Sample records for explorer iue satellite

  1. IUE observations of the eclipsing binary Epsilon Aurigae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hack, M.; Selvelli, P.L.


    It is stated that the eclipsing binary Epsilon Aur is a most peculiar binary system and it has not been explained satisfactorily. Observations of this system using the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) collected at the Villafranca Satellite Tracking Station of the European Space Agency are here reported. (author)

  2. IUE's treasure-chest of the ultraviolet Universe (United States)


    IUE was the most long-lived and (by a wide margin) the most productive satellite so far, in the history of space astronomy. After going into orbit on 26 January 1978, as a NASA-ESA-UK project, IUE was meant to operate for three years. More than eighteen years later, IUE still worked 24 hours a day, harvesting new knowledge for astronomers. The last observations were made from ESA's ground station at Villafranca, Spain, on 26 September 1996, and IUE was switched off four days later. Since then, team members at Villafranca and at NASAs Goddard Space Flight Center have used modern data-processing and information technology to recycle 100,000 ultraviolet spectra of comets, planets, stars, galaxies and quasars, acquired by IUE during its 18.5 years of operations. As a result, the IUE Final Archive is already available on-line via the Internet to hundreds of users who have registered to work with the data. The last few items (about 2 per cent of the total) will be added before the end of November. Also to be presented at the Sevilla conference is ESA's system called INES ("IUE Newly Extracted Spectra") which offers access, selection and distribution of data products, in a thoroughly user-friendly fashion. The IUE Final Archive is the third massive compendium made available to the worlds astronomers by ESA in 1997. The Hipparcos and Tycho Catalogues, released earlier in the year, give the positions of stars with unprecedented accuracy, thanks to ESA's Hipparcos satellite. "Space astronomy has set the example in providing a high standard of data quality and making the data accessible to the scientific community through archives", says Roger Bonnet, ESA's Scientific Director. "Now, ground-based observatories are following suit. The data legacy of IUE will be distributed to he community so that research on IUE data can continue long after the end of IUE's lifetime in space". Wonders of ultraviolet spectroscopy IUE analysed ultraviolet light, in a wavelength range from 1150

  3. IUE project comes to an end after 18+ years of extremely successful orbital operations (United States)


    At a meeting of the Science Programme Committee (SPC) of the European Space Agency (ESA) in February, the decision was taken to terminate the orbital operations of the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) satellite on September 30. Science operations will terminate shortly before that date to allow the necessary end-of-life testing of the spacecraft. Only a year ago, when NASA - the major partner in the IUE project - decided to terminate its IUE science operations, ESA had been able to extend its support to include full responsibility for the scientific operations, under the "hybrid science operations" scheme, and thus maintain this important capability for the astrophysics community. As a consequence of the budgetary restrictions placed on ESA's Science Programme, the earlier recommendation of the Space Science Advisory Committee (SSAC), to terminate the operations of IUE in coordination with NASA in September, was accepted by the SPC. The IUE project, using a 45cm ultraviolet telescope for spectroscopic observations in the waveband 115 to 320 nm, has been carried out jointly by NASA, ESA and the British PPARC (formerly SERC). Launched in 1978, its designed lifetime was only three years. In July, the SPC agreed to complete the IUE Final Archive by the end of 1997, allowing the project to reprocess all its spectroscopic observations (numbering over 100,000) with a newly designed reduction, significantly improving on the normal direct processing done during the operational phase of the IUE project. The resulting homogeneous data archive on the ultraviolet radiation of cosmic sources, collected over the 18+ years of the operational project, will remain an important resource for astrophysical studies for many years to come. This has been one of the most successful astrophysics projects in space science, with more than 3,500 papers in refereed journals based on the observational results of the spectrographs. Over 500 doctoral dissertations have used its results

  4. International Ultraviolet Explorer satellite observations of seven high-excitation planetary nebulae. (United States)

    Aller, L H; Keyes, C D


    Observations of seven high-excitation planetary nebulae secured with the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) satellite were combined with extensive ground-based data to obtain electron densities, gas kinetic temperatures, and ionic concentrations. We then employed a network of theoretical model nebulae to estimate the factors by which observed ionic concentrations must be multiplied to obtain elemental abundances. Comparison with a large sample of nebulae for which extensive ground-based observations have been obtained shows nitrogen to be markedly enhanced in some of these objects. Possibly most, if not all, high-excitation nebulae evolve from stars that have higher masses than progenitors of nebulae of low-to-moderate excitation.

  5. IUE observations of variability in winds from hot stars (United States)

    Grady, C. A.; Snow, T. P., Jr.


    Observations of variability in stellar winds or envelopes provide an important probe of their dynamics. For this purpose a number of O, B, Be, and Wolf-Rayet stars were repeatedly observed with the IUE satellite in high resolution mode. In the course of analysis, instrumental and data handling effects were found to introduce spurious variability in many of the spectra. software was developed to partially compensate for these effects, but limitations remain on the type of variability that can be identified from IUE spectra. With these contraints, preliminary results of multiple observations of two OB stars, one Wolf-Rayet star, and a Be star are discussed.

  6. The first three years of IUE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gondhalekar, P.M.; Jordan, C.; Meadows, A.J.


    The report is in sections, entitled: introduction (organization of IUE Satellite project; summary of highlights); highlights; active galaxies (Non-Seyfert; Seyfert; BL Lac objects; quasars); normal galaxies (objects in LMC; interstellar material in other galaxies; H II regions; nuclei of spiral galaxies; emission line galaxies); high energy objects (X-ray binary systems; novae); hot stars (including: Wolf-Rayet stars, planetary nebulae, novae); cool stars (including: main sequence stars, giants and supergiants, flare stars and other variable objects); interstellar medium; solar system. (U.K.)

  7. Prototyping the DARPA Image Understanding Environment (IUE) and Tools to Facilitate Its Use

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lawton, Daryl


    ...) and Tools to Facilitate Its Use. The major objectives of this project were to support the design and development of the IUE, to prototype the IUE user interface and data exploration tools, and to develop tools for documentation...

  8. Improving IUE High Dispersion Extraction (United States)

    Lawton, Patricia J.; VanSteenberg, M. E.; Massa, D.


    We present a different method to extract high dispersion International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) spectra from the New Spectral Image Processing System (NEWSIPS) geometrically and photometrically corrected (SI HI) images of the echellogram. The new algorithm corrects many of the deficiencies that exist in the NEWSIPS high dispersion (SIHI) spectra . Specifically, it does a much better job of accounting for the overlap of the higher echelle orders, it eliminates a significant time dependency in the extracted spectra (which can be traced to the background model used in the NEWSIPS extractions), and it can extract spectra from echellogram images that are more highly distorted than the NEWSIPS extraction routines can handle. Together, these improvements yield a set of IUE high dispersion spectra whose scientific integrity is sign ificantly better than the NEWSIPS products. This work has been supported by NASA ADP grants.

  9. Dwarf novae in outburst: monitoring WX Hydri with IUE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassall, B.J.M.; Pringle, J.E.; Verbunt, F.


    WX Hydri has been monitored with the IUE satellite. The data obtained during the beginning of an outburst show that the rise of the optical precedes that of the ultraviolet flux. The observations during quiescence, together with archival data, indicate that the ultraviolet continuum and line fluxes decrease steadily between outbursts. The implications of the observations for the theoretical models of dwarf nova outbursts are discussed. It is concluded that the variable mass transfer model can accommodate the observations, but that difficulties arise for the disc instability model. (author)

  10. Flare activity on UV CETI: visible and IUE observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, K.J.H.; Bromage, G.E.; Dufton, P.L.; Keenan, F.P.; Kingston, A.E.


    Simultaneous far-ultraviolet (IUE) spectroscopy and optical photometry and spectrophotometry of a flare on UV Ceti are reported. The flare reached ΔU = 2sup(m) but showed only modest enhancements in the IUE spectra. The optical spectrophotometry indicated broadened Balmer line profiles during the flare, with Hβ and Hγ clearly showing red wings. The results are compared with other IUE and optical observations of UV Ceti, and their solar analogues. (author)

  11. Flare activity on UV Ceti: visible and IUE observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, K.J.H.; Bromage, G.E.; Dufton, P.L.; Keenan, F.P.; Kingston, A.E.


    Simultaneous far-ultraviolet (IUE) spectroscopy and optical photometry and spectrophotometry of a flare on UV Ceti are reported. The flare reached ΔU=2 mag but showed only modest enhancements in the IUE spectra. The optical spectrophotometry indicated broadened Balmer line profiles during the flare, with Hβ and Hγ clearly showing red wings (∼ 100 km s -1 ). The results are compared with other IUE and optical observations of UV Ceti, and their solar analogues. (author)

  12. Research studies with the International Ultraviolet Explorer (United States)


    The IUE research studies comprises 118 separate research programs involving observations, data analysis, and research conducted of the IUE satellite and the NASA Astrophysics Data Program. Herein are presented 92 programs. For each program there is a title, program ID, name of the investigator, statement of work, summary of results, and list of publications.

  13. A statistical analysis of IUE spectra of dwarf novae and nova-like stars (United States)

    Ladous, Constanze


    First results of a statistical analysis of the IUE International Ultraviolet Explorer archive on dwarf novae and nova like stars are presented. The archive contains approximately 2000 low resolution spectra of somewhat over 100 dwarf novae and nova like stars. Many of these were looked at individually, but so far the collective information content of this set of data has not been explored. The first results of work are reported.

