processes. Copyright © 2016 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Dynamics of an [Fe4S4(SPh)4]2- cluster explored via IR, Raman, and nuclear resonance vibrational spectroscopy (NRVS)-analysis using 36S substitution, DFT calculations, and empirical force fields. (United States)

    Xiao, Yuming; Koutmos, Markos; Case, David A; Coucouvanis, Dimitri; Wang, Hongxin; Cramer, Stephen P


    We have used four vibrational spectroscopies--FT-IR, FT-Raman, resonance Raman, and 57Fe nuclear resonance vibrational spectroscopy (NRVS)--to study the normal modes of the Fe-S cluster in [(n-Bu)4N]2[Fe4S4(SPh)4]. This [Fe4S4(SR)4]2- complex serves as a model for the clusters in 4Fe ferredoxins and high-potential iron proteins (HiPIPs). The IR spectra exhibited differences above and below the 243 K phase transition. Significant shifts with 36S substitution into the bridging S positions were also observed. The NRVS results were in good agreement with the low temperature data from the conventional spectroscopies. The NRVS spectra were interpreted by normal mode analysis using optimized Urey-Bradley force fields (UBFF) as well as from DFT theory. For the UBFF calculations, the parameters were refined by comparing calculated and observed NRVS frequencies and intensities. The frequency shifts after 36S substitution were used as an additional constraint. A D 2d symmetry Fe4S4S'4 model could explain most of the observed frequencies, but a better match to the observed intensities was obtained when the ligand aromatic rings were included for a D 2d Fe4S4(SPh)4 model. The best results were obtained using the low temperature structure without symmetry constraints. In addition to stretching and bending vibrations, low frequency modes between approximately 50 and 100 cm(-1) were observed. These modes, which have not been seen before, are interpreted as twisting motions with opposing sides of the cube rotating in opposite directions. In contrast with a recent paper on a related Fe4S4 cluster, we find no need to assign a large fraction of the low frequency NRVS intensity to 'rotational lattice modes'. We also reassign the 430 cm(-1) band as primarily an elongation of the thiophenolate ring, with approximately 10% terminal Fe-S stretch character. This study illustrates the benefits of combining NRVS with conventional Raman and IR analysis for characterization of Fe-S centers. DFT

  11. Professional Irregular Defense Forces: The Other Side of COIN (United States)


    city. When the Chechens fired from these positions, Russian returned fire inevitably hit civilian housing, schools, hospitals, and daycare centers ...trained for irregular warfare. Background organizations such as schools and training centers need to be established...Pennsylvania and the south, since it was seen by the British as the southern center of the rebellion. General John Burgoyne’s army maneuvered from Canada

  12. Irregular Migration and Vulnerability to HIV&AIDS: Some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mobile populations are at very high risk of HIV infection. At the same time, they can be catalysts in its spread. Migration from Matabeleland region in. Zimbabwe to South Africa has several features that increase this dual disposition of those involved. These features include the largely irregular nature of migration, ...

  13. Regularisation of irregular verbs in child English second language ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Basing their conclusions on studies that were conducted on acquisition of English and German noun and verb inflections, these researchers proposed that, through the Blocking Principle, the use of the regular inflections with irregular verbs and nouns is automatically and subconsciously blocked. The present study was ...

  14. Effect of election irregularities on socio–economic development of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Since the fourth Republic there have been trends of bad leadership in the State resulting from election irregularities committed that produce leaders in the State. The nature, extent and magnitude of rigging associated with elections in this state are posing a serious threat to the state quest for stable socioeconomic ...

  15. Structure Irregularity Impedes Drop Roll-Off at Superhydrophobic Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Simon Tylsgaard; Andersen, Nis Korsgaard; Søgaard, Emil


    -off angles is found to be caused by a decrease of the receding contact angle, which in turn is caused by an increase of the triple phase contact line of the drops for those more irregular surfaces. To understand the observation, we propose to treat the microdrops as rigid bodies and apply a torque balance...

  16. On a new process for cusp irregularity production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. C. Carlson


    Full Text Available Two plasma instability mechanisms were thought until 2007 to dominate the formation of plasma irregularities in the F region high latitude and polar ionosphere; the gradient-drift driven instability, and the velocity-shear driven instability. The former mechanism was accepted as accounting for plasma structuring in polar cap patches, the latter for plasma structuring in polar cap sun aligned arcs. Recent work has established the need to replace this view of the past two decades with a new patch plasma structuring process (not a new mechanism, whereby shear-driven instabilities first rapidly structure the entering plasma, after which gradient drift instabilities build on these large "seed" irregularities. Correct modeling of cusp and early polar cap patch structuring will not be accomplished without allowing for this compound process. This compound process explains several previously unexplained characteristics of cusp and early polar cap patch irregularities. Here we introduce additional data, coincident in time and space, to extend that work to smaller irregularity scale sizes and relate it to the structured cusp current system.

  17. Size and Albedo of Irregular Saturnian Satellites from Spitzer Observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mueller, Michael; Grav, T.; Trilling, D.; Stansberry, J.; Sykes, M.


    Using MIPS onboard the Spitzer Space Telescope, we observed the thermal emission (24 and, for some targets, 70 um) of eight irregular satellites of Saturn: Albiorix, Siarnaq, Paaliaq, Kiviuq, Ijiraq, Tarvos, Erriapus, and Ymir. We determined the size and albedo of all targets. An analysis of

  18. Predictions of Stellar Occultations by Irregular Satellites up to 2020 (United States)

    Ramos Gomes, Altair; Assafin, Marcelo; Beauvalet, Laurene; Desmars, Josselin; Vieira-Martins, Roberto; Camargo, Julio I.; Morgado, Bruno Eduardo; Braga Ribas, Felipe


    Due to their orbital configurations, it is believed the irregular satellites of the Giant Planets were captured by their host planets during the Solar System evolution. It is important to know their physical parameters such as size, shape, albedo and composition in an attempt to access their origin. The best ground-based technique to do so is by stellar occultations.With the release of the GAIA catalog and the publication of a large database of positions of irregular satellites (Gomes-Júnior et al., 2015), the position of the stars and the ephemeris of the satellites are improved to better predict stellar occultation.The present work predicts such events for the 8 largest irregular satellites of Jupiter and the largest irregular satellite of Saturn, Phoebe, up to 2020. Another motivation is the passage of Jupiter in front of the Galatic Plane in 2019-2020 increasing a lot the number of stars to be occulted. The same happens with Saturn in 2018.

  19. Convection-diffusion lattice Boltzmann scheme for irregular lattices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sman, van der R.G.M.; Ernst, M.H.


    In this paper, a lattice Boltzmann (LB) scheme for convection diffusion on irregular lattices is presented, which is free of any interpolation or coarse graining step. The scheme is derived using the axioma that the velocity moments of the equilibrium distribution equal those of the

  20. Wheel-rail interaction at short-wave irregularities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenbergen, M.J.M.M.


    Short-wave irregularities in the wheel-rail interface are at the basis of track and vehicle damage and deterioration. On the short term, they result into high dynamic train-track interaction forces and a high energy input into the system that must be dissipated in the different system components or

  1. The extended structure of the dwarf irregular galaxy Sagittarius

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beccari, G.; Bellazzini, M.; Fraternali, F.; Battaglia, G.; Perina, S.; Sollima, A.; Oosterloo, T. A.; Testa, V.; Galleti, S.


    We present a detailed study of the stellar and H i structure of the dwarf irregular galaxy Sagittarius. We use new deep and wide field photometry to trace the surface brightness profile of the galaxy out to ≃5.0' (corresponding to ≃1600 pc) and down to μV ≃ 30.0 mag/arcsec2, thus showing that the

  2. Modeling irregularly spaced residual series as a continuous stochastic process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Von Asmuth, J.R.; Bierkens, M.F.P.


    In this paper, the background and functioning of a simple but effective continuous time approach for modeling irregularly spaced residual series is presented. The basic equations were published earlier by von Asmuth et al. (2002), who used them as part of a continuous time transfer function noise

  3. Endo-reduplication and irregular division lead to genome ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Table of contents. Endo-reduplication and irregular division lead to genome heterogeneity in Entamoeba histolytica · Slide 2 · Slide 3 · Differences between a mitotic cycle and endo-reduplicating cycle · Heterogeneity of genome content is observed in cells arrested by serum starvation followed by serum addition · Slide 6.

  4. On a conjecture about edge irregular total labelings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Stephan; Rautenbach, D.; Miškuf, J.


    ′V. Functions with this property were recently introduced and studied by Bača et al. and were called edge irregular total labelings. Our result confirms a recent conjecture of Ivančo and Jendrol' about such labelings for dense graphs, for graphs where the maximum and minimum degree are not too different...

  5. Buckling analysis of partially corroded steel plates with irregular ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    For the structural safety assessment of corroded structures, load carrying capacity reduction should .... Elastic buckling assessment of corroded plates with irregular surfaces is only on the basis of numerical analysis with ... Ahmad Rahbar-Ranji. Eigenvalue analyses are performed using computer code ANSYS (version 5.6).

  6. Effect of irregularity and inhomogenity on the propagation of love ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dispersion equation for Love waves in a fluid-saturated porous isotropic layer over a semi-infinite non homogene-ous elastic medium with half-space rectangular irregularity was derived by perturbation technique and Fourier transformation. Analysis of the dispersion equation indicated that the phase velocity was strongly ...

  7. Effect of irregularity on torsional surface waves in an initially ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The present paper is concerned with the propagation of torsional surface waves in an initially stressedanisotropic porous layer sandwiched between homogeneous and non-homogeneous half-space. We assumethe quadratic inhomogeneity in rigidity and density in the lower half-space and irregularity is taken inthe form of ...

  8. Effect of irregularity on torsional surface waves in an initially ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The present paper is concerned with the propagation of torsional surface waves in an initially stressed anisotropic porous layer sandwiched between homogeneous and non-homogeneous half-space. We assume the quadratic inhomogeneity in rigidity and density in the lower half-space and irregularity is taken in the form ...

  9. Absence of anomalous copper vibrations in YBa2Cu3O7-δ (United States)

    Hecker, N. E.; Mook, H. A.; Harvey, J. A.; Hill, N. W.; Moxon, M. C.; Golovchenko, J. A.


    We find a normal temperature dependence for the Doppler broadening of the 230-eV resonance in the neutron cross section of 65Cu atoms in YBa2Cu3O7 between 10 and 300 K. No abrupt changes in the copper momentum spectrum corresponding to vibrations in the ab plane were observed in either the superconducting YBa2Cu3O7 or nonsuperconducting YBa2Cu3O6.2 compounds. This result differs from ion-channeling experiments in which sharp changes in the channeling minimum yield and width of the rocking curve indicated irregular vibrational behavior near the superconducting critical temperature.

  10. Heterogeneous Dynamics of Coupled Vibrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cringus, Dan; Jansen, Thomas I. C.; Pshenichnikov, Maxim S.; Schoenlein, RW; Corkum, P; DeSilvestri, S; Nelson, KA; Riedle, E


    Frequency-dependent dynamics of coupled stretch vibrations of a water molecule are revealed by 2D IR correlation spectroscopy. These are caused by non-Gaussian fluctuations of the environment around the individual OH stretch vibrations.

  11. Comparison of correlation analysis techniques for irregularly sampled time series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Rehfeld


    Full Text Available Geoscientific measurements often provide time series with irregular time sampling, requiring either data reconstruction (interpolation or sophisticated methods to handle irregular sampling. We compare the linear interpolation technique and different approaches for analyzing the correlation functions and persistence of irregularly sampled time series, as Lomb-Scargle Fourier transformation and kernel-based methods. In a thorough benchmark test we investigate the performance of these techniques.

    All methods have comparable root mean square errors (RMSEs for low skewness of the inter-observation time distribution. For high skewness, very irregular data, interpolation bias and RMSE increase strongly. We find a 40 % lower RMSE for the lag-1 autocorrelation function (ACF for the Gaussian kernel method vs. the linear interpolation scheme,in the analysis of highly irregular time series. For the cross correlation function (CCF the RMSE is then lower by 60 %. The application of the Lomb-Scargle technique gave results comparable to the kernel methods for the univariate, but poorer results in the bivariate case. Especially the high-frequency components of the signal, where classical methods show a strong bias in ACF and CCF magnitude, are preserved when using the kernel methods.

    We illustrate the performances of interpolation vs. Gaussian kernel method by applying both to paleo-data from four locations, reflecting late Holocene Asian monsoon variability as derived from speleothem δ18O measurements. Cross correlation results are similar for both methods, which we attribute to the long time scales of the common variability. The persistence time (memory is strongly overestimated when using the standard, interpolation-based, approach. Hence, the Gaussian kernel is a reliable and more robust estimator with significant advantages compared to other techniques and suitable for large scale application to paleo-data.

  12. Composite Struts Would Damp Vibrations (United States)

    Dolgin, Benjamin P.


    New design of composite-material (fiber/matrix laminate) struts increases damping of longitudinal vibrations without decreasing longitudinal stiffness or increasing weight significantly. Plies with opposing chevron patterns of fibers convert longitudinal vibrational stresses into shear stresses in intermediate viscoelastic layer, which dissipate vibrational energy. Composite strut stronger than aluminum strut of same weight and stiffness.

  13. Ship Vibration Design Guide (United States)


    Frachtschiffen," Werft Reederie Hafen, 1925. 4-21 Noonan, E. F. "Vibration Considerations for 120,000 CM LNG Ships," NKF: Preliminary Report No. 7107, 25...Ship Response to Ice - A Second Season by C. Daley, J. W. St. John, R. Brown, J. Meyer , and I. Glen 1990 SSC-340 Ice Forces and Ship Response to Ice

  14. Compact Vibration Damper (United States)

    Ivanco, Thomas G. (Inventor)


    A vibration damper includes a rigid base with a mass coupled thereto for linear movement thereon. Springs coupled to the mass compress in response to the linear movement along either of two opposing directions. A converter coupled to the mass converts the linear movement to a corresponding rotational movement. A rotary damper coupled to the converter damps the rotational movement.

  15. Vibrations and Eigenvalues

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The vibrating string problem is the source of much mathematicsand physics. This article describes Lagrange's formulationof a discretised version of the problem and its solution.This is also the first instance of an eigenvalue problem. Author Affiliations. Rajendra Bhatia1. Ashoka University, Rai, Haryana 131 029, India.

  16. Blade Vibration Measurement System (United States)

    Platt, Michael J.


    The Phase I project successfully demonstrated that an advanced noncontacting stress measurement system (NSMS) could improve classification of blade vibration response in terms of mistuning and closely spaced modes. The Phase II work confirmed the microwave sensor design process, modified the sensor so it is compatible as an upgrade to existing NSMS, and improved and finalized the NSMS software. The result will be stand-alone radar/tip timing radar signal conditioning for current conventional NSMS users (as an upgrade) and new users. The hybrid system will use frequency data and relative mode vibration levels from the radar sensor to provide substantially superior capabilities over current blade-vibration measurement technology. This frequency data, coupled with a reduced number of tip timing probes, will result in a system capable of detecting complex blade vibrations that would confound traditional NSMS systems. The hardware and software package was validated on a compressor rig at Mechanical Solutions, Inc. (MSI). Finally, the hybrid radar/tip timing NSMS software package and associated sensor hardware will be installed for use in the NASA Glenn spin pit test facility.

  17. Vibration Sensitive Keystroke Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopatka, M.; Peetz, M.-H.; van Erp, M.; Stehouwer, H.; van Zaanen, M.


    We present a novel method for performing non-invasive biometric analysis on habitual keystroke patterns using a vibration-based feature space. With the increasing availability of 3-D accelerometer chips in laptop computers, conventional methods using time vectors may be augmented using a distinct

  18. The vibration discomfort of standing people: evaluation of multi-axis vibration. (United States)

    Thuong, Olivier; Griffin, Michael J


    Few studies have investigated discomfort caused by multi-axis vibration and none has explored methods of predicting the discomfort of standing people from simultaneous fore-and-aft, lateral and vertical vibration of a floor. Using the method of magnitude estimation, 16 subjects estimated their discomfort caused by dual-axis and tri-axial motions (octave-bands centred on either 1 or 4 Hz with various magnitudes in the fore-and-aft, lateral and vertical directions) and the discomfort caused by single-axis motions. The method of predicting discomfort assumed in current standards (square-root of the sums of squares of the three components weighted according to their individual contributions to discomfort) provided reasonable predictions of the discomfort caused by multi-axis vibration. Improved predictions can be obtained for specific stimuli, but no single simple method will provide accurate predictions for all stimuli because the rate of growth of discomfort with increasing magnitude of vibration depends on the frequency and direction of vibration.

  19. Factors associated with menstrual cycle irregularity and menopause. (United States)

    Bae, Jinju; Park, Susan; Kwon, Jin-Won


    A regular menstrual cycle is an important indicator of a healthy reproductive system. Previous studies reported obesity, stress, and smoking as the factors that are associated with irregular menstruation and early menopause. However, the integrative effects of these modifiable risk factors have not been fully understood. This study aimed to investigate the modifiable risk factors of menstrual cycle irregularity and premature menopause, as well as their individual and combined effects among adult women in Korea. This study selected adult women aged 19 years and above who had been included in the 2007-2014 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We used a separate dataset to analyze the risk factors of menstrual cycle irregularity and menopause (pre- and postmenopausal women: n = 4788 and n = 10,697, respectively). Univariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to evaluate the effects of smoking, drinking, obesity, and perceived level of stress on the menstrual cycle and menopause. Both logit and linear models were used in the analyses of the association between smoking and menopausal age. Equivalized household income, marital status, and educational level were considered as covariates. The modifiable risk factor scores were also calculated to integrate the effect of smoking, drinking, and obesity in the analysis. Results showed that smoking status, pack-year, obesity, and perceived level of stress were significantly associated with irregular menstruation among premenopausal women. Especially, women demonstrating > 3 modifiable risk factor scores had 1.7 times higher risk of having irregular menstruation than those who had a 0 score. Meanwhile, early initiation of smoking (≤19 years) and high pack-year (≥5) were also significantly associated with premature menopause among postmenopausal women. This study demonstrated that modifiable risk factors, such as smoking, obesity, and stress, were significantly associated

  20. Acoustically Driven Vibrations in Cylindrical Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chambers, David H. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)


    The purpose of this investigation is to explore the interaction of acoustics and vibration in fluid-filled cylindrical structures. Our emphasis is on describing longitudinal (axial) propagation within the structure for acoustic signals that enter externally. This paper reviews the historical and theoretical treatments of the relevant phenomenon important to the propagation of these signals along pipe structures. Our specific contribution is a detailed analysis of how external acoustic signals are coupled to a free standing pipe. There have been numerous phenomena for which these analyses are applicable. They have ranged from physical property measurements, to indoor environmental noise abatement, and onto quite significant explorations of active and passive submerged structures.

  1. Animal Communications Through Seismic Vibrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, Peggy (University of Tulsa)


    Substrate vibration has been important to animals as a channel of communication for millions of years, but our literature on vibration in this context of biologically relevant information is only decades old. The jaw mechanism of the earliest land vertebrates allowed them to perceive substrate vibrations as their heads lay on the ground long before airborne sounds could be heard. Although the exact mechanism of vibration production and the precise nature of the wave produced are not always understood, recent development of affordable instrumentation to detect and measure vibrations has allowed researchers to answer increasingly sophisticated questions about how animals send and receive vibration signals. We now know that vibration provides information used in predator defense, prey detection, recruitment to food, mate choice, intrasexual competition, and maternal/brood social interactions in a variety of insect orders, spiders, crabs, scorpions, chameleons, frogs, golden moles, mole rats, kangaroos rats, wallabies, elephants and bison.

  2. Implications of mitotic and meiotic irregularities in common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). (United States)

    Lima, D C; Braz, G T; Dos Reis, G B; Techio, V H; Davide, L C; de F B Abreu, A


    The common bean has great social and economic importance in Brazil and is the subject of a high number of publications, especially in the fields of genetics and breeding. Breeding programs aim to increase grain yield; however, mitosis and meiosis represent under explored research areas that have a direct impact on grain yield. Therefore, the study of cell division could be another tool available to bean geneticists and breeders. The aim of this study was to investigate irregularities occurring during the cell cycle and meiosis in common bean. The common bean cultivar used was BRSMG Talismã, which owing to its high yield and grain quality is recommended for cultivation in Brazil. We classified the interphase nuclei, estimated the mitotic and meiotic index, grain pollen viability, and percentage of abnormalities in both processes. The mitotic index was 4.1%, the interphase nucleus was non-reticulated, and 19% of dividing somatic cells showed abnormal behavior. Meiosis also presented irregularities resulting in a meiotic index of 44.6%. Viability of pollen grains was 94.3%. These results indicate that the common bean cultivar BRSMG Talismã possesses repair mechanisms that compensate for changes by producing a large number of pollen grains. Another important strategy adopted by bean plants to ensure stability is the elimination of abnormal cells by apoptosis. As the common bean cultivar BRSMG Talismã is recommended for cultivation because of its good agronomic performance, it can be concluded that mitotic and meiotic irregularities have no negative influence on its grain quality and yield.

  3. Surface irregularities of MBE grown cubic GaN layers (United States)

    Lima, A. P.; Frey, T.; Köhler, U.; Wang, C.; As, D. J.; Schöttker, B.; Lischka, K.; Schikora, D.


    Cubic GaN layers are grown by molecular beam epitaxy on (0 0 1)GaAs substrates. The influence of intentional deviations from stoichiometric growth conditions on the structural homogeneity of the epitaxial layers and the GaN/GaAs interface was studied. Optical micrographs and AFM-images of the epilayers grown in a Ga-stabilised regime reveal the existence of different types of surface irregularities. We conclude that the irregularities observed are the result of successively melt-back etching in GaN and GaAs and solution growth within Ga-droplets due to the change of the saturation conditions of the liquid Ga-phase on the surface of the growing film.

  4. The use of global ionospheric irregularity models for satellite communications (United States)

    Pope, J. H.


    Scintillation data obtained in the VHF region were used by Fremouw to develop a global scintillation model. An attempt has been made in the present study to improve this model in several respects. One of these is to modify the high latitude term in the model to better represent data obtained in the northern high latitude regions. Another improvement is the extention of the frequency region of validity to the L band and microwave regions. This attempt is based on certain theoretical considerations regarding the effects of distribution in irregularity sizes. Recent satellite in situ measurements indicate that the ionospheric irregularity description is functionally different from that assumed in the past. These satellite measurements are used in connection with the theoretical development to improve the model.

  5. Ionospheric irregularities causing scintillation of GHz frequency radio signals (United States)

    Wernik, A. W.; Liu, C. H.


    Consideration of the recently observed phenomenon of scintillation of satellite signals at GHz frequency range. Based on the scintillation data and results from in situ measurements, several ionospheric irregularity models with different power spectra are studied. Scintillation index is computed for the various models and compared with observed results. Both magnitude and frequency dependence of the scintillation index are investigated. It is found that a thick irregularity slab of the order of 200 km with an electron density fluctuation of about 20 per cent of its background value and with a nonmonotonic power spectrum may account for the maximum observed values of the scintillation index as well as its frequency dependence. Some future observations and measurements are suggested.

  6. Depression of the ULF geomagnetic pulsation related to ionospheric irregularities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Molchanov


    Full Text Available We consider a depression in intensity of ULF magnetic pulsations, which is observed on the ground surface due to appearance of the irregularities in the ionosphere. It is supposed that oblique Alfven waves in the ULF frequency range are downgoing from the magnetosphere and the horizontal irregularities of ionospheric conductivity are created by upgoing atmospheric gravity waves from seismic source. Unlike the companion paper by Molchanov et al. (2003, we used a simple model of the ionospheric layer but took into consideration the lateral inhomogeneity of the perturbation region in the ionosphere. It is shown that ULF intensity could be essentially decreased for frequencies f = 0.001-0.1 Hz at nighttime but the change is negligible at daytime in coincidence with observational results.

  7. Wettability measurements of irregular shapes with Wilhelmy plate method (United States)

    Park, Jaehyung; Pasaogullari, Ugur; Bonville, Leonard


    One of the most accurate methods for measuring the dynamic contact angle of liquids on solid surfaces is the Wilhelmy plate method. This method generally requires the use of rectangular samples having a constant perimeter in the liquid during advancing and receding cycles. A new formulation based on the Wilhelmy force balance equation to determine the contact angle for plate samples with irregular shapes has been developed. This method employs a profile plot obtained from an optical image to determine the perimeter (i.e. wetted length) of the sample as a function of the immersion depth. The raw force data measured by the force tensiometer is manipulated using the profile plot and the Wilhelmy equation to determine the wetting force and consequently advancing and the receding contact angle. This method is verified with both triangular and irregular PTFE samples in water, and measured contact angles are in good agreement with results from conventional regular shaped samples with a constant perimeter.

  8. The second-order decomposition model of nonlinear irregular waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Zhi Wen; Bingham, Harry B.; Li, Jin Xuan


    into the first- and the second-order super-harmonic as well as the second-order sub-harmonic components by transferring them into an identical Fourier frequency-space and using a Newton-Raphson iteration method. In order to evaluate the present model, a variety of monochromatic waves and the second......A new method to decompose the nonlinear irregular waves is proposed. The second-order potential flow theory is employed to construct the relation of the second-order items solution by deriving the transfer function between the first- and the second-order components. Target waves are decomposed......-order nonlinear irregular waves over a broad range of frequencies have been analyzed, and the effects on wave nonlinearity are analyzed. The experimental results show that the present method is reasonably effective for the wave decomposition....

  9. The scholarly rebellion of the early Baker Street Irregulars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Mills


    Full Text Available This work provides and analyzes an early institutional history of the pioneering Sherlock Holmes American fan club, the Baker Street Irregulars (BSI. Using the publications and records of these devoted Sherlockians, I track the BSI's development from a speakeasy gathering in 1934 to a national organization by the mid-1940s. This growth was built on a foundation of Victorian nostalgia and playful humor. Yet at the same time the members of the Irregulars took their fandom seriously, producing Sherlockian scholarship and creating an infrastructure of journals, conferences, and credentialing that directly mimicked the academy. They positioned themselves in contrast to prevailing scholarly practices of the period, such as New Criticism. I trace both how their fan practices developed over time and how this conflict with the academy led to many of the BSI's defining characteristics.

  10. Finding Causes of Irregular Headways Integrating Data Mining and AHP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi An


    Full Text Available Irregular headways could reduce the public transit service level heavily. Finding out the exact causes of irregular headways will greatly help to develop efficient strategies aiming to improve transit service quality. This paper utilizes bus GPS data of Harbin to evaluate the headway performance and proposes a statistical method to identify the abnormal headways. Association mining is used to dig deeper and recognize six causes of bus bunching. The AHP, embedded data analysis, is applied to determine the weight of each cause in the case of that these causes are combined with each other constantly. Results show that the front bus has a greater effect on bus bunching than the following bus, and the traffic condition is the most critical factor affecting bus headway.

  11. Vibration Attenuation of Plate Using Multiple Vibration Absorbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaman Izzuddin


    Full Text Available Vibrations are undesired phenomenon and it can cause harm, distress and unsettling influence to the systems or structures, for example, aircraft, automobile, machinery and building. One of the approach to limit this vibration by introducing passive vibration absorber attached to the structure. In this paper, the adequacy of utilizing passive vibration absorbers are investigated. The vibration absorber system is designed to minimize the vibration of a thin plate fixed along edges. The plate’s vibration characteristics, such as, natural frequency and mode shape are determined using three techniques: theoretical equations, finite element (FE analysis and experiment. The results demonstrate that the first four natural frequencies of fixed-fixed ends plate are 48, 121, 193 and 242 Hz, and these results are corroborated well with theoretical, FE simulation and experiment. The experiment work is further carried out with attached single and multiple vibration absorbers onto plate by tuning the absorber’s frequency to match with the excitation frequency. The outcomes depict that multiple vibration absorbers are more viable in lessening the global structural vibration.

  12. Using Little's Irregularity Index in orthodontics: outdated and inaccurate?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Macauley, Donal


    Little\\'s Irregularity Index (LII) was devised to objectively score mandibular incisor alignment for epidemiological studies but has been extended to assess the relative performance of orthodontic brackets, retainer or treatment modalities. Our aim was to examine the repeatability and precision of LII measurements of four independent examiners on the maxillary arch of orthodontic patients. The hypothesis was that the reproducibility of individual contact point displacement measurements, used to calculate the LII score, are inappropriate.

  13. Fighting Networks: The Defining Challenge of Irregular Warfare (United States)


    ambush is a form of offensive attack that utilizes principles of the defense and relies on deception. Jon Latimer describes the ambush and “…the use...of lures to draw the enemy into them…” as fundamental aspects of irregular and guerrilla warfare; Jon Latimer , Deception in War (New York: Overlook...Theory of Intelligence,” in Intelligence Theory, 10. 296 Latimer , Deception in War, 272. 297 Organizationally, fusion provides a structural framework

  14. Remote double resonance coupling of radar energy to ionospheric irregularities (United States)

    Kennel, C. F.


    Experimental results indicate that low frequency modulation of a high power radar beam, tuned to one of the critical frequencies of the ionosphere, may produce field-aligned density irregularities when the modulation frequency matches an ionospheric eigenfrequency. By choosing the radar carrier frequency and polarization, a number of interaction layers were selected. The variety of possible excitations shows that the double resonance technique may be adaptable to a number of different objectives.

  15. Decreased resting metabolic rate in ballet dancers with menstrual irregularity. (United States)

    Myburgh, K H; Berman, C; Novick, I; Noakes, T; Lambert, E


    We studied 21 ballet dancers aged 19.4 +/- 1.4 years, hypothesizing that undernutrition was a major factor in menstrual irregularity in this population. Menstrual history was determined by questionnaire. Eight dancers had always been regular (R). Thirteen subjects had a history of menstrual irregularity (HI). Of these, 2 were currently regularly menstruating, 3 had short cycles, 6 were oligomenorrheic, and 2 were amenorrheic. Subjects completed a weighed dietary record and an Eating Attitudes Test (EAT). The following physiological parameters were measured: body composition by anthropometry, resting metabolic rate (RMR) by open-circuit indirect calorimetry, and serum thyroid hormone concentrations by radioimmunoassay. R subjects had significantly higher RMR than HI subjects. Also, HI subjects had lower RMR than predicted by fat-free mass, compared to the R subjects. Neither reported energy intake nor serum thyroid hormone concentrations were different between R and HI subjects. EAT scores varied and were not different between groups. We concluded that in ballet dancers, low RMR is more strongly associated with menstrual irregularity than is current reported energy intake or serum thyroid hormone concentrations.

  16. Gas and Dust Properties in Dwarf Irregular Galaxies (United States)

    Jones, A. P.; Madden, S. C.; Colgan, S. W. J.; Geis, N.; Haas, M.; Maloney, P.; Nikola, T.; Poglitsch, A.


    We present a study of the 158 (micron)meter [C II] fine structure emission line from a sample of 11 low metallicity irregular galaxies using the NASA Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO). Our preliminary results demonstrate that the ratio of the 158 (micron)meter [C II] emission to the CO-12(1 yields 0) emission ranges from 6,000 to 46,000. These ratios are significantly enhanced relative to clouds within the Galaxy and to normal metallicity galaxies, which typically have values in the range 2,000 to 6,300. We also find that the [C II] emission in dwarf irregular galaxies can be up to 5% of the far-infrared (FIR) emission, a higher fraction of the FIR than in normal metallicity galaxies. We discuss these results for the dwarf irregular galaxies and compare them to those observed in normal metallicity galaxies. The enhanced 158 (micron)meter [C II] emission relative to CO-12(1 yields 0) emission can be understood in terms of the increased penetration depth of ultraviolet (UV) photons into the clouds in low metallicity environments.

  17. Histogram Planimetry Method for the Measurement of Irregular Wounds. (United States)

    Yesiloglu, Nebil; Yildiz, Kemalettin; Cem Akpinar, Ali; Gorgulu, Tahsin; Sirinoglu, Hakan; Ozcan, Arzu


    Irregularly shaped wounds or flap borders usually require specified software or devices to measure their area and follow-up wound healing. In this study, an easy way of area measurement called histogram planimetry (HP) for wounds with irregular geometric shapes is defined and compared to conventional millimetric wound measurement. Ten irregularly bordered geometric shapes were measured by 4 different individuals working as surgical assistants using both HP and manual millimetric measurement tools. The amount of time for each wound shape calculation as well as the measurements of the wound areas were noted. All measurements were compared for each method and between each individual using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. There was no statistically significant difference between 2 measurement methods by means of measured areas; however, measurement time was significantly lower when the HP method was used. There also was no significant difference between the individuals' measurements and calculation times. These results indicated that HP is useful as a conventional millimetric square wound measurement technique with significantly lower measurement times. Due to the development of photo-editor software technologies, measurements in the surgical field have become more accurate and rapid than conventional manual methods without consuming the time and energy needed for other studies. A future study including comparisons between the presented method and complex computerized measurement methods, in terms of duration and accuracy, may provide additional supportive data for the authors' method.

