WorldWideScience

Sample records for exploring corruption practices

  1. A PRACTICAL-THEOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE ON CORRUPTION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of practical theology in an attempt to address the issue of corruption. Finally, one ... and ethical behavior is becoming a relative, intellectualised concept, the question .... business and politics, and a closed culture within government. However,.

  2. Corruption as a Problem of Political Theory and Political Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna V. Shashkova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present article is dedicated to the analysis of "corruption" from point of view of political practice and political theory. The present article studies historical examples of corruption: corruption during the era of Alexander the Great, Carthage, Roman Republic. The article gives the evolution of the term "corruption", pointing out current aspects of the term. The article provides positive and negative results of corruption, gives resume. The present article analyses corruption results: economical, political and social. Most important economical consequences of corruption are the following: increase of shadow economy, decrease of tax payments, weakening of the state budget, breach of market competition, decrease of market effectiveness, destabilization of the idea of market economy. Most important social consequences of corruption are the following: great distinction between the declared and real values, which creates a "double standard" of the moral and behavior, distraction of great sums from public and humanitarian development, increase of property disproportion, increase of social tension. The present article names most important political consequences of corruption: shift of ideas from public development to the security of power of oligarchy, decrease of trust to the state, decrease of image of the country at the international arena, increase of its economical and political isolation, decrease of political competition. The present article gives one of the resumes that the globalization process increases corruption. Together with globalization most important role is given to corporations and corporate corruption comes to the front raw.

  3. Corruption and Organizational Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krause Hansen, Hans

    2017-01-01

    , and societal levels, as well as how corruption is and can be responded to through public scandals and more elaborate communicative strategies of corruption control, or anti-corruption. A focus on corruption and corruption control provides organizational communication scholars with entry points to explore...... the powerful communicative dynamics playing out between the local organizational meanings of particular practices and externally imposed definitions of what constitutes appropriate organizational behavior....

  4. Corruption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pellegrini, L.; Gerlagh, R.

    2004-01-01

    A common finding of recent theoretical and empirical literature is that corruption has a negative effect on economic growth. In the paper, through growth regression analysis, we estimate the direct and indirect effects of corruption on economic growth. The indirect transmission channels,

  5. Assessment of Perceived Corrupt Practices in Marketing of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of Perceived Corrupt Practices in Marketing of Agricultural Produce Among Women Marketers in Ogbomoso Agricultural of Oyo State, Nigeria. ... Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL ...

  6. Corruption Practices Among Young Elective Public Officials (Sanggunian Kabataan In Iligan City, Southern Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulpecia L. Ponce

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This study attempts to explore the involvement in graft and corruption among elective barangay youth officials in a city in Southern Philippines. Using a qualitative research design employing a case study method, 10 informants were included in this study and were selected using snowball sampling technique. The findings indicated that the informants were aware of the forms of graft and corrupt practices stipulated in the Anti-Graft and Corrupt Practices Act in the Philippines (RA 3019 and other legal documents. However, despite this, most of them admitted to have been involved in any of the follow-ing irregular acts while in public service: malversation of public funds, evasion of public bidding in the purchase of supplies and equipments, forgery, bribery, making ghost projects and payrolls, abuse of powers, among others. It was known also that corruption was caused mainly by bureaucratic dys-functions especially in the delay of budget releases and political socialization with older and corrupt barangay officials who passed on the techniques of corruption to the young leader informants. The policy implications of the study demands further strength-ening of governmental structures and processes that would ensure observance of good governance among public officials both at the barangay ( local and national levels.

  7. CORRUPTION IN MEDICAL PRACTICE: WHERE DO WE STAND?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousafzai, Abdul Wahab

    2015-01-01

    Corruption in health care sector affects all countries, including the United States, China and India. Pakistan is no exception. It is preventing people from having access to the quality medical care. Corruption in medical practice include ordering unnecessary investigations, and procedures for kickbacks and commissions; significant absenteeism, which adversely affects patient care; and the conflict of interest within the physician-pharmaceutical nexus, which exploits patients. To overcome corruption there is need to establish a framework for accountability, eliminating the physician-pharmaceutical nexus; and emphasizing medical ethics at the undergraduate and postgraduate levels. It is also important to open a dialogue amongst health care professionals and encourage the establishment of an ethical health care system in Pakistan.

  8. DISTINCTION BETWEEN CORRUPTION PERCEPTIONS ON THE ETHICAL AND PRACTICAL LEVELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona‐Roxana ULMAN

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Corruption is one of the persistent problems of the societies over the years and it affects the credibility of public institutions and its ambassadors in front of the citizens and of the other related countries. This phenomenon eludes the rules, the transparency and the impersonal and impartial aspect of public actions, but, also, the responsibility for all these irregularities, being the opposite of the public integrity concept. The paper tries to investigate if the ethical principle about bribe or, extensively, about corruption is put into practice in the same way as it is ethically perceived by the citizens of nations. After this comparison and taking into consideration the results from it, the paper reveals that the national integrity systems are key factors for the corruption phenomenon and can be real solutions for this if they are well designed and well implemented at the level of public sector.

  9. Exploring corruption in the South African health sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rispel, Laetitia C; de Jager, Pieter; Fonn, Sharon

    2016-03-01

    Recent scholarly attention has focused on weak governance and the negative effects of corruption on the provision of health services. Employing agency theory, this article discusses corruption in the South African health sector. We used a combination of research methods and triangulated data from three sources: Auditor-General of South Africa reports for each province covering a 9-year period; 13 semi-structured interviews with health sector key informants and a content analysis of print media reports covering a 3-year period. Findings from the Auditor-General reports showed a worsening trend in audit outcomes with marked variation across the nine provinces. Key-informants indicated that corruption has a negative effect on patient care and the morale of healthcare workers. The majority of the print media reports on corruption concerned the public health sector (63%) and involved provincial health departments (45%). Characteristics and complexity of the public health sector may increase its vulnerability to corruption, but the private-public binary constitutes a false dichotomy as corruption often involves agents from both sectors. Notwithstanding the lack of global validated indicators to measure corruption, our findings suggest that corruption is a problem in the South African healthcare sector. Corruption is influenced by adverse agent selection, lack of mechanisms to detect corruption and a failure to sanction those involved in corrupt activities. We conclude that appropriate legislation is a necessary, but not sufficient intervention to reduce corruption. We propose that mechanisms to reduce corruption must include the political will to run corruption-free health services, effective government to enforce laws, appropriate systems, and citizen involvement and advocacy to hold public officials accountable. Importantly, the institutionalization of a functional bureaucracy and public servants with the right skills, competencies, ethics and value systems and whose

  10. Managing Corruption Risks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krause Hansen, Hans

    2011-01-01

    This article investigates the emerging engagement of private actors and specifically Western corporations in international anti-corruption, drawing on Foucauldian studies of governmentality. It explores this engagement as governing practices that have emanated quite independently from the inter......-state system commonly understood to be at the core of the anti-corruption regime. It demonstrates how corporate anti-corruption ties in with a relatively new way of perceiving corruption. In this framing, anti-corruption comes out as risk management, which is latched on to notions of corporate social...... responsibility and business ethics. Moreover, the constitution of corruption risk relates to the rise of new actors and networks engaged in a wider business of anti-corruption, including commercial and hybrid actors that supply corporations with managerial instruments, benchmarks for best practice, rankings...

  11. Corruption and Torture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Why do people give money to the police? Because they have to! Or face the violent consequences! This book addresses policing torture and corruption as interlinked practices. Rather than separating corruption and torture, the collection suggests exploring their linkages in the everyday encounter...... attempt to navigate to stay safe and maybe even express claims of belonging and rights. As such this book will provide a welcome contribution to policing and corruption studies as well as NGOs, human rights organizations and policy makers within the fields of state violence and corruption....

  12. Corruption in Education Systems: A Review of Practices, Causes, Effects and Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Cárdenas Denham

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Achieving higher levels of transparency and accountability in education systems is essential for attaining an adequate distribution of educational opportunities. Studies of corruption in education systems are important since they can contribute to increasing public awareness of the harmful effects of corruption and promote political support for the implementation of anti-corruption initiatives in education. This paper describes a typology of corrupt practices and develops a classification for the findings reported in the literature on corruption in education, such as causes, consequences and recommendations, as well as a classification of the methodologies applied to the study of corrupt practices. Finally, it describes the possible implications of these findings for policymakers.

  13. State corruption practices as the deviation of the social morality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. Parkhomenko

    2016-11-01

    Several groups of definitions of corruption have been identified in the article: corruption as the use of their official position by an official, who dispose another’s resources in order to achieve personal goals and their own material enrichment; corruption as a kind of black market of goods and services, where there are (as in a normal economy, the laws of supply and demand, and constantly fulfilled transactions between different subjects; corruption as a strategy of behavior of the two social groups – representatives of the government and private businesses or citizens (in this context, the corruption is considered depending on the fact, which of the parties is trying to establish control over the other.

  14. THE NONLINEAR IMPACT OF GLOBALIZATION ON CORRUPTION

    OpenAIRE

    Jayoti Das; Cassandra DiRienzo

    2009-01-01

    Some researchers have argued that globalization has increased the opportunity for corrupt practices, while others state that globalization has lead to a decrease in corruption as countries wishing to join the global economy must comply with international anti-corruption rules and regulations. This study empirically explores this paradox using the Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) and the Konjunkturforschungsstelle (KOF) globalization Index. The results suggest that a nonlinear relationship e...

  15. Assessment of Perceived Corrupt Practices in Marketing of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    between selected socio-economic characteristics of women marketers and their perceived level of severity of identified corrupt ... Women participation in agricultural produce marketing is not a ... economic growth, democratic culture, national.

  16. Corrupt practices negatively influenced food security and live expectancy in developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchendu, Florence Ngozi; Abolarin, Thaddeus Olatunbosun

    2015-01-01

    Malnutrition is a global public health problem more prevalent in developing countries than in developed countries. Indicators of malnutrition include household food security and life expectancy. Corruption might be one of socio-political problems fuelling malnutrition in developing countries. The aim of this paper is to compare influence of corruption on food security, live expectancy (LE) and population in developed and developing countries. Thirty two least corrupt countries (LCC) and most corrupt countries (MCC) representing developed and developing countries were systematically selected using Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI). Countries’ data on population, food security index (FSI) and LE scores were obtained from Global food security index (GFSI) and Population reference bureau. T-test, Multivariate (Wilks’ Lambda), Pearson product moment analysis were performed to determine relationship between CPI, FSI, LE, and population in LCC and MCC at pcorrupt practices and promoting good governance should be embraced to eradicate malnutrition in developing countries. PMID:26090058

  17. Corruption in Sub-Saharan Africa: A practical-theological response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petria M. Theron

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available On the 2012 Corruption Perceptions Index of Transparency International, 89.6%of Sub-Saharan African countries received scores below 50, where a score of zero signifies that the country is highly corrupt and a score of 100 declares a country free of corruption. From these results, it seems as if Sub-Saharan African countries are quite vulnerable to corruption. In this article, the question whether certain traits in the Sub-Saharan African culture such as communalism, gift giving and a shame culture could in some situations influence people’s perception of, and their possible openness towards, certain forms of corruption was investigated. The research showed that cultural traits do influence people’s behaviour and that there are certain traits in the Sub-Saharan African culture that might sanction corruption. In response to these findings, some preliminary suggestions were proposed as to how Christians living in Africa could evaluate their cultural practices in the light of God’s Word and from a reformed theological paradigm. Instead of succumbing to the pressure posed by their culture to participate in immoral or corrupt activities, they could contribute to a moral regeneration on the African continent.

  18. Graft and Corruption Practices Among Selected Public Officials in Mindanao, Southern Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amer Husain L. Laut

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to examine the graft and corruption practices among selected public officials in southern Philippines. The study is qualitative in nature making use of case study method in which an in-depth analysis of primary data obtained from eight informants, four of whom are town mayors and their four incumbent municipal treasurers, is employed. The findings revealed that the mayor informants got elected through vote buying and bribery. Politics and family matters intersect as informants are supported by their families during election who used guns, gold and goons to ensure election victory. The clannish nature of the community finds expression also in the selection of relatives in municipal employment and in accessing municipal resources. The most prevalent corruption practice disclosed by the informants is amassing the internal revenue allotment (IRA for personal purposes in order to recover the huge amount of money spent during election. Other types of corruption practices also include falsification of documents, nepotism, bribery, kickbacks, and evasion of public bidding. These public officials also do not seem to perform official duties in their towns as they live outside of their municipalities. Inter-agency involvement of corruption among different government agencies in the areas studied are also uncovered. Moreover, the perceived negative effects of corruption are manifested in the poor delivery of the community’s basic social services in health, water supply, education, and security protection. Corruption also adversely affects the construction of community infrastructure facilities and the establishment of an equitable and solid economic base. The study has implications to the strict policy implementation of the provisions of the 1991 Local Government Code of the Philippines, The Anti-Graft and Corrupt Practices Act, and other pertinent laws in order to improve the transparency, integrity and accountability of public officials

  19. ANALYSIS OF THE PRACTICE OF CORRUPTION IN ELECTRONIC PROCUREMENT SERVICE SYSTEM IN THE KEPULAUAN RIAU PROVINCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rendra Setyadiharja

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Procurement of goods and services in Indonesia has carried out a number of reforms, ranging from conventional forms filled with indications of bribery and corrupt, now converted into a system of procurement of goods and services electronically with Electronic Procurement Service Systems(LPSE.Expectations the central government and local government is to minimize the occurrence of graft, a fictitious project, mark up or transactional in the procurement of goods and services, but also LPSE system has never been separated from the threat of any indication of corruption in the procurement of goods and services. The purpose of this research was to uncover a number of corrupt practices that occur on the LPSE system in Kepulauan Riau Province. The method used was the exploratory qualitative approach. Data collection method used is by interview (indebt interview. The results of this research are descriptions of cases of corruption in the LPSE system in Kepulauan Riau Province, and the mode of operation corruption practices that occur in the LPSE system in Kepulauan Riau province.

  20. Comparative analysis of successful practices of corruption counteraction in the sphere of school education in foreign countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Vladimirovna Tereshkova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective to analyze the practice of corruption counteraction in the sphere of school education in foreign countries. Methods comparativelegal method polling content analysis of documents expert evaluation testing of experts with an international technique Questionnaire Profile of Demand. Results the need for the corruption counteraction program is stated in Art. 13.3 of the Federal Law ldquoOn corruption counteractionrdquoand Methodological recommendations of the Russian Ministry of Labor on corruption risks evaluation when implementing functions but no definite measures for corruption counteraction in educational organizations have been formulated. Nevertheless the controlling bodies inquire for information on such measures. As an example wecitean inquiry of Krasnoyarsk Oktyabrskiy region Prosecutorrsquos Office to educational organizations of October 21 2014 no. 86012014 ldquoOn measures for corruption counteraction in the sphere of educationrdquo. Scientific novelty summarizing the experience of corruption counteraction in the sphere of education in foreign countries and the expertsrsquo opinion of the specialist of international organizations allowed to formulate a number of recommendations for the Russian educational establishments. Practical value the experience of corruption counteraction in foreign countries will allow the head of an educational establishment to choose those of the proposed measures which will be efficient in corruption prevention and to elaborate an efficient program for corruption prevention. nbsp

  1. Corrupt Practice of Ryazan Province Local Authorities on the Eve of Peasant Reform of 1861

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Владислав Якимович Гросул

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is about corrupt practice of Ryazan province local authorities at the end of 50s 19th century. First and foremost native and foreign literature on bribe history in pre-revolutionary Russia is stated and it is marked that there are still very few official facts on bribe taking in Russia to be exposed. The author pays particular attention to a special note discovered by him in the Record office of III department of His Imperial Majesty chancellery which fulfils our folkways on the level and proportions of extortion and corruption in the Russian province in the middle of 19th century to a considerable degree.

  2. Corruption in Sub-Saharan Africa: A practical-theological response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petria M. Theron

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available On the 2012 Corruption Perceptions Index of Transparency International, 89.6% of Sub-Saharan African countries received scores below 50, where a score of zero signifies that the country is highly corrupt and a score of 100 declares a country free of corruption. From these results, it seems as if Sub-Saharan African countries are quite vulnerable to corruption. In this article, the question whether certain traits in the Sub-Saharan African culture such as communalism, gift giving and a shame culture could in some situations influence people’s perception of, and their possible openness towards, certain forms of corruption was investigated. The research showed that cultural traits do influence people’s behaviour and that there are certain traits in the Sub-Saharan African culture that might sanction corruption. In response to these findings, some preliminary suggestions were proposed as to how Christians living in Africa could evaluate their cultural practices in the light of God’s Word and from a reformed theological paradigm. Instead of succumbing to the pressure posed by their culture to participate in immoral or corrupt activities, they could contribute to a moral regeneration on the African continent. Volgens Transparency International se 2012-CorruptionPerceptions Index het 89.6% van Afrikalande suid van die Sahara ’n telling van minder as 50 gekry, waar ’n telling van nul op hoë korrupsie dui en ’n telling van 100 aandui dat ’n land vry van korrupsie is. Hieruit blyk dat hierdie lande kwesbaar is vir korrupsie. In hierdie artikel word die moontlikheid ondersoek dat daar sekere eienskappe in die kultuur van hierdie lande is wat mense se persepsie van, en moontlike deelname aan, sekere vorme van korrupsie kan beïnvloed. Aandag word aan aspekte soos kommunalisme, die gee van geskenke en ’n ‘skandekultuur’ gegee. Die navorsing toon dat kultuur wel mense se gedrag beïnvloed en dat daar sekere eienskappe in die kultuur van

  3. Portraying the nature of corruption: Using an explorative case-study design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graaf, G.; Huberts, L.W.J.C.

    2008-01-01

    What is the nature of corruption in Western democracies? To answer this research question, the authors study 10 Dutch corruption cases in depth, looking at confidential criminal files. The cases allow them to sketch a general profile of a corruption case. The authors offer nine propositions to

  4. Assessment on the “institutional economics” of corruption. Business and development in Romania, between formal and informal practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosmin Marinescu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper intends to draw the attention on the very subtle consequences of the corruption in the operational field, the deviation from the institutional arrangement in use. We will not insist for example on the subject according to which “the public domain”, as expression of the “joint property”, but also of the “tragedy of the commons” may be considered in a meta-institutional sense as corrupt. Anyhow, many enough differences of operational corruption require the use of institutional compared opinions about “corruption on a background of corrupt institutions” vs. „corruption on a background of healthy institutions”. The first part of the study will present briefly an institutional perspective a priori the corruption and its impact on the economic climate, drawing the attention on the distortions this one causes to the durability of the overall economic performance. The second part will present a synopsis of the “tense relationship” existing in Romania between the actually productive business environment and the legal, political and administrative environment which tolerates / temps perverse practices, either for the eviction or capture of the relevant political decision, underlining the relationship between the phenomenon of corruption and the economic performance in our country.

  5. Making up Corruption Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krause Hansen, Hans; Hove Henriksen, Morten

    Contemporary scholarship on corruption control has put much emphasis on analyzing the surge of anti-corruption legislations, principles and regulatory modes at the macro level. This paper examines the micro practice of corruption control, as exemplified by the deployment of due diligence...... in corporate anti-corruption work, building on concepts from studies of the cultural political economy, risk and classifications in examination process. Empirically we focus on anti-corruption due diligence in a Danish law firm specialized in corporate mergers and acquisitions....

  6. Making up Corruption Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krause Hansen, Hans; Tang-Jensen, Morten Hove

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary scholarship on corruption control lacks an analytical focus on anti-corruption in practice. We examine corruption control at the micro-level as exemplified by the use of anti-corruption due diligence in a Danish law firm. Building on concepts from studies of the cultural economy, anti......-policy, risk theory and classifications in examination processes, we argue that careful analysis of the subtle processes involved in the conduct of due diligence by professionals provides insights into the ambiguous implications of mobilizing particular forms of knowledge and expertise in practical corruption...... control work. By providing also an extended view on the operations of due diligence in the wider corruption control regime the paper problematizes clear-cut distinctions and categories used in established literatures....

  7. Corruption - Theory and Practice : A Theoretical Analysis of its Definition and Measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Lendeng, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to investigate the definition of the phenomenon corruption, and also if corruption can be measured. There are many definition of the concept, the most common and simplest definition being the one by the World Bank “the abuse of public power for private benefit” (Tanzi, 1998: 564). Various organizations measure corruption and each organization uses different methods to collect information. Many organizations present their results by ranking countries according to a sc...

  8. Corruption and Anti-Corruption

    OpenAIRE

    Larmour, Peter; Wolanin, Nick

    2013-01-01

    There is new international attention being given to the old problem of corruption. It has been taken up by international organisations, and driven by economic analysis. It is impatient of cultural justifications, and suspicious of state action. It is concerned with corruption prevention as much as detection, investigation and prosecution. Corruption and Anti-Corruption deals with the international dimensions of corruption, including campaigns to recover the assets of former dictators, and...

  9. Corruption in the Media.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spence, E.H.

    2009-01-01

    Using a general model of corruption that explains and accounts for corruption across different corporate and professional activities, the paper will examine how certain practices in the media, especially in areas where journalism, advertising and public relations regularly intersect and converge,

  10. Corruption and oil exploration: expert agreement about the prevention of HIV/AIDS in the Niger Delta of Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udoh, Isidore A.; Stammen, Ronald M.; Mantell, Joanne E.

    2008-01-01

    The Niger Delta, according to the Nigerian Ministry of Health, has a disproportionately high HIV infection rate, which is double the national average. The United Nations Development Program attributes the spiraling HIV infection rate in the region to poverty, migration and gender inequality. This paper examines two complementary suppositions: Is the high prevalence of HIV in the Niger Delta related to incompetent leadership and corruption? Is it related to the negative effects of oil exploration in the region? Currently, there is a dearth of research on the effectiveness of government programs or the role of the oil industry on the impact of AIDS in Nigeria. To address this gap, we conducted a survey with 27 internationally renowned experts from diverse disciplines using a three-round modified Delphi to formulate consensus about the impact of weak governance and oil corruption on AIDS in the Niger Delta. Results from the Delphi suggest that these factors and others have exacerbated the transmission of HIV in the region. To mitigate the impact of AIDS in the region, efforts to engage oil companies in implementing HIV prevention programs as part of their corporate environmental responsibility to the community are urgently needed. PMID:17906312

  11. Corruption and oil exploration: expert agreement about the prevention of HIV/AIDS in the Niger Delta of Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udoh, Isidore A; Stammen, Ronald M; Mantell, Joanne E

    2008-08-01

    The Niger Delta, according to the Nigerian Ministry of Health, has a disproportionately high HIV infection rate, which is double the national average. The United Nations Development Program attributes the spiraling HIV infection rate in the region to poverty, migration and gender inequality. This paper examines two complementary suppositions: Is the high prevalence of HIV in the Niger Delta related to incompetent leadership and corruption? Is it related to the negative effects of oil exploration in the region? Currently, there is a dearth of research on the effectiveness of government programs or the role of the oil industry on the impact of AIDS in Nigeria. To address this gap, we conducted a survey with 27 internationally renowned experts from diverse disciplines using a three-round modified Delphi to formulate consensus about the impact of weak governance and oil corruption on AIDS in the Niger Delta. Results from the Delphi suggest that these factors and others have exacerbated the transmission of HIV in the region. To mitigate the impact of AIDS in the region, efforts to engage oil companies in implementing HIV prevention programs as part of their corporate environmental responsibility to the community are urgently needed.

  12. [Corruption as individual and organizational sinking].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecchinato, Fabio

    2015-04-01

    The article qualifies the nature of psychosociological perspective in analysing corruption in organizations. Corruption is analysed as a mental event and social conditions of corruption are investigated. In particular six social and organizational factors are identified as relevant in determining the diffusion of corruption: meaning, work wellbeing, consistency, social recognition, reflexivity, social relations. The main hypothesis explored in the article is that to take managerial care of the organisational factors above mentioned is a strong and active prevention of the risk of corruption.

  13. Does Corruption Cause Aid Fatigue?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauhr, Monika; Charron, Nicholas; Nasiritousi, Naghmeh

    2013-01-01

    Does perceived corruption in recipient countries reduce support for foreign aid in donor countries? This under-explored yet salient question is examined using the 2009 Eurobarometer survey for the 27 EU countries. We suggest that perceived corruption can cause aid fatigue but that this relationship...... is highly contextualized. The results show that perceptions about corruption in developing countries reduce overall support for aid among respondents in donor countries. However, this effect is mitigated by country and contextual-level effects and different understandings of what we call the “aid-corruption...... paradox,” namely that the need for foreign aid is often the greatest in corrupt environments. Three different dynamics of the aid-corruption paradox influence support for aid: moral, pragmatic, and strategic understandings. In EU-15 countries, the effect of perceived corruption in recipient states on aid...

  14. The Silence of Corruption : Identifying Underreporting of Business Corruption through Randomized Response Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Nathan M.; Rahman, Aminur

    2011-01-01

    Research on the economic consequences of corruption has been hampered by the inability to directly measure corruption. Using an innovative methodology that allows respondents to report individual experiences with corruption while minimizing self-incrimination and an objective diagnostic to evaluate lying (false responses), this paper explores the extent of business corruption in Bangladesh...

  15. Misunderestimating Corruption

    OpenAIRE

    Kraay, Aart; Murrell, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Estimates of the extent of corruption rely largely on self-reports of individuals, business managers, and government officials. Yet it is well known that survey respondents are reticent to tell the truth about activities to which social and legal stigma are attached, implying a downward bias in survey-based estimates of corruption. This paper develops a method to estimate the prevalence of...

  16. Improving the Transparency/Anti-corruption Efforts in Defense Procurement: Recommendations from Global Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    National Anti-Corruption Unit NAFTA North American Free Trade Agreement NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization NED National Endowment for...important role it plays in both international trade and the economy. In some cases, such as in developing countries, public procurement may constitute ...World Trade Organization, the North American Free Trade Agreement ( NAFTA ) and the European Union prohibit them, for example. However, the GPA and the

  17. Corrupt practices in chinese medical care: the root in public policies and a call for Confucian-market approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Ruiping

    2007-06-01

    This paper argues that three salient corrupt practices that mark contemporary Chinese health care, namely the over-prescription of indicated drugs, the prescription of more expensive forms of medication and more expensive diagnostic work-ups than needed, and illegal cash payments to physicians-i.e., red packages-result not from the introduction of the market to China, but from two clusters of circumstances. First, there has been a loss of the Confucian appreciation of the proper role of financial reward for good health care. Second, misguided governmental policies have distorted the behavior of physicians and hospitals. The distorting policies include (1) setting very low salaries for physicians, (2) providing bonuses to physicians and profits to hospitals from the excessive prescription of drugs and the use of more expensive drugs and unnecessary expensive diagnostic procedures, and (3) prohibiting payments by patients to physicians for higher quality care. The latter problem is complicated by policies that do not allow the use of governmental insurance and funds from medical savings accounts in private hospitals as well as other policies that fail to create a level playing field for both private and government hospitals. The corrupt practices currently characterizing Chinese health care will require not only abolishing the distorting governmental policies but also drawing on Confucian moral resources to establish a rightly directed appreciation of the proper place of financial reward in the practice of medicine.

  18. Corporate Corruption in Russian Regions

    OpenAIRE

    Ledeneva, A. V.

    2011-01-01

    To understand corporate corruption in Russia and to develop both effective anti-corruption policies at the macro level and anti-corruption strategies at the firm level one has to move beyond the predominant paradigm and to disaggregate its measurement. This article outlines the results of a pilot survey of CEOs of leading companies operating in the Russian regions with regard to their use of informal practices.

  19. Corruption and Economic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Skender Ahmeti

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available There is no sustainable economic development without a functioning rule of law. Besides sustainable economic policies like low interest rates, low inflation, low budget deficit, reasonable taxes and economic freedom for business development, the necessary ones for country’s economic growth are functioning of state institutions, support and development of reforms as well as successful fight against corruption. Corruption is a phenomena often encountered and spread in countries that have problems with rule of law as well as with judiciary system. Corruption manifestation is inevitable in circumstances when state institutions are weak. The phenomena is especially problematic in countries that go through transition periods since these countries are often characterized as nonefficient in fighting this phenomena1 . Countries in transition continue to have the image of countries with high level of corruption, which causes serious crisis from local opinion and continuous demand from international community due to the unsuccessful fight against this malevolence. World Bank considers corruption as the biggest obstacle in the fight for poverty eradication, since it undermines the rule of law, weakens state institutions and most of all it affects the poor. Politically, it undermines democracy and good governance, economic equal growth and development, as well as people’s trust in state institutions. Lately, several anti-corruption laws have been adopted in Kosovo, but they have not been implemented in practice and were not sufficient in fight against corruption. Kosovo’s long lasting dream of integrating in European Union, necessarily demands to built and functionalize anti-corruptive measures with priority, as a fundamental precondition for EU pre-accession process

  20. Combating Corruption Based on International Rules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - Maskun

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Corruption is a universal problem that is taking place all over the world, either in developed countries or developing or under developing countries. It is caused by some issues such as poorly designed economic policies, low levels of education, underdeveloped civil society, and the weak accountability of public institution. Those causes of corruption can be separated in some different types of corruption. The types are bureaucratic corruption, political corruption, grand corruption, and common corruption. In terms of tackling some problems of corruption, there are so many things to do including international law commitment. Some international law commitment can be seen like OAS Convention, OECD’s anti-bribery Convention, the UN Convention against Transnational Organized Crime, and the United Nation Convention against Corruption (UNCAC. Those laws must be analyzed not only in context of substantive of those laws but also how they are implemented in state practices.

  1. Eight Questions about Corruption

    OpenAIRE

    Jakob Svensson

    2005-01-01

    This paper will discuss eight frequently asked questions about public corruption: (1) What is corruption? (2) Which countries are the most corrupt? (3) What are the common characteristics of countries with high corruption? (4) What is the magnitude of corruption? (5) Do higher wages for bureaucrats reduce corruption? (6) Can competition reduce corruption? (7) Why have there been so few (recent) successful attempts to fight corruption? (8) Does corruption adversely affect growth?

  2. WHY CORRUPTION MAY HAPPEN?: A CLASSROOM ACTION RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Maharani

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The Anti Corruption course is one of several ways of anti-corruption’s campaign in Indonesia’s higher education system. In terms of education, the Anti Corruption’s curriculum were prepared and developed by Indonesia’s ministry of education, but in practice it is possible for lecturers to creatively modify the way of delivering subjects to students. The purpose of this study is to explore student perspectives on what causes corruption. The researches itself is a classroom action research, and discuss through intrepretative approach. Sampling technique were done through judgemental sampling. Respondents involved were students who attend the anti-corruption class year 2013 (n = 20. Data collection is done by using open question form in e-learning (elearning.paramadina.ac.id. Questions will lead to response of students about their perspectives of what causes corruption and as a results, students perspectives are then classified into three kinds of responses, they are internal causes of corruption, external and internal causes of corruption and external causes of corruption.

  3. Taxonomy of Corruption in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumyantseva, Nataliya L.

    2005-01-01

    This article explores the phenomenon of corruption that has become common in higher education in developing countries around the world. Cases of educational corruption include, among others, paying bribes for grades, buying diplomas, and admissions to universities. An available body of literature on educational corruption does not provide…

  4. The Vicissitudes of Corruption : Degeneration - transgression - jouissance

    OpenAIRE

    Lennerfors, Thomas Taro

    2007-01-01

    In a time when corruption is receiving increasing media coverage and when many claim to wage a war on corruption, this book brings up the need for a problematisation and an increased understanding of the different manifestations – the vicissitudes – of corruption and also what measures are taken against it. The book advances the claim that corruption is tightly related to modernity and particularly to a transgression of the public / private dichotomy. It furthermore explores ancient, postmode...

  5. The Effect of Self-Esteem on Corrupt Intention: The Mediating Role of Materialism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yuan; Liu, Li; Tan, Xuyun; Huang, Zhenwei; Dang, Jianning; Zheng, Wenwen

    2016-01-01

    The present set of studies aimed to explore the effect of self-esteem on corrupt intention and the mediating role of materialism in generating this effect. In Study 1, we used questionnaires to investigate the correlation among self-esteem, materialism, and corrupt intention. In Study 2, we manipulated self-esteem to explore the causal effect of self-esteem on materialism and corrupt intention. In Study 3, we manipulated materialism to examine whether inducing materialism can reduce the relationship between self-esteem and corrupt intention. The three studies converged to show that increased self-esteem caused a low level of materialism, which in turn decreased corrupt intention. The theoretical and practical implications of the results are discussed.

  6. The Effect of Self-Esteem on Corrupt Intention: The Mediating Role of Materialism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yuan; Liu, Li; Tan, Xuyun; Huang, Zhenwei; Dang, Jianning; Zheng, Wenwen

    2016-01-01

    The present set of studies aimed to explore the effect of self-esteem on corrupt intention and the mediating role of materialism in generating this effect. In Study 1, we used questionnaires to investigate the correlation among self-esteem, materialism, and corrupt intention. In Study 2, we manipulated self-esteem to explore the causal effect of self-esteem on materialism and corrupt intention. In Study 3, we manipulated materialism to examine whether inducing materialism can reduce the relationship between self-esteem and corrupt intention. The three studies converged to show that increased self-esteem caused a low level of materialism, which in turn decreased corrupt intention. The theoretical and practical implications of the results are discussed. PMID:27462297

  7. Walkrounds in practice: corrupting or enhancing a quality improvement intervention? A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Graham; Ozieranski, Piotr; Willars, Janet; Charles, Kathryn; Minion, Joel; McKee, Lorna; Dixon-Woods, Mary

    2014-07-01

    Walkrounds, introduced as Leadership (or Executive) WalkRounds, are a widely advocated model for increasing leadership engagement in patient safety to improve safety culture, but evidence for their effectiveness is mixed. In the English National Health Service (NHS), hospitals have been strongly encouraged to make use of methods closely based on the walkrounds approach. A study was conducted to explore how walkrounds are used in practice and to identify variations in implementation that might mediate their impact on safety and culture. The data, collected from 82 semistructured interviews in the English NHS, were drawn from two components of a wider study of culture and behavior around quality and safety in the English system. Analysis was based on the constant comparative method. Our analysis highlights how local, pragmatic adjustments to the walkrounds approach could radically alter its character and the way in which it is received by those at the front line. The modification and expansion of walkrounds to increase the scope of knowledge produced could increase the value that executives draw from them. However, it risks replacing the main objectives of walkrounds--specific, actionable knowledge about safety issues, and a more positive safety culture and relationship between ward and board--with a form of surveillance that could alienate frontline staff and produce fallible insights. The studys findings suggest some plausible explanations for the mixed evidence for walkrounds' effectiveness in creating a safety culture. On a practical level, they point to critical questions that executives must ask themselves in practicing interventions of this nature to ensure that adaptations align rather than conflict with the intervention's model of change.

  8. Provincial–regional ANC politics in the Northern Cape: corruption or everyday informal practices?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thina Nzo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Research over the last decade on local government in South Africa has highlighted that some municipal councils under the political leadership of the Africa National Congress (ANC have shown weak political leadership, coupled with strong patronage systems, rent-seeking and corruption which have had an impact on the institutional functionality of municipalities in South Africa. Although patronage politics have been predominantly used to analyse the dynamics of post-apartheid local government ANC politics and councillor representation, this prevents us from understanding the representational focus of ANC councillors in decision-making processes. This paper offers an ethnographic insight into experiences of ANC councillors and the political complexities involved in council decision-making. Using ethnographic research, this paper will analyse how a political decision by the ANC provincial party, which was supported by the ANC regional party at local level – to erect a statue of Nelson Mandela in one of the municipalities in the Northern Cape – generated tensions amongst ANC councillors who strongly viewed their primary role as promoters of better ‘service delivery’ rather than approving the allocation of scarce municipal resources for erecting a statue. The paper reveals how the dominant presence of ANC sub-regional structures at local level contribute to the complex interaction of both ANC party political and municipal organisational rules and norms that influence and shape councillors’ choices in decision-making.

  9. Corruption and firm behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra Sequeira; Simeon Djankov

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates how corruption affects firrm behavior. Firms can engage in two types of corruption when seeking a public service: cost-reducing "collusive" corruption and cost increasing "coercive" corruption. Using an original and unusually rich dataset on bribe payments at ports matched to firrm-level data, we observe how firms respond to each type of corruption by adjusting their shipping and sourcing strategies. "Collusive" corruption is associated with higher usage of the corrupt...

  10. Victimological aspect of a corruption deal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna A. Ivanova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective to present the author39s concept of the victimological aspect of corruption crime. Methods dialectical method of cognition mainly the systemic approach analysis. Results the article discusses the concept of corruption deal as an unlawful act statutory offence bribery and subornation law abuse by the authorized entity. The illegal most common and manipulative types of corruption deals and their mechanisms are defined as well as the ways of their implementation which include mutually beneficial bilateral trade extortion and initiative active bribery. The diverse negative effects of corruption on the legal relationships are proved. The danger of the crime deal is shown as the factor of corrupt behavior and active means of formation of corruption networks which increases victimogenity of corruption acts doing harm not only to physical but also legal entities. In accordance with this the point of view supported and proved that it is necessary to expand the notion of victim of corruption offences to legal persons. The conclusion is made about the feasibility of a legal assessment of corruption deals as a qualifying feature of a criminal offense. Scientific novelty the article justifies the author39s position in relation to an assessment of corruption victimization of the deal victimological characteristic of a corrupt deals victim are given critical analysis of basic victimological concepts is made to identify the potential corrupt deals victims and ensure victim safety. Practical significance the idea is expressed of reorienting public consciousness views on corruption as a way of solving problems of changing tolerance to corruption due to which the legal subjects become victims of corrupt deals of amending the anticorruption policies towards more careful attention to the protection of the legal relations subjects against the corruption threat. nbsp

  11. Does Introduction of Bureaucratic Competition Reduce Corruption in Public Service Delivery?

    OpenAIRE

    Banerjee, Panchali; Mukherjee, Vivekananda

    2015-01-01

    The paper theoretically explores the impact of introducing bureaucratic competition on corruption. For this purpose it considers three different measures of corruption such as corruption incidence (CI), relative corruption incidence (CRI) and corruption rents (CR) in two different types of economies namely corruption-tolerant economies and corruption-reliant economies. As it compares both intensive margin (i.e. the magnitude of bribe) and extensive margin (i.e. the number of bribe incident) o...

  12. From Development and Grand Corruption to Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott MacWilliam

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In development policy circles, corruption has become a pressing global issue. Yet the contemporary relationship between corruption and development is complex and contested. For many, corruption robs people of economic resources and social wealth, and denudes the state of important capacities. That is, corruption prevents or blocks development. For others, corruption often occurs in the process of development as the form in which a class of developers accumulates wealth. That is, corruption is a phase of development. This article explores the contested relationship through two case studies: in Sub-Saharan Africa; and in the former Soviet Union. The article also links contemporary debates about corruption and development with earlier thinking about capitalist progress and development.

  13. A possible solution for corruption in South Africa with the church as initiator: A practical theological approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda L. du Plessis

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available According to Transparency International, Africa is the most corrupt region in the world. In South Africa, there is an annual ’loss’ of about R30 billion as a result of bribery and corruption. It would appear that it is exactly the poor and the vulnerable who suffer most under the scourge of corruption. The purpose of this research was to investigate the effect of corruption on victim(s and to evaluate it in an effort to formulate solutions as to how such individuals can be guided and supported in the suffering and hardship that they endure and that specifically emanate from corruption. In the research, an effort was made to move away from the trend of the fragmenting of aid and to present guidelines or suggestions that can lead to a global solution, where multi-disciplinary involvement can be facilitated. The researchers agree that the church can play a key role in this, and the solution was sought in the principles expounded in 1 Corinthians 12. The research method known as action research was investigated as a workable method to be used by the multi-disciplinary aid team in their struggle against corruption. In the final instance, the principles used by Touching Africa in their work were investigated so that these could also be used in the quest for a solution.

  14. Notes on Corruption and Morality

    OpenAIRE

    Hatti, Neelambar; Hoadley, Mason

    2015-01-01

    An actor perspective within a moralistic approach to corruption in india and Southeast Asia contrasts to a (Weberian) institutional one. This emphasizes local values which help explain apparent lack of social constraints to everyday corrupt practices as bribery. In Karnataka the approach indicates that status and power within one’s own community gained by amassing wealth however acquired overrides morality; overstepping moral taboos can easily be rectified through an appropriate ritual. In po...

  15. Corruption and Openness

    OpenAIRE

    Neeman, Zvika; Paserman, M. Daniele; Simhon, Avi

    2003-01-01

    We consider a neoclassical growth model with endogenous corruption. Corruption and wealth, which are co-determined in equilibrium, are shown to be negatively correlated. Richer countries tend to be less corrupt, and corrupt economies tend to be poorer. This observation gives rise to the following puzzle: If poorer countries do indeed experience higher levels of corruption, and if indeed as suggested by a number of empirical studies corruption hampers growth, then how did rich countries, who w...

  16. White coated corruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Vijay

    2010-01-01

    This essay documents the state of the medical profession which was once a respected line of work but today is corrupted at every level, from medical education to medical practice, and ir both the private and government sectors. It calls for doctors, thE government and the public to act against dishonest doctors restore the dignity of the profession and work for the benefit of society.

  17. Exploring network organization in practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Yimei; Sørensen, Olav Jull

    Constructing a network organization for global R&D is presented as a common sense practice in existing literature. However, there are still queries about the network organization, such as the persistence of hierarchies which make a network organization merely a “bureaucracy-lite” organization....... Furthermore, in practice, we rarely see radical organizational change towards a network organization that adopts an internal market. The co-existence of market, hierarchy and network triggered research interest. A multiple case study of three transnational corporations’ global R&D organization shows...... that there are different logical considerations when designing a network organization to facilitate innovation. I identify three types of network organizations: market-led, directed and culture-led network organizations. Different types of network organizations show that organizations are dual and even ternary systems...