  14. IUE and Einstein observations of the LINER galaxy NGC 4579 (United States)

    Reichert, G. A.; Puchnarewicz, E. M.; Mason, K. O.


    Results of International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) and Einstein observations of the LINER galaxy NGC 4579 are reported. Spatial profiles of the long wavelength IUE emission show a two component structure, with an unresolved core superimposed on broader underlying emission. The core spectrum shows strong C II lambda 2326 and broad Mg II lambda 2800 emission, and perhaps emission due to blends of Fe II multiplets (2300 to 23600 angstrom). The short wavelength emission is spatially unresolved, and shows C II lambda 1335, C III lambda 1909 broad C IV lambda 1550 emission, and a broad feature at approximately 1360 angstrom which may be due to 0.1 lambda 1356. Contrary to previous reports no evidence for He II lambda 1640 is found in the spectrum. An unresolved x ray source is detected at the location of the nucleus; its spectrum is well fitted by a power law of energy slope alpha approximately -0.5. These results further support the idea that NGC 4579 may contain a dwarf Seyfert nucleus.

  15. Support the Design of Improved IUE NEWSIPS High Dispersion Extraction Algorithms: Improved IUE High Dispersion Extraction Algorithms (United States)

    Lawton, Pat


    The objective of this work was to support the design of improved IUE NEWSIPS high dispersion extraction algorithms. The purpose of this work was to evaluate use of the Linearized Image (LIHI) file versus the Re-Sampled Image (SIHI) file, evaluate various extraction, and design algorithms for evaluation of IUE High Dispersion spectra. It was concluded the use of the Re-Sampled Image (SIHI) file was acceptable. Since the Gaussian profile worked well for the core and the Lorentzian profile worked well for the wings, the Voigt profile was chosen for use in the extraction algorithm. It was found that the gamma and sigma parameters varied significantly across the detector, so gamma and sigma masks for the SWP detector were developed. Extraction code was written.

  16. UV Spectrophotometry of the Galilean Satellites, Saturnian Satellites & Selected Asteroids (United States)

    Nelson, Robert M.

    We propose a series of ultraviolet spectral observations of solid surfaces of selected solar system objects, specifically the Galilean satellites of Jupiter, several atmosphereless satellites of Saturn, and the asteroids, 5 Astraea, 18 Melpomene, 532 Herculina, 68 Leto, 31 Euphmsyne, 80 Sappho, 3 Juno, and 39 Laetitia. Historically such spectral observations have allowed for the Identification of spectrally active solid state materials on planetary surfaces. Furthermore, because the rotational properties are known for all the objects proposed for study, this technique will provide a longitude map of such materials on the objects' surfaces. The study of asteroid surface mineralogy is an important method of constraining solar system formation models. The asteroid spectra we have previously acquired with IUE have created unique subdivisions within the existent asteroid types. The new spectra will provide more sophisticated mineralogical characterizations of asteroid surface materials. Our other accomplishments with IUE include mapping of the distribution of condensed S02 on Io, identification of a longitudinal asymmetry on Europa associated with magnetospheric particle bombardment of the surface, and establishing the ultraviolet geometric albedo variation as a function of longitude for all the Galilean satellites. Because Io is the most volcanically active body In the solar system, and short tern variations in selected regions of the Jovian magnetosphere are known to occur, it is important to periodically check for temporal variations in the spectra of the Galilean satellites that may be due to variations n Io tectonic/volcanic activity, or magnetosphere changes. These proposed UV observations are critical to the design and operation of several instruments on Project Galileo, NASA's Jupiter Orbiter and Probe Mission. Spectra of Iapetus, Rhea and Dione have been acquired during the previous year; however, only at orbital locations near elongation. In addition, the dark

  17. IUE observations of V Sagittae (United States)

    Koch, R. H.; Corcoran, M. F.; Holenstein, B. D.; Mccluskey, G. E., Jr.


    Observations of the nova-like variable V Sge are discussed, and the ground-based light curve is analyzed, compensating for the component interaction effect. Low-dispersion IUE spectra indicate that interstellar reddening is smaller than suggested from visible-band observations. The UV and visible continuum are modeled by a He-rich model and by a simple accretion disk, and the UV spectrum emission lines are used to determine ionization temperatures and a lower N(e) limit. The present data are consistent with the picture of the companion to the He star being embedded in an accretion disk, with the disk being large (of dimension comparable to that of the embedding Roche lobe as a result of vigorous mass transfer) at the time of the ground-based data, and with the disk having been diminished to a radius of the order of 200 times of the neutron star, at the time of the IUE spectra.

  18. Stars of type MS with evidence of white dwarf companions. [IUE, Main Sequence (MS) (United States)

    Peery, Benjamin F., Jr.


    A search for white dwarf companions of MS-type stars was conducted, using IUE. The overendowments of these stars in typical S-process nuclides suggest that they, like the Ba II stars, may owe their peculiar compositions to earlier mass transfer. Short-wavelength IUE spectra show striking emission line variability in HD35155, HD61913, and 4 Ori; HD35155 and 4 Ori show evidence of white dwarf companions.

  19. Detailed observations of NGC 4151 with IUE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perola, G.C.; Boksenberg, A.; Bromage, G.E.


    NGC 4151 has been extensively monitored with IUE from 1978 February to 1980 May. The rather erratic behaviour of the ultraviolet light curve seems to be mainly due to variations which occur at rates which, if extrapolated, would produce factor two changes in time-scales between 5 and 30 days, implying a radius of the order of 0.01 pc for the source. The shape of the continuum can be described by a power-law longward of lambda 2200 and by an excess above the extrapolation of that law at shorter wavelengths, suggesting the presence of two components. The long wavelength spectrum becomes harder when the flux increases. Measurements made with the Fine Error Sensor on IUE and photographically at the RGO show that the variations in the optical flux are fairly closely correlated with those in the mid-ultraviolet (lambda 2500). X-ray observations (2 to 10 keV) made with the SSI on Ariel 5 and with the MPC on the Einstein Observatory are compared with those in the ultraviolet. Some implications for current theoretical models are discussed and suggestions for further observational work are given. (author)

  20. IUE Data Analysis Software for Personal Computers (United States)

    Thompson, R.; Caplinger, J.; Taylor, L.; Lawton , P.


    This report summarizes the work performed for the program titled, "IUE Data Analysis Software for Personal Computers" awarded under Astrophysics Data Program NRA 92-OSSA-15. The work performed was completed over a 2-year period starting in April 1994. As a result of the project, 450 IDL routines and eight database tables are now available for distribution for Power Macintosh computers and Personal Computers running Windows 3.1.

  1. IUE observations of an active region of HD206860

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanco, C; Catalano, S; Marilli, E [Catania Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Astronomia


    The results of UV observations, with the IUE, of the Mg II H and k lines of HD206860, a GOV star, are reported. The aim of the observations was to search for short-term variability of the chromospheric emission connected with the rotation of the star.

  2. Detailed observations of NGC 4151 with IUE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bromage, G.E.; Boksenberg, A.; Clavel, J.


    A detailed analysis is presented of the ultraviolet (lambdalambda 1150-3200 A) absorption spectrum of the NGC 4151 Seyfert nucleus. The IUE data base consisted of high dispersion (Δlambda approx. 0.2 A) spectra at 5 epochs, and 137 low dispersion (Δlambda approx. 4-8 A) spectra at 31 epochs from 1978 February to 1980 May, together with further low dispersion data in 1980-81 with NGC 4151 in a very faint quiescent state. (author)

  3. Applying satellite technology to energy and mineral exploration (United States)

    Carter, William D.; Rowan, Lawrence C.


    IGCP Project 143 ("Remote Sensing and Mineral Exploration"), is a worldwide research project designed to make satellite data an operational geological tool along with the geologic pick, hand lens, topographic map, aerial photo and geophysical instruments and data that comprise the exploration package. While remote sensing data will not replace field exploration and mapping, careful study of such data prior to field work should make the effort more efficient.

  4. IUE observations of solar-type stars in the Pleiades and the Hyades (United States)

    Caillault, Jean-Pierre; Vilhu, Osmi; Linsky, Jeffrey L.


    An extensive set of IUE observations of solar-type stars (spectral types F5-G5) in the Pleiades is presented. Spectra were obtained in January and August 1988 for both the transition region and chromospheric emission wavelength regions, respectively. Mg II fluxes were detected for two out of three Pleiades stars and C IV upper limits for two of these stars. Long-wavelength high-resolution spectra were also obtained for previously unobserved solar-type stars in the Hyades. With the inclusion of spectra of additional Hyades stars obtained from the IUE archives, surface fluxes and fractional luminosities for both clusters' solar-type stars are calculated; these values provide a better estimate for the Mg II saturation line for single stars.

  5. IUE Archival Spectra of 31 Cygni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Woon Kang


    Full Text Available UV light curve of 31 Cygni has been made from the IUE high dispersion spectra. The depth of primary minimum of the light curve is 5.2 magnitudes because the B4 star's steep spectral gradient. The light curve has been analyzed by the method of Wilson and Devinney Differential Correction (WD. The radial velocities have been measured using the Mg II h lines. The spectroscopic elements have been determined by the method of WD. The change of the Mg II resonance doublet has been investigated based on the eight representative spectra taken at well distributed orbital phases.