  18. Good vibrations. [Hydraulic turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, P.


    The latest developments in the Voith Turbine Control and Automation System (VTLS), which couples digital control technology to hydropower plant equipment, are described. Prominent among these is the vibration diagnostics module for hydraulic turbines. It provides machine-specific diagnostic logic for a vibration monitoring and analysis system. Of the two other VTLS modules described, the operation module optimizes the control of a power plant with three or more turbines by considering the individual properties of each in turn, recommending which should be run, and how, in order to partition the load for a required power output. The cavitation module is a diagnostic system which enables the limits of operation of the turbines to be extended to bands just outside those determined by cavitation calculations. (3 figures). (UK)

  19. Super-multiplex vibrational imaging (United States)

    Wei, Lu; Chen, Zhixing; Shi, Lixue; Long, Rong; Anzalone, Andrew V.; Zhang, Luyuan; Hu, Fanghao; Yuste, Rafael; Cornish, Virginia W.; Min, Wei


    The ability to visualize directly a large number of distinct molecular species inside cells is increasingly essential for understanding complex systems and processes. Even though existing methods have successfully been used to explore structure-function relationships in nervous systems, to profile RNA in situ, to reveal the heterogeneity of tumour microenvironments and to study dynamic macromolecular assembly, it remains challenging to image many species with high selectivity and sensitivity under biological conditions. For instance, fluorescence microscopy faces a ‘colour barrier’, owing to the intrinsically broad (about 1,500 inverse centimetres) and featureless nature of fluorescence spectra that limits the number of resolvable colours to two to five (or seven to nine if using complicated instrumentation and analysis). Spontaneous Raman microscopy probes vibrational transitions with much narrower resonances (peak width of about 10 inverse centimetres) and so does not suffer from this problem, but weak signals make many bio-imaging applications impossible. Although surface-enhanced Raman scattering offers high sensitivity and multiplicity, it cannot be readily used to image specific molecular targets quantitatively inside live cells. Here we use stimulated Raman scattering under electronic pre-resonance conditions to image target molecules inside living cells with very high vibrational selectivity and sensitivity (down to 250 nanomolar with a time constant of 1 millisecond). We create a palette of triple-bond-conjugated near-infrared dyes that each displays a single peak in the cell-silent Raman spectral window; when combined with available fluorescent probes, this palette provides 24 resolvable colours, with the potential for further expansion. Proof-of-principle experiments on neuronal co-cultures and brain tissues reveal cell-type-dependent heterogeneities in DNA and protein metabolism under physiological and pathological conditions, underscoring the

  20. Pickin’ up good vibrations

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony


    In preparation for the civil engineering work on the HL-LHC, vibration measurements were carried out at the LHC’s Point 1 last month. These measurements will help evaluate how civil engineering work could impact the beam, and will provide crucial details about the site’s geological make-up before construction begins.   A seismic truck at Point 1 generated wave-like vibrations measured by EN/MME. From carrying out R&D to produce state-of-the-art magnets to developing innovative, robust materials capable of withstanding beam impact, the HL-LHC is a multi-faceted project involving many groups and teams across CERN’s departments. It was in this framework that the project management mandated CERN's Mechanical and Materials Engineering (EN/MME) group to measure the propagation of vibrations around Point 1. Their question: can civil engineering work for the HL-LHC – the bulk of which is scheduled for LS2 – begin while the LHC is running? Alth...

  1. Vibrational stability of graphene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangfan Hu


    Full Text Available The mechanical stability of graphene as temperature rises is analyzed based on three different self-consistent phonon (SCP models. Compared with three-dimensional (3-D materials, the critical temperature Ti at which instability occurs for graphene is much closer to its melting temperature Tm obtained from Monte Carlo simulation (Ti ≃ 2Tm, K. V. Zakharchenko, A. Fasolino, J. H. Los, and M. I. Katsnelson, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 23, 202202. This suggests that thermal vibration plays a significant role in melting of graphene while melting for 3-D materials is often dominated by topologic defects. This peculiar property of graphene derives from its high structural anisotropy, which is characterized by the vibrational anisotropic coefficient (VAC, defined upon its Lindermann ratios in different directions. For any carbon based material with a graphene-like structure, the VAC value must be smaller than 5.4 to maintain its stability. It is also found that the high VAC value of graphene is responsible for its negative thermal expansion coefficient at low temperature range. We believe that the VAC can be regarded as a new criterion concerning the vibrational stability of any low-dimensional (low-D materials.

  2. Transnational activities and aspirations of irregular migrants in Belgium and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. van Meeteren (Masja)


    textabstractThe literature on immigrant transnationalism and on irregular immigration suggests irregular migrants engage relatively little in transnational activities because of the obstacles associated with their legal and economic statuses. Drawing on participant observation and in-depth

  3. Irregular analytical errors in diagnostic testing - a novel concept. (United States)

    Vogeser, Michael; Seger, Christoph


    In laboratory medicine, routine periodic analyses for internal and external quality control measurements interpreted by statistical methods are mandatory for batch clearance. Data analysis of these process-oriented measurements allows for insight into random analytical variation and systematic calibration bias over time. However, in such a setting, any individual sample is not under individual quality control. The quality control measurements act only at the batch level. Quantitative or qualitative data derived for many effects and interferences associated with an individual diagnostic sample can compromise any analyte. It is obvious that a process for a quality-control-sample-based approach of quality assurance is not sensitive to such errors. To address the potential causes and nature of such analytical interference in individual samples more systematically, we suggest the introduction of a new term called the irregular (individual) analytical error. Practically, this term can be applied in any analytical assay that is traceable to a reference measurement system. For an individual sample an irregular analytical error is defined as an inaccuracy (which is the deviation from a reference measurement procedure result) of a test result that is so high it cannot be explained by measurement uncertainty of the utilized routine assay operating within the accepted limitations of the associated process quality control measurements. The deviation can be defined as the linear combination of the process measurement uncertainty and the method bias for the reference measurement system. Such errors should be coined irregular analytical errors of the individual sample. The measurement result is compromised either by an irregular effect associated with the individual composition (matrix) of the sample or an individual single sample associated processing error in the analytical process. Currently, the availability of reference measurement procedures is still highly limited, but LC

  4. Black rain: The burial of the Galilean satellites in irregular satellite debris (United States)

    Bottke, William F.; Vokrouhlický, David; Nesvorný, David; Moore, Jeffrey M.


    Irregular satellites are dormant comet-like bodies that reside on distant prograde and retrograde orbits around the giant planets. They are likely to be captured objects. Dynamical modeling work indicates they may have been caught during a violent reshuffling of the giant planets ˜4 Gy ago (Ga) as described by the so-called Nice model. According to this scenario, giant planet migration scattered tens of Earth masses of comet-like bodies throughout the Solar System, with some comets finding themselves near giant planets experiencing mutual encounters. In these cases, gravitational perturbations between the giant planets were often sufficient to capture the comet-like bodies onto irregular satellite-like orbits via three-body reactions. Modeling work suggests these events led to the capture of on the order of ˜0.001 lunar masses of comet-like objects on isotropic orbits around the giant planets. Roughly half of the population was readily lost by interactions with the Kozai resonance. The remaining half found themselves on orbits consistent with the known irregular satellites. From there, the bodies experienced substantial collisional evolution, enough to grind themselves down to their current low-mass states. Here we explore the fate of the putative irregular satellite debris in the Jupiter system. Pulverized by collisions, we hypothesize that the carbonaceous chondrite-like material was beaten into small enough particles that it could be driven toward Jupiter by Poynting-Robertson (P-R) drag forces. Assuming its mass distribution was dominated by D > 50 μm particles, we find that >40% ended up striking the Galilean satellites. The majority were swept up by Callisto, with a factor of 3-4 and 20-30 fewer particles reaching Ganymede and Europa/Io, respectively. Collision evolution models indicate most of this material arrived about 4 Ga, but some is still arriving today. We predict that Callisto, Ganymede, Europa, and Io were buried about 4 Ga by ˜120-140 m, 25

  5. Study of Track Irregularity Time Series Calibration and Variation Pattern at Unit Section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaolong Jia


    Full Text Available Focusing on problems existing in track irregularity time series data quality, this paper first presents abnormal data identification, data offset correction algorithm, local outlier data identification, and noise cancellation algorithms. And then proposes track irregularity time series decomposition and reconstruction through the wavelet decomposition and reconstruction approach. Finally, the patterns and features of track irregularity standard deviation data sequence in unit sections are studied, and the changing trend of track irregularity time series is discovered and described.

  6. A Coupling Vibration Test Bench and the Simulation Research of a Maglev Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weihua Ma


    Full Text Available To study the characteristics of the coupling vibration between a maglev vehicle and its track beam system and to improve the performance of the levitation system, a new type of vibration test bench was developed. Take a single maglev frame as the study object; simulation of the coupling vibration of the maglev vehicle, levitation system, and track beam were achieved. In addition, all types of real track irregularity excitations can be simulated using hydraulic actuators of the test bench. To expand the research scope, a simulation model was developed that can conduct the simulation research synergistically with the test bench. Based on a dynamics model of the test bench, the dynamics simulation method determined the influence on the levitation control performance of three factors: the track beam support stiffness, the track beam mass, and the track irregularity. The vibration resonance phenomenon of the vehicle/track system was reproduced by the dynamics simulation, and a portion of the simulation results were validated by the test results. By combining the test bench and the dynamics model, experiments can be guided by the simulation results, and the experimental results can validate the dynamics simulation results.

  7. 48 CFR 14.405 - Minor informalities or irregularities in bids. (United States)


    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Minor informalities or... Minor informalities or irregularities in bids. A minor informality or irregularity is one that is merely... cure any deficiency resulting from a minor informality or irregularity in a bid or waive the deficiency...

  8. Ionospheric Irregularities Predictions and Plumes Characterization for Satellite Data Validation and Calibration (United States)


    AFRL-OSR-VA-TR-2014-0082 IONOSPHERIC IRREGULARITIES PREDICTIONS AND PLUMES CHARACTERIZATION FOR SATELLITE Eurico De Paula FUNCATE - FUNDACACAO DE... Ionospheric Irregularities Predictions and Plumes Characterization for Satellite Data Validation and Calibration 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER... Ionospheric Irregularities Predictions and Plumes Characterization for Satellite Data Validation and Calibration 5b. GRANT NUMBER FA9550-10-1-0564


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smirnov Vladimir Alexandrovich


    Full Text Available The article deals with the probability analysis for a vibration isolation system of high-precision equipment, which is extremely sensitive to low-frequency oscillations even of submicron amplitude. The external sources of low-frequency vibrations may include the natural city background or internal low-frequency sources inside buildings (pedestrian activity, HVAC. Taking Gauss distribution into account, the author estimates the probability of the relative displacement of the isolated mass being still lower than the vibration criteria. This problem is being solved in the three dimensional space, evolved by the system parameters, including damping and natural frequency. According to this probability distribution, the chance of exceeding the vibration criteria for a vibration isolation system is evaluated. Optimal system parameters - damping and natural frequency - are being developed, thus the possibility of exceeding vibration criteria VC-E and VC-D is assumed to be less than 0.04.

  10. Random vibrations theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Wirsching, Paul H; Ortiz, Keith


    Random Vibrations: Theory and Practice covers the theory and analysis of mechanical and structural systems undergoing random oscillations due to any number of phenomena— from engine noise, turbulent flow, and acoustic noise to wind, ocean waves, earthquakes, and rough pavement. For systems operating in such environments, a random vibration analysis is essential to the safety and reliability of the system. By far the most comprehensive text available on random vibrations, Random Vibrations: Theory and Practice is designed for readers who are new to the subject as well as those who are familiar with the fundamentals and wish to study a particular topic or use the text as an authoritative reference. It is divided into three major sections: fundamental background, random vibration development and applications to design, and random signal analysis. Introductory chapters cover topics in probability, statistics, and random processes that prepare the reader for the development of the theory of random vibrations a...

  11. Optimización de la distribución de piezas irregulares en chapas // Irregular parts nesting problem optimization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Lastres - Aleaga


    Full Text Available ResumenEn el presente artículo se realiza un estudio de diferentes esquemas de solución reflejados en laliteratura, que tratan el problema de la distribución de piezas irregulares en superficies planas conanidamiento bidimensional (Nesting. Fueron analizados diferentes esquemas de solución, siendolos que consideran la geometría real de la pieza, durante la evaluación y posicionamiento de lasmismas sobre la superficie a cortar, los que garantizan el mayor aprovechamiento del material. Elesquema propuesto se caracteriza por un tratamiento gráfico de las piezas que permite acelerar elproceso de reconocimiento y evaluación de opciones de acoplamiento entre ellas, así como lacreación de poblaciones de conglomerados crecientes para su ubicación definitiva en la superficie acortar. En la generación de poblaciones de opciones de solución, se utiliza un algoritmo derivado delmétodo de Integración de Variables, además se realiza la comparación de los resultados obtenidospor el método propuesto, con otros resultados generados por procedimientos desarrollados pordiferentes autores, alcanzando mejorar los valores de aprovechamiento de material y la reduccióndel tiempo de generación de soluciones.Palabras claves: Distribución de piezas irregulares en superficies; optimización; Métodos Evolutivos;_________________________________________________________________________AbstractIn this article, we study various solution schemes reported in the literature, which deal with theproblem of irregular parts distribution on flat surfaces with two-dimensional nesting. Different solutionschemes were analyzed, which they consider to be the real geometry of the part, during theevaluation and positioning them on the surface to be cut, ensuring the best use of the material. Theproposed scheme is characterized by a graphic treatment of the pieces that can accelerate theprocess of recognition and evaluation of options coupling between them, as well as

  12. Fractal Theory and Contact Dynamics Modeling Vibration Characteristics of Damping Blade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruishan Yuan


    Full Text Available The contact surface structure of dry friction damper is complicate, irregular, and self-similar. In this paper, contact surface structure is described with the fractal theory and damping blade is simplified as 2-DOF cantilever beam model with lumped masses. By changing the position of the damper, lacing and shroud structure are separately simulated to study vibration absorption effect of damping blade. The results show that both shroud structure and lacing could not only dissipate energy but also change stiffness of blade. Under the same condition of normal pressure and contact surface, the damping effect of lacing is stronger than that of shroud structure. Meanwhile, the effect on changing blade stiffness of shroud structure is stronger than that of lacing. This paper proposed that there is at least one position of the blade, at which the damper dissipates the most vibration energy during a vibration cycle.

  13. Analysis of Vibrations Generated by the Presence of Corrugation in a Modeled Tram Track

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia I. Real Herráiz


    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been a significant increase in the development of the railway system. Despite the huge benefits of railways, one of the main drawbacks of this mode of transport is vibrations caused by vehicles in service, especially in the case of trams circulating in urban areas. Moreover, this undesirable phenomenon may be exacerbated by the presence of irregularities in the rail-wheel contact. Thus, an analytical model able to reproduce the vibrational behavior of a real stretch of tram track was implemented. Besides, a simulation of different types of corrugation was carried out by calculating in an auxiliary model the dynamic overloads generated by corrugation. These dynamic overloads fed the main model to obtain the vibrations generated and then transmitted to the track.

  14. Vibration-rotation energy pattern in acetylene: 13CH12CH up to 6750 cm-1. (United States)

    Fayt, A; Robert, S; Di Lonardo, G; Fusina, L; Tamassia, F; Herman, M


    All known vibration-rotation absorption lines of 13CH12CH accessing levels up to 6750 cm-1 were gathered from the literature. They were fitted simultaneously to J-dependent Hamiltonian matrices exploiting the well known vibrational polyad or cluster block diagonalization, in terms of the pseudo-quantum-numbers Ns=v1+v2+v3 and Nr=5v1+3v2+5v3+v4+v5, and accounting also for l parity and ef symmetry properties. The anharmonic interaction coupling terms known to occur from a pure vibrational fit in this acetylene isotopologue [Robert et al., J. Chem. Phys. 123, 174302 (2005)] were included in the model. A total of 12 703 transitions accessing 158 different (v1v2v3v4v5,l4l5) vibrational states was fitted with a dimensionless standard deviation of 0.99, leading to the determination of 216 vibration-rotation parameters. The experimental data included very weak vibration-rotation transitions accessing 18 previously unreported states, some of them forming Q branches with very irregular patterns.

  15. Kilometer-Spaced GNSS Array for Ionospheric Irregularity Monitoring (United States)

    Su, Yang

    This dissertation presents automated, systematic data collection, processing, and analysis methods for studying the spatial-temporal properties of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) scintillations produced by ionospheric irregularities at high latitudes using a closely spaced multi-receiver array deployed in the northern auroral zone. The main contributions include 1) automated scintillation monitoring, 2) estimation of drift and anisotropy of the irregularities, 3) error analysis of the drift estimates, and 4) multi-instrument study of the ionosphere. A radio wave propagating through the ionosphere, consisting of ionized plasma, may suffer from rapid signal amplitude and/or phase fluctuations known as scintillation. Caused by non-uniform structures in the ionosphere, intense scintillation can lead to GNSS navigation and high-frequency (HF) communication failures. With specialized GNSS receivers, scintillation can be studied to better understand the structure and dynamics of the ionospheric irregularities, which can be parameterized by altitude, drift motion, anisotropy of the shape, horizontal spatial extent and their time evolution. To study the structuring and motion of ionospheric irregularities at the sub-kilometer scale sizes that produce L-band scintillations, a closely-spaced GNSS array has been established in the auroral zone at Poker Flat Research Range, Alaska to investigate high latitude scintillation and irregularities. Routinely collecting low-rate scintillation statistics, the array database also provides 100 Hz power and phase data for each channel at L1/L2C frequency. In this work, a survey of seasonal and hourly dependence of L1 scintillation events over the course of a year is discussed. To efficiently and systematically study scintillation events, an automated low-rate scintillation detection routine is established and performed for each day by screening the phase scintillation index. The spaced-receiver technique is applied to cross

  16. [Irregular secretion of prolactin in infertile women with normoprolactinemic galactorrhea]. (United States)

    Villanueva Díaz, Carlos A; Echavarria Sánchez, Mirna; Juárez Bengoa, Armando


    Abnormal frequency and pulse amplitud of prolactin secretion in micro and macroprolactinomas has been atributed to a dysfunctional tumoral lactotrope. Previous evidence suggests that non tumoral hyperprolactinemia is caused by a hypothalamic dysfunction. The regularity of prolactin secretion has not been studied with cuantitative methods in patients with normoprolactinemic galactorrhea (NPG) which could be considered an entity that precedes non tumoral and tumoral hyperprolactinemia. To analyze the 24-hour prolactin secretion pattern and its secretion regularity in a group of infertile women with normoprolactinemic galatorea. A transversal-comparative study was carried out in 6 infertile women with normoprolactinemic galactorrhea and 4 healthy women as controls. The 24 hour prolactin profile, the ratio night time mean concentration/daytime mean concentrattion (NM/DM ratio) and apparent entropy (Ap En, Ap En ratio) were compared in the two groups. Blunting of the nyctohemeral rythm and nocturn hyperprolactinaemia occurred in patients with normoprolactinemic galactorrhea (NPG). NM/DM ratio was lower in patients with NPG than in controls (1.28 +/- 0.25 vs. 1.75 +/- 0.05; p= 0.01). Higher irregularity of prolactin secretion was found in patients with NPG (ApEn: 0.853 +/- 0.158 vs 0.608 +/- 0.171, p=0.04; Ap En ratio: 0.839 +/- 0.11 vs 0.661 +/- 0.14; p=0.04). The irregularity of prolactin secretion in patients with NPG is not dependant on the presence of a pituitary tumour which suggests that a hypothalamic dysfunction underlies this condition. An irregular secretion and a higher daily mass production of prolactin in patients with NPG could explain both galactorrhea and infertility.

  17. Chaotic vortex induced vibrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, J.; Sheridan, J. [Fluids Laboratory for Aeronautical and Industrial Research (FLAIR), Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Leontini, J. S. [Department of Mechanical and Product Design Engineering, Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn, Victoria 3122 (Australia); Lo Jacono, D. [Institut de Mécanique des Fluides de Toulouse (IMFT), CNRS, UPS and Université de Toulouse, 31400 Toulouse (France)


    This study investigates the nature of the dynamic response of an elastically mounted cylinder immersed in a free stream. A novel method is utilized, where the motion of the body during a free vibration experiment is accurately recorded, and then a second experiment is conducted where the cylinder is externally forced to follow this recorded trajectory. Generally, the flow response during both experiments is identical. However, particular regimes exist where the flow response is significantly different. This is taken as evidence of chaos in these regimes.

  18. Lattice Vibrations in Chlorobenzenes:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reynolds, P. A.; Kjems, Jørgen; White, J. W.


    Lattice vibrational dispersion curves for the ``intermolecular'' modes in the triclinic, one molecule per unit cell β phase of p‐C6D4Cl2 and p‐C6H4Cl2 have been obtained by inelastic neutron scattering. The deuterated sample was investigated at 295 and at 90°K and a linear extrapolation to 0°K...... was applied in order to correct for anharmonic effects. Calculations based on the atom‐atom model for van der Waals' interaction and on general potential parameters for the aromatic compounds agree reasonably well with the experimental observations. There is no substantial improvement in fit obtained either...

  19. Slow Drift-Oscillations of a Ship in Irregular Waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odd M. Faltinsen


    Full Text Available A procedure to calculate horizontal slow drift excitation forces on an infinitely long horizontal cylinder in irregular beam sea waves is presented. The hydrodynamic boundary-value problem is solved correctly to second order in wave amplitude. Results in the form of second order transfer functions are presented for different, two-dimensional shapes. It is concluded that Newman's approximative method is a practical way to calculate slow drift excitation forces on a ship in beam sea and it is suggested that it may be used in a more general case. Applications of the results for moored ships are discussed.

  20. Irregular oscillations of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (United States)

    Macayeal, Douglas R.


    Model simulations of the West Antarctic ice sheet suggest that sporadic, perhaps chaotic, collapse (complete mobilization) of the ice sheet occurred throughout the past one million years. The irregular behavior is due to the slow equilibration time of the distribution of basal till, which lubricates ice-sheet motion. This nonlinear response means that predictions of future collapse of the ice sheet in response to global warming must take into account its past history, and in particular, whether the present basal till distribution predisposes the ice sheet towards rapid change.

  1. TCM Treatment for Gynaecological Diseases-Irregular Menstruation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Engin CAN


    @@ Menstruation is the periodic shedding(usually monthly)of the lining of the womb.Generally speaking,menstruation starts during puberty around 10-16 years old and continues until the menopause about 45-55 years old.An average menstrual cycle is about 28 days,but it may vary between 24-35 days.According to a study most women have more than 500 periods in a lifetime.Any abnormality of the above menstrual conditins can be regarded as irregular.

  2. Method for Achieving Irregular Boundary Area for Complete Fluidic Sprinkler (United States)

    Liu, Junping; Yuan, Shouqi; Li, Hong; Zhu, Xingye

    For resolving the problem of sprinkle repeated, overtaken and went beyond in irrigation, it is important to research the approach of irregular boundary area. The equation of range and flow for achieving the square and triangle spray were deduced. Pressure is proportional to range. Specific method of changing the sectional area was put forward for achieving square and triangle spray. Adopted MATLAB language editor to analyzing the theoretical relation and emulate for achieving square and triangle spray. The experiments of theory pressure were carried out. The results showed that the experimental value were consistent with the theoretical value.

  3. Ionospheric wave and irregularity measurements using passive radio astronomy techniques (United States)

    Erickson, W. C.; Mahoney, M. J.; Jacobson, A. R.; Knowles, S. H.


    The observation of midlatitude structures using passive radio astronomy techniques is discussed, with particular attention being given to the low-frequency radio telescope at the Clark Lake Radio Observatory. The present telescope operates in the 10-125-MHz frequency range. Observations of the ionosphere at separations of a few kilometers to a few hundreds of kilometers by the lines of sight to sources are possible, allowing the determination of the amplitude, wavelength, direction of propagation, and propagation speed of ionospheric waves. Data are considered on large-scale ionospheric gradients and the two-dimensional shapes and sizes of ionospheric irregularities.

  4. Experimental studies of ionospheric irregularities and related plasma processes (United States)

    Baker, Kay D.


    Utah State University (USU) continued its program of measuring and interpreting electron density and its variations in a variety of ionospheric conditions with the Experimental Studies of Ionospheric Irregularities and Related Plasma Processes program. The program represented a nearly ten year effort to provide key measurements of electron density and its fluctuations using sounding rockets. The program also involved the joint interpretation of the results in terms of ionospheric processes. A complete campaign summary and a brief description of the major rocket campaigns are also included.

  5. Third-order theory for multi-directional irregular waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Per A.; Fuhrman, David R.


    A new third-order solution for multi-directional irregular water waves in finite water depth is presented. The solution includes explicit expressions for the surface elevation, the amplitude dispersion and the vertical variation of the velocity potential. Expressions for the velocity potential...... breaks down due to singularities in the transfer functions. We analyse harmonic resonance for the case of a monochromatic short-crested wave interacting with a plane wave having a different frequency, and make long-term simulations with a high-order Boussinesq formulation in order to study the evolution...... of wave trains exposed to harmonic resonance....

  6. On 11 cm Irregularities During Equatorial Spread F. (United States)


    experimental results is that these irregularities were only observed at high altitudes (- 500 km). During the rocket flight , which occurred subsequent to the...S SCY ATT NICD LIBRMRY SKCY ATTN COE 41 SICY ATTN ETOP B. LL 0ICY ATTN CODE 402 S1C ATTN COE 420 CowV90 SKY ATTN CDE 4.21 ROlE AIR DEMOPHM CENWTE, UC...FARLEY OR. M. KELLEY DR. M. BLEIWEISS CR. I. ROTIMALER on. V. HILDEBRND NASA MR. R. ROSE GOODARD SPACE FLIGHT CENTER GREENELT, MARYLAIN 20771 U. S. RY

  7. Irregular Migration - between legal status and social practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund Thomsen, Trine


    Arnfinn H. and Rogstad, Jon 2.Book reviews by null 3.INVISIBLE IMMIGRANTS, VISIBLE EXPATS? Americans in Finnish discourses on immigration and internationalization by Leinonen, Johanna 4.Migrants in the Scandinavian Welfare State by Brochmann, Grete and Hagelund, Anniken 5.TOWARD AN IDENTITY STRESS....... Language and religious affiliations of an immigrant adolescent in Norway by Haque, Shahzaman View Top 20 Most Downloaded Articles Previous Article Next Article Go to table of contents Download full text pdf (PDF, 425 KB) Irregular Migration – Between Legal Status and Social Practices Narratives of Polish...

  8. Quantum dynamics of vibrational excitations and vibrational charge ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Quantum dynamics of vibrational excitations and vibrational charge transfer processes in H+ + O2 collisions at collision energy 23 eV ... The Fritz Haber Research Centre and The Department of Physical Chemisry, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem, Israel 91904; Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of ...

  9. On the Existence of Regular and Irregular Outer Moons Orbiting the Pluto–Charon System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michaely, Erez; Perets, Hagai B.; Grishin, Evgeni [Physics Department, Technion—Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 3200004 (Israel)


    The dwarf planet Pluto is known to host an extended system of five co-planar satellites. Previous studies have explored the formation and evolution of the system in isolation, neglecting perturbative effects by the Sun. Here we show that secular evolution due to the Sun can strongly affect the evolution of outer satellites and rings in the system, if such exist. Although precession due to extended gravitational potential from the inner Pluto–Charon binary quench such secular evolution up to a {sub crit} ∼ 0.0035 au (∼0.09 R {sub Hill} the Hill radius; including all of the currently known satellites), outer orbits can be significantly altered. In particular, we find that co-planar rings and satellites should not exist beyond a {sub crit}; rather, satellites and dust particles in these regions secularly evolve on timescales ranging between 10{sup 4} and 10{sup 6} years, and quasi-periodically change their inclinations and eccentricities through secular evolution (Lidov–Kozai oscillations). Such oscillations can lead to high inclinations and eccentricities, constraining the range where such satellites (and dust particles) can exist without crossing the orbits of the inner satellites or crossing the outer Hill stability range. Outer satellites, if such exist are therefore likely to be irregular satellites, with orbits limited to be non-circular and/or highly inclined. Current observations, including the recent data from the New-Horizons mission explored only inner regions (<0.0012 au) and excluded the existence of additional satellites; however, the irregular satellites discussed here should reside farther, in the yet uncharted regions around Pluto.

  10. In situ measurements of the spectral characteristics of F region ionospheric irregularities (United States)

    Dyson, P. L.; Mcclure, J. P.; Hanson, W. B.


    The retarding potential analyzer aboard Ogo 6 has provided high-resolution observations of the ion concentration along the satellite path. Changes in ion concentration as small as 0.03% and at times as small as 0.01% could be measured. Spatial resolution varied from 35 to 380 m. Samples of data have been analyzed to determine the spectral properties of the F region irregularities observed. The most common frequency spectrum observed suggests that the responsible irregularities result from the turbulent dissipation of larger irregularities. At the equator, the larger irregularities are probably produced by convective electric fields. At high latitudes, electric fields may also be involved, but other factors such as precipitating particles may contribute to, or be primarily responsible for, the production of large irregularities. Examples of other types of spectra associated with wavelike irregularities and with 'ground glass' (high-frequency noise) irregularities are also shown.

  11. A catalog of ionospheric F region irregularity behavior based on Ogo 6 retarding potential analyzer data (United States)

    Mcclure, J. P.; Hanson, W. B.


    Review of in situ data obtained with the aid of the retarding potential analyzer on board Ogo 6 which reveal the nature of ionospheric irregularities in the total ion concentration above 400 km. Except for the high-latitude regions, the ionosphere is usually observed to be very smooth in the daytime, but considerable structure is observed at night, particularly near the equator and at Atlantic longitudes. Although most of the irregularities observed appear to be stochastic in nature, many nearly monochromatic waveforms are observed near the equator. The topics discussed include the midlatitude scintillation boundary, large-amplitude equatorial irregularities, the fluctuation spectrum of typical F-region irregularities, the lower edge of the equatorial F region, sinusoidal waveforms, ground glass irregularities, breaking wave irregularities, and regions of smooth and irregular ionization inside the polar cap.

  12. Human Rights of Irregular Immigrants: A Challenge for the Universality of Human Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luljeta Ikonomi


    Full Text Available Irregular immigration is a phenomenon with a substantial impact for the majority of the countries. The paper analyses whether there is an adequate human rights framework for protection of irregular immigrants or whether the irregular status exempts the migrants from the protection of international human rights law. If this is the case, then the human rights universality has failed. The paper takes into consideration the developments in the International and EU Law, as well as in the jurisprudence of the international tribunals regarding protection of irregular immigrants. It is divided into three main sections. The first section informs briefly on the dynamics of irregular immigrants; the second section analyses the legislation on irregular immigration from the perspective of the state sovereignty, the third section analyses the human rights law and the protection it affords to irregular immigrants, pursuant to the interpretation of International tribunals.

  13. Literature survey on anti-vibration gloves

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sampson, E


    Full Text Available ............................................................................................................... 1 2. HAND ARM VIBRATION SYNDROME (HAVS).......................................................... 2 2.1 Hand-arm vibration................................................. Error! Bookmark not defined. 2.2 Human Response to vibration...

  14. Induced vibrations facilitate traversal of cluttered obstacles (United States)

    Thoms, George; Yu, Siyuan; Kang, Yucheng; Li, Chen

    When negotiating cluttered terrains such as grass-like beams, cockroaches and legged robots with rounded body shapes most often rolled their bodies to traverse narrow gaps between beams. Recent locomotion energy landscape modeling suggests that this locomotor pathway overcomes the lowest potential energy barriers. Here, we tested the hypothesis that body vibrations induced by intermittent leg-ground contact facilitate obstacle traversal by allowing exploration of locomotion energy landscape to find this lowest barrier pathway. To mimic a cockroach / legged robot pushing against two adjacent blades of grass, we developed an automated robotic system to move an ellipsoidal body into two adjacent beams, and varied body vibrations by controlling an oscillation actuator. A novel gyroscope mechanism allowed the body to freely rotate in response to interaction with the beams, and an IMU and cameras recorded the motion of the body and beams. We discovered that body vibrations facilitated body rolling, significantly increasing traversal probability and reducing traversal time (P probability increased with and traversal time decreased with beam separation. These results confirmed our hypothesis and support the plausibility of locomotion energy landscapes for understanding the formation of locomotor pathways in complex 3-D terrains.

  15. High Resolution Spectral Analysis for Irregularly Sampled Helioseismic Data (United States)

    Seghouani, N.


    Astronomical ground based data are very often irregularly sampled due to many factors such as: diurnal effect, weather conditions, etc. The analysis of such data cannot be performed with classical tools (such as periodigram) and new adapted methods are required. After presenting some of these techniques, we will focus on a regularized approach of the spectral analysis problem, which gives very good results in the case of band limited and narrow peaks spectrum. We will also show that with this approach we can achieve high-resolution spectra. Indeed, in classical Fourier analysis, spectral resolution is inversely proportional to the observation time T. Considering the spectral analysis problem as an inverse problem and introducing the “a priori” knowledge of band limited and narrow peak spectrum, this limit (1/T) can be exceeded and thus we can achieve highly resolved spectra, even with irregularly sampled data. This technique will be first applied to relevant simulated data, then to helioseismic data. Additional talk: “Brief description of solar projects in Algiers Observatory” A brief description of all projects developed in our department and that are related to the sun: helioseismology, solar data analysis (pipelines description), solar activity, VLF project, solar astrolabe (for solar diameter measurement), site testing for day-time observations, and the project of solar observatory in the Tamanrasset area.

  16. Colombia: la guerra irregular en el fin de siglo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available RESUMEN: El artículo analiza las transformaciones de la guerra irregular de las guerrillas colombianas en las últimas décadas. Para ello, se estudian los cambios que han afectado a distintos factores, como los objetivos estratégicos, los medios financieros, militares, las relaciones que mantienen con los partidos políticos tradicionales en el nivel local, sus parámetros ideológicos, el origen social de sus miembros. Con esta perspectiva, se analiza el cálculo político/temporal que la guerrilla hace en la actual coyuntura y sus consecuencias para el proceso de paz.ABSTRACT: This article examines the transformations of the irregular war of the colombian guerrillas, studying the changes of several factors such as the strategic goals, the financial and army resources, the relationship among the political parties in the local level, the evolution of their ideological parameters and of the social origin of their members. With this perspectiva, the author analyses temporal and political calculation that the guerrilla makes at this point, and its consequences for the peace process.