  18. Discourse on corruption counteraction in network trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid A. Zhigun

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective to determine the specific forms of corruption and promising methods to counteract corruption in network trade. Methods the combination of inductive observations comparisons generalizations facts and trends of corruption in network trade with a logical analytical deduction of economic theories and the corruption concept are the basis of the study and provide an opportunity on the one hand to assess the level of compliance of theoretical concepts of corruption with the practice and on the other handnbsp to determine their applicability to organize opposition and create conditions to prevent its occurrence to summarize the features of corruption in the form of a kickback the discourse method was applied in this work. Results on the basis of theoretical provisions and facts of corruption in trade it is proved that it has typical characteristics of corruption in commercial and nonprofit organizations. The key reasons are identified why corruption occurs in trade. Among them supply of poor quality goods at inflated prices leading to bribery in the form of laquopersonal bonusraquo to administrator of the trading organization when selling goods by an unscrupulous supplier and also supply goods to the trade organizations which will not buy without kickback. Most of these corrupt deals are carried out by natural monopolies in the form of state and municipal procurement. In some cases the kickback is the argument stimulating the decision to introduce new and advanced technologies. The factors that lead to corruption in trade are listed and reasonable methods to counteract it are grounded allowing to create conditions for its eradication in other branches of business as well. Scientific novelty for the first time a generalization has been made about the deficit as the driving force in the mechanism when the bribegivers and bribetakers change places. Practical significance the main provisions and conclusions of the article can be used in the

  19. FUSION OF ANTI–CORRUPTION AGENCIES IN NIGERIA: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OLAWUYI

    Corrupt Practices and other Related Offences Act,13 corruption is defined to include: ... duty and the rights of others; a fiduciary's or official's use of a station or ... manipulation of the voters register, the falsification of election results and other.

  20. Education and Corruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyneman, Stephen P.

    2004-01-01

    This paper will draw on standard international definitions of "corruption" and apply them to the education sector. It will define corruption in education, explain why it is important, and describe various types of corruption and their causes. Emphasis will be placed on the role of higher education institutions in educational corruption, but the…

  1. Is corruption really persistent?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seldadyo, H.; de Haan, J.

    Theoretical and empirical research on corruption generally concludes that corruption is persistent. However, using International Country Risk Guide data for the period 1984-2008 for 101 countries, we find strong evidence that corruption changes over time. In the present study, corruption levels of

  2. Economic effects of corruption in judiciary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Begović Boris

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper was to explore economic effects of corruption in judiciary. The examination included the analysis of economic features of judiciary and economic mechanisms of corruption in judiciary within the theoretical framework of Backer's model of criminal behavior. The analysis demonstrates that corruption in judiciary violates the rule of law, hence undermines the fundaments of market economy and specialization, i.e. social division of labor as the ground for improving economic efficiency. As to the static economic efficiency, the most important effect of corruption in judiciary is transaction costs that are generated and the consequent allocative inefficiency. As to the dynamic economic efficiency, corruption decreases economic growth rates and reallocates recourses from productive to distributive activities. The effects of corruption in judiciary to economic inequality are not significant, particularly not comparing with the already identified effects to the economic efficiency.

  3. Introduction: Institutional corruption and the pharmaceutical policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodwin, Marc A

    2013-01-01

    Today, the goals of pharmaceutical policy and medical practice are often undermined due to institutional corruption - that is, widespread or systemic practices, usually legal, that undermine an institution's objectives or integrity. In this symposium, 16 articles investigate the corruption of pharmaceutical policy, each taking a different look at the sources of corruption, how it occurs, and what is corrupted. We will see that the pharmaceutical industry's own purposes are often undermined. Furthermore, pharmaceutical industry funding of election campaigns and lobbying skews the legislative process that sets pharmaceutical policy. Moreover, certain practices have corrupted medical research, the production of medical knowledge, the practice of medicine, drug safety, the Food and Drug Administration's oversight of the pharmaceutical market, and the trustworthiness of patient advocacy organizations. © 2013 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  4. Developmental effects of corruption

    OpenAIRE

    Frøystad, Mona

    2007-01-01

    Traditionally, typical measures of corruption have been broad, composite indices which are often meant to measure overall corruption level in a country. In this thesis I study how different types of corruption can have different effects on development, measured by GDP growth, GDP per capita growth and GDP per capita. Thereby, I wanted to see if some types of corruption could be concluded as more damaging than others. I have discussed and empirically tested the consequences of corruption in pu...

  5. Corruption, NGOs, and Development in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Daniel Jordan

    2013-01-01

    This article examines corruption in Nigeria’s development sector, particularly in the vastly growing arena of local non-governmental organisations (NGOs). Grounded in ethnographic case studies, the analysis explores why local NGOs in Nigeria have proliferated so widely, what they do in practice, what effects they have beyond their stated aims, and how they are perceived and experienced by ordinary Nigerians. It shows that even faux NGOs and disingenuous political rhetoric about civil society, democracy, and development are contributing to changing ideals and rising expectations in these same domains. PMID:24265511

  6. The Good Cause. Theoretical Perspectives on Corruption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graaf, G.; von Maravić, P.; Wagenaar, F.P.

    2010-01-01

    From conceptualization to ideas on practical policy recommendations, The Good Cause presents a state-of-the-art study on the causes of corruption. A cohort of internationally-recognized researchers from the various academic fields that study corruption come together to explain their different

  7. CORRUPTION AND MINORITY RIGHTS IN A DEMOCRATIC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. This study discusses issues bordering on corruption, corrupt practices and monitory rights as articulated in the above play. This shall be achieved through the careful appraisal of the conflicts in The. Gods and the Scavengers, with particular attention to some specific characters and or group of characters, ...

  8. Corruption and Educational Outcomes: Two Steps Forward, One Step Back

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Francis Lim

    2008-01-01

    Corruption is a problem that continues to plague developed and developing countries worldwide. Previous studies have explored the negative implications of corruption on several aspects of human development, but, despite its serious and long-lasting consequences, the impact of corruption on educational outcomes has started to receive attention only…

  9. The Manifestation of Corruption in Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viacheslav Hladky

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to identify the main manifestations of corruption in the states of Eastern Europe, and, first of all, in Ukraine, which since 2014 has been actively carrying out multiple anti-corruption transformations, although the state is becoming increasingly corrupt every year. The author defines the main groups of manifestations of corruption and analyzes their constituent elements, in the light of which, delineates such categories as "gratitude", bribe, and corruption "gratitude". Particular attention is paid to the study of corruption intercession, which unites nepotism, cronyism and corruption lobbying. It is noted that to date nepotism is essentially supplanted by the rabble, which is the advantage of "privatization" of the state in the light of the clan capitalism. It is concluded that bribery and deviant intercession (corruption protection, as the main manifestations of corruption, the facts that corruption behavior is life-affirming security and protective actions of people, to which they resort, on the one hand, because of the insolvency of the state and society, but, on the other hand, to optimize the achievement of the good that is provided by the state and society, however, in an improper way. Meanwhile, if the discrepancy measures and methods of granting the benefits of state benefits (i.e., on average, the measure and method is applicable, then ignoring the state provision of certain goods as such (i.e., they can be provided only in the corruption plane - this phenomenon is completely objective. On this basis, it is argued that the policy of counteracting corrupt practices in the state should focus, first of all, on the solution of such problems and objective problems, the refusal to account, which will lead to further criminalization of the society, which is observed, in particular, in modern Ukraine.

  10. The Political Economy of Corruption: A Philippine Illustrationa

    OpenAIRE

    James Roumasset

    2008-01-01

    This essay explores the nature, causes, and consequences of corruption as it pertains to entire regimes. Grand corruption is modeled as a type of unproductive rent-seeking at the highest levels of government. The economic costs of corruption are assumed to increase in the decentralization (and relaxation) of its governance, increase convexly in the percentage extracted, and decreasing in the opportunities for productive rent-seeking. Combining these assumptions with the benefits of corruption...

  11. Foreign Experience of Formation of Anti-Corruption Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almaganbetov, Pernebay; Kenzhibekova, Elmira; Khvedelidze, Teimuraz; Buranbayeva, Saliman; Sailibayeva, Zhanel

    2016-01-01

    Corruption is the main obstacle on the way toward state's economic and political growth. Corrupt practices are one of the oldest forms of crime that arose with an appearance of nationhood. Nowadays, corruption harms the economies of developing countries that are undergoing a process of an economic model transformation. Kazakhstan is among these…

  12. Executive corruption in Nigeria: a critical overview of its socio ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the recent times, the issue of executive corruption has taken a front burner. Simply defined as corruptive practices involving politicians, policy makers, bureaucrats, top members of business community, the paper argued that the phenomenon is very rampant in Nigeria. Tracing the evolution of executive corruption in the ...

  13. Critical incidents: exploring theory policy and practice

    OpenAIRE

    Beeke, Matthew A.

    2011-01-01

    Responding to critical incidents in school communities has become an established part of the practice of educational psychologists (EPs). Despite this the EP professional journal literature is sparse, the last major study being conducted by Houghton in 1996. Within a mixed methods design this study aimed to explore various aspects of EP practice in response to critical incidents. Firstly, critical incident policy and EP journal literature was examined to provide a definition...

  14. Acts Sanctioning Foreign Corrupt Practice as a Legal Instrument for the Control of Corruption : An analysis of the policy implementation process of the OECD Anti-bribery Convention in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Okano, Naoyuki

    2014-01-01

    This paper concerns the lagging implementation of OECD Anti-Bribery Convention in Japan, the first international convention that provides prohibition of foreign corruption as a necessary equipment to control corruption. Currently, there are three approaches to reinforce the implementation and enforcement of OECD Anti-Bribery Convention; a top-down approach, a bottom-up approach, and a voluntary approach. The analysis of the Japanese case of lagging implementation of OECD Anti-Bribery Conventi...

  15. A Brief Psychology of Corruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roldan, Antonio C., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Examines types of corruption (white-collar crime) in Philippine society, including political, bureaucratic, and corporate corruption. Identifies three major causes of corruption, individuals most prone to corruption, organizations most vulnerable to corruption, and societies most supportive of corruption. (Author/NB)

  16. Exploring Community Radio Programming Practices to Inform ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A collective case study (multi-site) design was used to probe educational programming practices used in community radio. The paper explores how community radio station programming engages listeners in community generated education programmes that are produced through collaborative work with radio listener clubs.

  17. Exploring CLT Practices in Saudi International Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Salam, Ahmed Saad

    2014-01-01

    This is a research study conducted on 17 teachers who teach English in Saudi international schools. It mainly aims at exploring teaching practices in these schools in terms of the principles of communicative language teaching (CLT). It also investigates the appropriateness of CLT in this context from the point of view of teachers. Two research…

  18. Corruption and inequality

    OpenAIRE

    Uslaner, Eric M.

    2006-01-01

    Economic inequality provides a fertile breeding ground for corruption and, in turn, leads to further inequalities. Most corruption models focus on the institutional determinants of government dishonesty. However, such accounts are problematic. Corruption is remarkably sticky over time. There is a very powerful correlation between crossnational measures corruption in 1980 and in 2004. In contrast, measures of democracy such as the Freedom House scores are not so strongly correlated over time, ...

  19. Corruption and the economy

    OpenAIRE

    Tanzi Vito

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on the economic and not on the political impact of corruption. Corruption delegitimizes the working of a market economy, as well as the outcomes of political processes. This paper highlights ways in which corruption, by distorting economic decisions and the working of the market economy, inevitably reduces a country’s rate of growth. The paper also discusses some of the channels through which corruption distorts various economic decisions. Finally, the paper reports o...

  20. Corruption, Institutions and Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Breen; Robert Gillanders

    2011-01-01

    We analyze the effects of corruption and institutional quality on the quality of business regulation. Our key findings indicate that corruption negatively aspects the quality of regulation and that general institutional quality is insignificant once corruption is controlled for. These findings hold over a number of specifications which include additional exogenous historical and geographic controls. The findings imply that policy-makers should focus on curbing corruption to improve regulat...

  1. Corrupt Relational Contracting

    OpenAIRE

    Johann Graf Lambsdorff; Sitki Utku Teksoz

    2002-01-01

    Because corruption must be hidden from the public and is not enforced by courts it entails transaction costs, which are larger than those from legal exchange. This suggests that corrupt contracts are primarily relational contracts where legal exchange serves as a basis for sealing and enforcing corrupt agreements. Legal exchange not only provides for corrupt opportunities, but for the necessary enforcement mechanisms. Examples of such legal exchange are long-term business exchange, belonging ...

  2. Corruption in Kyrgyzstan

    OpenAIRE

    KARYMSHAKOV, Kamalbek; ABDYKAPAROV, Yzat

    2008-01-01

    This paper proceeding from the results of recent empirical studies and theoretical arguments on corruption in economic literature attempts to show the factors causing corruption and focuses on some facts of its consequences inKyrgyzstan. Literature on corruption defines main causes of corruption as: 1) Excessive regulatory burden; 2) Weak juridical system; 3) Level of political competition and democracy; 4) Sociological factors; 5) Low wages in public sector Results of application of regressi...

  3. Corruption, democracy and bureaucracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aviral Kumar TIWARI

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the relationship of corruption with democracy and bureaucracy in the 82 countries in a panel framework. For the analysis we use rule of law, regulatory quality, control over corruption and secondary school enrollment ratio as control variables. We find that democracy, rule of law and control over corruption decreases the level of corruption. When we allowed for interaction effect among independent variables we find the evidence of strong interaction effect between all of the explanatory variables. We also find that, surprisingly, higher democracy and rule of law are positively associated with the level of corruption while higher bureaucracy negatively.

  4. Corruption Clubs: Endogenous Thresholds in Corruption and Development

    OpenAIRE

    M. Emranul Haque; Richard Kneller

    2005-01-01

    The relationship between corruption and economic development is characterised by three stylised facts: (i) a strong negative correlation between corruption and development (ii) countries can remain trapped in high corruption-low development or low corruption-high development equilibria (iii) amongst intermediate levels of development corruption levels are more variable, some countries have high corruption and others low corruption. This paper argues that existing models are consistent with th...

  5. Political Corruption as Deformities of Truth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yann Allard-Tremblay

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a conception of corruption informed by epistemic democratic theory. I first explain the view of corruption as a disease of the political body. Following this view, we have to consider the type of actions that debase a political entity of its constitutive principal in order to assess corruption. Accordingly, we need to consider what the constitutive principle of democracy is. This is the task I undertake in the second section where I explicate democratic legitimacy. I present democracy as a procedure of social inquiry about what ought to be done that includes epistemic and practical considerations. In the third section, I argue that the problem of corruption for a procedural conception of democracy is that the epistemic value of the procedure is diminished by corrupted agents’ lack of concern for truth. Corruption, according to this view, consists in two deformities of truth: lying and bullshit. These deformities corrupt since they conceal private interests under the guise of a concern for truth. In the fourth section, I discuss the difficulties a procedural account may face in formulating solutions to the problem of corruption.

  6. Dying of corruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmberg, Sören; Rothstein, Bo

    2011-10-01

    In many poor countries, over 80% of the population have experienced corrupt practices in the health sector. In rich countries, corruption takes other forms such as overbilling. The causal link between low levels of the quality of government (QoG) and population health can be either direct or indirect. Using cross-sectional data from more than 120 countries, our findings are that more of a QoG variable is positively associated with higher levels of life expectancy, lower levels of mortality rates for children and mothers, higher levels of healthy life expectancies and higher levels of subjective health feelings. In contrast to the strong relationships between the QoG variables and the health indicators, the relationship between the health-spending measures and population health are rather weak most of the time and occasionally non-existent. Moreover, for private health spending as well as for private share of total health spending, the relation to good health is close to zero or slightly negative. The policy recommendation coming out of our study to improve health levels around the world, in rich countries as well as in poor countries, is to improve the QoG and to finance health care with public, not private, money.

  7. Preventing corruption in humanitarian assistance: perceptions, gaps and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Daniel; Bailey, Sarah; Harvey, Paul; Walker, Peter; Sharbatke-Church, Cheyanne; Savage, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    Corruption is a threat to the purpose of humanitarian assistance. Until fairly recently, humanitarian assistance has not been considered an important arena in broader efforts aimed at curbing corruption, and corruption has not always been considered a particularly important concern for humanitarian assistance despite the obviously challenging nature of the context of humanitarian emergencies. Corruption, though, is a threat to humanitarian action because it can prevent assistance from getting to the people who most need it, and because it can potentially undermine public support for such assistance. This paper examines perceptions of corruption and its affects, documents best practices, and outlines gaps in understanding. It suggests recommendations for improving the capacity of humanitarian agencies to prevent and manage the risk of corruption. Agencies have taken steps to combat corruption and improve accountability--downwards and upwards--but scope remains for improvement and for greater sharing of learning and good practice. © 2012 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2012.

  8. "Who Doesn't?"--The Impact of Descriptive Norms on Corruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köbis, Nils C; van Prooijen, Jan-Willem; Righetti, Francesca; Van Lange, Paul A M

    2015-01-01

    Corruption poses one of the major societal challenges of our time. Considerable advances have been made in understanding corruption on a macro level, yet the psychological antecedents of corrupt behavior remain largely unknown. In order to explain why some people engage in corruption while others do not, we explored the impact of descriptive social norms on corrupt behavior by using a novel behavioral measure of corruption. We conducted three studies to test whether perceived descriptive norms of corruption (i.e. the belief about the prevalence of corruption in a specific context) influence corrupt behavior. The results indicated that descriptive norms highly correlate with corrupt behavior--both when measured before (Study 1) or after (Study 2) the behavioral measure of corruption. Finally, we adopted an experimental design to investigate the causal effect of descriptive norms on corruption (Study 3). Corrupt behavior in the corruption game significantly drops when participants receive short anti-corruption descriptive norm primes prior to the game. These findings indicate that perceived descriptive norms can impact corrupt behavior and, possibly, could offer an explanation for inter-personal and inter-cultural variation in corrupt behavior in the real world. We discuss implications of these findings and draw avenues for future research.

  9. “Who Doesn’t?”—The Impact of Descriptive Norms on Corruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köbis, Nils C.; van Prooijen, Jan-Willem; Righetti, Francesca; Van Lange, Paul A. M.

    2015-01-01

    Corruption poses one of the major societal challenges of our time. Considerable advances have been made in understanding corruption on a macro level, yet the psychological antecedents of corrupt behavior remain largely unknown. In order to explain why some people engage in corruption while others do not, we explored the impact of descriptive social norms on corrupt behavior by using a novel behavioral measure of corruption. We conducted three studies to test whether perceived descriptive norms of corruption (i.e. the belief about the prevalence of corruption in a specific context) influence corrupt behavior. The results indicated that descriptive norms highly correlate with corrupt behavior—both when measured before (Study 1) or after (Study 2) the behavioral measure of corruption. Finally, we adopted an experimental design to investigate the causal effect of descriptive norms on corruption (Study 3). Corrupt behavior in the corruption game significantly drops when participants receive short anti-corruption descriptive norm primes prior to the game. These findings indicate that perceived descriptive norms can impact corrupt behavior and, possibly, could offer an explanation for inter-personal and inter-cultural variation in corrupt behavior in the real world. We discuss implications of these findings and draw avenues for future research. PMID:26121127

  10. "Who Doesn't?"--The Impact of Descriptive Norms on Corruption.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils C Köbis

    Full Text Available Corruption poses one of the major societal challenges of our time. Considerable advances have been made in understanding corruption on a macro level, yet the psychological antecedents of corrupt behavior remain largely unknown. In order to explain why some people engage in corruption while others do not, we explored the impact of descriptive social norms on corrupt behavior by using a novel behavioral measure of corruption. We conducted three studies to test whether perceived descriptive norms of corruption (i.e. the belief about the prevalence of corruption in a specific context influence corrupt behavior. The results indicated that descriptive norms highly correlate with corrupt behavior--both when measured before (Study 1 or after (Study 2 the behavioral measure of corruption. Finally, we adopted an experimental design to investigate the causal effect of descriptive norms on corruption (Study 3. Corrupt behavior in the corruption game significantly drops when participants receive short anti-corruption descriptive norm primes prior to the game. These findings indicate that perceived descriptive norms can impact corrupt behavior and, possibly, could offer an explanation for inter-personal and inter-cultural variation in corrupt behavior in the real world. We discuss implications of these findings and draw avenues for future research.

  11. "MAGIC" FORMULA OF THE JOINT AUDITS IN RAISING REVENUE THROUGH WEEDING OUT CORRUPT PRACTICES (BASED ON ROMANIA AND MOLDOVA CASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana CRICLIVAIA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Around one trillion Euros is lost to tax evasion and avoidance every year in the EU. In this context, governments have increasingly been tempted to turn to cross-border audits to secure needed resources and expertise to assist in ensuring international compliance with various taxes and other sources of revenue. However to manage international tax compliance revenue authorities are faced with the significant problem of corruption. The aim of this paper is to examine whether joint audits have to be applied in order to increase the efficiency of revenue collection. In order to narrow the field of investigation, the article focuses primarily on the situation faced by the Romania and Moldova.

  12. The Proxy Challenge: Why bespoke proxy indicators can help solve the anti-corruption measurement problem

    OpenAIRE

    Johnsøn, Jesper; Mason, Phil

    2013-01-01

    Practitioners working in anti-corruption face perennial challenges in measuring changes in corruption levels and evaluating whether anti-corruption efforts are successful. These two challenges are linked but not inseparable. To make progress on the latter front, that is, evaluating whether anti-corruption efforts are having an impact, the U4 Anti-Corruption Resource Centre and the UK Department for International Development are launching an exploration into the use of proxy indicators. Proxy ...

  13. Corruption and the economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanzi Vito

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the economic and not on the political impact of corruption. Corruption delegitimizes the working of a market economy, as well as the outcomes of political processes. This paper highlights ways in which corruption, by distorting economic decisions and the working of the market economy, inevitably reduces a country’s rate of growth. The paper also discusses some of the channels through which corruption distorts various economic decisions. Finally, the paper reports on some actions that have been taken by countries in their attempt to reduce corruption stressing that the fight against corruption cannot rely on a magic bullet but has to be fought on many fronts.

  14. Inequality and Corruption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alt, James E.; Lassen, David Dreyer

    High-quality data on state-level inequality and incomes, panel data on corruption convictions, and careful attention to the consequences of including or excluding fixed effects in the panel specification allow us to estimate the impact of income considerations on the decision to undertake corrupt...... acts. Following efficiency wage arguments, for a given institutional environment the corruptible employee's or official's decision to engage in corruption is affected by relative wages and expected tenure in the public sector, the probability of detection, the cost of fines and jail terms......, and the degree of inequality, which indicate diminished prospects facing those convicted of corruption. In US states over 25 years we show that inequality and higher government relative wages significantly and robustly produce less corruption. This reverses other findings of a positive association between...

  15. Corrupt to the core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowry, D.

    1988-01-01

    Many countries do not have the facilities necessary to process their nuclear waste. They have to export it to another country with suitable facilities. Some countries in Europe both export their own waste and import other peoples. This situation is described with details of facilities available and current practices of who sends what where. The problem of nuclear waste processing and disposal has led to corruption and widespread malpractice, in particular in West Germany and Belgium. Although not involved with these scandals Britain will receive large amounts of spent nuclear fuel once the THORP (Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant) is ready at BNFL's site at Sellafield. Britain will then have to deal with companies and countries whose record on the transportation of nuclear waste is bad. (U.K.)

  16. Globalization, Inequality, and Corruption

    OpenAIRE

    Harald Badinger; Elisabeth Nindl

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents new empirical evidence on the determinants of corruption, focussing on the role of globalization and inequality. The estimates for a panel of 102 countries over the period 1995-2005 point to three main results: i) Detection technologies, reflected in a high level of development, human capital, and political rights reduce corruption, whereas natural resource rents increase corruption. ii) Globalization (in terms of both trade and financial openness) has a neg...

  17. Local Governance and Corruption

    OpenAIRE

    Marius PROFIROIU; Tudorel ANDREI; Gheorghe POPESCU; Alina PROFIROIU

    2006-01-01

    This paper attempts to examine, from the Romanian perspective, the degree to which decentralization process and improvement of local governance contributes to the reduction of corruption in the short and medium term. Through the methodology that is used the paper is consistent with the international trend that endeavors to analyze the impact of corruption on economic and social processes at the local level. In addition, recent research on corruption issues has focused upon the measurement of ...

  18. Samuel Pepys and corruption

    OpenAIRE

    Knights, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Picking up a theme that runs through David Hayton's work, this article examines corruption in the later Stuart period through a case study of Samuel Pepys. The latter's diary can be read alongside the public record of parliamentary inquiries and vilification in the press, allowing us a rare opportunity to study corruption simultaneously through the eyes of a perpetrator and his critics. Pepys reveals ambiguities in how corruption was defined and defended. At the same time as he criticized cor...

  19. Who cares about corruption?

    OpenAIRE

    Alvaro Cuervo-Cazurra

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of corruption on foreign direct investment (FDI). It argues that corruption results not only in a reduction in FDI, but also in a change in the composition of country of origin of FDI. It presents two key findings. First, corruption results in relatively lower FDI from countries that have signed the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions. This sugges...

  20. Corruption or professional dignity: An ethical examination of the phenomenon of "red envelopes" (monetary gifts) in medical practice in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wei; Wang, Lijie; Yang, Chengshang

    2018-03-01

    In the medical practice in China, giving and taking "red envelopes" (monetary gifts) is a common phenomenon although few openly admit it. This paper, based on our empirical study including data collected from interviews and questionnaires with medical professionals and patients, attempts to explore why "red envelopes" have become a serious problem in the physician-patient relationship and how the situation can be improved. Previous studies show that scholars tend to correlate the spread of "red envelopes" in health care sector to the commercialization trend, the general erosion of traditional values, and the lowering of the moral level in the medical field. However, in this paper, the authors argue that medical professionals' choice of taking "red envelopes" is actually more a way to compensate for their problematic self-image and marred dignity in real practice. Medical professionals in China as a whole are in an embarrassing situation where the work pressure and income, and the sense of pride that used to be part of their profession are not comparable to each other. Under this circumstance, we believe that the effective way to deal with the "red envelopes" issue does not lie solely in introducing more stringent regulations or granting medical professionals higher payments, but rather in protecting and enhancing the professional dignity of all those working in healthcare. And on top of that, there must also be effort to cultivate a more favorable moral environment. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. The disease of corruption: views on how to fight corruption to advance 21st century global health goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Tim K; Kohler, Jillian Clare; Savedoff, William D; Vogl, Frank; Lewis, Maureen; Sale, James; Michaud, Joshua; Vian, Taryn

    2016-09-29

    Corruption has been described as a disease. When corruption infiltrates global health, it can be particularly devastating, threatening hard gained improvements in human and economic development, international security, and population health. Yet, the multifaceted and complex nature of global health corruption makes it extremely difficult to tackle, despite its enormous costs, which have been estimated in the billions of dollars. In this forum article, we asked anti-corruption experts to identify key priority areas that urgently need global attention in order to advance the fight against global health corruption. The views shared by this multidisciplinary group of contributors reveal several fundamental challenges and allow us to explore potential solutions to address the unique risks posed by health-related corruption. Collectively, these perspectives also provide a roadmap that can be used in support of global health anti-corruption efforts in the post-2015 development agenda.

  2. Corruption in Mexico: A Historical Legacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nubia Nieto

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Among the many consequences of colonialism that are still present in postcolonial societies are corruption and the lack of strong institutions to fight against this phenomenon. What used to be unequal power relations between the colonizers and the colonies have been replaced by the dominance of the local elites over ordinary citizens, who have practically given the former a lot of leeway to commit acts of corruption with a sense of impunity and without regard for accountability. One case in point is Mexico which, in recent times, has made international news headlines because of incidences of drug trafficking, violence, and corruption in the country. This article delineates the historical relationship between corruption and colonialism, and how these forces have shaped Mexican culture. The discussion tackles the presence of corruption since the colonial times to the present. Specif ically, it starts with an analysis of the role of colonialism in the incidence of corruption. Secondly, it describes the discrepancy between the law and its application, from the arrival of the Spanish colonizers to the present. Finally, it examines the cultural, educational, and social challenges that should be addressed in order to surmount the colonial legacies that breed corruption.

  3. Corruption, Growth, and Public Finances

    OpenAIRE

    Vito Tanzi; Hamid R Davoodi

    2000-01-01

    The paper discusses some channels through which corruption affects growth such as the impact of corruption on enterprises, on the allocation of talent, and on investment. It also discusses the impact of corruption on some aspects of public finance.

  4. Tax structure and corruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić-Popov Gordana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article an analysis of the impact of corruption, both administrative and state capture, on the tax structure is carried out. The authors established a negative correlation between the degree of corruption and the height of the effective tax burden, while isolating a simultaneous directly proportional impact of the nominal tax burden (which could reflect state intervention - the main corruption factor on the scope of corruption. The effects of corruption on the decrease of individual taxes' share in GDP are diversified, with impact on direct taxes as a whole being more observable. The mode of tax assessment significantly determines exposure of certain tax to the administrative corruption: it is generally larger in case of taxes assessed by the decision of the competent tax officials who are carrying out both assessment and audit, while in the case of self-assessment and withholding they just perform audits implying limited exposure to corruption. Corruptive state capture is present in the case of taxes which are important for influential corruptors. That is why in Serbia laws preventing taxation of capital gains or heavier taxation of dividends and other income paid to non-residents located in the tax havens were adopted, while by-laws which should have enabled implementation of prescribed lump sum taxation based on external signs of wealth have not been enacted. The authors concluded that the anti-corruption strategy should rely on the increasing role of self-assessment, which could reduce the room for administrative corruption. Unclear and imprecise formulations of the tax norms facilitate corruption, because they create room for arbitrariness in interpretation and implementation of the laws and by-laws. It is therefore necessary to surprises discretion, simplify tax procedure and diminish the number of tax relief's.

  5. Corruption in political democracy is hard to control with law only

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushanta Kumar Bhowmik

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective to study the types of corruption. To research sources of corruption and defects of corruption control mechanism. To propose ways of solving the problem of corruption. Methods methods of analysis synthesis analogy and summarizing were used. Result The reveals the imperfections of the systemic mechanism of corruption counteraction and analyzes its causes. The stages and scope of imperfections are also indentified. The world economical inequality which determines the lawmakersrsquo activities is a big concern of corruption controlling system. Biometric signature may be used as individual identification at all financerelated performance will identify the corrupt personals at all levels. Scientific novelty As it is stated in the article many dimensions of corruptions may be eliminated with the help of regulatory devices or a total digital controlling system. Practical significance introduction of the digital controlling system will allow to identify and control the corrupt officials at all levels and help to efficient struggle against corruption. nbsp

  6. A comparative analysis of the implementation of anti-corruption legislation by anti-corruption agencies in the provinces of the Eastern and Northern Cape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thozama Majila

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Many countries experience various degrees of corruption. South Africa is no exception. The undeniable fact is that corruption cannot be reckoned as a mere country- or region- specific problem; it is a far wider phenomenon. However, there has been a growing global movement to condemn corrupt practices, resulting in the removal of certain leaders from office. South Africa has formulated and promulgated legislation that is considered an international example of good practice and has established agencies for the purpose of combating corruption. The Institute for Security Studies (2007:1 proposes that anti-corruption legislation, if enforced, should equip the country’s anti-corruption agencies with a tool that could effectively be utilised as a punitive instrument for offenders and a deterrent for those contemplating corrupt activities. This article examines whether anti-corruption agencies are apolitical and capable of detecting and punishing corruption or whether they are only a response to international demands by international agreements. In this regard the United Nations Convention against Corruption, the SADC Protocol against Corruption and the African Union Convention on Preventing and Combating Corruption are discussed. The article concludes with recommendations based on an empirical survey of anti- corruption legislation and anti-corruption agencies conducted in the Eastern Cape and Northern Cape Provinces.

  7. Democracy and "Grand" Corruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose-Ackerman, Susan

    1996-01-01

    Defines "grand" corruption as that occurring at the higher levels of a political system and involving large sums of money. Discusses the impact and incentives for this level of corruption as well as various government responses. Identifies multinational corporations as the major malefactors. (MJP)

  8. Enforcement and Public Corruption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    James E., Alt; Lassen, David Dreyer

    corrupt acts. Consistent with "system capacity" arguments, we find that greater prosecutor resources result in more convictions for corruption, other things equal. We find more limited, recent evidence for the deterrent effect of increased prosecutions. We control for and confirm in a panel context...

  9. ETHICS in GOVERNMENT: ANTI-CORRUPTION MEASURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coskun Can Aktan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Unethicalbehavior in government is viewed as a situation where there isfraudulent or dishonest conduct or improper behaviour by people who are in aposition or power. Bribery, extortion, embezzlement,the use of legislated powersby government officials for illegitimate private gain, nepotism, rent seeking etc.are some examples forunethical behavior in government.How to deal with unethical behavior in government?. How to curb corruption?Experience demonstrates that establishing an ethical government is not an easytask. There is no single approach to curb (political corruption effectively. Instead,controlling (political corruption requires a wide range of strategies.Thisdescriptive survey aims to explore the anti-corruptions measures in general.

  10. Corruption in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silviu DUȚULESCU

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Corruption as a phenomenon is of great interest for the society we live in. As there is no unit of measurement to determine the scale of this phenomenon, comparative studies are chosen most often for the areas concerned. The present paper describes a study focused on all counties in Romania, Bucharest included. The purpose of this research is to establish the determinant factors that influence the size and spread of corruption, as it manifests strong negative effects on the society we live in. Thus, using a set of regressions over the main variables, some correlation coefficients have been set, which after processing rendered a ranking of all the 42 analysed territorial units, sorted by the estimated size of corruption. The whole scientific approach was completed with a map of corruption, which synthesizes and presents the corruption spread nationwide

  11. Causal Factors of Corruption in Construction Project Management: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owusu, Emmanuel Kingsford; Chan, Albert P C; Shan, Ming

    2017-11-11

    The development of efficient and strategic anti-corruption measures can be better achieved if a deeper understanding and identification of the causes of corruption are established. Over the past years, many studies have been devoted to the research of corruption in construction management (CM). This has resulted in a significant increase in the body of knowledge on the subject matter, including the causative factors triggering these corrupt practices. However, an apropos systematic assessment of both past and current studies on the subject matter which is needful for the future endeavor is lacking. Moreover, there is an absence of unified view of the causative factors of corruption identified in construction project management (CPM). This paper, therefore, presents a comprehensive review of the causes of corruption from selected articles in recognized construction management journals to address the mentioned gaps. A total number of 44 causes of corruption were identified from 37 publications and analyzed in terms of existing causal factors of corruption, annual trend of publications and the thematic categorization of the identified variables. The most identifiable causes were over close relationships, poor professional ethical standards, negative industrial and working conditions, negative role models and inadequate sanctions. A conceptual framework of causes of corruption was established, after categorizing the 44 variables into five unique categories. In descending order, the five constructs are Psychosocial-Specific Causes, Organizational-Specific Causes, Regulatory-Specific Causes, Project-Specific Causes and Statutory-Specific Causes. This study extends the current literature of corruption research in construction management and contributes to a deepened understanding of the causal instigators of corruption identified in CPM. The findings from this study provide valuable information and extended knowledge to industry practitioners and policymakers as well as

  12. Bureaucratic Complexity and Impacts of Corruption in Utilities

    OpenAIRE

    Tøndel, Line; Søreide, Tina

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores how the relationship between bureaucratic complexity and corruption affects the performance in utilities. We observe considerable variation in the performance of the utilities across countries, also across countries which appear to be relatively similar in terms of GDP per capita. Our hypothesis is that corruption is an important explanatory factor. In particular, corruption coupled with a complex regulatory structure can have negative effects on performance in this sector...

  13. Relationship-oriented cultures, corruption, and international marketing success

    OpenAIRE

    Chandler, JD; Graham, JL

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the general problems associated with marketing across international markets and focuses specifically on the role of corruption in deterring international marketing success. The authors do this by introducing a broader conceptualization of corruption. The dimensions of corruption and their importance in explaining the exporters' successes in international markets are developed empirically. Partial Least Squares formative indicators are used in a comprehensive model includin...

  14. The Corruption Trend among Public Officials in Malaysia: An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Noor Sulastry Yurni Ahmad

    2010-01-01

    The war against corruption is vital to a nation. No one can dispute the negative consequences of corruption, but still, there are those who tend to condone its practice and view it as a necessary evil of economic development. Governments in several Asian and African countries tend to accept this as part and partial of economic development. However, the fallacy of this argument was exposed following the 1997 Asian financial crisis, which demonstrated how corruption had short-changed the countr...

  15. PUBLIC GOODS, CORRUPTION AND GROWTH???

    OpenAIRE

    Ratbek Dzhumashev

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we analyse implications of corruption on growth. We extend existing growth models by incorporating ubiquitous corruption as a by-product of the public sector. Corruption affects both taxation and public good provision, and therefore causes income redistribution and inefficiencies in the public sector. These effects of corruption lead to lower growth through distortions of investment incentives and resources allocation.

  16. Is Corruption Detrimental to Trade?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, E. de; Udo, E.

    2005-01-01

    Many regard corruption to be detrimental to international trade. Some, however, think that corruption greases commerce in case of low-quality institutions. Others argue that arbitrary corruption is more damaging to trade than predictable corruption. This is the first paper to test these hypotheses

  17. Does corruption discourage international trade?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, E. de; Bogmans, C.W.J.

    2011-01-01

    We use measures of trade-related corruption to investigate the effects of corruption on international trade and compare the results with those of corruption in general. We distinguish corruption in an exporting economy from that in an importing economy. Both distinctions appear to be important.

  18. Corruption in FIFA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junghagen, Sven; Wagner, Mads Frederik

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to examine the susceptibility of the formal FIFA network to a grand vote rigging corruption scheme of the FIFA World Cup host elections. To date, little research has been published on the vulnerabilities of FIFA’s inter-organisational network structure. Following...... the elections of Russia to host the World Cup in 2018 and Qatar to host the World Cup in 2022, 34 FIFA officials and two corporations were indicted by the FBI on charges of different forms of corruption. The indictments reveal an organisation deeply embedded with corruption and with complete disregard...

  19. Cascading Corruption News

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Mads

    2018-01-01

    Through a content analysis of 8,800 news items and six months of front pages in three Brazilian newspapers, all dealing with corruption and political transgression, this article documents the remarkable skew of media attention to corruption scandals. The bias is examined as an information...... phenomenon, arising from systemic and commercial factors of Brazil’s news media: An information cascade of news on corruption formed, destabilizing the governing coalition and legitimizing the impeachment process of Dilma Rousseff. As this process gained momentum, questions of accountability were disregarded...

  20. Cascading Corruption News

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Mads

    2018-01-01

    Through a content analysis of 8,800 news items and six months of front pages in three Brazilian newspapers, all dealing with corruption and political transgression, this article documents the remarkable skew of media attention to corruption scandals. The bias is examined as an information...... phenomenon, arising from systemic and commercial factors of Brazil’s news media: An information cascade of news on corruption formed, destabilizing the governing coalition and legitimizing the impeachment process of Dilma Rousseff. As this process gained momentum, questions of accountability were disregarded...... by the media, with harmful effects on democracy....

  1. Bureaucratic Corruption, MNEs and FDI

    OpenAIRE

    Dahlström, Tobias; Johnson, Andreas

    2007-01-01

    This paper adds to the limited number of studies analysing the relationship between host country corruption and FDI inflows. A model describes the incentives foreign MNEs and host country bureaucrats have for engaging in corruption and shows how corruption increases the MNE costs of operations in the host country. The model predicts that the costs caused by corruption reduce FDI inflows. Regression analysis using panel data finds that host country corruption has a significant negative effect ...

  2. POLITICAL CORRUPTION:  AN INTRODUCTORY STUDY ON TERMINOLOGY AND TYPOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coskun Can Aktan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of corruption is generally used to mean all actions and behaviorsconstituting bribery, embezzlement, favoritism etc. It is important to note that,“corruption” is the name given to the certain types of corruption (mainly; bribery,embezzlement, favoritism, which has political characteristics. Political corruptionhas a wider meaning than corruption. In other words, political corruption is anumbrella concept which also includes corruption. This paper explores politicalcorruption, the abuse of public office for private gain. The goal of this paper is toprovide the terminology and especially typology of political corruption.

  3. Local Governance and Corruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius PROFIROIU

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to examine, from the Romanian perspective, the degree to which decentralization process and improvement of local governance contributes to the reduction of corruption in the short and medium term. Through the methodology that is used the paper is consistent with the international trend that endeavors to analyze the impact of corruption on economic and social processes at the local level. In addition, recent research on corruption issues has focused upon the measurement of the level of corruption level and on its impact on the growing rate of the GDP (Mauro [1995]1, Abed and Davoodi2, Krueger [1974]3, on the impact upon some of the national economical sectors (Tanzi [1998]4, Shang-Jin Wei [2001]5, or on the decentralization processes (Shah [2006]6.

  4. Corruption dynamics model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malafeyev, O. A.; Nemnyugin, S. A.; Rylow, D.; Kolpak, E. P.; Awasthi, Achal

    2017-07-01

    The corruption dynamics is analyzed by means of the lattice model which is similar to the three-dimensional Ising model. Agents placed at nodes of the corrupt network periodically choose to perfom or not to perform the act of corruption at gain or loss while making decisions based on the process history. The gain value and its dynamics are defined by means of the Markov stochastic process modelling with parameters established in accordance with the influence of external and individual factors on the agent's gain. The model is formulated algorithmically and is studied by means of the computer simulation. Numerical results are obtained which demonstrate asymptotic behaviour of the corruption network under various conditions.

  5. Trust and Corruption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graeff, Peter; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2013-01-01

    Why are the Scandinavian countries in the European Union significantly richer than South-ern/Eastern European countries? We try to answer this question from an empirical social capital perspective. In particular, we are interested in the interplay of social trust as a positive and corruption...... capital by applying a path model that accounts for Granger-like causal effects. Our empirical results, referring to a sample of up to 25 EU countries, show that corruption might harm poor European countries but is not able to affect social trust. However, corruption in itself means that resources end up...... in the wrong places and not in socioeconomically optimal investments. There is, therefore, a direct damaging effect of corruption on wealth. This implies that economic actors have to invest higher transaction and control costs which will bind resources to non-productive purposes and thus destroy economic...