  6. IUE observations of W UMa-type stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rucinski, S.M.; Vilhu, O.


    IUE (International Ultraviolet Explorer) low-resolution SWP images of the contract binaries 44i Boo, VW Cep, W UMa, V566 Oph, AW UMa, V502 Oph, epsilon CrA, RR Cen and the very close non-contact binary ER Vul have been studied. The results are compared with other UV and soft X-ray data and it is found that the stellar activity within this group is quite similar to solar activity but much more intense; the higher the general level of activity, the higher are the excitation energies that are seen, except that the soft X-ray emission of the W UMa stars does not conform to this picture. The ultraviolet chromospheric and transition-region normalized line fluxes (fsub(line)/fsub(bol)) are not very sensitive to spectral type and orbital period among W UMa stars. However, a small weakening towards earlier spectral types is evident. The far ultraviolet chromospheric and transition-region activity seems to level off towards short periods; for soft X-rays the coronal radiation of contact binaries is actually weaker than for detached binaries with somewhat longer periods. The C IV emission variations with phase in 44i Boo have also been analysed. (author)

  7. Research on Coal Exploration Technology Based on Satellite Remote Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Xiao


    Full Text Available Coal is the main source of energy. In China and Vietnam, coal resources are very rich, but the exploration level is relatively low. This is mainly caused by the complicated geological structure, the low efficiency, the related damage, and other bad situations. To this end, we need to make use of some advanced technologies to guarantee the resource exploration is implemented smoothly and orderly. Numerous studies show that remote sensing technology is an effective way in coal exploration and measurement. In this paper, we try to measure the distribution and reserves of open-air coal area through satellite imagery. The satellite picture of open-air coal mining region in Quang Ninh Province of Vietnam was collected as the experimental data. Firstly, the ENVI software is used to eliminate satellite imagery spectral interference. Then, the image classification model is established by the improved ELM algorithm. Finally, the effectiveness of the improved ELM algorithm is verified by using MATLAB simulations. The results show that the accuracies of the testing set reach 96.5%. And it reaches 83% of the image discernment precision compared with the same image from Google.

  8. Microwave and theoretical studies for Cosmic Background Explorer satellite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkinson, D.T.


    The Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite, its instruments, and its scientific mission are discussed. The COBE radiometer is considered, and measurement of galactic radio emission with masers is reviewed. Extragalactic radiation and zodiacal dust are mentioned briefly

  9. On-board attitude determination for the Explorer Platform satellite (United States)

    Jayaraman, C.; Class, B.


    This paper describes the attitude determination algorithm for the Explorer Platform satellite. The algorithm, which is baselined on the Landsat code, is a six-element linear quadratic state estimation processor, in the form of a Kalman filter augmented by an adaptive filter process. Improvements to the original Landsat algorithm were required to meet mission pointing requirements. These consisted of a more efficient sensor processing algorithm and the addition of an adaptive filter which acts as a check on the Kalman filter during satellite slew maneuvers. A 1750A processor will be flown on board the satellite for the first time as a coprocessor (COP) in addition to the NASA Standard Spacecraft Computer. The attitude determination algorithm, which will be resident in the COP's memory, will make full use of its improved processing capabilities to meet mission requirements. Additional benefits were gained by writing the attitude determination code in Ada.

  10. A library of IUE white dwarf spectra for stellar population analyses. (United States)

    Bica, E.; Bonatto, C.; Giovannini, O.


    We present high Signal to Noise ratio IUE spectra of different classes of white dwarfs, to be used as templates for stellar population analyses in the ultraviolet region. We present average stellar parameters associated to each group. The library contains 6 groups for DA's, 2 for DO's and 5 for DB's. We also present equivalent widths of spectral features, and continuum measurements. We call attention to the spectral characteristics which are promising indicators of the presence of white dwarfs in the spectra of composite stellar populations.

  11. A graphics approach in the design of the dual air density Explorer satellites (United States)

    Mcdougal, D. S.


    A computer program was developed to generate a graphics display of the Dual Air Density (DAD) Explorer satellites which aids in the engineering and scientific design. The program displays a two-dimensional view of both spacecraft and their surface features from any direction. The graphics have been an indispensable tool in the design, analysis, and understanding of the critical locations of the various surface features for both satellites.

  12. IUE observations of new A star candidate proto-planetary systems (United States)

    Grady, Carol A.


    As a result of the detection of accreting gas in the A5e PMS Herbig Ae star, HR 5999, most of the observations for this IUE program were devoted to Herbig Ae stars rather than to main sequence A stars. Mid-UV emission at optical minimum light was detected for UX Ori (A1e), BF Ori (A5e), and CQ Tau (F2e). The presence of accreting gas in HD 45677 and HD 50138 prompted reclassification of these stars as Herbig Be stars rather than as protoplanetary nebulae. Detailed results are discussed.

  13. Introducing the VISAGE project - Visualization for Integrated Satellite, Airborne, and Ground-based data Exploration (United States)

    Gatlin, P. N.; Conover, H.; Berendes, T.; Maskey, M.; Naeger, A. R.; Wingo, S. M.


    A key component of NASA's Earth observation system is its field experiments, for intensive observation of particular weather phenomena, or for ground validation of satellite observations. These experiments collect data from a wide variety of airborne and ground-based instruments, on different spatial and temporal scales, often in unique formats. The field data are often used with high volume satellite observations that have very different spatial and temporal coverage. The challenges inherent in working with such diverse datasets make it difficult for scientists to rapidly collect and analyze the data for physical process studies and validation of satellite algorithms. The newly-funded VISAGE project will address these issues by combining and extending nascent efforts to provide on-line data fusion, exploration, analysis and delivery capabilities. A key building block is the Field Campaign Explorer (FCX), which allows users to examine data collected during field campaigns and simplifies data acquisition for event-based research. VISAGE will extend FCX's capabilities beyond interactive visualization and exploration of coincident datasets, to provide interrogation of data values and basic analyses such as ratios and differences between data fields. The project will also incorporate new, higher level fused and aggregated analysis products from the System for Integrating Multi-platform data to Build the Atmospheric column (SIMBA), which combines satellite and ground-based observations into a common gridded atmospheric column data product; and the Validation Network (VN), which compiles a nationwide database of coincident ground- and satellite-based radar measurements of precipitation for larger scale scientific analysis. The VISAGE proof-of-concept will target "golden cases" from Global Precipitation Measurement Ground Validation campaigns. This presentation will introduce the VISAGE project, initial accomplishments and near term plans.

  14. EXOSAT and IUE observations of contact binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilhu, O.; Heise, J.; Laboratorium voor Ruimteonderzoek, Utrecht, Netherlands)


    EXOSAT observations are reported of the contact binaries W UMa, VW Cep, 44t Boo, XY Leo, and V566 Oph and the detached short-period RS CVn stars ER Vul and HD 209943. Complete X-ray light curves were obtained for W UMa, VW Cep and 44t Boo. Nearly simultaneous IUE observations of VW Cep provide important comparisons of the Mg II emission, the UV continuum, and the FES light curve, pointing to extra hot gas at phase 0.75. The observations indicate that contact binaries have highly structured (in temperature and geometry) and highly variable coronae, not preferentially connected with either of the component stars. The observed dips can be interpreted as due to cool absorbing clouds above localized X-ray emitting regions. For VW Cep, 44t Boo, and XY Leo there is evidence that the neck regions are sites for X-ray-emitting hot gas. 66 references

  15. The 12C/13C Isotopic Ratio in Planetary Nebulae as Deduced from IUE Data (United States)

    Miskey, C. L.; Feibelman, W. A.; Bruhweiler, F. C.


    The relative abundances of C, N, and O and the isotopic ratio of 12C/13C represent tracers of nucleosynthesis in intermediate stars with main-sequence masses between 0.6 and 8.0 solar masses in our Galaxy. Determining these abundances and the isotopic 12C/13C ratio in planetary nebulae (PNe) represent perhaps the best means to discern exactly how the ISM is enriched by CNO stellar nucleosynthesis. Walsh et al. (1996) and Clegg et al. (1997), using the Hubble Space Telescope, have derived the isotopic 12C/13C abundance ratio in the galactic carbon-rich PN, NGC 3918, and placed marginal constraints on it for the Magellanic PNe, N2 (SMC) and N122 (LMC). This was done using the well-known 12C 3P-1S (J=1-0 and J=2-0) transitions of C+2 at 1906.68 Angstroms and 1908.77 Angstroms and a J=0-0 transition at 1909.6 Angstroms, which is strictly forbidden in 12C. The finite nuclear spin of 13C (I=1/2) permits a corresponding F=1/2-1/2 electric dipole transition not seen in 12C. Since the 1909.6 Angstroms line is well separated from the other two 12C transitions, it provides an important means of determining 12C/13C in planetary nebulae. We have just completed a search of archival International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) high-dispersion spectra of approximately three dozen PNe, and derived 12C/13C ratios of 39 and 23 for the galactic PNe, NGC 2440 and NGC 6302, respectively. These are values much lower than the solar value of 89. In the other objects, the limited S/N of the IUE data indicate 12C/13C ratio upper limits much higher than 50. The implications of these results and their pertinence to stellar evolution are discussed.