  17. Using Radio Irregularity for Increasing Residential Energy Awareness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Miljković


    Full Text Available Radio irregularity phenomenon is often considered as a shortcoming of wireless networks. In this paper, the method of using radio irregularity as an efficient human presence detection sensor in smart homes is presented. The method is mainly based on monitoring variations of the received signal strength indicator (RSSI within the messages used for the communication between wireless smart power outlets. The radio signals used for the inter-outlets communication can be absorbed, diffracted or reflected by objects in their propagation paths. When a human enters the existing radio communication field, the variation of the signal strength at the receiver is even more expressed. Based on the detected changes and compared to the initial thresholds set during the initialization phase, the system detects human presence. The proposed solution increases user awareness and automates the power control in households, with the primary goal to contribute in residential energy savings. Compared to conventional sensor networks, this approach preserves the sensorial intelligence, simplicity and low installation costs, without the need for additional sensors integration.

  18. Inventory Management for Irregular Shipment of Goods in Distribution Centre (United States)

    Takeda, Hitoshi; Kitaoka, Masatoshi; Usuki, Jun


    The shipping amount of commodity goods (Foods, confectionery, dairy products, such as public cosmetic pharmaceutical products) changes irregularly at the distribution center dealing with the general consumer goods. Because the shipment time and the amount of the shipment are irregular, the demand forecast becomes very difficult. For this, the inventory control becomes difficult, too. It cannot be applied to the shipment of the commodity by the conventional inventory control methods. This paper proposes the method for inventory control by cumulative flow curve method. It proposed the method of deciding the order quantity of the inventory control by the cumulative flow curve. Here, it proposes three methods. 1) Power method,2) Polynomial method and 3)Revised Holt's linear method that forecasts data with trends that is a kind of exponential smoothing method. This paper compares the economics of the conventional method, which is managed by the experienced and three new proposed methods. And, the effectiveness of the proposal method is verified from the numerical calculations.

  19. Principal Components Analysis of Triaxial Vibration Data From Helicopter Transmissions (United States)

    Tumer, Irem Y.; Huff, Edward M.


    Research on the nature of the vibration data collected from helicopter transmissions during flight experiments has led to several crucial observations believed to be responsible for the high rates of false alarms and missed detections in aircraft vibration monitoring systems. This work focuses on one such finding, namely, the need to consider additional sources of information about system vibrations. In this light, helicopter transmission vibration data, collected using triaxial accelerometers, were explored in three different directions, analyzed for content, and then combined using Principal Components Analysis (PCA) to analyze changes in directionality. In this paper, the PCA transformation is applied to 176 test conditions/data sets collected from an OH58C helicopter to derive the overall experiment-wide covariance matrix and its principal eigenvectors. The experiment-wide eigenvectors. are then projected onto the individual test conditions to evaluate changes and similarities in their directionality based on the various experimental factors. The paper will present the foundations of the proposed approach, addressing the question of whether experiment-wide eigenvectors accurately model the vibration modes in individual test conditions. The results will further determine the value of using directionality and triaxial accelerometers for vibration monitoring and anomaly detection.

  20. Vibrational Sensing in Marine Invertebrates (United States)


    VIBRATIONAL SENSING IN MARINE INVERTEBRATES Peter A. Jumars School of Oceanography University of Washington Box 357940 Seattle, WA 98195-7940 (206...DATES COVERED 00-00-1997 to 00-00-1997 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Vibrational Sensing in Marine Invertebrates 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER

  1. Vibrations and Stability: Solved Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jon Juel

    Worked out solutions for exercise problems in J. J. Thomsen 'Vibrations and Stability: Advanced Theory, Analysis, and Tools', Springer, Berlin - Heidelberg, 2003.......Worked out solutions for exercise problems in J. J. Thomsen 'Vibrations and Stability: Advanced Theory, Analysis, and Tools', Springer, Berlin - Heidelberg, 2003....

  2. Poincaré surfaces of section around a 3D irregular body: the case of asteroid 4179 Toutatis (United States)

    Borderes-Motta, G.; Winter, O. C.


    In general, small bodies of the Solar system, e.g. asteroids and comets, have a very irregular shape. This feature affects significantly the gravitational potential around these irregular bodies, which hinders dynamical studies. The Poincaré surface of section technique is often used to look for stable and chaotic regions in two-dimensional dynamic cases. In this work, we show that this tool can be useful for exploring the surroundings of irregular bodies such as the asteroid 4179 Toutatis. Considering a rotating system with a particle, under the effect of the gravitational field computed three dimensionally, we define a plane in the phase space to build the Poincaré surface of section. Despite the extra dimension, the sections created allow us to find trajectories and classify their stabilities. Thus, we have also been able to map stable and chaotic regions, as well as to find correlations between those regions and the contribution of the third dimension of the system to the trajectory dynamics as well. As examples, we show details of periodic (resonant or not) and quasi-periodic trajectories.

  3. Nonfeed application of rendered animal proteins for microbial production of eicosapentaenoic acid by the fungus Pythium irregulare. (United States)

    Liang, Yi; Garcia, Rafael A; Piazza, George J; Wen, Zhiyou


    Rendered animal proteins are well suited for animal nutrition applications, but the market is maturing, and there is a need to develop new uses for these products. The objective of this study is to explore the possibility of using animal proteins as a nutrient source for microbial production of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids by the microalga Schizochytrium limacinum and the fungus Pythium irregulare. To be absorbed by the microorganisms, the proteins needed to be hydrolyzed into small peptides and free amino acids. The utility of the protein hydrolysates for microorganisms depended on the hydrolysis method used and the type of microorganism. The enzymatic hydrolysates supported better cell growth performance than the alkali hydrolysates did. P. irregulare displayed better overall growth performance on the experimental hydrolysates compared to S. limacinum. When P. irregulare was grown in medium containing 10 g/L enzymatic hydrolysate derived from meat and bone meal or feather meal, the performance of cell growth, lipid synthesis, and omega-3 fatty acid production was comparable to the that of culture using commercial yeast extract. The fungal biomass derived from the animal proteins had 26-29% lipid, 32-34% protein, 34-39% carbohydrate, and animal protein by hydrolysis of the protein and feeding to industrial microorganisms which can produce omega-3 fatty acids for making omega-3-fortified foods or feeds.

  4. The origins of vibration theory (United States)

    Dimarogonas, A. D.


    The Ionian School of natural philosophy introduced the scientific method of dealing with natural phenomena and the rigorous proofs for abstract propositions. Vibration theory was initiated by the Pythagoreans in the fifth century BC, in association with the theory of music and the theory of acoustics. They observed the natural frequency of vibrating systems and proved that it is a system property and that it does not depend on the excitation. Pythagoreans determined the fundamental natural frequencies of several simple systems, such as vibrating strings, pipes, vessels and circular plates. Aristoteles and the Peripatetic School founded mechanics and developed a fundamental understanding of statics and dynamics. In Alexandrian times there were substantial engineering developments in the field of vibration. The pendulum as a vibration, and probably time, measuring device was known in antiquity, and was further developed by the end of the first millennium AD.

  5. Interventions for chronic low back pain: whole body vibration and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. This study explored, described and compared the effects of whole body vibration (WBV) therapy and conventional spinal stabilisation exercises in persons with chronic low back pain (CLBP). Design. A non-randomised sampling technique was used to delineate the base of volunteers gathered by a combination ...

  6. Manipulation of molecular vibrational motions via pure rotational excitations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shu, Chuan-Cun; Henriksen, Niels Engholm


    The coupling between different molecular degrees of freedom plays a decisive role in many quantum phenomena, including electron transfer and energy redistribution. Here, we demonstrate a quantum-mechanical time-dependent simulation to explore how a vibrational motion in a molecule can be affected...

  7. Gap junctional communication in osteocytes is amplified by low intensity vibrations in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunes Uzer

    Full Text Available The physical mechanism by which cells sense high-frequency mechanical signals of small magnitude is unknown. During exposure to vibrations, cell populations within a bone are subjected not only to acceleratory motions but also to fluid shear as a result of fluid-cell interactions. We explored displacements of the cell nucleus during exposure to vibrations with a finite element (FE model and tested in vitro whether vibrations can affect osteocyte communication independent of fluid shear. Osteocyte like MLO-Y4 cells were subjected to vibrations at acceleration magnitudes of 0.15 g and 1 g and frequencies of 30 Hz and 100 Hz. Gap junctional intracellular communication (GJIC in response to these four individual vibration regimes was investigated. The FE model demonstrated that vibration induced dynamic accelerations caused larger relative nuclear displacement than fluid shear. Across the four regimes, vibrations significantly increased GJIC between osteocytes by 25%. Enhanced GJIC was independent of vibration induced fluid shear; there were no differences in GJIC between the four different vibration regimes even though differences in fluid shear generated by the four regimes varied 23-fold. Vibration induced increases in GJIC were not associated with altered connexin 43 (Cx43 mRNA or protein levels, but were dependent on Akt activation. Combined, the in silico and in vitro experiments suggest that externally applied vibrations caused nuclear motions and that large differences in fluid shear did not influence nuclear motion (<1% or GJIC, perhaps indicating that vibration induced nuclear motions may directly increase GJIC. Whether the increase in GJIC is instrumental in modulating anabolic and anti-catabolic processes associated with the application of vibrations remains to be determined.

  8. Studying the influence of vibration exposures on digestives system of workers in a food processing company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available Introduction: Today’s, defective and faulty equipments lose a large part of them energy as noise and vibration which beside their financial costs can be hazardous to the health of people. Vibration as a physical agent can cause an adverse health effect on human to nervous system. These effects, based on body region can be as specific or general systems. Digestion system has a natural vibration of 3-8Hz frequency. When the digestive system is exposed by such vibration, it can make impairment on that system. This study aimed to study vibration effect on digestion irregularities. . Material and Method: This was a retrospective case-control study conducted in a food industry. The number of 103 workers digestive problem and 431 healthy workers were selected as population study. Exposure to the vibration in the different parts were measured. People with more than 100 dB was considered exposed group. Then, after determining the number of exposed and non exposed groups, data were analyzed using statistical methodologies. .Result: The acceleration level of vibration was 109.8 dB in the packing section, which was less than standard limit (118.8 dB. Study population had a managed of 24-57 years old with 4-15 years of job tenure. In 59.2% of case comparing to 22.7% of control group were exposed to the vibration. The odds ratio (OR of prevalence rate of digestive problem among exposed group was 6.3 times more than non exposed group people, in risk of gastrointestinal complications. .Conclusion: Beside of the other risk factors of digestive problem, vibration can be also an effective cause of adverse health problem: Even by lower level of digestive problem can be seen in the exposed people. So, we suggest in the workplace with vibration risk factor, a digestive health exam be take general medical beside periodic examination. Moreover, it is recommended that researches related to the vibration is widely developed and the vibration standard limits is revised

  9. Outside-in Shrinking of the Star-forming Disk of Dwarf Irregular Galaxies (United States)

    Zhang, Hong-Xin; Hunter, Deidre A.; Elmegreen, Bruce G.; Gao, Yu; Schruba, Andreas


    We have studied multi-band surface brightness profiles of a representative sample of 34 nearby dwarf irregular galaxies. Our data include Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) FUV/NUV, UBV, and Hα and Spitzer 3.6 μm images. These galaxies constitute the majority of the LITTLE THINGS survey (Local Irregulars That Trace Luminosity Extremes—The H I Nearby Galaxy Survey). By modeling the azimuthal averages of the spectral energy distributions with a complete library of star formation histories, we derived the stellar mass surface density distributions and the star formation rate averaged over three different timescales: the recent 0.1 Gyr, 1 Gyr, and a Hubble time. We find that, for ~80% (27 galaxies) of our sample galaxies, radial profiles (at least in the outer part) at shorter wavelengths, corresponding to younger stellar populations, have shorter disk scale lengths than those at longer wavelengths, corresponding to older stellar populations. This indicates that the star-forming disk has been shrinking. In addition, the radial distributions of the stellar mass surface density are well described as piece-wise exponential profiles, and ~80% of the galaxies have steeper mass profiles in the outer disk than in the inner region. The steep radial decline of the star formation rate in the outer parts compared to that in the inner disks gives a natural explanation for the down-bending stellar mass surface density profiles. Within the inner disks, our sample galaxies on average have constant ratios of recent star formation rate to stellar mass with radius. Nevertheless, ~35% (12 galaxies, among which 7 have baryonic mass lsim108 M ⊙) of the sample exhibit negative slopes across the observed disk, which is in contrast with the so-called inside-out disk growth scenario suggested for luminous spiral galaxies. The tendency of star formation to become concentrated toward the inner disks in low-mass dwarf irregular galaxies is interpreted as a result of their susceptibility to

  10. Vibration response of misaligned rotors (United States)

    Patel, Tejas H.; Darpe, Ashish K.


    Misalignment is one of the common faults observed in rotors. Effect of misalignment on vibration response of coupled rotors is investigated in the present study. The coupled rotor system is modelled using Timoshenko beam elements with all six dof. An experimental approach is proposed for the first time for determination of magnitude and harmonic nature of the misalignment excitation. Misalignment effect at coupling location of rotor FE model is simulated using nodal force vector. The force vector is found using misalignment coupling stiffness matrix, derived from experimental data and applied misalignment between the two rotors. Steady-state vibration response is studied for sub-critical speeds. Effect of the types of misalignment (parallel and angular) on the vibration behaviour of the coupled rotor is examined. Along with lateral vibrations, axial and torsional vibrations are also investigated and nature of the vibration response is also examined. It has been found that the misalignment couples vibrations in bending, longitudinal and torsional modes. Some diagnostic features in the fast Fourier transform (FFT) of torsional and longitudinal response related to parallel and angular misalignment have been revealed. Full spectra and orbit plots are effectively used to reveal the unique nature of misalignment fault leading to reliable misalignment diagnostic information, not clearly brought out by earlier studies.

  11. EEG frequency tagging to explore the cortical activity related to the tactile exploration of natural textures. (United States)

    Moungou, Athanasia; Thonnard, Jean-Louis; Mouraux, André


    When sliding our fingertip against a textured surface, complex vibrations are produced in the skin. It is increasingly recognised that the neural transduction and processing of these vibrations plays an important role in the dynamic tactile perception of textures. The aim of the present study was to develop a novel means to tag the cortical activity related to the processing of these vibrations, by periodically modulating the amplitude of texture exploration-induced vibrations such as to record a steady-state evoked potential (SS-EP). The EEG was recorded while the right index fingertip was scanned against four different textures using a constant exploration velocity. Amplitude modulation of the elicited vibrations was achieved by periodically modulating the force applied against the finger. Frequency analysis of the recorded EEG signals showed that modulation of the vibrations induced by the fingertip-texture interactions elicited an SS-EP at the frequency of modulation (3 Hz) as well as its second harmonic (6 Hz), maximal over parietal regions contralateral to the stimulated side. Textures generating stronger vibrations also generated SS-EPs of greater magnitude. Our results suggest that frequency tagging using SS-EPs can be used to isolate and explore the brain activity related to the tactile exploration of natural textures.

  12. Asymmetry and irregularity border as discrimination factor between melanocytic lesions (United States)

    Sbrissa, David; Pratavieira, Sebastião.; Salvio, Ana Gabriela; Kurachi, Cristina; Bagnato, Vanderlei Salvadori; Costa, Luciano Da Fontoura; Travieso, Gonzalo


    Image processing tools have been widely used in systems supporting medical diagnosis. The use of mobile devices for the diagnosis of melanoma can assist doctors and improve their diagnosis of a melanocytic lesion. This study proposes a method of image analysis for melanoma discrimination from other types of melanocytic lesions, such as regular and atypical nevi. The process is based on extracting features related with asymmetry and border irregularity. It were collected 104 images, from medical database of two years. The images were obtained with standard digital cameras without lighting and scale control. Metrics relating to the characteristics of shape, asymmetry and curvature of the contour were extracted from segmented images. Linear Discriminant Analysis was performed for dimensionality reduction and data visualization. Segmentation results showed good efficiency in the process, with approximately 88:5% accuracy. Validation results presents sensibility and specificity 85% and 70% for melanoma detection, respectively.

  13. Pesquisa de anticorpos irregulares: estudo retrospectivo entre 2007 e 2012


    Barradas, A; Barra, A; Cardoso, E; Costa, C; Ferreira, R; Pereira, F


    Introdução: A aloimunização depende não só da exposição do receptor a um antigénio estranho, mas também da imunogenicidade deste. A exposição a substâncias reconhecidas como não-próprias do organismo, como os antigénios eritrocitários, pode desencadear ativação do sistema imune com formação de anticorpos, destruindo os eritrócitos transfundidos e determinando assim o seu significado clínico. São designados por anticorpos irregulares ou aloanticorpos. Ocorrem em aproximadamente 0,3 a 2% da pop...

  14. The Full-fledged Dwarf Irregular Galaxy Leo A (United States)

    Vansevičius, Vladas; Arimoto, Nobuo; Hasegawa, Takashi; Ikuta, Chisato; Jablonka, Pascale; Narbutis, Donatas; Ohta, Kouji; Stonkutė, Rima; Tamura, Naoyuki; Vansevičius, Valdas; Yamada, Yoshihiko


    We have studied Leo A, an isolated and extremely gas-rich dwarf irregular galaxy of very low stellar mass and metallicity. Ages of the stellar populations in Leo A range from ~10 Myr to ~10 Gyr. Here we report the discovery of an old stellar halo and a sharp stellar edge. We also find that the distribution of stars extends beyond the gaseous envelope of the galaxy. Therefore, by its structure as well as stellar and gaseous content, Leo A is found to resemble massive disk galaxies. This implies that galaxies of very low stellar mass are also able to develop complex structures, challenging contemporary understanding of galaxy evolution. Based on data collected at the Subaru Telescope, which is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan.

  15. [Correction of irregular astigmatism with intracorneal ring segments]. (United States)

    Touboul, D; Pinsard, L; Mesplier, N; Smadja, D; Colin, J


    Management of irregular astigmatism with intracorneal rings segments is an intrastromal additive technique developed initially for myopia but eventually popularized for keratoconus and post LASIK ectasia. ICR's are indicated for rigid contact lens intolerance, as an alternative to corneal transplantation. The mechanism of action is complex and involves biomechanical changes leading to a centering and a flattening of the ectasia. The surgical procedure has become much easier thanks to the use of femtosecond lasers. Individualized implantation strategies, based on each patient's topographic and tomographic pattern, are constantly evolving. Patients' refraction and vision are usually improved in more than 70% of cases. Complications remain very rare. Intracorneal ring segments can often be combined with other types of keratoplasty, usually in a sequential fashion, so as to optimize functional results. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Global scale ionospheric irregularities associated with thunderstorm activity

    CERN Document Server

    Pulinets, S A


    The potential difference near 280 kV exists between ground and ionosphere. This potential difference is generated by thunderstorm discharges all over the world, and return current closes the circuit in the areas of fair weather (so-called fair weather current). The model calculations and experimental measurements clearly demonstrate non-uniform latitude-longitude distribution of electric field within the atmosphere. The recent calculations show that the strong large scale vertical atmospheric electric field can penetrate into the ionosphere and create large scale irregularities of the electron concentration. To check this the global distributions of thunderstorm activity obtained with the satellite monitoring for different seasons were compared with the global distributions of ionosphere critical frequency (which is equivalent to peak electron concentration) obtained with the help of satellite topside sounding. The similarity of the obtained global distributions clearly demonstrates the effects of thunderstor...

  17. Irregularities of ionospheric VTEC during lightning activity over Antarctic Peninsula (United States)

    Suparta, W.; Nor, W. N. A. Wan Mohd


    This paper investigates the irregularities of vertical total electron content (VTEC) during lightning activity and geomagnetic quiet days over Antarctic Peninsula in year 2014. During the lightning event, the ionosphere may be disturbed which may cause disruption in the radio signal. Thus, it is important to understand the influence of lightning on VTEC in the study of upper-lower interaction. The lightning data is obtained from World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN) and the VTEC data has analyzed from Global Positioning System (GPS) for O’Higgins (OHI3), Palmer (PALV), and Rothera (ROTH). The results demonstrate the VTEC variation of ∼0.2 TECU during low lightning activity which could be caused by energy dissipation through lightning discharges from troposphere into the thermosphere.

  18. Manufacturing of Cast Metal Foams with Irregular Cell Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kroupová I.


    Full Text Available Metallic foams are materials of which the research is still on-going, with the broad applicability in many different areas (e.g. automotive industry, building industry, medicine, etc.. These metallic materials have specific properties, such as large rigidity at low density, high thermal conductivity, capability to absorb energy, etc. The work is focused on the preparation of these materials using conventional casting technology (infiltration method, which ensures rapid and economically feasible method for production of shaped components. In the experimental part we studied conditions of casting of metallic foams with open pores and irregular cell structure made of ferrous and nonferrous alloys by use of various types of filler material (precursors.

  19. Constructing a logical, regular axis topology from an irregular topology (United States)

    Faraj, Daniel A.


    Constructing a logical regular topology from an irregular topology including, for each axial dimension and recursively, for each compute node in a subcommunicator until returning to a first node: adding to a logical line of the axial dimension a neighbor specified in a nearest neighbor list; calling the added compute node; determining, by the called node, whether any neighbor in the node's nearest neighbor list is available to add to the logical line; if a neighbor in the called compute node's nearest neighbor list is available to add to the logical line, adding, by the called compute node to the logical line, any neighbor in the called compute node's nearest neighbor list for the axial dimension not already added to the logical line; and, if no neighbor in the called compute node's nearest neighbor list is available to add to the logical line, returning to the calling compute node.

  20. Evaluation of Surface Slope Irregularity in Linear Parabolic Solar Collectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Francini


    Full Text Available The paper describes a methodology, very simple in its application, for measuring surface irregularities of linear parabolic collectors. This technique was principally developed to be applied in cases where it is difficult to use cumbersome instruments and to facilitate logistic management. The instruments to be employed are a digital camera and a grating. If the reflector surface is defective, the image of the grating, reflected on the solar collector, appears distorted. Analyzing the reflected image, we can obtain the local slope of the defective surface. These profilometric tests are useful to identify and monitor the mirror portions under mechanical stress and to estimate the losses caused by the light rays deflected outside the absorber.

  1. Development of aerodynamic prediction methods for irregular planform wings (United States)

    Benepe, D. B., Sr.


    A set of empirical methods was developed to predict low-speed lift, drag and pitching-moment variations with angle of attack for a class of low aspect ratio irregular planform wings suitable for application to advanced aerospace vehicles. The data base, an extensive series of wind-tunnel tests accomplished by the Langley Research Center of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, is summarized. The approaches used to analyze the wind tunnel data, the evaluation of previously existing methods, data correlation efforts, and the development of the selected methods are presented and discussed. A summary of the methods is also presented to document the equations, computational charts and design guides which have been programmed for digital computer solution. Comparisons of predictions and test data are presented which show that the new methods provide a significant improvement in capability for evaluating the landing characteristics of advanced aerospace vehicles during the preliminary design phase of the configuration development cycle.

  2. Towards intrinsic magnetism of graphene sheets with irregular zigzag edges. (United States)

    Chen, Lianlian; Guo, Liwei; Li, Zhilin; Zhang, Han; Lin, Jingjing; Huang, Jiao; Jin, Shifeng; Chen, Xiaolong


    The magnetism of graphene has remained divergent and controversial due to absence of reliable experimental results. Here we show the intrinsic magnetism of graphene edge states revealed based on unidirectional aligned graphene sheets derived from completely carbonized SiC crystals. It is found that ferromagnetism, antiferromagnetism and diamagnetism along with a probable superconductivity exist in the graphene with irregular zigzag edges. A phase diagram is constructed to show the evolution of the magnetism. The ferromagnetic ordering curie-temperature of the fundamental magnetic order unit (FMOU) is 820 ± 80 K. The antiferromagnetic ordering Neel temperature of the FMOUs belonging to different sublattices is about 54 ± 2 K. The diamagnetism is similar to that of graphite and can be well described by the Kotosonov's equation. Our experimental results provide new evidences to clarify the controversial experimental phenomena observed in graphene and contribute to a deeper insight into the nature of magnetism in graphene based system.

  3. Massive stars in the Sagittarius Dwarf Irregular Galaxy (United States)

    Garcia, Miriam


    Low metallicity massive stars hold the key to interpret numerous processes in the past Universe including re-ionization, starburst galaxies, high-redshift supernovae, and γ-ray bursts. The Sagittarius Dwarf Irregular Galaxy [SagDIG, 12+log(O/H) = 7.37] represents an important landmark in the quest for analogues accessible with 10-m class telescopes. This Letter presents low-resolution spectroscopy executed with the Gran Telescopio Canarias that confirms that SagDIG hosts massive stars. The observations unveiled three OBA-type stars and one red supergiant candidate. Pending confirmation from high-resolution follow-up studies, these could be the most metal-poor massive stars of the Local Group.

  4. Technical Note: Trend estimation from irregularly sampled, correlated data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. von Clarmann


    Full Text Available Estimation of a trend of an atmospheric state variable is usually performed by fitting a linear regression line to a set of data of this variable sampled at different times. Often these data are irregularly sampled in space and time and clustered in a sense that error correlations among data points cause a similar error of data points sampled at similar times. Since this can affect the estimated trend, we suggest to take the full error covariance matrix of the data into account. Superimposed periodic variations can be jointly fitted in a straightforward manner, even if the shape of the periodic function is not known. Global data sets, particularly satellite data, can form the basis to estimate the error correlations. State-dependent amplitudes of superimposed periodic corrections result in a non-linear optimization problem which is solved iteratively.

  5. Tissue vibration in prolonged running. (United States)

    Friesenbichler, Bernd; Stirling, Lisa M; Federolf, Peter; Nigg, Benno M


    The impact force in heel-toe running initiates vibrations of soft-tissue compartments of the leg that are heavily dampened by muscle activity. This study investigated if the damping and frequency of these soft-tissue vibrations are affected by fatigue, which was categorized by the time into an exhaustive exercise. The hypotheses were tested that (H1) the vibration intensity of the triceps surae increases with increasing fatigue and (H2) the vibration frequency of the triceps surae decreases with increasing fatigue. Tissue vibrations of the triceps surae were measured with tri-axial accelerometers in 10 subjects during a run towards exhaustion. The frequency content was quantified with power spectra and wavelet analysis. Maxima of local vibration intensities were compared between the non-fatigued and fatigued states of all subjects. In axial (i.e. parallel to the tibia) and medio-lateral direction, most local maxima increased with fatigue (supporting the first hypothesis). In anterior-posterior direction no systematic changes were found. Vibration frequency was minimally affected by fatigue and frequency changes did not occur systematically, which requires the rejection of the second hypothesis. Relative to heel-strike, the maximum vibration intensity occurred significantly later in the fatigued condition in all three directions. With fatigue, the soft tissue of the triceps surae oscillated for an extended duration at increased vibration magnitudes, possibly due to the effects of fatigue on type II muscle fibers. Thus, the protective mechanism of muscle tuning seems to be reduced in a fatigued muscle and the risk of potential harm to the tissue may increase. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. PROSE for irregular corneas at a tertiary eye care center. (United States)

    Arumugam, Amudha Oli; Rajan, Rajni; Subramanian, Madhumathi; Mahadevan, Rajeswari


    The aim of this study was to report and discuss the clinical experience with PROSE (Prosthetic Replacement of Ocular Surface Ecosystem) practice at a tertiary eye care hospital. Retrospective data of patients who were prescribed PROSE during April 2011 to March 2012 in a tertiary eye care center in south India were analyzed. Data collected include patient demographics, indications of scleral lens fitting, previous correction modality, PROSE parameters, best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) with spectacles, and BCVA with PROSE at initial assessment and few hours of wear. The BCVA before (with glasses) and after PROSE fitting was recorded in logMAR units. The age of the patients ranged between 13 and 68 years (male:female 60:25) with a mean age of 32.44±13.45 years. Mean BCVA improved by 0.3 logMAR units (3 lines) after fitting with PROSE. There was a statistically significant difference between pre- and post-PROSE BCVA (P=0.0001). Failure of rigid gas-permeable lens fitting or intolerance was the common indication for PROSE in corneas with irregular astigmatism (refractive conditions). The other reasons for which PROSE was prescribed were pain, photophobia, comfort, ghosting of images, and frequent loss of smaller lenses. Toric scleral haptic was indicated in 62 eyes. The diameter, vault, and haptic measurements of PROSE in ocular surface disorders were much less and flatter than that of refractive conditions. PROSE device is a very useful alternative for irregular corneas to improve visual acuity, to improve comfort, and for symptomatic relief.

  7. Efficient Clustering for Irregular Geometries Based on Identification of Concavities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velázquez-Villegas Fernando


    Full Text Available Two dimensional clustering problem has much relevance in applications related to the efficient use of raw material, such as cutting stock, packing, etc. This is a very complex problem in which multiple bodies are accommodated efficiently in a way that they occupy as little space as possible. The complexity of the problem increases with the complexity of the bodies. Clearly the number of possible arrangements between bodies is huge. No Fit Polygon (NFP allows to determine the entire relative positions between two patterns (regular or irregular in contact, non-overlapping, therefore the best position can be selected. However, NFP generation requires a lot of calculations; besides, selecting the best cluster isn’t a simple task because, between two irregular patterns in contact, hollows (unusable areas and external concavities (usable areas can be produced. This work presents a quick and simple method to reduce calculations associated with NFP generation and to minimize unusable areas in a cluster. This method consists of generating partial NFP, just on concave regions of the patterns, and selecting the best cluster using a total weighted efficiency, i.e. a weighted value of enclosure efficiency (ratio of occupied area on convex hull area and hollow efficiency (ratio of occupied area on cluster area. The proposed method produces similar results as those obtained by other methods; however the shape of the clusters obtained allows to accommodate more parts in similar spaces, which is a desirable result when it comes to optimizing the use of material. We present two examples to show the performance of the proposal.

  8. Irregular Corneas: Improve Visual Function With Scleral Contact Lenses. (United States)

    de Luis Eguileor, Beatriz; Etxebarria Ecenarro, Jaime; Santamaria Carro, Alaitz; Feijoo Lera, Raquel


    To assess visual function in patients with irregular cornea who do not tolerate gas permeable (GP) corneal contact lenses and are fitted with GP scleral contact lenses (Rose K2 XL). In this prospective study, we analyzed 15 eyes of 15 patients who did not tolerate GP corneal contact lenses and were fitted with scleral contact lenses (Rose K2 XL). We assessed visual function using visual acuity and the visual function index (VF-14); we used the VF-14 as an indicator of patient satisfaction. The measurements were taken with the optical correction used before and 1 month after the fitting of the Rose K2 XL contact lenses. We also recorded the number of hours lenses had been worn over the first month. Using Rose K2 XL contact lenses, visual acuity was 0.06±0.07 logMAR. In all cases, visual acuity had improved compared with the measurement before fitting the lenses (0.31±0.18 logMAR; P=0.001). VF-14 scores were 72.74±12.38 before fitting of the scleral lenses, and 89.31±10.87 after 1 month of lens use (P=0.003). Patients used these scleral lenses for 9.33±2.99 comfortable hours of wear. Both visual acuity and VF-14 may improve after fitting Rose K2 XL contact lenses in patients with irregular corneas. In addition, in our patients, these lenses can be worn for a longer period than GP corneal contact lenses.

  9. Molecular vibrations the theory of infrared and Raman vibrational spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, E Bright; Cross, Paul C


    Pedagogical classic and essential reference focuses on mathematics of detailed vibrational analyses of polyatomic molecules, advancing from application of wave mechanics to potential functions and methods of solving secular determinant.

  10. Measurements of electron density irregularities in the ionosphere of Jupiter by Pioneer 10 (United States)

    Woo, R.; Yang, F.-C.


    It is demonstrated that when the frequency spectrum of log amplitude fluctuations is used, the radio-occultation experiment is a powerful tool for detecting, identifying, and studying ionospheric irregularities. Analysis of Pioneer 10 radio-occultation measurements reveals that the Jovian ionosphere possesses electron-density irregularities which are very similar to those found in the earth's ionosphere. This is the first time such irregularities have been found in a planetary ionosphere other than that of the earth. The Pioneer 10 results indicate that the spatial wave-number spectrum of the electron-density irregularities is close to the Kolmogorov spectrum and that the outer scale size is greater than the Fresnel size (6.15 km). This type of spectrum suggests that the irregularities are probably produced by the turbulent dissipation of irregularities larger than the outer scale size.

  11. Avoid heat transfer equipment vibration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganapathy, V.


    Tube bundles in heat exchangers, boilers, superheaters and heaters are often subject to vibration and noise problems. Vibration can lead to tube thinning and wear, resulting in tube failures. Excessive noise can be a problem to plant operating personnel. Large gas pressure drop across the equipment is also a side effect, which results in large operating costs. With the design checks presented in this paper, one can predict during design if problems associated with noise and vibration are likely to occur in petroleum refineries.

  12. Passive and Active Vibration Control of Renewable Energy Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Zili

    The present thesis deals with fundamental researches on passive and active vibration control of renewable energy structures, and provides useful models for practical applications. Effective and robust vibration control methods have been explored for mitigating the lightly damped edgewise blade...... solutions for wave energy point absorbers, in order to maximize the mean absorbed power and to deliver more smooth power to the grid. A novel suboptimal causal control law has been established for controlling the motion of the point absorber, and a new type of point absorber has also been proposed...