  6. Enforcement and public corruption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alt, James E.; Lassen, David Dreyer

    2014-01-01

    . Consistent with system capacity arguments, we find that greater prosecutor resources result in more convictions for corruption, other things equal. By explicitly determining the allocation of prosecutorial resources endogenously from partisan and administrative considerations, we show that this specification...

  7. Issues of formation of anti-corruption outlook in the society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruslan A. Abramov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective to show that the formation of anticorruption outlook is an important and vital aspect of modern society and to prove that it is more useful to prevent corruption manifestations than to combat them. Methods the methodological basis of the research is the universal analysis and synthesis of anticorruption issues allowing to actually or virtually divide the objects into constituent parts and to find out which parts they consists of what its properties and characteristics are and to synthesize their consolidation into a single organic whole not into a mechanical unit. Also a method of survey and statistical polls was used including conversation interviews massive data collection through questionnaires and their systematization into a single report. Results the paper studies the corruption institution as a social act allowing to destabilize the socioeconomic situation in the country as a whole. At the same time it proves the necessity to combat this phenomenon including level impacts related to the institutional nature of the formation of a comprehensive system of the countryrsquos sustainable development. The corruption perception by young people is explored. Basing on the conducted research it is demonstrated that the introduction of profile and specialized courses on the existing anticorruption state policy in the system of higher and additional education forms a new correct outlook on the perception of corruption which eventually should lead to the reduction of corruption level in the country. This also proves the point that prevention is more effective than struggle with corruption. Also it is proved that for the effectiveness of combating corruption and clarifying the corruption dynamics it is advisable to periodically conduct monitoring seminars round tables conferences and other practical applied measures with the participation of practitioners. Scientific novelty the paper contains provisions on the formalization of corruption

  8. Strategies for Minimizing Corruption in the Construction Industry in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick X.W. Zou

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Corruption is a social phenomenon deep rooted in the history of mankind. It is similar to other kinds of crime which are likely to occur in procurement of works by governments and local authorities, due to the large amount of money involved in a single transaction and the difficulty in monitoring project expenditure. Therefore, it is necessary to develop strategies to minimize any corruption risks and corrupt behaviour in procurement of construction projects. The aim of this paper is to review the current corruption prevention practices in China’s construction industry and suggest ways for improvement. To collect useful and insightful information, desktop studies, focus-group workshops and face-to-face interviews were conducted with supervisory and construction officers at different levels – state, province and municipal in China, who have direct responsibilities and experience in cracking down construction corruption. It was found that corruption happens in different forms during any stage of construction project procurement, and the current anti-corrupt practices are reactive rather than proactive. It was also found that improvements on the legal system, inspection strategies and processes, and promotion of ethical culture are all required. Based on the research findings, corruption prevention strategies were developed. The paper concludes that institution of random and regular checks, severe punishment and prosecution to corrupt personnel, and promotion of a healthy and clean construction culture are all necessary to mitigate the scourge.

  9. Corruption perception and sustainable development: Sharing Botswana’s anti-graft agency experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Gbadamosi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Unethical practices and corruption issues have become one of the greatest challenges to Africans and their leaders, threatening to undermine economic growth, democratic stability and sustenance, and general developmental efforts. Against this background, this paper examines corruption perception in Africa using indicators of Transparency International as benchmark. The costs of corruption to the continent’s progress were highlighted. The paper also focuses on Botswana’s efforts to fight corruption through its Directorate on Corruption and Economic Crime (DCEC. The factors that have aided the qualified successes of the anti-corruption efforts as well as lessons that may be learnt by other African countries are discussed.

  10. Power and corruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Úbeda, Francisco; Duéñez-Guzmán, Edgar A

    2011-04-01

    Cooperation is ubiquitous in the natural world. What seems nonsensical is why natural selection favors a behavior whereby individuals would lose out by benefiting their competitor. This conundrum, for almost half a century, has puzzled scientists and remains a fundamental problem in biology, psychology, and economics. In recent years, the explanation that punishment can maintain cooperation has received much attention. Individuals who punish noncooperators thrive when punishment does not entail a cost to the punisher. However when punishment is costly, cooperation cannot be preserved. Most literature on punishment fails to consider that punishers may act corruptly by not cooperating when punishing noncooperators. No research has considered that there might be power asymmetries between punishers and nonpunishers that turn one of these type of individuals more or less susceptible to experiencing punishment. Here, we formulate a general game allowing corruption and power asymmetries between punishers and nonpunishers. We show that cooperation can persist if punishers possess power and use it to act corruptly. This result provides a new interpretation of recent data on corrupt policing in social insects and the psychology of power and hypocrisy in humans. These results suggest that corruption may play an important role in maintaining cooperation in insects and human societies. In contrast with previous research, we contend that costly punishment can be beneficial for social groups. This work allows us to identify ways in which corruption can be used to the advantage of a society. © 2010 The Author(s). Evolution© 2010 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  11. Corruption and public governance: implication for customer due ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... causes and effects of corruption on service delivery in Africa. It is within this context that this paper explored Principal Agent Theory to explain the relationship between corruption, public governance, customer due diligence and the various aspects of development including economic growth and sustainable development.

  12. Corruption and Coercion: University Autonomy versus State Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osipian, Ararat L.

    2008-01-01

    A substantial body of literature considers excessive corruption an indicator of a weak state. However, in nondemocratic societies, corruption--whether informally approved, imposed, or regulated by public authorities--is often an indicator of a vertical power rather than an indicator of a weak state. This article explores the interrelations between…

  13. Corruption: Threat to democracy and market economy in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the research on 'Corruption: Threat to Democracy and Market Economy', the researchers critically explore the issue of corruption and how it threatens the democracy and market economy in Nigeria. Relevant literature was revised, which formed the secondary data. The theoretical framework of the study is political ...

  14. Corruption and Political Participation in the Americas and the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Bonifácio

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with an issue as yet little explored in the vast literature about political participation: the role of corruption in political engagement. It investigates whether the coexistence, the values and the perception of citizens in relation to corrupt practices and actors have effects on political activism, and it verifies the direction in which this is evolving, whether it is in the direction of engagement in or withdrawal from politics. The unit of analysis is the individual, the geographic sector includes the Americas and the Caribbean, and the time frame includes biennial intervals between 2004 and 2012. A theoretical discussion and empirical analysis of the data from the Americas Barometer is used. Five distinct types of political participation were identified: contact with political and governmental actors, community activism, partisan and electoral activism, voter turnout and protest activism. The article concludes that the experience with corruption and the tolerance for bribe increase the chances of engagement in participative activities, going against the principal contributions of the specialized literature.

  15. Best practices in manufacturing - exploration and replication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timenes Laugen, Bjørge; Acur, Nuran; Boer, Harry

    2009-01-01

    There is an abundance of best practice literature. Yet, the phenomenon is still not fully understood. In this paper, we raise the question how individual and (selected) bundles of practices affect operational performance. Based on IMSS IV (2005) data, we identify four categories of practices: bes...

  16. The Impacts of Corruption on Economic Development in Afghanistan: A Study of the Effects of Nepotism and Bribery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-16

    corruption as it changes over time. He references philosophers such as Plato , Aristotle and Machiavelli.2 Plato introduces the initial analyses of...corruption as human flaw introduced into governments that distorts and perverts them. Aristotle takes Plato further by identifying the transformation...reemphasizes that while corrupt practices are condoned and rationalized , more damaging forms of corruption will become acceptable. Corruption can co-exist with

  17. Hidden foreign trade and corruption on customers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Богдан Миколайович Головкін

    2017-12-01

    migration through the customs border of amber and wood, the manipulation of exports of grain and other highly liquid products deserve. Summarizing, we draw the following conclusions. Customs corruption is based on providing shadow foreign trade and covering economic crime on a transnational or transboundary scale. It is in violation of customs legislation by both parties in customs matters for the purpose of illegal enrichment. In corruption practices, all bodies and services that provide state control over the movement of goods through the customs border of Ukraine and carry out law-enforcement activities in this area participate. The level of corruption in the sphere of foreign economic activity depends on the volume of illegal export-import operations with raw materials and highly liquid products, as well as the ratio of official taxes and the cost of corruption services to economic entities. It was clarified that in parallel with "centralized corruption" in customs authorities there is "competitive corruption" between regional customs and their structural divisions for providing corruption services at lower prices. Measures to prevent corruption and crime should be aimed at reducing the profitability of shadow foreign trade by liberalizing the tax burden at the same time while strengthening control over transfer pricing, including the customs service into an integrated security system throughout the supply chain, implementing common customs control, managing risky operations.

  18. Exploring Diversity in Supervision and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffron, Mary Claire; Grunstein, Sara; Tilmon, Shawniese

    2007-01-01

    Issues of diversity, such as culture, class, race, and ethnicity, affect all relationships. It can be difficult to explore these issues in supervision, but doing so is imperative to understanding and working effectively with each other and with families. This article explores the challenges associated with discussing issues of diversity, and…

  19. A Review of Anti-Corruption Wars in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nnamdi Nwaodu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Corruption still subsists as one of the greatest challenges facing Nigeria. The existence of this phenomenon in virtually all aspects of the nation’s socio-economic life is said to be one reason why poverty level remains high irrespective of her position as the six highest suppliers of oil to the whole wide world, and a possessor of numerous other human and natural resources. A recent attempt by the Federal Government of Nigeria to curb this societal ill led to the establishment of Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC, the Independent Corrupt Practices & Related Offences Commission (ICPC among others bodies. This paper historically explores the anti-corruption war in Nigeria and specifically zeros itself to review EFCC’s role in this war. The methodology adopted in this paper is the narrative-textual case study (NTCS, a research method that sources the required quantitative and qualitative secondary data on the phenomenon of study from secondary sources like the internet, World Wide Web, online databases, e-libraries  et cetera. On the strength of the qualitative data sourced, it was discovered that the agency has made some successes but is being hindered by political, administrative and judicial bureaucracy from efficient performance. The paper therefore boldly recommends that transparency be enshrined into all aspect Nigerian political and administrative life and extant anti-graft laws be reviewed, harmonized and strengthened to enhance the effectiveness of fight against corruption and breach of corporate governance ethics by those holding political and non-political positions in Nigeria.

  20. Polyfactorial corruption index in the Russian regions: methodology of estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elina L. Sidorenko

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective to summarize criminological social and economic indicators of development of the Russian Federation subjects to identify and assess the hidden system dependencies between social indicators and levels of corruption to define the links between individual indicators and to develop the methodology of anticorruption ranking of the regions. Methods comparison analysis synthesis mathematical modeling correlation comparisons and extrapolation. Results in the work the author describes the methodology of the complex analysis of corruption in the Russian Federation subjects and elaborates forecasts for its development short term and medium term. Scientific novelty for the first time in domestic criminology the algorithm is proposed of studying and forecasting regional corruption on the basis of polyfactorial analysis of criminological social and political indicators. For profound and comprehensive study of the regional aspects of corruption a model was developed to monitor and forecast on the basis of measuring the polyfactorial corruption index PCI. PCI consists of two groups of parameters corruption potential of the region of the country CPR and corruption risk in the region CRR. Practical significance the research results can be used in the process of developing regional strategies of corruption counteraction as well as in adjustment of the existing methods of corruption prevention.

  1. The condition of counteraction to administrative corruption offenses in state authorities and local government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. В. Клок

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Article discusses questions dedicated to the analysis of the condition of counteraction to administrative corruption offenses in Ukraine. The statistical information on the dynamics, structure, specific gravity, cost and latency of the administrative corruption is researched. The most effective measures against corrupt practices at the state and municipal service are drawn.

  2. The Optimization of Corruption Prevention Towards Indonesia Corruption-free

    OpenAIRE

    Nugroho, Hibnu; Raharjo, Agus; Pranoto

    2015-01-01

    Prevention and eraducation of corruption case are the strategy which can't be implemented separatly it should be done synergistically, integrated and concurrently to prevent a new corruptor generation and other new corruptor. So the problem comes on how the strategy which are prevention and eraducation corruption by Indonesian goverment to reach Indonesia free from corruption and what the obsacles in order to reach strategy prevention and eraducation of corruption that already done by Indones...

  3. Exploring sustainable manufacturing principles and practices

    OpenAIRE

    Alayón, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    The manufacturing industry remains a critical force in the quest for global sustainability. An increasing number of companies are modifying their operations in favor of more sustainable practices. It is hugely important that manufacturers, irrespective of the subsector they belong to, or their organizational size, implement practices that reduce or eliminate negative environmental, social and economic impacts generated by their manufacturing operations. Consequently, scholars have called for ...

  4. Gender and Corruption in Nigerian Politics.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article explores the relationships, or the lack thereof, between gender and grand corruption ... Unfortunately, women's growing participation in Nigerian public sphere has not ..... sponsor;” and “allow Uba control over all important government appointments ..... African Women and Political Development: A Case Study of.

  5. New Phenomenon of Commercial Corruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Nowakowski

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This article is about increase corruption in private sector as commercial corruption. This establishes a wide understanding of that phenomenon in social science and law. Corruption and bribery are types of fraud and are linked with the private sector too. Although certain types of corruption will decline as the private sector grows and consolidates, other new types involving private sector firms may increase. The commercial corruption can be described as relation inside of an organization and as relation between firms. Corruption in private sector in Poland is connected with social distrust and specific organizational culture, too. Commercial corruption is a familiar feature of their societies and has been the focus of law enforcement and institutional reform. Many others problems do not change the fact that such corruption is a new important problem and causes lost of competitiveness and creates a substitute for fair market and competition in Polish economy and abroad.

  6. Exploration and practice in-class practice teaching mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Xue-Ping; Wu, Wei-Feng

    2017-08-01

    According to the opto-electronic information science and engineering professional course characteristics and cultivate students' learning initiative, raised the teaching of photoelectric professional course introduce In-class practice teaching mode. By designing different In-class practice teaching content, the students' learning interest and learning initiative are improved, deepen students' understanding of course content and enhanced students' team cooperation ability. In-class practice teaching mode in the course of the opto-electronic professional teaching practice, the teaching effect is remarkable.

  7. Religion, culture and political corruption in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhikru A. Yagboyaju

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available For so long, development theories and practices have either deliberately neglected or simply overlooked the possible interconnections between religion, culture and the attainment of development goals. Against this background, this article reviews the literature on corruption, as a major factor of underdevelopment in Nigeria, particularly as it relates to religion and culture in the country. In its analysis, this article argues that corruption in Nigeria, especially in view of the country’s multi-ethnic and multi-religious status, must be conceived as a phenomenon transcending legal, political and economic boundaries. The study adopts an interpretative and descriptive methodology for its analysis.

  8. Corruption and the Other(s): Scope of Superordinate Identity Matters for Corruption Permissibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisor, Anne C; Gurven, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The decision to engage in corruption-public and private corruption, nepotism, and embezzlement-is often attributed to rational actors maximizing benefits to themselves. However, the importance of reciprocal relationships in humans suggests that an actor may weigh the costs of harms of her corrupt behavior to individuals who may generate future benefits for her. We hypothesize that actors who have a larger circle of actual and potential social partners will have more individuals to consider when generating harms and will thus be less likely to find corrupt acts permissible than actors with smaller circles of valued others. Using data from the World Values Survey and European Values Study (WVS), we explore whether participants with a larger geographic identity or a greater number of group memberships (i.e. a larger scope of actual and potential social partners) are less likely to find accepting bribes permissible. We find mixed support for our hypotheses, but consistently find that WVS participants with local, country, continent, or world geographic identities are less likely to find accepting a bribe permissible than those with regional identities-that is, actors whose primary identities that encompass more than their region find corruption less permissible. We discuss the importance of considering an actor's valuation of others when modeling corruption persistence, noting that establishing scopes of positive valuation is a precursor to predicting where actors will target benefits and shunt costs.

  9. Corruption and the Other(s: Scope of Superordinate Identity Matters for Corruption Permissibility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne C Pisor

    Full Text Available The decision to engage in corruption-public and private corruption, nepotism, and embezzlement-is often attributed to rational actors maximizing benefits to themselves. However, the importance of reciprocal relationships in humans suggests that an actor may weigh the costs of harms of her corrupt behavior to individuals who may generate future benefits for her. We hypothesize that actors who have a larger circle of actual and potential social partners will have more individuals to consider when generating harms and will thus be less likely to find corrupt acts permissible than actors with smaller circles of valued others. Using data from the World Values Survey and European Values Study (WVS, we explore whether participants with a larger geographic identity or a greater number of group memberships (i.e. a larger scope of actual and potential social partners are less likely to find accepting bribes permissible. We find mixed support for our hypotheses, but consistently find that WVS participants with local, country, continent, or world geographic identities are less likely to find accepting a bribe permissible than those with regional identities-that is, actors whose primary identities that encompass more than their region find corruption less permissible. We discuss the importance of considering an actor's valuation of others when modeling corruption persistence, noting that establishing scopes of positive valuation is a precursor to predicting where actors will target benefits and shunt costs.

  10. Corruption in emergency procurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Jessica; Søreide, Tina

    2008-12-01

    Corruption in emergency procurement reduces the resources available for life-saving operations, lowers the quality of products and services provided, and diverts aid from those who need it most.(1) It also negatively influences public support for humanitarian relief, both in the affected country and abroad. This paper aims to unpack and analyse the following question in order to mitigate risk: how and where does corruption typically occur, and what can be done? Suggested strategies reflect a multi-layered approach that stresses internal agency control mechanisms, conflict-sensitive management, and the need for common systems among operators.

  11. Corruption and Social Capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    2003-01-01

    I examine the causal relation between social capiatl and corruption. A simple model illustrates potential mechanisms and yields testable implications, which I estimate in a sample of European countries. The estimated effect of social capital on corruption is found to be robust to the inclusion...... of a number of other variables and supplementing the sample with slightly older data from non-European countries. The evidence of the reverse causal direction is weak. I suggest that it is possible to build social capiatl through investing in education, interest in society and some level of income...

  12. Corruption, public investment and growth

    OpenAIRE

    Tanzi, Vito; 中村, まづる

    1998-01-01

    Corruption, particularly political or “grand” corruption, distorts the entire decision-making process connected with public investment projects. The degree of distortions is higher with weaker auditing institutions. The evidence presented shows that higher corruption is associated with (i) higher public investment; (ii) lower government revenues; (iii) lower expenditures on operations and maintenance; and (iv) lower quality of public infrastructure. The evidence also shows that corruption inc...

  13. [Corruption and health care system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marasović Šušnjara, Ivana

    2014-06-01

    Corruption is a global problem that takes special place in health care system. A large number of participants in the health care system and numerous interactions among them provide an opportunity for various forms of corruption, be it bribery, theft, bureaucratic corruption or incorrect information. Even though it is difficult to measure the amount of corruption in medicine, there are tools that allow forming of the frames for possible interventions.

  14. exploring the practical theological study of congregations

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and the study of congregations from a practical theological perspective. .... research framework, giving a balance and sense of proportion to the study of ... starts within the congregation, with a commitment to the life and work of Christ, and then ...

  15. Corruption, Governmental Activities, and Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Vito Tanzi

    1994-01-01

    Paper discusses the factors that contribute to the spread of corruption as well as the implications of corruption for markets and for public sector activities. It is argued that corruption can be contained mainly by a scaling down of the public sector activities that stimulate its growth.

  16. The Relationship between Culture and Corruption in Nigeria – Prospecting Culture Change in Dealing with this ‘Big Black Hole’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babatunde Akanji

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to investigate the interface between the national culture and the realities of corruption in Nigeria. Drawing from Hofstede’s culture theory, a qualitative design was used as a framework to explore views of 40 Nigerians on the extent to which social norms, traditions, values, and personal orientations interplay with the magnitude of corruption in Nigeria. The findings provided empirical support for uncertainty avoidance values, patriarchy, and collectivist practices as influencing levels of corruption that is adversely affecting the nation’s economy and human development. Further results revealed the need for a pragmatic approach that places more emphasis on functional education that can raise cultural consciousness which will promote accountability, transparency and moral adherence to anti-corruption values. By implication, the findings offers valuable insights that unveils corruption in Nigeria as more cultural than political. It is therefore argued in this paper that eradicating corruption in Nigeria will practically necessitate the need for a culture change, which can be a slow and difficult process, but not an impossible one.

  17. Belief in a Just World Lowers Perceived Intention of Corruption: The Mediating Role of Perceived Punishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Bao-yu; Liu, Xiao-xiao; Kou, Yu

    2014-01-01

    Corruption can be unfair and detrimental to societies; however, little is known regarding how individuals perceive corruption. We aim to understand how psychological factors, such as lay belief of the world, influence perceived intention of corruptive behavior. As corruption undermines justice, we hypothesize that belief in a just world to others (BJW-others) reduces perceived intention of corruptive behaviors. We conducted two correlational studies and one experimental study in China. Using hypothetical scenarios, perception toward bribery taking and nepotistic practices were assessed. In Study 1 and Study 2, we consistently found that BJW-others negatively predicted perceived intention of corruption, and this pattern was mediated by perceived likelihood of punishment. We further replicate this result in Study 3 by priming BJW-others, demonstrating its causal effect. The results indicate that BJW as one lay belief can be important in influencing people’s attitudes toward corruption. Implications for future research and anti-corruption policies are also discussed. PMID:24835428

  18. Belief in a just world lowers perceived intention of corruption: the mediating role of perceived punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Bao-Yu; Liu, Xiao-Xiao; Kou, Yu

    2014-01-01

    Corruption can be unfair and detrimental to societies; however, little is known regarding how individuals perceive corruption. We aim to understand how psychological factors, such as lay belief of the world, influence perceived intention of corruptive behavior. As corruption undermines justice, we hypothesize that belief in a just world to others (BJW-others) reduces perceived intention of corruptive behaviors. We conducted two correlational studies and one experimental study in China. Using hypothetical scenarios, perception toward bribery taking and nepotistic practices were assessed. In Study 1 and Study 2, we consistently found that BJW-others negatively predicted perceived intention of corruption, and this pattern was mediated by perceived likelihood of punishment. We further replicate this result in Study 3 by priming BJW-others, demonstrating its causal effect. The results indicate that BJW as one lay belief can be important in influencing people's attitudes toward corruption. Implications for future research and anti-corruption policies are also discussed.

  19. PROBLEMATIC APPLICATION OF CRIMINAL REVOCATION OF POLITICAL RIGHTS IN PERSPECTIVE OF CORRUPTION LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edi As’Adi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The spirit of fighting corruption in Indonesia based on the spirit of the Declaration of the 8th International Conference against Corruption and Indonesia United Nations Convention against Corruption (UNCAC UN 58/ 4 dated October 31, 2003, and Law No. 7 of 2006 on the Ratification of the UN Convention on Anti-Corruption of 2003 and Act No. 20 of 2001. The implementation of the Law on Corruption tends not optimal. As a new breakthrough reached the imposition of criminal sanctions in the form of revocation of political rights for the accused of corruption. Although in practice the criminal is considered unconstitutional. Given the enormous impact of corruption, namely the loss suffered by the people and the state, the current criminal disenfranchisement for perpetrators of political corruption has been duly applied.

  20. Belief in a just world lowers perceived intention of corruption: the mediating role of perceived punishment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bao-Yu Bai

    Full Text Available Corruption can be unfair and detrimental to societies; however, little is known regarding how individuals perceive corruption. We aim to understand how psychological factors, such as lay belief of the world, influence perceived intention of corruptive behavior. As corruption undermines justice, we hypothesize that belief in a just world to others (BJW-others reduces perceived intention of corruptive behaviors. We conducted two correlational studies and one experimental study in China. Using hypothetical scenarios, perception toward bribery taking and nepotistic practices were assessed. In Study 1 and Study 2, we consistently found that BJW-others negatively predicted perceived intention of corruption, and this pattern was mediated by perceived likelihood of punishment. We further replicate this result in Study 3 by priming BJW-others, demonstrating its causal effect. The results indicate that BJW as one lay belief can be important in influencing people's attitudes toward corruption. Implications for future research and anti-corruption policies are also discussed.

  1. Initiation of corrupt exchanges and severity of corruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev K. Goel

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the effectiveness of corruption control depending upon whether the bribe taker or the bribe giver initiates the corrupt interaction. The probability of corrupt exchanges depends upon the bribe and the corrupt market structure. The probability of apprehension is set but punishment can be influenced via bribes. Results show that the effectiveness of apprehension hinges on whether higher bribes invite harsher fines. Competition for favors intimidates the bribe giver into offering lower bribes, while greater agency competition has a similar effect on the bribe demanded. Consistent with intuition, better paid bureaucrats demand smaller bribes. Some implications for anti-corruption policy are discussed.

  2. Game as motivation and action in the corruptive social

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena L. Iakovleva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective to analyze the game component in the form of motivation and action which stimulate the specific corruption form of conduct in the space of social glamorous. Methods a complex of classical and postclassical research methods including analytical phenomenological and dialectical methods of cognition in relation to game to gaming motivations and actions setting a variety of game forms attesting to its attractiveness flexibility and plasticity as well as postmodern paradigm of interpretation of the glamour ideology and a special type of personality ndash the corrupt official with the characteristics of a trickster. Results Russian society being in anomia condition exacerbated by corruption however does not give cause for pessimism. Anticorruption policy promoting the scientific search of the motivational causes and effects of personality showing the corrupt behavior and corrupt activity makes the research results known to a wide audience and introduces them into the practical anticorruption activity associated with upbringing education and promotion of anticorruption and inclusive way of living that embodies the included state in the mode of ldquoto Berdquo. Scientific novelty the analysis of the game phenomenon can help to detect corruption in the space where the phenomenon presents itself as motivation and action determined by its ontological inclusiveness and gamification of the modern social. The difficulty to identify the game within the context of its epistemological corruption is caused by its gnosiological incomprehensiveness transformation in the modernity as well as foggy goals and actions of the corruptionist. The study leads to the identification of a new type of personality ndash the corruptionisttrickstertrickstercorruptionist. Knowledge of the gaming motivations and actions of the corruptionist allows to navigate through the complex situations of today having corrupt motives. Practical significance the main provisions and

  3. Corruption as a Propensity: Personality and Motivational Determinants Among Nigerians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbo, Aaron Adibe; Iwundu, Emmanuel Ifeanyi

    2016-01-01

    Psychologically oriented studies on corruption are lacking despite the fact that psychology has contributed enormously to the understanding of criminal behaviors over the past decades. Part of this problem relates to the lack of psychological tone in the definition and measurement of corruption. Taking a clue from the extensive psychological discourse on crime, which provides strong evidence for the existence of criminal tendencies, we conceptualized corruption here in terms of propensity. Possible personality and motivation determinants of this propensity were then explored. Results revealed that extraversion and conscientiousness positively and inversely predicted corruption tendencies, respectively. Results further showed that extrinsic motivation positively potentiates corruption tendencies, whereas intrinsic motivation was inversely related to corruption tendencies. Analysis of demographic variables revealed that males were more likely to be corrupt than their female counterparts. In general, findings here are consistent with the criminal behavior literature, which strongly suggests that the study of corruption is indeed amenable to psychological theories and methods and that individual differences variables constitute important explanatory variables in this regard.

  4. Causes of corruption: Evidence from sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Ato Forson

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the causes of corruption in 22 countries in sub-Saharan Africa from 1996 to 2013. The sources of corruption are grouped into three main thematic areas – historical roots, contemporary causes and institutional causes to make way for subjective and objective measures. The subjective measures allow for assessment of the effectiveness of anticorruption policies. Using pooled OLS, fixed-effect and instrumental-variable approaches, and focusing on the perceived level of corruption as the dependent variable, we find that ethnic diversity, resource abundance and educational attainment are markedly less associated with corruption. In contrast, wage levels of bureaucrats and anticorruption measures based on government effectiveness and regulatory quality breed substantial corruption. Press freedom is found to be variedly associated with corruption. On the basis of these findings, we recommend that the fight against corruption on the continent needs to be reinvented through qualitative and assertive institutional reforms. Anticorruption policy decisions should focus on existing educational systems as a conduit for intensifying awareness of the devastating effect of corruption on sustainable national development.

  5. Yoruba proverbs and the anti-corruption crusade in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEMILOKUN

    that the appointees grossly abused their offices by involving themselves in all manner of corrupt practices. ..... This explains why Yoruba people train their children right from infancy to show contentment by initially ... have neglected this reality.

  6. CORRUPTION, SOCIAL VIOLENCE AND ETHICAL CULTURE IN NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ani Kelechi Johnmary

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Corruption is the direct or indirect act of violence aimed at exploiting unmerited gain and or advantage from a person, structure, institution or environment. In Nigeria, corruption has grown to an unquantifiable level. The major causes of corruption include absence of political will, progressive suppression of the culture of accountability, geometric societal poverty and negative socio-economic conditions as well as greed and the get-rich-quick syndrome etc. The paper presents the multi-dimensional phases of corruption in Nigeria and the salient mandate of the Code of Conduct Bureau and Tribunal Act, Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC as well as Independent Corrupt Practices and Other Related Offences Commission (ICPC. Unfortunately, the work reveal that the effectiveness of the above institutions and other corruption-watchdog setups has being watered-down by the negative push and pull effects of what is popularly known as the ‘Nigerian factor’. Finally, it argues that the most dangerous implications of corruption are the recurrence of social violence and the near-total collapse of ethical culture in every sector of the Nigerian national life, while recommending multidimensional transformative cultures of corruption management that must be collectively championed by the citizenry.

  7. Anatomy of Corruption in the Nigerian Public Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogbewere Bankole Ijewereme

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Corruption is a clog in the wheel of progress in Nigeria and has incessantly frustrated the realization of noble national goals, despite the enormous natural and human resources in Nigeria. The article reviews the concept of corruption in line with its forms and effects on the Nigerian State, as well as corruption in public service from Prime Minister Tafawa Balewa’s era to President Goodluck Jonathan’s administration. The article examines the idealistic, resource curse, two public, low risk–high benefit and anomie theories, and consequently adopts resource curse, low risk–high benefit theories to explain causes of corruption in Nigeria. Also, some personal observations and data from Transparency International are utilized to explain corrupt practices in Nigeria. The article concludes that there is corruption in the Nigerian Public Sector because of societal pressure, tribalism, nepotism, low risk–high benefits of involving in corruption among others. The article recommends some measures to combat corruption in Nigeria.

  8. Forms of corruption in the middle ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deretić Nataša

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper continues the story of corruption as a socially harmful phenomenon that affected all societies, from ancient times, through mediaeval times, to modern age. Although the concept of corruption changed in the course of history, the essence has remained the same: it encompasses the abuse of power, corruption, bribery, and offering gratuities in exchange for favors. We shall here focus on the manifestations of corruption in the Middle Ages, the period which coincided with the feudal socio-economic formation, both in its western European variety and in the Byzantine type of feudal society. In the twelfth century, the Byzantine emperors introduced the practice of granting property in land or some other source of income - pronoia - to prominent individuals as a reward for their merits. In contrast, what could be observed from the very beginning in barbarian countries, which were established in the territory of the former Western Roman Empire, were the classic vassal relations, where a fief presented the foundation of the medieval social order; it was land property which the feudal lord (suzerain granted to his vassals (military commanders and units to enjoy, manage, but not control independently. By giving land property - a pronoia or fief to a pronoiario or vassal, the feudal lord (suzerain, in a way, 'bought' their personal loyalty. Particularly conductive to corruption was the hierarchically arranged and ramified bureaucratic apparatus of the mediaeval state. Although the Byzantine highest-ranking bureaucracy was paid for their work, their arbitrariness, bribery, coarseness, and incompetence resulted in strengthening corruption. On the other hand, the greatest influence on the kings in the barbaric mediaeval states was exerted by their commanders (dukes and entourage, who often selfishly abused the benefits bestowed upon them by the kings. Polybius' statement that 'the government has made people prone to bribery and greedy' proved to be

  9. Corruption in Romanian Forestry - Morality and Local Practice in the Context of Privatization (Corupţia în domeniul forestier din România - moralitate şi practici locale în contextul privatizării

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MONICA VASILE

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available I believe that recent theoretical developments on corruption from the field of social anthropology can shed light on various processes that communities confront in different areas. This paper focuses on practices related to forestry, trying to show different mechanisms by which corruption might be performed, as well as the way in which the villagers' definitions of a corrupt act relate to morality. In Romania, 50% of the forests were privatized and a huge number ofcommunity-based institutions were established in the forest areas. A dense net of forestry institutions is beginning to work in rural Romania for managing and regulating forest-related issues in a decentralized way. Parallel with this process, storytelling about illegal logging and forest depletion is becoming a routine. How is it possible to perform corruption in the context of privatization and decentralization, which are among the anticorruption panacea promoted by international development agencies? - this is a question which will be answered in the article.

  10. Why Should Donors Care about Corruption?

    OpenAIRE

    Kolstad, Ivar

    2008-01-01

    Corruption is bad for donor business. Corruption reduces popular support for aid in donor countries. However, aid agencies should pay attention to corruption because it is the right thing to do, rather than just the smart thing to do. Donor anti-corruption policies require a strong grounding in ethics. Corruption produces bad development outcomes. This is the reasoning largely underlying donor anti-corruption efforts. The focus on consequences of corruption makes donor anticorruptioneffo...

  11. Political Corruption: An Introduction to the Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Amundsen, Inge

    1999-01-01

    Corruption is generally defined as the misuse of public authority, and political corruption is here defined as corruption in which the political decision-makers are involved. In addition to a review of the various definitions of corruption a classification of the various forms of corruption (bribery, embezzlement, fraud and extortion), this paper presents two alternative theories on corruption ("extractive" and "redistributive") in order to illustrate the effects of corruption in various regi...

  12. The Effects of General System Justification on Corruption Perception and Intent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xuyun; Liu, Li; Huang, Zhenwei; Zheng, Wenwen; Liang, Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Previous research stresses that system justifying belief can weaken corruption perception, by this possibly fostering unjust behaviors. However, general results of the effect of general system justification on corruption are ambiguous, indicating also a lessening impact. We conducted a line of studies trying to elucidate these circumstances by testing the effect of general system justification on corruption perception and intention. In addition, we explored institutional trust as a possible mediator in this process. For this purpose, we conducted three studies. The first two studies examined the association between general system justification and corruption. In Study 1, a correlational design was run using questionnaires to assess the relation between general system justification and corruption perception as well as corruption intention. In Study 2, an experimental design was conducted manipulating general system justification via exposure to high or low system threat condition, then measuring its effect on corruption perception and corrupt intention. In Study 3, two sub-studies using correlational and experimental designs were run to explore the mediating role of institutional trust, respectively. Results replicated former studies showing that general system justification is negatively associated with corruption perception. However, they also showed a negative correlation with corrupt intention. Furthermore, they showed that institutional trust mediated the relation between general system justification and corruption. We suggest to consider these findings to further elucidate the psychological basis underlying different effects of general system justification on human behaviors.

  13. The Effects of General System Justification on Corruption Perception and Intent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuyun Tan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Previous research stresses that system justifying belief can weaken corruption perception, by this possibly fostering unjust behaviors. However, general results of the effect of general system justification on corruption are ambiguous, indicating also a lessening impact. We conducted a line of studies trying to elucidate these circumstances by testing the effect of general system justification on corruption perception and intention. In addition, we explored institutional trust as a possible mediator in this process. For this purpose we conducted three studies. The first two studies examined the association between general system justification and corruption. In Study 1, a correlational design was run using questionnaires to assess the relation between general system justification and corruption perception as well as corruption intention. In Study 2, an experimental design was conducted manipulating general system justification via exposure to high or low system threat condition, then measuring its effect on corruption perception and corrupt intention. In Study 3, two sub-studies using correlational and experimental designs were run to explore the mediating role of institutional trust, respectively. Results replicated former studies showing that general system justification is negatively associated with corruption perception. However, they also showed a negative correlation with corrupt intention. Furthermore, they showed that institutional trust mediated the relation between general system justification and corruption. We suggest to consider these findings to further elucidate the psychological basis underlying different effects of general system justification on human behaviors.

  14. Corrupt reciprocity: An experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Graf Lambsdorff, Johann; Frank, Björn

    2007-01-01

    We let students play a corruption game, embedded into a variant of the ultimatum game. Those allotted the role of public servants chose between whistleblowing, opportunism and reciprocity by delivery (of a contract) and those acting as businesspeople chose how to frame the game and whether to blow the whistle. While opportunism and abstaining from whistleblowing is the Nash equilibrium, another likely outcome was that businesspeople allocate resources to punishing public servants for non-deli...

  15. Internal and International Corruption

    OpenAIRE

    Dr.Sc. Mario Antinucci

    2015-01-01

    This subject, whence the name of this paper originates from, must be addressed with courage and intellectual integrity by all of us, the different parts of the civil society, the public institutions, the entrepreneurs and the legal professionals, the youth and the new generations. All the public policies of the European governments share the belief of a direct correlation between the criminal density connected to corruption of States political and economic protagonists and the lack of ava...

  16. Preschool Teachers' Endorsement of Instructional Practices: An Interprofessional Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutsoftas, Anthony D.; Dubasik, Virginia L.; Moss DiDonato, Alicia

    2017-01-01

    Background: Preschool teacher's instructional practices are one component of high-quality early education classrooms that have the potential to directly influence young children's school readiness and success; therefore, the type and quality of instructional practices used by preschool teachers should be explored. Purpose: The purpose of this…

  17. A model of interaction between anticorruption authority and corruption groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neverova, Elena G.; Malafeyef, Oleg A.

    2015-01-01

    The paper provides a model of interaction between anticorruption unit and corruption groups. The main policy functions of the anticorruption unit involve reducing corrupt practices in some entities through an optimal approach to resource allocation and effective anticorruption policy. We develop a model based on Markov decision-making process and use Howard’s policy-improvement algorithm for solving an optimal decision strategy. We examine the assumption that corruption groups retaliate against the anticorruption authority to protect themselves. This model was implemented through stochastic game

  18. A model of interaction between anticorruption authority and corruption groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neverova, Elena G.; Malafeyef, Oleg A. [Saint-Petersburg State University, Saint-Petersburg, Russia, 35, Universitetskii prospekt, Petrodvorets, 198504 Email:elenaneverowa@gmail.com, malafeyevoa@mail.ru (Russian Federation)

    2015-03-10

    The paper provides a model of interaction between anticorruption unit and corruption groups. The main policy functions of the anticorruption unit involve reducing corrupt practices in some entities through an optimal approach to resource allocation and effective anticorruption policy. We develop a model based on Markov decision-making process and use Howard’s policy-improvement algorithm for solving an optimal decision strategy. We examine the assumption that corruption groups retaliate against the anticorruption authority to protect themselves. This model was implemented through stochastic game.

  19. Institutional system response mechanism towards corruption: a point of view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciprian Tudurachi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In Romania, a lot of practices proper to corruption became widely common and are integrated in a real national bureaucratic culture. Romanian citizens seem to accept and tolerate informal payments in order to obtain the desired or the necessary services. Public officials are doing well, impersonal and they don’t realize they affect social welfare. That’s why fight against corruption must involve complex actions performed on many areas. Such action must be focused on measures that reduce the opportunities for corruption and increase the probability of detection and punish the offences.

  20. Controlling society/ Controlling the state: crime and corruption with a focus on Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Morris Steven D.

    2015-01-01

    At a fundamental level, crime and corruption represent the failure to effectively control society (crime) and the state (corruption). Despite the fact that many countries like Mexico face problems in both areas, the literature exploring the links between the two remains limited. This paper explores the intersection of crime and corruption, drawing on the Mexican case for examples and discussion. After defining and differentiating the two concepts to broadly encompass violations of the rule of...

  1. The Effect of Self-Esteem on Corrupt Intention: The Mediating Role of Materialism

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Yuan; Liu, Li; Tan, Xuyun; Huang, Zhenwei; Dang, Jianning; Zheng, Wenwen

    2016-01-01

    The present set of studies aimed to explore the effect of self-esteem on corrupt intention and the mediating role of materialism in generating this effect. In Study 1, we used questionnaires to investigate the correlation among self-esteem, materialism, and corrupt intention. In Study 2, we manipulated self-esteem to explore the causal effect of self-esteem on materialism and corrupt intention. In Study 3, we manipulated materialism to examine whether inducing materialism can reduce the relat...

  2. Systemic roots of corruption: Corruption and its perception: Reality vs. appearance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madžar Ljubomir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Serbia is widely believed to be a country flooded with corruption. The question naturally arises as to what might be the causes of this unwelcome phenomenon. The basic stand extensively elaborated in this text is that the causes of the corruption are institutional, i.e. systemic. Without recourse to the systemic causes, the alternative would be that corruption arises from some special anthropological traits of this people. Upon rejecting such an explanation of corruptive practices, the institutional roots are further elaborated. Economic and other policies can also be conducive to corruption, but they are made in an environment structured in the spirit of public choice - policies themselves are motivated by the systemic peculiarities - so that the ultimate determinants are again to be sought in the institutional order of the given society. It might appear at first sight that corruption should be easy to eliminate, as institutions are man-made and not an unchangeable given coming from nature or some uncontrollable entity. However, institutional development is constrained by many factors - knowledge, competent people, information systems, real resources, and financial means - and it is argued that it can be as painful, uncertain, costly and slow as the economic development itself. The complexity of the corruption as an economic, social and even ethical phenomenon is demonstrated by the multiplicity of its definitions and by the conspicuous succession of alternative definitions in time. The problems of measurement are elaborated to some length. Corruption is illegal and therefore, unlike most economic aggregates, cannot be measured directly; it is the perception of the corruption rather than the corruption itself that is being measured in widely cited national and international surveys. The respondents are not centered exclusively at revealing the truth, but are subject to a wide variety of motivations. Some of them are motivated to overstate the

  3. Corruptive Tendencies, Conscientiousness, and Collectivism

    OpenAIRE

    Juneman Abraham; Murty Magda Pane

    2014-01-01

    This research investigated the relation between conscientiousness, collectivism, and corrupt tendency–which is represented by moral emotions (shame and guilt proneness). The study was conducted on 117 students (76 male, 41 female; M = 18.93 years old; SD = 1.67 years old) in Jakarta. The result shows that collectivism has positive predictive correlation with the tendency of not doing corruption and that conscientiousness is not able to predict corrupt tendencies. Collectivism of which every g...