  16. Projet de classification de spectres stellaires IUE à basse résolution par système expert. (United States)

    Imadache, A.

    Le project d'étude porte sur l'utilisation de l'intelligence artificielle en vue d'établir une classification de spectres IUE. Pour la réalisation de ce projet, des liens de collaboration ont été établis entre l'Observatoire Astronomique de Strasbourg et l'équipe ST-ECF à l'ESO.

  17. An analysis of scattered light in low dispersion IUE spectra (United States)

    Basri, G.; Clarke, J. T.; Haisch, B. M.


    A detailed numerical simulation of light scattering from the low-resolution grating in the short wavelength spectrograph of the IUE Observatory was developed, in order to quantitatively analyze the effects of scattering on both continuum and line emission spectra. It is found that: (1) the redistribution of light by grating scattering did not appreciably alter either the shape or the absolute flux level of continuum spectra for A-F stars; (2) late-type stellar continua showed a tendency to flatten when observed in scattered light toward the shorter wavelengths; and (3) the effect of grating scattering on emission lines is to decrease measured line intensities by an increasing percentage toward the shorter wavelengths. The spectra obtained from scattering experiments for solar-type and late type stars are reproduced in graphic form.

  18. Exploring Machine Learning to Correct Satellite-Derived Sea Surface Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Saux Picart


    Full Text Available Machine learning techniques are attractive tools to establish statistical models with a high degree of non linearity. They require a large amount of data to be trained and are therefore particularly suited to analysing remote sensing data. This work is an attempt at using advanced statistical methods of machine learning to predict the bias between Sea Surface Temperature (SST derived from infrared remote sensing and ground “truth” from drifting buoy measurements. A large dataset of collocation between satellite SST and in situ SST is explored. Four regression models are used: Simple multi-linear regression, Least Square Shrinkage and Selection Operator (LASSO, Generalised Additive Model (GAM and random forest. In the case of geostationary satellites for which a large number of collocations is available, results show that the random forest model is the best model to predict the systematic errors and it is computationally fast, making it a good candidate for operational processing. It is able to explain nearly 31% of the total variance of the bias (in comparison to about 24% for the multi-linear regression model.

  19. Spatial Data Exploring by Satellite Image Distributed Processing (United States)

    Mihon, V. D.; Colceriu, V.; Bektas, F.; Allenbach, K.; Gvilava, M.; Gorgan, D.


    Our society needs and environmental predictions encourage the applications development, oriented on supervising and analyzing different Earth Science related phenomena. Satellite images could be explored for discovering information concerning land cover, hydrology, air quality, and water and soil pollution. Spatial and environment related data could be acquired by imagery classification consisting of data mining throughout the multispectral bands. The process takes in account a large set of variables such as satellite image types (e.g. MODIS, Landsat), particular geographic area, soil composition, vegetation cover, and generally the context (e.g. clouds, snow, and season). All these specific and variable conditions require flexible tools and applications to support an optimal search for the appropriate solutions, and high power computation resources. The research concerns with experiments on solutions of using the flexible and visual descriptions of the satellite image processing over distributed infrastructures (e.g. Grid, Cloud, and GPU clusters). This presentation highlights the Grid based implementation of the GreenLand application. The GreenLand application development is based on simple, but powerful, notions of mathematical operators and workflows that are used in distributed and parallel executions over the Grid infrastructure. Currently it is used in three major case studies concerning with Istanbul geographical area, Rioni River in Georgia, and Black Sea catchment region. The GreenLand application offers a friendly user interface for viewing and editing workflows and operators. The description involves the basic operators provided by GRASS [1] library as well as many other image related operators supported by the ESIP platform [2]. The processing workflows are represented as directed graphs giving the user a fast and easy way to describe complex parallel algorithms, without having any prior knowledge of any programming language or application commands

  20. Exploring the boundaries of quantum mechanics: advances in satellite quantum communications. (United States)

    Agnesi, Costantino; Vedovato, Francesco; Schiavon, Matteo; Dequal, Daniele; Calderaro, Luca; Tomasin, Marco; Marangon, Davide G; Stanco, Andrea; Luceri, Vincenza; Bianco, Giuseppe; Vallone, Giuseppe; Villoresi, Paolo


    Recent interest in quantum communications has stimulated great technological progress in satellite quantum technologies. These advances have rendered the aforesaid technologies mature enough to support the realization of experiments that test the foundations of quantum theory at unprecedented scales and in the unexplored space environment. Such experiments, in fact, could explore the boundaries of quantum theory and may provide new insights to investigate phenomena where gravity affects quantum objects. Here, we review recent results in satellite quantum communications and discuss possible phenomena that could be observable with current technologies. Furthermore, stressing the fact that space represents an incredible resource to realize new experiments aimed at highlighting some physical effects, we challenge the community to propose new experiments that unveil the interplay between quantum mechanics and gravity that could be realizable in the near future.This article is part of a discussion meeting issue 'Foundations of quantum mechanics and their impact on contemporary society'. © 2018 The Author(s).

  1. IUE observations of the evolution of Comet Wilson (1986l) - comparison with P/Halley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roettger, E.E.; Feldman, P.D.; A'hearn, M.F.; Festou, M.C.; Mcfadden, L.A.


    IUE observations of Comet Wilson from September 1986 to November 1987, through perihelion, allow a comparison to be conducted between this 'new' comet and the highly evolved P/Halley, at comparable heliocentric distances. The temporal decreases of both OH and dust in Comet Wilson near perihelion were monotonic and slow, by contrast to Comet Halley's rapid fluctuations. Despite these differences, relative gas abundances were similar within a factor of about 2 for comparable heliocentric and geocentric distances; this indicates that P/Halley's in situ gas measurements may be typical of comets generally. 33 refs

  2. Preliminary report on the IUE spectra of Mu(1) Scorpii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahade, J; Garcia, L G


    IUE ultraviolet spectra of the eclipsing binary Mu(1) Scorpii are examined. The available spectra correspond to primary eclipse and to one of the quadratures, and only display absorption lines. Many lines arising from resonance transitions are apparent and can be placed into groups. These include: sharp and deep lines identified with elements like O I, N I, C II, Si II, Al II, Fe II, Mg II which are probably circumstellar and interstellar lines that have about 1.5 FWHM identified with elements like Si III and Al III lines about 2 A FWHM identified as Si IV low excitation, relatively deep lines of about 1 A FWHM of C II, Si II, Si III, and Ti III and higher excitation, relatively broad and shallow lines of C III. The resonance lines of Si IV are characterized by a fine structure of as many as nine components which suggest velocity values ranging from -180 to about +150 km/s.

  3. A Video Game Platform for Exploring Satellite and In-Situ Data Streams (United States)

    Cai, Y.


    Exploring spatiotemporal patterns of moving objects are essential to Earth Observation missions, such as tracking, modeling and predicting movement of clouds, dust, plumes and harmful algal blooms. Those missions involve high-volume, multi-source, and multi-modal imagery data analysis. Analytical models intend to reveal inner structure, dynamics, and relationship of things. However, they are not necessarily intuitive to humans. Conventional scientific visualization methods are intuitive but limited by manual operations, such as area marking, measurement and alignment of multi-source data, which are expensive and time-consuming. A new development of video analytics platform has been in progress, which integrates the video game engine with satellite and in-situ data streams. The system converts Earth Observation data into articulated objects that are mapped from a high-dimensional space to a 3D space. The object tracking and augmented reality algorithms highlight the objects' features in colors, shapes and trajectories, creating visual cues for observing dynamic patterns. The head and gesture tracker enable users to navigate the data space interactively. To validate our design, we have used NASA SeaWiFS satellite images of oceanographic remote sensing data and NOAA's in-situ cell count data. Our study demonstrates that the video game system can reduce the size and cost of traditional CAVE systems in two to three orders of magnitude. This system can also be used for satellite mission planning and public outreaching.

  4. ESA innovation rescues Ultraviolet Observatory (United States)


    Astrophysicist Freeman J. Dyson from the Institute for Advanced Studies in Princeton characterizes IUE as "A little half-meter mirror sitting in the sky, unnoticed by the public, pouring out results". By use of the IUE satellite, astronomers obtain access to the ultraviolet radiation of celestial bodies in unique ways not available by any other means, neither from the ground nor by any other spacecraft currently in orbit. IUE serves a wide community of astronomers all over Europe, the United States and many other parts of the world. It allows the acquisition of critical data for fundamental studies of comets and their evaporation when they approach the Sun, of the mechanisms driving the stellar winds which make many stars lose a significant fraction of their mass (before they die slowly as White Dwarfs or in sudden Supernova explosions), as well as in the search to understand the ways in which black holes possibly power the violent nuclei of Active galaxies. One year ago the project was threatened with termination and serious concern was expressed by astronomers about the potential loss of IUE's capabilities, as a result of NASA not continuing to operate the spacecraft. Under the leadership of ESA, the three Agencies involved in the operations of IUE (ESA, NASA and the United Kingdom's Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council, PPARC), reviewed the operations agreements of the Project. A minor investment allowing the implementation of modern management and engineering techniques as well as a complete revision of the communication infrastructure of the project and continuous improvements in efficiency in the ESA management, also taking advantage of today's technologies, both in computing and communications, have made it possible to continue IUE operations within the financial means available, with ESA taking up most of NASA's share in the operations. According to Dr. Willem Wamsteker, ESA's Dutch IUE Project Scientist, "it was a extremely interesting

  5. Mars Relay Satellite: Key to Enabling Low-Cost Exploration Missions (United States)

    Hastrup, R.; Cesarone, R.; Miller, A.