  13. Study of Equatorial Ionospheric Irregularities for the Assessment of Impacts on Communication/Navigation System (7) (United States)


    Final Report of AFRL-AOARD Project 11-4040 (2011-2013) “Study of Equatorial Ionospheric Irregularities for the Assessment of Impacts on...DEC 2013 2. REPORT TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED 01-08-2011 to 01-08-2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Study of Equatorial Ionospheric Irregularities both temporal and amplitude variations. Second, since the ionospheric density irregularities are the source of ionospheric radiowave scintillation

  14. Investigating GAIM-GM’s Capability to Sense Ionospheric Irregularities via Walker Satellite Constellations (United States)



  15. Parametric pitch instability investigation of Deep Draft Semi-submersible platform in irregular waves


    Huan Mao; Hezhen Yang


    Parametric pitch instability of a Deep Draft Semi-submersible platform (DDS) is investigated in irregular waves. Parametric pitch is a form of parametric instability, which occurs when parameters of a system vary with time and the variation satisfies a certain condition. In previous studies, analyzing of parametric instability is mainly limited to regular waves, whereas the realistic sea conditions are irregular waves. Besides, parametric instability also occurs in irregular waves in some exp...

  16. Fiber Bragg grating-based detection of cross sectional irregularities in metallic pipes (United States)

    Ray, Pabitro; Srinivasan, Balaji; Balasubramaniam, Krishnan; Rajagopal, Prabhu


    Cross-sectional irregularities such as eccentricity are an important problem for pipe and tubing infrastructure. Recent work by the authors shows that such axially extended pipe irregularities can cause confinement and feature-guiding of lower order ultrasonic guided waves. In this paper, we demonstrate a technique to monitor such irregularities in pipes by detecting the feature-guided waves using fiber Bragg grating sensors. Our experimental results are in good agreement with the results reported in elastic wave literature.

  17. 14 CFR 33.63 - Vibration. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Vibration. 33.63 Section 33.63 Aeronautics... STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.63 Vibration. Each engine... because of vibration and without imparting excessive vibration forces to the aircraft structure. ...

  18. 14 CFR 33.83 - Vibration test. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Vibration test. 33.83 Section 33.83... STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Block Tests; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.83 Vibration test. (a) Each engine must undergo vibration surveys to establish that the vibration characteristics of those components that...

  19. 14 CFR 33.33 - Vibration. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Vibration. 33.33 Section 33.33 Aeronautics... STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Reciprocating Aircraft Engines § 33.33 Vibration. The... vibration and without imparting excessive vibration forces to the aircraft structure. ...

  20. 14 CFR 33.43 - Vibration test. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Vibration test. 33.43 Section 33.43... STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Block Tests; Reciprocating Aircraft Engines § 33.43 Vibration test. (a) Each engine must undergo a vibration survey to establish the torsional and bending vibration characteristics...

  1. 49 CFR 178.819 - Vibration test. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vibration test. 178.819 Section 178.819... Testing of IBCs § 178.819 Vibration test. (a) General. The vibration test must be conducted for the... vibration test. (b) Test method. (1) A sample IBC, selected at random, must be filled and closed as for...

  2. Rectangular Parallelepiped Vibration in Plane Strain State


    Hanckowiak, Jerzy


    In this paper we present a vibration spectrum of a homogenous parallelepiped (HP) under the action of volume and surface forces resulting from the exponent displacements entering the Fourier transforms. Vibration under the action of axial surface tractions and the free vibration are described separately. A relationship between the high frequency vibration and boundary conditions (BC) is also considered.

  3. High attack rate for malaria through irregular migration routes to a country on verge of elimination. (United States)

    Wickramage, Kolitha; Premaratne, Risintha G; Peiris, Sharika L; Mosca, Davide


    Irregular migration in the form of human smuggling and human trafficking is recognized as a global public health issue. Thirty-two cases of Plasmodium falciparum were detected in 534 irregular migrants returning to Sri Lanka via failed human smuggling routes from West Africa in 2012, contributing to the largest burden of imported cases in Sri Lanka as it entered elimination phase. Beyond the criminality and human rights abuse, irregular migration plays an important, but often forgotten, pathway for malaria re-introduction. Active surveillance of the growing numbers of irregular migrant flows becomes an important strategy as Sri Lanka advances towards goals of malaria elimination.

  4. Spatial irregularities in Jupiter's upper ionosphere observed by Voyager radio occultations (United States)

    Hinson, D. P.; Tyler, G. L.


    Radio scintillations (at 3.6 and 13 cm) produced by scattering from ionospheric irregularities during the Voyager occultations are interpreted using a weak-scattering theory. Least squares solutions for ionospheric parameters derived from the observed fluctuation spectra yield estimates of (1) the axial ratio, (2) angular orientation of the anisotropic irregularities, (3) the power law exponent of the spatial spectrum of irregularities, and (4) the magnitude of the spatial variations in electron density. It is shown that the measured angular orientation of the anisotropic irregularities indicates magnetic field direction and may provide a basis for refining Jovian magnetic field models.

  5. Formation of ionospheric irregularities over Southeast Asia during the 2015 St. Patrick's Day storm

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Spogli, Luca; Cesaroni, Claudio; Di Mauro, Domenico; Pezzopane, Michael; Alfonsi, Lucilla; Musicò, Elvira; Povero, Gabriella; Pini, Marco; Dovis, Fabio; Romero, Rodrigo; Linty, Nicola; Abadi, Prayitno; Nuraeni, Fitri; Husin, Asnawi; Le Huy, Minh; Lan, Tran Thi; La, The Vinh; Pillat, Valdir Gil; Floury, Nicolas


    ...), covering a wide longitudinal sector of the low‐latitude ionosphere. A regional characterization of the storm is provided, identifying the peculiarities of ionospheric irregularity formation...

  6. Gravity Wave-Induced Ionospheric Irregularities in the Postsunset Equatorial Valley Region (United States)

    Hysell, D. L.; Fritts, D. C.; Laughman, B.; Chau, J. L.


    Plasma irregularities in the postsunset equatorial valley region ionosphere are investigated experimentally and through numerical simulation. Coherent radar backscatter observed at the Jicamarca Radio Observatory shows two classes of irregularities in different altitude bands—one mainly below about 125 km and the other mainly above. Irregularities in both bands are organized into wavefronts with wavelengths of a few kilometers. However, only the irregularities in the high-altitude band exhibit consistent propagation speeds and directions. Some previous observations of irregularities in the nighttime electrojet suggest that gravity waves may sometimes influence their morphology. The possibility that the valley region irregularities are also related to gravity waves (GWs) is therefore investigated numerically. A model of a GW packet propagating through a tidal wind field is used to drive another model which predicts the resulting ionospheric electrodynamics. The combined simulation shows that GWs can induce field-aligned currents and excite resistive drift waves which could be responsible for the valley region irregularities in the high-altitude band. The GWs also induce irregularities in the upper E region directly through simple dynamo action which subsequently deform under the influence of shear flow. This may explain the irregularities in the low-altitude band.

  7. An efficient algorithm for global periodic orbits generation near irregular-shaped asteroids (United States)

    Shang, Haibin; Wu, Xiaoyu; Ren, Yuan; Shan, Jinjun


    Periodic orbits (POs) play an important role in understanding dynamical behaviors around natural celestial bodies. In this study, an efficient algorithm was presented to generate the global POs around irregular-shaped uniformly rotating asteroids. The algorithm was performed in three steps, namely global search, local refinement, and model continuation. First, a mascon model with a low number of particles and optimized mass distribution was constructed to remodel the exterior gravitational potential of the asteroid. Using this model, a multi-start differential evolution enhanced with a deflection strategy with strong global exploration and bypassing abilities was adopted. This algorithm can be regarded as a search engine to find multiple globally optimal regions in which potential POs were located. This was followed by applying a differential correction to locally refine global search solutions and generate the accurate POs in the mascon model in which an analytical Jacobian matrix was derived to improve convergence. Finally, the concept of numerical model continuation was introduced and used to convert the POs from the mascon model into a high-fidelity polyhedron model by sequentially correcting the initial states. The efficiency of the proposed algorithm was substantiated by computing the global POs around an elongated shoe-shaped asteroid 433 Eros. Various global POs with different topological structures in the configuration space were successfully located. Specifically, the proposed algorithm was generic and could be conveniently extended to explore periodic motions in other gravitational systems.

  8. Vibrational Damping of Composite Materials


    Biggerstaff, Janet M.


    The purpose of this research was to develop new methods of vibrational damping in polymeric composite materials along with expanding the knowledge of currently used vibrational damping methods. A new barrier layer technique that dramatically increased damping in viscoelastic damping materials that interacted with the composite resin was created. A method for testing the shear strength of damping materials cocured in composites was developed. Directional damping materials, where the loss facto...

  9. Vibration Theory, Vol. 1B

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmussen, J. C.; Nielsen, Søren R. K.

    The present collection of MATLAB exercises has been published as a supplement to the textbook, Svingningsteori, Bind 1 and the collection of exercises in Vibration theory, Vol. 1A, Solved Problems. Throughout the exercise references are made to these books. The purpose of the MATLAB exercises...... is to give a better understanding of the physical problems in linear vibration theory and to surpress the mathematical analysis used to solve the problems. For this purpose the MATLAB environment is excellent....

  10. Harmonic vibrations of multispan beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrbye, Claes


    Free and forced harmonic vibrations of multispan beams are determined by a method which implies 1 equation regardless of the configuration. The necessary formulas are given in the paper. For beams with simple supports and the same length of all (n) spans, there is a rather big difference between...... the n´th and the (n+1)´th eigenfrequency. The reason for this phenomenon is explained.Keywords: Vibrations, Eigenfrequencies, Beams....

  11. Smart accelerometer. [vibration damage detection (United States)

    Bozeman, Richard J., Jr. (Inventor)


    The invention discloses methods and apparatus for detecting vibrations from machines which indicate an impending malfunction for the purpose of preventing additional damage and allowing for an orderly shutdown or a change in mode of operation. The method and apparatus is especially suited for reliable operation in providing thruster control data concerning unstable vibration in an electrical environment which is typically noisy and in which unrecognized ground loops may exist.

  12. Improved Predictions for Geotechnical Vibrations


    Macijauskas, Darius


    In urban areas where the infrastructure is dense and construction of new structures is near existing and sensitive buildings, frequently vibrations, caused by human activities, occur. Generated waves in the soil may adversely affect surrounding buildings. These vibrations have to be predicted a priori by using currently available knowledge of the soil dynamics. Current research, conducted by Deltares research institute, showed that the reliability of methods for prediction of m...

  13. Stress analysis of vibrating pipelines (United States)

    Zachwieja, Janusz


    The pipelines are subject to various constraints variable in time. Those vibrations, if not monitored for amplitude and frequency, may result in both the fatigue damage in the pipeline profile at high stress concentration and the damage to the pipeline supports. If the constraint forces are known, the system response may be determined with high accuracy using analytical or numerical methods. In most cases, it may be difficult to determine the constraint parameters, since the industrial pipeline vibrations occur due to the dynamic effects of the medium in the pipeline. In that case, a vibration analysis is a suitable alternative method to determine the stress strain state in the pipeline profile. Monitoring the pipeline vibration levels involves a comparison between the measured vibration parameters and the permissible values as depicted in the graphs for a specific pipeline type. Unfortunately, in most cases, the studies relate to the petrochemical industry and thus large diameter, long and straight pipelines. For a pipeline section supported on both ends, the response in any profile at the entire section length can be determined by measuring the vibration parameters at two different profiles between the pipeline supports. For a straight pipeline section, the bending moments, variable in time, at the ends of the analysed section are a source of the pipe excitation. If a straight pipe section supported on both ends is excited by the bending moments in the support profile, the starting point for the stress analysis are the strains, determined from the Euler-Bernoulli equation. In practice, it is easier to determine the displacement using the experimental methods, since the factors causing vibrations are unknown. The industrial system pipelines, unlike the transfer pipelines, are straight sections at some points only, which makes it more difficult to formulate the equation of motion. In those cases, numerical methods can be used to determine stresses using the

  14. The ABRAVIBE toolbox for teaching vibration analysis and structural dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, A.


    Vibration analysis is a subject where students often find it hard to comprehend the fundamental theory. The fact that we have, in general, almost no intuition for dynamic phenomena, means that students need to explore various dynamic phenomena in order to grasp the subject. For this reason......, a MATLAB toolbox (the ABRAVIBE toolbox) has been developed as an accompanying toolbox for the recent book "Noise and Vibration Analysis" by the author. This free, open software, published under GNU Public License, can be used with GNU Octave, if an entirely free software platform is wanted, with a few......). In this paper, an overview of the functionality is given and recommended use in teaching is discussed. It is also shown how the toolbox can be used for general vibration analysis using data from multichannel measurements. Finally, some laboratory exercises for structural dynamics teaching are discussed...

  15. Force illusions and drifts observed during muscle vibration. (United States)

    Reschechtko, Sasha; Cuadra, Cristian; Latash, Mark L


    We explored predictions of a scheme that views position and force perception as a result of measuring proprioceptive signals within a reference frame set by ongoing efferent process. In particular, this hypothesis predicts force illusions caused by muscle vibration and mediated via changes in both afferent and efferent components of kinesthesia. Healthy subjects performed accurate steady force production tasks by pressing with the four fingers of one hand (the task hand) on individual force sensors with and without visual feedback. At various times during the trials, subjects matched the perceived force using the other hand. High-frequency vibration was applied to one or both of the forearms (over the hand and finger extensors). Without visual feedback, subjects showed a drop in the task hand force, which was significantly smaller under the vibration of that forearm. Force production by the matching hand was consistently higher than that of the task hand. Vibrating one of the forearms affected the matching hand in a manner consistent with the perception of higher magnitude of force produced by the vibrated hand. The findings were consistent between the dominant and nondominant hands. The effects of vibration on both force drift and force mismatching suggest that vibration led to shifts in both signals from proprioceptors and the efferent component of perception, the referent coordinate and/or coactivation command. The observations fit the hypothesis on combined perception of kinematic-kinetic variables with little specificity of different groups of peripheral receptors that all contribute to perception of forces and coordinates. NEW & NOTEWORTHY We show that vibration of hand/finger extensors produces consistent errors in finger force perception. Without visual feedback, finger force drifted to lower values without a drift in the matching force produced by the other hand; hand extensor vibration led to smaller finger force drift. The findings fit the scheme with

  16. Signatures of Solvation Thermodynamics in Spectra of Intermolecular Vibrations (United States)


    This study explores the thermodynamic and vibrational properties of water in the three-dimensional environment of solvated ions and small molecules using molecular simulations. The spectrum of intermolecular vibrations in liquid solvents provides detailed information on the shape of the local potential energy surface, which in turn determines local thermodynamic properties such as the entropy. Here, we extract this information using a spatially resolved extension of the two-phase thermodynamics method to estimate hydration water entropies based on the local vibrational density of states (3D-2PT). Combined with an analysis of solute–water and water–water interaction energies, this allows us to resolve local contributions to the solvation enthalpy, entropy, and free energy. We use this approach to study effects of ions on their surrounding water hydrogen bond network, its spectrum of intermolecular vibrations, and resulting thermodynamic properties. In the three-dimensional environment of polar and nonpolar functional groups of molecular solutes, we identify distinct hydration water species and classify them by their characteristic vibrational density of states and molecular entropies. In each case, we are able to assign variations in local hydration water entropies to specific changes in the spectrum of intermolecular vibrations. This provides an important link for the thermodynamic interpretation of vibrational spectra that are accessible to far-infrared absorption and Raman spectroscopy experiments. Our analysis provides unique microscopic details regarding the hydration of hydrophobic and hydrophilic functional groups, which enable us to identify interactions and molecular degrees of freedom that determine relevant contributions to the solvation entropy and consequently the free energy. PMID:28783431

  17. Signatures of Solvation Thermodynamics in Spectra of Intermolecular Vibrations. (United States)

    Persson, Rasmus A X; Pattni, Viren; Singh, Anurag; Kast, Stefan M; Heyden, Matthias


    This study explores the thermodynamic and vibrational properties of water in the three-dimensional environment of solvated ions and small molecules using molecular simulations. The spectrum of intermolecular vibrations in liquid solvents provides detailed information on the shape of the local potential energy surface, which in turn determines local thermodynamic properties such as the entropy. Here, we extract this information using a spatially resolved extension of the two-phase thermodynamics method to estimate hydration water entropies based on the local vibrational density of states (3D-2PT). Combined with an analysis of solute-water and water-water interaction energies, this allows us to resolve local contributions to the solvation enthalpy, entropy, and free energy. We use this approach to study effects of ions on their surrounding water hydrogen bond network, its spectrum of intermolecular vibrations, and resulting thermodynamic properties. In the three-dimensional environment of polar and nonpolar functional groups of molecular solutes, we identify distinct hydration water species and classify them by their characteristic vibrational density of states and molecular entropies. In each case, we are able to assign variations in local hydration water entropies to specific changes in the spectrum of intermolecular vibrations. This provides an important link for the thermodynamic interpretation of vibrational spectra that are accessible to far-infrared absorption and Raman spectroscopy experiments. Our analysis provides unique microscopic details regarding the hydration of hydrophobic and hydrophilic functional groups, which enable us to identify interactions and molecular degrees of freedom that determine relevant contributions to the solvation entropy and consequently the free energy.

  18. Vibrational modes of nanolines (United States)

    Heyliger, Paul R.; Flannery, Colm M.; Johnson, Ward L.


    Brillouin-light-scattering spectra previously have been shown to provide information on acoustic modes of polymeric lines fabricated by nanoimprint lithography. Finite-element methods for modeling such modes are presented here. These methods provide a theoretical framework for determining elastic constants and dimensions of nanolines from measured spectra in the low gigahertz range. To make the calculations feasible for future incorporation in inversion algorithms, two approximations of the boundary conditions are employed in the calculations: the rigidity of the nanoline/substrate interface and sinusoidal variation of displacements along the nanoline length. The accuracy of these approximations is evaluated as a function of wavenumber and frequency. The great advantage of finite-element methods over other methods previously employed for nanolines is the ability to model any cross-sectional geometry. Dispersion curves and displacement patterns are calculated for modes of polymethyl methacrylate nanolines with cross-sectional dimensions of 65 nm × 140 nm and rectangular or semicircular tops. The vibrational displacements and dispersion curves are qualitatively similar for the two geometries and include a series of flexural, Rayleigh-like, and Sezawa-like modes. This paper is a contribution of the National Institute of Standards and Technology and is not subject to copyright in the United States.

  19. Characterizing the free and surface-coupled vibrations of heated-tip atomic force microscope cantilevers. (United States)

    Killgore, Jason P; Tung, Ryan C; Hurley, Donna C


    Combining heated-tip atomic force microscopy (HT-AFM) with quantitative methods for determining surface mechanical properties, such as contact resonance force microscopy, creates an avenue for nanoscale thermomechanical property characterization. For nanomechanical methods that employ an atomic force microscope cantilever's vibrational modes, it is essential to understand how the vibrations of the U-shaped HT-AFM cantilever differ from those of a more traditional rectangular lever, for which analytical techniques are better developed. Here we show, with a combination of finite element analysis (FEA) and experiments, that the HT-AFM cantilever exhibits many more readily-excited vibrational modes over typical AFM frequencies compared to a rectangular cantilever. The arms of U-shaped HT-AFM cantilevers exhibit two distinct forms of flexural vibrations that differ depending on whether the two arms are vibrating in-phase or out-of-phase with one another. The in-phase vibrations are qualitatively similar to flexural vibrations in rectangular cantilevers and generally show larger sensitivity to surface stiffness changes than the out-of-phase vibrations. Vibration types can be identified from their frequency and by considering vibration amplitudes in the horizontal and vertical channels of the AFM at different laser spot positions on the cantilever. For identifying contact resonance vibrational modes, we also consider the sensitivity of the resonant frequencies to a change in applied force and hence to tip-sample contact stiffness. Finally, we assess how existing analytical models can be used to accurately predict contact stiffness from contact-resonance HT-AFM results. A simple two-parameter Euler-Bernoulli beam model provided good agreement with FEA for in-phase modes up to a contact stiffness 500 times the cantilever spring constant. By providing insight into cantilever vibrations and exploring the potential of current analysis techniques, our results lay the groundwork

  20. Effect of vibration frequency on biopsy needle insertion force. (United States)

    Tan, Lei; Qin, Xuemei; Zhang, Qinhe; Zhang, Hongcai; Dong, Hongjian; Guo, Tuodang; Liu, Guowei


    Needle insertion is critical in many clinical medicine procedures, such as biopsy, brachytherapy, and injection therapy. A platform with two degrees of freedom was set up to study the effect of vibration frequency on needle insertion force. The gel phantom deformation at the needle cutting edge and the Voigt model are utilized to develop a dynamic model to explain the relationship between the insertion force and needle-tip velocity. The accuracy of this model was verified by performing needle insertions into phantom gel. The effect of vibration on insertion force can be explained as the vibration increasing the needle-tip velocity and subsequently increasing the insertion force. In a series of needle insertion experiments with different vibration frequencies, the peak forces were selected for comparison to explore the effect of vibration frequency on needle insertion force. The experimental results indicate that the insertion force at 500Hz increases up to 17.9% compared with the force at 50Hz. Copyright © 2017 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. IHY objectives in the African ionospheric irregularities observation campaign (United States)

    Yizengaw, E.; Moldwin, M. B.


    : One of many objectives of IHY is the deployment of networks of small instruments, especially closing the land-based gaps of instruments around the world. One of the regions that have been almost entirely devoid of ground-based instruments is the African continent. Such uneven distribution of ground-based instruments hinders our ability to obtain a global understanding of the equatorial ionosphere. In the African sector, for example, a continuous ground-based observation of the equatorial ionospheric irregularities is not possible due to lack of ground-based instruments, causing many fundamental questions to remain unanswered. Satellite observations indicate the equatorial ionospheric density structures in the African continent respond to space weather effects differently than do other parts of the Earth. For example, in the African equatorial region, satellite observations show that the F-region bubbles are much deeper than the bubbles observed in any other longitudinal sectors, and are very active year round compared with other regions. Observations also show that the bubbles in Africa rises to high altitude (up to 1000+ kilometers) more frequently compared with other longitudes. However, these responses have not been studied in detail by observations from the ground due to the lack of suitable ground-based instrumentation in the region. Thus, the cause of these unique density irregularities in the continent remains a mystery for the scientific community. Therefore, in order to have a better understanding, the scientific communities, using the IHY platform, are now closing the largest land-based gap in ground-based instruments such as GPS receivers and magnetometers. The instrumentation network in African is already developing rapidly with GPS receivers from SCINDA, AMMA, IGS, and AGREES and magnetometers from MAGDAS and AMBER. In addition to new scientific discoveries and advancing space science research in Africa by establishing scientific collaborations

  2. Extended Schmidt law holds for faint dwarf irregular galaxies (United States)

    Roychowdhury, Sambit; Chengalur, Jayaram N.; Shi, Yong


    Context. The extended Schmidt law (ESL) is a variant of the Schmidt which relates the surface densities of gas and star formation, with the surface density of stellar mass added as an extra parameter. Although ESL has been shown to be valid for a wide range of galaxy properties, its validity in low-metallicity galaxies has not been comprehensively tested. This is important because metallicity affects the crucial atomic-to-molecular transition step in the process of conversion of gas to stars. Aims: We empirically investigate for the first time whether low metallicity faint dwarf irregular galaxies (dIrrs) from the local universe follow the ESL. Here we consider the "global" law where surface densities are averaged over the galactic discs. dIrrs are unique not only because they are at the lowest end of mass and star formation scales for galaxies, but also because they are metal-poor compared to the general population of galaxies. Methods: Our sample is drawn from the Faint Irregular Galaxy GMRT Survey (FIGGS) which is the largest survey of atomic hydrogen in such galaxies. The gas surface densities are determined using their atomic hydrogen content. The star formation rates are calculated using GALEX far ultraviolet fluxes after correcting for dust extinction, whereas the stellar surface densities are calculated using Spitzer 3.6 μm fluxes. The surface densities are calculated over the stellar discs defined by the 3.6 μm images. Results: We find dIrrs indeed follow the ESL. The mean deviation of the FIGGS galaxies from the relation is 0.01 dex, with a scatter around the relation of less than half that seen in the original relation. In comparison, we also show that the FIGGS galaxies are much more deviant when compared to the "canonical" Kennicutt-Schmidt relation. Conclusions: Our results help strengthen the universality of the ESL, especially for galaxies with low metallicities. We suggest that models of star formation in which feedback from previous generations

  3. Rail Vehicle Vibrations Control Using Parameters Adaptive PID Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muzaffer Metin


    Full Text Available In this study, vertical rail vehicle vibrations are controlled by the use of conventional PID and parameters which are adaptive to PID controllers. A parameters adaptive PID controller is designed to improve the passenger comfort by intuitional usage of this method that renews the parameters online and sensitively under variable track inputs. Sinusoidal vertical rail misalignment and measured real rail irregularity are considered as two different disruptive effects of the system. Active vibration control is applied to the system through the secondary suspension. The active suspension application of rail vehicle is examined by using 5-DOF quarter-rail vehicle model by using Manchester benchmark dynamic parameters. The new parameters of adaptive controller are optimized by means of genetic algorithm toolbox of MATLAB. Simulations are performed at maximum urban transportation speed (90 km/h of the rail vehicle with ±5% load changes of rail vehicle body to test the robustness of controllers. As a result, superior performance of parameters of adaptive controller is determined in time and frequency domain.

  4. Evaluation of hand-arm vibration reducing effect of anti-vibration glove


    樹野, 淳也; 前田, 節雄; 横田, 和樹; 平, 雄一郎


    Many kinds of the anti-vibration glove have been developed for reducing hand-arm vibration during the operation with vibration tools. International standard ISO 10819 evaluates the physical effect of gloves' vibration transmissibility but not evaluates the physiological effect of human hands. Thus, in this paper, we proposed the evaluation using the temporary threshold shift of vibrotactile perception threshold to evaluate the hand-arm vibration reducing effect of anti-vibration glove. We per...

  5. Measuring border irregularities of skin lesions using fractal dimensions (United States)

    Ng, Vincent T. Y.; Lee, Tim K.


    Malignant melanoma is the most common cancer in people less than 35 years of age and incident rates are increasing by approximately 5 percent per annum in many white populations, including British Columbia, Canada. In 1994, a clinical study has been established to digitize melanocytic lesions under a controlled environment. Lesions are digitized from patients who are referred to the Colored Pigment Lesion Clinic in the University of British Columbia. In this paper, we investigate how to use fractal dimensions (FDs) in measuring the irregularity of a skin lesion. In a previous project, we have experimented with 6 different methods to calculate fractal dimensions on a small number of images of skin lesions, and the simple box-counting method performed the best. However, the method did not exploit the intensity information of the images. With the new set of images which are digitized under the controlled environment, we utilize the differential box counting method to exploit such information. Four FD measures, including the direct FD, the horizontal and the vertical smoothing FDs, and the multi- fractal dimension of order two, are calculated based on the original color images. In addition, these 4 FD features are repeatedly calculate for the blue band of the images. This paper reports the different features through the calculations of the fractal dimensions and compares their differentiation power in the use of diagnosis of images of skin lesions.

  6. Irregular persistent activity induced by synaptic excitatory feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Barbieri


    Full Text Available Neurophysiological experiments on monkeys have reported highly irregular persistent activity during the performance of an oculomotor delayed-response task. These experiments show that during the delay period the coefficient of variation (CV of interspike intervals (ISI of prefrontal neurons is above 1, on average, and larger than during the fixation period. In the present paper, we show that this feature can be reproduced in a network in which persistent activity is induced by excitatory feedback, provided that (i the post-spike reset is close enough to threshold , (ii synaptic efficacies are a non-linear function of the pre-synaptic firing rate. Non-linearity between presynaptic rate and effective synaptic strength is implemented by a standard short-term depression mechanism (STD. First, we consider the simplest possible network with excitatory feedback: a fully connected homogeneous network of excitatory leaky integrate-and-fire neurons, using both numerical simulations and analytical techniques. The results are then confirmed in a network with selective excitatory neurons and inhibition. In both the cases there is a large range of values of the synaptic efficacies for which the statistics of firing of single cells is similar to experimental data.

  7. On statistical irregularity of stratospheric warming occurrence during northern winters (United States)

    Savenkova, Elena N.; Gavrilov, Nikolai M.; Pogoreltsev, Alexander I.


    Statistical analysis of dates of warming events observed during the years 1981-2016 at different stratospheric altitudes reveals their non-uniform distributions during northern winter months with maxima at the beginning of January, at the end of January - beginning of February and at the end of February. Climatology of zonal-mean zonal wind, deviations of temperature from its winter-averaged values, and planetary wave (PW) characteristics at high and middle northern latitudes in the altitude range from the ground up to 60 km is studied using the database of meteorological reanalysis MERRA. Climatological temperature deviations averaged over the 60-90°N latitudinal bands reveal cooler and warmer layers descending due to seasonal changes during the polar night. PW amplitudes and upward Eliassen-Palm fluxes averaged over 36 years have periodical maxima with the main maximum at the beginning of January at altitudes 40-50 km. During the above-mentioned intervals of more frequent occurrence of stratospheric warming events, maxima of PW amplitudes and Eliassen-Palm fluxes, also minima of eastward winds in the high-latitude northern stratosphere have been found. Climatological intra-seasonal irregularities of stratospheric warming dates could indicate reiterating phases of stratospheric vacillations in different years.

  8. Image fusion and enhancement using triangulated irregular networks (United States)

    Scarmana, G.


    A triangulated irregular network (TIN) is a viable structure for vector representation of raster image data. To visualize the image characterized by triangulation, it is required to fit a continuous surface of pixel brightness values in the triangulation (i.e. to interpolate data stored in its vertices). From this perspective, this paper presents a multi-frame image fusion and enhancement process that employs TIN structures rather than arrays of pixels as the original working units. The feasibility of this application relates to the fact that a TIN model offers a good quality digital image representation with a reduced density of pixel values as compared to a corresponding raster representation [4]. In the proposed process several low-resolution unregistered and compressed images (such as those extracted from a video footage) of a common scene are: (a) registered to a sub-pixel level (b) transformed to a TIN structure, (c) grouped or mapped globally within a singular framework to create a denser TIN composite, and (d) the TIN representation is used in reverse to reconstruct a higher resolution image in raster format with more details than any of the original input frames. Tests and subsequent results are shown to demonstrate the validity and accuracy of the proposed multi-frame image enhancement process. A comparison of this process of multi-frame image enhancement using various interpolation methods and practices is included.

  9. Weighted statistical parameters for irregularly sampled time series (United States)

    Rimoldini, Lorenzo


    Unevenly spaced time series are common in astronomy because of the day-night cycle, weather conditions, dependence on the source position in the sky, allocated telescope time and corrupt measurements, for example, or inherent to the scanning law of satellites like Hipparcos and the forthcoming Gaia. Irregular sampling often causes clumps of measurements and gaps with no data which can severely disrupt the values of estimators. This paper aims at improving the accuracy of common statistical parameters when linear interpolation (in time or phase) can be considered an acceptable approximation of a deterministic signal. A pragmatic solution is formulated in terms of a simple weighting scheme, adapting to the sampling density and noise level, applicable to large data volumes at minimal computational cost. Tests on time series from the Hipparcos periodic catalogue led to significant improvements in the overall accuracy and precision of the estimators with respect to the unweighted counterparts and those weighted by inverse-squared uncertainties. Automated classification procedures employing statistical parameters weighted by the suggested scheme confirmed the benefits of the improved input attributes. The classification of eclipsing binaries, Mira, RR Lyrae, Delta Cephei and Alpha2 Canum Venaticorum stars employing exclusively weighted descriptive statistics achieved an overall accuracy of 92 per cent, about 6 per cent higher than with unweighted estimators.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elmegreen, Bruce G., E-mail: [IBM Research Division, T.J. Watson Research Center, 1101 Kitchawan Road, Yorktown Heights, NY 10598 (United States)


    A dynamical model for star formation on a galactic scale is proposed in which the interstellar medium is constantly condensing to star-forming clouds on the dynamical time of the average midplane density, and the clouds are constantly being disrupted on the dynamical timescale appropriate for their higher density. In this model, the areal star formation rate scales with the 1.5 power of the total gas column density throughout the main regions of spiral galaxies, and with a steeper power, 2, in the far outer regions and in dwarf irregular galaxies because of the flaring disks. At the same time, there is a molecular star formation law that is linear in the main and outer parts of disks and in dIrrs because the duration of individual structures in the molecular phase is also the dynamical timescale, canceling the additional 0.5 power of surface density. The total gas consumption time scales directly with the midplane dynamical time, quenching star formation in the inner regions if there is no accretion, and sustaining star formation for ∼100 Gyr or more in the outer regions with no qualitative change in gas stability or molecular cloud properties. The ULIRG track follows from high densities in galaxy collisions.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elmegreen, Bruce G. [IBM Research Division, T.J. Watson Research Center, 1101 Kitchawan Road, Yorktown Heights, NY 10598 (United States); Hunter, Deidre A., E-mail:, E-mail: [Lowell Observatory, 1400 West Mars Hill Road, Flagstaff, Arizona 86001 (United States)


    The radial profiles of gas, stars, and far-ultraviolet radiation in 20 dwarf Irregular galaxies are converted to stability parameters and scale heights for a test of the importance of two-dimensional (2D) instabilities in promoting star formation. A detailed model of this instability involving gaseous and stellar fluids with self-consistent thicknesses and energy dissipation on a perturbation crossing time gives the unstable growth rates. We find that all locations are effectively stable to 2D perturbations, mostly because the disks are thick. We then consider the average volume densities in the midplanes, evaluated from the observed H i surface densities and calculated scale heights. The radial profiles of the star-formation rates are equal to about 1% of the H i surface densities divided by the free fall times at the average midplane densities. This 1% resembles the efficiency per unit free fall time commonly found in other cases. There is a further variation of this efficiency with radius in all of our galaxies, following the exponential disk with a scale length equal to about twice the stellar mass scale length. This additional variation is modeled by the molecular fraction in a diffuse medium using radiative transfer solutions for galaxies with the observed dimensions and properties of our sample. We conclude that star formation is activated by a combination of three-dimensional gaseous gravitational processes and molecule formation. Implications for outer disk structure and formation are discussed.