  4. Mandeville on Corruption and Law

    OpenAIRE

    Simonazzi, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    This essay makes a distinction between two different meanings of the word «corruption»: moral corruption and legal corruption. The thesis is that in Mandeville's thought vice can be useful, while crime is always damaging. In this perspective, law is fundamental to tell vice from crime. Three points are examined: 1) the relationships between law and human nature, law and ethics, law and society; 2) the analysis of Mandeville's theory of law, in particular its nature and development; 3) the the...

  5. Sick regimes and sick people: a multilevel investigation of the population health consequences of perceived national corruption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witvliet, Margot I.; Kunst, Anton E.; Arah, Onyebuchi A.; Stronks, Karien

    2013-01-01

    There is a paucity of empirical work on the potential population health impact of living under a regime marred by corruption. African countries differ in the extent of national corruption, and we explore whether perceived national corruption is associated with population health across all rungs of

  6. Causes of corruption: Evidence from sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph Ato Forson; Theresa Yaaba Baah-Ennumh; Ponlapat Buracom; Guojin Chen; Peng Zhen

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the causes of corruption in 22 countries in sub-Saharan Africa from 1996 to 2013. The sources of corruption are grouped into three main thematic areas – historical roots, contemporary causes and institutional causes to make way for subjective and objective measures. The subjective measures allow for assessment of the effectiveness of anticorruption policies. Using pooled OLS, fixed-effect and instrumental-variable approaches, and focusing on the perceived level of corrupti...

  7. International Initiatives To Eliminate Corruption: Has Bribery Declined?

    OpenAIRE

    Claire R. La Roche; Mary A. Flanigan

    2011-01-01

    Bribery discriminates against honest companies by creating a barrier to entry in the form of a competitive disadvantage. An important legal issue with significant implications is whether recent international anti-corruption laws have leveled the playing field for firms doing business abroad. One of the first laws proscribing illicit payments to foreign public officials is the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA), initially enacted by the U.S. Congress in 1977. From its inception, the FCPA has...

  8. Bureaucratic corruption and anti-corruption strategies in Nigeria: an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper derives from the contemporary concern facing good governance and the sustainability of democratic government in Nigeria. The phenomenon of corruption i.e. bureaucratic corruption has negative implications on the nation and therefore capable of terminating our nascent democracy, hence, the need to curb or ...

  9. Imperialism, Extraterritoriality and Jurisdictional Competence of States in Anti-Corruption Regulation: Critical Analysis of the Leading Instruments.

    OpenAIRE

    Ojewumi, Florence Oluwabukola

    2017-01-01

    Transnational Business relations have assumed phenomenal importance in the globalised world of the 21st Century. Corruption in international business relations however has become a global problem with a distorting effect on the international markets. The Foreign Corrupt Practices Act 1977 (Hereinafter, FCPA) and the UK Bribery Act 2010 (Hereinafter, UKBA) are part of a few anti-corruption laws adopted to fight bribery and corruption beyond the national level. However, the application of natio...

  10. Games of corruption: how to suppress illegal logging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joung-Hun; Sigmund, Karl; Dieckmann, Ulf; Iwasa, Yoh

    2015-02-21

    Corruption is one of the most serious obstacles for ecosystem management and biodiversity conservation. In particular, more than half of the loss of forested area in many tropical countries is due to illegal logging, with corruption implicated in a lack of enforcement. Here we study an evolutionary game model to analyze the illegal harvesting of forest trees, coupled with the corruption of rule enforcers. We consider several types of harvesters, who may or may not be committed towards supporting an enforcer service, and who may cooperate (log legally) or defect (log illegally). We also consider two types of rule enforcers, honest and corrupt: while honest enforcers fulfill their function, corrupt enforcers accept bribes from defecting harvesters and refrain from fining them. We report three key findings. First, in the absence of strategy exploration, the harvester-enforcer dynamics are bistable: one continuum of equilibria consists of defecting harvesters and a low fraction of honest enforcers, while another consists of cooperating harvesters and a high fraction of honest enforcers. Both continua attract nearby strategy mixtures. Second, even a small rate of strategy exploration removes this bistability, rendering one of the outcomes globally stable. It is the relative rate of exploration among enforcers that then determines whether most harvesters cooperate or defect and most enforcers are honest or corrupt, respectively. This suggests that the education of enforcers, causing their more frequent trialing of honest conduct, can be a potent means of curbing corruption. Third, if information on corrupt enforcers is available, and players react opportunistically to it, the domain of attraction of cooperative outcomes widens considerably. We conclude by discussing policy implications of our results. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. From Development and Grand Corruption to Governance

    OpenAIRE

    Scott MacWilliam; Mike Rafferty

    2017-01-01

    In development policy circles, corruption has become a pressing global issue. Yet the contemporary relationship between corruption and development is complex and contested. For many, corruption robs people of economic resources and social wealth, and denudes the state of important capacities. That is, corruption prevents or blocks development. For others, corruption often occurs in the process of development as the form in which a class of developers accumulates wealth. That is, corruption is...

  12. Combating Corruption Based on International Rules

    OpenAIRE

    Maskun, -

    2014-01-01

    Corruption is a universal problem that is taking place all over the world, either in developed countries or developing or under developing countries. It is caused by some issues such as poorly designed economic policies, low levels of education, underdeveloped civil society, and the weak accountability of public institution. Those causes of corruption can be separated in some different types of corruption. The types are bureaucratic corruption, political corruption, grand corruption, and comm...

  13. Business corruption, uncertainty and risk aversion

    OpenAIRE

    Tina Søreide

    2006-01-01

    The presence of business-corruption in a market provokes firms to make choices between legal business approaches and illegal bribery. The outcome of a chosen strategy will usually be uncertain at the time the decision is made, and a firm's decision will depend partly on its attitude towards risk. Drawing on the empirical data provided by a survey of 82 Norwegian exporting businesses, the paper proposes a theory about firm's choices between legal and illegal business practices. It begins by de...

  14. Determinants of anti-corruption activities at the regional level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. I. Ovchinnikova

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The article explores the concept of corruption, defined as an obstacle to economic and social development, created by representatives of the power structures of the country, region, enterprise, weakening the efficiency of management and the institutional foundation of society. Anticorruption activity is presented in the article as conditions created by the state and ensuring that the country's economy is not irreparably damaged by internal and external economic threats. The estimated characteristics of the anti-corruption activities of the regions and the country as a whole, as a rule, are studied in the domestic sources and among foreign authors. Statistical evaluation of the relationship between the level of corruption and indicators: the dynamics of GRP growth, the index of real incomes of the population, the costs of training, health care is made on the basis of the coefficient Pearson correlation. Based on the correlation analysis, stable links were established between the level of corruption and the socio-economic indicators of the region's development: an increase in the level of corruption associated with an increase in the population's spending on education and medicine; a reduction in the level of corruption, as a result of increased incomes of the population and higher wages. The consequences of corruption are presented: legal (the undeveloped legislative base, which involves bribery of powerful people, the growth of corruption in the society, the increase in corruption crimes, the inefficiency of the regulatory framework, social (moral violation, low public evaluation of the activities of power structures, low level of culture and upbringing , economic (bias financial, investment decisions, illegal distribution of property and non-property benefits, the impossibility of competitors Vat with developed countries and others.

  15. DOES FINANCIAL DEVELOPMENT REDUCE CORRUPTION?

    OpenAIRE

    John Thornton

    2009-01-01

    I estimate the impact of bank cred it to the private sector on corruption using indicators of a country's legal origin as instrumental variables to assess causality. I find that bank credit reduces corruption, with the result robust to instrumenting for bank credit and for different controls.

  16. Another Discussion about Academic Corruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Changgeng, Li

    2007-01-01

    Academic corruption is a commonplace matter about which all people are clearly aware. However, people often overlook many hidden or latent manifestations of academic corruption. This article discusses eight of these manifestations: indiscriminate use of the academic team spirit, the proliferation of "word games," deliberate attacks on…

  17. Control of corruption in healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Armin; Azim, Afzal

    2015-01-01

    A recently published article on corruption in Indian healthcare in the BMJ has triggered a hot debate and numerous responses (1, 2, 3, 4). We do agree that corruption in Indian healthcare is a colossal issue and needs to be tackled urgently (5). However, we want to highlight that corruption in healthcare is not a local phenomenon confined to the Indian subcontinent, though India does serve as a good case study and intervention area due to the magnitude of the problem and the country's large population (6). Good governance, strict rules, transparency and zero tolerance are some of the strategies prescribed everywhere to tackle corruption. However, those entrusted with implementing good governance and strict rules in India need to go through a process of introspection to carry out their duties in a responsible fashion. At present, it looks like a no-win situation. In this article, we recommend education in medical ethics as the major intervention for dealing with corruption in healthcare.

  18. Corruption in the sphere of education: notion, specific features, forms and types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina A. Damm

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective basing on the studied scientific literature and legislation on corruption counteraction to elaborate the concept of corruption in the education sector highlighting its specific features characteristics forms and types and attracting the attention of the scientific community to the discussion of the categorical apparatus of corruption in education and its prevention. Methods dialectical method of cognition. Results basing on the analysis of scientific literature and the Russian legislation on corruption counteraction the characteristic features of corruption in education were revealed the sphere of existence the specificity of the subjects of corruption relations in education specific features of the goals of corruption the types of corruption were classified according to various grounds depending on the types of educational organizations that implement basic educational programs the nature of authority used by the persons who have administrative powers in educational institutions the quantitative composition of the subjects the nature of the use of official position by the subjects of passive bribery in the corruption relations in education organizational structure of corruption relations in education the nature of accrued benefits the nature and degree of public danger. In the conclusion the author proposes the definition of corruption in education which is interpreted as the negative sociolegal phenomenon existing in social relations in the sphere of education and consisting in the wrongful use of an official position and status of the participants of relations in the sphere of education in order to accrue benefit of tangible and or intangible nature for themselves or third parties as well as to provide such benefits. Scientific novelty for the first time the article considers the characteristic features of corruption in education highlights its forms and types and proposed a definition of corruption in education. Practical

  19. Corruption and compliance: preventive legislations and policies in international business projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harsh PATHAK

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks to provide an insight on the international phenomenon of corruption, dealing with its existence, and whether compliance is higher with Anti-Corruption laws or with corruption itself, resulting in anti-corruption laws being much less effective than the legislators intended it to be and the reasons for increasing demand worldwide for new governance standards and higher compliance controls and other effective anti-corruption laws and policies in light of rapid increase in corruption every year. This article further deals with the diagnosis and measures to deal with the cause of corruption – the short-comings in anti-corruption law – the reasons why corporations are willing to face continuing legal risks and adverse publicity but still indulge in corrupt practices and the extent of negative impact the prevailing levels of corruption ultimately have on international business and trade. Strict compliance controls are being introduced with increasing enforcement of anti-corruption laws internationally and nations have also started to focus on individual and corporate liability in cases of violation of anti-corruption laws, for both government and private organisations. In this context of far-reaching developments, whether European and South-east Asian Countries like India and International Business Organisations can act in ignorance or buck up and accept this trend, slowly and steadily moving towards a less corrupt nation and International business projects – if not towards a totally corruption free one, keeping in mind the growth of international trade and Commerce and its sustainability.

  20. Exploring teachers' practices in teaching Mathematics and Statistics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Teaching approaches and assessment practices are key factors that contribute to the improvement of learner outcomes. The study on which this article is based, explored the methods used by KwaZulu-Natal (KZN) teachers in teaching and assessing mathematics and statistics. An instrument containing closed and ...

  1. Exploring Principals' Instructional Leadership Practices in Malaysia: Insights and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Alma; Jones, Michelle; Cheah, Kenny Soon Lee; Devadason, Edward; Adams, Donnie

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to outline the findings from a small-scale, exploratory, study of principals' instructional leadership practice in Malaysian primary schools. The dimensions and functions of instructional leadership, explicitly explored in this study, are those outlined in the Hallinger and Murphy's (1985) model.…

  2. Let's Play: Exploring Literacy Practices in an Emerging Videogame Paratext

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burwell, Catherine; Miller, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the literacy practices associated with Let's Play videos (or LPs) on YouTube. A hybrid of digital gaming and video, LPs feature gameplay footage accompanied by simultaneous commentary recorded by the player. Players may set out to promote, review, critique or satirize a game. In recent years, LPs have become hugely popular…

  3. Corruption Markets: An Analytical Framework For Assessing Anti-Corruption Campaigns

    OpenAIRE

    Varvara M. Vasileva; Anton N. Vorobyev

    2014-01-01

    Assuming that there is a “missing factor” in the modern corruption studies, authors develop a new conceptual approach to the study of corruption and effectiveness of anti-corruption regulations in the public service. This “missing factor” is a “corruption market”, particularly, its size, type and nature. Conflict of interest regulations aim at controlling key channels of corruption behavior, and corruption market in its turn determines prevailing channels of existing corruption behavior. Misi...

  4. Contextualizing conceptions of corruption: Challenges for the international anti-corruption campaign

    OpenAIRE

    Gephart, Malte

    2009-01-01

    While in an initial legal and academic anti-corruption wave corruption itself was at the center of analysis, research is now increasingly focused on anti-corruption discourse and praxis. The latter analyses have generated numerous criticisms of anti-corruption activities and anti-corruption research, and these are presented in this literature review. These criticisms range from the anti-corruption norm's legitimacy deficit, to the difficulty of defining and measuring corruption, to the discou...

  5. Africa and International Corruption: the Strange Case of South Africa and Seychelles

    OpenAIRE

    Ellis, S.

    1996-01-01

    This article traces the development of corruption in one part of Africa - Seychelles - in a global context. It demonstrates how the ease with which capital can be transferred and commodities bought and sold and the speed of modern communication in general have been given considerable impetus to the linking of corrupt practices across borders, and that this process of transnational corruption was considerably encouraged by the Cold War. After independence in 1976 Seychelles was subject to inte...

  6. Political connections, corruption, and privatization of public services: Evidence from contracting out water services in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Bel i Queralt, Germà, 1963-; González Gómez, Francisco; Picazo Tadeo, Andrés José

    2015-01-01

    Political corruption is a type of market failure. One area of public policy where corruption is relatively common is the contracting out of public services. Private firms can improve their chances of obtaining contracts by bribing politicians or public servants and funding political parties. In the same vein, firms can gain access to policy makers by hiring influential former politicians –a practice commonly referred to as revolving-doors. In Spain, a number of corruption cases, involving all...

  7. Discourses of Anti-corruption in Mexico. Culture of Corruption or Corruption of Culture?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Coronado

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available In the context of global capitalism the so-called developing countries are considered ‘commodities’ in offer in the global economy as emerging markets or for foreign investment. Countries need to show they are potentially highly competitive with low risk. The value of country characteristics is set by globalised managerial discourses, based on postcolonial ideologies that rate cultures and societies in terms of linear notions of progress and civilisation. Cultures and behaviours are judged positively or negatively according to the position countries supposedly have in the evolution of world society. In this framework one element that countries need to eradicate or reduce in order to be seen as ‘attractive’ is corruption. Towards this aim international and national government and non-government organisations have put in place anti-corruption campaigns. In communications with the general public, these schemes represent actors and acts of corruption through discursive strategies that characterize world cultures and their links with corruption in terms of postcolonial ideologies. In this paper I focus on the implications of the metaphor ‘culture of corruption’ for rating countries, questioning its effectiveness in anti-corruption campaigns. I argue that anti-corruption instruments based on postcolonial ideologies corrupt representations of national cultures and peoples behaviours, instead of targeting local and global sectors that gain from institutionalised corruption. Through the analysis of anti-corruption cultural texts publicly available in Mexico I illustrate how the ideological misrepresentation of corruption fails its stated aim, to transform a ‘culture of corruption’ into a ‘culture of legality’.

  8. Integrating Occupational Therapy Specific Assessments in Practice: Exploring Practitioner Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Asaba

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Occupational therapists sometimes find it challenging to integrate client-centered and occupational therapy specific assessments in practice. The aim of this study was to explore the use of occupational therapy specific assessments such as the Assessment of Motor and Process Skills (AMPS among occupational therapists in Sweden and Japan. Methods. Interviews and qualitative thematic analyses were utilized. Findings. Four themes are reported: (1 use it or lose it, (2 simply no space until after hours, (3 biggest barriers can be colleagues, and (4 being more specific: communication. Conclusion. In keeping with previous studies, occupational therapists often find it challenging to implement client-centered and occupation-based assessment tools into practice. However, more work is needed to understand how best practices can be incorporated into a changing occupational therapy daily practice.

  9. Corruption and use of antibiotics in regions of Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rönnerstrand, Björn; Lapuente, Victor

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this article is to investigate the association between corruption and antibiotic use at sub-national level. We explore the correlation between, on the one hand, two measures of corruption (prevalence of corruption in the health sector and prevalence of bribes in the society) at regional level from the European Quality of Government Index; and, on the other, the consumption of antibiotics in those European regions from a 2009 Special Euro Barometer. In a multivariate regression model, we control for potential confounders: purchasing power of standardized regional gross domestic product, inhabitants per medical doctor and age-standardized all-cause mortality rates. We find that there is a strong positive association between both measures of corruption (i.e. in the health sector, and in the society at large) and antibiotics use; and that this association is robust to the introduction of the control variables. These results support previous findings in the literature linking corruption to higher antibiotic use at cross-national level. We show that corruption does seem to account for some of the remarkable between-region variation in antibiotic consumption in Europe. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Exploring accountability of clinical ethics consultants: practice and training implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weise, Kathryn L; Daly, Barbara J

    2014-01-01

    Clinical ethics consultants represent a multidisciplinary group of scholars and practitioners with varied training backgrounds, who are integrated into a medical environment to assist in the provision of ethically supportable care. Little has been written about the degree to which such consultants are accountable for the patient care outcome of the advice given. We propose a model for examining degrees of internally motivated accountability that range from restricted to unbounded accountability, and support balanced accountability as a goal for practice. Finally, we explore implications of this model for training of clinical ethics consultants from diverse academic backgrounds, including those disciplines that do not have a formal code of ethics relating to clinical practice.

  11. Exploring boundary-spanning practices among creativity managers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Poul Houman; Kragh, Hanne

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – External inputs are critical for organisational creativity. In order to bridge different thought worlds and cross-organisational barriers, managers must initiate and motivate boundary spanning processes. The purpose of this paper is to explore how boundary spanners manage creativity...... and observation. Findings – Three meta-practices used by managers to manage boundary-spanning creative projects are presented: defining the creative space, making space for creativity and acting in the creative space. These practices are detailed in seven case studies of creative projects. Research limitations...

  12. Social work - client relationship practice: exploring social worker perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    WENDY ELIZABETH ROLLINS

    2018-01-01

    This thesis explores, using qualitative methodology, the significance of social worker – client relationships for achieving client outcomes in the field of child and family welfare. The study found that social worker – client relationships are critical for achieving outcomes. It is a distinct practice method, informed by relational views about ‘the self’, human development and healing. The social worker, as Relationship Building Agent, is heavily focused on client engagement and building t...

  13. THE PERCEPTION OF CORRUPTION AMONG YOUNG PEOPLE BETWEEN REALITY AND PRAGMATISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana-Ramona G. LOBONŢ

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Corruption is nowadays a highly questioned matter, the subject of numerous debates and studies in recent years. The increasing awareness of the dramatic effects of corruption on a country's progress accelerates the examination of causes of the occurrence and spread of corruption worldwide. To achieve a higher degree of relevance in determining the level of corruption, this paper attempts to outline a questionnaire based analysis on the perception of corruption in Romania; the means used were the e-mail and social networks. The respondents were asked to assess certain statements, and to agree or disagree with them. The results are in line with the previous research: most items express strong agreements, highlighting a perception strongly influenced by the belief that in Romania, corruption is pervasive. Given the current context strongly influenced by the financial crisis, our paper represents the effect of the importance and usefulness of the subject for practice and current research in the socio-economic domain.

  14. Administrative corruption from sociology perspective and the relationship between administrative corruption and social security

    OpenAIRE

    Mohsen Zarei Jlyany; Gholam Reza Sharafi; Mustafa Tavani; Mansour Haghighatian; Moslem Tavani

    2014-01-01

    certain principles Observance and non- Observance on organizing a social system will have Indisputable effect at the Organization. And administrative systems are not exempt from this, also the selection of the Administration components and also How to Place the components together can affect its performance. Meanwhile, the government's role in the prevalence or no-prevalence, the extent type and the way of administrative corruption influence, in this article, researchers wants to explore the ...

  15. Fighting corruption in tactical procurement

    OpenAIRE

    Obanda Wanyama, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Vast amount of public resources are spent on procurement. Effective public procurement yields additional budget space, hence it ought to be conducted with due diligence. However, public procurement most especially tactical procurement in local governments in Uganda is vulnerable to corruption. In this thesis we analyze how tactical procurement can be managed to fight corruption and promote integrity in the decentralized context in local governments in Uganda. Specifically, we identify the mos...

  16. Developing and actualizing a multifaceted approach to fighting corruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra V. Orlova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective to analyze the main practices of corruption counteraction in the modern society with a view of elaborating the key directions of such counteraction. Methods dialectic method of cognition and general scientific methods based on it analysis synthesis induction deduction. Results the work presents the basic models of corruption counteraction in the modern society. The phenomenon of corruption is frequently discussed and debated in a variety of contexts. Corruption is often difficult to identify as it occurs in secret away from the public eye and records. Moreover anticorruption measures repeatedly fail in part because corruption is a multifaceted social phenomenon that penetrates horizontally and vertically through many areas of society. Despite a high degree of informality within many industries and the prevalence of corrupt practices most anticorruption efforts have so far involved reforming the formal legal rules. However the discussion of formal rules and institutions cannot be neatly divorced from the examination of informal norms and vice versa. These two spheres of norms and rules operate side by side each dependent on the other. Hence any conversation about reform has to include discussions of both formal and informal rules and institutions and the intersection between the two. It is also crucial to examine the fora where informal rules and norms are practiced enforced and replicated. Part of this examination revolves around socalled organizational or corporate culture. In order to start overcoming the formal laws vs. informal rules divide government regulators have to work with industry professionals labour groups and consumers when designing various industry and health and safety regulations. This partnership if it were to be a true one would improve the likelihood of compliance and reduce opportunities for corrupt practices. Ultimately any meaningful anticorruption reform will have to address not only the intertwined nature of

  17. External Quality Assurance in Higher Education: How Can It Address Corruption and Other Malpractices?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Michaela

    2016-01-01

    Corruption and malpractices in higher education are today a major concern in nearly all higher education systems worldwide. It is a multifaceted phenomenon and has become particularly visible in the academic domain. This paper represents an exploration of the possible role that quality assurance can play in addressing corruption and malpractices.…

  18. Economic integration and corruption: The corrupt soul of the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Juan J. Ganuza; Esther Hauk

    2000-01-01

    We study the link between corruption and economic integration. We show that if an economic union establishes a common regulation for public procurement, the country more prone to corruption benefits more from integration. However, if the propensities to corruption are too distinct, the less corrupt country will not be willing to join the union. This difference in corruption propensities can be offset by a difference in efficiency. We also show that corruption is lower if integration occurs. A...

  19. Formative Assessment: Exploring Tunisian Cooperative Teachers Practices in Physical Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melki Hasan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This article is based on questions related to the formative assessment of preparatory trainee ship in the professional life of Physical Education teachers. In general, in the first training program, the traineeship represents an integral part of training. In this sense, the traineeship offers a vital opportunity for future teacher to gain practical experience in the real environment, given that formative evaluation is a process of collecting evidence from trainees by cooperative teachers to make decisions about their knowledge and skills, to guide their own instructional activities and to control their behavior. Accordingly, this study proposed to explore practices of Tunisians cooperative teachers in relation to the formative assessment. Material: To verify our proposed object, we conducted a research using a questionnaire distributed among 96 cooperative teachers in different educational institutions located in the region of the greater Tunis. During the school year 2015-2016, the questionnaire was the subject of a statistical analysis using frequencies and percentages. Results: The analysis of such data revealed a range of practices about formative estimation among cooperative teachers. In particular, each teacher acknowledged the value of guiding and encouraging student’s self-assessment. So that they could lead their students to assume a share of evaluative activity. Conclusion: Both theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed, and some recommendations are made for future practice.

  20. When Corruption Gets in the Way: Befriending Diaspora and EU-nionizing Bosnia's Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabic-El-Rayess, Amra

    2013-01-01

    This article investigates the encounter of EU-unionization with a domesticated practice of corruption in Bosnian higher education. Relying on primary data collected in Bosnia's public higher education system, the study finds that the country's corrupt higher education is in conflict with the Bologna-themed reforms that would arguably help…

  1. Dynamic Relationship between Corruption and Youth Unemployment : Empirical Evidences from a System GMM Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Bouzid, Bechir N.

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses the causal relationship between corruption and youth unemployment from two different perspectives. The discussion starts by asking how the corruption practices within government institutions that encourage the payment of bribes to access the job opportunities contribute to reducing the efficiency of the resources (labor force) allocations. The resources are diverted fr...

  2. The Culture of Construction Organisations: the Epitome of Institutionalised Corruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Oyen Arewa

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The culture of an organisation is a vital element of business competency that must align with its strategic goals, and enhance peoples’ perceptions, feelings and behaviour in adapting to the world around them. Organisational culture may also bring about negative practices such as dishonesty and unethical behaviours. Recently the culture of some construction organisations has been called into question. For example, major construction projects around the globe have become involved in allegations of fraud and corruption. The cost is currently estimated at US$860 billion globally; with forecasts that it may rise to US$1.5 trillion by 2025. Hitherto the role of the culture of construction organisations in fraud and corruption activities has been largely hidden. The study aim is to establish whether the culture of construction organisations promotes corrupt practices in the UK construction and infrastructure sector. The study employed mixed research methods with interviews supported by a questionnaire and an examination of five case studies in different countries. Findings show that the culture of construction organisations together with the nature of the industry promotes fraud and corruption. The study subsequently highlights key cultural factors that support fraud and corruption in a way that is almost institutionalised.

  3. Corruption, regionalization and local governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuković Slobodan V.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Corruption is old almost as human societies and it was developed simultaneously with enlargement of social and political power, bureaucracy and involvement of the state into market transactions. Specific conditions that are characteristic of Serbian society and that have favorably influenced the growth of corruption are: dissolution/break up of Yugoslavia war in surroundings, economic sanctions and NATO bombing. Besides these basic causes of corruption in Serbia are state control over the economy, lack of the rule of law, and breakdown of social values, that is, anomy and poverty. The lack of the rule of law and the state control of economy, which often occur together, are older conditions, while distorted social values, that is, moral crisis and poverty are newer. Subordination of judicial system to the executive authorities enabled different sorts of bribe and corruption to be tolerated. Therefore, the corruption has spread and became contemporary method of conducting business and almost a common thing, regardless of the party composition of the authorities. This thesis is confirmed by the empirical data: 17.9% of citizens claim that all local officials and corrupted and 48.4% claim that majority of them are. On the other side, only 27.5% of citizens claim that local party officials (all of them or majority accept bribe, and 31.1% claim that only some do. Therefore, we are faced with higher interest in political engagement, because it is becoming a highly profitable occupation and posts in local government are highly appreciated because corruption profit is calculated in advance.

  4. Exploring healthcare communication models in private physiotherapy practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiller, Amy; Guillemin, Marilys; Delany, Clare

    2015-10-01

    This project explored whether models of healthcare communication are evident within patient-physiotherapist communication in the private practice setting. Using qualitative ethnographic methods, fifty-two patient-physiotherapist treatment sessions were observed and interviews with nine physiotherapists were undertaken. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis. In these clinical encounters physiotherapists led the communication. The communication was structured and focussed on physical aspects of the patient's presentation. These features were mediated via casual conversation and the use of touch to respond to the individual patient. Physiotherapists did not explicitly link their therapeutic communication style to established communication models. However, they described a purposeful approach to how they communicated within the treatment encounter. The communication occurring in the private practice physiotherapy treatment encounter is predominantly representative of a 'practitioner-centred' model. However, the subtle use of touch and casual conversation implicitly communicate competence and care, representative of a patient-centred model. Physiotherapists do not explicitly draw from theories of communication to inform their practice. Physiotherapists may benefit from further education to achieve patient-centred communication. Equally, the incorporation of casual conversation and the use of touch into theory of physiotherapy patient-centred communication would highlight these specific skills that physiotherapists already utilize in practice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Exploring nursing students’ experience of peer learning in clinical practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravanipour, Maryam; Bahreini, Masoud; Ravanipour, Masoumeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Peer learning is an educational process wherein someone of the same age or level of experience level interacts with other students interested in the same topic. There is limited evidence specifically focusing on the practical use of peer learning in Iran. The aim of this study was to explore nursing students’ experiences of peer learning in clinical practice. Materials and Methods: A qualitative content analysis was conducted. Focus groups were used to find the students’ experiences about peerlearning. Twenty-eight baccalaureate nursing students at Bushehr University of Medical Sciences were selected purposively, and were arranged in four groups of seven students each. The focus group interviews were conducted using a semi-structured interview schedule. All interviews were tape-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using conventional content analysis method. Results: The analysis identified four themes: Paradoxical dualism, peer exploitation, first learning efficacy, and socialization practice. Gained advantages and perceived disadvantages created paradoxical dualism, and peer exploitation resulted from peer selection and peer training. Conclusion: Nursing students reported general satisfaction concerning peer learning due to much more in-depth learning with little stress than conventional learning methods. Peer learning is a useful method for nursing students for practicing educational leadership and learning the clinical skills before they get a job. PMID:26097860

  6. Meaning Of The Term "Corruption Offense" As A Feature Of The Public Prosecutor's Supervision Over The Legislation On The Corruption Counteraction In The Municipal Governments Execution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kseniya D. Okuneva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present article theoretical and practical aspects of the corruption offense definition, which are being characteristic features of the methodology of prosecutorial supervision over the legislation on counteraction to corruption in local government are analyzed. Federal Law of Jan. 17, 1992 No. 2202-1 "On the Procuracy of the Russian Federation" (Article 21 establishes the public prosecutor's supervision over the legislation on combating corruption in local government execution, which is a special sub-cluster. On general terms of theoretical techniques of the prosecutor's supervision, taking into account its specific and complex nature of corruption prosecutors based activities in this area. Author emphasizes attention on characteristics of the corruption offense, as well as aspects of legal responsibility, which lie in the fact that it is applied in accordance with law to offender as measures of state coercion of personal, financial or organizational nature for the offense committed; responsibilities of the person, who committed the offense, to be subject to measures of state coercion. In the conclusion author notes that specifics of corruption offenses that are subject of prosecutorial supervision over the execution of legislation on combating corruption in local government is determined by the special status of the offense subjects, as well as the content of legal prohibitions and legal responsibilities in the field of ​​anti-corruption at the municipal level.

  7. THE INFLUENCE OF CORRUPTION ON CORPORATE GOVERNANCE STANDARDS: SHARED CHARACTERISTICS OF RAPIDLY DEVELOPING ECONOMIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle I. Caron

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article evaluates the relationship between the level of corruption in rapidly developing economies and corporate governance processes therein.  Previous literature illustrates a strong relationship between corporate governance and corruption and suggests that in countries with high levels of corruption, firms lack efficient corporate governance practices.  Similarly, countries with deficient corporate governance practices and low levels of compliance to these standards breed corruption leading to a wide range of transparency dilemmas.  This study delves deeper through careful examination regarding the level of compliance with corporate governance standards and the pervasive effects of corruption on the governance processes of firms with specific regard to rapidly developing economies as well as offering comparisons and similarities of shared characteristics among these countries.

  8. Exploring Teacher Beliefs and Classroom Practices through Reflective Practice: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Thomas S. C.; Ives, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a case study that explored and reflected on the relationship between the stated beliefs and observed classroom practices of one second language reading teacher. The findings of this study revealed that this particular teacher holds complex beliefs about teaching reading that were evident to some extent in many of his…

  9. Research as a Respectful Practice: An Exploration of the Practice of Respect in Qualitative Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Grady, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the practice of respect within qualitative research methods. As interpersonal respect plays a significant role in the esteem felt within a relationship, it can also serve to cultivate trust between researchers and their participants in a research study. This article details the findings of a research study examining respect…

  10. Exploring Practical Responses of M3LC for Learning Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrullah; Baharman

    2018-01-01

    This study aims to explore the responses of participants toward Mathematics-Language Literacy Learning Courseware (M3LC) for learning literacy. There are five practical aspects concerned by involving 30 participants in the focus group discussion. In the beginning, participants were given some response sheet and introduced to M3LC by watching learning video of M3LC. At the end, they were asked to concern about response sheet and give comments related what they saw during the introduction session. The results show that the responses of users’ agree and strongly agree are still higher than those of users’ disagree or strongly disagree, with below 30% of responses are in the fair category. It means that the participants tend to give a positive opinion that M3LC is a useful courseware since it is qualified to satisfy 5 practical aspects, including knowledge use, knowledge construction, evaluation practice, social programming, and valuing to support literacy learning. In future, the implementation of using this courseware can be enhanced to further recognition of literacy level so that students can be well-prepared before starting learning activities in the classroom.

  11. Divorce and Corruption: New Study, New Data

    OpenAIRE

    Kodila-Tedika, Oasis; Azia-Dimbu, Florentin; Kalemasi-Mosengo, Cedrick

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims at identifying the effects of divorce alongside on corruption controlling. We find no significant effect of divorce on corruption. The same conclusion is found in cross-section and panel data.

  12. HOW DOES CORRUPTION AFFECTS HEALTHCARE SECTOR IN BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan Deliversky

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Corruption in the healthcare sector is a reflection of the structural challenges in the health care system. The problem of corruption in healthcare is of a multidimensional nature. The Bulgarian health care system is based on a regulated regime. On one hand there is the functioning of a state-owned and state-controlled health fund financed through obligatory contributions by all income earners, and on the other, a union of health providers that negotiate a national framework health contract with the fund. Causes of corruption are classified as different factors such as structural factors and government policies factors. The health sector is susceptible to corruption for various reasons, mostly related to its organization. The health sector is a complex sector. In order to be effective, reforms to combat corruption must be informed by theory, guided by evidence and adapted to context. It is necessary to review and develop diagnostic and treatment algorithms as standards of good medical practice, which would help to assess the package of medical and non-medical activities.

  13. Social impacts of corruption upon community resilience and poverty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Lewis

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Corruption at all levels of all societies is a behavioural consequence of power and greed. With no rulebook, corruption is covert, opportunistic, repetitive and powerful, reliant upon dominance, fear and unspoken codes: a significant component of the ‘quiet violence’. Descriptions of financial corruption in China, Italy and Africa lead into a discussion of ‘grand’, ‘political’ and ‘petty’ corruption. Social consequences are given emphasis but elude analysis; those in Bangladesh and the Philippines are considered against prerequisites for resilience. People most dependent upon self-reliance are most prone to its erosion by exploitation, ubiquitous impediments to prerequisites of resilience – latent abilities to ‘accommodate and recover’ and to ‘change in order to survive’. Rarely spoken of to those it does not dominate, for long-term effectiveness, sustainability and reliability, eradication of corrupt practices should be prerequisite to initiatives for climate change, poverty reduction, disaster risk reduction and resilience.

  14. Misery, Corruption, and Presidential Approval

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosas, Guillermo; Manzetti, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    This is a guest post by Guillermo Rosas and Luigi Manzetti. It summarizes their recent paper, ‘Reassessing the trade-off hypothesis: How misery drives the corruption effect on presidential approval’ that was published in Electoral Studies, Volume 39, September 2015, pp. 26–38.......This is a guest post by Guillermo Rosas and Luigi Manzetti. It summarizes their recent paper, ‘Reassessing the trade-off hypothesis: How misery drives the corruption effect on presidential approval’ that was published in Electoral Studies, Volume 39, September 2015, pp. 26–38....

  15. Corruption, fraud and internal control

    OpenAIRE

    Luminiţa IONESCU

    2010-01-01

    The economic crunch created a specific context for activity and profitability failing. The corruption is more and more common in our days. In the same time, the amount of money lost by businesses and the public sector to larger frauds increased last year to unthinkable limits. The shareholders expect the directors to take care to protect their company’s assets. This is why the financial controller has a very important role in each organization. The techniques to detect corruption or a fraud a...

  16. Corruption in cyclone preparedness and relief efforts in coastal Bangladesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahmud, Tanvir; Prowse, Martin

    2012-01-01

    This article seeks to draw possible lessons for adaptation programmes in Bangladesh by examining whether cyclone preparedness and relief interventions are subject to corrupt practices. Based on a random sample survey of 278 households, three focus-group discussions and seven key-informant...

  17. Corporate reporting on corruption: an international comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Barkemeyer, Ralf; Preuss, Lutz; Lee, Lindsay

    2015-01-01

    Building on an institutionalist framework of the various organizational field-level pressures on firms to engage with the challenge of corruption, we analyse anti-corruption disclosures across a sample of 933 sustainability reports. Such reporting complements anti-corruption initiatives, as it allows the company to demonstrate its commitment. Our results show clear country- and sector-level differences in the extent to which companies communicate their anti-corruption engagement. However, the...

  18. Corruption, Political Connections, and Municipal Finance

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander W. Butler; Larry Fauver; Sandra Mortal

    2009-01-01

    We show that state corruption and political connections have strong effects on municipal bond sales and underwriting. Higher state corruption is associated with greater credit risk and higher bond yields. Corrupt states can eliminate the corruption yield penalty by purchasing credit enhancements. Underwriting fees were significantly higher during an era when underwriters made political contributions to win underwriting business. This pay-to-play underwriting fee premium exists only for negoti...

  19. Corruption and Firm Growth: Evidence from China

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Y.; You, J.

    2012-01-01

    Corruption is one of the most pervasive obstacles to economic and social development. However, in the existing literature it appears that corruption seems to be less harmful in some countries than in others. The most striking examples are well known as the "East Asian paradox": countries displaying exceptional growth records despite having thriving corruption cultures. The aim of this paper is to explain the high corruption but fast economic growth puzzle in China by providing firm-level evid...

  20. Between two evils: Investors prefer grand corruption!

    OpenAIRE

    Graf Lambsdorff, Johann

    2005-01-01

    Recent empirical studies claim that, in addition to levels of corruption, investors are deterred by its unpredictability. I claim instead that it is petty corruption that deters investors. I employ seven subcomponents of corruption for a sample of 102 countries that appear in the 2003 Global Competitiveness Report of the WEF. The second principal component of this data depicts a grand, political type, embracing corruption in government policymaking and in judicial decisions as opposed to corr...

  1. Deciding over nature: Corruption and environmental impact assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, Aled; Dupuy, Kendra

    2017-01-01

    Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs) are an important analytic tool for identifying and potentially mitigating project risks and negative environmental and societal impacts. Their usefulness, however, depends on how they are implemented and on whether findings are used in public decision-making. Given the notorious vulnerability of public-private interactions to corrupt practices, we examine potential and actual corruption risks across four stages of a generic EIA process. Combined with case analysis of the EIA process in Albania, a Southeastern European context experiencing serious governance challenges, we reflect on the vulnerabilities of EIAs to various forms of corruption from a principal-agent perspective. We concur with earlier research suggesting that the fundamentally rationalist approach behind EIAs do not necessarily match the empirical realities of public environmental decision-making, particularly in less mature EIA systems. We conclude with suggestions for framing a future research agenda in this area and touch on tentative policy remedies.

  2. Corruption, political culture and negative social capital in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Baquero

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the problems in strengthening Brazilian democracy has been the endurance of continued corruption on the part of state officials. The result has been the institutionalization of a political culture, which shows a growing alienation, and apathy of citizens regarding politics. This behavior has its origins in citizens´ perception that the state and public authorities cannot be trusted producing an inertial democracy with low stocks of social capital. The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between corruption practices by state authorities and the structuring of a defective political culture in Brazil. The working hypothesis is that serious cases of institutionalized corruption are possible due to invisible social ties created among public authorities, producing social capital of a negative nature, which constraints the effective advancements in Brazilian democracy.

  3. Should Corrupt Countries receive Budget Support?

    OpenAIRE

    Kolstad, Ivar

    2005-01-01

    Corruption makes budget support ineffective, and sometimes counter-productive. Budget support is particularly unsuitable in partner countries where political corruption is rampant. As donors increase budget support, it is a paradox that corruption is not more of an issue in evaluations and public financial management assessment methods.

  4. The Cost of Corruption in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyneman, Stephen P.; Anderson, Kathryn H.; Nuraliyeva, Nazym

    2008-01-01

    Corruption was symptomatic of business and government interactions in Russia and other countries of the former Soviet Union before and during the economic transition of the 1990s. Corruption is difficult to quantify, but the perception of corruption is quantifiable. Nations can even be arranged along a hierarchy by the degree to which they are…

  5. Corruption: How should Christians respond? | Theron | Acta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results of the 2010 Corruption Perceptions Index of Transparency International indicate the seriousness of the worldwide corruption problem. Although recent decades have witnessed a global public awareness and an increase in attempts to eradicate corruption, it is an ongoing problem. It is evident that legislation is ...

  6. A principal-agent Model of corruption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenendijk, Nico

    1997-01-01

    One of the new avenues in the study of political corruption is that of neo-institutional economics, of which the principal-agent theory is a part. In this article a principal-agent model of corruption is presented, in which there are two principals (one of which is corrupting), and one agent (who is

  7. The Efficiency of Repressive Anti-Corruption Measures in Conditions of High-Level Corruption

    OpenAIRE

    Abramov Fedir V.

    2017-01-01

    The article is aimed at determining the efficiency of repressive anti-corruption measures in conditions of high-level corruption. It is shown that the formal rules regulating the use of repressive methods of countering corruption are characterized by a significant level of the target inefficiency of formal rules. Resulting from ignorance as to the causes of both occurence and spread of corruption – the inefficiency of the current formal rules – repressive anti-corruption measures are fundamen...