    Recently, there has been increasing evidence of a renewed focus on Mars exploration both by NASA and the international community. The thrust of this renewed interest appears to be manifesting itself in numerous low-cost missions employing small, light weight elements, which utilize advanced technologies including integrated microelectronics. A formidable problem facing these low-cost missions is communications with Earth. Providing adequate direct-link performance has very significant impacts on spacecraft power, pointing, mass and overall complexity. Additionally, for elements at or near the surface of Mars, there are serious connectivity constraints, especially at higher latitudes, which lose view of Earth for up to many months at a time. This paper will discuss the role a Mars relay satellite can play in enabling and enhancing low-cost missions to Mars...

  6. Magnetic Satellite Missions and Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nils; Kotsiaros, Stavros


    Although the first satellite observations of the Earth’s magnetic field were already taken more than 50 years ago, continuous geomagnetic measurements from space are only available since 1999. The unprecedented time-space coverage of this recent data set opened revolutionary new possibilities...... for exploring the Earth’s magnetic field from space. In this chapter we discuss characteristics of satellites measuring the geomagnetic field and report on past, present and upcoming magnetic satellite missions. We conclude with some basics about space magnetic gradiometry as a possible path for future...... exploration of Earth’s magnetic field with satellites....

  7. Ultraviolet interstellar absorption toward stars in the small Magellanic Cloud. III. THe structure and kinematics of Small Magellanic Cloud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzpatrick, A.L.


    The structure and kinematical properties of the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) are investigated by combining ultraviolet data obtained from the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) satellite with existing optical and radio data. The SMC structure is complicated, undoubtedly a result of gravitational interaction with the Milky Way and the Large Magellanic Cloud, and is poorly understood. It has been known for some time that most of the H I in the SMC is concentrated in two complexes at velocities of approximately 134 and 167 km s -1 (heliocentric). Recent 21 cm emission surveys have revealed two additional, widespread H I components at approx.100 and approx.200 km s -1 . With the radio data alone, however, the relative line-of-sight locations of those complexes cannot be determined, nor can the associations of stars with the complexes be deduced. By using the ultraviolet interstellar absorption-line data in conjunction with radio and optical data, the stellar-interstellar kinematical and morphological relationships can be established. We find that in the southwest region of the SMC, most of the stars observed by IUE, including a group with only low-dispersion IUE spectra, are associated with the 134 km s -1 H I complex

  8. Meteorological satellite systems

    CERN Document Server

    Tan, Su-Yin


    “Meteorological Satellite Systems” is a primer on weather satellites and their Earth applications. This book reviews historic developments and recent technological advancements in GEO and polar orbiting meteorological satellites. It explores the evolution of these remote sensing technologies and their capabilities to monitor short- and long-term changes in weather patterns in response to climate change. Satellites developed by various countries, such as U.S. meteorological satellites, EUMETSAT, and Russian, Chinese, Japanese and Indian satellite platforms are reviewed. This book also discusses international efforts to coordinate meteorological remote sensing data collection and sharing. This title provides a ready and quick reference for information about meteorological satellites. It serves as a useful tool for a broad audience that includes students, academics, private consultants, engineers, scientists, and teachers.

  9. IUE observations of the chromospheric activity-age relation in young solar-type stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, T.; Boesgaard, A.M.


    Except for the synoptic observations of the chromospheric Ca II H-K lines by Wilson (1978), in which he sought evidence for magnetic activity cycles, there is still scant data on stellar activity, especially at UV and X-ray wavelengths where 10 5 K TRs and 10 6 - 10 7 K coronae are expected to radiate. This paper presents new UV data, obtained with the IUE spacecraft, for a dozen solar-type stars in the field. The stars are of spectral type F6 V - G1 V; on the basis of their high Li content, they range in age from 0.1 to 2.8 Gyr. The purpose is to study the evolution of TR and chromospheric emission with stellar age, and also the surface distribution of magnetically active regions as revealed by rotational modulation of UV emission line fluxes. (Auth.)

  10. Laurel Clark Earth Camp: A Program for Teachers and Students to Explore Their World and Study Global Change Through Field-Experience and Satellite Images (United States)

    Buxner, S.; Orchard, A.; Colodner, D.; Schwartz, K.; Crown, D. A.; King, B.; Baldridge, A.


    The Laurel Clark Earth Camp program provides middle and high school students and teachers opportunities to explore local environmental issues and global change through field-experiences, inquiry exercises, and exploring satellite images.

  11. Dielectric properties of Jovian satellite ice analogs for subsurface radar exploration: A review (United States)

    Pettinelli, Elena; Cosciotti, Barbara; Di Paolo, Federico; Lauro, Sebastian Emanuel; Mattei, Elisabetta; Orosei, Roberto; Vannaroni, Giuliano


    The first European mission dedicated to the exploration of Jupiter and its icy moons (JUpiter ICy moons Explorer—JUICE) will be launched in 2022 and will reach its final destination in 2030. The main goals of this mission are to understand the internal structure of the icy crusts of three Galilean satellites (Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto) and, ultimately, to detect Europa's subsurface ocean, which is believed to be the closest to the surface among those hypothesized to exist on these moons. JUICE will be equipped with the 9 MHz subsurface-penetrating radar RIME (Radar for Icy Moon Exploration), which is designed to image the ice down to a depth of 9 km. Moreover, a parallel mission to Europa, which will host onboard REASON (Radar for Europa Assessment and Sounding: Ocean to Near-surface) equipped with 9MHz and 60MHz antennas, has been recently approved by NASA. The success of these experiments strongly relies on the accurate prediction of the radar performance and on the optimal processing and interpretation of radar echoes that, in turn, depend on the dielectric properties of the materials composing the icy satellite crusts. In the present review we report a complete range of potential ice types that may occur on these icy satellites to understand how they may affect the results of the proposed missions. First, we discuss the experimental results on pure and doped water ice in the framework of the Jaccard theory, highlighting the critical aspects in terms of a lack of standard laboratory procedures and inconsistency in data interpretation. We then describe the dielectric behavior of extraterrestrial ice analogs like hydrates and icy mixtures, carbon dioxide ice and ammonia ice. Building on this review, we have selected the most suitable data to compute dielectric attenuation, velocity, vertical resolution, and reflection coefficients for such icy moon environments, with the final goal being to estimate the potential capabilities of the radar missions as a

  12. Exploring Modular Architecture for Nano Satellite and Opportunity for Developing Countries (United States)

    Rhaman, M. K.; Monowar, M. I.; Shakil, S. R.; Kafi, A. H.; Antara, R. S. I.


    SPACE Technology has the potential to provide information, infrastructure and inspiration that meets national needs in developing countries like Bangladesh. Many countries recognize this; in response they are investing in new national satellite programs to harness satellite services. Technology related to space is one example of a tool that can contribute to development both by addressing societal challenges and by advancing a nation's technological capability. To cope up with the advanced world in space technology Bangladesh seems to be highly potential country for satellite, Robotics, embedded systems and renewable energy research. BRAC University, Bangladesh is planning to launch a nano satellite with the collaboration of KIT, Japan. The proposed nano satellite project mission is to experiment about social, commercial and agricultural survey needs in Bangladesh. Each of the proposed applications of the project will improve the lives of millions of people of Bangladesh and it will be a pathfinder mission for the people of this country. Another intention of this project is to create a cheap satellite based remote sensing for developing countries as the idea of large space systems is very costly for us therefore we have decided to make a Nano-satellite.

  13. Exploring Modular Architecture for Nano Satellite and Opportunity for Developing Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhaman, M K; Monowar, M I; Shakil, S R; Kafi, A H; Antara, R S I


    SPACE Technology has the potential to provide information, infrastructure and inspiration that meets national needs in developing countries like Bangladesh. Many countries recognize this; in response they are investing in new national satellite programs to harness satellite services. Technology related to space is one example of a tool that can contribute to development both by addressing societal challenges and by advancing a nation's technological capability. To cope up with the advanced world in space technology Bangladesh seems to be highly potential country for satellite, Robotics, embedded systems and renewable energy research. BRAC University, Bangladesh is planning to launch a nano satellite with the collaboration of KIT, Japan. The proposed nano satellite project mission is to experiment about social, commercial and agricultural survey needs in Bangladesh. Each of the proposed applications of the project will improve the lives of millions of people of Bangladesh and it will be a pathfinder mission for the people of this country. Another intention of this project is to create a cheap satellite based remote sensing for developing countries as the idea of large space systems is very costly for us therefore we have decided to make a Nano-satellite

  14. Empirical global model of upper thermosphere winds based on atmosphere and dynamics explorer satellite data (United States)

    Hedin, A. E.; Spencer, N. W.; Killeen, T. L.