  12. Influence of Ionospheric Irregularities on GNSS Remote Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Tinin


    Full Text Available We have used numerical simulation to study the effects of ionospheric irregularities on accuracy of global navigation satellite system (GNSS measurements, using ionosphere-free (in atmospheric research and geometry-free (in ionospheric research dual-frequency phase combinations. It is known that elimination of these effects from multifrequency GNSS measurements is handi-capped by diffraction effects during signal propagation through turbulent ionospheric plasma with the inner scale being smaller than the Fresnel radius. We demonstrated the possibility of reducing the residual ionospheric error in dual-frequency GNSS remote sensing in ionosphere-free combination by Fresnel inversion. The inversion parameter, the distance to the virtual screen, may be selected from the minimum of amplitude fluctuations. This suggests the possibility of improving the accuracy of GNSS remote sensing in meteorology. In the study of ionospheric disturbances with the aid of geometry-free combination, the Fresnel inversion eliminates only the third-order error. To eliminate the random TEC component which, like the measured average TEC, is the first-order correction, we should use temporal filtering (averaging.

  13. Climatic irregular staircases: generalized acceleration of global warming. (United States)

    De Saedeleer, Bernard


    Global warming rates mentioned in the literature are often restricted to a couple of arbitrary periods of time, or of isolated values of the starting year, lacking a global view. In this study, we perform on the contrary an exhaustive parametric analysis of the NASA GISS LOTI data, and also of the HadCRUT4 data. The starting year systematically varies between 1880 and 2002, and the averaging period from 5 to 30 yr - not only decades; the ending year also varies . In this way, we uncover a whole unexplored space of values for the global warming rate, and access the full picture. Additionally, stairstep averaging and linear least squares fitting to determine climatic trends have been sofar exclusive. We propose here an original hybrid method which combines both approaches in order to derive a new type of climatic trend. We find that there is an overall acceleration of the global warming whatever the value of the averaging period, and that 99.9% of the 3029 Earth's climatic irregular staircases are rising. Graphical evidence is also given that choosing an El Niño year as starting year gives lower global warming rates - except if there is a volcanic cooling in parallel. Our rates agree and generalize several results mentioned in the literature.

  14. Three-dimensional CLEM-LES of irregular detonation propagation (United States)

    Maxwell, Brian; Radulescu, Matei


    Recently, thin-channel experiments and 2D simulations have been conducted in order to investigate the effect of turbulent mixing rates on the structure of irregular detonation wave propagation. Furthermore, the dependence of the observed cell pattern, and also the reaction zone thickness, on the mixing of burned products with pockets of unburned gases, was investigated. The current work now includes 3D simulations, which are conducted to provide further validation of, and insight into, the 2D results. All simulations have been conducted using the Compressible Linear Eddy Model for Large Eddy Simulation (CLEM-LES). To date, the 3D results are found to match closely the previous 2D results. The agrreement is partly due to sufficient resolution of the large scale fluid motions, which are observed experimentally to be predominant in only two directions. Furthermore, the CLEM-LES methodology incorporates 3D mixing effects at the subgrid level. Finally, it was found that turbulent fluctuations on the subgrid were found to give rise to statistically lower than average propagation velocities on the wave front. This lead to longer ignition delays for large amounts of gas passing through the wave, giving rise to the unburned pockets of gas observed experimentally. Authors would like to acknowledge NSERC and Shell for project funding.

  15. Cycles of judicial and executive power in irregular migration. (United States)

    Marmo, Marinella; Giannacopoulos, Maria


    This article argues that power struggles between judiciaries and executives are fuelled by tensions of securitisation, border control and human rights over the issue of irregular migration. The article juxtaposes three paradigm court cases to render the argument concrete, focusing on two Australian High Court decisions (M70 v Minister for Immigration and Citizenship and CPCF v. Minister for Immigration and Border Protection & Anor) and one decision from the European Court of Human Rights (Hirsi Jamaa and Others v. Italy). An examination of these cases reveals each step of this cycle: the executive attempts to produce a buffer to avoid or minimise migrants' protections and judicial review, yet such manoeuvring is countered by the judges. Following this, new steps of the cycle occur: governments display disappointment to courts' interventions in an effort to discredit the exercise of judicial power while the judiciaries maintain the focus on the rule of law. And so the cycle continues. The key argument of this paper rests on the paradox resulting from the executive's attempts to curb judicial intervention, because such attempts actually empower judiciaries. Comparing different jurisdictions highlights how this cyclical power struggle is a defining element between these two arms of power across distinct legal-geographical boundaries. By tracing this development in Australia and in Europe, this article demonstrates that the argument has global significance.

  16. Five Separate Bias Contributions in Time Series Models for Equidistantly Resampled Irregular Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broersen, P.M.T.


    The use of time series models for irregular data requires resampling of the data on an equidistant grid. Slotted resampling transforms an irregular randomly sampled process into an equidistant signal where data are missing. An approximate maximum-likelihood time series estimator has been developed

  17. Irregular designs and Darwinism in biology: Genomes as the test case

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B J Rao

    Designs and functions are highly interlinked, perhaps much more so in living rather than in non-living systems. Interestingly, designs are largely non-Euclidian and irregular across several length scales in the biological world. It is intriguing to fathom how irregular shapes, bestowed with high dynamic properties, end up ...

  18. Breaking Down Anonymity: Digital surveillance on irregular migrants in Germany and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.W.J. Broeders (Dennis)


    textabstractThe presence of irregular migrants causes a tough problem for policy makers. Political and popular aversion against the presence of irregular migrants has mounted in most West-European societies for years, yet their presence remains. Their exact numbers are obviously unknown - only

  19. Are irregular hypoechoic breast masses on ultrasound always malignancies?: A Pictorial essay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Youe Ree; Kim, Hun Soo; Kim, Hye Won [Wonkwang University Hospital, Iksan (Korea, Republic of)


    Irregular hypoechoic masses in the breast do not always indicate malignancies. Many benign breast diseases present with irregular hypoechoic masses that can mimic carcinoma on ultrasonography. Some of these diseases such as inflammation and trauma-related breast lesions could be suspected from a patient's symptoms and personal history. Careful ultrasonographic examination and biopsy could help to differentiate these from malignancies.

  20. The influence of surface irregularities upon the Van der Waals forces between macroscopic bodies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bree, J.L.M.J. van; Poulis, J.A.; Verhaar, B.J.; Schram, K.


    An expression is derived for the Van der Waals force between two semi-infinite bodies with small surface irregularities. Calculations are given both for the plane-plane and the plane-sphere configuration. The value of the correction from the surface irregularities upon the Van der Waals force is

  1. Crime among irregular immigrants and the influence of internal border control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leerkes, A.S.; Engbersen, G.; Leun, van der J.P.


    Abstract Both the number of crime suspects without legal status and the number of irregular or undocumented immigrants held in detention facilities increased substantially in theNetherlands between 1997 and 2003. In this period, theDutch state increasingly attempted to exclude irregular immigrants

  2. Crime among irregular immigrants and the influence of internal border control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.S. Leerkes (Arjen); G.B.M. Engbersen (Godfried); J.P. van der Leun (Joanne)


    textabstractBoth the number of crime suspects without legal status and the number of irregular or undocumented immigrants held in detention facilities increased substantially in theNetherlands between 1997 and 2003. In this period, theDutch state increasingly attempted to exclude irregular

  3. Parametric pitch instability investigation of Deep Draft Semi-submersible platform in irregular waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan Mao


    Full Text Available Parametric pitch instability of a Deep Draft Semi-submersible platform (DDS is investigated in irregular waves. Parametric pitch is a form of parametric instability, which occurs when parameters of a system vary with time and the variation satisfies a certain condition. In previous studies, analyzing of parametric instability is mainly limited to regular waves, whereas the realistic sea conditions are irregular waves. Besides, parametric instability also occurs in irregular waves in some experiments. This study predicts parametric pitch of a Deep Draft Semi-submersible platform in irregular waves. Heave motion of DDS is simulated by wave spectrum and response amplitude operator (RAO. Then Hill equation for DDS pitch motion in irregular waves is derived based on linear-wave theory. By using Bubnov-Galerkin approach to solve Hill equation, the corresponding stability chart is obtained. The differences between regular-waves stability chart and irregular-waves stability chart are compared. Then the sensitivity of wave parameters on DDS parametric pitch in irregular waves is discussed. Based on the discussion, some suggestions for the DDS design are proposed to avoid parametric pitch by choosing appropriate parameters. The results indicate that it's important and necessary to predict DDS parametric pitch in irregular waves during design process.

  4. On the Distinction between Regular and Irregular Inflectional Morphology: Evidence from Dinka (United States)

    Ladd, D. Robert; Remijsen, Bert; Manyang, Caguor Adong


    Discussions of the psycholinguistic significance of regularity in inflectional morphology generally deal with languages in which regular forms can be clearly identified and revolve around whether there are distinct processing mechanisms for regular and irregular forms. We present a detailed description of Dinka's notoriously irregular noun number…

  5. Influence of initial stress, irregularity and heterogeneity on Love-type ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    elastic shear waves in an irregular monoclinic layer. Chattopadhyay et al. (1983) studied the propaga- tion of an SH-guided wave in an internal stratum with a parabolic irregularity in the lower interface. Chattopadhyay and De (1983) studied the propa- gation of Love waves in a porous layer underlain by isotropic elastic ...

  6. Effects of poroelastic coefficients on normal vibration modes in vocal-fold tissues. (United States)

    Tao, Chao; Liu, Xiaojun


    The vocal-fold tissue is treated as a transversally isotropic fluid-saturated porous material. Effects of poroelastic coefficients on eigenfrequencies and eigenmodes of the vocal-fold vibration are investigated using the Ritz method. The study demonstrates that the often-used elastic model is only a particular case of the poroelastic model with an infinite fluid-solid mass coupling parameter. The elastic model may be considered appropriate for the vocal-fold tissue when the absolute value of the fluid-solid mass coupling parameter is larger than 10(5) kg/m(3). Otherwise, the poroelastic model may be more accurate. The degree of compressibility of the vocal tissue can also been described by the poroelastic coefficients. Finally, it is revealed that the liquid and solid components in a poroelastic model could have different modal shapes when the coupling between them is weak. The mode decoupling could cause desynchronization and irregular vibration of the folds.

  7. Ultrasonic metal welding with a vibration source using longitudinal and torsional vibration transducers (United States)

    Asami, Takuya; Tamada, Yosuke; Higuchi, Yusuke; Miura, Hikaru


    Conventional ultrasonic metal welding for joining dissimilar metals uses a linear vibration locus, although this method suffers from problems such as low overall weld strength. Our previous studies have shown that ultrasonic welding with a planar vibration locus improves the weld strength. However, the vibration source in our previous studies had problems in longitudinal-torsional vibration controllability and small welding tip. Therefore, the study of the optimal shape of the vibration locus was difficult. Furthermore, improvement of weld strength cannot be expected. We have developed a new ultrasonic vibration source that can control the longitudinal-torsional vibration and can connect to a large welding tip. In this study, we clarified the longitudinal-torsional vibration controllability of the developed ultrasonic vibration source. Moreover, we clarified that using the planar locus of the developed vibration source produced a higher weld strength than our previous studies, and clarified the optimal shape of the vibration locus.

  8. Plasma Irregularity Production in the Polar Cap F-Region Ionosphere (United States)

    Lamarche, Leslie

    Plasma in the Earth's ionosphere is highly irregular on scales ranging between a few centimeters and hundreds of kilometers. Small-scale irregularities or plasma waves can scatter radio waves resulting in a loss of signal for navigation and communication networks. The polar region is particularly susceptible to strong disturbances due to its direct connection with the Sun's magnetic field and energetic particles. In this thesis, factors that contribute to the production of decameter-scale plasma irregularities in the polar F region ionosphere are investigated. Both global and local control of irregularity production are studied, i.e. we consider global solar control through solar illumination and solar wind as well as much more local control by plasma density gradients and convection electric field. In the first experimental study, solar control of irregularity production is investigated using the Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN) radar at McMurdo, Antarctica. The occurrence trends for irregularities are analyzed statistically and a model is developed that describes the location of radar echoes within the radar's field-of-view. The trends are explained through variations in background plasma density with solar illumination affecting radar beam propagation. However, it is found that the irregularity occurrence during the night is higher than expected from ray tracing simulations based on a standard ionospheric density model. The high occurrence at night implies an additional source of plasma density and it is proposed that large-scale density enhancements called polar patches may be the source of this density. Additionally, occurrence maximizes around the terminator due to different competing irregularity production processes that favor a more or less sunlit ionosphere. The second study is concerned with modeling irregularity characteristics near a large-scale density gradient reversal, such as those expected near polar patches, with a particular focus on

  9. Menstrual Irregularity and Musculoskeletal Injury in Female High School Athletes (United States)

    Thein-Nissenbaum, Jill M.; Rauh, Mitchell J.; Carr, Kathleen E.; Loud, Keith J.; McGuine, Timothy A.


    Context: The female athlete triad describes the interrelatedness of energy availability, menstrual function, and bone density. Although associations between triad components and musculoskeletal injury (INJ) have been reported in collegiate athletes, limited information exists about menstrual irregularity (MI) and INJ in the high school population. Objective: To determine the prevalence of and relationship between MI and INJ in high school athletes. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: High schools. Patients or Other Participants: The sample consisted of 249 female athletes from 3 high schools who competed in 33 interscholastic, school-sponsored sport teams, dance teams, and cheerleading or pom-pon squad during the 2006–2007 school year. Each athlete remained on the roster throughout the season. Main Outcome Measure(s): Participants completed a survey regarding injury type, number of days of sport participation missed, and menstrual history in the past year. Results: The prevalences of MI and INJ were 19.7% and 63.1%, respectively. Athletes who reported MI sustained a higher percentage of severe injuries (missing ≥22 days of practice or competition) than did athletes who reported normal menses. Although the trend was not significant, athletes with MI were almost 3 times more likely to sustain an injury resulting in 7 or more days of time lost from sport (odds ratio = 2.7, 95% confidence interval = 0.8, 8.8) than those who sustained an injury resulting in 7 or fewer days of time lost. Conclusions: The incidences of MI and INJ in this high school population during the study period were high. Athletes who reported MI sustained a higher percentage of severe injuries than did athletes who reported normal menses. Education programs to increase knowledge and improve management of MI and its potential effects on injury in female high school athletes are warranted. PMID:22488233

  10. An experimental study of light scattering by large, irregular particles (United States)

    Mcguire, Audrey F.; Hapke, Bruce W.


    The intensity and polarization of light scattered by a variety of types of artificial partices large compared to the wavelength were measured as a function of phase angle. Shape, surface roughness, absorption coefficient, and internal scattering coefficient were varied systematically and their effects studied. Scattering by clear, smooth-surfaced spheres is in quantitative agreement with the predictions of the geometrical optics (ray theory) approximation to physical optics (Mie theory). The phase functions of almost all of the particles measured have both forward and backward scattering lobes. A two-parameter, double Henyey-Greenstein function generally provides reasonably good descriptions of the data, while keeping the number of free parameters to the minimum necessary. On a double Henyey- Greenstein parameter plot all of the particles fall into an L-shaped area of restricted size in which the location is characteristic of the particle type. Formalisms based on the equivalent slab model are also given for estimating the scattering efficiency of a large, irregular particle. For most dielectric particles the transmitted, forward scattered light is partially negatively polarized. It is this component that is respopnsible for the well-known maximum in the polarization curves of planetary regoliths at phase angles around 100 deg. For phase angles between about 30 deg and 70 deg the internally scattered light is found to be randomly polarized in the particles studied here, so that the only contribution to the second component of the Stokes vector is by Fresnel reflection from the particle surface. If this empirical result is general, measurement of the second Stokes vector of the light scattered from a regolith at these angles may provide a method of remotely measuring the mean refractive index.

  11. TINITALY/01: a new Triangular Irregular Network of Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. T. Pareschi


    Full Text Available A new Digital Elevation Model (DEM of the natural landforms of Italy is presented. A methodology is discussed to build a DEM over wide areas where elevation data from non-homogeneous (in density and accuracy input sources are available. The input elevation data include contour lines and spot heights derived from the Italian Regional topographic maps, satellite-based global positioning system points, ground based and radar altimetry data. Owing to the great heterogeneity of the input data density, the DEM format that better preserves the original accuracy is a Triangular Irregular Network (TIN. A Delaunay-based TIN structure is improved by using the DEST algorithm that enhances input data by evaluating inferred break-lines. Accordingly to this approach, biased distributions in slopes and elevations are absent. To prevent discontinuities at the boundary between regions characterized by data with different resolution a cubic Hermite blending weight S-shaped function is adopted. The TIN of Italy consists of 1.39×109 triangles. The average triangle area ranges from 12 to about 13000 m2 accordingly to different morphologies and different sources. About 50% of the model has a local average triangle area <500 m2. The vertical accuracy of the obtained DEM is evaluated by more than 200000 sparse control points. The overall Root Mean Square Error (RMSE is less than 3.5 m. The obtained national-scale DEM constitutes an useful support to carry out accurate geomorphological and geological investigations over large areas. The problem of choosing the best step size in deriving a grid from a TIN is then discussed and a method to quantify the loss of vertical information is presented as a function of the grid step. Some examples of DEM application are outlined. Under request, an high resolution stereo image database of the whole Italian territory (derived from the presented DEM is available to browse via internet.

  12. Menstrual irregularity and musculoskeletal injury in female high school athletes. (United States)

    Thein-Nissenbaum, Jill M; Rauh, Mitchell J; Carr, Kathleen E; Loud, Keith J; McGuine, Timothy A


    The female athlete triad describes the interrelatedness of energy availability, menstrual function, and bone density. Although associations between triad components and musculoskeletal injury (INJ) have been reported in collegiate athletes, limited information exists about menstrual irregularity (MI) and INJ in the high school population. To determine the prevalence of and relationship between MI and INJ in high school athletes. Cross-sectional study. High schools. The sample consisted of 249 female athletes from 3 high schools who competed in 33 interscholastic, school-sponsored sport teams, dance teams, and cheerleading or pom-pon squad during the 2006-2007 school year. Each athlete remained on the roster throughout the season. Participants completed a survey regarding injury type, number of days of sport participation missed, and menstrual history in the past year. The prevalences of M I and INJ were 19.7% and 63.1 %, respectively. Athletes who reported MI sustained a higher percentage of severe injuries (missing ≥ 22 days of practice or competition) than did athletes who reported normal menses. Although the trend was not significant, athletes with MI were almost 3 times more likely to sustain an injury resulting in 7 or more days of time lost from sport (odds ratio = 2.7, 95% confidence interval = 0.8, 8.8) than those who sustained an injury resulting in 7 or fewer days of time lost. The incidences of MI and INJ in this high school population during the study period were high. Athletes who reported MI sustained a higher percentage of severe injuries than did athletes who reported normal menses. Education programs to increase knowledge and improve management of MI and its potential effects on injury in female high school athletes are warranted.

  13. Effect of Vibration on Pain Response to Heel Lance: A Pilot Randomized Control Trial. (United States)

    McGinnis, Kate; Murray, Eileen; Cherven, Brooke; McCracken, Courtney; Travers, Curtis


    Applied mechanical vibration in pediatric and adult populations has been shown to be an effective analgesic for acute and chronic pain, including needle pain. Studies among the neonatal population are lacking. According to the Gate Control Theory, it is expected that applied mechanical vibration will have a summative effect with standard nonpharmacologic pain control strategies, reducing behavioral and physiologic pain responses to heel lancing. To determine the safety and efficacy of mechanical vibration for relief of heel lance pain among neonates. In this parallel design randomized controlled trial, eligible enrolled term or term-corrected neonates (n = 56) in a level IV neonatal intensive care unit were randomized to receive either sucrose and swaddling or sucrose, swaddling, and vibration for heel lance analgesia. Vibration was applied using a handheld battery-powered vibrator (Norco MiniVibrator, Hz = 92) to the lateral aspect of the lower leg along the sural dermatome throughout the heel lance procedure. Neonatal Pain, Agitation, and Sedation Scale (N-PASS) scores, heart rate, and oxygen saturations were collected at defined intervals surrounding heel lancing. Infants in the vibration group (n = 30) had significantly lower N-PASS scores and more stable heart rates during heel stick (P = .006, P = .037) and 2 minutes after heel lance (P = .002, P = .016) than those in the nonvibration group. There were no adverse behavioral or physiologic responses to applied vibration in the sample. Applied mechanical vibration is a safe and effective method for managing heel lance pain. This pilot study suggests that mechanical vibration warrants further exploration as a nonpharmacologic pain management tool among the neonatal population.

  14. Mechanical Vibrations Modeling and Measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Schmitz, Tony L


    Mechanical Vibrations:Modeling and Measurement describes essential concepts in vibration analysis of mechanical systems. It incorporates the required mathematics, experimental techniques, fundamentals of modal analysis, and beam theory into a unified framework that is written to be accessible to undergraduate students,researchers, and practicing engineers. To unify the various concepts, a single experimental platform is used throughout the text to provide experimental data and evaluation. Engineering drawings for the platform are included in an appendix. Additionally, MATLAB programming solutions are integrated into the content throughout the text. This book also: Discusses model development using frequency response function measurements Presents a clear connection between continuous beam models and finite degree of freedom models Includes MATLAB code to support numerical examples that are integrated into the text narrative Uses mathematics to support vibrations theory and emphasizes the practical significanc...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin E. Cobern


    The deep hard rock drilling environment induces severe vibrations into the drillstring, which can cause reduced rates of penetration (ROP) and premature failure of the equipment. The only current means of controlling vibration under varying conditions is to change either the rotary speed or the weight-on-bit (WOB). These changes often reduce drilling efficiency. Conventional shock subs are useful in some situations, but often exacerbate the problems. The objective of this project is development of a unique system to monitor and control drilling vibrations in a ''smart'' drilling system. This system has two primary elements: (1) The first is an active vibration damper (AVD) to minimize harmful axial, lateral and torsional vibrations. The hardness of this damper will be continuously adjusted using a robust, fast-acting and reliable unique technology. (2) The second is a real-time system to monitor drillstring vibration, and related parameters. This monitor adjusts the damper according to local conditions. In some configurations, it may also send diagnostic information to the surface via real-time telemetry. The AVD is implemented in a configuration using magnetorheological (MR) fluid. By applying a current to the magnetic coils in the damper, the viscosity of the fluid can be changed rapidly, thereby altering the damping coefficient in response to the measured motion of the tool. Phase I of this program entailed modeling and design of the necessary subsystems and design, manufacture and test of a full laboratory prototype. Phase I of the project was completed by the revised end date of May 31, 2004. The objectives of this phase were met, and all prerequisites for Phase II have been completed.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin E. Cobern


    The deep hard rock drilling environment induces severe vibrations into the drillstring, which can cause reduced rates of penetration (ROP) and premature failure of the equipment. The only current means of controlling vibration under varying conditions is to change either the rotary speed or the weight-on-bit (WOB). These changes often reduce drilling efficiency. Conventional shock subs are useful in some situations, but often exacerbate the problems. The objective of this project is development of a unique system to monitor and control drilling vibrations in a ''smart'' drilling system. This system has two primary elements: (1) The first is an active vibration damper (AVD) to minimize harmful axial, lateral and torsional vibrations. The hardness of this damper will be continuously adjusted using a robust, fast-acting and reliable unique technology. (2) The second is a real-time system to monitor drillstring vibration, and related parameters. This monitor adjusts the damper according to local conditions. In some configurations, it may also send diagnostic information to the surface via real-time telemetry. The AVD is implemented in a configuration using magnetorheological (MR) fluid. By applying a current to the magnetic coils in the damper, the viscosity of the fluid can be changed rapidly, thereby altering the damping coefficient in response to the measured motion of the tool. Phase I of this program entailed modeling and design of the necessary subsystems and design, manufacture and test of a full laboratory prototype. Phase I of the project was completed by the revised end date of May 31, 2004. The objectives of this phase were met, and all prerequisites for Phase II have been completed. The month of June, 2004 was primarily occupied with the writing of the Phase I Final Report, the sole deliverable of Phase I, which will be submitted in the next quarter. Redesign of the laboratory prototype and design of the downhole (Phase II) prototype was


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McQuinn, Kristen B. W.; Mitchell, Noah P.; Skillman, Evan D., E-mail: [Institute for Astrophysics, University of Minnesota, 116 Church Street, S.E., Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States)


    Understanding star formation in resolved low mass systems requires the integration of information obtained from observations at different wavelengths. We have combined new and archival multi-wavelength observations on a set of 20 nearby starburst and post-starburst dwarf galaxies to create a data archive of calibrated, homogeneously reduced images. Named the panchromatic “STARBurst IRregular Dwarf Survey” archive, the data are publicly accessible through the Mikulski Archive for Space Telescopes. This first release of the archive includes images from the Galaxy Evolution Explorer Telescope (GALEX), the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), and the Spitzer Space Telescope (Spitzer) Multiband Imaging Photometer instrument. The data sets include flux calibrated, background subtracted images, that are registered to the same world coordinate system. Additionally, a set of images are available that are all cropped to match the HST field of view. The GALEX and Spitzer images are available with foreground and background contamination masked. Larger GALEX images extending to 4 times the optical extent of the galaxies are also available. Finally, HST images convolved with a 5″ point spread function and rebinned to the larger pixel scale of the GALEX and Spitzer 24 μm images are provided. Future additions are planned that will include data at other wavelengths such as Spitzer IRAC, ground-based Hα, Chandra X-ray, and Green Bank Telescope H i imaging.

  18. Response to Tendon Vibration Questions the Underlying Rationale of Proprioceptive Training. (United States)

    Lubetzky, Anat Vilnai; McCoy, Sarah Westcott; Price, Robert; Kartin, Deborah


    Proprioceptive training on compliant surfaces is used to rehabilitate and prevent ankle sprains. The ability to improve proprioceptive function via such training has been questioned. Achilles tendon vibration is used in motor-control research as a form of proprioceptive stimulus. Using measures of postural steadiness with nonlinear measures to elucidate control mechanisms, tendon vibration can be applied to investigate the underlying rationale of proprioceptive training. To test whether the effect of vibration on young adults' postural control depended on the support surface. Descriptive laboratory study. Research laboratory. Thirty healthy adults and 10 adults with chronic ankle instability (CAI; age range = 18-40 years). With eyes open, participants stood in bilateral stance on a rigid plate (floor), memory foam, and a Both Sides Up (BOSU) ball covering a force platform. We applied bilateral Achilles tendon vibration for the middle 20 seconds in a series of 60-second trials and analyzed participants' responses from previbration to vibration (pre-vib) and from vibration to postvibration (vib-post). We calculated anterior-posterior excursion of the center of pressure and complexity index derived from the area under multiscale entropy curves. The excursion response to vibration differed by surface, as indicated by a significant interaction of P proprioceptive training may not be occurring. Different balance-training paradigms to target proprioception, including tendon vibration, should be explored.

  19. Stroboscopic shearography for vibration analysis (United States)

    Steinchen, Wolfgang; Kupfer, Gerhard; Maeckel, Peter; Voessing, Frank


    Digital Shearography, a laser interferometric technique in conjunction with the digital image processing, has the potential for vibration analysis due to its simple optical system and insensitivity against small rigid body motions. This paper will focus on its recent developments for vibration analysis and for nondestructive testing (NDT) by dynamic (harmonical) excitation. With the introduction of real time observation using automatically refreshing reference frame, both small and large rigid body motions are greatly suppressed. The development of a smaller and more mobile measuring device in conjunction with a user guided comfortable program Shearwin enables the digital shearography to be applied easily as an industrial online testing tool.

  20. Vibrational Collapse of Hexapod Packings (United States)

    Zhao, Yuchen; Ding, Jingqiu; Barés, Jonathan; Zheng, Hu; Dierichs, Karola; Menges, Achim; Behringer, Robert


    Columns made of convex noncohesive grains like sand collapse after being released from a confining container. However, structures built from non-convex grains can be stable without external support. In the current experiments, we investigate the effect of vibration on destroying such columns. The change of column height during vertical vibration, can be well characterized by stretched exponential relaxation when the column is short, which is in agreement with previous work, while a faster collapse happens when the column is tall. We investigate the collapse after the fast process including its dependence on column geometry, and on interparticle and basal friction.

  1. Innovative Techniques Simplify Vibration Analysis (United States)


    In the early years of development, Marshall Space Flight Center engineers encountered challenges related to components in the space shuttle main engine. To assess the problems, they evaluated the effects of vibration and oscillation. To enhance the method of vibration signal analysis, Marshall awarded Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts to AI Signal Research, Inc. (ASRI), in Huntsville, Alabama. ASRI developed a software package called PC-SIGNAL that NASA now employs on a daily basis, and in 2009, the PKP-Module won Marshall s Software of the Year award. The technology is also used in many industries: aircraft and helicopter, rocket engine manufacturing, transportation, and nuclear power."

  2. Rotational speed invariant fault diagnosis in bearings using vibration signal imaging and local binary patterns. (United States)

    Khan, Sheraz Ali; Kim, Jong-Myon


    Structural vibrations of bearing housings are used for diagnosing fault conditions in bearings, primarily by searching for characteristic fault frequencies in the envelope power spectrum of the vibration signal. The fault frequencies depend on the non-stationary angular speed of the rotating shaft. This paper explores an imaging-based approach to achieve rotational speed independence. Cycle length segments of the rectified vibration signal are stacked to construct grayscale images which exhibit unique textures for each fault. These textures show insignificant variation with the rotational speed, which is confirmed by the classification results using their local binary pattern histograms.

  3. Optimal Placement of Piezoelectric Plates to Control Multimode Vibrations of a Beam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Botta


    Full Text Available Damping of vibrations is often required to improve both the performance and the integrity of engineering structures, for example, gas turbine blades. In this paper, we explore the possibility of using piezoelectric plates to control the multimode vibrations of a cantilever beam. To develop an effective control strategy and optimize the placement of the active piezoelectric elements in terms of vibrations amplitude reduction, a procedure has been developed and a new analytical solution has been proposed. The results obtained have been corroborated by comparison with the results from a multiphysics finite elements package (COMSOL, results available in the literature, and experimental investigations carried out by the authors.

  4. The new vestibular stimuli: sound and vibration-anatomical, physiological and clinical evidence. (United States)

    Curthoys, Ian S


    The classical view of the otoliths-as flat plates of fairly uniform receptors activated by linear acceleration dragging on otoconia and so deflecting the receptor hair bundles-has been replaced by new anatomical and physiological evidence which shows that the maculae are much more complex. There is anatomical spatial differentiation across the macula in terms of receptor types, hair bundle heights, stiffness and attachment to the overlying otolithic membrane. This anatomical spatial differentiation corresponds to the neural spatial differentiation of response dynamics from the receptors and afferents from different regions of the otolithic maculae. Specifically, receptors in a specialized band of cells, the striola, are predominantly type I receptors, with short, stiff hair bundles and looser attachment to the overlying otoconial membrane than extrastriolar receptors. At the striola the hair bundles project into holes in the otolithic membrane, allowing for fluid displacement to deflect the hair bundles and activate the cell. This review shows the anatomical and physiological evidence supporting the hypothesis that fluid displacement, generated by sound or vibration, deflects the short stiff hair bundles of type I receptors at the striola, resulting in neural activation of the irregular afferents innervating them. So these afferents are activated by sound or vibration and show phase-locking to individual cycles of the sound or vibration stimulus up to frequencies above 2000 Hz, underpinning the use of sound and vibration for clinical tests of vestibular function.

  5. Energetics, structures, vibrational frequencies, vibrational absorption, vibrational circular dichroism and Raman intensities of Leu-enkephalin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jalkanen, Karl J.


    Here we present several low energy conformers of Leu-enkephalin (LeuE) calculated with the density functional theory using the Becke 3LYP hybrid functional and the 6-31G* basis set. The structures, conformational energies, vibrational frequencies, vibrational absorption (VA) intensities......, vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) intensities and Raman scattering intensities are reported for the conformers of LeuE which are expected to be populated at room temperature. The species of LeuE-present in non-polar solvents is the neutral non-ionic species with the NH2 and CO2H groups, in contrast...... to the zwitterionic neutral species with the NH3+ and CO2- groups which predominates in aqueous solution and in the crystal. All of our attempts to find the zwitterionic species in the isolated state failed, with the result that a hydrogen atom from the positively charged N-terminus ammonium group transferred either...