  8. A Good Turn Deserves Another: Political Stability, Corruption and Corruption-Control

    OpenAIRE

    Simplice A Asongu

    2015-01-01

    We build on existing literature and contemporary challenges to African development to assess the role of political stability in fighting corruption and boosting corruption-control in 53 African countries for the period 1996-2010. We postulate that on the one hand, an atmosphere of political instability should increase the confidence of impunity owing to less corruption-control. On the other hand, in the absence such impunity from corruption, political instability further fuels corruption. Our...

  9. Playful Collaborative Exploration: New Research Practice in Participatory Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Johansson

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Within the Participatory Design community as well as the Computer Supported Cooperative Work tradition, a lot of effort has been put into the question of letting field studies inform design. In this paper, we describe how game-like approaches can be used as a way of exploring a practice from a design point of view. Thinking of ethnographic fieldwork as a base for sketching, rather than descriptions, creates openness that invites collaborative authoring. The concept of playful collaborative exploration suggests certain ways of interacting with material from field studies so that it becomes a design material for an open-ended design process. We have carried out field studies, transformed the field material into design material, and set up a design game for working with it together with the people we followed in the field. The design game builds on an idea about the power of narratives and the benefits of constraining rules. We believe that this framework for collaboration opens for playfulness, experimentation, and new design ideas.

  10. Developing and implementing an anti-corruption ethics and compliance programme in the African environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Ndedi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the development and implementation of anti-corruption ethics and compliance programme in the African business environment. In the past decade, an international legal framework has been developed to tackle corruption both in public and private sectors. This framework includes the United Nations Convention against Corruption (UNCAC, which entered into force in 2005, and the Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions, which entered into force in 1999. These instruments mandate that State Parties must criminalise and punish a variety of corrupt practices. Relevant domestic laws have a direct impact on business, especially in States Parties instruments that require the establishment of liability of legal persons for corrupt acts. The African Union Convention also requires States Parties to establish mechanisms to encourage participation by the private sector in the fight against unfair competition, respect of the tender procedures and property rights. The paper details various steps needed to efficiently and effectively implement anti-corruption ethics and compliance programme in the African context. The first part of the paper develops the primary objective of the corruption risk assessment which is to better understand the risk exposure so that informed risk management decisions may be taken. A structured approach for how enterprises could conduct an anti-corruption risk assessment will be outlined in this first section. The author argued in this same first section that each enterprise’s own risk assessment exercise is unique, depending on that enterprise’s industry, size, location, and other factors inherent to that organisation. The second part of the paper drafts the development and the implementation of an anti-corruption programme. The paper concludes by stating that an anti-corruption and compliance programme is not a panacea for fighting all the ills on

  11. Exploring extended scope of practice in dietetics: A systems approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Dominique; Pelly, Fiona; Purcell, Elizabeth

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to explore health professionals' perceptions of an extended scope of a practice clinic, and develop a framework using a systems approach to facilitate extended scope models across various health settings. A qualitative investigation using semi-structured interviews with four health professionals involved in an extended scope dietitian-led gastroenterology clinic in a hospital in regional Queensland was conducted. A case study design was utilised to investigate interviewees' perceptions of the clinic. Participants were conveniently, purposively sampled. Transcript analysis involved a descriptive analytical approach. Interviewee responses were coded and categorised into themes, and investigator triangulation was used to ensure consistency between individual analyses. A secondary interpretative analysis was conducted where relationships between key themes were mapped to the Systems Engineering Initiative for Patient Safety work system model. Interviewees identified various factors as vital inputs to the work system. These were categorised into the four key elements: stakeholder support, resources, planning and the dietitian. Clinic outcomes were categorised into the impact on four key groups: patients, the dietitian, the multidisciplinary team and the health system. Mapping of the relationships between inputs and outcomes resulted in an implementation framework for extended scope of practice. Extended scope of practice in dietetics may provide positive outcomes for various stakeholders. However, further development of extended scope roles for dietitians requires increased advocacy and support from governments, professional bodies, training institutions and dietitians. We have developed an implementation framework which can be utilised by health professionals interested in embracing an extended scope model of care. © 2016 Dietitians Association of Australia.

  12. Ethics and health promotion practice: exploring attitudes and practices in Western Australian health organisations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, T; Crawford, G; Lobo, R; Leavy, J; Jancey, J

    2016-04-01

    Issue addressed Evidence-informed practice underpinned by ethics is fundamental to developing the science of health promotion. Knowledge and application of ethical principles are competencies required for health promotion practice. However, these competencies are often inconsistently understood and applied. This research explored attitudes, practices, enablers and barriers related to ethics in practice in Western Australian health organisations. Methods Semistructured, in-depth interviews were conducted with 10 health promotion practitioners, purposefully selected to provide a cross-section of government and non-government organisations. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and then themed. Results The majority of participants reported consideration of ethics in their practice; however, only half reported seeking Human Research Ethics Committee (HREC) approval for projects in the past 12 months. Enablers identified as supporting ethics in practice and disseminating findings included: support preparing ethics applications; resources and training about ethical practice; ability to access HRECs for ethics approval; and a supportive organisational culture. Barriers included: limited time; insufficient resourcing and capacity; ethics approval not seen as part of core business; and concerns about academic writing. Conclusion The majority of participants were aware of the importance of ethics in practice and the dissemination of findings. However, participants reported barriers to engaging in formal ethics processes and to publishing findings. So what? Alignment of evidence-informed and ethics-based practice is critical. Resources and information about ethics may be required to support practice and encourage dissemination of findings, including in the peer-reviewed literature. Investigating the role of community-based ethics boards may be valuable to bridging the ethics-evidence gap.

  13. Combating corruption in global health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Tim K; Kohler, Jillian; Lewis, Maureen; Vian, Taryn

    2017-08-09

    Corruption is a critical challenge to global health efforts, and combating it requires international action, advocacy, and research. Copyright © 2017 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  14. Fighting corruption in tactical procurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Obanda Wanyama, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Vast amount of public resources are spent on procurement. Effective public procurement yields additional budget space, hence it ought to be conducted with due diligence. However, public procurement most especially tactical procurement in local governments in Uganda is vulnerable to corruption. In

  15. Harassment, corruption and tax policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mukherjee, A.

    2000-01-01

    This paper introduces ‘harassment’ in a model of bribery and corruption. We characterize the harassment equilibrium and show that taxpayers, with all possible levels of income, participate in such equilibrium. Harassment has a regressive bias. Harassment costs as such may not affect tax revenue.

  16. Provincial corruption and local development bank performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murharsito Murharsito

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effect of provincial corruption on the performance of local development bank, specifically to the profitability and credit quality. We use the data of 26 local development banks in 2012 and 2013. For the provincial corruption measurement we use “Public Institution Openness Index”. Results of this study are first, corruption significantly has a negative effect on the profitability of local development bank. Second, corruption doesn’t affect the credit quality of local development bank. These results are expected to enrich the within country corruption effect to the economic studies, particularly to the local development bank which is infrequently investigated.

  17. The Road to Bribery and Corruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köbis, Nils C; van Prooijen, Jan-Willem; Righetti, Francesca; Van Lange, Paul A M

    2017-03-01

    Major forms of corruption constitute a strong threat to the functioning of societies. The most frequent explanation of how severe corruption emerges is the slippery-slope metaphor-the notion that corruption occurs gradually. While having widespread theoretical and intuitive appeal, this notion has barely been tested empirically. We used a recently developed paradigm to test whether severely corrupt acts happen gradually or abruptly. The results of four experimental studies revealed a higher likelihood of severe corruption when participants were directly given the opportunity to engage in it (abrupt) compared with when they had previously engaged in minor forms of corruption (gradual). Neither the size of the payoffs, which we kept constant, nor evaluations of the actions could account for these differences. Contrary to widely shared beliefs, sometimes the route to corruption leads over a steep cliff rather than a slippery slope.

  18. Corruption: Engineers are Victims, Perpetrators or Both?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecujlija, M; Cosic, I; Nesic-Grubic, L; Drobnjak, S

    2015-08-01

    This study was conducted in Serbian companies on licensed engineers and in its first part included a total of 336 licensed engineers who voluntarily completed the questionnaires about their ethical orientation and attitudes toward corruption and in the second part 214 engineers who participated in the first survey, who voluntarily evaluated their company's business operations characteristics. This study has clearly shown that there is a direct significant influence of the engineer's ethical orientations and attitudes toward corruption on their evaluation of the characteristics of their respective companies regarding business operations. This research also clearly shows that only engineers with a strong deontological orientation, low ethical subjectivity, and strong readiness to fight corruption, low corruption acceptance and high awareness of corruption can successfully fight corruption, improve the business operations of their companies and make beneficial changes to society. Otherwise, they should be considered as corruption perpetrators, not just as its victims.

  19. THE OPAQUE PORTRAIT OF CORRUPTION ERADICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwan Mas

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The war against corruption should not only by exposing the various cases of corruption, but the most important thing is to punish the corrupt in an extraordinary way to have a deterrent effect and not replicable by potential criminals that have been queued. Corruption is more structured and systematic, from the center to the regions. In fact, gave birth to a new generation of fat accounts with the discovery of a number of civil servants who are still young. Stop the robbery of money the state cannot just with rhetoric, let alone just a call that seemed hot chicken droppings. Blurred portrait of corruption is characterized by a large number of cases the defendant is acquitted of corruption Anticorruption Court. Similarly, many major cases involving alleged power elite and the ruling political party that is not completed, such as the Bank Century case, the case Hambalang project, as well as allegations of corruption Pensions SEA Games athletes

  20. The Efficiency of Repressive Anti-Corruption Measures in Conditions of High-Level Corruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abramov Fedir V.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at determining the efficiency of repressive anti-corruption measures in conditions of high-level corruption. It is shown that the formal rules regulating the use of repressive methods of countering corruption are characterized by a significant level of the target inefficiency of formal rules. Resulting from ignorance as to the causes of both occurence and spread of corruption – the inefficiency of the current formal rules – repressive anti-corruption measures are fundamentally incapable of achieving a significant reduction in the level of corruptness. It has been proved that, in addition to significant target inefficiency, repressive anti-corruption methods can potentially lead to increased levels of corruption because of abusing by supervisory officials of their official duties and the spread of internal corruption within anti-corruption structures. The potential threats from the uncontrolled anti-corruption structures towards other controlling organizations were considered. It is shown that in conditions of high-level corruption repressive anti-corruption measures can lead to expansion of imitation of anti-corruption activity.

  1. BUSINESS-TO-BUSINESS CORRUPTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Georgieva Hadzi Krsteski

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The business corruption is established and active in the circle of the businesses partners that express a gratitude, return a service or bribes (apart from ordinary price for a business transfer to be provided. Those prohibited transfers differs from the usual business transfers, such as activities related to marketing and public relations where they have a specific goal to use illegal means in order to infringe the recipients` identity of prohibited value in an interchange for a inducement. That is a procedure of enticement, which prevents the useful instruments in the permitted bazaar and not solitary that it is harmful for the businesses whose representatives accept bribe, however it is also harmful for the civilisation as an entire. The occurrence of business corruption is intended as a amount of companies that presented cash, a gratitude or a service in return, in adding to every usual deal of any person who is working for a business entity from the private sector in any capacity, including the one through a mediator, happening to at minimum single juncture in the past 12 months previous to this research. The usual commonness of the business-to-corruption in the Republic of Macedonia is 3% compared to 4% at a regional level. While it is fewer than the regular pervasiveness of salaried briberies by enterprises to civic bureaucrats, this discovery designates that bribery in the secluded segment is a difficult in the Republic of Macedonia.

  2. [The prevention of corruption].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintaliani, Vito; Quintaliani, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    The escalation of the crisis between society and administration had a negative impact on public administration, as highlighted by criminal acts (bribery, extortion, abuse of power). Other consequences of this crisis have been the bad administration phenomena, such as delays in carrying out the practices, lack of attention to people's questions and failure to comply with working hours. These phenomena culminate in treating people without due respect and necessary kindness. In this context, the so-called applied ethics has developed, consisting of the construction of rules for moral behaviour, adapted to particular fields as well as to the public.

  3. The power that corrupts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackith, R.E.

    1976-01-01

    This book sets out the case against nuclear power for Ireland, North and South. It is not a technical book; the issues involved are only partly technical, their more important content is social and moral. Because the Irish Electricity Supply Board have put American Light Water Reactors on top of their shopping list and because the French have discovered what such purchases mean in practice special emphasis is laid on recent French experience. A comprehensive list of references to literature critical of the use of nuclear power is given at the end of the book

  4. Relationship between collectivism and corruption in American and Chinese books: A historical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongshuai; Tan, Xuyun; Huang, Zhenwei; Liu, Li

    2017-07-13

    Previous research on the relationship between collectivism and corruption has not investigated their co-variation over time. In this study, we use Google Ngram Viewer to track the frequency of words related to collectivism and corruption in American books (1800-2000) and in Chinese Books (1970-2008). The results demonstrate that a positive association between the usage of these terms during the periods in both Chinese and American books, with changes in words related to collectivism preceding changes in words related to corruption in American books. The theoretical and practical implications are also discussed. © 2017 International Union of Psychological Science.

  5. [Sponsorship, conflict of interest and corruption: promoting science in discussion of medical ethics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frewer, A

    2002-01-01

    Even in health care systems corruption is an increasing problem. Since the German Anti-Corruption-Law (1997) the areas of financial support, sponsoring and corruption in medicine are analyzed much more intensively. This article sketches the crucial points of the debate on medical funding and shows the consequences of the new jurisdiction. Most important is the balance between a transparent documentation and a too-far-reaching bureaucracy, which hinders medical research. Finally, this article presents core principles as helpful rules in practice.

  6. Education corruption, reform, and growth: Case of Post-Soviet Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ararat L. Osipian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates a possible impact of education corruption on economic growth in Russia. It argues that high levels of education corruption may harm total factor productivity in the long run, primarily through lowering the level of human capital and slowing down the pace of its accumulation. Ethical standards learned in the process of training in universities can also affect the standards of practice in different professions. The growing level of economic productivity is not likely to reduce education corruption in the short run, but can eventually lead to implementation of higher ethical standards in the education sector.

  7. Corruption in Higher Education: Conceptual Approaches and Measurement Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osipian, Ararat L.

    2007-01-01

    Corruption is a complex and multifaceted phenomenon. Forms of corruption are multiple. Measuring corruption is necessary not only for getting ideas about the scale and scope of the problem, but for making simple comparisons between the countries and conducting comparative analysis of corruption. While the total impact of corruption is indeed…

  8. On the new directions of criminological monitoring of corruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elina L. Sidorenko

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective to broaden the knowledge of the criminological nature of corruption on the basis methods of mathematical analysis and modeling of social processes and phenomena. Methods in addition to the dialectical and systematic methods the author uses a combination of specific scientific techniques the sociological method the method of content analysis factor analysis mathematical modeling etc. Results in this work the author substantiates the necessity to develop corruptiometrics as a new direction of criminological research oriented towards the search of systemic connections between bribery and socioeconomic conditions. Corruption in Russia is considered in a sociological aspect shown to be dependent on the level of material welfare of population consumer expectations entrepreneurial activity unemployment rate etc. In addition systemic relationship between the level of bribery the size and structure of the state apparatus was revealed the close links between the various corruption crimes were shown. Scientific novelty for the first time in domestic criminology the study presents the correlation analysis of bribery as a social phenomenon defines the instrumental value of mathematical methods for statistical array investigation. In addition the presented article is the original presentation of the author39s model of corruption monitoring focused on the search for the causes of the statistical reduction of bribery. Practical significance the possibility to using the findings and conclusions as part of the development of new methods of corruption assessment and prediction in the practical activity of prevention subjects in anticorruption expertise of normative legal acts in research activities and work to improve the skills of law enforcement officers. nbsp

  9. Exploring Practice-Research Networks for Critical Professional Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleby, Yvon; Hillier, Yvonne

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the contribution that practice-research networks can make to support critical professional development in the Learning and Skills sector in England. By practice-research networks we mean groups or networks which maintain a connection between research and professional practice. These networks stem from the philosophy of…

  10. Public Debt, Corruption and Sustainable Economic Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunji Kim

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available There are many studies that look into the relationship between public debt and economic growth. It is hard to find, however, research addressing the role of corruption between these two variables. Noticing this vacancy in current literature, we strive to investigate the effect of corruption on the relationship between public debt and economic growth. For this purpose, the pooled ordinary least squares (OLS, fixed effects models and the dynamic panel generalized method of moments (GMM models (Arellano-Bond, 1991 are estimated with data of 77 countries from 1990 to 2014. The empirical results show that the interaction term between public debt and corruption is statistically significant. This confirms the hypothesis that the effect of public debt on economic growth is a function of corruption. The sign of the marginal effect is negative in corrupt countries, but public debt enhances economic growth within countries that are not corrupt, i.e., highly transparent.

  11. Humane Orientation and Corruption in Bank Lending

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siwapong Dheera-aumpon

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Corruption in bank lending can seriously adversely affect credit allocation. Besides banking factors, national culture can also affect the corruption of bank officials. Prior studies have shown that collectivism increases bank corruption. This paper aims to assess the effects of cultural dimensions, besides collectivism, on the corruption of bank officials. Instead of using Hofstede's cultural data, this paper uses the data from the GLOBE project which is more recent and reports more cultural dimensions than Hofstede’s. Using the data covering more than 3000 firms in 32 countries, this paper finds that humane orientation increases the corruption of bank officials. The effect of humane orientation on the corruption of bank officials is not only statistically significant but also economically relevant. The magnitude of its effect is relatively comparable to that of collectivism.

  12. Local Level Perception of Corruption: An Anthropological Inquiry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sewanta Kattel

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The underlying problem of corruption in Nepal at the micro level stems from the 'capture' of the sustainable number of the policies and implementing rules and regulations of the different laws by vested interests. The long standing collusion between political parties and government officials has resulted in a destructed economy that favors private economic interests over the broader public goods. The situation is compounded by the patterns of non transparent and illegitimate practice that sustain the culture of corruption. Sources of income for individual and employees are unregulated and often arbitrarily determined through the patronage system that is link to the culture of silence underpinning such patronage. The role of civil society is to controlling corruption by working at the grass roots political and bureaucratic, and legal judicial level. Key words: Civil society; problem; power; judicial; corruption DOI: 10.3126/dsaj.v3i0.2785 Dhaulagiri Journal of Sociology and Anthropology Vol.3 2009 163-174

  13. Topical legal aspects of corruption counteraction in public procurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr Igorevich Zemlin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective to analyze the current developments in the Russian legislation on corruption counteraction and the legislation on public procurement system on this basis to study legal conflicts and gaps and to develop proposals under the provisions of the National AntiCorruption Plan for 2014ndash2015. Methods historical formallegal logical and systemicfunctional structural and contextual approach to the study of law and theoretical propositions concerning the definition nature and characteristics of legal relations arising in the process of and relating to the corruption counteraction in the public procurement system. Results аn aggregate of theoretical conclusions and proposals aimed at perfection of anticorruption legislation and legislation on the contractual public procurement system is presented. Scientific novelty the results of the author39s interpretation of changes in the Russian anticorruption legislation and legislation on the contractual public procurement system existing legal conflicts and gaps. Practical significance developing proposals for improving the standards of anticorruption legislation and legislation on public procurement system under the provisions of the National AntiCorruption Plan for 2014ndash2015. nbsp

  14. Opportunities for corruption across Flood Disaster Management (FDM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordin, R. Mohd; Latip, E.; Zawawi, E. M. Ahmad; Ismail, Z.

    2018-02-01

    Flood is one of the major disasters in the world. Despite flood resulted in loss of life and damaged properties, it naturally imparts people to assist the victims that affected by the disaster. Malaysia has experienced many serious flooding events and proper flood disaster management need to be developed and adopted occasionally. Flood Disaster Management (FDM) seemed to be not working effectively especially during the Kelantan prodigious flood in December 2014. There were negative perceptions among victims and Malaysian citizens regarding the disaster management and government authorities in relation to corrupt practices. The FDM can be divided into four phases (i.e., prevention, preparedness, response and recovery) which undoubtedly corruption is perceived to exists in every phase. The aim of this study is to identify opportunities of corruption across FDM phases. The study presents a case study of Kelantan using the quantitative research approach which utilises questionnaire with government and private agencies. Further to that, this paper proved that opportunities for corruption may occur at every phase, undoubtedly response and recovery phase especially activities involving fund and donation are riskier. The findings are hoped to assist in developing an improved FDM in term of increased transparency.

  15. Practical measures to promote exploration in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohall, H.M.

    1991-01-01

    Since 1950, Pakistan has gone through several phases of hydrocarbon exploration, but despite our geologically prospective areas, our discovery and development of substantial reserves, and our existing infrastructure facilities, exploration has been limited. We attribute this limited exploration to the absence of long-term gas-development strategies, to the gas-price formula, and to legislative and contractual frameworks for concession agreements in use for most of our exploration history. This paper examines Pakistan's exploration history and reveals current gas-development strategies. It also discusses the revised pricing formula and legislation to benefit other developing countries that are in similar situations and want to accelerate the pace of their exploration activities

  16. Corruption and growth in developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Lacroix, Jean

    2013-01-01

    Corruption is morally condemnable but what about its economical effect on the efficiency of on economy? Different transmission channels positively and negatively correlated with growth exist. The aim of this work is to catch the overall reality behind this impressively high number of transmission channels. Another task is to show the concrete consequences of corruption on a little economy like Haïti and what could be the consequences of the weaknesses induced by corruption. A presentation of ...

  17. Democracy, property rights, income equality, and corruption

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Bin; Torgler, Benno

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents theoretical and empirical evidence on the nexus between corruption and democracy. We establish a political economy model where the effect of democracy on corruption is conditional on income distribution and property rights protection. Our empirical analysis with cross-national panel data provides evidence that is consistent with the theoretical prediction. Moreover, the effect of democratization on corruption depends on the protection of property rights and income equality...

  18. Transparency and corruption: an optimal taxation policy

    OpenAIRE

    Jellal, Mohamed; Bouzahzah, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    Under Principal-Agent-Supervisor paradigm, we examine in this paper how a tax collection agency changes optimal schemes in order to lessen the occurrence of corruption between the tax collector and the taxpayer. Indeed, the Principal, who maximizes the expected net fiscal revenue, reacts by decreasing tax rates when the supervisor is likely to engage in corrupt transaction with taxpayer. Therefore, the optimal policy against collusion and corruption may explain the rational of the greater rel...

  19. Bureaucratic Corruption and Profit Tax Evasion

    OpenAIRE

    Laszlo Goerke

    2006-01-01

    Firms may evade taxes on profits and can also avoid fulfilling legal restrictions on production activities by bribing bureaucrats. It is shown that the existence of tax evasion does not affect corruption activities at the firm level, while the budgetary repercussions of tax evasion induce less corruption. Policy measures which alter the gains or losses from corruption have a non-systematic impact on tax evasion behaviour.

  20. Four Essays on Corruption and Cooperation

    OpenAIRE

    Schikora, Jan

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation contains four separate studies in the fields of corruption and cooperation. The first chapter explicates the mechanism that links the fractionalization of society with its level of corruption within a theoretical model of relational contracting. The other three chapters describe experimental studies. The second and third chapters evaluate two popular anti-corruption policies, the ‘Four-Eyes-Principle’ and ‘Whistle- Blowing’, with respect to their effectiveness in decreasing ...

  1. Corruption in India: Causes and Remedial Measures

    OpenAIRE

    Ghulam Nabi Naz

    2017-01-01

    After independence, the popular belief that Gandhian will not indulge in corruption got a setback, post-independence setup paved the way for heavy corruption. The menace which would have dealt with strong legal provisions has become a way of life of Indian society. Corruption is recognized as the single biggest problem facing the country today. It undermines democracy and rule of law, violates human rights, distorts market and corrodes the moral fibre of people. The paper discusses the causes...

  2. Corruption and Development: A Review of Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Pranab Bardhan

    1997-01-01

    In this paper we start with a discussion of some of the different denotations of the problem of corruption. We then consider the ways in which the damaging consequences of corruption operate in a developing economy, while not ignoring its possible redeeming features in some cases. We pursue the question of why corruption is perceptibly so different in different societies and also persistent. Finally, we examine the feasible policy issues that arise in this context.

  3. Fighting corruption in Africa: do existing corruption-control levels matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Simplice A, Asongu

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – Are there different determinants in the fight against corruption across African countries? Why are some countries more effective at battling corruption than others? To assess these concerns we examine the determinants of corruption-control throughout the conditional distribution of the fight against corruption using panel data from 46 African countries for the period 2002-2010. Design/methodology/approach – The panel quantile regression technique enables us to investigate if ...

  4. Corruption as an Obstacle for Doing Business in the Western Balkans: A Business Sector Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Jelena Budak; Edo Rajh

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates business people’s perceptions of corruption as an obstacle for doing business and their attitudes towards corruption. It is based on a survey conducted on the sample of over 1800 business owners and managers in the Western Balkans region. Using the original survey data collected in 2010 for seven countries – Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Kosovo, FYR Macedonia, Montenegro and Serbia – the paper explores business people’s views on the ways in which the busine...

  5. Sick regimes and sick people: a multilevel investigation of the population health consequences of perceived national corruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witvliet, Margot I; Kunst, Anton E; Arah, Onyebuchi A; Stronks, Karien

    2013-10-01

    There is a paucity of empirical work on the potential population health impact of living under a regime marred by corruption. African countries differ in the extent of national corruption, and we explore whether perceived national corruption is associated with population health across all rungs of society. World Health Survey data were analysed on 72 524 adults from 20 African countries. The main outcome was self-reported poor general health. Multilevel logistic regression was used to assess the association between poor health and perceived corruption, while jointly accounting for individual- and country-level human development factors. In this research, we use Transparency International's corruption perception index (CPI), which measures 'both administrative and political corruption' on a 0-10 scale. A higher score pertains to a higher rate of perceived corruption within society. We also examined effect modification by gender, age and socio-economic status. Higher national corruption perception was consistently associated with an increase in poor health prevalence, also after multivariable adjustments, with odds ratio (OR) of 1.62 (95% CI: 1.01-2.60). Stratified analyses by age and gender suggested this same pattern in all subgroups. Positive associations between poor health and perceived corruption were evident in all socio-economic groups, with the association being somewhat more positive among less educated people (OR = 1.61, 95% CI: 1.01-2.58) than among more educated people (OR = 1.40, 95% CI: 0.83-2.37). This study is a cautious first step in empirically testing the general health consequences of corruption. Our results suggest that higher perceived national corruption is associated with general health of both men and women within all socio-economic groups across the lifespan. Further research is needed using more countries to assess the magnitude of the health consequences of corruption. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. AIDS NGOS and corruption in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Daniel Jordan

    2012-05-01

    Using two ethnographic case studies, the intersecting dynamics of inequality, morality, and corruption are examined as they play out in Nigerian AIDS NGOs. To the Nigerian public, local AIDS organizations are widely seen as conduits for corruption. But local opinions of particular NGOs and their leaders turn less on whether donor resources were misused and more on the ways that people who accumulate the benefits of corruption use them socially. Nevertheless, discontent swirls about corruption in general, a fact that suggests a gradual change in people's understandings of the processes that produce inequality in Nigeria. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. THE DETERMINATION OF CRIMES OF CORRUPTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Rubantsova

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Article is devoted to determination of starting conceptual positions of a concept and signs of corruption. In article it is noted that qualification of this type of crimes is rather difficult. To a basis of a corruption crime the illegal transaction having criminal character constitutes. The government employee, having the rights and obligations of the government employee, he sells to other persons that he by right doesn’t belong to it. The corruption crime becomes result of this transaction. It always has mercenary character and is made for the sake of receipt of benefit of property nature. Corruption in the state has system nature.

  8. Attitudes of Belgrade University employees on corruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gredelj Stjepan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Corruption is widely overspread phenomenon in all transition countries. In this sense Serbia is not exception, on the contrary, it was always highly ranked in all corruption indices of Transparency International. Among social areas which are considered as saturated with corruption highly ranked is the field of university education. In order to check justification of such perceptions, we have conducted a survey among Belgrade University employees. The findings confirmed that there exist corruption in high education on one side and that there is not too much readiness of employees to oppose it, if not to tear it out, than at least to diminish it.

  9. People's practices : exploring contestation, counter-development, and rural livelihoods : ...cases from Muktinagar, Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huq, H.

    2000-01-01

    People's Practices: Exploring contestation, Counter - development, and rural livelihoods

    The central problems explored in the thesis concern the vulnerability of disadvantaged local people, especially women, and their agency; development discourses and counter-development

  10. "They make money off of us": a phenomenological analysis of consumer perceptions of corruption in Kenya's HIV response system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagotho, Njeri; Bunger, Alicia; Wagner, Kristen

    2016-09-05

    Problems with misallocation and redirection of critical resources and benefits intended for PLHIV are not uncommon in Kenya. This study explores corruption in Kenya's HIV response system and the implications for health outcomes from the perspective of people living with HIV (PLHIV). Although they might not be directly responsible for health care fund management, PLHIV and their advocacy efforts have been central to the development of HIV system response and they have a vested interest in ensuring proper governance. This phenomenological study was conducted in 2012 in Kiambu County in Kenya. The study was designed to capture the experiences of a select group of individuals living with HIV and AIDS and subsequent effects on intergenerational wealth transmission. Four focus groups were conducted with self-convened HIV/AIDS peer support groups. Findings related to corruption emerged unexpectedly, albeit consistently, across all four focus groups. To validate core themes within the data, including corruption, two coders independently reviewed and coded the data. Participants described incidences of resource misallocation, theft, and denial of services across three thematic levels namely at the interpersonal, provider, and institutional levels. Participants described the negative influence of corruption on their health and financial well-being, and propose: (1) strengthening legal protections for assets belonging to PLHIV, (2) direct representation of PLHIV within service agencies, (3) and addressing information asymmetries to inject transparency into the response system. Our findings add to the growing literature that identifies advocacy among individuals and families impacted by HIV and AIDS to be a useful tool in drawing attention to harmful practices in the HIV response infrastructure; consistent with this movement, communities in Kenya demand greater control over programmatic interventions both at the national and local levels.

  11. Effects of perceived descriptive norms on corrupt intention: The mediating role of moral disengagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Huanhuan; Zhang, Heyun; Xu, Yan

    2017-01-31

    The present study attempts to examine the effect of perceived descriptive norms on corrupt intention (e.g., bribe-taking intention) and then further explore the psychological mechanism underlying this effect. Based on social cognitive theory, we established a mediation model in which moral disengagement partially mediated the link between perceived descriptive norms and corrupt intention. In Study 1, participants (N = 690) completed a series of questionnaires, and the results demonstrated that, while perceived descriptive norms were positively associated with corrupt intention, it was partially mediated by moral disengagement. In Study 2, we conducted a priming experiment (N = 161) to test the causal relationship and psychological mechanism between perceived descriptive norms and corrupt intention. The results revealed that perceived descriptive norms triggered the propensity of individuals to morally disengage, which in turn, partially increased their corrupt intention. This study not only extends previous research by providing evidence that moral disengagement may be one of the reasons why perceived descriptive norms facilitate corrupt intention, but also suggests that reshaping normative beliefs and preventing the moral disengagement of individuals may be the effective ways to curb corrupt behaviours. © 2017 International Union of Psychological Science.

  12. Administrative-legal regulation of causes and conditions determining corruption in social sphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr V. Polukarov

    2017-12-01

    sphere and gives their classification according to certain criteria. Basing on the study the proposals are formulated aimed at improving implementation of administrative and legal measures influencing the causes and conditions that determine corruption in the social sphere. Practical significance the proposed legal and administrative means enable to form the administrativelegal regime aimed at minimizing the causes and conditions that determine corruption in the social sphere.

  13. Prevention of corruption as administrative activity of authorities and the object of prosecutor’s observance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timur L. Kozlov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective to study corruption prevention as administrative activity of state and municipal authorities. Methods dialectical systematic formallegal analysis synthesis statistical and specific sociological methods. Results basing on the study of countercorruption legislation its implementation and acts of prosecutorial response the definition of the concept quotcorruption preventionquot was formulated which refers to administrative activities of state and municipal bodies and their officials aimed at the implementation of legislation on combating corruption. The feature of the preventive component of countercorruption legislation is that it brings together the complex of binding prohibitive and restrictive rules established for the prevention of corruption. Corruption prevention is implemented through a specific type of managerial administrative activity. The legality of this activity is provided by means of prosecutorial supervision over implementation of laws on corruption prevention. Scientific novelty for the first time in the article corruption prevention is viewed not as a criminological category but as an institution of administrative law characterized by the essential features of the state municipal control. Practical significance the main provisions and conclusions of the article can be used in research and lawenforcement activities in addressing issues related to combating corruption.

  14. The fight against corruption in international trade: challenges and prospects for WTO rules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Dutra de Oliveira Silveira

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The economic globalization and market opening process initiated in the early 1990s generated several effects, among them, the growth of opportunities for the practice of corruption in the field of international trade. The present article addresses this debate aiming to discuss the challenges to improve multilateral anti-corruption rules and suggest possible mechanisms that allow a more engaged participation of the WTO in the anticorruption movement.

  15. Corruption and unethical behavior: report on a set of Danish guidelines

    OpenAIRE

    Lindgreen, Adam

    2004-01-01

    Corruption is defined as private individuals or enterprises who misuse public resources for private power and/or political gains. They do so through abusing public officials whose behavior deviates from the formal government rules of conduct. Ethical behavior is defined as individuals or enterprises adhering to a non-corrupt work or business practice. A review of the academic literature is conducted drawing on perspectives from the political, economic, and anthropological sciences. Insights f...

  16. Attachment Parenting: An Exploration of Demographics and Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Katherine E.; Groves, Melissa M.

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this study was to identify parenting behaviors practiced by a self-selected group of North American parents who identify themselves as attachment parents. This type of parenting is based on behaviors that are focused on infant needs and demands perhaps more strongly than are traditional mainstream western parenting practices. However,…

  17. Practice Theory and Research: Exploring the Dynamics of Social Life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaargaren, G.; Weenink, D.; Lamers, M.

    2016-01-01

    There has been an upsurge in scholarship concerned with theories of social practices in various fields including sociology, geography and management studies. This book provides a systematic introduction and overview of recent formulations of practice theory organised around three important themes:

  18. Individual and Institutional Corruption in European and US Healthcare: Overview and Link of Various Corruption Typologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommersguter-Reichmann, Margit; Wild, Claudia; Stepan, Adolf; Reichmann, Gerhard; Fried, Andrea

    2018-06-01

    In recent years, the fight against healthcare corruption has intensified. Estimates from the European Healthcare Fraud and Corruption Network calculate an approximate €56 billion annual loss to Europe as a result of corruption. To promote understanding of the complexity and interconnection of corrupt activities, we aim to present healthcare-related corruption typologies of the European Union and European Healthcare Fraud and Corruption Network. We subsequently link them to the typology of individual and institutional corruption introduced by Dennis Thompson in the context of investigating misconduct of US Congressional members. According to Thompson, individual corruption is the personal gain of individuals performing duties within an institution in exchange for nurturing private interests, while institutional corruption pertains to the failure of the institution in directing the individual's behaviour towards the achievement of the institution's primary purpose because the institutional design promotes the pursuit of individual goals. Effective anti-corruption activities not only require the enactment of anti-corruption laws but also the monitoring and, where appropriate, revision of institutional frameworks to prevent the undermining of the primary purposes of health systems or institutions. To gain further understanding of the similarities and differences of the three typologies, prime examples of corrupt activities in the health sector in the European Union and USA (along with their potential remedies) are provided. Linking corruption cases to Thompson's typology revealed that many corrupt activities may show elements of both individual and institutional corruption because they are intertwined, partly overlap and may occur jointly. Hence, sanctioning individual actors only does not target the problem.

  19. The collaborative roots of corruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisel, Ori; Shalvi, Shaul

    2015-08-25

    Cooperation is essential for completing tasks that individuals cannot accomplish alone. Whereas the benefits of cooperation are clear, little is known about its possible negative aspects. Introducing a novel sequential dyadic die-rolling paradigm, we show that collaborative settings provide fertile ground for the emergence of corruption. In the main experimental treatment the outcomes of the two players are perfectly aligned. Player A privately rolls a die, reports the result to player B, who then privately rolls and reports the result as well. Both players are paid the value of the reports if, and only if, they are identical (e.g., if both report 6, each earns €6). Because rolls are truly private, players can inflate their profit by misreporting the actual outcomes. Indeed, the proportion of reported doubles was 489% higher than the expected proportion assuming honesty, 48% higher than when individuals rolled and reported alone, and 96% higher than when lies only benefited the other player. Breaking the alignment in payoffs between player A and player B reduced the extent of brazen lying. Despite player B's central role in determining whether a double was reported, modifying the incentive structure of either player A or player B had nearly identical effects on the frequency of reported doubles. Our results highlight the role of collaboration-particularly on equal terms-in shaping corruption. These findings fit a functional perspective on morality. When facing opposing moral sentiments-to be honest vs. to join forces in collaboration-people often opt for engaging in corrupt collaboration.

  20. The collaborative roots of corruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisel, Ori; Shalvi, Shaul

    2015-01-01

    Cooperation is essential for completing tasks that individuals cannot accomplish alone. Whereas the benefits of cooperation are clear, little is known about its possible negative aspects. Introducing a novel sequential dyadic die-rolling paradigm, we show that collaborative settings provide fertile ground for the emergence of corruption. In the main experimental treatment the outcomes of the two players are perfectly aligned. Player A privately rolls a die, reports the result to player B, who then privately rolls and reports the result as well. Both players are paid the value of the reports if, and only if, they are identical (e.g., if both report 6, each earns €6). Because rolls are truly private, players can inflate their profit by misreporting the actual outcomes. Indeed, the proportion of reported doubles was 489% higher than the expected proportion assuming honesty, 48% higher than when individuals rolled and reported alone, and 96% higher than when lies only benefited the other player. Breaking the alignment in payoffs between player A and player B reduced the extent of brazen lying. Despite player B's central role in determining whether a double was reported, modifying the incentive structure of either player A or player B had nearly identical effects on the frequency of reported doubles. Our results highlight the role of collaboration—particularly on equal terms—in shaping corruption. These findings fit a functional perspective on morality. When facing opposing moral sentiments—to be honest vs. to join forces in collaboration—people often opt for engaging in corrupt collaboration. PMID:26261341

  1. What Do We Talk About When We Talk About Corruption?

    OpenAIRE

    Facundo Sepúlveda

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we analyze the behavior of three objective measures of corruption: absolute corruption incidence, relative corruption incidence, and corruption rents. We present a theoretical model of bribery and investment in which these measures of corruption are defined and compared. We then study the changes that arise when key parameters of the model change and show that, under identical circumstances, the behavior of any particular corruption measure can differ completely from the beha...

  2. Guidance theory and practice : the status of career exploration

    OpenAIRE

    Taveira, Maria do Céu; Rodríguez Moreno, Maria Luísa

    2003-01-01

    Career intervention can be designed to enhance constructive attitudes, emotions and behaviours that will improve clients’ career attainment. In this sense, mobilisation of career exploration constitutes one of the most important tasks of career counsellors, particularly with emphasis in developmental career guidance models, first developed in the 1950s. The authors present a brief review of career exploration conceptualisation and empirical research lines. The implications for career guidance...

  3. Negotiated settlement for corruptions offences: position in Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Mariani, Maria Paola

    2015-01-01

    When responses from the US and EU to the fight against bribery in international business transactions are compared, it becomes evident that there is little record of EU member States enforcing their bribery laws. The successful enforcement of the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA), which criminalizes the bribing of foreign government officials, is relatively new. Indeed, only over the last decade have the twin regulators, the Department of Justice (DOJ) and the Securities and Exchange Commi...

  4. Exploring the role of educational videos in radiation oncology practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dally, M.J.; Denham, J.W.; Boddy, G.A.

    1994-01-01

    Patient, staff, and medical student education are essential components of modern radiation oncology practice. Greater involvement of patients in the clinical decision-making process, and the need for other health professionals to be more informed about radiation oncology, provided further demand on resources, despite ever increasing logistic constraints. Videos made by individual departments may augment traditional teaching methods and have applications in documenting clinical practice and response. 8 refs., 1 tab

  5. Corruption perception index as an indicator of the level of corruption in an individual country and the world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina A. Moiseeva

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective to evaluate the methodology of corruption analysis based on the corruption perception index. nbsp Methods the author used such sociological method as nonparticipant simple observation methods of expert assessments and analysis of documents grouping and summarizing calculation of generalizing indicators analysis economicmathematical and statistical techniques. nbsp Results the corruption perception index like any other method of studying corruption available in science cannot be recognized as a universal indicator of its measurement. It does not meet the requirements of measurement reliability the number of data sources and countries included in the index changed new surveys emerged and some studies were discontinued changes to the calculation methodology were made. Therefore the only reliable technique is to compare the data on a particular state from the same specific source over a period of time. However the author believes that the monitoring of changes of this indicator in a particular state may be important for assessing the achievement of the statersquos tasks aimed at improving the investment climate. nbsp Scientific novelty despite numerous studies of certain aspects of anticorruption the search for a universal method for evaluating the effectiveness of this struggle continues. Basing on the data studied by the author a quantitative sociologicalstatistical assessment of the effectiveness of anticorruption measures in the Republic of Belarus and neighboring countries is given. The article also substantiates the proposal to develop the anticorruption index for the countries which are similar in the standards of doing business and a common understanding of national interests and methods of achieving them namely the Customs Union CIS BRICS and SCO countries. Practical significance the provisions and conclusions of the research can be used by the state authorities and public organizations for the formation and implementation of the

  6. Community pharmacists' prescription intervention practices--exploring variations in practice in Norwegian pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandt, Ingunn; Horn, Anne Marie; Ekedahl, Anders; Granas, Anne Gerd

    2010-03-01

    Evidence suggests that prescription intervention frequencies have been found to vary as much as 10-fold among Norwegian pharmacies and among pharmacists within the same pharmacy. To explore community pharmacists' perceptions of how their prescription intervention practices were influenced by their working environment, their technological resources, the physical and social structures of the pharmacies, their relations with colleagues, and to the individual pharmacist's professional skills. Two focus groups consisting of 14 community pharmacists in total, from urban and rural areas in Norway, discussed their working procedures and professional judgments related to prescription interventions. Organizational theories were used as theoretical and analytical frameworks in the study. A framework based on Leavitt's organizational model was to structure our interview guide. The study units were the statements of the individual pharmacists. Recurrent themes were identified and condensed. Two processes describing variations in the dispensing workflow including prescription interventions were derived--an active dispensing process extracting information about the patient's medication from several sources and a fast dispensing process focusing mainly on the information available on the prescription. Both workflow processes were used in the same pharmacies and by the same pharmacist but on different occasions. A pharmacy layout allowing interactions between pharmacist and patients and a convenient organization of technology, layout, pharmacist-patient and pharmacist-coworker transactions at the workplace was essential for detecting and solving prescription problems. Pharmacists limited their contact with general practitioners when they considered the problem a formality and/or when they knew the answers themselves. The combined use of dispensing software and the Internet was a driving force toward more independent and cognitively advanced prescription interventions

  7. Contextualizing Corruption: A Cross-Disciplinary Approach to Studying Corruption in Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanti Pertiwi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to establish how organization and management research, an extensive field that has contributed a great deal to research on corruption, could apply insights from other disciplines in order to advance the understanding of corruption, often considered as a form of unethical behavior in organizations. It offers an analysis of important contributions of corruption research, taking a ‘rationalist perspective’, and highlights the central tensions and debates within this vast body of literatures. It then shows how these debates can be addressed by applying insights from corruption studies, adopting anthropological lens. The paper thus proposes a cross-disciplinary approach, which focuses on studying corruption by looking at what it means to individuals implicated by the phenomenon while engaging in social relations and situated in different contexts. It also offers an alternative approach to the study of corruption amidst claims that anti-corruption efforts have failed to achieve desirable results.