    Thermospheric wind data obtained from the Atmosphere Explorer E and Dynamics Explorer 2 satellites have been used to generate an empirical wind model for the upper thermosphere, analogous to the MSIS model for temperature and density, using a limited set of vector spherical harmonics. The model is limited to above approximately 220 km where the data coverage is best and wind variations with height are reduced by viscosity. The data base is not adequate to detect solar cycle (F10.7) effects at this time but does include magnetic activity effects. Mid- and low-latitude data are reproduced quite well by the model and compare favorably with published ground-based results. The polar vortices are present, but not to full detail.

  15. Using satellite-based measurements to explore ... (United States)

    New particle formation (NPF) can potentially alter regional climate by increasing aerosol particle (hereafter particle) number concentrations and ultimately cloud condensation nuclei. The large scales on which NPF is manifest indicate potential to use satellite-based (inherently spatially averaged) measurements of atmospheric conditions to diagnose the occurrence of NPF and NPF characteristics. We demonstrate the potential for using satellite-measurements of insolation (UV), trace gas concentrations (sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ammonia (NH3), formaldehyde (HCHO), ozone (O3)), aerosol optical properties (aerosol optical depth (AOD), Ångström exponent (AE)), and a proxy of biogenic volatile organic compound emissions (leaf area index (LAI), temperature (T)) as predictors for NPF characteristics: formation rates, growth rates, survival probabilities, and ultrafine particle (UFP) concentrations at five locations across North America. NPF at all sites is most frequent in spring, exhibits a one-day autocorrelation, and is associated with low condensational sink (AOD×AE) and HCHO concentrations, and high UV. However, there are important site-to-site variations in NPF frequency and characteristics, and in which of the predictor variables (particularly gas concentrations) significantly contribute to the explanatory power of regression models built to predict those characteristics. This finding may provide a partial explanation for the reported spatia

  16. Muscle Satellite Cells: Exploring the Basic Biology to Rule Them. (United States)

    Almeida, Camila F; Fernandes, Stephanie A; Ribeiro Junior, Antonio F; Keith Okamoto, Oswaldo; Vainzof, Mariz


    Adult skeletal muscle is a postmitotic tissue with an enormous capacity to regenerate upon injury. This is accomplished by resident stem cells, named satellite cells, which were identified more than 50 years ago. Since their discovery, many researchers have been concentrating efforts to answer questions about their origin and role in muscle development, the way they contribute to muscle regeneration, and their potential to cell-based therapies. Satellite cells are maintained in a quiescent state and upon requirement are activated, proliferating, and fusing with other cells to form or repair myofibers. In addition, they are able to self-renew and replenish the stem pool. Every phase of satellite cell activity is highly regulated and orchestrated by many molecules and signaling pathways; the elucidation of players and mechanisms involved in satellite cell biology is of extreme importance, being the first step to expose the crucial points that could be modulated to extract the optimal response from these cells in therapeutic strategies. Here, we review the basic aspects about satellite cells biology and briefly discuss recent findings about therapeutic attempts, trying to raise questions about how basic biology could provide a solid scaffold to more successful use of these cells in clinics.

  17. Satellite Geomagnetism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nils; Stolle, Claudia


    Observations of Earth’s magnetic field from space began more than 50 years ago. A continuous monitoring of the field using low Earth orbit (LEO) satellites, however, started only in 1999, and three satellites have taken highprecision measurements of the geomagnetic field during the past decade....... The unprecedented time-space coverage of their data opened revolutionary new possibilities for monitoring, understanding, and exploring Earth’s magnetic field. In the near future, the three-satellite constellation Swarm will ensure continuity of such measurement and provide enhanced possibilities to improve our...... ability to characterize and understand the many sources that contribute to Earth’s magnetic field. In this review, we summarize investigations of Earth’s interior and environment that have been possible through the analysis of high-precision magnetic field observations taken by LEO satellites....

  18. Communication satellite applications (United States)

    Pelton, Joseph N.

    The status and future of the technologies, numbers and services provided by communications satellites worldwide are explored. The evolution of Intelsat satellites and the associated earth terminals toward high-rate all-digital telephony, data, facsimile, videophone, videoconferencing and DBS capabilities are described. The capabilities, services and usage of the Intersputnik, Eutelsat, Arabsat and Palapa systems are also outlined. Domestic satellite communications by means of the Molniya, ANIK, Olympus, Intelsat and Palapa spacecraft are outlined, noting the fast growth of the market and the growing number of different satellite manufacturers. The technical, economic and service definition issues surrounding DBS systems are discussed, along with presently operating and planned maritime and aeronautical communications and positioning systems. Features of search and rescue and tracking, data, and relay satellite systems are summarized, and services offered or which will be offered by every existing or planned communication satellite worldwide are tabulated.

  19. IUE observations of Si and C lines and comparison with non-LTE models (United States)

    Kamp, L. W.


    Classical model atmosphere techniques are applied to analyze IUE spectra, and to determine abundances, effective temperatures and gravities. Measurements of the equivalent widths and other properties of the line profiles of 24 photospheric lines of Si II, Si III, Si IV, C II, C III and C IV are presented in the range of 1175-1725 A for seven B and two O stars. Observed line profiles are compared with theoretical profiles computed using non-LTE theory and models, and using line-blanketed model atmospheres. Agreement is reasonably good, although strong lines are calculated to be systematically stronger than those observed, while the reverse occurs for weak lines, and empirical profiles have smaller wings than theoretical profiles. It is concluded that the present theory of line formation when used with solar abundances, represents fairly well observed UV photospheric lines of silicon and carbon ions in the atmospheres of main sequence stars of types B5-O9.

  20. IUE and Einstein survey of late-type giant and supergiant stars and the dividing line (United States)

    Haisch, Bernhard M.; Bookbinder, Jay A.; Maggio, A.; Vaiana, G. S.; Bennett, Jeffrey O.


    Results are presented on an IUE UV survey of 255 late-type G, K, and M stars, complementing the Maggio et al. (1990) Einstein X-ray survey of 380 late-type stars. The large data sample of X-ray and UV detections make it possible to examine the activity relationship between the X-ray and the UV emissions. The results confirm previous finding of a trend involving a steeply-dropping upper envelope of the transition region line fluxes, f(line)/f(V), as the dividing line is approached. This suggests that a sharp decrease in maximum activity accompanies the advancing spectral type, with the dividing line corresponding to this steep gradient region. The results confirm the rotation-activity connection for stars in this region of the H-R diagram.

  1. Establishing a Robotic, LEO-to-GEO Satellite Servicing Infrastructure as an Economic Foundation for Exploration (United States)

    Horsham, Gary A. P.; Schmidt, George R.; Gilland, James H.


    The strategy for accomplishing civilian exploration goals and objectives is in the process of a fundamental shift towards a potential new approach called Flexible Path. This paper suggests that a government-industry or public-private partnership in the commercial development of low Earth orbit to geostationary orbit (LEO-to-GEO (LTG)) space, following or in parallel with the commercialization of Earth-to-LEO and International Space Station (ISS) operations, could serve as a necessary, logical step that can be incorporated into the flexible path approach. A LTG satellite-servicing infrastructure and architecture concept is discussed within this new strategic context. The concept consists of a space harbor that serves as a transport facility for a fleet of specialized, fully- or semi-autonomous robotic servicing spacecraft. The baseline, conceptual system architecture is composed of a space harbor equipped with specialized servicer spacecraft; a satellite command, communication, and control system; a parts station; a fuel station or depot; and a fuel/parts replenishment transport. The commercial servicer fleet would consist of several types of spacecraft, each designed with specialized robotic manipulation subsystems to provide services such as refueling, upgrade, repair, inspection, relocation, and removal. The space harbor is conceptualized as an ISS-type, octagonal truss structure equipped with radiation tolerant subsystems. This space harbor would be primarily capable of serving as an operational platform for various commercially owned and operated servicer spacecraft positioned and docked symmetrically on four of the eight sides. Several aspects of this concept are discussed, such as: system-level feasibility in terms of ISS-truss-type infrastructure and subsystems emplacement and maintenance between LEO and GEO; infrastructure components assembly in LEO, derived from ISS assembly experience, and transfer to various higher orbital locations; the evolving Earth

  2. Prototyping the DARPA Image Understanding Environment and Tools to Facilitate Its Use

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lawton, Daryl


    ...) and Tools to Facilitate Its Use. The major objectives of this project are to support the design and development of the IUE, to prototype the IUE user interface and data exploration tools, and to develop tools for documentation...

  3. IUE observations of circumstellar emission from the late-type variable R AQR (M6 + pec) (United States)

    Hobbs, R. W.; Michalitsianos, A. G.; Kafatos, M.


    The IUE observations of R Aqr (M7 + pec) obtained in low dispersion are discussed with particular reference to circumstellar emission. Strong permitted, semiforbidden, and forbidden emission lines are seen, superimposed on a bright ultraviolet continuum. It is deduced that the strong emission line spectrum that involves C III, C IV, Si III, (0 II) and (0 III) probably arises from a dense compact nebula the size of which is comparable to the orbital radius of the binary system of which R Aqr is the primary star. The low excitation emission lines of Fe II, Mg II, 0 I, and Si II probably a white dwarf, comparable to or somewhat brighter than the Sun, since such a star can produce enough ionizing photons to excite the continuum and emission line spectrum and yet be sufficiently faint as to escape detection by direct observation. The UV continuum is attributed to Balmer recombination from the dense nebula and not to blackbody emission from the hot companion.