  6. Analysis of the Dynamic Response in the Railway Vehicles to the Track Vertical Irregularities. Part I: The Theoretical Model and the Vehicle Response Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dumitriu


    Full Text Available The paper herein focuses on the dynamic response of a two-bogie vehicle to the excitations derived from the track vertical irregularities. The symmetrical and antisymmetrical modes due from the bounce and pitch motions of the axles’ planes in the two bogies are being considered. The analysis of the dynamic response in the vehicle relies on the response functions in three reference points of the carbody, composed by means of these response functions to the symmetrical and antisymmetrical excitation modes. Similarly, the dynamic response of the vehicle to the track stochastic irregularities is examined and expressed as a power spectral density of the carbody vertical acceleration and the root mean square of the acceleration and the index of the partial comfort to the vertical vibrations is calculated. The paper is structured into two parts. The Part I includes all the theoretical elements required for the analysis of the dynamic response in the vehicle, while Part II introduces the results of the numerical analysis.

  7. Resonant vibration control of rotating beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Martin Nymann; Krenk, Steen; Høgsberg, Jan Becker


    Rotatingstructures,like e.g.wind turbine blades, may be prone to vibrations associated with particular modes of vibration. It is demonstrated, how this type of vibrations can be reduced by using a collocated sensor–actuator system, governed by a resonant controller. The theory is here demonstrated...... modal connectivity, only very limited modal spill-over is generated. The controller acts by resonance and therefore has only a moderate energy consumption, and successfully reduces modal vibrations at the resonance frequency....

  8. Target Tracking of a Linear Time Invariant System under Irregular Sampling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Xue-Bo


    Full Text Available Due to event-triggered sampling in a system, or maybe with the aim of reducing data storage, tracking many applications will encounter irregular sampling time. By calculating the matrix exponential using an inverse Laplace transform, this paper transforms the irregular sampling tracking problem to the problem of tracking with time-varying parameters of a system. Using the common Kalman filter, the developed method is used to track a target for the simulated trajectory and video tracking. The results of simulation experiments have shown that it can obtain good estimation performance even at a very high irregular rate of measurement sampling time.

  9. Irregular-regular mode oscillations inside plasma bubble and its fractal analysis in glow discharge magnetized plasma (United States)

    Megalingam, Mariammal; Hari Prakash, N.; Solomon, Infant; Sarma, Arun; Sarma, Bornali


    Experimental evidence of different kinds of oscillations in floating potential fluctuations of glow discharge magnetized plasma is being reported. A spherical gridded cage is inserted into the ambient plasma volume for creating plasma bubbles. Plasma is produced between a spherical mesh grid and chamber. The spherical mesh grid of 80% optical transparency is connected to the positive terminal of power supply and considered as anode. Two Langmuir probes are kept in the ambient plasma to measure the floating potential fluctuations in different positions within the system, viz., inside and outside the spherical mesh grid. At certain conditions of discharge voltage (Vd) and magnetic field, irregular to regular mode appears, and it shows chronological changes with respect to magnetic field. Further various nonlinear analyses such as Recurrence Plot, Hurst exponent, and Lyapunov exponent have been carried out to investigate the dynamics of oscillation at a range of discharge voltages and external magnetic fields. Determinism, entropy, and Lmax are important measures of Recurrence Quantification Analysis which indicate an irregular to regular transition in the dynamics of the fluctuations. Furthermore, behavior of the plasma oscillation is characterized by the technique called multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis to explore the nature of the fluctuations. It reveals that it has a multifractal nature and behaves as a long range correlated process.

  10. Low-energy isovector quadrupole vibrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faessler, A.; Nojarov, R.


    The low-lying isovector quadrupole vibrations are described by an extension of the vibrational model allowing independent proton and neutron vibrations coupled by the symmetry energy. The recently detected low-lying isovector states in nearly spherical nuclei with N=84 are described well concerning their energies and E2/M1 mixing ratios. (orig.).

  11. Ground Vibration Measurements at LHC Point 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertsche, Kirk; /SLAC; Gaddi, Andrea; /CERN


    Ground vibration was measured at Large Hadron Collider (LHC) Point 4 during the winter shutdown in February 2012. This report contains the results, including power and coherence spectra. We plan to collect and analyze vibration data from representative collider halls to inform specifications for future linear colliders, such as ILC and CLIC. We are especially interested in vibration correlations between final focus lens locations.

  12. Rotor Vibration Reduction via Active Hybrid Bearings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicoletti, Rodrigo; Santos, Ilmar


    The use of fluid power to reduce and control rotor vibration in rotating machines is investigated. An active hybrid bearing is studied, whose main objective is to reduce wear and vibration between rotating and stationary machinery parts. By injecting pressurised oil into the oil film, through...... with experiment, and simulations show the feasibility of controlling shaft vibration through this active device....

  13. 33 CFR 159.103 - Vibration test. (United States)


    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vibration test. 159.103 Section...) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.103 Vibration test. The device... subjected to a sinusoidal vibration for a period of 12 hours, 4 hours in each of the x, y, and z planes, at...

  14. 14 CFR 27.907 - Engine vibration. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Engine vibration. 27.907 Section 27.907... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant General § 27.907 Engine vibration. (a) Each engine must be installed to prevent the harmful vibration of any part of the engine or rotorcraft. (b) The addition of the...

  15. 14 CFR 29.251 - Vibration. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Vibration. 29.251 Section 29.251... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight Miscellaneous Flight Requirements § 29.251 Vibration. Each part of the rotorcraft must be free from excessive vibration under each appropriate speed and power...

  16. 14 CFR 29.907 - Engine vibration. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Engine vibration. 29.907 Section 29.907... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant General § 29.907 Engine vibration. (a) Each engine must be installed to prevent the harmful vibration of any part of the engine or rotorcraft. (b) The...

  17. 14 CFR 27.251 - Vibration. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Vibration. 27.251 Section 27.251... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight Miscellaneous Flight Requirements § 27.251 Vibration. Each part of the rotorcraft must be free from excessive vibration under each appropriate speed and power...

  18. 49 CFR 178.608 - Vibration standard. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vibration standard. 178.608 Section 178.608... Testing of Non-bulk Packagings and Packages § 178.608 Vibration standard. (a) Each packaging must be capable of withstanding, without rupture or leakage, the vibration test procedure outlined in this section...

  19. 49 CFR 178.985 - Vibration test. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vibration test. 178.985 Section 178.985... Testing of Large Packagings § 178.985 Vibration test. (a) General. All rigid Large Packaging and flexible Large Packaging design types must be capable of withstanding the vibration test. (b) Test method. (1) A...

  20. Vibration measurements on timber frame floors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuilen, J.W.G. van de; Oosterhout, G.P.C. van; Donkervoort, R.


    In the design of lightweight floors vibrational aspects become more and more important. With the foreseen introduction of Eurocode 5 the vibration of timber floors becomes a part of the design for serviceability. Design rules for the vibrational behaviour are given in Eurocode 5. The first rule is

  1. Vibrations in a moving flexible robot arm (United States)

    Wang, P. K. C.; Wei, Jin-Duo


    The vibration in a flexible robot arm modeled by a moving slender prismatic beam is considered. It is found that the extending and contracting motions have destabilizing and stabilizing effects on the vibratory motions, respectively. The vibration analysis is based on a Galerkin approximation with time-dependent basis functions. Typical numerical results are presented to illustrate the qualitative features of vibrations.

  2. Vibration Theory, Vol. 1A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren R. K.

    The present collection of solved problems has been published as a supplement to the textbook Svingningsteori. Bind 1. Lineær svingningsteori,Aalborg tekniske Universitetsforlag, 1991, whicj is used in the introductory course on linear vibration theory that is being given on th e8th semester...

  3. Vibration Damping Circuit Card Assembly (United States)

    Hunt, Ronald Allen (Inventor)


    A vibration damping circuit card assembly includes a populated circuit card having a mass M. A closed metal container is coupled to a surface of the populated circuit card at approximately a geometric center of the populated circuit card. Tungsten balls fill approximately 90% of the metal container with a collective mass of the tungsten balls being approximately (0.07) M.

  4. Wideband Piezomagnetoelastic Vibration Energy Harvesting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lei, Anders; Thomsen, Erik Vilain


    This work presents a small-scale wideband piezomagnetoelastic vibration energy harvester (VEH) aimed for operation at frequencies of a few hundred Hz. The VEH consists of a tape-casted PZT cantilever with thin sheets of iron foil attached on each side of the free tip. The wideband operation...

  5. Ultrafast vibrations of gold nanorings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelf, T; Tanaka, Y; Matsuda, O


    We investigate the vibrational modes of gold nanorings on a silica substrate with an ultrafast optical technique. By comparison with numerical simulations, we identify several resonances in the gigahertz range associated with axially symmetric deformations of the nanoring and substrate. We...

  6. Effect of shelf aging on vibration transmissibility of anti-vibration gloves. (United States)

    Shibata, Nobuyuki


    Anti-vibration gloves have been used in real workplaces to reduce vibration transmitted through hand-held power tools to the hand. Generally materials used for vibration attenuation in gloves are resilient materials composed of certain synthetic and/or composite polymers. The mechanical characteristics of the resilient materials used in anti-vibration gloves are prone to be influenced by environmental conditions such as temperature, humidity, and photo-irradiation, which cause material degradation and aging. This study focused on the influence of shelf aging on the vibration attenuation performance of air-packaged anti-vibration gloves following 2 years of shelf aging. Effects of shelf aging on the vibration attenuation performance of anti-vibration gloves were examined according to the Japan industrial standard JIS T8114 test protocol. The findings indicate that shelf aging induces the reduction of vibration attenuation performance in air-packaged anti-vibration gloves.

  7. A Hybrid Finite Element-Fourier Spectral Method for Vibration Analysis of Structures with Elastic Boundary Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan-You Li


    Full Text Available A novel hybrid method, which simultaneously possesses the efficiency of Fourier spectral method (FSM and the applicability of the finite element method (FEM, is presented for the vibration analysis of structures with elastic boundary conditions. The FSM, as one type of analytical approaches with excellent convergence and accuracy, is mainly limited to problems with relatively regular geometry. The purpose of the current study is to extend the FSM to problems with irregular geometry via the FEM and attempt to take full advantage of the FSM and the conventional FEM for structural vibration problems. The computational domain of general shape is divided into several subdomains firstly, some of which are represented by the FSM while the rest by the FEM. Then, fictitious springs are introduced for connecting these subdomains. Sufficient details are given to describe the development of such a hybrid method. Numerical examples of a one-dimensional Euler-Bernoulli beam and a two-dimensional rectangular plate show that the present method has good accuracy and efficiency. Further, one irregular-shaped plate which consists of one rectangular plate and one semi-circular plate also demonstrates the capability of the present method applied to irregular structures.

  8. Organizing for Irregular Warfare: Implications for the Brigade Combat Team (United States)


    military. Actual and potential improvements in information technologies, precision weapons, armor, and robotic capabilities have launched a theoretical...and firepower given the uncertainty and ambiguity of future conventional war,142 other authors have begun nudging discussions about Army...These specialists are in extremely limited supply in Iraq and Afghanistan today. The Army is exploring increased robotics technology that can

  9. The effects of sound level and vibration magnitude on the relative discomfort of noise and vibration. (United States)

    Huang, Yu; Griffin, Michael J


    The relative discomfort caused by noise and vibration, how this depends on the level of noise and the magnitude of vibration, and whether the noise and vibration are presented simultaneously or sequentially has been investigated in a laboratory study with 20 subjects. Noise and vertical vibration were reproduced with all 49 combinations of 7 levels of noise and 7 magnitudes of vibration to allow the discomfort caused by one of the stimuli to be judged relative to the other stimulus using magnitude estimation. In four sessions, subjects judged noise relative to vibration and vibration relative to noise, with both simultaneous and sequential presentations of the stimuli. The equivalence of noise and vibration was not greatly dependent on whether the stimuli were simultaneous or sequential, but highly dependent on whether noise was judged relative to vibration or vibration was judged relative to noise. When judging noise, higher magnitude vibrations appeared to mask the discomfort caused by low levels of noise. When judging vibration, higher level noises appeared to mask the discomfort caused by low magnitudes of vibration. The judgment of vibration discomfort was more influenced by noise than the judgment of noise discomfort was influenced by vibration.

  10. Irregular singularities in Liouville theory and Argyres-Douglas type gauge theories, I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaiotto, D. [Institute for Advanced Study (IAS), Princeton, NJ (United States); Teschner, J. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)


    Motivated by problems arising in the study of N=2 supersymmetric gauge theories we introduce and study irregular singularities in two-dimensional conformal field theory, here Liouville theory. Irregular singularities are associated to representations of the Virasoro algebra in which a subset of the annihilation part of the algebra act diagonally. In this paper we define natural bases for the space of conformal blocks in the presence of irregular singularities, describe how to calculate their series expansions, and how such conformal blocks can be constructed by some delicate limiting procedure from ordinary conformal blocks. This leads us to a proposal for the structure functions appearing in the decomposition of physical correlation functions with irregular singularities into conformal blocks. Taken together, we get a precise prediction for the partition functions of some Argyres-Douglas type theories on S{sup 4}. (orig.)

  11. Numerical model of towing dynamics of a long flexible life raft in irregular waves

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Raman-Nair, Wayne; Millan, James P (Jim); Power, Jonathan Thomas; Simoes Ré, Antonio J


    The equations of motion for the coupled dynamics of a long flexible liferaft and fast rescue craft in an irregular ocean wave are formulated in two dimensions using the methods of Kane and Levinson (1985...

  12. Effect of perception irregularity on chain-reaction crash in low visibility (United States)

    Nagatani, Takashi


    We present the dynamic model of the chain-reaction crash to take into account the irregularity of the perception-reaction time. When a driver brakes according to taillights of the forward vehicle, the perception-reaction time varies from driver to driver. We study the effect of the perception irregularity on the chain-reaction crash (multiple-vehicle collision) in low-visibility condition. The first crash may induce more collisions. We investigate how the first collision induces the chain-reaction crash numerically. We derive, analytically, the transition points and the region maps for the chain-reaction crash in traffic flow of vehicles with irregular perception times. We clarify the effect of the perception irregularity on the multiple-vehicle collision.

  13. An investigation of ionospheric irregularity effects on SIR-B image processing and information extraction (United States)

    Szuszczewicz, E. P.; Abdu, M. A.; Sobral, J. H. A.; Jost, J.; Reddy, B. M.; Rino, C.; Robinson, T.; Rodrigues, P.; Singh, M.; Woodman, R.


    Ionospheric irregularities and associated effects on space-time synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image processing and information extraction, including sensor calibration, target statistics determination, resolution, distortion, and overall image integrity were investigated.

  14. Design and Analysis of Printed Reflectarrays with Irregularly Positioned Array Elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Min; Sørensen, Stig; Meincke, Peter


    The design and analysis of printed reflectarrays with irregularly positioned array elements is presented. An accurate and efficient power pattern synthesis procedure, based on the Local Periodicity approach (LP) and the minimax optimization algorithm has been implemented. The analysis accuracy...

  15. On Impulsive Boundary Value Problems of Fractional Differential Equations with Irregular Boundary Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guotao Wang


    Full Text Available We study nonlinear impulsive differential equations of fractional order with irregular boundary conditions. Some existence and uniqueness results are obtained by applying standard fixed-point theorems. For illustration of the results, some examples are discussed.

  16. High attack rate for malaria through irregular migration routes to a country on verge of elimination

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wickramage, Kolitha; Premaratne, Risintha G; Peiris, Sharika L; Mosca, Davide


    ... of imported cases in Sri Lanka as it entered elimination phase. Beyond the criminality and human rights abuse, irregular migration plays an important, but often forgotten, pathway for malaria re-introduction...

  17. The encoding of temporally irregular and regular visual patterns in the human brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semir Zeki


    Full Text Available In the work reported here, we set out to study the neural systems that detect predictable temporal patterns and departures from them. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to locate activity in the brains of subjects when they viewed temporally regular and irregular patterns produced by letters, numbers, colors and luminance. Activity induced by irregular sequences was located within dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, including an area that was responsive to irregular patterns regardless of the type of visual stimuli producing them. Conversely, temporally regular arrangements resulted in activity in the right frontal lobe (medial frontal gyrus, in the left orbito-frontal cortex and in the left pallidum. The results show that there is an abstractive system in the brain for detecting temporal irregularity, regardless of the source producing it.

  18. Spelling pronunciation and visual preview both facilitate learning to spell irregular word

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilte, M.; Reitsma, P.


    Spelling pronunciations are hypothesized to be helpful in building up relatively stable phonologically underpinned orthographic representations, particularly for learning words with irregular phoneme-grapheme correspondences. In a four-week computer-based training, the efficacy of spelling

  19. Transient vibration of wind turbine blades (United States)

    Li, Yuanzhe; Li, Minghai; Jiang, Feng


    This article aims to the transient vibration of wind turbine blades. We firstly introduce transient vibration and previous studies in this area. The report then shows the fundamental equations and derivation of Euler Equation. A 3-D beam are created to compare the analytical and numerical result. In addition we operate the existing result and Patran result of a truncation wedge beam, especially the frequencies of free vibration and transient vibration. Transient vibration cannot be vanished but in some case it can be reduced.

  20. Non-stationary random vibration analysis of three-dimensional train-bridge systems (United States)

    Zhang, Z. C.; Lin, J. H.; Zhang, Y. H.; Howson, W. P.; Williams, F. W.


    This paper presents a new non-stationary random vibration technique for the analysis of three-dimensional, time-dependent, train-bridge systems that are subjected to excitations caused by track irregularities. It is based on the pseudo-excitation method (PEM), which was previously applicable only to time-invariant systems, but is extended herein and the result is strictly proven to be applicable to time-dependent systems. The analysis proceeds by taking time lags between the wheel excitations into account, in order that the effects of track irregularity can be regarded as a set of three-dimensional, uniformly modulated, multi-point, different-phase, non-stationary random excitations. This enables the random surface roughness of the track to be transformed using PEM into the superposition of a series of deterministic pseudo-harmonic surface irregularities. The precise integration method is then extended to compute the corresponding pseudo responses. By using these pseudo-responses, various non-stationary random responses, including the time-dependent PSD and RMS of the system, can be obtained conveniently and efficiently. Numerical examples show the effectiveness and accuracy of the present method by comparison with Monte Carlo simulation. Additionally, the characteristics of such non-stationary random responses are discussed.

  1. Irregular sleep habits of parents are associated with increased sleep problems and daytime sleepiness of children. (United States)

    Komada, Yoko; Adachi, Naomi; Matsuura, Noriko; Mizuno, Koh; Hirose, Kazuhiro; Aritomi, Ryoji; Shirakawa, Shuichiro


    Longitudinal studies in Japan indicate that nocturnal sleep onset has become later and sleep duration has been progressively shortened. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between sleep patterns and sleep problems among children, and to determine the association between parents and their children's sleep habits. Questionnaires about sleep problems and life habits were administered to families living in Tokyo metropolitan areas of Japan. We analyzed the data of pre-school-age (1-5 years old; n = 319, including 175 girls) and elementary school-age children (6-11 years; n = 217, including 116 girls) as well as their parents (402 mothers: 37.0 +/- 4.9 years, 402 fathers: 39.0 +/- 5.9 years). Subjects were categorized as morning (evening) type when they answered their lifestyle habit as "definitely or moderately morning (evening) type". Sleep was categorized into regular, irregular, and intermediate from the sleeping-waking regularity scores. The frequency of daytime dozing is significantly high in children with evening-irregular sleep. Moreover, mothers of children (aged 1-5 and 6-11 years) with evening-irregular sleep have significantly more irregular sleep habits than those of children with morning-regular sleep. Likewise, fathers of children (aged 1-5 years) with evening-irregular sleep have significantly more irregular sleep habits. Thus, irregular late bedtime of parents is associated with sleep problems, daytime sleepiness, and irregular dietary habits of children. Mothers' sleep habits have a stronger influence on their children's sleep than fathers'. Our study indicates the importance of promoting sleep hygiene that encourages healthy sleep for all family members.

  2. An Efficient Heuristic Approach for Irregular Cutting Stock Problem in Ship Building Industry


    Yan-xin Xu


    This paper presents an efficient approach for solving a real two-dimensional irregular cutting stock problem in ship building industry. Cutting stock problem is a common cutting and packing problem that arises in a variety of industrial applications. A modification of selection heuristic Exact Fit is applied in our research. In the case referring to irregular shapes, a placement heuristics is more important to construct a complete solution. A placement heuristic relating to bottom-left-fill i...

  3. A Generalized FDM for solving the Poisson's Equation on 3D Irregular Domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Izadian


    Full Text Available In this paper a new method for solving the Poisson's equation with Dirichlet conditions on irregular domains is presented. For this purpose a generalized finite differences method is applied for numerical differentiation on irregular meshes. Three examples on cylindrical and spherical domains are considered. The numerical results are compared with analytical solution. These results show the performance and efficiency of the proposed method.

  4. Approach to the Assessment Irregularity and Cyclic Dynamics of Territorial Development


    Tamara Klebanova; Lidiya Guryanova; Yousef Daradkeh; Sergii Kavun


    Purpose – The main purpose of this study is a modelling of assessment processes for irregularity and cyclical of dynamic regions development, which used to reduce inter-regional contrasts, disruptions and variations in a socio-economic development on base an effective regional financial policy.Design/methodology/approach – The conceptual provisions and model basis of an estimate of irregular and cyclic dynamics of the socio-economic development of any regions, which are functioning in some co...

  5. Enlisting Fuzzy-Wuzzy: Are Past Lessons Concerning Employing Irregulars Relevant Today? (United States)


    profound influence on our antebellum Army‘s use of, and approach to, irregulars in conflict. Henry W. Halleck, George B. McClellan, John Pope, and John ...political benefits to employing irregulars. Operation White Star, 1959-1962 Shortly after his inauguration in January 1961, President John F. Kennedy...possible. Later, Secretary of Defense MacNamara would comment, ―the CIA doesn‘t think big enough…[DoD] could put more horsepower behind it and make it

  6. Understanding the Physics Behind Ionospheric and Plasmaspheric Density Irregularities by Utilizing Multi-Instrument Observations Data (United States)


    Behind Ionospheric And Plasmpheric Density Irregularities by Uti l iz ing Multi-Instrument Observations Data 5a. COh TRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER... ionospheric irregularities wi l l be tracked by the globally growing numbers of ground- and space-based (on Low-Earth- Orbit (LEO) satellites) GPS receivers...STATEMENT Approval for Public Release 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Multi-instrument observations o f the ionosphere and plasmaspheric

  7. MEG masked priming evidence for form-based decomposition of irregular verbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph eFruchter


    Full Text Available To what extent does morphological structure play a role in early processing of visually presented English past tense verbs? Previous masked priming studies have demonstrated effects of obligatory form-based decomposition for genuinely affixed words (teacher-TEACH and pseudo-affixed words (corner-CORN, but not for orthographic controls (brothel-BROTH. Additionally, MEG single word reading studies have demonstrated that the transition probability from stem to affix (in genuinely affixed words modulates an early evoked response known as the M170; parallel findings have been shown for the transition probability from stem to pseudo-affix (in pseudo-affixed words. Here, utilizing the M170 as a neural index of visual form-based morphological decomposition, we ask whether the M170 demonstrates masked morphological priming effects for irregular past tense verbs (following a previous study which obtained behavioral masked priming effects for irregulars. Dual mechanism theories of the English past tense predict a rule-based decomposition for regulars but not for irregulars, while certain single mechanism theories predict rule-based decomposition even for irregulars. MEG data was recorded for 16 subjects performing a visual masked priming lexical decision task. Using a functional region of interest (fROI defined on the basis of repetition priming and regular morphological priming effects within the left fusiform and inferior temporal regions, we found that activity in this fROI was modulated by the masked priming manipulation for irregular verbs, during the time window of the M170. We also found effects of the scores generated by the learning model of Albright & Hayes (2003 on the degree of priming for irregular verbs. The results favor a single mechanism account of the English past tense, in which even irregulars are decomposed into stems and affixes prior to lexical access, as opposed to a dual mechanism model, in which irregulars are recognized as whole

  8. MEG masked priming evidence for form-based decomposition of irregular verbs. (United States)

    Fruchter, Joseph; Stockall, Linnaea; Marantz, Alec


    To what extent does morphological structure play a role in early processing of visually presented English past tense verbs? Previous masked priming studies have demonstrated effects of obligatory form-based decomposition for genuinely affixed words (teacher-TEACH) and pseudo-affixed words (corner-CORN), but not for orthographic controls (brothel-BROTH). Additionally, MEG single word reading studies have demonstrated that the transition probability from stem to affix (in genuinely affixed words) modulates an early evoked response known as the M170; parallel findings have been shown for the transition probability from stem to pseudo-affix (in pseudo-affixed words). Here, utilizing the M170 as a neural index of visual form-based morphological decomposition, we ask whether the M170 demonstrates masked morphological priming effects for irregular past tense verbs (following a previous study which obtained behavioral masked priming effects for irregulars). Dual mechanism theories of the English past tense predict a rule-based decomposition for regulars but not for irregulars, while certain single mechanism theories predict rule-based decomposition even for irregulars. MEG data was recorded for 16 subjects performing a visual masked priming lexical decision task. Using a functional region of interest (fROI) defined on the basis of repetition priming and regular morphological priming effects within the left fusiform and inferior temporal regions, we found that activity in this fROI was modulated by the masked priming manipulation for irregular verbs, during the time window of the M170. We also found effects of the scores generated by the learning model of Albright and Hayes (2003) on the degree of priming for irregular verbs. The results favor a single mechanism account of the English past tense, in which even irregulars are decomposed into stems and affixes prior to lexical access, as opposed to a dual mechanism model, in which irregulars are recognized as whole forms.

  9. Association between sleep duration and menstrual cycle irregularity in Korean female adolescents. (United States)

    Nam, Ga Eun; Han, Kyungdo; Lee, Gyungjoo


    The association between sleep and the menstrual cycle in the adolescent population has been scarcely studied. This study aimed to investigate the association between sleep duration and menstrual cycle irregularity among female adolescents using nationwide representative data from the South Korean population. This population-based, cross-sectional study used the data collected from Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010-2012, and the data from 801 female adolescents were analyzed. Hierarchical multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the risk of menstrual cycle irregularity in relation to sleep duration. Subjects with menstrual cycle irregularity accounted for 15% (N = 120). The mean sleep duration in subjects with menstrual cycle irregularity was significantly shorter than that in those without (p = 0.003). Menstrual cycle irregularity prevalence tended to decrease as sleep duration increased (p for trend = 0.004), which was significantly different based on sleep duration and presence of depressive mood (p = 0.011). Sleep duration ≤5 h per day was significantly associated with increased risk of menstrual cycle irregularity compared with that in the subjects whose sleep duration is ≥8 h per day even after adjusting for confounding variables. The odds ratios of menstrual cycle irregularity tended to increase for shorter sleep duration in all adjusted models. This study found a significant inverse association between sleep duration and menstrual cycle irregularity among Korean female adolescents. Increasing sleep duration is required to improve the reproductive health of female adolescents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of Irregularity in Shape and Boundary of a Macro-Texture Region in Titanium (Postprint) (United States)


    AFRL-RX-WP-JA-2016-0328 EFFECT OF IRREGULARITY IN SHAPE AND BOUNDARY OF A MACRO-TEXTURE REGION IN TITANIUM (POSTPRINT) James L...2 October 2014 – 15 September 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE EFFECT OF IRREGULARITY IN SHAPE AND BOUNDARY OF A MACRO-TEXTURE REGION IN TITANIUM ...aerospace grade titanium alloy material are measured to be about the same level as corner trapped shear wave signals. In addition to the abnormally high

  11. Formation of dwarf ellipticals and dwarf irregular galaxies by interaction of giant galaxies under environmental influence


    Chattopadhyay, Tanuka; Debsarma, Suma; Karmakar, Pradip; Davoust, Emmanuel


    A model is proposed for the formation of gas-rich dwarf irregular galaxies and gas-poor, rotating dwarf elliptical galaxies following the interaction between two giant galaxies as a function of space density. The formation of dwarf galaxies is considered to depend on a random variable, the tidal index theta, an environmental parameter defined by Karachentsev et al. (2004), such that for theta less than zero, the formation of dwarf irregular galaxy is assured whereas for theta greater than zer...

  12. Policy on Irregular Migrants in Malaysia: An Analysis of its Implementation and Effectiveness


    Kassim, Azizah; Zin, Ragayah Haji Mat


    In the early 1970s, Malaysia began to be inundated by foreign workers, all of whom were irregular migrants. A decade later their uncontrolled entry left several negative consequences especially to the internal and border security of the country. To overcome the problems, Malaysia introduced the foreign worker policy which became fully implemented in 1992. The policy has two objectives, firstly to regulate the inflow of foreign workers; and secondly, to stem the inflow of irregular migrant wor...

  13. Frequency characteristics of human muscle and cortical responses evoked by noisy Achilles tendon vibration. (United States)

    Mildren, Robyn L; Peters, Ryan M; Hill, Aimee J; Blouin, Jean-Sébastien; Carpenter, Mark G; Inglis, J Timothy


    Noisy stimuli, along with linear systems analysis, have proven to be effective for mapping functional neural connections. We explored the use of noisy (10-115 Hz) Achilles tendon vibration to examine somatosensory reflexes in the triceps surae muscles in standing healthy young adults ( n = 8). We also examined the association between noisy vibration and electrical activity recorded over the sensorimotor cortex using electroencephalography. We applied 2 min of vibration and recorded ongoing muscle activity of the soleus and gastrocnemii using surface electromyography (EMG). Vibration amplitude was varied to characterize reflex scaling and to examine how different stimulus levels affected postural sway. Muscle activity from the soleus and gastrocnemii was significantly correlated with the tendon vibration across a broad frequency range (~10-80 Hz), with a peak located at ~40 Hz. Vibration-EMG coherence positively scaled with stimulus amplitude in all three muscles, with soleus displaying the strongest coupling and steepest scaling. EMG responses lagged the vibration by ~38 ms, a delay that paralleled observed response latencies to tendon taps. Vibration-evoked cortical oscillations were observed at frequencies ~40-70 Hz (peak ~54 Hz) in most subjects, a finding in line with previous reports of sensory-evoked γ-band oscillations. Further examination of the method revealed 1 ) accurate reflex estimates could be obtained with vibration; 2 ) responses did not habituate over 2 min of exposure; and importantly, 3 ) noisy vibration had a minimal influence on standing balance. Our findings suggest noisy tendon vibration is an effective novel approach to characterize somatosensory reflexes during standing. NEW & NOTEWORTHY We applied noisy (10-115 Hz) vibration to the Achilles tendon to examine the frequency characteristics of lower limb somatosensory reflexes during standing. Ongoing muscle activity was coherent with the noisy vibration (peak coherence ~40 Hz), and

  14. Fourier Interpolation of Sparsely and Irregularly Sampled Potential Field Data (United States)

    Saleh, R.; Bailey, R. C.


    Sparsely and irregularly sampled values of potential fields on the Earth's surface need to be interpolated to be presented as maps. For display purposes, the choice of an interpolation method may be largely an aesthetic choice. However, if derived quantities such as spatial derivatives of the field are also required for display, it is important that interpolation respect the physics of Laplace's equation. Examples would be the derivation of equivalent surface currents for interpretation purposes from a magnetotelluric hypothetical event map of the horizontal magnetic fields, or the derivation of tensor gravity gradients from ground data for comparison with an airborne survey. Various methods for interpolating while respecting Laplace's equation date back nearly fifty years, to Dampney's 1969 equivalent source technique. In that and comparable methods, a set of effective sources below the Earth's surface is found which is consistent with the data, and used to calculate the field away from data locations. Because the interpolation is not unique, the source depth can be used as a parameter to maximally suppress the indeterminate high frequency part of the resulting map while retaining consistency with the data. Here, we take advantage of modern computing power to recast the interpolation problem as an inverse problem: that of determining the Fourier transform of the field at the Earth's surface subject to the constraints of fitting the data while minimizing a model norm which measures the high-frequency content of the resulting map. User decisions about the number of equivalent sources or their depths are not required. The approach is not fundamentally different from that used to determine planetary gravity or magnetic fields from satellite measurements, except that our application is designed for extremely under-sampled situations and is formulated in Cartesian coordinates. To avoid artificially constraining the frequency content of the resulting transform, we choose

  15. Dynamics of landslides on comets of irregular shape (United States)

    Czechowski, Leszek


    Landslides were observed on a few comet's nuclei, e.g. [1], [2]. The mechanism of their origin is not obvious because of very low gravity. According to [2] fluidization and multiphase transport of cometary material could be an explanation. We investigate here motion of the mass on a comet of irregular shape. The mechanism responsible for the low friction is not considered here. In fact, mass motion often occurs without contact with the surface. The motion could be triggered by meteoroids impacts or by the tidal forces. Comets nuclei are believed to be built of soft materials like snow and dust. The landing of Philae on the comet 67P/Czuriumow-Gierasimienko indicates a different situation. According to [1]: "thermal probe did not fully penetrate the near-surface layers, suggesting a local resistance of the ground to penetration of >4 megapascals, equivalent to >2 megapascal uniaxial compressive strength". Here we assume that elastic properties of comet's nuclei could be similar to elastic properties of dry snow, namely Young modulus is assumed to be 1 - 100 MPa, see [3] and [4]. We consider nucleus of the shape of 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko with density 470 kg/m3. The impact or tidal forces result in changing of rotation of the comet. In general, the vector of angular velocity will be a subject to nutation that results in changing of centrifugal force, and consequently could be a factor triggering landslides. Note that nucleus' shape does not resemble the shape of surface of constant value of gravitational potential (i.e. 'geoid'). Our numerical models indicate the parts of the nucleus where landslides start and other parts where landslides stop. Of course, the regolith from the first type of regions would be removed to the regions of the second class. The motion of the mass is often complicated because of complicated distribution of the gravity and complicated shape of the nucleus. Acknowledgement: The research is partly supported by Polish National Science Centre

  16. Multiple Rabi Splittings under Ultrastrong Vibrational Coupling. (United States)

    George, Jino; Chervy, Thibault; Shalabney, Atef; Devaux, Eloïse; Hiura, Hidefumi; Genet, Cyriaque; Ebbesen, Thomas W


    From the high vibrational dipolar strength offered by molecular liquids, we demonstrate that a molecular vibration can be ultrastrongly coupled to multiple IR cavity modes, with Rabi splittings reaching 24% of the vibration frequencies. As a proof of the ultrastrong coupling regime, our experimental data unambiguously reveal the contributions to the polaritonic dynamics coming from the antiresonant terms in the interaction energy and from the dipolar self-energy of the molecular vibrations themselves. In particular, we measure the opening of a genuine vibrational polaritonic band gap of ca. 60 meV. We also demonstrate that the multimode splitting effect defines a whole vibrational ladder of heavy polaritonic states perfectly resolved. These findings reveal the broad possibilities in the vibrational ultrastrong coupling regime which impact both the optical and the molecular properties of such coupled systems, in particular, in the context of mode-selective chemistry.