  8. Combating Forest Corruption: the Forest Integrity Network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gupta, A.; Siebert, U.

    2004-01-01

    This article describes the strategies and activities of the Forest Integrity Network. One of the most important underlying causes of forest degradation is corruption and related illegal logging. The Forest Integrity Network is a timely new initiative to combat forest corruption. Its approach is to

  9. Corruption and political crisis in Ukraine

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanov, Alexei; Bogun, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    The article reviews issues of corruption and political crisis in Ukraine in the context of international organisations reports that estimate corruption levels and entrepreneurial climate worldwide. The article examines countries of the European Union and member states of the Customs Union, asseses the political crisis in Ukraine.

  10. Atypical Corruption at Institutions of Higher Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Li

    2007-01-01

    This article describes an incident involving twelve teachers at Anhui Haozhou Normal Junior College who used purchased dissertations to apply for professional titles over three consecutive years. Academic corruption is not merely today's problem, and the academic corruption at the institutions of higher learning that the author discloses in this…

  11. Political Corruption, Democratic Theory, and Democracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doron Navot

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available According to recent conceptual proposals, institutional corruption should be understood within the boundaries of the institution and its purpose. Political corruption in democracies, prominent scholars suggest, is characterized by the violation of institutional ideals or behaviors that tend to harm democratic processes and institutions. This paper rejects the idea that compromises, preferences, political agreements, or consent can be the baseline of conceptualization of political corruption. In order to improve the identification of abuse of power, the concept of political corruption should not be related directly to democratic institutions and processes; rather, it should be related to ideals whose content is independent of citizens’ preferences, institutions and processes. More specifically, I articulate the relations between political corruption and the notion of subjection, and include powerful citizens in the category of political corruption. Yet, I also suggest redefining under what conditions agents are culpable for their motivations in promoting private gain. By doing this, we better realize how democratic institutions can be the source of corruption and not just its victims. Such a redefinition, I propose finally, is the basis for the distinction between individual and institutional corruption.

  12. Independence requirements for anti-corruption institutions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Court's approach and these apparent requirements are compared with current provisions for political 'independence' of anti-corruption agencies in Australia and Indonesia, raising, in particular, an assessment of the arguments for and against (a) the need for an anti-corruption investigative agency to be separate from ...

  13. Corruption of Prison Staff in Inmate Discipline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, Daniel; Fry, Lincoln J.

    1987-01-01

    Qualitative study of New Jersey State Prison (Sykes, 1956) concluded that authority of guards was corrupted by inmates. This study analyzed quantitative and qualitative research from three California prisons which supports Sykes' conclusion and agrees that reciprocity and default are factors in the corruption. (Author/NB)

  14. Corruption as a social-economic phenomenon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pejanović Radovan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The author discusses corruption as a primarily socio-economic construction. This paper tests the hypothesis of corruption as a systemic problem. The system is (economic, political, legal the main source of corruption. There are, regarding to this, the system generators of corruption: state, property and market. They are the key institutions of society that are placed in a destructive political system, create corruption, which undermines the economic, political, legal and moral foundations of society. Corruption is the inevitable partner of administrative, bureaucratic, party, non-market societies, societies in which dominate monopoly on coercion and obligation (and the prohibition of coercion. Disorganized, monopolized markets and asymmetric information is also an important source of corruption. All this, in terms of the collective (public, government property, which is 'used as its own, and kept as others', on a system of vicious cycle, develop and rise corruption. Therefore, the system changes (reforms are necessary at all levels of government, and introduction of ethical standards in order to eradicate the causes of this social scourge.

  15. Corruption: A many-headed monster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.J. van der Walt

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of corruption poses a serious threat to our nation. This paper intends to investigate, apart from the various forms of corruption and our reactions to them, the causes of and the possible cures for this evil in our society.

  16. Corruption in the commons: why bribery hampers enforcement of environmental regulations in South African fisheries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aksel Sundström

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Few studies have explored on the micro-level why corruption hampers environmental regulations. The relationship between corruption and regulatory compliance is here investigated through confidential in-depth interviews with South African small-scale fishermen. Respondents describe how the expected behavior of inspectors and other resource users to ask for or accept bribes are vital in their compliance decisions. The interviews also shed some light on the puzzling role of trust and trustworthiness of public officials. While resource users often knows inspectors personally – and uphold discretion necessary for bribery to continue – they depict them as dishonest and describe how corrupt acts decrease their trustworthiness. The findings from the South African case illustrate the importance of curbing both grand and petty corruption to increase the effectiveness of regulations in natural resource management.

  17. Three paradigms for the analysis of corruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Vannucci

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades a growing awareness emerged of the relevance of corruption as an hidden factor which may negatively affect political and economic decision-making processes. In spite of a lively scientific debate there is no general consensus on a commonly accepted definition of what corruption is.The A. distinguishes three main paradigms, focusing on different (though not irreconcilable variables.The first is the economic paradigm, which usually takes the principal-agent model of corruption as its founding pillar. In this paradigm corruption is considered the outcome of rational individual choices, and its spread within a certain organization is influenced by the factors defining the structure of expected costs and rewards.A second approach – the cultural paradigm – looks at the differences in cultural traditions, social norms and interiorized values which shape individuals’ moral preferences and consideration of his social and institutional role. These are a leading forces that can push a corrupt public or private agent (not to violate legal norms.A third neo-institutional approach considers also mechanisms which allow the internal regulation of social interactions within corrupt networks, and their effects on individuals’ beliefs and preferences. Though the corrupt agreements cannot be enforced with legal sanctions, several informal, non-written rules, contractual provisos and conventions may regulate the corrupt exchange between agent and corruptor.The A. underlines that corruption is the outcome of a multitude of individual and collective choices which change public opinion towards corruption and its diffusion throughout the state, markets and civil society. There is no univocal recipe to deal with anti-bribery measures, since corruption is a complex and multifaceted phenomenon.Reforms aimed at dismantling systemic corruption have to be finely tuned against its hidden governance structures, i.e. its internal regulation of

  18. Corruption, fraud and internal control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luminiţa IONESCU

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The economic crunch created a specific context for activity and profitability failing. The corruption is more and more common in our days. In the same time, the amount of money lost by businesses and the public sector to larger frauds increased last year to unthinkable limits. The shareholders expect the directors to take care to protect their company’s assets. This is why the financial controller has a very important role in each organization. The techniques to detect corruption or a fraud are developing every year. Thus, the introduction of computerized accounting has created the opportunities to conduct very comprehensive tests at relatively little cost. However, the fraudsters became more and more clever, and the controllers are responsible for the prevention and detection of fraud. The procedures that controllers should adopt with regard to fraud depend on the risk that fraud could occur and remain undetected and also the risk of that fraud impairing the truth and fairness of the statement.

  19. Investigating the Underlying Factors of Corruption in the Public Construction Sector: Evidence from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Ming; Le, Yun; Yiu, Kenneth T W; Chan, Albert P C; Hu, Yi

    2017-12-01

    Over recent years, the issue of corruption in the public construction sector has attracted increasing attention from both practitioners and researchers worldwide. However, limited efforts are available for investigating the underlying factors of corruption in this sector. Thus, this study attempted to bridge this knowledge gap by exploring the underlying factors of corruption in the public construction sector of China. To achieve this goal, a total of 14 structured interviews were first carried out, and a questionnaire survey was then administered to 188 professionals in China. Two iterations of multivariate analysis approaches, namely, stepwise multiple regression analysis and partial least squares structural equation modeling were successively utilized to analyze the collected data. In addition, a case study was also conducted to triangulate the findings obtained from the statistical analysis. The results generated from these three research methods achieve the same conclusion: the most influential underlying factor leading to corruption was immorality, followed by opacity, unfairness, procedural violation, and contractual violation. This study has contributed to the body of knowledge by exploring the properties of corruption in the public construction sector. The findings from this study are also valuable to the construction authorities as they can assist in developing more effective anti-corruption strategies.

  20. Worldwide clustering of the corruption perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulus, Michal; Kristoufek, Ladislav

    2015-06-01

    We inspect a possible clustering structure of the corruption perception among 134 countries. Using the average linkage clustering, we uncover a well-defined hierarchy in the relationships among countries. Four main clusters are identified and they suggest that countries worldwide can be quite well separated according to their perception of corruption. Moreover, we find a strong connection between corruption levels and a stage of development inside the clusters. The ranking of countries according to their corruption perfectly copies the ranking according to the economic performance measured by the gross domestic product per capita of the member states. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first one to present an application of hierarchical and clustering methods to the specific case of corruption.

  1. Do Corruption Measures Have a Perception Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charron, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    How well do corruption perception measures reflect actual levels of public sector corruption? Leading cross-national corruption perception measures have come under much theoretical and empirical scrutiny in recent years, with serious implications for the validity and reliability of the data...... in this ever growing sub-field. Critics argue that perceptions – in particular those of outside experts – do not reflect actual corruption in that they are far too ‘noisy’ or simply biased by external factors such as economic performance. Moreover, a number of recent empirical studies, focused on developing...... areas, have put forth evidence that outside expert assessments of corruption correspond little, if at all, with the experiences and views of actual citizens, and that such a lack of correspondence demonstrates pessimism for existing perception measures. This study offers a systematic analysis...

  2. Corruption and the Securitisation of Nature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob White

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This article considers corruption in Australia in relation to the exploitation and preservation of natural resources. In doing so, it examines issues pertaining to a proposed pulp mill and the forestry industry in Tasmania, the development of mining and ports in Queensland, and international agreements pertaining to deep-sea oil drilling in the Timor Sea. Corruption relating to the environment is interpreted in this article as implying both moral corruption and/or direct corruption. Gaining unfair advantage, protecting specific sectoral interests and over-riding existing environmental regulations are all features of the types of corruption associated with the exploitation of natural resources. The result is lack of transparency, a substantial democratic deficit, and expenditure of public monies, time and resources in support of environmentally and socially dubious activities.

  3. Combating Memory Corruption Attacks On Scada Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellettini, Carlo; Rrushi, Julian

    Memory corruption attacks on SCADA devices can cause significant disruptions to control systems and the industrial processes they operate. However, despite the presence of numerous memory corruption vulnerabilities, few, if any, techniques have been proposed for addressing the vulnerabilities or for combating memory corruption attacks. This paper describes a technique for defending against memory corruption attacks by enforcing logical boundaries between potentially hostile data and safe data in protected processes. The technique encrypts all input data using random keys; the encrypted data is stored in main memory and is decrypted according to the principle of least privilege just before it is processed by the CPU. The defensive technique affects the precision with which attackers can corrupt control data and pure data, protecting against code injection and arc injection attacks, and alleviating problems posed by the incomparability of mitigation techniques. An experimental evaluation involving the popular Modbus protocol demonstrates the feasibility and efficiency of the defensive technique.

  4. Combining Conversation Analysis and Nexus Analysis to explore hospital practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paasch, Bettina Sletten

    This talk reports findings from a study exploring interactions between nurses and patients in a Danish hospital. The aim of the study is to describe how mobile work phones shape interactions, and for this purpose a data corpus consisting of approximately 140 hours of video recordings, ethnographi...

  5. Death Related Themes in Anorexia Nervosa: A Practical Exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Janice; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Explored death-related themes in psychodynamic etiology of anorexia nervosa by comparing anorexic adolescent patients (n=28) to age-matched controls (n=238). Results suggest that death-related themes are of significance in the understanding and management of anorexia nervosa. (Author/ABL)

  6. Exploring the Discourses of Our Own Practice: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanguinetti, Jill

    1994-01-01

    Reflects on ideas of feminism and critical literacy and their significance in relation to the current policy environment. Topics explored include the dilemmas of personal development; issues of culture, power, and coercion; shifting the focus to teaching; personal and pedagogical influences; pedagogical praxis; and developing a collective…

  7. Training Psychologists for Rural Practice: Exploring Opportunities and Constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domino, Marisa Elena; Lin, Ching-Ching Claire; Morrissey, Joseph P; Ellis, Alan R; Fraher, Erin; Richman, Erica L; Thomas, Kathleen C; Prinstein, Mitchell J

    2018-04-17

    To examine trends in the psychologist workforce and training opportunities, including factors that may influence the decision of clinical psychologists to practice in rural settings. We use a mixed-methods approach to examine the psychologist workforce nationally and in North Carolina (NC), including (1) an analysis of the location of programs awarding doctoral degrees; (2) an analysis of the practice, demographic, and educational characteristics of the psychologist workforce; and (3) interviews with directors of doctoral programs in clinical psychology to understand where current graduates are getting jobs and why they may or may not be choosing to practice in rural communities. Fewer than 1% of programs and institutions awarding doctoral degrees in psychology in the United States are located in rural areas. In NC, approximately 80% of practicing psychologists have out-of-state degrees and about 80% of recent NC graduates are not currently licensed in the state. This juxtaposition undermines the utility of adding more in-state degree programs. While expansion of training programs within rural areas could help alleviate the shortages of mental health providers, adding new degree-granting programs alone will not necessarily increase supply. We discuss complementary recruitment and retention strategies, including greater incentives for rural training and practice as well as training in emerging technologies that don't require providers to be physically located in underserved areas, such as telemedicine. Increasing the supply of psychologists practicing in rural areas will require a thoughtful, multipronged approach to training this critical part of the behavioral health workforce. © 2018 National Rural Health Association.

  8. Institutional Approach to Anti-corruption Efforts in Taiwan, Hong Kong and Mainland China: Improving the Norms, Strengthening the Ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Yurievna Adams

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores institutional and normative developments in the area of anti-corruption efforts in three Chinese-speaking countries/territories with the latest emphasis on fostering all-encompassing corruption-intolerable environment. Hong Kong’s experience is often regarded as the high standard in establishing efficient anti-corruption institutions in inhospitable conditions. Over relatively short period of time – Hong Kong’s Independent Commission Against Corruption (ICAC was established in 1974 – the city made great strides against official corruption and has upheld its clean reputation ever since. ICAC’s former Deputy Commissioner and Head of Operations cites the 2000 public opinion poll in which Hong Kong residents named ICAC’s establishment the 6th most important event in the city’s 1 50-year history. ICAC is an example of a successful reactive approach to anti-corruption. Taiwan has its own success story. The Control Yuan – part of a unique five-branch government structure – combines watchdog and ombudsman functions which nowadays are considered prerequisite for successful fight against corruption and even more important for preventive efforts. This institution – supported by legitimacy of tradition – has a potential to become a coordinating center for comprehensive anti-corruption policy with more specialized agencies handling various aspects of corruption and economic crimes. Lately the Control Yuan’s role in Taiwan’s political structure has been debated, but it remains an example of effective proactive approach to fighting malfeasance. China’s anti-corruption strategy for 2013-17 aims to put forth a “dense net” of regulations, institutions and ethic norms towards country-wide corruption-intolerable environment. Preventive measures that include citizens’ awareness-raising and increasing ethical requirements of government workers warrant additional attention.

  9. An Exploration of Leadership in Virtual Communities of Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrisentary, John

    2013-01-01

    Virtual community of practice (VCoP) teams are becoming a typical function in many knowledge-based organizations. VCoP teams can consist of team members located in various cities, states, and countries. The main characteristic of the VCoP is team members' sense of community that allows individuals to share knowledge. Knowledge sharing in a VCoP…

  10. Engaging Undergraduates in Feminist Classrooms: An Exploration of Professors' Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Leland G.

    2015-01-01

    This article reports the results of a feminist action research project that sought to ascertain professors' best practices for engaging undergraduates in feminist classrooms. In semi-structured interviews, professors recommended assigning readings from a variety of positionalities; creating a safe space for class discussion; relying on data to…

  11. A qualitative approach for exploration of feeding practices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seugnet

    nutrition problem found in black preschool children is ... ment, culture, nutritional practices and food environ- ... teraction found in a group” (Morgan, 1988:12). ... Six major topics on nutrition of the child to be included ... any kind of qualitative analysis is the complete tran- ... the interview process and might only be present.

  12. Exploring Virtual Mental Practice in Maintenance Task Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauerle, Tim; Brnich, Michael J.; Navoyski, Jason

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to contribute to a general understanding of mental practice by investigating the utility of and participant reaction to a virtual reality maintenance training among underground coal mine first responders. Design/Methodology/Approach: Researchers at the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health's Office of Mine…

  13. Digital Literacies in Higher Education: Exploring Textual and Technological Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lea, Mary R.; Jones, Sylvia

    2011-01-01

    Concerns are frequently raised about undergraduates being so immersed in web-based technologies in their broader lives that they have difficulties engaging in more conventional study practices, such as academic reading and writing essays. The research reported on here examines this issue through a literacies lens. The project findings illustrate…

  14. Intercultural Communicative Competence: Exploring English Language Teachers' Beliefs and Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Tony Johnstone; Sachdev, Itesh

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on an investigation into the beliefs and practices of experienced teachers in the USA, UK and France relating to the application of a model of intercultural communicative competence (ICC) to English language programmes. Broadly, "intercultural" approaches to language learning and teaching are strongly advocated in both the…

  15. Mainlandization, the ICAC, and the Seriousness Attached by Local Politicians to Corruption in Post-1997 Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Lo, T Wing

    2018-05-01

    To date, few studies have focused on how the public has perceived the effectiveness of the Independent Commission Against Corruption (ICAC). Furthermore, little is known about how the public has assessed the functions of the ICAC during the political-economic convergence between Hong Kong and mainland China since 1997. This study attempts to explore local politicians' perceptions towards the ICAC in post-1997 Hong Kong. The quantitative data show that the important historical juncture of mainlandization has been politicized in Hong Kong and has deeply influenced the seriousness attached by local politicians to corruption. Moreover, a mediating path of the effect of "Conflict of Interest" on the "Perceived Seriousness of Corruption" has been found, that is, mainlandization is found to have brought about increased levels of conflict of interest among government officials, which has weakened the symbolic anti-corruption function of the ICAC and, in turn, has affected the perceived seriousness attached to corruption.

  16. Searching for Digital Citizenship: Fighting Corruption in Banten, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Zamzam Fauzanafi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The expansion of digital technologies and social media in Indonesia shifts practices of citizenship from a formal institutional level toward a more informal digital space. This paper presents the emerging results of research on digital citizenship in Banten, Indonesia, focusing on how new forms of citizenship are brought into being through digital acts that are defined as speech acts uttered through the use of social media. The paper follows digital acts of citizens in anti-corruption campaigns against the patrimonial and clientelistic regime of Banten’s political dynasty that are predominantly staged on Facebook and other online platforms. These digital acts produce and intensify affective publics through which forms of digital citizenship are enacted in opposition to the corrupt dynasty.

  17. Exploring a pedagogical approach to integrating research, practice and teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Jennifer M; McKenna, Lisa G; Gilmour, Carole; Fawcett, Jacqueline

    2010-01-01

    Application of evidence is accepted as an important component of clinical practice. Teaching research to undergraduate students has been reported internationally as a challenge, particularly for nurse educators. In this paper, reported is a strategy designed to enhance research learning for undergraduate midwifery students at one university, which formed part of a larger, international investigation into women's responses to caesarean birth. Following theory classes and briefings, students worked with their clinical educators in practice to interview women using existing tools, and were engaged in qualitative data analysis. A number of challenges were encountered throughout the process, both for the educators and students. However, the teaching approach provided benefits for students in learning about midwifery research. Recommended as essential is for continued development of pedagogical approaches that make research tangible for students. Furthermore, provision of support for clinical staff working with students is important for success of such approaches.

  18. Exploring the Psychological Antecedents of Attitude towards Indigenous Wetland Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayanan Jayakumar

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted in the North eastern agro-climatic zone of Tamil Nadu, India to analyze the possible impact of the psychological antecedents of attitude towards Indigenous Wetland Practices(IWPs among the farming community. Two hundred and nine farmers were selected at random from ten blocks in three districts of the state. Their psychological characteristics and attitude towards IWPs were assessed. The mean attitude score and the mean attitude index were analysed. The highest variable index was found in the case of Progressivism and Traditionalism, followed by Self-Reliance. Environmental orientation and Decision making ability had a positive and highly significant relationship while Scientific Orientation had a negative and highly significant relationship with attitude towards Indigenous Wetland Practices.

  19. Reflective Practice: How the World Bank Explored Its Own Biases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Martin; Stuckler, David

    2015-12-10

    While many international organisations have independent evaluations, including the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and World Health organization (WHO), uniquely the World Bank in its 2015 World Development Report sought to ascertain the potential biases that influence how its staff interpret evidence and influence policy. Here, we describe the World Bank's study design, including experiments to ascertain the impact on Bank staff's judgements of complexity, confirmation bias, sunk cost bias, and an understanding of the wishes of those whom they seek to help. We then review the Bank's proposed mechanisms to minimise the impact of the biases they identified. We argue that this approach, that we refer to as 'reflective practice,' deserves to be adopted more widely among institutions that seek to use evidence from research to inform policy and practice. © 2016 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.

  20. Formative Assessment: Exploring Tunisian Cooperative Teachers Practices in Physical Education

    OpenAIRE

    Melki Hasan; S. Bouzid Mohamed; Haweni Aymen; Fadhloun Mourad; Mrayeh Meher; Souissi Nizar

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This article is based on questions related to the formative assessment of preparatory trainee ship in the professional life of Physical Education teachers. In general, in the first training program, the traineeship represents an integral part of training. In this sense, the traineeship offers a vital opportunity for future teacher to gain practical experience in the real environment, given that formative evaluation is a process of collecting evidence from trainees by cooperative teac...

  1. Using Poetic Documents: An Exploration of Poststructuralist Ideas and Poetic Practices in Narrative Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speedy, Jane

    2005-01-01

    This paper explores the use of poetic documents in narrative therapy practice. It considers the ways in which feminist and poststructuralist ideas inform these practices and speculates about the extent to which a "poetic-mindedness" might sustain the practice of double- (or multiple-) listening. The author illustrates these explorations…

  2. A Delphi Study: Exploring Faculty Perceptions of the Best Practices Influencing Student Persistence in Blended Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Kim Elise

    2010-01-01

    This Delphi study explored the instructional practices of community college faculty who were teaching blended or Web-assisted courses and how these practices influenced student persistence. The Delphi method provided qualitative data in the form of expert advice through consensus building on the instructional practices most likely to influence…

  3. Exploring Vocational Evaluation Practices following Traumatic Brain Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Dillahunt-Aspillaga

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI face many challenges when attempting to return to work (RTW. Vocational evaluation (VE is a systematic process that involves assessment and appraisal of an individual’s current work-related characteristics and abilities. Objective. The aims of this study are to (1 examine demographic and employment characteristics of vocational rehabilitation providers (VRPs, (2 identify the specific evaluation methods that are used in the VE of individuals with TBI, and (3 examine the differences in assessment method practices based upon evaluator assessment preferences. Methods. This exploratory case study used a forty-six-item online survey which was distributed to VRPs. Results. One hundred and nine VRPs accessed the survey. Of these, 74 completed the survey. A majority of respondents were female (79.7%, Caucasian (71.6%, and holding a master’s degree (74.3%, and more than half (56.8% were employed as state vocational rehabilitation counselors (VRCs. In addition, over two-thirds (67.6% were certified rehabilitation counselors (CRCs. Respondents reported using several specific tools and assessments during the VE process. Conclusions. Study findings reveal differences in use of and rationales for specific assessments amongst VRPs. Understanding VRP assessment practices and use of an evidence-based framework for VE following TBI may inform and improve VE practice.

  4. Exploring Vocational Evaluation Practices following Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillahunt-Aspillaga, Christina; Jorgensen Smith, Tammy; Hanson, Ardis; Ehlke, Sarah; Stergiou-Kita, Mary; Dixon, Charlotte G; Quichocho, Davina

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI) face many challenges when attempting to return to work (RTW). Vocational evaluation (VE) is a systematic process that involves assessment and appraisal of an individual's current work-related characteristics and abilities. The aims of this study are to (1) examine demographic and employment characteristics of vocational rehabilitation providers (VRPs), (2) identify the specific evaluation methods that are used in the VE of individuals with TBI, and (3) examine the differences in assessment method practices based upon evaluator assessment preferences. This exploratory case study used a forty-six-item online survey which was distributed to VRPs. One hundred and nine VRPs accessed the survey. Of these, 74 completed the survey. A majority of respondents were female (79.7%), Caucasian (71.6%), and holding a master's degree (74.3%), and more than half (56.8%) were employed as state vocational rehabilitation counselors (VRCs). In addition, over two-thirds (67.6%) were certified rehabilitation counselors (CRCs). Respondents reported using several specific tools and assessments during the VE process. Study findings reveal differences in use of and rationales for specific assessments amongst VRPs. Understanding VRP assessment practices and use of an evidence-based framework for VE following TBI may inform and improve VE practice.

  5. An Archeology of Corruption in Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Miles; Lipworth, Wendy; Kerridge, Ian

    2018-07-01

    Corruption is a word used loosely to describe many kinds of action that people find distasteful. We prefer to reserve it for the intentional misuse of the good offices of an established social entity for private benefit, posing as fair trading. The currency of corruption is not always material or financial. Moral corruption is all too familiar within churches and other ostensibly beneficent institutions, and it happens within medicine and the pharmaceutical industries. Corrupt behavior reduces trust, costs money, causes injustice, and arouses anger. Yet it persists, despite all efforts since the beginnings of societies. People who act corruptly may lack conscience and empathy in the same way as those with some personality disorders. Finding ways to prevent corruption from contaminating beneficent organizations is therefore likely to be frustratingly difficult. Transparency and accountability may go some way, but the determined corruptor is unlikely to feel constrained by moral and reporting requirements of this kind. Punishment and redress are complicated issues, unlikely to satisfy victims and society at large. Both perhaps should deal in the same currency-material or social-in which the corrupt dealing took place.

  6. Resisting Corporate Corruption: Cases in Practical Ethics From Enron Through The Financial Crisis, 2nd Edition. By Stephen V. Arbogast, Wiley-Scrivener, 2013; 552 Pages. Price US $75.00, ISBN 978-1-118-20855-7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Kun Lin

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The following paragraphs are reproduced from the website of the publisher [1]. Taking a unique approach to business ethics unlike the typical focus on conceptual/legal frameworks, this book features 25 case studies that cover a full range of business practices, controls, and ethics issues. The new edition is fully updated with new case studies from the recent financial crisis, comparing it with Enron's crossing of various ethical lines. Interpretive essays explore financial control systems and lessons learned from specific case studies and circumstances. Readers will find a practical toolkit they can use to identify ethics issues and tackle problems effectively within corporations.

  7. How to Prevent Corruption Without Affecting Efficiency? An Overview of Safeguard Measures for Contracting Out Public Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger E. HAMLIN

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper addresses the issue of finding the right balance between regulatory oversight, decision-making flexibility and reliance on market forces to safeguard the contracting-out process from corruption. The paper analyses the corrupt practices associated with contracting out local public services and the causes and consequences of this behavior. Taking into consideration new anticorruption strategies, we make recommendations for attaining equilibrium between flexible safeguard measures and accountable and transparent practices aimed at verifying whether regulations and standards are met. The strategy also emphasizes the training of public officials, to provide them with appropriate skills and professional capacity to identify and manage corruption risks. The last part of the paper recommends future research to identify best practices among different communities and states attempting to control corruption practices when contracting out public services.

  8. Sallust's Account of Corruption and Its Western Accomplices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... ruler got in the Roman senate a viral school of bribery. Interestingly, the episode of corruption ended when the will of the corrupt Roman senators was thwarted. Therefore, mitigating corruption could begin from the West that hosts its influential accomplices. Key words: Africa, Corruption, Sallust, Western Collaborators ...

  9. Interventions to reduce corruption in the health sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaitonde, Rakhal; Oxman, Andrew D; Okebukola, Peter O; Rada, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    doctors from accepting any form of benefits from the pharmaceutical industry may improve doctors' attitudes about the influence of pharmaceutical companies on their choice of medicines (low certainty of the evidence). A study in the USA, evaluated the effects of introducing a law that required pharmaceutical companies to report the gifts they gave to healthcare workers. Another study in the USA evaluated the effects of a variety of internal control mechanisms used by community health centres to stop corruption. The effects of these strategies is unclear because the evidence was of very low certainty. Authors' conclusions There is a paucity of evidence regarding how best to reduce corruption. Promising interventions include improvements in the detection and punishment of corruption, especially efforts that are coordinated by an independent agency. Other promising interventions include guidelines that prohibit doctors from accepting benefits from the pharmaceutical industry, internal control practices in community health centres, and increased transparency and accountability for co-payments combined with reduced incentives for informal payments. The extent to which increased transparency alone reduces corruption is uncertain. There is a need to monitor and evaluate the impacts of all interventions to reduce corruption, including their potential adverse effects. Interventions to reduce corruption in the health sector What is the aim of this review? The aim of this Cochrane review is to assess the effectiveness of strategies to reduce corruption in the health sector. Cochrane researchers searched for all potentially relevant studies, and found nine studies that met their criteria. Key messages The review suggests that some strategies to fight corruption in the health sector can have an effect on corruption. These strategies include the use of independent agencies to investigate and punish corruption, telling healthcare workers that they are not allowed to accept payments from

  10. E-Government Attempts in Small Island Developing States: The Rate of Corruption with Virtualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, Arif

    2017-12-01

    In recent years, many Small Island Developing State (SIDS) governments have worked to increase openness and transparency of their transactions as a means to enhance efficiency and reduce corruption in their economies. In order to achieve a cost-effective and efficient strategy to implement a transparent government, Information Communication Technologies offer an opportunity of virtualization by deploying e-government services to promote transparency, accountability and consistency in the public sector and to minimize corruption. This paper explores the potential impact of government virtualization by SIDS and against corruption by comparing the corruption perception index (CPI) rates of 15 SIDS countries. The CPI relates to the degree by which corruption is perceived to exist among public officials and politicians by business people and country analysts. In order to reveal the long-term impact of virtual deployment and its consequences on corruption, an in-depth case analysis based on the CPI index rates was conducted on the deployment of the e-government system in Cyprus.

  11. How Taxing is Corruption on International Investors?

    OpenAIRE

    Shang-Jin Wei

    1997-01-01

    This paper studies the effect of corruption on foreign direct investment. The sample covers bilateral investment from fourteen source countries to forty-five host countries during 1990-91. There are three central findings. (1) A rise in either the tax rate on multinational firms or the corruption level in a host country reduces inward foreign direct investment (FDI). An increase in the corruption level from that of Singapore to that of Mexico is equivalent to raising the tax rate by over twen...

  12. Corruption, Trust and their Public Sector Consequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritzen, Scott A.; Serritzlew, Søren; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2014-01-01

    Corruption and trust are two important determinants of the quality of public sectors. Empirical studies in different literatures suggest that corruption and trust have effects on factors such as economic growth, the quality of democratic institutions, life quality, the size and effectiveness....... The aim is to show that these two concepts are highly relevant to each other, and that their interconnections are important to understand the public sector consequences of corruption and trust. By focusing on these concepts, we hope that this special issue can pave the road for further comparative...

  13. Business model pretotyping: exploring pre-commercialisation opportunities in practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brix, Jacob; Jakobsen, Henning Sejer

    2015-01-01

    Most practitioners working with innovation agree that business modelling is imperative for their organisations’ survival. Nonetheless, the same practitioners still spend the majority of the time devoted for innovation on their product/process, and only limited time – if any – on exploring new...... or complementing business models. This myopic ‘product/process’ focus is no longer enough for organisations to create new radical breakthroughs in the market(s). Thus, to assist practitioners in changing this behaviour, our paper prescribes a directly implementable method named the vertical innovation process (VIP......) framework. The VIP framework can be used to create different alternatives and variations of business models (pretotypes) when practitioners find themselves between the discovery of a breakthrough and the commercialisation of it....

  14. Non-financial reports, anti-corruption performance and corporate reputation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maider Aldaz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective – This paper analyzes whether the anti-corruption reporting practices of the companies are a reflection of adequate anti-corruption systems put in place by companies, or whether the disclosure is merely a tool for companies to improve their reputation and thus maintain their legitimacy. Design/methodology/approach – We apply the PLS method to the collected data in a content analysis of the sustainability reports of 31 companies within the Ibex 35 in December 2008. Theoretical foundation – In the analysis, we use both the legitimacy theory and the stakeholder theory, because we consider them as complementary theories and consistent with our approach. Findings – The results show that regarding the corruption issue there is a negative relationship between disclosure and performance, that is, companies with poor performance disclose more. On the other hand, the results reflect the existence of a positive relationship between disclosure and reputation, i.e. report information to interested parties enhances the perception of stakeholders about the company. This finding could be justified by the above two theories. However, we can’t conclude that companies with good performance disclose information to key stakeholders in order to strengthen relations, as stated by the stakeholder theory. Practical implications – this study provides evidence of how companies use non-financial reporting-specifically anti-corruption data- to improve corporate reputation. It is also noted that reporting practices not necessarily have to be in accordance with the actual anti-corruption practices of firms.

  15. Corruption Cases Mapping Based on Indonesia’s Corruption Perception Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noerlina; Wulandhari, L. A.; Sasmoko; Muqsith, A. M.; Alamsyah, M.

    2017-01-01

    Government plays an important role in nation economic growth. Nevertheless, there are still many occurrences of government officers abusing their offices to do an act of corruption. In this order, the central government should pay attention to every area in the nation to avoid corruption case. Meanwhile, the news media always constantly preach about corruption case, this makes the news media relevant for being one of the sources of measurement of corruption perception index (CPI). It is required to map the corruption case in Indonesia so the central government can pay attention to every region in Indonesia. To develop the mapping system, researchers use Naïve Bayes Classifier to classify which news articles talk about corruption and which news articles are not, before implementing a Naïve Bayes Classifier there are some text processing such as tokenizing, stopping, and stemming.

  16. An Exploration of Leadership in Virtual Communities of Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John T. Chrisentary

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This qualitative phenomenological research study represents the personal and professional lived experiences of midlevel leaders’ effective management of virtual committees of practice (VCoP in medical device companies in the Atlanta metro area. In-depth interviews were conducted with 15 leaders of VCoP from different medical device functional specialties. The study used a combination of the modified van Manen (1990 and van Kaam methods (Moustakas, 1994 to facilitate the analysis of the data gathered through in-depth interviews. This method served as the template for data collection and analysis. The research study revealed common themes after an analysis of data. Six emergent themes were identified: (a empowerment, (b communication, (c trust, (d encouragement/inspiration, (e integrity, and (f connecting with individuals. The research findings revealed a leadership model that relies on the development of genuine leaders/follower relationships to lead a VCoP effectively.

  17. Teaching exploration and practice of the human body structure course

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng LI; Ming-feng CHEN; Wen-long DING

    2015-01-01

    In the 21 st century,the medical model has transformed from the biological model to the biopsycho-social medical model. The transformation of medical model raises higher requirements for the training of medical staff. Comprehensive promotion of the reform of medical education has become the consensus and trend,which breeds the integrated medical teaching that is based on modules and organ systems. As one of eight integrated modules,the human body structure course of Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine introduces morphological structures of normal human organs according to function systems( such as locomotor system,digestive system,angiological system,and nervous system) of human organs and parts of human body. This course endeavors to integrate theories with practices,contents of disciplines of basic medicine,and basic medicine with clinical medicine. The human body structure course combines basic medicine with clinical medicine and is an important part of medical science.

  18. Systemic and Non-Systemic Corruption in Education: the Game Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skrypnyk Andrii V.

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to analyze the existing practices of corruption in higher education and their impact on its quality index as well as develop recommendations on their overcoming. Game methods to analyze the corrupt interaction in the process of getting education are proposed. There identified two categories of lecturers taking bribes: professional bribe-takers and amateurs. It is emphasized that the existence of professionals is only possible under conditions of systemic corruption when part of the risk is passed on to the university administration. The activity of amateurs is analyzed using gaming technologies. The payoff matrices of the student and the teacher are built, the latter includes the likelihood of detection and possible punishment for corruption. It is shown that under current conditions there is saddle point when both the student and the teacher use illegal strategies. The transition to a mixed strategy is possible only in case of a significant increase in the probability of detecting acts of corruption on the part of the teacher or the increase of the size of punishment for corruption. Significant improvements are possible in the case when the population will change views on the effectiveness of knowledge as a source of human capital.

  19. THE APPLE DOES NOT FALL FAR FROM THE TREE: CAN SOCIETY CORRUPT POLICE OFFICIALS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. T. Mofokeng

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available It is argued that police officers commonly present what they consider to be anacceptable face to researchers regarding the cause and extent of police corruptionwithin their respective law enforcement agencies. This ‘self-censorship’ can be achallenge to obtaining a reliable view of police officers’ occupational, informaland personal perceptions. Empirical research on police corruptive practices inSouth Africa highlights the problem which seems to be persistent in the SouthAfrican Police Service (SAPS. Though a number of factors combine to makereliable estimates of the number of officials engaging in misconduct difficult toobtain, the sheer number of individuals working in the SAPS suggest the scope ofthe problem. In order to get beyond some of these familiar tropes given the stigmaattached to corruption, in-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted withkey informants from the public in the three provinces of South Africa namely;Gauteng, KwaZulu-Natal and Western Cape to solicit their views regarding theconcept ‘corrupting society’ as to determine, if society does corrupt the police.The findings indicated that while some pockets of excellence have been attainedtowards improving police-public relations, the other ‘side of the coin’ poses risksto the SAPS as corrupt friendship bonds with friends and associates within thecommunities the police serve, causes profound organisational problems to reducepolice corruption. In the face of recent media scrutiny regarding how at thenational level, some of the former National Commissioners were implicated bythe media to have received kickbacks due to their close associations with someinfluential families, implies a concern of far greater complexity than the ordinaryexchanges of accusation and defence regarding a ‘corrupting society’ and ‘corrupted police officials’ are likely to reveal. The author provided possiblerecommendations emanating from the findings.

  20. Uncovering High-Level Corruption: Cross-National Objective Corruption Risk Indicators Using Public Procurement Data

    OpenAIRE

    Fazekas, Mihaly; Kocsis, G

    2017-01-01

    Measuring high-level corruption is subject to extensive scholarly and policy interest, which has achieved moderate progress in the last decade. This article develops two objective proxy measures of high-level corruption in public procurement: single bidding in competitive markets and a composite score of tendering ‘red flags’. Using official government data on 2.8 million contracts in twenty-eight European countries in 2009–14, we directly operationalize a common definition of corruption: unj...

  1. THE POLICY OF GRANTING REMISSION TO CORRUPTION INMATES IN ORDER TO ERADICATE CORRUPTION IN INDONESIA

    OpenAIRE

    M Ali Zaidan

    2016-01-01

    Corruption is an extraordinary crime, even though the laws have been revised and has a more progressive character has also established Anti-Corruption Commission the number of crimes of corruption still do not show any significant change. In the midst of public pessimism, the Ministry of Justice and Human Rights has initiated efforts to revise the Government Regulation Number 99 Year 2012. The tightening of remission meant that the convict is not easy to get their sentences reduced. Attempts ...

  2. THE POLICY OF GRANTING REMISSION TO CORRUPTION INMATES IN ORDER TO ERADICATE CORRUPTION IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Ali Zaidan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Corruption is an extraordinary crime, even though the laws have been revised and has a more progressive character has also established Anti-Corruption Commission the number of crimes of corruption still do not show any significant change. In the midst of public pessimism, the Ministry of Justice and Human Rights has initiated efforts to revise the Government Regulation Number 99 Year 2012. The tightening of remission meant that the convict is not easy to get their sentences reduced. Attempts to revise the provisions concerning remission, it should consider how far can reduce corruption and its impact on inmates and the public

  3. An assessment of the ethical dimensions that impact on corruption

    OpenAIRE

    Napal, Geetanee

    2006-01-01

    This paper addresses the ethical dimensions of corruption. Corruption in the form of bribery is widespread in the developing world and this includes Mauritius. Corruption assessed in absolute terms is unethical. However, if one were to use relativistic views, one would make allowances for ‘mild’ forms of corruption like seeking favours to obtain unwarranted advantages or paying bribes in the form of ‘speed-up gratuities’. Our study shows that in many contexts, acts of corruption are acc...

  4. On Self Selection of the Corrupt into the Public Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banerjee, Ritwik; Baul, Tushi; Rosenblat, Tanya

    Do corrupt people self select themselves in professions where the scope of corruption is high? We conduct a corruption experiment with private sector job aspirants and aspirants of Indian bureaucracy. The game models embezzlement of resources in which “supervisors” evaluate the performance of “wo...... of “workers” and then pay them. We find that aspirant bureaucrats indulge in more corruption than private sector aspirants but the likelihood of being corrupt is same across two sectors....