  4. Sky alert! when satellites fail

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Les


    How much do we depend on space satellites? Defense, travel, agriculture, weather forecasting, mobile phones and broadband, commerce...the list seems endless. But what would our live be like if the unimaginable happened and, by accident or design, those space assets disappeared? Sky Alert! explores what our world would be like, looking in turn at areas where the loss could have catastrophic effects. The book - demonstrates our dependence on space technology and satellites; - outlines the effect on our economy, defense, and daily lives if satellites and orbiting spacecraft were destroyed; - illustrates the danger of dead satellites, spent rocket stages, and space debris colliding with a functioning satellites; - demonstrates the threat of dramatically increased radiation levels associated with geomagnetic storms; - introduces space as a potential area of conflict between nations.

  5. New insights from a statistical analysis of IUE spectra of dwarf novae and nova-like stars. I - Inclination effects in lines and continua (United States)

    La Dous, Constanze


    IUE observations of dwarf novae at maximum at quiescence and novalike objects at the high brightness state are analyzed for effects of the inclination angle on the emitted continuum and line radiation. A clear pattern in the continuum flux distribution is exhibited only by dwarf novae at maximum where some 80 percent of the non-double-eclipsing systems show essentially identical distributions. This result is not in disagreement with theoretical expectations. All classes of objects exhibit a clear, but in each case different, dependence of the line radiation on the inclination angle.

  6. Kagawa Satellite “STARS” in Shikoku (United States)

    Nohmi, Masahiro; Yamamoto, Takeshi; Andatsu, Akira; Takagi, Yohei; Nishikawa, Yusuke; Kaneko, Takashi; Kunitom, Daisuke

    The Space Tethered Autonomous Robotic Satellite (STARS) is being developed in Kagawa University, and it will be launched by the H-IIA rocket by Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) in summer 2008. STARS is the first satellite developed in Shikoku, and its specific characteristics are: (i) mother and daughter satellites, which have basic satellite system respectively, and those are launched at the same time; (ii) large space system more than 5m by extending tether; (iii) robotic system, the daughter satellite controls its arm link and the mother satellite controls tether extension. Development of STARS in Kagawa University demonstrates space technology in local community, which has been considered to be a national project. Also, it promotes popularization, enlightenment, and understanding of space technology in local area of the Kagawa prefecture and around it.

  7. Astrophysical contributions of the International Ultraviolet Explorer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Y.; Boggess, A.; Maran, S.P.


    Findings that have been made by the IUE in a variety of astrophysical areas are reviewed. Results on stellar chromospheres and transition regions, evolutionary processes in interacting binaries, winds from early-type stars, the ISM, SN 1987A, active galactic nuclei, and solar system objects are addressed. 158 refs

  8. Thermal Conductivity Measurements on Icy Satellite Analogs (United States)

    Javeed, Aurya; Barmatz, Martin; Zhong, Fang; Choukroun, Mathieu


    With regard to planetary science, NASA aspires to: "Advance scientific knowledge of the origin and history of the solar system, the potential for life elsewhere, and the hazards and resources present as humans explore space". In pursuit of such an end, the Galileo and Cassini missions garnered spectral data of icy satellite surfaces implicative of the satellites' structure and material composition. The potential for geophysical modeling afforded by this information, coupled with the plausibility of life on icy satellites, has pushed Jupiter's Europa along with Saturn's Enceladus and Titan toward the fore of NASA's planetary focus. Understanding the evolution of, and the present processes at work on, the aforementioned satellites falls squarely in-line with NASA's cited goal.

  9. Remote sensing strategies for global resource exploration and environmental management (United States)

    Henderson, Frederick B.

    Since 1972, satellite remote sensing, when integrated with other exploration techniques, has demonstrated operational exploration and engineering cost savings and reduced exploration risks through improved geological mapping. Land and ocean remote sensing satellite systems under development for the 1990's by the United States, France, Japan, Canada, ESA, Russia, China, and others, will significantly increase our ability to explore for, develop, and manage energy and mineral resources worldwide. A major difference between these systems is the "Open Skies" and "Non-Discriminatory Access to Data" policies as have been practiced by the U.S. and France and the restrictive nationalistic data policies as have been practiced by Russia and India. Global exploration will use satellite remote sensing to better map regional structural and basin-like features that control the distribution of energy and mineral resources. Improved sensors will better map lithologic and stratigraphic units and identify alteration effects in rocks, soils, and vegetation cover indicative of undiscovered subsurface resources. These same sensors will also map and monitor resource development. The use of satellite remote sensing data will grow substantially through increasing integration with other geophysical, geochemical, and geologic data using improved geographic information systems (GIS). International exploration will focus on underdeveloped countries rather than on mature exploration areas such as the United States, Europe, and Japan. Energy and mineral companies and government agencies in these countries and others will utilize available remote sensing data to acquire economic intelligence on global resources. If the "Non-Discriminatory Access to Data" principle is observed by satellite producing countries, exploration will remain competitive "on the ground". In this manner, remote sensing technology will continue to be developed to better explore for and manage the world's needed resources

  10. IUE observations of long period eclipsing binaries: a study of accretion onto non-degenerate stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plavec, M.J.


    It has long been thought that β Lyrae is a unique system, by virtue of its UV spectrum and its nature. The author argues that a whole class of interacting long-period binaries exists, similar to β Lyrae. According to IUE observations made in 1978-79 this group comprises: RX Cas, SX Cas, V 367 Cyg, W Cru, β Lyr, and W Ser. AR Pav is a transition case linking them with the symbiotics. The author also suggests that HD 218393 (KX And), HD 72754, and HD 51480 are their non-eclipsing counterparts. The whole group is called the W Serpentis stars. These systems are mass-transfering binaries (case B) in which the mass transfer rate is relatively high, probably on the order 10 -6 to 10 -4 solar masses/year. They display an ultraviolet continuum with a color temperature definitely higher than the one observed in the optical region. Even more characteristical is the presence of strong emission lines of N V, C IV, Si IV, Fe III, Al III, and lower ions of C and Si. The author discusses these phenomena on the assumption that they are due to accretion onto non-degenerate stars. (Auth.)

  11. Geospace exploration project: Arase (ERG) (United States)

    Miyoshi, Y.; Kasaba, Y.; Shinohara, I.; Takashima, T.; Asamura, K.; Matsumoto, H.; Higashio, N.; Mitani, T.; Kasahara, S.; Yokota, S.; Wang, S.; Kazama, Y.; Kasahara, Y.; Yagitani, S.; Matsuoka, A.; Kojima, H.; Katoh, Y.; Shiokawa, K.; Seki, K.; Fujimoto, M.; Ono, T.; ERG project Group


    The ERG (Exploration of energization and Radiation in Geospace) is Japanese geospace exploration project. The project focuses on relativistic electron acceleration mechanism of the outer belt and dynamics of space storms in the context of the cross-energy coupling via wave-particle interactions. The project consists of the satellite observation team, the ground-based network observation team, and integrated-data analysis/simulation team. The satellite was launched on December 20 2016 and has been nicknamed, “Arase”. This paper describes overview of the project and future plan for observations.

  12. Satellite Communications for ATM (United States)

    Shamma, Mohammed A.


    This presentation is an overview on Satellite Communication for the Aeronautical Telecommunication Management (ATM) research. Satellite Communications are being considered by the FAA and NASA as a possible alternative to the present and future ground systems supporting Air Traffic Communications. The international Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) have in place Standards and Recommended Practices (SARPS) for the Aeronautical Mobile Satellite Services (AMSS) which is mainly derived from the pre-existing Inmarsat service that has been in service since the 1980s. The Working Group A of the Aeronautical Mobile Communication Panel of ICAO has also been investigating SARPS for what is called the Next Generation Satellite Service (NGSS) which conforms less to the Inmarsat based architecture and explores wider options in terms of satellite architectures. Several designs are being proposed by Firms such as Boeing, ESA, NASA that are geared toward full or secondary usage of satellite communications for ATM. Satellite communications for ATM can serve several purposes ranging from primary usage where ground services would play a minimal backup role, to an integrated solution where it will be used to cover services, or areas that are less likely to be supported by the proposed and existing ground infrastructure. Such Integrated roles can include usage of satellite communications for oceanic and remote land areas for example. It also can include relieving the capacity of the ground network by providing broadcast based services of Traffic Information Services messages (TIS-B), or Flight Information Services (FIS-B) which can take a significant portion of the ground system capacity. Additionally, satellite communication can play a backup role to support any needs for ground replacement, or additional needed capacity even after the new digital systems are in place. The additional bandwidth that can be provided via satellite communications can also open the door for many new

  13. Outer atmospheres of cool stars. XII - A survey of IUE ultraviolet emission line spectra of cool dwarf stars (United States)

    Linsky, J. L.; Bornmann, P. L.; Carpenter, K. G.; Hege, E. K.; Wing, R. F.; Giampapa, M. S.; Worden, S. P.