  17. Vibrations on board and health effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anker; Jepsen, Jørgen Riis


    for such relation among seafarers except for fishermen, who, however, are also exposed to additional recognised physical risk factors at work. The assessment and reduction of vibrations by naval architects relates to technical implications of this impact for the ships’ construction, but has limited value......There is only limited knowledge of the exposure to vibrations of ships’ crews and their risk of vibration-induced health effects. Exposure to hand-arm vibrations from the use of vibrating tools at sea does not differ from that in the land-based trades. However, in contrast to most other work places...... of the health consequences of whole body vibrations in land-transportation, such exposure at sea may affect ships’ passengers and crews. While the relation of back disorders to high levels of whole body vibration has been demonstrated among e.g. tractor drivers, there are no reported epidemiological evidence...

  18. Properties of the Irregular Satellite System around Uranus Inferred from K2 , Herschel , and Spitzer Observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farkas-Takács, A.; Kiss, Cs.; Pál, A.; Molnár, L.; Szabó, Gy. M.; Hanyecz, O.; Sárneczky, K.; Szabó, R.; Marton, G.; Szakáts, R.; Kiss, L. L. [Konkoly Observatory, Research Centre for Astronomy and Earth Sciences, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Konkoly Thege Miklós út 15-17, H-1121 Budapest (Hungary); Mommert, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northern Arizona University, P.O. Box 6010, Flagstaff, AZ 86011 (United States); Müller, T., E-mail: [Max-Plank-Institut für extraterrestrsiche Pyhsik, Garching (Germany)


    In this paper, we present visible-range light curves of the irregular Uranian satellites Sycorax, Caliban, Prospero, Ferdinand, and Setebos taken with the Kepler Space Telescope over the course of the K2 mission. Thermal emission measurements obtained with the Herschel /PACS and Spitzer /MIPS instruments of Sycorax and Caliban were also analyzed and used to determine size, albedo, and surface characteristics of these bodies. We compare these properties with the rotational and surface characteristics of irregular satellites in other giant planet systems and also with those of main belt and Trojan asteroids and trans-Neptunian objects. Our results indicate that the Uranian irregular satellite system likely went through a more intense collisional evolution than the irregular satellites of Jupiter and Saturn. Surface characteristics of Uranian irregular satellites seem to resemble the Centaurs and trans-Neptunian objects more than irregular satellites around other giant planets, suggesting the existence of a compositional discontinuity in the young solar system inside the orbit of Uranus.

  19. Correlation Between the Occurrences of Ionospheric Irregularity and Deep Atmospheric Convection in Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) (United States)

    Su, S.; Wu, C.; Liu, C.


    To study seeding mechanism of ionospheric irregularity occurrences, a statistical correlation has been performed between the irregularity occurrences and the occurrences of deep atmospheric convection in the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) represented by the observation of outgoing longwave radiation (OLR). Seven longitudinal regions, Atlantic, Indian, West Pacific, Central Pacific, East Pacific, South America, and Atlantic sectors are studied for the correlation between the monthly occurrences of irregularities and OLRs. The results indicate that, except the South America and Africa sectors, there is practically no correlation existed between the occurrences of irregularities and OLRs. Even for the South America and Africa regions, the correlation is not as strong as expected. The current study indicates that the inferred appearances of atmospheric gravity wave from the OLR observation in ITCZ cannot be used as the proxy for the seed in the subsequent occurrences of ionospheric irregularities. The most likely source of seed for the ionospheric irregularities could still be of electrodynamic origin, such as the bottomside sinusoid (BSS) observed at the bottomside ionosphere.

  20. Effects of surface irregularities on intensity data from laser scanning: an experimental approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Teza


    Full Text Available The results of an experiment carried out with the aim to investigate the role of surface irregularities on the intensity data provided by a terrestrial laser scanner (TLS survey are reported here. Depending on surface roughness, the interaction between an electromagnetic wave and microscopic irregularities leads to a Lambertian-like diffusive light reflection, allowing the TLS to receive the backscattered component of the signal. The described experiment consists in a series of TLS-based acquisitions of a rotating artificial target specifically conceived in order to highlight the effects on the intensity data due to surface irregularity. This target is articulated in a flat plate and in an irregular surface, whose macro-roughness has a characteristic length with the same order of the spot size. Results point out the different behavior of the plates. The intensity of the signal backscattered by the planar element decreases if the incidence angle increases, whereas the intensity of the signal backscattered by the irregular surface is almost constant if the incidence angle varies. Since the typical surfaces acquired in a geological/geophysical survey are generally irregular, these results imply that the intensity data can be easily used in order to evaluate the reflectance of the material at the considered wavelength, e.g. for pattern recognition purposes.

  1. Properties of the Irregular Satellite System around Uranus Inferred from K2, Herschel, and Spitzer Observations (United States)

    Farkas-Takács, A.; Kiss, Cs.; Pál, A.; Molnár, L.; Szabó, Gy. M.; Hanyecz, O.; Sárneczky, K.; Szabó, R.; Marton, G.; Mommert, M.; Szakáts, R.; Müller, T.; Kiss, L. L.


    In this paper, we present visible-range light curves of the irregular Uranian satellites Sycorax, Caliban, Prospero, Ferdinand, and Setebos taken with the Kepler Space Telescope over the course of the K2 mission. Thermal emission measurements obtained with the Herschel/PACS and Spitzer/MIPS instruments of Sycorax and Caliban were also analyzed and used to determine size, albedo, and surface characteristics of these bodies. We compare these properties with the rotational and surface characteristics of irregular satellites in other giant planet systems and also with those of main belt and Trojan asteroids and trans-Neptunian objects. Our results indicate that the Uranian irregular satellite system likely went through a more intense collisional evolution than the irregular satellites of Jupiter and Saturn. Surface characteristics of Uranian irregular satellites seem to resemble the Centaurs and trans-Neptunian objects more than irregular satellites around other giant planets, suggesting the existence of a compositional discontinuity in the young solar system inside the orbit of Uranus.

  2. New prospective 4D-CT for mitigating the effects of irregular respiratory motion (United States)

    Pan, Tinsu; Martin, Rachael M.; Luo, Dershan


    Artifact caused by irregular respiration is a major source of error in 4D-CT imaging. We propose a new prospective 4D-CT to mitigate this source of error without new hardware, software or off-line data-processing on the GE CT scanner. We utilize the cine CT scan in the design of the new prospective 4D-CT. The cine CT scan at each position can be stopped by the operator when an irregular respiration occurs, and resumed when the respiration becomes regular. This process can be repeated at one or multiple scan positions. After the scan, a retrospective reconstruction is initiated on the CT console to reconstruct only the images corresponding to the regular respiratory cycles. The end result is a 4D-CT free of irregular respiration. To prove feasibility, we conducted a phantom and six patient studies. The artifacts associated with the irregular respiratory cycles could be removed from both the phantom and patient studies. A new prospective 4D-CT scanning and processing technique to mitigate the impact of irregular respiration in 4D-CT has been demonstrated. This technique can save radiation dose because the repeat scans are only at the scan positions where an irregular respiration occurs. Current practice is to repeat the scans at all positions. There is no cost to apply this technique because it is applicable on the GE CT scanner without new hardware, software or off-line data-processing.

  3. Age of acquisition modulates neural activity for both regular and irregular syntactic functions. (United States)

    Hernandez, Arturo E; Hofmann, Juliane; Kotz, Sonja A


    Studies have found that neural activity is greater for irregular grammatical items than regular items. Findings with monolingual Spanish speakers have revealed a similar effect when making gender decisions for visually presented nouns. The current study extended previous studies by looking at the role of regularity in modulating differences in groups that differ in the age of acquisition of a language. Early and late learners of Spanish matched on measures of language proficiency were asked to make gender decisions to regular (-o for masculine and -a for feminine) and irregular items (which can end in e, l, n, r, s, t and z). Results revealed increased activity in left BA 44 for irregular compared to regular items in separate comparisons for both early and late learners. In addition, within-group comparisons revealed that neural activity for irregulars extended into left BA 47 for late learners and into left BA 6 for early learners. Direct comparisons between groups revealed increased activity in left BA 44/45 for irregular items indicating the need for more extensive syntactic processing in late learners. The results revealed that processing of irregular grammatical gender leads to increased activity in left BA 44 and adjacent areas in the left IFG regardless of when a language is learned. Furthermore, these findings suggest differential recruitment of brain areas associated with grammatical processing in late learners. The results are discussed with regard to a model which considers L2 learning as emerging from the competitive interplay between two languages.

  4. Numerical Simulation of Vertical Random Vibration of Train-Slab Track-Bridge Interaction System by PEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-ping Zeng


    Full Text Available The paper describes the numerical simulation of the vertical random vibration of train-slab track-bridge interaction system by means of finite element method and pseudoexcitation method. Each vehicle is modeled as four-wheelset mass-spring-damper system with two-layer suspension systems. The rail, slab, and bridge girder are modeled by three-layer elastic Bernoulli-Euler beams connected with each other by spring and damper elements. The equations of motion for the entire system are derived according to energy principle. By regarding rail irregularity as a series of multipoint, different-phase random excitations, the random load vectors of the equations of motion are obtained by pseudoexcitation method. Taking a nine-span simply supported beam bridge traveled by a train consisting of 8 vehicles as an example, the vertical random vibration responses of the system are investigated. Firstly, the suitable number of discrete frequencies of rail irregularity is obtained by numerical experimentations. Secondly, the reliability and efficiency of pseudoexcitation method are verified through comparison with Monte Carlo method. Thirdly, the random vibration characteristics of train-slab track-bridge interaction system are analyzed by pseudoexcitation method. Finally, applying the 3σ rule for Gaussian stochastic process, the maximum responses of train-slab track-bridge interaction system with respect to various train speeds are studied.

  5. Vibration characteristics of casing string under the exciting force of an electric vibrator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiyong Yin


    Full Text Available Vibration cementing is a new technique that can significantly improve the bond strength of cementing interface. To popularize this technique, it is necessary to solve the key problem of how to make cementing string generate downhole radial vibration in the WOC stage. For this purpose, an electric vibrator was developed. With this vibrator, electric energy is converted into mechanical energy by means of a high-temperature motor vibration unit. The motor vibration unit rotates the eccentric block through an output shaft to generate an exciting source, which produces an axial-rotating exciting force at the bottom of the casing string. Then, the vibration characteristics of vertical well casing string under the exciting force were analyzed by using the principal coordinate analysis method, and the response model of casing string to an electric vibrator was developed. Finally, the effects of casing string length, exciting force and vibration frequency on the vibration amplitude at the lowermost of the casing string were analyzed based on a certain casing program. It is indicated that the casing string length and the square of vibration frequency are inversely proportional to the vibration amplitude at the lowermost of the casing string, and the exciting force is proportional to the vibration amplitude at the lowermost of the casing string. These research results provide a theoretical support for the application of vibration cementing technology to the cementing sites with different requirements on well depth and amplitude.

  6. Vibrational damping of composite materials (United States)

    Biggerstaff, Janet M.

    The purpose of this research was to develop new methods of vibrational damping in polymeric composite materials along with expanding the knowledge of currently used vibrational damping methods. A new barrier layer technique that dramatically increased damping in viscoelastic damping materials that interacted with the composite resin was created. A method for testing the shear strength of damping materials cocured in composites was developed. Directional damping materials, where the loss factor and modulus could be tailored by changing the angle, were produced and investigated. The addition of particles between composite prepreg layers to increase damping was studied. Electroviscoelastic materials that drastically changed properties such as loss factor and modulus with an applied voltage were manufactured and tested.

  7. Vibration of imperfect rotating disk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Půst L.


    Full Text Available This study is concerned with the theoretical and numerical calculations of the flexural vibrations of a bladed disk. The main focus of this study is to elaborate the basic background for diagnostic and identification methods for ascertaining the main properties of the real structure or an experimental model of turbine disks. The reduction of undesirable vibrations of blades is proposed by using damping heads, which on the experimental model of turbine disk are applied only on a limited number of blades. This partial setting of damping heads introduces imperfection in mass, stiffness and damping distribution on the periphery and leads to more complicated dynamic properties than those of a perfect disk. Calculation of FEM model and analytic—numerical solution of disk behaviour in the limited (two modes frequency range shows the splitting of resonance with an increasing speed of disk rotation. The spectrum of resonance is twice denser than that of a perfect disk.

  8. Dynamical response of vibrating ferromagnets

    CERN Document Server

    Gaganidze, E; Ziese, M


    The resonance frequency of vibrating ferromagnetic reeds in a homogeneous magnetic field can be substantially modified by intrinsic and extrinsic field-related contributions. Searching for the physical reasons of the field-induced resonance frequency change and to study the influence of the spin glass state on it, we have measured the low-temperature magnetoelastic behavior and the dynamical response of vibrating amorphous and polycrystalline ferromagnetic ribbons. We show that the magnetoelastic properties depend strongly on the direction of the applied magnetic field. The influence of the re-entrant spin glass transition on these properties is discussed. We present clear experimental evidence that for applied fields perpendicular to the main area of the samples the behavior of ferromagnetic reeds is rather independent of the material composition and magnetic state, exhibiting a large decrease of the resonance frequency. This effect can be very well explained with a model based on the dynamical response of t...

  9. Vibrational coupling in plasmonic molecules. (United States)

    Yi, Chongyue; Dongare, Pratiksha D; Su, Man-Nung; Wang, Wenxiao; Chakraborty, Debadi; Wen, Fangfang; Chang, Wei-Shun; Sader, John E; Nordlander, Peter; Halas, Naomi J; Link, Stephan


    Plasmon hybridization theory, inspired by molecular orbital theory, has been extremely successful in describing the near-field coupling in clusters of plasmonic nanoparticles, also known as plasmonic molecules. However, the vibrational modes of plasmonic molecules have been virtually unexplored. By designing precisely configured plasmonic molecules of varying complexity and probing them at the individual plasmonic molecule level, intramolecular coupling of acoustic modes, mediated by the underlying substrate, is observed. The strength of this coupling can be manipulated through the configuration of the plasmonic molecules. Surprisingly, classical continuum elastic theory fails to account for the experimental trends, which are well described by a simple coupled oscillator picture that assumes the vibrational coupling is mediated by coherent phonons with low energies. These findings provide a route to the systematic optical control of the gigahertz response of metallic nanostructures, opening the door to new optomechanical device strategies. Published under the PNAS license.

  10. A night with good vibrations

    CERN Multimedia


    Next week-end, the Geneva Science History Museum invites you to a Science Night under the banner of waves and vibrations. Scientists, artists and storytellers from more than forty institutes and local or regional associations will show that waves and vibrations form an integral part of our environment. You will be able to get in contact with the nature of waves through interactive exhibitions on sound and light and through hands-on demonstrations arranged in the Park of the Perle du Lac. On the CERN stand, you will be able to measure the speed of light with a bar of chocolate, and understand the scattering of waves with plastic ducks. Amazing, no? In addition to the stands, the Night will offer many other activities: reconstructions of experiments, a play, a concert of crystal glasses, an illuminated fountain, a house of spirits. More information Science Night, 6 and 7 July, Park of the Perle du Lac, Geneva

  11. Vibration Control in Periodic Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgsberg, Jan Becker


    Within the framework of periodic structures, the calibration of RL shunted piezoelectric inclusions is investigated with respect to maximum damping of a particular wave form. A finite element setting is assumed, with local shunted inclusions inside the unit cell. The effect of the shunts is repre....... The presentation contains dispersion diagrams and vibration amplitude curves for the optimally calibrated RL shunt system in a 1-D periodic structure with local piezoelectric inclusions....

  12. Package security recorder of vibration (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-na; Hu, Jin-liang; Song, Shi-de


    This paper introduces a new kind of electronic product — Package Security Recorder of Vibration. It utilizes STC89C54RD+ LQFP-44 MCU as its main controller. At the same time, it also utilizes Freescale MMA845A 3-Axis 8-bit/12-bit Digital Accelerometer and Maxim DS1302 Trickle Charge Timekeeping Chip. It utilizes the MCU to read the value of the accelerometer and the value of the timekeeping chip, and records the data into the inner E2PROM of MCU. The whole device achieves measuring, reading and recording the time of the vibration and the intensity of the vibration. When we need the data, we can read them out. The data can be used in analyzing the condition of the cargo when it transported. The device can be applied to monitor the security of package. It solves the problem of responsibility affirming, when the valuable cargo are damaged while it transported. It offers powerful safeguard for the package. It's very value for application.

  13. Mental health care for irregular migrants in Europe: Barriers and how they are overcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Straßmayr Christa


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Irregular migrants (IMs are exposed to a wide range of risk factors for developing mental health problems. However, little is known about whether and how they receive mental health care across European countries. The aims of this study were (1 to identify barriers to mental health care for IMs, and (2 to explore ways by which these barriers are overcome in practice. Methods Data from semi-structured interviews with 25 experts in the field of mental health care for IMs in the capital cities of 14 European countries were analysed using thematic analysis. Results Experts reported a range of barriers to mental health care for IMs. These include the absence of legal entitlements to health care in some countries or a lack of awareness of such entitlements, administrative obstacles, a shortage of culturally sensitive care, the complexity of the social needs of IMs, and their fear of being reported and deported. These barriers can be partly overcome by networks of committed professionals and supportive services. NGOs have become important initial points of contact for IMs, providing mental health care themselves or referring IMs to other suitable services. However, these services are often confronted with the ethical dilemma of either acting according to the legislation and institutional rules or providing care for humanitarian reasons, which involves the risk of acting illegally and providing care without authorisation. Conclusions Even in countries where access to health care is legally possible for IMs, various other barriers remain. Some of these are common to all migrants, whilst others are specific for IMs. Attempts at improving mental health care for IMs should consider barriers beyond legal entitlement, including communicating information about entitlement to mental health care professionals and patients, providing culturally sensitive care and ensuring sufficient resources.

  14. Ambient vibrations of unstable rock slopes - insights from numerical modeling (United States)

    Burjanek, Jan; Kleinbrod, Ulrike; Fäh, Donat


    The recent events in Nepal (2015 M7.8 Gorkha) and New Zealand (2016 M7.8 Kaikoura) highlighted the importance of earthquake-induced landslides, which caused significant damages. Moreover, landslide created dams present a potential developing hazard. In order to reduce the costly consequences of such events it is important to detect and characterize earthquake susceptible rock slope instabilities before an event, and to take mitigation measures. For the characterisation of instable slopes, acquisition of ambient vibrations might be a new alternative to the already existing methods. We present both observations and 3D numerical simulations of the ambient vibrations of unstable slopes. In particular, models of representative real sites have been developed based on detailed terrain mapping and used for the comparison between synthetics and observations. A finite-difference code has been adopted for the seismic wave propagation in a 3D inhomogeneous visco-elastic media with irregular free surface. It utilizes a curvilinear grid for a precise modeling of curved topography and local mesh refinement to make computational mesh finer near the free surface. Topographic site effects, controlled merely by the shape of the topography, do not explain the observed seismic response. In contrast, steeply-dipping compliant fractures have been found to play a key role in fitting observations. Notably, the synthetized response is controlled by inertial mass of the unstable rock, and by stiffness, depth and network density of the fractures. The developed models fit observed extreme amplification levels (factors of 70!) and show directionality as well. This represents a possibility to characterize slope structure and infer depth or volume of the slope instability from the ambient noise recordings in the future.

  15. The influence of vibrations of polyatomic molecules on dipole moment and static dipole polarizability: theoretical study (United States)

    Sharipov, Alexander S.; Loukhovitski, Boris I.; Starik, Alexander M.


    Dipole moment and static dipole polarizability surfaces for 50 polyatomic molecules, that are important for material science, combustion, and atmospheric chemistry, are explored in the vicinity of their equilibrium nuclear configurations by using density functional theory. The effective values of dipole moment and static polarizability of these molecules in individual vibrational states are determined using the calculated data on the electric properties and potential energy surfaces. Special attention is paid to the effect of the zero-point vibrations on the electric properties. The simple approximation scheme, allowing low-cost estimation of the zero-point vibrational corrections to polarizability, applicable for wide range of polyatomic compounds, are developed on the basis of the obtained data. The influence of the excitation of vibrational states on the dipole moment and dipole polarizability of polyatomic molecules are discussed with respect to the possible change of some important properties of molecular gases, such as refractive index, diffusion coefficients, and rates of chemical reactions.

  16. Rotor Vibration Reduction Using Multi-Element Multi-Path Design (United States)

    Su, Keye

    Multi-Element Multi-Path (MEMP) structural design is a new concept for rotor vibration reduction. This thesis explores the possibility of applying MEMP design to helicopter rotor blades. A conceptual design is developed to investigate the MEMP blade's vibration reduction performance. In the design, the rotor blade is characterized by two centrifugally loaded beams which are connected to each other through linear and torsional springs. A computer program is built to simulate the behavior of such structures. Detailed parametric studies are conducted. The main challenges in this thesis involve the blade hub load vibration analysis, the blade thickness constraint and the blade parameter selection. The results show substantial vibration reduction for the MEMP design but the large relative deflection between the two beams, conceptualized as an internal spar and airfoil shell, remains a problem for further study.

  17. The association between mental health problems and menstrual cycle irregularity among adolescent Korean girls. (United States)

    Yu, Mi; Han, Kyungdo; Nam, Ga Eun


    Menstrual cycle irregularity is common among adolescents and can induce mental health problems such as stress, depression, and suicidal ideation. We examined the association between mental health problems and menstrual cycle irregularity among adolescent Korean girls. This population-based cross-sectional study was on 808 female adolescents (12-18 years of age) participating in the 2010-2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Psychological stress, depressive mood, suicidal ideations, suicide attempts, and psychological counseling were assessed through questionnaires and surveys, and hierarchical multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed. The risk of menstrual cycle irregularity tended to increase, as the number of mental health problems increased (P for trend=0.016). High stress levels, depressive mood, and psychological counseling were associated with increased risks of menstrual cycle irregularity (odd ratio [95% confidence interval]=1.88 [1.1-3.21], 2.01 [1.01-4.03], and 2.92 [1.16-7.34], respectively) even after adjusting for age, body mass index, alcohol consumption, smoking status, physical activity, hemoglobin level, monthly household income, weight loss attempts, age at menarche, and sleep duration. Suicidal ideation was not significantly associated with menstrual cycle irregularity. Menstrual irregularity was evaluated based solely on subjects' self-reports, which are subject to their subjective perceptions and appraisal. Cross-sectional design and retrospective data could not draw causal relationship. Positive associations were observed between mental health problems and menstrual cycle irregularity among adolescent Korean girls. More attention should be paid towards mental health, to improve menstrual cycle regularity and help prevent related chronic diseases later in life. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. SU-C-210-03: Impact of Breathing Irregularities On Gated Treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiuma, D; Arheit, M; Schmelzer, P; Scheib, S [Varian Medical Systems, Imaging Laboratory GmbH, Baden-Daettwil (Switzerland); Buchsbaum, T; Pemler, P [Radioonkologie, Stadtspital Triemli, Zurich (Switzerland)


    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of breathing irregularities on target location in gated treatments using amplitude and phase gating. Methods: 111 breathing patterns acquired using RPM system were categorized based on period and amplitude STD as regular (STD period ≤ 0.5 s, STD amplitude ≤ 1.5 mm), medium (0.5 s < STD period ≤ 1 s, 1.5 mm < STD amplitude ≤ 3 mm) and irregular (STD period > 1 s, STD amplitude > 3 mm). One pattern representative of the average defined population was selected per category and corresponding target motion reproduced using Quasar Respiratory Motion Phantom. Phantom in motion underwent 4D-CT scan with phase reconstruction. Gated window was defined at end of exhale and DRRs reconstructed in treatment planning at 40% (beam on) and 60% phase (beam off). Target location uncertainty was assessed by comparing gated kV triggered images continuously acquired at beam on/off on a True Beam 2.0 with corresponding DRRs. Results: Average target uncertainty with amplitude gating was in [0.4 – 1.9] mm range for the different scenarios with maximum STD of 1.2 mm for the irregular pattern. Average target uncertainty with phase gating was [1.1 – 2.2] mm for regular and medium patterns, while it increased to [3.6 – 9.6] mm for the irregular pattern. Live gated motion was stable with amplitude gating, while increasing with phase gating for the irregular pattern. Treatment duration range was [68 – 160] s with amplitude and [70 – 74] s with phase gating. Conclusion: Breathing irregularities were found to affect gated treatments only when using phase gating. For regular and medium patterns no significant difference was found between the two gating strategies. Amplitude gating ensured stable gated motion within the different patterns, thus reducing intra-fraction target location variability for the irregular pattern and resulting in longer treatment duration.

  19. SU-E-T-248: Determining Output Factor of Irregular Electron Cutouts at Extended SSD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alkhatib, H [Richland Memorial Hospital, Columbia, SC (United States); Gebreamlak, W [South Carolina Oncology Associates, Columbia, SC (United States); Tedeschi, D [University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States); Mihailidis, D [CAMC Cancer Center, Charleston, WV (United States)


    Purpose: To calculate the output factor (OPF) of any irregularly shaped electron beam at extended SSD Methods: Using Cerrobend block, circular cutouts with diameter ranging from 2.0cm to the maximum possible size for 15×15 applicator of Varian 2100C and 14×14 applicator of ELEKTA Synergy LINACs were prepared. In addition, two irregular cutouts were made. For each cutout, percentage depth dose (PDD) at standard SSD and point doses at different SSD were measured in water using Scanditronix diodes and PTW 0.125 cm{sup 3} ion-chambers, respectively. In addition, the distance at which electron fluence along the central axis becomes independent of cutout size was determined using EDR2 films. On each LINAC, electron beam energies of 6, 9, 12, and 15/20 MeV were used. Results: Using the open applicator as the reference field, the lateral buildup ratio (LBR) for each circular cutout as a function of depth was calculated. From the LBR value and radius of the cutout, the corresponding lateral spread parameter (σR(z)) was determined. Taking the cutout side dependence of σR(z)) into account, PDD of the irregular cutouts at the standard SSD were calculated. From the point dose measurement at different SSDs, the effective SSD of each cutout was calculated. Taking the calculated PDD of the irregular cutout and effective SSD (SSDeff) of the circular cutout into account, OPFs of the irregular cutout at extended SSD values were calculated. Finally, the calculated output factors were compared with the measured values. Conclusion: In this research, the improved LBR method has been generalized to calculate output factor of irregular cutouts at extended SSD. In a clinically useful region, the percentage difference between the measured and the calculated output factors of the irregular cutouts was within 2%. Similar results were obtained for all available electron energies of both Varian 2100C and ELEKTA Synergy machines.

  20. Attenuation of cryocooler induced vibration using multimodal tuned dynamic absorber (United States)

    Veprik, A.; Babitsky, V.; Tuito, A.


    Modern infrared imagers often rely on low Size, Weight and Power split Stirling linear cryocoolers comprised of side-by-side packed compressor and expander units fixedly mounted upon a common frame and interconnected by the configurable transfer line. Imbalanced reciprocation of moving assemblies generates vibration export in the form of tonal force couple producing angular and translational dynamic responses. Resulting line of sight jitter and dynamic defocusing may affect the image quality. The authors explore the concept of multimodal tuned dynamic absorber, the translational and tilting modal frequencies of which are essentially matched to the driving frequency. Dynamic analysis and full-scale testing show that the dynamic reactions (forces and moments) produced by such a device may effectively attenuate both translational and angular components of cryocooler-induced vibration.

  1. Exploration Review (United States)

    Wilburn, D.R.; Stanley, K.A.


    This summary of international mineral exploration activities for 2012 draws upon information from industry sources, published literature and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) specialists. The summary provides data on exploration budgets by region and mineral commodity, identifies significant mineral discoveries and areas of mineral exploration, discusses government programs affecting the mineral exploration industry and presents analyses of exploration activities performed by the mineral industry. Three sources of information are reported and analyzed in this annual review of international exploration for 2012: 1) budgetary statistics expressed in U.S. nominal dollars provided by SNL Metals Economics Group (MEG) of Halifax, Nova Scotia; 2) regional and site-specific exploration activities that took place in 2012 as compiled by the USGS and 3) regional events including economic, social and political conditions that affected exploration activities, which were derived from published sources and unpublished discussions with USGS and industry specialists.

  2. Exploration technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roennevik, H.C. [Saga Petroleum A/S, Forus (Norway)


    The paper evaluates exploration technology. Topics discussed are: Visions; the subsurface challenge; the creative tension; the exploration process; seismic; geology; organic geochemistry; seismic resolution; integration; drilling; value creation. 4 refs., 22 figs.

  3. Actively controlled vibration welding system and method (United States)

    Cai, Wayne W.; Kang, Bongsu; Tan, Chin-An


    A vibration welding system includes a controller, welding horn, an active material element, and anvil assembly. The assembly may include an anvil body connected to a back plate and support member. The element, e.g., a piezoelectric stack or shape memory alloy, is positioned with respect to the assembly. The horn vibrates in a desirable first direction to form a weld on a work piece. The element controls any vibrations in a second direction by applying calibrated response to the anvil body in the second direction. A method for controlling undesirable vibrations in the system includes positioning the element with respect to the anvil assembly, connecting the anvil body to the support member through the back plate, vibrating the horn in a desirable first direction, and transmitting an input signal to the element to control vibration in an undesirable second direction.

  4. Coupled rotor/airframe vibration analysis (United States)

    Sopher, R.; Studwell, R. E.; Cassarino, S.; Kottapalli, S. B. R.


    A coupled rotor/airframe vibration analysis developed as a design tool for predicting helicopter vibrations and a research tool to quantify the effects of structural properties, aerodynamic interactions, and vibration reduction devices on vehicle vibration levels is described. The analysis consists of a base program utilizing an impedance matching technique to represent the coupled rotor/airframe dynamics of the system supported by inputs from several external programs supplying sophisticated rotor and airframe aerodynamic and structural dynamic representation. The theoretical background, computer program capabilities and limited correlation results are presented in this report. Correlation results using scale model wind tunnel results show that the analysis can adequately predict trends of vibration variations with airspeed and higher harmonic control effects. Predictions of absolute values of vibration levels were found to be very sensitive to modal characteristics and results were not representative of measured values.

  5. Radar observations of 8.3 m scale equatorial spread f irregularities over Trivandrum (United States)

    Devasia, C. V.; Tiwari, D.; Patraa, A. K.; Sridharan, R.; Jyoti, N.; Viswanathan, K. S.; Subbarao, K. S. V.

    In this paper, we present observations of equatorial spread F (ESF) irregularities made using a newly installed 18 MHz radar located at Trivandrum. We characterize the morphology and the spectral parameters of the 8.3 m ESF irregularities which are found to be remarkably different from that observed so extensively at 3 m scale size. We also present statistical results of the irregularities in the form of percentage occurrence of the echoes and spectral parameters (SNR, Doppler velocity, Spectral width). The Doppler spectra are narrower, less structured and less variable in time as compared to those observed for 3 m scale size. We have never observed the ESF irregularity velocities to be supersonic here unlike those at Jicamarca and the velocities are found to be within ± 200 m s-1. The spectral widths are found to be less than 150 m s-1. Hence the velocities and spectral width both are smaller than those reported for 3 m scale size. The velocities and spectral widths are further found to be much smaller than those of the American sector. These observations are compared with those reported elsewhere and discussed in the light of present understanding on the ESF irregularities at different wavelengths.

  6. Dispositional resilience as a moderator of the relationship between chronic stress and irregular menstrual cycle. (United States)

    Palm-Fischbacher, Simona; Ehlert, Ulrike


    Menstrual-cycle irregularity may have an important influence on the subsequent development of chronic diseases. Several risk factors for irregular menstrual cycles have been detected, including stress. Our aim was to extend research on the link between chronic stress and menstrual-cycle irregularity and to assess potential protective factors, such as dispositional resilience, which we hypothesize to be associated with the maintenance or promotion of a healthy menstrual cycle. For this cross-sectional study, data on 696 healthy women aged 20-40 years were obtained. The women completed measures of chronic stress, dispositional resilience and menstrual-cycle irregularity. Furthermore, potential confounds were assessed. Of the participants, 383 (55%) reported no current use of hormonal contraceptives; 313 (45%) reported current use hormonal contraception and were included as a control group. The results suggest that in women not using hormonal contraception, chronic stress (OR = 1.05, 95%CI = 1.02-1.08, p = 0.001) and dispositional resilience (OR = 0.43, 95%CI = 0.31-0.59, p menstrual cycle regularity. In addition, women with greater dispositional resilience have reduced risk for irregular menstrual cycles in the face of low to moderate chronic stress; however, this association is changed at the highest level of chronic stress. These findings suggest that dispositional resilience may be a protective psychological trait that modulates reproductive functioning.