  5. The transition of corruption: From poverty to honesty

    OpenAIRE

    Gundlach, Erich; Paldam, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Measures of corruption and income are highly correlated across countries. We use prehistoric measures of biogeography as instruments for modern income levels to identify an exogenous long-run income effect. We find that our corruption-free incomes explain the cross-country pattern of corruption just as well as actual incomes. This result suggests that the long-run causality is exclusively from income to corruption. As countries get rich, corruption vanishes and there is a transition of corrup...

  6. The Effects of Corruption in a Monetary Union

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia Fortuny, Judit

    2015-01-01

    Many countries around the world suffer from corruption. In a monetary union, corruption varies from one country to another. It is possible corruption in one country may affect another country in a monetary union. We demonstrate that this feature has important implications in a monetary union with two asymmetric countries. Country 1 has a corrupted government while country 2 does not. Within this framework, we determine under which conditions corruption damages or benefits both countr...

  7. Can corruption favour growth via the composition of government spending?

    OpenAIRE

    Sugata Ghosh; Andros Gregoriou

    2010-01-01

    In an endogenous growth model with two public goods, we analytically derive the optimal composition of government spending in the presence of corruption. Although corruption results in a loss of productivity per se, an increase in corruption in the category of public spending that is harmed relatively more by corruption could have a favourable effect on growth, as it would encourage a benevolent government to divert spending towards the public good that is more productive, net of corruption.

  8. The effectiveness of anti-corruption policy: the Singapore experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinu MANOLE

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Corruption is a problem that needs to be dealt with in both the public and private sectors. Singapore has adopted a comprehensive approach in tackling corruption in both sectors for a long time. The anti‐ corruption successes of Singapore have encouraged the establishment of strong, centralized anti‐corruption agencies across the globe. In this article, it is accentuated the importance of the effectiveness of anti-corruption policy in the general context of public administration in Singapore.

  9. Corruption Around the World: Causes, Consequences, Scope, and Cures

    OpenAIRE

    Vito Tanzi

    1998-01-01

    Corruption is attracting a lot of attention around the world. This paper surveys and discusses issues related to the causes, consequences, and scope of corruption, and possible corrective actions. It emphasizes the costs of corruption in terms of economic growth. It also emphasizes that the fight against corruption may not be cheap and cannot be independent from the reform of the state. If certain reforms are not made, corruption is likely to continue to be a problem regardless of actions dir...

  10. Understanding Tax Corruption in Transition Economies: Evidence from Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Pashev, Konstantin

    2006-01-01

    Measures of corruption are based on the concept of bribes as extra business costs. Drawing evidence from corruption surveys of business and tax service in Bulgaria, this paper looks at the bribe as a price paid by the taxpayer in exchange for income-maximizing services supplied by corrupt tax officials. It distinguishes between corruption for tax evasion and corruption related to excessive voluntary compliance costs. The latter is closer to the concept of bribes as costs imposed on business, ...

  11. Causes of Corruption in Russia: A Disaggregated Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Belousova, Veronika; Rajeev, K. Goel; Korhonen, Iikka

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines determinants of corruption across Russian regions. Key contributions include: (i) a formal study of economic corruption determinants across Russian regions; (ii) comparisons of determinants of perceived corruption versus those of actual corruption; and (iii) studying the influence of market competition and other factors on corruption. The results show that economic prosperity, population, market competition and urbanization are significant determinants of Russian corruptio...

  12. Tax corruption and private sector development in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Ngoc Anh; Doan, Quang Hung; Tran-Nam, Binh

    2017-01-01

    This article aims to examine the impact of tax corruption on private sector development in Vietnam. It is motivated by two separate but related considerations. First, despite the seriousness of the phenomenon of corruption, there is a paucity of rigorous empirical research of corruption, particularly tax corruption, in Vietnam. Secondly, ineffective control of corruption is viewed as a cause of Vietnam’s recent total factor productivity (TFP) slowdown or its poor industrial policy, both of wh...

  13. CORRUPTION IN NIGERIA: A CULTURE OR RETROGRESSIVE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dean SPGS NAU

    and economic phenomenon that affect all facets and the fabric of. Nigerian society. ... ethnic resistant to change, gender inequality, political corruption and the reckless misuse ..... man and the priest who took the bribe died in a mysterious fire.

  14. Korean nuclear industry hit by corruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soo Bin

    2013-12-01

    After a four-month investigation, a court in South Korea has indicted 100 officials and suppliers on corruption charges over bogus safety certifications for parts that were supplied to some of the country's 23 nuclear reactors.

  15. MAINSTREAMING CORRUPTION POVERTY AND DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolaade Omede

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives an outline of Nigeria’s experience on corruption in the context of poverty and Development. It discusses the effects of corruption which are rooted in the political and economic situation of the polity. The challenge of corruption is at the root of our underdevelopment .It has become so pervasive that many essential public projects for which vast sums of money have been paid to concerned contractors have been abandoned. And when such public projects have been completed, their costs are always higher in comparison with the costs of similar projects in other countries. In Nigeria corruption stifle economic growth, reduce economic efficiency and development despite the enormous resources in the country. It depends essentially on data from secondary sources such as books, journal articles, government publications, among other relevant documents. The data were analyzed qualitatively using the descriptive analytical method in order to achieve the primary objective of the paper.

  16. Colonial Taxation, Corruption and Resistance in Igbominaland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Colonial Taxation, Corruption and Resistance in Igbominaland. ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING AJOL · RESOURCES ... While taxation definitely stimulated economic activities in Igbominaland at ...

  17. fighting military corruption in latin america

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    plt

    in corrupt military institutions to move towards an ethical role-modelling environment. ... transparency, according to Klaus9) is not surviving the hard facts and media reports ..... has authority linked to rank; relies on one-way communication –.

  18. History gone wrong: Rousseau on corruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kroupa Gregor

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It can be said that Rousseau is one of the most acute thinkers of the corruption of civilization. In fact, the Second Discourse and the Essay on the Origins of Languages could be read as elaborate analyses of advanc­ing social and cultural decline inasmuch as mankind is continually moving away from the original state of natural innocence. But Rousseau’s idea of corruption is not straightforward. I try to show that in the Essay, Rousseau emphasizes the natural causes for corruption. I argue that an opposition between necessity and contingency, which more accurately represents the two modes operating in Rousseau’s doctrine, should replace the standard nature/culture divide. The contingency of natural catastrophes is found to be ultimately responsible for the corruption in the social realm, which is therefore largely driven by natural causes.

  19. Nurses' experiences and perspectives on medication safety practices: an explorative qualitative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeulers, Marian; Onderwater, Astrid T.; van Zwieten, Myra C. B.; Vermeulen, Hester

    2014-01-01

    To explore nurses' experiences with and perspectives on preventing medication administration errors. Insight into nurses' experiences with and perspectives on preventing medication administration errors is important and can be utilised to tailor and implement safety practices. A qualitative

  20. Does Corruption Affect Income Inequality and Poverty?

    OpenAIRE

    Sanjeev Gupta

    1998-01-01

    This paper demonstrates that high and rising corruption increases income inequality and poverty by reducing economic growth, the progressivity of the tax system, the level and effectiveness of social spending, and the formation of human capital, and by perpetuating an unequal distribution of asset ownership and unequal access to education. These findings hold for countries with different growth experiences, at different stages of development, and using various indices of corruption. An import...

  1. Careers, Connections and Corruption Risks in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charron, Nicholas; Dahlström, Carl; Fazekas, Mihály

    the interplay between politics and bureaucracy. It suggests that corruption risks are minimized when the two groups involved in decision-making on public contracts—politicians and bureau-crats—have known different interests. This is institutionalized when politicians are accountable to the electorate, while.......4 million procurement contracts. Both show a remarkable sub-national variation across Europe. The study finds corruption risks significantly lower where bureau-crats’ careers do not depend on political connections....

  2. Fighting corruption with cultural dynamics: when legal-origins, religious-influences and existing corruption-control levels matter

    OpenAIRE

    Asongu Simplice

    2012-01-01

    Are there different determinants in the fight against corruption across developing countries? Why are some countries more effective at battling corruption than others? To investigate these concerns we examine the determinants of corruption-control throughout the conditional distribution of the fight against corruption using panel data from 46 African countries for the period 2002-2010. Our findings demonstrate that blanket corruption-control policies are unlikely to succeed equally across c...

  3. Bioethics and corruption: a personal struggle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasszauer, Bela

    2013-01-01

    The author attempts to give a general picture of corruption, especially in the area of healthcare. Corruption ranges from fraud, through deceit, bribery and dehumanisation, to immeasurable moral decay. As a bioethicist who has challenged corruption in various ways, the author approaches this worldwide plague mainly on the basis of his personal experience. He does not offer a recipe for successfully combating corruption, but tries to provide some ways and means to fight immorality without self-defeat. Bioethics is not a discipline whose task is to investigate, expose, or punish corrupt people. A number of agencies exist for this "noble" job. Nevertheless, an ethics teacher should not be completely indifferent to obvious and harmful immoral behaviour, regardless of his/her personal compulsions. It is not the "patient rights" that threaten the prestige of the medical profession; it is rather the bad apples that infiltrate the moral mission of this esteemed work. It seems that the hardest challenges in the struggle against corruption are bad laws-laws that provide loopholes and immunity to immoral dealings. In a stable, strong democracy, morally unfounded laws can, and will be changed. Where real democracy exists, they would not even have come into effect.

  4. Fighting corruption – a philosophical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schalk W. Vorster

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Corruption has reached astounding proportions in South Africa. The purpose of this article is to contribute to philosophical approaches aimed at combating corruption. In considering punishment for acts of corruption the most common approach is based on the philosophical theory of consequentialism, which allows only consideration of the consequences of corrupt acts. Ideally, cognisance should be taken of the norms in question, especially those norms demanding the judicious execution of obligations. It was, however, found that the Kantian categorical imperative presupposes an ideal rational society. The imperative has to be ‘softened’ by also allowing for enquiry about the corruptor’s personal circumstances, in the light of Christ’s love commandment. This article highlights the most prominent attributes of two important philosophical theories applicable to the study of corruption, namely utilitarianism (a variant of consequentialism and deontology. It is argued that qualified deontological and utilitistic approaches hold the best promise to curb corruption in the long run. The conclusion is that the state will urgently have to attend to the social context by revitalising programmes of ‘social renewal’, based on effective application of the law, the provision of adequate education and the eradication of poverty. There is also an urgent need for the ‘moral renewal’ of the entire population, focused on Christian values, operationalised within the context of the South Africa of today. Herein lies a massive task for the church.

  5. CORRUPTION IN SOUTH AFRICA: GENESIS AND OUTLOOK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Georgieva Hadji Krsteski

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Corruption in South Africa includes the private use of public resources, bribery and improper favouritism. South Africa scored 45 points out of 100 on the 2016 Corruption Perceptions Index reported by Transparency International. Corruption Index in South Africa averaged 46.97 Points from 1996 until 2016, reaching an all-time high of 56.80 Points in 1996 and a record low of 41 Points in 2011. A tenderpreneur is common corruption in South Africa. It is an individual who enriches themselves through corrupting the awarding of government tender contracts, mostly based on personal connections and corrupt relationships - although outright bribery might also take place - and sometimes involving an elected or politically appointed official (or his or her family members holding simultaneous business interests. This is often accompanied by overcharging and shoddy workmanship. BEE-fronting is an abuse of the rules governing Black Economic Empowerment (BEE, where qualifying persons are given a seat on the Board of Directors of a company while having no decision-making power in the company, in order to qualify the company for government contracts in terms of BEE.

  6. Data Discovery, Exploration, Integration and Delivery - a practical experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, Peter; Barnes, Tim; Breen, Paul

    2010-05-01

    To fully address the questions and issues arising within Earth Systems Science; the discovery, exploration, integration, delivery and sharing of data, metadata and services across potentially many disciplines and areas of expertise is fundamental. British Antarctic Survey (BAS) collects, manages and curates data across many fields of the geophysical and biological sciences (including upper atmospheric physics, atmospheric chemistry, meteorology, glaciology, oceanography, Polar ecology and biology). BAS, through its Polar Data Centre has an interest to construct and deliver a user-friendly, informative, and administratively low overhead interface onto these data holdings. Designing effective interfaces and frameworks onto the heterogeneous datasets described above is non-trivial. We will discuss some of our approaches and implementations; particularly those addressing the following issues: How to aid and guide the user to accurate discovery of data? Many portals do not inform users clearly enough about the datasets they actually hold. As a result the search interface by which a user is meant to discover information is often inadequate and assumes prior knowledge (for example, that the dataset you are looking for actually exists; that a particular event, campaign, research cruise took place; and that you have a specialist knowledge of the terminology in a particular field), assumptions that cannot be made in multi-disciplinary topic areas. How easily is provenance, quality, and metadata information displayed and accessed? Once informed through the portal that data is available it is often extremely difficult to assess its provenance and quality information and broader documentation (including field reports, notebooks and software repositories). We shall demonstrate some simple methodologies. Can the user access summary data or visualizations of the dataset? It may be that the user is interested in some event, feature or threshold within the dataset; mechanisms need

  7. Interventions to reduce corruption in the health sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaitonde, Rakhal; Oxman, Andrew D; Okebukola, Peter O; Rada, Gabriel

    2016-08-16

    about the influence of pharmaceutical companies on their choice of medicines (low certainty of the evidence).A study in the USA, evaluated the effects of introducing a law that required pharmaceutical companies to report the gifts they gave to healthcare workers. Another study in the USA evaluated the effects of a variety of internal control mechanisms used by community health centres to stop corruption. The effects of these strategies is unclear because the evidence was of very low certainty. There is a paucity of evidence regarding how best to reduce corruption. Promising interventions include improvements in the detection and punishment of corruption, especially efforts that are coordinated by an independent agency. Other promising interventions include guidelines that prohibit doctors from accepting benefits from the pharmaceutical industry, internal control practices in community health centres, and increased transparency and accountability for co-payments combined with reduced incentives for informal payments. The extent to which increased transparency alone reduces corruption is uncertain. There is a need to monitor and evaluate the impacts of all interventions to reduce corruption, including their potential adverse effects.

  8. Exploring the Role of Music in Secondary English and History Classrooms through Personal Practical Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goering, Christian Z.; Burenheide, Bradley J.

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the development of utilizing music as a Personal Practical Theory (PPT) in the teaching of English and history. Specifically, the authors explore the nature of PPT's, the benefits of utilizing music, and the process through which teachers begin using a new approach in their pedagogy. Unique contributions are the application…

  9. Exploring Transition to Postgraduate Study: Shifting Identities in Interaction with Communities, Practice and Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobbell, Jane; O'Donnell, Victoria; Zammit, Maria

    2010-01-01

    There has been relatively little research to date that has explored the transition to postgraduate study. This paper reports findings from a project (funded by the UK's Higher Education Academy) that sought to address this gap. The research project was ethnographic and explored university practice and student participation in five UK universities.…

  10. An Exploration of the Role of Occupation in School-Based Occupational Therapy Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Jeryl DiSanti

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the role of occupation in school-based occupational therapy practice. The research questions were (1) How do school-based occupational therapists describe the role of occupation during intervention? (2) Which theories of occupation do school-based occupational therapists associate with their own practice?…

  11. A Classification Framework for Exploring Technology-Enabled Practice--Frame TEP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prestridge, Sarah; de Aldama, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    This article theorizes the construction of a classification framework to explore teachers' beliefs and pedagogical practices for the use of digital technologies in the classroom. There are currently many individual schemas and models that represent both developmental and divergent concepts associated with technology-enabled practice. This article…

  12. Exploring Literacy and Numeracy Teaching in Tanzanian Classrooms: Insights from Teachers' Classroom Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mmasa, Mussa; Anney, Vicent Naano

    2016-01-01

    The study investigated the literacy teaching practices in Tanzanian classrooms in the provision of Primary education. It comprehensively assessed why primary school leavers are graduating without skills of reading, writing and numeracy competencies. Three objectives guided this study, first, was to explore teachers classroom practices in the…

  13. Enriching Practical Knowledge : Exploring Student teachers’ Competences in Integrating Theory and Practice of Mathematics Teaching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oonk, W.; Verloop, N.; Gravemeijer, K.P.E.

    2015-01-01

    This study concentrated on the theory–practice problem in mathematics teacher education. We examined 13 student teachers’ use of theory when they reflected on teaching practice in a class specifically designed to optimize the chance for theory use. We developed a Reflection Analysis Instrument with

  14. Exploring science teachers' perceptions of experimentation: implications for restructuring school practical work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Bing; Li, Xiaoxiao

    2017-09-01

    It is commonly recognised that practical work has a distinctive and central role in science teaching and learning. Although a large number of studies have addressed the definitions, typologies, and purposes of practical work, few have consulted practicing science teachers. This study explored science teachers' perceptions of experimentation for the purpose of restructuring school practical work in view of science practice. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 87 science teachers at the secondary school level. In the interviews, science teachers were asked to make a comparison between students' experiments and scientific experiments. Eight dimensions of experimentation were generated from the qualitative data analysis, and the distributions of these eight dimensions between the two types of experiments were compared and analysed. An ideal model of practical work was suggested for restructuring practical work at the secondary school level, and some issues related to the effective enactment of practical work were discussed.

  15. Corruption - a Relevant Factor in the International Economic Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George DIMOFTE

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Corruption is divided into small low-level corruption and high-level corruption. Small level little corruption is defined as the area of corruption which does not prejudice the interests of the majority of individuals. This category can be covered by a health care professional, the corruption of a clerk, etc through their decisions is an individual or group of individuals at the expense of others, but this kind of injustice is limited in time and space. Corruption, means high-level corruption of a dignitary, clerk, etc. This kind of corruption and the main effect over the entire State characteristic and the individuals who compose it. The consequences of this kind of corruption can translate into direct and indirect costs that will be supported in the end by all taxpayers. The objectives of corruption are double: profit and power. The international economic crisis has its origin in the manifestations of high level corruption in the governments of different countries. All the state now have to fight against corruption in order to settle new rules to avoid the effects af the crisis and to prevent a deepening of this crisis with devastating effects upon tha population. Here we try to emphasize the importance that we all should give corruption and measures had to be taken by everyone.

  16. Using Appreciative Inquiry to Explore the Professional Practice of a Lecturer in Higher Education: Moving towards Life-Centric Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, David; Kung, Susie

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on a strategy for exploring the life-centric practice of a lecturer in Higher Education. The initiative for this inquiry arose out of the realisation that there did not appear to be positive, heart-lifting stories in a lecturer's current teaching experiences. Using an appreciative eye and supported by a critical friend,…

  17. Grassroots origins, national engagement: exploring the professionalization of practicing healthcare ethicists in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frolic, Andrea

    2012-09-01

    Canadian ethicists have a long legacy of leadership in advocating for standards and quality in healthcare ethics. Continuing this tradition, a grassroots organization of practicing healthcare ethicists (PHEs) concerned about the lack of standardization in the field recently formed to explore potential options related to professionalization. This group calls itself "practicing healthcare ethicists exploring professionalization" (PHEEP). This paper provides a description of the process by which PHEEP has begun to engage the Canadian PHE community in the development of practice standards and related projects. By making our process and its ethical and cultural underpinnings transparent, we hope to prompt PHEs around the world to reflect on the importance of context, process and principles (not just outcomes) in the exploration of and possible movement towards professionalization. By sharing some of our key successes and challenges, we also hope to inspire our colleagues to recognize the value in developing practice standards and to contribute to this endeavor.

  18. Subornation in struggle against corruption: dialectic contradiction and ways out of it

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Fedorovich Milyukov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective to consider the issue of efficiency of anticorruption policy and criminal law in corruption counteraction primarily bribery. Methods systemic method general scientific methods structuralfunctional analysis comparison logical method content analysis of the practice of the courts and the mass media. Results the authors critically evaluated the existing state of affairs in corruption counteraction and grounded the necessity of the exception from the Russian Criminal Code of the norm stipulated by Article 304 quotEntrapment for a bribe or commercial subornationquot as not corresponding to the modern criminological realities. At the same time the successful corruption counteraction including its most dangerous and widespread manifestation ndash bribery requires a nonstandard approach one part of which could be the legalization of a norm of legitimate provocation. Scientific novelty the article describes the author39s attitude to the problem of corruption crime counteraction. The use of nonstandard hard measures against bribery is justified. Practical significance the possibility to increase the efficiency of the corruption counteraction mechanism through the application of adequate criminallegal measures.

  19. “It Keeps Us from Putting Drugs in Pockets”: How a Public-Private Partnership for Hospital Management May Help Curb Corruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vian, Taryn; McIntosh, Nathalie; Grabowski, Aria

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Health care sector corruption diverts resources that could otherwise be used to improve access to health services. Use of private-sector practices such as a public-private partnership (PPP) model for hospital governance and management may reduce corruption. In 2011, a government-run hospital in Lesotho was replaced by a PPP hospital, offering an opportunity to compare hospital systems and practices. Objective To assess whether a PPP model in a hospital can help curb corruption. Methods We conducted 36 semistructured interviews with key informants between February 2013 and April 2013. We asked about hospital operations and practices at the government-run and PPP hospitals. We performed content analysis of interview data using a priori codes derived from the Corruption in the Health Sector framework and compared themes related with corruption between the hospitals. Results Corrupt practices that were described at the government-run hospital (theft, absenteeism, and shirking) were absent in the PPP hospital. In the PPP hospital, anticorruption mechanisms (controls on discretion, transparency, accountability, and detection and enforcement) were described in four management subsystems: human resources, facility and equipment management, drug supply, and security. Conclusion The PPP hospital appeared to reduce corruption by controlling discretion and increasing accountability, transparency, and detection and enforcement. Changes imposed new norms that supported personal responsibility and minimized opportunities, incentives, and pressures to engage in corrupt practices. By implementing private-sector management practices, a PPP model for hospital governance and management may curb corruption. To assess the feasibility of a PPP, administrators should account for cost savings resulting from reduced corruption. PMID:28746025

  20. "It Keeps Us from Putting Drugs in Pockets": How a Public-Private Partnership for Hospital Management May Help Curb Corruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vian, Taryn; Mcintosh, Nathalie; Grabowski, Aria

    2017-01-01

    Health care sector corruption diverts resources that could otherwise be used to improve access to health services. Use of private-sector practices such as a public-private partnership (PPP) model for hospital governance and management may reduce corruption. In 2011, a government-run hospital in Lesotho was replaced by a PPP hospital, offering an opportunity to compare hospital systems and practices. To assess whether a PPP model in a hospital can help curb corruption. We conducted 36 semistructured interviews with key informants between February 2013 and April 2013. We asked about hospital operations and practices at the government-run and PPP hospitals. We performed content analysis of interview data using a priori codes derived from the Corruption in the Health Sector framework and compared themes related with corruption between the hospitals. Corrupt practices that were described at the government-run hospital (theft, absenteeism, and shirking) were absent in the PPP hospital. In the PPP hospital, anticorruption mechanisms (controls on discretion, transparency, accountability, and detection and enforcement) were described in four management subsystems: human resources, facility and equipment management, drug supply, and security. The PPP hospital appeared to reduce corruption by controlling discretion and increasing accountability, transparency, and detection and enforcement. Changes imposed new norms that supported personal responsibility and minimized opportunities, incentives, and pressures to engage in corrupt practices. By implementing private-sector management practices, a PPP model for hospital governance and management may curb corruption. To assess the feasibility of a PPP, administrators should account for cost savings resulting from reduced corruption.

  1. Exploring reforms while learning to teach science: Facilitating exploration of theory-practice relationships in a teacher education study group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Jacob G.

    This dissertation inserts a new view into an old problem in teacher education. The study explores the theory-practice gap, the large distance between what preservice science teachers experience in schools, are able to enact, and are told they should hold themselves to in their practice. It does so by narrowing the focus of analysis to a secondary science study group and examining how the facilitator uses sociocultural constructivism to promote discussion. The analysis surfaces key communicative moves made by the facilitator and preservice teachers that yield fruitful discussion of theory-practice relationships. Additionally, the study's use of discourse analysis as a methodology and intertextuality as a conceptual framework opens new directions for applied sociolinguistic research and scholarship in science teacher education. Findings from the study focus on what was discussed and how explorations of theory-practice relationships were facilitated. Preservice teachers in the study group engaged in meaningful conversations about constructivist theory and its application to their students and teaching of science. They discussed many science education topics such as planning science lessons that actively engage students, assessment of content understanding, and management of content-based activities. Discussions of broader science education goals, including implementation of inquiry or development of collaborative communities, were not promoted. Examination of the facilitation illuminates a number of strategies found to be helpful in supporting these explorations. This study shows that facilitation can successfully support preservice teachers to construct understanding of social constructivist assumptions underlying the National Science Education Standards (NSES), as well as a few components of the Standards themselves. The focus on the underlying assumptions suggests that science teacher education should focus on these so that preservice teachers can build a strong

  2. How to Prevent Corruption Without Affecting Efficiency? An Overview of Safeguard Measures for Contracting Out Public Services

    OpenAIRE

    Roger E. HAMLIN; Bianca COBÂRZAN

    2006-01-01

    The paper addresses the issue of finding the right balance between regulatory oversight, decision-making flexibility and reliance on market forces to safeguard the contracting-out process from corruption. The paper analyses the corrupt practices associated with contracting out local public services and the causes and consequences of this behavior. Taking into consideration new anticorruption strategies, we make recommendations for attaining equilibrium between flexible safeguard measures and ...

  3. China's Land Market Auctions: Evidence of Corruption?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Hongbin; Henderson, J Vernon; Zhang, Qinghua

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies the urban land market in China in 2003-2007. In China, all urban land is owned by the state. Leasehold use rights for land for (re)development are sold by city governments and are a key source of city revenue. Leasehold sales are viewed as a major venue for corruption, prompting a number of reforms over the years. Reforms now require all leasehold rights be sold at public auction. There are two main types of auction: regular English auction and an unusual type which we call a "two stage auction". The latter type of auction seems more subject to corruption, and to side deals between potential bidders and the auctioneer. Absent corruption, theory suggests that two stage auctions would most likely maximize sales revenue for properties which are likely to have relatively few bidders, or are "cold", which would suggest negative selection on property unobservables into such auctions. However, if such auctions are more corruptible, that could involve positive selection as city officials divert hotter properties to a more corruptible auction form. The paper finds that, overall, sales prices are lower for two stage auctions, and there is strong evidence of positive selection. The price difference is explained primarily by the fact that two stage auctions typically have just one bidder, or no competition despite the vibrant land market in Chinese cities.

  4. Ballet as Somatic Practice: A Case Study Exploring the Integration of Somatic Practices in Ballet Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Tanya

    2017-01-01

    This case study explores one teacher's integration of Alexander Technique and the work of neuromuscular retrainer Irene Dowd in ballet pedagogy to establish a somatic approach to teaching, learning, and performing ballet technique. This case study highlights the teacher's unique teaching method called IMAGE TECH for dancers (ITD) and offers…

  5. Innovators' vs Non-innovators' perceptions of corruption in European post-transition economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerija Botrić

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to analyse whether innovators perceive corruption to be systematically more important than non-innovators across different post-transition EU countries. Design/methodology/approach –We use the Business Environment Survey (BEEPS V data. The sample consists of 3,716 firms from the post-transition EU members (Bulgaria, Romania, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Croatia, Slovakia, Hungary, Czech Republic, Slovenia and Estonia. We first estimate simple matching model, specifically, average treatment effect of the treated (ATT framework. In order to explore the determinants of the innovation activity of the firms in the analysed countries, conditional on the fact that they consider the corruption to be important obstacle for their business activity, we employ the Heckman probit procedure. Findings – The results imply that there is a link between innovation activity of the firms, perceptions of corruption and the evaluation of innovation enabling specificities in the analysed countries. Research limitations/implications – Although the results confirm that in most of the analysed countries innovative firms perceive corruption to be major impediment for their business activity, based on this analysis we cannot argue that innovation activity would be higher if corruption perceptions were lower in the analysed countries. Originality/value – The results suggest that, in order to boost innovation, not only traditional innovation-supporting policy measures should be considered, but also wider spectrum of activities oriented towards business climate improvement.

  6. Creative reflections on Enhancing Practice 16: new explorations, insights and inspirations for practice developers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debbie Baldie

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available It began two years ago, then Arriving in Edinburgh the enthusiasm abounds. The first day arrives – oozing anticipation. Great to gather old friends, new friends; Clans and clever creativity, having fun Energy in the room, creating, innovating, Creative ways transforming minds, creating impact. The International Practice Development Collaborative (IPDC is loose network of practice developers, academics and researchers who are committed to working together to develop healthcare practice. The IPDC believes that the aim of practice development is to work with people to develop person-centred cultures that are dignified, compassionate and safer for all. One of its four pillars of work is a biennial Enhancing Practice conference. Moving round the world, the IPDC members take it in turns to host the conference; in early September 2016 it was the turn of Queen Margaret University (QMU in Edinburgh. This article has been created collaboratively by a number of the people who attended this three-day conference. The IPDJ team invited participants to offer ‘the line of a poem’ that captured or reflected their experience and/or learning. These were then collected and shared, and together we created a series of poems and a collection of haiku (a three-line Japanese poem with 17 syllables, 5-7-5. Other participants have subsequently offered reflections, which we would also like to share with you here. We offer this article to you, as a celebration of our time together; our learning, connections and creating, in the hope that there might be some learning in here for you and that you may consider joining us at our next conference in Basel, Switzerland in 2018.

  7. Corruption kills: estimating the global impact of corruption on children deaths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanf, Matthieu; Van-Melle, Astrid; Fraisse, Florence; Roger, Amaury; Carme, Bernard; Nacher, Mathieu

    2011-01-01

    Information on the global risk factors of children mortality is crucial to guide global efforts to improve survival. Corruption has been previously shown to significantly impact on child mortality. However no recent quantification of its current impact is available. The impact of corruption was assessed through crude Pearson's correlation, univariate and multivariate linear models coupling national under-five mortality rates in 2008 to the national "perceived level of corruption" (CPI) and a large set of adjustment variables measured during the same period. The final multivariable model (adjusted R(2)= 0.89) included the following significant variables: percentage of people with improved sanitation (p.valueCorruption Perception Index (p.valuecorruption) was associated with an increase in the log of national under-five mortality rate of 0.0644. According to this result, it could be roughly hypothesized that more than 140000 annual children deaths could be indirectly attributed to corruption. Global response to children mortality must involve a necessary increase in funds available to develop water and sanitation access and purchase new methods for prevention, management, and treatment of major diseases drawing the global pattern of children deaths. However without paying regard to the anti-corruption mechanisms needed to ensure their proper use, it will also provide further opportunity for corruption. Policies and interventions supported by governments and donors must integrate initiatives that recognise how they are inter-related.

  8. Bureaucracy and Corruption in Public Sector Accounting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luminiţa IONESCU

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Bureaucracy and corruption represent major causes of fiscal crises, and structural unemployment all over the world. According to WEF 2014 Global Risk Report, the bureaucracy has a high level in European countries and appreciation is growing that high historical rates of economic progress, especially those experienced by emerging markets, may not be sustainable in the future.  Corruption is growing in a changing global environment and is considered one of the most important geopolitical risks. Most of the time, corruption is associated with fraud and money laundering. European growing cities and public administration have a strong influence over bureaucracy in public sector accounting and more time to process the accounting and fiscal information.

  9. Effect of Corrupt Behavior of the Forestry Bureaucrats on the Forest Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudarsono Soedomo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available 800x600 This article show that corrupt bureaucrats do not always result in a negative effect on the forest sustainability. Even under a certain condition, a corrupt behavior may result in a positive effect on the forest sustainability. An inappropriate policy is more important a cause of the forest sustainability than a corrupt behavior. Therefore, fixing this structural mistake needs to be prioritized in combating the forest destruction, for this structural mistake is the real primary cause of the forest destruction in Indonesia. Fixing this structural mistake is much more effective in combating the forest destruction than finding honest bureaucrats. Keywords:     Birokrat, Distortionary, Nondistortionary, Kelestarian, Korup. Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4

  10. Satirical drama, political corruption and development implications for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Satirical drama, political corruption and development implications for Nigeria: a reflection on Ola Rotimi's Our husband has gone mad again. ... The corrupt tendencies of this select few, which come in various forms, have ... from 32 Countries:.

  11. The Economic Cost of Corruption: A Survey and New Evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dreher, A.; Herzfeld, T.

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews the empirical literature on the economic costs of corruption. Corruption affects economic growth, the level of GDP per capita, investment activity, international trade and price stability negatively. Additionally, it biases the composition of government expenditures. The second

  12. EFFECT OF POLITICAL LEADERSHIP ON THE CORRUPTION IN THE STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VORONOV Oleksandr

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Globalization has led to the fact that corruption in one country can affect the situation in other states. A number of top managers worldwide who are willing to pay bribes to keep or expand their business is increasing. However, the most common and dangerous corruption is in the government structures and corruption that associated with the use of administrative resources. The level of corruption in Ukraine is very high and remained stable for the past ten years. One of the factors of increasing corruption in Ukraine is considered the problem of political leadership. Using the Y.Engvalya theory of corruption allows re-evaluating mass and rationality of what is happening, indicates the fallacy of traditionally definition of corruption as unacceptable for majority. Existing corruption model today can be recognized as a widespread one, which significantly increases the role of political leadership. Implementation of new management standards is an important task for many states.

  13. Corrupción pública/Public corruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idalia Patricia Espinosa Leal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to explain what you meant by corruption, expose theories, analyze the classifications, manifest expressions of public corruption and institutional review and Mexican federal law used to fight against it.

  14. IMPACT OF CORRUPTION ON FARM PRODUCTION AND PROFIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asif Reza Anik

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available By analyzing experiences of 210 rice farmers belonging to six villages of six different districts in Bangladesh this article estimates the impact of corruption on farm production and profit. Unlike existing literature corruption here is defined in broader term. Both explicit and implicit cost items are included while calculating the cost of corruption. Through estimating the marginal physical product of fertilizer, a relative impact of corruption on farm production is estimated. Then by hypothesizing different scenarios with different levels of corruption, changes in a farmer's benefit cost ratio is estimated. It has been observed that with reducing cost of corruption farmers observe higher benefit cost ratio and vice versa. Cost of corruption is found to be relatively higher in restricted input market situation and relatively lower when the market is more competitive. Thus our results are suggestive for competitive market policy to reduce corruption which will ultimately result in more farm production and profit.

  15. Accountability and Corruption in Argentina During the Kirchners’ Era

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manzetti, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    centralized authority in the name of expanding government intervention in the economy. In both cases, corruption has tended to go unchecked due to insufficient government accountability. Therefore, although economic policies and political rhetoric have changed dramatically, government corruption remains...

  16. 45 CORRUPTION, THE STATE AND THE CHALLENGE OF SOCIAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    development theory which focuses mainly on socio-economic factors. Another approach ... corruption and the social instability that plagues the country. A healthier ... Corruption, the State and the Challenge of Social Stability in Nigeria - Rev.

  17. ANTI-CORRUPTION MEASURES FOR CORPORATE SECURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Georgieva Hadji Krsteski

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Corporate security should commit to ethical management and raising the quality of companies and markets through improving cooperation and transparency by applying anticorruption measures such as accepting a code of ethics; respect and follow international business principles for dealing with bribery; improve their transparency - via access to information; involvement in politics to protect persons who disclose corruption cases; and improving corporate governance - through active mutual discussions on adjustment of legal regulations. Research methods used in the paper are: qualitative analysis of secondary data obtained from relevant institutions. Results obtained from the survey include fighting corruption in corporations must find a unique solution that is long-term strategy developed transparent society crucial criteria and principles to meet the political criteria by the fulfillment of anti-corruption standards; it requires continuous cooperation of public and private sector, NGOs and the general corpus of all stakeholders in the country against corruption; the lack of a legal framework or platform for establishing public and private partnerships, is an important factor for anti-corruption measures to improve corporate governance; mechanisms for cooperation does not seem sufficiently developed between the public, private, political and civil society; the most important factor to tackle corruption is to adopt a law on public prosecutors and determination of higher norms and standards. Conclusions drawn from the survey: in the area of pre-trial procedure requires shifting responsibilities of Interior Ministry body training in the area of the judicial system; it is necessary to change the Criminal Code and Criminal Procedure Code by changing certain legal provisions which refer to the Agency for money laundering SCCP, a financial police and overall legislation.

  18. Exploring whether student nurses report poor practice they have witnessed on placements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellefontaine, Nerys

    While literature suggests that nurses report incidents or potentially unsafe care delivery, there is little evidence on student nurses' practice in this area. To explore the factors that influence student in reporting concerns about practice. A qualitative study was carried out using a phenomenological approach, based on semi-structured interviews with six student nurses. Student nurses said they do not always report potentially unsafe practice they have witnessed. Four main themes were identified: the student-mentor relationship in clinical placement; actual or potential support provided by both the practice area and university; students' own personal confidence and professional knowledge base; and fear of failing clinical placements. The nursing profession needs to take stock of current organisational culture and practice, and address issues around reporting in practice. Recommendations are made to improve mentorship, nurse training and for further research.

  19. On systematization of anti-corruption work in the Russian Federation subjects under the modern conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor I. Bikeev

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective scientific and legal evaluation of new corruption counteraction tools in the Russian Federation subjects stipulated by the Decree of the President of the Russian Federation No. 364 of 15 July 2015 and proposals for their use and improvement. Methods dialectical systemic and synergistic methods as general scientific methods of cognition formaljuridical analysis of documents expert assessments linguistic as private scientific methods of cognition. Results the authors assess the legal regulation and organization of activity of commissions for the coordination of corruption counteraction in the Russian Federation subjects and their authorities on corruption and other offences prevention and propose measures for their improvement. Scientific novelty for the first time after the adoption of the Decree of the President of the Russian Federation No. 364 of 15 July 2015 the main directions to improve the regional subjects of corruption counteraction are defined. Practical significance the organizational and legal measures are proposed for improving and ensuring the activities of regional subjects of corruption counteraction.

  20. Uncovering the Transnational Networks, Organisational Techniques and State-Corporate Ties Behind Grand Corruption: Building an Investigative Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristian Lasslett

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available While grand corruption is a major global governance challenge, researchers notably lack a systematic methodology for conducting qualitative research into its complex forms. To address this lacuna, the following article sets out and applies the corruption investigative framework (CIF, a methodology designed to generate a systematic, transferable approach for grand corruption research. Its utility will be demonstrated employing a case study that centres on an Australian-led megaproject being built in Papua New Guinea’s capital city, Port Moresby. Unlike conventional analyses of corruption in Papua New Guinea, which emphasise its local characteristics and patrimonial qualities, application of CIF uncovered new empirical layers that centre on transnational state-corporate power, the ambiguity of civil society, and the structural inequalities that marginalise resistance movements. The important theoretical consequences of the findings and underpinning methodology are explored.

  1. Utilities reforms and corruption in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estache, Antonio; Goicoechea, Ana; Trujillo, Lourdes

    2009-01-01

    This paper shows empirically that 'privatization' in the energy, telecommunications, and water sectors, and the introduction of independent regulators in those sectors, have not always had the expected effects on access, affordability, or quality of services. It also shows that corruption leads to adjustments in the quantity, quality, and price of services consistent with the profit-maximizing behavior that one would expect from monopolies in the sector. Finally, our results suggest that privatization and the introduction of independent regulators have, at best, only partial effects on the consequences of corruption for access, affordability, and quality of utilities services. (author)

  2. Utilities reforms and corruption in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estache, Antonio [ECARES, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels (Belgium); Goicoechea, Ana [The World Bank, Washington, DC (United States); Trujillo, Lourdes [DAEA, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Centre for Transport Studies, University College of London (United Kingdom)

    2009-06-15

    This paper shows empirically that 'privatization' in the energy, telecommunications, and water sectors, and the introduction of independent regulators in those sectors, have not always had the expected effects on access, affordability, or quality of services. It also shows that corruption leads to adjustments in the quantity, quality, and price of services consistent with the profit-maximizing behavior that one would expect from monopolies in the sector. Finally, our results suggest that privatization and the introduction of independent regulators have, at best, only partial effects on the consequences of corruption for access, affordability, and quality of utilities services. (author)

  3. Exploring the Drivers and Nature of Corporate Social Responsibility Practice from an African Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Hamidu, Aminu Ahmadu; Haron, Md. Harashid; Amran, Azlan

    2016-01-01

    This paper explored the major drivers of CSR practice in Africa. In the process of explaining the nature of CSR it explained the evolutionary trend of CSR through the whole century and also touched on the CSR orientations and a recognised framework for determining the orientations through the four responsibilities or dimensions. The CSR orientations explained the priority accorded to some sets of activities representing the CSR practice of organisations in Africa from different literatures. T...

  4. Corruption in the System of Higher Education: Problems and Ways to Prevent Them

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gostev, A. N.; Demchenko, T. S.; Borisova, E. A.

    2015-01-01

    On the basis of an analysis of the literature, social practice, and the results of a concrete sociological survey, the article examines the main problems of education in Russia today, the ways they are conditioned by corruption, and possible solutions. [This article was translated by Kim Braithwaite.

  5. The Issue of Corruption Crimes in the Sphere of Natural Resources Protection (Criminology Aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuznetsov A. V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the manifestations of corruption in the field of natural resources’ protection. The author gives examples of investigative and judicial practices, suggests the ways of improving legislation in law enforcement optimization in this sphere.

  6. Corruption and government spending : The role of decentralization

    OpenAIRE

    Korneliussen, Kristine

    2009-01-01

    This thesis points to a possible weakness of the empirical literature on corruption and government spending. That corruption affects the composition of government spending, and in particular that it affects education and health spending adversely, seems to be empirically well established. However, there exist additional literature closely related to corruption and government spending, treating(i) a relationship between corruption and decentralization, and (ii) a relationship between decentral...

  7. A NOTE ON THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CORRUPTION AND GOVERNMENT REVENUE

    OpenAIRE

    Jinyoung Hwang

    2002-01-01

    This paper empirically traces out the impacts of corruption on government revenue. The total amount of government revenue decreases as corruption reduces tax revenues if it contributes to tax evasion, improper tax exemptions or weak tax administration. In addition, corruption may distort the composition of government revenue: that is, a country with a higher level of corruption increases the proportion of international tax revenue rather than domestic tax one as the source of government reven...