  7. Morning Cortisol Levels and Perceived Stress in Irregular Shift Workers Compared with Regular Daytime Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harri Lindholm


    Full Text Available The 24/7 work environment and irregular shifts may markedly enhance the psychological pressure of media work. Changes in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis reflect adaptation to stress. We analysed the correlation between subjective stress, sleep, salivary cortisol, and melatonin hormones among Finnish media workers with regular daytime work (RDW and with irregular shift work (ISW while controlling confounders. From 874 employees with regular daytime work or with irregular shift work, 70 employees from both groups were randomly selected. The final number of employees with a complete salivary cortisol profile was 66 in the RDW group and 65 in the ISW group. Five saliva samples were gathered from each subject before and during a working day. The salivary cortisol level of the sample taken 60 minutes after awakening (T1 was compared to the salivary cortisol level taken immediately after awakening (T0, T1/T0 ratio. The ratio was higher in the ISW group than in RDW group. Irregular shift work (P<0.001, severe stress (P<0.05, and less sleep (P<0.05 were independently associated with an augmented cortisol response after awakening. A stressful work environment and irregular shift work enhance cortisol excretion after waking. In the long run, this may become detrimental to health.

  8. Using forbidden ordinal patterns to detect determinism in irregularly sampled time series. (United States)

    Kulp, C W; Chobot, J M; Niskala, B J; Needhammer, C J


    It is known that when symbolizing a time series into ordinal patterns using the Bandt-Pompe (BP) methodology, there will be ordinal patterns called forbidden patterns that do not occur in a deterministic series. The existence of forbidden patterns can be used to identify deterministic dynamics. In this paper, the ability to use forbidden patterns to detect determinism in irregularly sampled time series is tested on data generated from a continuous model system. The study is done in three parts. First, the effects of sampling time on the number of forbidden patterns are studied on regularly sampled time series. The next two parts focus on two types of irregular-sampling, missing data and timing jitter. It is shown that forbidden patterns can be used to detect determinism in irregularly sampled time series for low degrees of sampling irregularity (as defined in the paper). In addition, comments are made about the appropriateness of using the BP methodology to symbolize irregularly sampled time series.

  9. Morphological processing in early bilinguals: an ERP study of regular and irregular verb processing. (United States)

    De Diego Balaguer, R; Sebastián-Gallés, N; Díaz, B; Rodríguez-Fornells, A


    Although the age of acquisition of a language has an effect when learning a second language, the similarity between languages may also have a crucial role. The aim of the present study is to understand the influence of this latter factor in the acquisition of morphosyntactic information. With this purpose, two groups of highly proficient early Catalan-Spanish bilinguals were presented with a repetition-priming paradigm with regular and irregular verbs of Spanish. Catalan and Spanish have a similar suffix (-o) for regular verbs and completely different alternations for irregular verbs. Two types of irregular verbs were studied (semi-regular verbs with a systematic diphthong alternation, sentir-siento, and verbs with idiosyncratic changes, venir-vengo). Regular verbs showed the same centro-parietal N400 priming effect in the second-language speakers (L2) as in primary-language (L1) speakers. However, differences between groups, in the ERP pattern and the topography of the N400 effect, were observed for irregular morphology. In L1 speakers, the N400 effect was attenuated only for semi-regular verbs. In contrast, L2 speakers showed a reduced N400 priming effect in both irregular contrasts. This pattern of results suggests that the similarity between languages may help for similar structures but may interfere for dissimilar structures, at least when the two languages have very similar morphological systems.

  10. Age-of-acquisition affects word naming in Italian only when stress is irregular. (United States)

    Wilson, Maximiliano A; Ellis, Andrew W; Burani, Cristina


    In Italian, effects of age of acquisition (AoA) have been found in object naming, semantic categorization of words and lexical decision, but not in word naming (reading aloud). The lack of an AoA effect in Italian word naming is replicated in Experiment 1 which involved reading aloud two-syllable words which all have regular spelling-sound correspondences and regular stress patterns. Studies of English word naming have reported stronger effects of AoA for irregular or exception words than for words with regular, consistent spelling-sound correspondences. There are no grapheme-phoneme irregularities in Italian, but words containing three or more syllables can carry either regular stress on the penultimate syllable or irregular stress on the antepenultimate syllable. Experiment 2 found effects of AoA on reading three-syllable words for words with irregular stress. The results are interpreted in terms of the 'mapping hypothesis' of AoA, with effects arising as a result of a difficulty to generalize earlier-acquired patterns to irregular late-acquired words. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. 30 MHz radar observations of artificial E region field-aligned plasma irregularities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. L. Hysell


    Full Text Available Artificial E region field aligned irregularities (FAIs have been observed during heating experiments at the HAARP facility using a new 30 MHz coherent scatter radar imager deployed near Homer, Alaska. Irregularities were observed during brief experiments on three quiet days in July and August, 2007, when the daytime E region critical frequency was close to 3 MHz. Irregularities were consistently generated and detected during experiments with O-mode HF pumping on zenith with a 1-min on, 1-min off CW modulation. The scattering cross sections, rise, and fall times of the echoes were observed as well as their spectral properties. Results were found to be mainly in agreement with observations from other mid- and high-latitude sites with some discrepancies. Radar images of the irregularity-filled volume on one case exhibited clear variations in backscatter power and Doppler shift across the volume. The images furthermore show the emergence of a small irregularity-filled region to the south southwest of the main region in the approximate direction of magnetic zenith.

  12. High force vibration testing with wide frequency range (United States)

    Romero, Edward F.; Jepsen, Richard A.; Gregory, Danny Lynn


    A shaker assembly for vibration testing includes first and second shakers, where the first shaker includes a piezo-electric material for generating vibration. A support structure permits a test object to be supported for vibration of the test object by both shakers. An input permits an external vibration controller to control vibration of the shakers.

  13. Wireless sensing and vibration control with increased redundancy and robustness design. (United States)

    Li, Peng; Li, Luyu; Song, Gangbing; Yu, Yan


    Control systems with long distance sensor and actuator wiring have the problem of high system cost and increased sensor noise. Wireless sensor network (WSN)-based control systems are an alternative solution involving lower setup and maintenance costs and reduced sensor noise. However, WSN-based control systems also encounter problems such as possible data loss, irregular sampling periods (due to the uncertainty of the wireless channel), and the possibility of sensor breakdown (due to the increased complexity of the overall control system). In this paper, a wireless microcontroller-based control system is designed and implemented to wirelessly perform vibration control. The wireless microcontroller-based system is quite different from regular control systems due to its limited speed and computational power. Hardware, software, and control algorithm design are described in detail to demonstrate this prototype. Model and system state compensation is used in the wireless control system to solve the problems of data loss and sensor breakdown. A positive position feedback controller is used as the control law for the task of active vibration suppression. Both wired and wireless controllers are implemented. The results show that the WSN-based control system can be successfully used to suppress the vibration and produces resilient results in the presence of sensor failure.

  14. Experimental Research on Vibration Fatigue of CFRP and Its Influence Factors Based on Vibration Testing


    Fan, Zhengwei; Jiang, Yu; Zhang, Shufeng; Chen, Xun


    A new research method based on vibration testing for the vibration fatigue of FRP was proposed in this paper. Through the testing on a closed-loop controlled vibration fatigue test system, the vibration fatigue phenomenon of typical carbon-fiber-reinforced plastic (CFRP) cantilevered laminate specimens was carefully studied. Moreover, a method based on the frequency response function was proposed to monitor the fatigue damage accumulation of specimens. On the basis of that, the influence fact...

  15. Vibrational dynamics of crystalline L-alanine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bordallo, H.N.; Eckert, J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Barthes, M. [Univ. Montpellier II (France)


    The authors report a new, complete vibrational analysis of L-alanine and L-alanine-d{sub 4} which utilizes IINS intensities in addition to frequency information. The use of both isotopomers resulted in a self-consistent force field for and assignment of the molecular vibrations in L-alanine. Some details of the calculation as well as a comparison of calculated and observed IINS spectra are presented. The study clarifies a number of important issues on the vibrational dynamics of this molecule and presents a self-consistent force field for the molecular vibrations in crystalline L-alanine.

  16. Analysis of potential helicopter vibration reduction concepts (United States)

    Landgrebe, A. J.; Davis, M. W.


    Results of analytical investigations to develop, understand, and evaluate potential helicopter vibration reduction concepts are presented in the following areas: identification of the fundamental sources of vibratory loads, blade design for low vibration, application of design optimization techniques, active higher harmonic control, blade appended aeromechanical devices, and the prediction of vibratory airloads. Primary sources of vibration are identified for a selected four-bladed articulated rotor operating in high speed level flight. The application of analytical design procedures and optimization techniques are shown to have the potential for establishing reduced vibration blade designs through variations in blade mass and stiffness distributions, and chordwise center-of-gravity location.

  17. Vibration fatigue using modal decomposition (United States)

    Mršnik, Matjaž; Slavič, Janko; Boltežar, Miha


    Vibration-fatigue analysis deals with the material fatigue of flexible structures operating close to natural frequencies. Based on the uniaxial stress response, calculated in the frequency domain, the high-cycle fatigue model using the S-N curve material data and the Palmgren-Miner hypothesis of damage accumulation is applied. The multiaxial criterion is used to obtain the equivalent uniaxial stress response followed by the spectral moment approach to the cycle-amplitude probability density estimation. The vibration-fatigue analysis relates the fatigue analysis in the frequency domain to the structural dynamics. However, once the stress response within a node is obtained, the physical model of the structure dictating that response is discarded and does not propagate through the fatigue-analysis procedure. The structural model can be used to evaluate how specific dynamic properties (e.g., damping, modal shapes) affect the damage intensity. A new approach based on modal decomposition is presented in this research that directly links the fatigue-damage intensity with the dynamic properties of the system. It thus offers a valuable insight into how different modes of vibration contribute to the total damage to the material. A numerical study was performed showing good agreement between results obtained using the newly presented approach with those obtained using the classical method, especially with regards to the distribution of damage intensity and critical point location. The presented approach also offers orders of magnitude faster calculation in comparison with the conventional procedure. Furthermore, it can be applied in a straightforward way to strain experimental modal analysis results, taking advantage of experimentally measured strains.

  18. Nonlinear vibration absorption for a flexible arm via a virtual vibration absorber (United States)

    Bian, Yushu; Gao, Zhihui


    A semi-active vibration absorption method is put forward to attenuate nonlinear vibration of a flexible arm based on the internal resonance. To maintain the 2:1 internal resonance condition and the desirable damping characteristic, a virtual vibration absorber is suggested. It is mathematically equivalent to a vibration absorber but its frequency and damping coefficients can be readily adjusted by simple control algorithms, thereby replacing those hard-to-implement mechanical designs. Through theoretical analyses and numerical simulations, it is proven that the internal resonance can be successfully established for the flexible arm, and the vibrational energy of flexible arm can be transferred to and dissipated by the virtual vibration absorber. Finally, experimental results are presented to validate the theoretical predictions. Since the proposed method absorbs rather than suppresses vibrational energy of the primary system, it is more convenient to reduce strong vibration than conventional active vibration suppression methods based on smart material actuators with limited energy output. Furthermore, since it aims to establish an internal vibrational energy transfer channel from the primary system to the vibration absorber rather than directly respond to external excitations, it is especially applicable for attenuating nonlinear vibration excited by unpredictable excitations.

  19. Vibrational spectroscopy of Cm–C/Cb–Cb stretching vibrations of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    operator which conveniently describes stretching vibrations of biomolecules. For a copper tetramesityl porphyrin molecule, the higher excited vibrational levels are calculated by applying the U(2) algebraic approach. Keywords. Lie algebraic techniques; vibrational spectra; copper tetramesityl porphyrin. PACS Nos 31.65.

  20. Vibrational Spectroscopy of Chromatographic Interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeanne E. Pemberton


    Chromatographic separations play a central role in DOE-supported fundamental research related to energy, biological systems, the environment, and nuclear science. The overall portfolio of research activities in the Separations and Analysis Program within the DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences includes support for activities designed to develop a molecular-level understanding of the chemical processes that underlie separations for both large-scale and analytical-scale purposes. The research effort funded by this grant award was a continuation of DOE-supported research to develop vibrational spectroscopic methods to characterize the interfacial details of separations processes at a molecular level.

  1. Introduction to vibrations and waves

    CERN Document Server

    Pain, H John


    Based on the successful multi-edition book "The Physics ofVibrations and Waves" by John Pain, the authors carry overthe simplicity and logic of the approach taken in the originalfirst edition with its focus on the patterns underlying andconnecting so many aspects of physical behavior, whilst bringingthe subject up-to-date so it is relevant to teaching in the21st century.The transmission of energy by wave propagation is a key conceptthat has applications in almost every branch of physics withtransmitting mediums essentially acting as a continuum of coupledoscillators. The characterization of t

  2. Vibration diagnostics instrumentation for ILC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertolini, A.


    The future e{sup -}e{sup +} 500 GeV International Linear Collider will rely on unprecedented nanometer scale particle beam size at the interaction point, in order to achieve the design luminosity. Tight tolerances on static and dynamic alignment of the accelerator cavities and optical components are demanded to transport and focus the high energy electron and positron beams with reasonable position jitter and low emittance. A brief review of techniques and devices evaluated and developed so far for the vibration diagnostics of the machine is presented in this paper. (orig.)

  3. Monothiodibenzoylmethane: Structural and vibrational assignments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Bjarke Knud Vilster; Gorski, Alexander; Posokhov, Yevgen


    The vibrational structure of the title compound (1,3-diphenyl-3-thioxopropane-1-one, TDBM) was studied by a variety of experimental and theoretical methods. The stable ground state configuration of TDBM was investigated by IR absorption measurements in different media, by LD polarization spectros...... to an “open”, non-chelated enethiol form (t-TCC), thereby supporting the previous conclusions by Posokhov et al. No obvious indications of the contribution of other forms to the observed spectra could be found....

  4. A new angle for probing field-aligned irregularities with the Murchison Widefield Array

    CERN Document Server

    Loi, Shyeh Tjing; Cairns, Iver H; Trott, Cathryn M; Hurley-Walker, Natasha; Feng, Lu; Hancock, Paul J; Kaplan, David L


    Electron density irregularities in the ionosphere are known to be magnetically anisotropic, preferentially elongated along the lines of force. While many studies of their morphology have been undertaken by topside sounding and whistler measurements, it is only recently that detailed regional-scale reconstructions have become possible, enabled by the advent of widefield radio telescopes. Here we present a new approach for visualising and studying field-aligned irregularities (FAIs), which involves transforming interferometric measurements of TEC gradients onto a magnetic shell tangent plane. This removes the perspective distortion associated with the oblique viewing angle of the irregularities from the ground, facilitating the decomposition of dynamics along and across magnetic field lines. We apply this transformation to the dataset of Loi et al. [2015a], obtained on 15 October 2013 by the Murchison Widefield Array (MWA) radio telescope and displaying prominent FAIs. We study these FAIs in the new reference f...

  5. Predictors of homeless veterans' irregular discharge status from a domiciliary care program. (United States)

    Wenzel, S L; Bakhtiar, L; Caskey, N H; Hardie, E; Redford, C; Sadler, N; Gelberg, L


    This study addresses the relationship of homeless veterans' discharge status from a domiciliary care program to biopsychosocial characteristics presented at admission into the program. Hypotheses were that younger age, less education, and substance abuse or psychiatric disorder would predict an irregular discharge. Research participants were 367 homeless male veterans who had been admitted to a domiciliary care program at the West Los Angeles Veterans Affairs Medical Center for treatment of medical, psychiatric, or substance disorders. Status of veterans' program discharge (regular or irregular) served as the outcome measure. Logistic regression analysis revealed that irregular discharge from the program was more likely among veterans who were black, who had poor employment histories, or who had problems with alcohol. Results are discussed in light of the need to maintain homeless veterans in treatment programs so that they can achieve maximum benefit from available programs.

  6. Energy Extraction from a Slider-Crank Wave Energy under Irregular Wave Conditions: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sang, Yuanrui; Karayaka, H. Bora; Yan, Yanjun; Zhang, James Z.; Muljadi, Eduard; Yu, Yi-Hsiang


    A slider-crank wave energy converter (WEC) is a novel energy conversion device. It converts wave energy into electricity at a relatively high efficiency, and it features a simple structure. Past analysis on this particular WEC has been done under regular sinusoidal wave conditions, and suboptimal energy could be achieved. This paper presents the analysis of the system under irregular wave conditions; a time-domain hydrodynamics model is adopted and a rule-based control methodology is introduced to better serve the irregular wave conditions. Results from the simulations show that the performance of the system under irregular wave conditions is different from that under regular sinusoidal wave conditions, but a reasonable amount of energy can still be extracted.

  7. Determination of border irregularity in dermoscopic color images of pigmented skin lesions. (United States)

    Jaworek-Korjakowska, J; Tadeusiewicz, R


    Malignant melanoma, which is the most dangerous type of skin cancer, is commonly diagnosed in all people, regardless of age, gender, or race. In the last several years an increasing melanoma incidence and mortality rate has been observed worldwide. In this research we present a new approach to the detection and classification of border irregularity, one of the major parameter in a widely used diagnostic algorithm ABCD rule of dermoscopy. Accurate assessment of irregular borders is clinically important due to a significantly different occurrence in benign and malignant skin lesions. In this paper we describe a complex algorithm containing following steps: image enhancement, lesion segmentation, border irregularity detection as well as classification. The algorithm has been tested on 300 dermoscopic images and achieved a detection of 79% and classification accuracy of 90%. Compared to state-of-the-art, we obtain improved classification accuracy.

  8. Interrater agreement in rating of pigmented skin lesions for border irregularity. (United States)

    Gunasti, Suhan; Mulayim, Mehmet Kamil; Fettahloglu, Bilge; Yucel, Aydn; Burgut, Refik; Sertdemir, Yasar; Aksungur, Varol Lutfu


    The clinical ABCD criteria are still recommended to both physicians and laymen when checking moles. The aim of this study was to determine the level of interrater reliability and therefore objectivity in rating for one of these criteria, namely border irregularity. Five professors, five residents, five nurses, and 10 students rated a set of 54 clinical images of pigmented skin lesions for border irregularity. After a descriptive presentation, rating was again carried out on another set of 54 images. In all groups, the agreement was moderate or substantial before the presentation and increased after the presentation. An almost perfect agreement was achieved by the professors after the presentation. Although both experience and receiving information could increase the level of interrater reliability, the disagreement was usually sufficient to suggest subjectivity in rating for border irregularity.

  9. Dissipation of ionospheric irregularities by wave-particle and collisional interactions (United States)

    Bernhardt, P. A.; Pongratz, M. B.; Gray, S. P.; Thomsen, M. F.


    The nonlinear dissipation of plasma irregularities aligned parallel to an ambient magnetic field is studied numerically using a model which employs both wave-particle and collisional diffusion. A wave-particle diffusion coefficient derived from a local theory of the universal drift instability is used. This coefficient is effective in regions of nonzero plasma gradients and produces triangular-shaped irregularities with spectra which vary as f to the -4th, where f is the spatial frequency. Collisional diffusion acts rapidly on the vertices of the irregularities to reduce their amplitude. The simultaneous action of the two dissipative processes is more efficient than collisions acting alone. In this model, wave-particle diffusion mimics the forward cascade process of wave-wave coupling.

  10. HF produced ionospheric electron density irregularities diagnosed by UHF radio star scintillations (United States)

    Frey, A.; Gordon, W. E.


    Three observations of radio star intensity fluctuations at UHF are reported for HF ionospheric modification experiments carried out at the Arecibo Observatory. Two observations at 430 MHz and one at 1400 MHz suggest that the the thin phase screen theory is a good approximation to the observed power spectra. It is noted, however, that the theory has to be extended to include antenna filtering. This type of filtering is important for UHF radio star scintillations since the antenna usually has a narrow beamwidth. HF power densities of less than 37 microwatts/sq m incident on the ionosphere give rise to electron density irregularities larger than 13% of the ambient density (at 260 km) having scale sizes of approximately 510 m perpendicular to the geomagnetic field. The irregularities are found to form within 20-25 s after the HF power is turned on. The drift velocities of the irregularities can be estimated from the observed power spectra.

  11. Irregular Firing and High-Conductance States in Spinal Motoneurons during Scratching and Swimming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guzulaitis, Robertas; Hounsgaard, Jorn; Alaburda, Aidas


    in general. Here we compare conductance and firing patterns in spinal motoneurons during network activity for scratching and swimming in an ex vivo carapace-spinal cord preparation from adult turtles (Trachemys scripta elegans). The pattern and relative engagement of motoneurons are distinctly different...... of spinal motor network activity. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: Neurons embedded in active neural networks can enter high-conductance states with irregular firing. This was previously shown for spinal motoneurons during scratching. Because scratching is highly specialized rhythmic behavior, it is not known...... whether high-conductance states and irregular firing are a peculiarity for motoneurons during scratching. Here, using intracellular recordings from motoneurons in an ex vivo carapace-spinal cord preparation from adult turtles, we demonstrate that irregular firing and high-conductance states are present...

  12. Vulnerability, irregular migrants' health-related rights and the European Court of Human Rights. (United States)

    Da Lomba, Sylvie


    The protection of irregular migrants' health-related rights brings to the fore the tensions that exist between human rights, citizenship and the sovereign state, and exposes the protection gaps in the international human rights regime. With this in mind, I consider the merits of a vulnerability analysis in international human rights law (IHRL). I posit that, detached from specific groups and reconceptualised as universal, vulnerability can be reclaimed as a foundation and tool of IHRL. I further contend that the deployment of a vulnerability analysis can alleviate the exclusionary dimension of IHRL and extend protections to irregular migrants. On this basis, I investigate the development of a vulnerability analysis in the case law of the European Court of Human Rights. I argue that, in contrast with the Court's vulnerable population approach, a vulnerability analysis can improve protection standards for irregular migrants in the field of health.

  13. Vibration-rotation alchemy in acetylene (12C2H2), at low vibrational excitation: From high resolution spectroscopy to fast intramolecular dynamics


    Perry, David; Miller, Anthony; AMYAY, Badr; Fayt, André; Herman, Michel


    Abstract The link between energy-resolved spectra and time-resolved dynamics is explored quantitatively for acetylene (12C2H2), with up to 8,600 cm-1 of vibrational energy This comparison is based on the extensive and reliable knowledge of the vibration-rotation energy levels and on the model Hamiltonian used to fit them to high precision (B. Amyay, S. Robert, M. Herman, A. Fayt, B. Raghavendra, A. Moudens, J. Thievin, B. Rowe, and R. Georges, J. Chem. Phys. 131 (2009) 114301-11431...

  14. On growth and form of irregular coiled-shell of a terrestrial snail: Plectostoma concinnum (Fulton, 1901 (Mollusca: Caenogastropoda: Diplommatinidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thor-Seng Liew


    Full Text Available The molluscan shell can be viewed as a petrified representation of the organism’s ontogeny and thus can be used as a record of changes in form during growth. However, little empirical data is available on the actual growth and form of shells, as these are hard to quantify and examine simultaneously. To address these issues, we studied the growth and form of a land snail that has an irregularly coiled and heavily ornamented shell–Plectostoma concinnum. The growth data were collected in a natural growth experiment and the actual form changes of the aperture during shell ontogeny were quantified. We used an ontogeny axis that allows data of growth and form to be analysed simultaneously. Then, we examined the association between the growth and the form during three different whorl growing phases, namely, the regular coiled spire phase, the transitional constriction phase, and the distortedly-coiled tuba phase. In addition, we also explored the association between growth rate and the switching between whorl growing mode and rib growing mode. As a result, we show how the changes in the aperture ontogeny profiles in terms of aperture shape, size and growth trajectory, and the changes in growth rates, are associated with the different shell forms at different parts of the shell ontogeny. These associations suggest plausible constraints that underlie the three different shell ontogeny phases and the two different growth modes. We found that the mechanism behind the irregularly coiled-shell is the rotational changes of the animal’s body and mantle edge with respect to the previously secreted shell. Overall, we propose that future study should focus on the role of the mantle and the columellar muscular system in the determination of shell form.

  15. Use of biodiesel-derived crude glycerol for producing eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) by the fungus Pythium irregulare. (United States)

    Athalye, Sneha K; Garcia, Rafael A; Wen, Zhiyou


    Crude glycerol is a major byproduct for the biodiesel industry. Producing value-added products through microbial fermentation on crude glycerol provides opportunities to utilize a large quantity of this byproduct. The objective of this study is to explore the potential of using crude glycerol for producing eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5 n-3) by the fungus Pythium irregulare . When P. irregulare was grown in medium containing 30 g/L crude glycerol and 10 g/L yeast extract, EPA yield and productivity reached 90 mg/L and 14.9 mg/L x day, respectively. Adding pure vegetable oils (flaxseed oil and soybean oil) to the culture greatly enhanced the biomass and the EPA production. This enhancement was due to the oil absorption by the fungal cells and elongation of shorter chain fatty acids (e.g., linoleic acid and alpha-linolenic acid) into longer chain fatty acid (e.g., EPA). The major impurities contained in crude glycerol, soap and methanol, were inhibitory to fungal growth. Soap can be precipitated from the liquid medium through pH adjustment, whereas methanol can be evaporated from the medium during autoclaving. The glycerol-derived fungal biomass contained about 15% lipid, 36% protein, and 40% carbohydrate, with 9% ash. In addition to EPA, the fungal biomass was also rich in the essential amino acids lysine, arginine, and leucine, relative to many common feedstuffs. Elemental analysis by inductively coupled plasma showed that aluminum, calcium, copper, iron, magnesium, manganese, phosphorus, potassium, silicon, sodium, sulfur, and zinc were present in the biomass, whereas no heavy metals (such as mercury and lead) were detected. The results show that it is feasible to use crude glycerol for producing fungal biomass that can serve as EPA-fortified food or feed.

  16. Irregular menses predicts ovarian cancer: Prospective evidence from the Child Health and Development Studies. (United States)

    Cirillo, Piera M; Wang, Erica T; Cedars, Marcelle I; Chen, Lee-May; Cohn, Barbara A


    We tested the hypothesis that irregular menstruation predicts lower risk for ovarian cancer, possibly due to less frequent ovulation. We conducted a 50-year prospective study of 15,528 mothers in the Child Health and Development Studies cohort recruited from the Kaiser Foundation Health Plan from 1959 to 1966. Irregular menstruation was classified via medical record and self-report at age 26. We identified 116 cases and 84 deaths due to ovarian cancer through 2011 via linkage to the California Cancer Registry and Vital Statistics. Contrary to expectation, women with irregular menstrual cycles had a higher risk of ovarian cancer incidence and mortality over the 50-year follow-up. Associations increased with age (p <0.05). We observed a 2-fold increased incidence and mortality by age 70 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.1, 3.4) rising to a 3-fold increase by age 77 (95% CI = 1.5, 6.7 for incidence; 95% CI = 1.4, 5.9 for mortality). We also found a 3-fold higher risk of mortality for high-grade serous tumors (95% CI = 1.3, 7.6) that did not vary by age. This is the first prospective study to show an association between irregular menstruation and ovarian cancer-we unexpectedly found higher risk for women with irregular cycles. These women are easy to identify and many may have polycystic ovarian syndrome. Classifying high-risk phenotypes such as irregular menstruation creates opportunities to find novel early biomarkers, refine clinical screening protocols and potentially develop new risk reduction strategies. These efforts can lead to earlier detection and better survival for ovarian cancer. © 2016 UICC.

  17. Some new features of electron density irregularities over SHAR during strong spread F

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Raizada

    Full Text Available An RH-560 rocket flight was conducted from Sriharikota rocket range (SHAR (14°N, 80°E, dip latitude 5.5°N to study electron density and electric field irregularities during spread F. The rocket was launched at 2130 local time (LT and it attained an apogee of 348 km. Results of electron density fluctuations are presented here. Two extremely sharp layers of very high electron density were observed at 105 and 130 km. The electron density increase in these layers was by a factor of 50 in a vertical extent of 10 km. Large depletions in electron density were observed around 175 and 238 km. Both sharp layers as well as depletions were observed also during the descent. The presence of sharp layers and depletions during the ascent and the descent of the rocket as well as an order of magnitude less electron density, in 150-300 km region during the descent, indicate the presence of strong large-scale horizontal gradients in the electron density. Some of the valley region irregularities (165-178 km, in the intermediate scale size range, observed during this flight, show spectral peaks at 2 km and can be interpreted in terms of the image striation theory suggested by Vickrey et al. The irregularities at 176 km do not exhibit any peak at kilometer scales and appear to be of new type. The growth rate of intermediate scale size irregularities, produced through generalized Rayleigh Taylor instability, was calculated for the 200-330 km altitude, using observed values of electron density gradients and an assumed vertically downward wind of 20 ms-1. These growth rate calculations suggest that the observed irregularities could be produced by the gradient drift instability.

    Key words: Ionosphere (equatorial ionosphere; ionospheric irregularities - Radio science (ionospheric physics

  18. Some new features of electron density irregularities over SHAR during strong spread F

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Raizada


    Full Text Available An RH-560 rocket flight was conducted from Sriharikota rocket range (SHAR (14°N, 80°E, dip latitude 5.5°N to study electron density and electric field irregularities during spread F. The rocket was launched at 2130 local time (LT and it attained an apogee of 348 km. Results of electron density fluctuations are presented here. Two extremely sharp layers of very high electron density were observed at 105 and 130 km. The electron density increase in these layers was by a factor of 50 in a vertical extent of 10 km. Large depletions in electron density were observed around 175 and 238 km. Both sharp layers as well as depletions were observed also during the descent. The presence of sharp layers and depletions during the ascent and the descent of the rocket as well as an order of magnitude less electron density, in 150-300 km region during the descent, indicate the presence of strong large-scale horizontal gradients in the electron density. Some of the valley region irregularities (165-178 km, in the intermediate scale size range, observed during this flight, show spectral peaks at 2 km and can be interpreted in terms of the image striation theory suggested by Vickrey et al. The irregularities at 176 km do not exhibit any peak at kilometer scales and appear to be of new type. The growth rate of intermediate scale size irregularities, produced through generalized Rayleigh Taylor instability, was calculated for the 200-330 km altitude, using observed values of electron density gradients and an assumed vertically downward wind of 20 ms-1. These growth rate calculations suggest that the observed irregularities could be produced by the gradient drift instability.Key words: Ionosphere (equatorial ionosphere; ionospheric irregularities - Radio science (ionospheric physics

  19. Synchronous contextual irregularities affect early scene processing: replication and extension. (United States)

    Mudrik, Liad; Shalgi, Shani; Lamy, Dominique; Deouell, Leon Y


    Whether contextual regularities facilitate perceptual stages of scene processing is widely debated, and empirical evidence is still inconclusive. Specifically, it was recently suggested that contextual violations affect early processing of a scene only when the incongruent object and the scene are presented a-synchronously, creating expectations. We compared event-related potentials (ERPs) evoked by scenes that depicted a person performing an action using either a congruent or an incongruent object (e.g., a man shaving with a razor or with a fork) when scene and object were presented simultaneously. We also explored the role of attention in contextual processing by using a pre-cue to direct subjects׳ attention towards or away from the congruent/incongruent object. Subjects׳ task was to determine how many hands the person in the picture used in order to perform the action. We replicated our previous findings of frontocentral negativity for incongruent scenes that started ~ 210 ms post stimulus presentation, even earlier than previously found. Surprisingly, this incongruency ERP effect was negatively correlated with the reaction times cost on incongruent scenes. The results did not allow us to draw conclusions about the role of attention in detecting the regularity, due to a weak attention manipulation. By replicating the 200-300 ms incongruity effect with a new group of subjects at even earlier latencies than previously reported, the results strengthen the evidence for contextual processing during this time window even when simultaneous presentation of the scene and object prevent the formation of prior expectations. We discuss possible methodological limitations that may account for previous failures to find this an effect, and conclude that contextual information affects object model selection processes prior to full object identification, with semantic knowledge activation stages unfolding only later on. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Availability of stereotactic radiotherapy with irregular ports (STRIP). Survey from database of pReference stereotactic system users group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohizumi, Yukio; Tamai, Hisashi; Imamiya, Satoshi; Akiba, Takeshi; Mori, Tomoyuki [Tokai Univ., Isehara, Kanagawa (Japan). School of Medicine; Seo, Makoto


    Stereotactic radiotherapy with irregular ports (STRIP) contributes to reduce normal tissue damage around irregular target by using conformal collimator. The availability of STRIP was surveyed on the database of pReference stereotactic system users group. During the last three years, STRIP was used in 44% of patients with stereotactic irradiation. The high availability was seen in patients with astrocytoma (55%), H and N cancer (50%), pituitary adenoma (50%), and AVM (44%). In sites, temporal lobe (46%), base of skull (43%), and brain stem (38%). In target volume, 4 cc-13.5 cc (47%), 13.5 cc-35 cc (66%), and >35 cc (83%). In target regularity, {+-}4 mm-{+-}8 mm (43%) and >{+-}8 mm (75%). The diameter of target and irregularity correlated strongly. Targets with 3 cm in diameter and >{+-}4 mm of irregularity were recommended to treat with irregular pots. Hand-made irregular-shaped collimators were easily made and not expensive in cost. (author)