  8. Does Everyday Corruption Affect How Russians View their Political Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-22

    2011; Treisman 2011, 2014). At present, though, oil prices have collapsed, wage arrears have recommenced, inflation is high, pensions endangered, and...personal corrupt behavior and political attitudes. We show that participation in everyday corruption lowers a person’s support for the political regime... corruption are less, not more, happy with the regime. Street-level corruption is corrosive of the body politic. Our 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 4

  9. How Does Corruption Affect Public Debt? An Empirical Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Arusha Cooray; Friedrich Schneider

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between corruption and public debt in 106 countries. Results suggest that corruption leads to an increase in public debt. We also investigate if the effect of corruption on pblic debt is increased by government expenditure, the shadow economy and military expenditure. We find that the effect of corruption on public debt is compounded by increased government expenditure and increased size of the shadow economy.

  10. How do Institutions Affect Corruption and the Shadow Economy?

    OpenAIRE

    Axel Dreher; Christos Kotsogiannis; Steve McCorriston

    2005-01-01

    This paper analyzes a simple model that captures the relationship between institutional quality, the shadow economy and corruption. It shows that an improvement in institutional quality reduces the shadow economy and affects the corruption market. The exact relationship between corruption and institutional quality is, however, ambiguous and depends on the relative effectiveness of the institutional quality in the shadow and corruption markets. The predictions of the model are empirically test...

  11. Social impacts of corruption upon community resilience and poverty

    OpenAIRE

    James Lewis

    2017-01-01

    Corruption at all levels of all societies is a behavioural consequence of power and greed. With no rulebook, corruption is covert, opportunistic, repetitive and powerful, reliant upon dominance, fear and unspoken codes: a significant component of the 'quiet violence'. Descriptions of financial corruption in China, Italy and Africa lead into a discussion of 'grand', 'political' and 'petty' corruption. Social consequences are given emphasis but elude analysis; those in Bangladesh and the Philip...

  12. Corruption in international sports and how it may be combatted

    OpenAIRE

    Wolfgang Maennig

    2008-01-01

    This contribution attempts a delimitation of the concept of corruption in sport and gives an overview of topical instances. It is thereby demonstrated why the definition of corruption in sport is especially problematic. The causes of the corruption and their social costs are analysed. The anti-corruption measures of the Amateur International Boxing Association (AIBA) and the German Football Association (DFB) are described. These are based on two fundamentally different approaches and can be r...

  13. LEGEND Analytical Paper 1: Tackling corruption in land governance

    OpenAIRE

    Koechlin, Lucy; Quan, Julian; Mulukutla, Hari

    2016-01-01

    International surveys such as the Global Corruption Barometer and the East African Bribery Index have shown that institutions responsible for land management are among the most corrupt. The paper analyses the causes, types and effects of corruption in land governance and provides evidence-based recommendations on how governments, donors and the private sector can address land corruption, with a particular focus on Sub-Saharan Africa. It identifies prevalence of discretionary power within land...

  14. Media Exposé of Judicial Corruption in Ghana: Ethical and Theological Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adwoa S. Amankwah

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Article 162, subsection 5, of the 1992 Constitution of Ghana state s that “all agencies of the mass media shall, at all times, be free to uphold the principles, provisions and objectives of this constitution, and shall uphold the responsibility and accountability of the Government to the people of Ghana”. Using this constitutional provision that gives the media the power to serve as one of the agents to ensure accountability, this article discusses the media exposé of judicial corruption in Ghana by using the recent video evidence of the investigative journalist, Anas. The article considers issues of judicial corruption, the causes, consequences as well as their ethical and theological dimensions. It posits that those who pervert justice through corrupt practices, will eventually be named and shamed. The article concludes t hat when the media play their role by respecting high journalistic standards, the cause of justice will be served.

  15. Media Exposé of Judicial Corruption in Ghana: Ethical and Theological Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adwoa S. Amankwah

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Article 162, subsection 5, of the 1992 Constitution of Ghana state s that “all agencies of the mass media shall, at all times, be free to uphold the principles, provisions and objectives of this constitution, and shall uphold the responsibility and accountability of the Government to the people of Ghana”. Using this const itutional provision that gives the media the power to serve as one of the agents to ensure accountability, this article discusses the media exposé of judicial corruption in Ghana by using the recent video evidence of the investigative journalist, Anas. The article considers issues of judicial corruption, the causes, consequences as well as their ethical and theological dimensions. It posits that those who pervert justice through corrupt practices, will eventually be named and shamed. The article concludes t hat when the media play their role by respecting high journalistic standards, the cause of justice will be served.

  16. Corruption and Entrepreneurship in Kenya | Ngunjiri | Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the impact of corruption on entrepreneurship in Kenya. The findings indicate that when formal institutions are inefficient corruption which subverts these institutions is beneficial in terms of economic development. Conversely, where formal institutions are relatively efficient, corruption is detrimental.

  17. Corruption in the Nigerian healthcare system | Buowari | Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Corruption is the use of public resources for private gain. This is common in most countries though reduced in some and alarming in others. It affects all sectors of the economy and the healthcare system is not spared. Medical corruption is increasing in countries with high rates of corruption and all healthcare professionals ...

  18. Corruption in Organizations: Ethical Climate and Individual Motives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madelijne Gorsira

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to examine how organizational and individual factors, in concert, shape corruption. We examined whether the ethical climate of organizations is related to corruption, and if so, whether it affects corruption through individual motives for corruption. A large-scale questionnaire study was conducted among public officials (n = 234 and business employees (n = 289 who were in a position to make corrupt decisions. The findings suggest that public and private sector employees who perceive their organizational climate as more egoistic and less ethical are more prone to corruption. This relationship was fully mediated by individual motives, specifically by personal and social norms on corruption. These results indicate that employees who perceive their organization’s ethical climate as more egoistic and less ethical experience weaker personal and social norms to refrain from corruption, making them more corruption-prone. Hence, strategies addressing the interplay between organizational factors and individual motives seem promising in curbing corruption. To effectively withhold employees from engaging in corruption, organizations could deploy measures that strengthen an organizations’ ethical climate and encourage ethical decision-making based on concern for the wellbeing of others, as well as measures increasing the strength of personal and social norms to refrain from corruption.

  19. Evolution of cooperation in a hierarchical society with corruption control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Feng; Chen, Xiaojie; Wang, Long

    2018-07-14

    Punishment is widely recognized as a potential promoter in sustaining or even enhancing public cooperation, but it meanwhile induces the problem of second-order free-riders. Particularly, recent evidence shows that costly punishment can be maintained if punishers may engage in corruption. However, how to reduce or eliminate incidents of corruption has been the enduring conundrum in human society. As power asymmetries are associated with hierarchies, we investigate how costly punishment affects the evolution of cooperation in the cases without and with corruption control. In the absence of corruption control, altruistic punishers are incapable of punishing corrupt punishers. Corrupt punishment maintains civilian cooperation but undermines the evolution of altruistic punishment. Otherwise, altruistic punishers can enforce symmetrical or asymmetrical punishment on both corrupt punishers and civilian defectors. In this case, both civilian cooperation and altruistic punishment can be promoted. And as an instrument of corruption control, the policy of asymmetrical punishment is more effective in fostering public cooperation and improving social welfare than symmetrical punishment. Moreover, no matter whether corruption control is considered or not, spiteful corruption that non-cooperative punishers penalize defectors is a more effective form for enhancing cooperation compared with bribery. Our work may thus offer an insight into the effects of corruption on public cooperation and the policy of anti-corruption. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Corruption in Russian Higher Education as Reflected in the Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osipian, Ararat L.

    2008-01-01

    This paper considers corruption in higher education in Russia as reflected in the national media, including such aspects as corruption in admissions to higher education institutions and corruption in administering the newly introduced standardized test. The major focus is on the opinions of the leading figures of the education reform as related to…

  1. On Certain Aspects of Acts of Corruption Countermeasures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamitova, Zhanat A.; Kumarbekkyzy, Zhaniya; Tapenova, Asem R.; Mahanov, Talgat G.

    2016-01-01

    One of the biggest problems of developing countries, including Kazakhstan, is corruption. Corruption significantly decelerates the development of economic and social institutions, which may cause distrust in the authorities and a social crisis. Therefore, fighting corruption is a top-priority task of the government of Kazakhstan; this task…

  2. Why Do People Engage in Corruption? The Case of Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavits, Margit

    2010-01-01

    This study uses survey data for 2004 on the general public (N = 788) and public officials (N = 791) in the young post-communist democracy of Estonia to examine individual-level determinants of corruption. The results indicate that both public officials and citizens are more likely to engage in corruption when they do not define corruption as…

  3. Yoruba proverbs and the anti-corruption crusade in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Corruption is entrenched in the public space in Nigeria. Various attempts by policymakers to stamp out this social cankerworm seem not to be yielding positive results, as more incidences of corruption continue to ravage the polity. This paper therefore contributes to the campaign for anti-corruption in Nigeria by drawing on ...

  4. A Critical Analysis of Corruption and Governance in Nigeria | Ajagun ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We examined the impact of corruption on governance in Nigeria based on an analysis of secondary data. Our analysis showed that corruption has become pervasive and widespread in the Nigeria society; it is a re-occurring decimal in the process of governance. The pervasiveness of corruption has ferociously eroded the ...

  5. The Impact and Consequences of Corruption on the Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is no doubt that corruption has eaten deep into the fabric of the Nigerian society. Successive governments in the country since independence in 1960 had in recognition of the evil of corruption established programmes and agencies to deal with it. These include the War Against Indiscipline and Corruption (WAIC); ...

  6. Analysis of the Reasons and Countermeasures for Academic Corruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xia; Bin, Feng

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a perspective of the various types of academic corruption that is currently running rife in society, a theoretical analysis of the roots of academic corruption, and proposals for a number for countermeasures to put a stop to academic corruption. (Contains 3 notes.) [This article was translated by Ted Wang.

  7. Using Supply, Demand, and the Cournot Model to Understand Corruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayford, Marc D.

    2007-01-01

    The author combines the supply and demand model of taxes with a Cournot model of bribe takers to develop a simple and useful framework for understanding the effect of corruption on economic activity. There are many examples of corruption in both developed and developing countries. Because corruption decreases the level of economic activity and…

  8. Bad leadership and institutional failure: foundation of corruption in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study basically assesses the phenomenal rise of corruption in Nigeria. While the study recognizes the varying perspectives of the causes of corruption among developing nations, the study asserts that the dramatic rise of corruption to the present level of impurity is caused by bad leadership and institutional failure.

  9. The Ethiopian Federal Ethics and Anti-Corruption Commission: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Ethiopian FEACC is a dedicated anti-corruption agency, invested with expansive powers to combat corruption in the country. It was established in 2001 in the context of the accelerated internationalisation of anti-corruption law. The mandate of the FEACC is wide, spanning the prevention, investigation and prosecution ...

  10. The role of museum in curbing corruption in Nigeria | Edet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Corruption is a scandal that has been with human beings from antiquity to the present (Tylor, 1871). It pervades and permeates society. Corruption in Nigeria has assumed a enormous proportion and has constituted a serious national problem. Government put in place some machinery to fight corruption but to no avail.

  11. Corruption and Economic Development in Nigeria: A Theoretical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Corruption and Economic Development in Nigeria: A Theoretical Review. ... By using a theoretical method of analysis, the study reveals that corruption has been a deterrent to economic development in Nigeria. ... Section two discusses the theoretical and conceptual issues in corruption and economic development. Section ...

  12. From workshop to work practice: An exploration of context and facilitation in the development of evidence-based practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Isabelle; Howard, Peter; Larson, Ann; Robertson, Jeanette

    2005-01-01

    This article examines the process of translating evidence into practice using a facilitation model developed by the Western Australian Centre for Evidence Based Nursing and Midwifery. Using the conceptual framework Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services (PARIHS), the aims of the study were (1) to explore the relative and combined importance of context and facilitation in the successful implementation of a new evidence-based clinical practice protocol and (2) to examine the establishment of more lasting change to individuals and organizations that resulted in greater incorporation of the principles of evidence-based practice (EBP). A pre-workshop, semi-structured telephone survey with 16 nurse managers in six rural hospitals; a summative evaluation immediately post-workshop with 54 participants; and follow-up, semi-structured interviews with 23 workshop participants. The contexts in each of the participating hospitals were very different; of the six hospitals, only one had not implemented the new protocol. Five had reviewed their practices and brought them in line with the protocol developed at the workshop. The rate of adoption varied considerably from 2 weeks to months. The participants reported being better informed about EBP in general and were positive about their ability to improve their practice and search more efficiently for best practice information. Underlying motivations for protocol development should be included in the PARIHS framework. IMPLICATIONS FOR EDUCATION: Good facilitation appears to be more influential than context in overcoming the barriers to the uptake of EBP.

  13. Exploring the Principles and Practices of One Teacher of L2 Speaking: The Importance of Reflecting on Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas S. C. Farrell

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Teacher principles encompass a teacher’s stated assumptions, beliefs, and conceptions about acquiring and teaching a second language (L2. Due to the complex and diversified nature of how principles take form, an individual teacher’s principles will influence their judgements, perceptions and instructional decisions, thus affecting the outcome of classroom practices. Exploring teacher principles and their impact on classroom practices and vice versa is an invaluable and necessary component to research in L2 teaching and learning since it plays an influential role in instructional outcomes.This paper explores the nature of the principles/practice relationship through an investigative case study with an ESL teacher of L2 speaking. Additionally, the results of research on principles and practices related to L2 teaching when conducted by academics rarely gets back to teachers in the front lines. Thus the researchers shared their findings with the teacher who as a result of reflecting on the analysis came up with a set of principles she says guides her teaching of L2 speaking.

  14. Getting Real: Exploring the Perceived Disconnect between Education Theory and Practice in Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketter, Jean; Stoffel, Brian

    2008-01-01

    This article, inspired in part by the Levine report that criticizes teacher education programs in the United States for being out of touch with practices that work in real classrooms, is a self-study that explores the rift between educational theory, particularly theory that pushes for social constructionist, child-centered approaches to teaching,…

  15. Student-Faculty Partnership in Explorations of Pedagogical Practice: A Threshold Concept in Academic Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook-Sather, Alison

    2014-01-01

    Student-faculty partnerships position students as informants, participants, and change agents in collaboration with faculty members. Enacting one form of such collaboration, Bryn Mawr College's SaLT program pairs faculty members and undergraduate students in explorations of pedagogical practice. The program provides both context and case study for…

  16. Exploring a Pluralist Understanding of Learning for Sustainability and Its Implications for Outdoor Education Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulus, Susanne C.

    2016-01-01

    This article explores a pluralist understanding of learning for sustainability in educational theory and relates it to outdoor education practice. In brief, this kind of learning can be described as a deep engagement with an individual's multiple identities and the personal location in diverse geo-physical and socio-cultural surroundings. I…

  17. Exploring the Classroom Practices That May Enable a Compassionate Approach to Financial Literacy Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blue, Levon Ellen; O'Brien, Mia; Makar, Katie

    2018-01-01

    From an early age, children are faced with financial dilemmas and are expected to make effective financial decisions about money. In this paper, we explore the classroom practices that may enable a compassionate approach to financial literacy education. We observed an inquiry-based mathematics lesson in a Year 4 primary school classroom. The…

  18. Exploring Uyghur University Students' Identities Constructed through Multilingual Practices in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaoyan; Gu, Mingyue

    2018-01-01

    This article explores how a cohort of tertiary-level Uyghur students contested and negotiated their identities through multilingual practices in the receiving community. Drawing upon interview data from fieldwork, this study indicates that these students experienced essentialist understandings and negative views in the host society. Participants…

  19. Exploring the Disjunctures between Theory and Practice in Community College Visual Arts Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Arnold

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the perceptions of ten community college visual arts faculty in five different community college settings with regard to the theory and practice disjunctures they were experiencing in their roles as instructors teaching foundational level courses within visual arts programs. The study illuminated the responses of community…

  20. Exploring the Complex Interplay of National Learning and Teaching Policy and Academic Development Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Academic developers are important interpreters of policy, yet little research has focussed on the interplay of policy and academic development practice. Using methods from critical discourse analysis, this article analyses a national learning and teaching policy, charts its development, and explores its interpretation by the academic development…

  1. Science and Religion on the Blackboard: Exploring Schoolmasters' Beliefs and Practices in Senegal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croché, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    This article treats the various forms of adjustment between scientific and religious discourses at school. It aims to analyse the beliefs and practices of schoolmasters and to explore how the oppositions between the "dominant" discourses of Western science and those of religion are addressed in secondary education in Senegal. The…

  2. An Exploration of Supply Chain Management Practices in the Central District Municipality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambe, I. M.

    2009-01-01

    The main objective of the paper is to explore supply chain management practices in the Central District Municipality, North West province of South Africa, using the grounded theory methodology. Supply chain management was introduced in the South African public sector to alleviate deficiencies related to governance, interpretation and…

  3. Identity Exploration in the Dating Domain: The Role of Attachment Dimensions and Parenting Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittman, Joe F.; Kerpelman, Jennifer L.; Soto, Janet B.; Adler-Baeder, Francesca M.

    2012-01-01

    We examined relations among perceived parenting practices (support and psychological control), attachment dimensions for romantic relationships (anxiety and avoidance) and exploration of the dating identity among actively dating adolescents in two high school aged samples. In the all female sample of Study 1 (n = 653) and the gender balanced…

  4. Exploring the Borderlands: Elementary School Teachers' Navigation of Immigration Practices in a New Latino Diaspora Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Sarah; Link, Holly

    2016-01-01

    Drawing primarily on interview data from a 5-year ethnography on the school experiences of Mexican immigrant children in a New Latino Diaspora community, we explore how their teachers understood and responded to increasing deportation-based immigration practices affecting children's lives. We illustrate how teachers fell along a continuum…

  5. Exploring Teachers' Practices in Teaching Mathematics and Statistics in Kwazulu-Natal Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umugiraneza, Odette; Bansilal, Sarah; North, Delia

    2017-01-01

    Teaching approaches and assessment practices are key factors that contribute to the improvement of learner outcomes. The study on which this article is based, explored the methods used by KwaZulu-Natal (KZN) teachers in teaching and assessing mathematics and statistics. An instrument containing closed and open-ended questions was distributed to…

  6. Sampling Practices and Social Spaces: Exploring a Hip-Hop Approach to Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petchauer, Emery

    2010-01-01

    Much more than a musical genre, hip-hop culture exists as an animating force in the lives of many young adults. This article looks beyond the moral concerns often associated with rap music to explore how hip-hop as a larger set of expressions and practices implicates the educational experiences, activities, and approaches for students. The article…

  7. Practical approach to environmental protection in the exploration and production industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emmons, L.N.

    1994-01-01

    Environmental protection is a major issue throughout the world. Effective environmental protection techniques exist that are simple, creative, practical, and often cost effective. The cornerstone of cost effective environmental protection is an environmental management system. Various techniques are also available for reducing wastes, minimizing spills, remediating soils, reducing air emissions, and protecting groundwater and surface water in exploration and production operations

  8. Transnational corruption and innovation in transition economies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habiyaremye, A.; Raymond, W.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we examine how transnational corruption affects host country firms’ innovation behaviour and performance in transition economies of Eastern Europe and Central and Western Asia. Using firm-level data from the Business Environment and Enterprise Performance Survey, we show that the

  9. Actors in Corruption: Business Politicians in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    della Porta, Donatella

    1996-01-01

    Argues that the development of political corruption brings about important changes in the political system and in the characteristics of the political class. Describes the emergence and activities of a group of "business politicians" in Italy who have transformed political parties into socializing agencies for illicit activities. (MJP)

  10. Political and judicial checks on corruption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alt, James E.; Lassen, David Dreyer

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the effects of checks and balances on corruption. Within a presidential system, effective separation of powers is achieved under a divided government, with the executive and legislative branches being controlled by different political parties. When government is unified...

  11. Policing Corruption Post- and Pre-crime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krause Hansen, Hans

    2018-01-01

    How are we to understand the proliferating attempts amongst transnational corporations (TNCs) at collectively reducing the risk of corruption in business operations and interactions with state officials around the world? How are these endeavors linked to transformations of public and private auth...

  12. Glossary of Higher Education Corruption with Explanations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osipian, Ararat L.

    2009-01-01

    Higher education corruption is an emerging sub-field of research that has yet to develop its terminological apparatus and own specific research methodologies. The interdisciplinary nature of this sub-field predetermines its dependency on other well-established fields, such as microeconomics, organizational theory, political economy, education…

  13. Corruption, Governance and Political Instability in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Nigerian State is a victim of high-level corruption, bad governance, political instability and cyclical legitimacy crisis. In the absence of support from civil society, the effective power of government was eroded and patron-client relationships took a prime role over the formal aspects of politics, such as the rule of law, ...

  14. Investigative Journalism, Corruption and Sustainable Development ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Investigative journalism is critical to the advancement and preservation of a country's democratic institutions and way of life and in helping to catalyse equitable development. Thus, the study focuses on how to curb corruption in Nigeria, through investigative journalism, so as to engender development at all levels. The study ...

  15. Page | 198 POLICE CORRUPTION AND ADMINISTRATION OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fr. Ikenga

    2017-08-07

    Aug 7, 2017 ... to be abused due to the influence of social evils such as corruption, favouritism, dishonesty, fraud, tribalism, ethnicity and even villagism. These social problems are not peculiar to the Nigeria Police alone. They are ..... At this stage, the suspect sometimes through his lawyer has to negotiate with the Police ...

  16. Firm-Level Corruption in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rand, John; Tarp, Finn

    2012-01-01

    and government contracts. Third, the observed decrease in bribe incidence between 2005 and 2007 is largely driven by significant behavioral changes. These behavioral changes seem to be associated with policy initiatives to improve law enforcement and increased media focus on punitive actions against corruption....

  17. Firm-Level Corruption in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rand, John; Tarp, Finn

    This paper uses a unique panel dataset on firm-level corruption. It contains quantitative information on bribe payments by a sample of formal and informal Vietnamese firms. We show that bribe incidence is highly associated with firm-level differences in (i) visibility, (ii) sunk costs, (iii...

  18. Cycle of Bad Governance and Corruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Nuruddeen Suleiman

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article argues that bad governance and corruption particularly in the Northern part of Nigeria have been responsible for the persistent rise in the activities of Jama’atu Ahlis Sunna Lidda’awati wal-Jihad (JASLWJ, Arabic for “people committed to the propagation of the tradition and jihad.” It is also known as “Boko Haram,” commonly translated as “Western education is sin.” Based on qualitative data obtained through interviews with Nigerians, this article explicates how poor governance in the country has created a vicious cycle of corruption, poverty, and unemployment, leading to violence. Although JASLWJ avows a religious purpose in its activities, it takes full advantage of the social and economic deprivation to recruit new members. For any viable short- or long-term solution, this article concludes that the country must go all-out with its anti-corruption crusade. This will enable the revival of other critical sectors such as agriculture and manufacturing, likely ensuring more employment. Should the country fail to stamp out corruption, it will continue to witness an upsurge in the activities of JASLWJ, and perhaps even the emergence of other violent groups. The spillover effects may be felt not only across Nigeria but also within the entire West African region.

  19. CORRUPTION AND GOVERNANCE IN A PLURAL BUT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CIU

    corruption is also an outcrop of the integration of Africa into the world capitalist ... Nigeria, like most other developing democracies and economies, perceive .... Ekekwe further avers that every mode of production introduces its own super ... in its widest sense, can be regarded as a process of trade in social rewards (Scolt,.

  20. Enterprises Dealing with Corruption: A Microeconomic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ermira Hoxha Kalaj

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on survey data and qualitative evidence from Albanian manufacturing firms to examine the scale and consequences of corruption and tax evasion at the enterprise level. It discusses the costs and benefits from the entrepreneur’s perspective. The vector of covariates includes information about; use of external finance, policy influence, experience of corruption, firms size and ownership structure. To control for differences in the availability of collateral, the proportion of the fixed assets is included. The models used in the paper are probit where the dependent variable is binary and ordered probit where the dependent variable is categorical and orderable. Empirical results show that manufacturing firms operating in an environment in which tax evasion is more prevalent are more likely to suffer demands for bribes from corrupt officials. The regression analysis shows that tax evasion is a matter of degree and that is not limited to small and medium-sized enterprises. Even quite large firms acknowledge concealing part of their sales from tax authorities. Enterprises that are evading taxes are less likely to obtain an external audit. In addition, the data predict that corruption and tax evasion is more likely to occur when the principal owner is male rather than female. Moreover, findings show that the main effect of the separation of ownership on the likelihood of bribery is insignificant.

  1. Leadership, Governance and Corruption in Nigeria | Ologbenla ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper believes that fighting corruption at all levels is a priority, as it constitutes a serious barrier to effective resource mobilisation and allocation, and diverts resources away from activities that are vital to poverty eradication and sustainable economic development. NESG Economic Indicators Vol. 14 (1) 2008: pp. 36-44.

  2. Corruption kills: estimating the global impact of corruption on children deaths.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthieu Hanf

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Information on the global risk factors of children mortality is crucial to guide global efforts to improve survival. Corruption has been previously shown to significantly impact on child mortality. However no recent quantification of its current impact is available. METHODS: The impact of corruption was assessed through crude Pearson's correlation, univariate and multivariate linear models coupling national under-five mortality rates in 2008 to the national "perceived level of corruption" (CPI and a large set of adjustment variables measured during the same period. FINDINGS: The final multivariable model (adjusted R(2= 0.89 included the following significant variables: percentage of people with improved sanitation (p.value<0.001, logarithm of total health expenditure (p.value = 0.006, Corruption Perception Index (p.value<0.001, presence of an arid climate on the national territory (p = 0.006, and the dependency ratio (p.value<0.001. A decrease in CPI of one point (i.e. a more important perceived corruption was associated with an increase in the log of national under-five mortality rate of 0.0644. According to this result, it could be roughly hypothesized that more than 140000 annual children deaths could be indirectly attributed to corruption. INTERPRETATIONS: Global response to children mortality must involve a necessary increase in funds available to develop water and sanitation access and purchase new methods for prevention, management, and treatment of major diseases drawing the global pattern of children deaths. However without paying regard to the anti-corruption mechanisms needed to ensure their proper use, it will also provide further opportunity for corruption. Policies and interventions supported by governments and donors must integrate initiatives that recognise how they are inter-related.

  3. Corruption and Stock Market Development: New Evidence from GCC Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moaz Alsherfawi Aljazaerli

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The theoretical relationship between corruption and stock market development has been debated quite extensively in the literature, yet the evidence on the impact of corruption on stock market development remains contradictory and ambiguous. This paper investigates the impact of corruption, as measured by Corruption Perception Index (CPI published by Transparency International, on stock market development focusing exclusively on Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC countries with its special characteristics of combining richness with relatively high level of corruption. Results from an estimation of alternative regression models on a panel of six GCC countries over the period 2003–2011, through which CPI is legitimately comparable, confirms a positive impact of corruption on stock market development, where the latter is measured by market capitalization. This is consistent with the view that corruption greases the wheels of economy by expediting transactions and allowing private firms to overcome governmentally imposed inefficiencies.

  4. Harmonization Of Inter-Institutional Authority In Eradicate Corruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Salim

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the agenda of corruption eradication have been undertaken by various institutions such as the judiciary the police the Corruption Eradication Commission and other bodies related to the corruption eradication. The type of research used in this study is normative-jurisdiction and empirical-jurisdiction. To obtain the necessary data in this study the researcher conducted library research as a reference in some libraries are quite representative. Results shows that the effectiveness of corruption eradication that conducted by regulatory authorities in order to combat corruption has not been implemented maximally because each institution as a subsystem has not carried out an interdependent relationship both vertical and horizontal nature. If we expect the eradication of corruption can be implemented optimally it is recommended that the coordination between law enforcement agencies in the integrated criminal justice system is necessary to build their common vision interpretation and perception in the implementation of the duties for the institution authorized to eradicate corruption.

  5. Do Corruption and Social Trust affect Economic Growth? A Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serritzlew, Søren; Sønderskov, Kim Mannemar; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2014-01-01

    Two separate literatures suggest that corruption and social trust, respectively, are related to economic growth, although the strengths of the relationships, and the direction of causality, are still debated. In this paper, we review these literatures and evaluate the evidence for causal effects...... of corruption and trust on economic growth, and discuss how corruption and trust are interrelated. The reviews show that absence of corruption and high levels of social trust foster economic growth. The literatures also indicate that corruption has a causal effect on social trust, while the opposite effect...... is more uncertain. In the conclusion, we offer the suggestion that fighting corruption may yield a “double dividend”, as reduced corruption is likely to have both direct and indirect effects on growth....

  6. POLITICAL PROCESS DRIVERS OF CORRUPTION IN EASTERN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ada-Iuliana POPESCU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Corruption stands as one of the many obstacles to the political and economic security of the Eastern European region. Thus, despite the political and economic instability in the region, Eastern European countries, in and outside of the European Union need to fight corruption collectively and individually. The task is difficult, but hope is justified because the causes of corruption in this part of the region are similar and anti-corruption expertise is available. We believe that a deeper analysis of corruption’s drivers can produce a better articulated and more efficient anti-corruption strategy. This strategy will create an anti-corruption infrastructure that will strengthen the Eastern European Partnership. As a prelude to the deeper analysis that we believe must be a part of this strategy, this paper identifies the main drivers of corruption in the Eastern European Partnership countries and explains why addressing these drivers will strengthen the Eastern European Partnership.

  7. Exploring the relationships between high involvement work system practices, work demands and emotional exhaustion : A multi-level study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oppenauer, V.; van de Voorde, F.C.

    2018-01-01

    This study explores the impact of enacted high involvement work systems (HIWS) practices on employee emotional exhaustion. This study hypothesized that work overload and job responsibility mediate the relationship between HIWS practices (ability, motivation, opportunity and work design HIWS

  8. Exploring the classroom practices that may enable a compassionate approach to financial literacy education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blue, Levon Ellen; O'Brien, Mia; Makar, Katie

    2018-06-01

    From an early age, children are faced with financial dilemmas and are expected to make effective financial decisions about money. In this paper, we explore the classroom practices that may enable a compassionate approach to financial literacy education. We observed an inquiry-based mathematics lesson in a Year 4 primary school classroom. The financial maths task asked students to decide on the best fundraising option for the school. We used the theory of practice architectures to analyse the interactions in the classroom in order to understand what may have enabled and constrained classroom practices. We found that classroom practices such as engaging with peers through positive and collaborative learning opportunities, making ethical, social and mathematical connections of the task, and considering the impact of financial decisions on others may enable a compassionate approach to financial literacy education.

  9. Exploring the classroom practices that may enable a compassionate approach to financial literacy education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blue, Levon Ellen; O'Brien, Mia; Makar, Katie

    2017-08-01

    From an early age, children are faced with financial dilemmas and are expected to make effective financial decisions about money. In this paper, we explore the classroom practices that may enable a compassionate approach to financial literacy education. We observed an inquiry-based mathematics lesson in a Year 4 primary school classroom. The financial maths task asked students to decide on the best fundraising option for the school. We used the theory of practice architectures to analyse the interactions in the classroom in order to understand what may have enabled and constrained classroom practices. We found that classroom practices such as engaging with peers through positive and collaborative learning opportunities, making ethical, social and mathematical connections of the task, and considering the impact of financial decisions on others may enable a compassionate approach to financial literacy education.

  10. Translating Knowledge Into Practice Through an Academic-Practice Partnership for Exploring Barriers That Impact Management of Homebound Patients With Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echevarria, Mercedes

    A knowledge translation project involving an academic-practice partnership and guided by action-oriented research was used for exploring barriers that impact management of homebound heart failure patients. The intervention process followed an action research model of interaction, self-reflection, response, and change in direction. External facilitators (academia) and internal facilitators (practice) worked with clinicians to identify a topic for improvement, explore barriers, locate the evidence compare current practice against evidence-based practice recommendations, introduce strategies to "close the gap" between actual practice and the desired practice, develop audit criteria, and reevaluate the impact.

  11. An exploration of student midwives' language to describe non-formal learning in professional practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnerty, Gina; Pope, Rosemary

    2005-05-01

    The essence of non-formal learning in midwifery practice has not been previously explored. This paper provides an in-depth analysis of the language of a sample of student midwives' descriptions of their practice learning in a range of clinical settings. The students submitted audio-diaries as part of a national study (Pope, R., Graham. L., Finnerty. G., Magnusson, C. 2003. An investigation of the preparation and assessment for midwifery practice within a range of settings. Project Report. University of Surrey). Participants detailed their learning activities and support obtained whilst working with their named mentors for approximately 10 days or shifts. The rich audio-diary data have been analysed using Discourse Analysis. A typology of non-formal learning (Eraut, M. 2000. Non-formal learning and implicit knowledge in professional work. British Journal of Educational Psychology 70, 113-136) has been used to provide a framework for the analysis. Non-formal learning is defined as any learning which does not take place within a formally organised learning programme (Eraut, M. 2000. Non-formal learning and implicit knowledge in professional work. British Journal of Educational Psychology 70, 113-136). Findings indicate that fear and ambiguity hindered students' learning. Recommendations include the protection of time by mentors within the clinical curriculum to guide and supervise students in both formal and non-formal elements of midwifery practice. This paper will explore the implications of the findings for practice-based education.

  12. Planning and Corrupting Water Resources Development: The Case of Small Reservoirs in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Philippe Venot

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural (water development is once again at the fore of the development agenda of sub-Saharan Africa. Yet, corruption is seen as a major obstacle to the sustainability of future investments in the sector but there is still little empirical evidence on the ways corruption pervades development projects. This paper documents the planning and implementation processes of two specific small reservoir programmes in the north of Ghana. We specifically delve into the dynamics of corruption and interrogate the ways they add to the inherent unpredictability of development planning. We argue that operational limitations of small reservoirs such as poor infrastructure, lack of managerial and organisational capacity at the community level and weak market integration and public support are the symptoms – rather than inherent problems – of wider lapses in the planning processes that govern the development of small reservoirs in Ghana and plausibly worldwide. A suite of petty misconduct and corrupt practices during the planning, tendering, supervision, and administration of contracts for the rehabilitation and construction of small reservoirs results in delays in implementation, poor construction, escalating costs, and ultimately failures of small reservoirs vis-à-vis their intended goals and a widely shared frustration among donor agencies, civil servants, contractors, and communities. Such practices hang on and can only be addressed through a better understanding of the complex web of formal decisions and informal rules that shape the understanding and actions of the state.

  13. Money-Scape: A Generic Agent-Based Model of Corruption

    OpenAIRE

    Hokky Situngkir

    2004-01-01

    There has been a lot of works on corruption cases. We must think that corruption is a cultural aspect in a social life. We cannot separate the corruption with the cultural system where the corruption raised. Indonesia has been recorded to be one of the countries of the worst economic and political system on corruption case. The paper is introducing the usage of agent based simulation for analyzing the corruption specifically in Indonesia as the biggest corruption level. The model showed is na...

  14. State Administrative Legal Review on the Bill of Retraction Law of Corrupted Assets in Eradication Effort of Corruption in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dian Puji Simatupang

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Since eradicating corruption having been continously encouraged by late governments – and until now – , there would not be less important as to retracting the corrupted assets. There are many aspects to be considered in doing such action, such as manifesting the legal aspects of administrative law, and so other applied national regulations. By these regulations, such as Law No. 7 of 2006 on Ratification of United Nations Convention against Corruption, 2003 (Konvensi Perserikatan Bangsa Bangsa Anti-Korupsi, 2003, Law Number 25 of 2003 On Amendment to Law Number 15 of 2002 on Money Laundering, Act 30 of 2002 on Corruption Eradication Commission, Law Number 20 Year 2001 regarding Amendment to Law Number 31 Year 1999 on the Eradication of Corruption, and Government Regulation Number 65 of 1999 on Implementation Procedures for Examination of State Property, retraction the corrupted assets should be define in order to get known about eradicating corruption.

  15. [Exploration and practice in the construction of curriculum on epidemiology in preventive medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Y M; Le, Y L; Yu, Y X; Wang, J B; Jin, M J; Tang, M L; Chen, K

    2017-12-10

    Epidemiology is one of main courses for undergraduate students majoring in preventive medicine. There are some limitations in the traditional epidemiology teaching, which is usually characterized in indoctrinated education: "lectured by the teachers and listened by the students." In Zhejiang University, staff of the epidemiology division tried to explore a new teaching mode as 'student-centered, teacher-leading, question-based, and combining with literature discussion and course practice.' After practicing for two years, students were inspired in learning initiatives, with teaching effectiveness obviously improved.

  16. Essays on environmental policies, corruption, and energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baksi, Soham

    This thesis consists of four essays. The first essay looks at pollution taxation under capital mobility, and analyzes the role of pre-commitment by countries to their pollution tax rate. A polluting firm sells its product in two countries, and can locate and produce in a single country or in both countries. Due to the discrete-choice nature of the firm's location problem, the countries' welfare functions are discontinuous in their pollution tax rate. We show that when the countries cannot pre-commit to their pollution tax, the firm can still engender tax competition between them by strategically locating in both the countries. Moreover, pre-commitment pollution taxation may not be welfare improving for the countries, although it always makes the firm better off. The second essay studies the effect of liberalization on corruption. Corruptible inspectors enforce an environmental regulation on firms, and are monitored by an honest regulator. Liberalization not only increases the variety of goods and the marginal utility of accepting a bribe, but also puts pressure on the regulator to curb corruption. The interaction of these two effects can cause corruption to initially increase with liberalization, and then decrease beyond a threshold. Moreover, equilibrium corruption is lower when the regulator is able to pre-commit to her monitoring frequency. The third essay analyzes optimal labeling (information revelation) procedures for hidden attributes of credence goods. Consumers are heterogeneous in their preference for the hidden attribute, and producers can either self-label their products, or have them certified by a third party. The government can impose self or third-party labeling requirements on either the "green" or the "brown" producers. When corrupt producers can affix spurious labels, the government needs to monitor them. A mandatory self-labeling policy is shown to generally dominate mandatory third-party labeling. The fourth essay develops formulas for

  17. A Qualitative Study Exploring Community Yoga Practice in Adults with Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greysen, Heather M; Greysen, S Ryan; Lee, Kathryn A; Hong, Oi Saeng; Katz, Patricia; Leutwyler, Heather

    2017-06-01

    Yoga may improve physical function and reduce disease symptoms in adults with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, little is known about how patients with RA are practicing yoga in the community. The objective of this qualitative study was to explore community yoga practice characteristics and thoughts about yoga practice for adults with RA. Participants completed a semi-structured telephone interview with open-ended questions. Thematic analysis was used to analyze interview transcripts. A convenience sample of 17 adults with rheumatologist-diagnosed RA who had participated in yoga within the past year were asked about the decision to start, continue, and stop yoga; the perceived benefits of yoga; components of yoga sessions; and general thoughts about yoga as it relates to RA. Although eight different styles of yoga were practiced, commonalities in yoga class components (such as stretching, strengthening, deep breathing, meditation, and positive messaging from the instructor) reveal examples of preferred types of yoga for patients with RA. Three main themes emerged, each with multiple subthemes: (1) motivators (physical fitness, influence of others, reduced price), (2) barriers (cost, symptom burden, class difficulty), and (3) benefits of yoga practice (mind-body, a tool for coping, pride/achievement, social, and "yoga meets you where you are"). In this study, patients with RA described how yoga practice helped improve physical and psychosocial symptoms related to their disease. Yoga practice, a dynamic exercise, encompassing many different styles, can provide many benefits for adults with RA; however, yoga may not be beneficial for every adult with RA.

  18. Exploration and practice of data management in information construction of Tianwan nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Lirui; Wang Yinhui; Liu Feng; Zhu Yunfei; Song Jili

    2014-01-01

    The paper introduces the exploration and practices in TNPS data management system construction, data management system maturity model construction, management system maturity self-evaluation and data quality improvement, etc. Through the identification and illustration on TNPS data management functions and it also illustrates the effect of scientific management on the enterprise operation with the combination of the characteristics of Big Data Time. Then it looks into the prospect of the data management. (authors)

  19. Exploring teachers’ perceptions of distributed leadership practices in selected secondary schools within Gauteng Province

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    M.Ed. (Educational Leadership and Management) The field of school leadership is currently preoccupied with the new idea of distributed leadership. Harris (2009:3) also writes that it is irrefutable that distributed leadership has become the idea of the moment. It is against this backdrop that this study aimed to explore the perceptions of teachers regarding the practice of distributed leadership in their respective schools. What propelled this research were the changes that are taking plac...

  20. On becoming a consultant: A study exploring the journey to consultant practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henwood, S.; Booth, L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: This paper reports a qualitative study exploring the establishment of non-medical consultant roles in Radiography. Given the difficulties reported in recruiting and retaining staff in these posts, we hope this paper offers a historical documentation of those consultants who were some of the first in post, sharing their stories of how they obtained and transitioned into their roles. Methods: This paper is part of a two year case study exploring the leadership domain of consultant practice. The focus of this paper is a reflection, by the consultants, of their journey to becoming a consultant; a documentation of some of the practical issues in establishing the roles; and the transition to higher levels of practice. Eight consultant radiographers participated in the initial interviews (two consultants withdrew from the study subsequent to this). In-depth iterative interviewing was used to explore and record individual stories and experiences. Findings: The consultants shared their perceptions of being in post, including their own motivation to progress to a new role, how prepared they felt initially, the lack of role models, the lack of clarity surrounding the role and a perception of ‘being on display’. Conclusions: The paper offers insight into the journey of these consultants and some of the common characteristics they share. These characteristics give some indication of what motivated them to step into higher level roles, in particular the need to drive change and improvement. The paper also offers suggestions for how the transition into the role could be more effectively supported. - Highlights: • Identifies characteristics thought to contribute to effective consultant practice. • A desire to change practice is a major motivator in applying for a consultant post. • The consultant role was a natural evolution for some, not a desired career pathway. • There is recognition that the initial consultants were pioneers for the profession.