    Quantitative information is obtained on the chromospheres and transition regions of M dwarf stars, in order to determine how the outer atmospheres of dMe stars differ from dM stars and how they compare with the outer atmospheres of quiet and active G and K type dwarfs. IUE spectra of six dMe and four dM stars, together with ground-based photometry and spectroscopy of the Balmer and Ca II H and K lines, show no evidence of flares. It is concluded, regarding the quiescent behavior of these stars, that emission-line spectra resemble that of the sun and contain emission lines formed in regions with 4000-20,000 K temperatures that are presumably analogous to the solar chromosphere, as well as regions with temperatures of 20,000-200,000 K that are presumably analogous to the solar transition region. Emission-line surface fluxes are proportional to the emission measure over the range of temperatures at which the lines are formed.

  14. The Rapid Intensification of Typhoon Soudelor (2015) Explored through Next-Generation Satellite Observations (United States)

    Munsell, E.; Braun, S. A.; Zhang, F.


    The dynamics that govern the intensification of tropical cyclones (TC) are dominated by rapidly evolving moist convective processes in the inner-core region. Remotely sensed satellite observations are typically available but in the past have lacked the necessary resolution to sufficiently examine TC intensification processes. However, as a result of the recent launch of next-generation high-resolution satellites (JMA's Himawari-8 and NOAA/NASA's GOES-16), the spatial and temporal frequency of remotely-sensed observations of TCs have increased significantly. This study utilizes brightness temperatures observed by the Advanced Himawari Imager to examine the structure of Typhoon Soudelor (2015) throughout its rapid intensification (RI) from a tropical storm to a super typhoon. Wavenumber decompositions are performed on brightness temperature fields that correspond to channels sensitive to upper-, mid-, and lower-level water vapor, and IR longwave radiation, to study wave features associated with the inner-core region. A scale-separation is also performed to assess the degree to which the intensification processes are dominated by phenomenon of various wavelengths. Higher-order wavenumbers reveal asymmetric features that propagate outwards from the storm on short time scales ( 1-2 h). The identification of these waves and their contribution to intensification is ongoing. A deterministic forecast of Typhoon Soudelor performed using a convection-permitting WRF simulation coupled to an Ensemble Kalman Filter that assimilates brightness temperatures, accurately captures the TCs RI event. The Community Radiative Transfer Model (CRTM) is used to produce simulated brightness temperature fields for the applicable channels. The model demonstrates the ability to reproduce the observed brightness temperatures in great detail, including smaller-scale features such as primary rainbands and the eye; however, a uniform warm bias is present. It is hypothesized that this likely results

  15. Teamwork Reasoning and Multi-Satellite Missions (United States)

    Marsella, Stacy C.; Plaunt, Christian (Technical Monitor)


    NASA is rapidly moving towards the use of spatially distributed multiple satellites operating in near Earth orbit and Deep Space. Effective operation of such multi-satellite constellations raises many key research issues. In particular, the satellites will be required to cooperate with each other as a team that must achieve common objectives with a high degree of autonomy from ground based operations. The multi-agent research community has made considerable progress in investigating the challenges of realizing such teamwork. In this report, we discuss some of the teamwork issues that will be faced by multi-satellite operations. The basis of the discussion is a particular proposed mission, the Magnetospheric MultiScale mission to explore Earth's magnetosphere. We describe this mission and then consider how multi-agent technologies might be applied in the design and operation of these missions. We consider the potential benefits of these technologies as well as the research challenges that will be raised in applying them to NASA multi-satellite missions. We conclude with some recommendations for future work.

  16. The composite nature of the peculiar star HR 6560 (HD 159870) (United States)

    Wegner, Gary; Cowley, Charles R.


    Ground-based high-dispersion photographic spectra and ultraviolet spectra obtained with the IUE satellite are described and employed to determine the nature of the peculiar star HR 6560 (HD 159870). Previously this object had been described as both a composite system and as a strong Fm star. The UBVRI, Stromgren, and ultraviolet colors of HR 6560 are compared with objects classified composite from the Bright Star Catalogue and normal dwarfs and giants. The colors of HR 6560 are not unusual for a composite and are consistent with a late-A dwarf, combined with a late-G or early-K giant. The ultraviolet satellite clearly shows the presence of an A component, but its precise spectral type is difficult to assign. The IUE and TD-1 data suggest that the ultraviolet is dominated by light from an A5 V secondary and the visual from a GO III primary. This does not agree well with the most plausible model that fits the visual photometry. The peculiar nature of HR 6560's spectrum is most likely due to its composite nature.

  17. Satellite Remote Sensing For Aluminum And Nickel Laterites (United States)

    Henderson, Frederick B.; Penfield, Glen T.; Grubbs, Donald K.


    The new LANDSAT-4,-5/Thematic Mapper (TM) land observational satellite remote sensing systems are providing dramatically new and important short wave infrared (SWIR) data, which combined with Landsat's Multi-Spectral Scanner (MSS) visible (VIS), very near infrared (VNIR), and thermal infrared (TI) data greatly improves regional geological mapping on a global scale. The TM will significantly improve clay, iron oxide, aluminum, and nickel laterite mapping capabilities over large areas of the world. It will also improve the ability to discriminate vegetation stress and species distribution associated with lateritic environments. Nickel laterites on Gag Island, Indonesia are defined by MSS imagery. Satellite imagery of the Cape Bougainville and the Darling Range, Australia bauxite deposits show the potential use of MSS data for exploration and mining applications. Examples of satellite syn-thetic aperture radar (SAR) for Jamaica document the use of this method for bauxite exploration. Thematic Mapper data will be combined with the French SPOT satellite's high spatial resolution and stereoscopic digital data, and U.S., Japanese, European, and Canadian Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data to assist with logistics, mine development, and environ-mental concerns associated with aluminum and nickel lateritic deposits worldwide.

  18. A Framework for Developing Artificial Intelligence for Autonomous Satellite Operations (United States)

    Anderson, Jason L.; Kurfess, Franz J.; Puig-Suari, Jordi


    In the world of educational satellites, student teams manually conduct operations daily. Educational satellites typically travel in a Low Earth Orbit allowing communication for approximately thirty minutes each day. Manual operations during these times is manageable for student teams as the required manpower is minimal. The international Global Educational Network for Satellite Operations (GENSO), however, promises satellite contact upwards of sixteen hours per day by connecting earth stations globally through the Internet. This large increase in satellite communication time makes manual student operations unreasonable and alternatives must be explored. This paper introduces a framework to conduct autonomous satellite operations using different AI methodologies. This paper additionally demonstrates the framework's usability by introducing a sample rule-based implementation for Cal Poly's CubeSat, CP3.

  19. Satellites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, J.A.; Matthews, M.S.


    The present work is based on a conference: Natural Satellites, Colloquium 77 of the IAU, held at Cornell University from July 5 to 9, 1983. Attention is given to the background and origins of satellites, protosatellite swarms, the tectonics of icy satellites, the physical characteristics of satellite surfaces, and the interactions of planetary magnetospheres with icy satellite surfaces. Other topics include the surface composition of natural satellites, the cratering of planetary satellites, the moon, Io, and Europa. Consideration is also given to Ganymede and Callisto, the satellites of Saturn, small satellites, satellites of Uranus and Neptune, and the Pluto-Charon system

  20. Explorer 1, anniversario americano e scientifico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Bernardini


    Full Text Available Explorer 1: a science and american anniversaryIn reaction to the public and political turmoil originated by the Soviet launch of the first two satellites, Sputnik 1 and 2, the US Government tried to detach academically from the issue, pursuing the development of the Vanguard project. The failure of the first Vanguard launch, in front of TV cameras from all over the world, prompted the Administration to accept the “hacked” solution proposed by Wernher Von Braun and his team. Very quickly the Jupiter-C rocket, derived from existing hardware, and a new satellite, Explorer 1, where readied and launched with success: United States had their first orbiting satellite. Science, however, had a a greater gain - the achievement of a second place in the space race.

  1. Significant results from using earth observation satellites for mineral and energy resource exploration (United States)

    Carter, William D.


    A large number of Earth-observation satellites orbit our world several times each day, providing new information about the land and sea surfaces and the overlying thin layer of atmosphere that makes our planet unique. Meteorological satellites have had the longest history of experimental use and most are now considered operational. The geologic information collected by the Landsat, Polar Orbiting Geophysical Observatory (POGO), Magsat, Heat Capacity Mapping Mission (HCMM) and Seasat land and ocean observation systems is being thoroughly tested, and some of these systems are now approaching operational use.

  2. Audio Satellites: Overhearing Everyday Life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Jonas Rasmussen; Breinbjerg, M.; Højlund, M. K.


    around or displaced arbitrarily in a given landscape. In the web browser, the different sound streams from the individual satellites can be mixed together to form a cooperative soundscape. The project thus allows people to tune into and explore the overheard soundscape of everyday life in a collaborative...

  3. Ultraviolet spectrophotometry of comet Giacobini-Zinner during the ICE encounter. [International Cometary Explorer (ICE) (United States)

    Ahearn, Michael F.; Mcfadden, Lucy A.; Feldman, Paul D.; Boehnhardt, Hermann; Rahe, Juergen; Festou, Michael; Brandt, John C.; Maran, Stephen P.; Niedner, Malcom B.; Smith, Andrew M.


    The IUE spectrophotometry of Comet P/Giacobini-Zinner was acquired in support of the International Cometary Explorer (ICE) mission. The abundances (or upper limits) of UV-active species were calculated. During the ICE encounter the H2O production rate was 3 times 10 to the 28th power/sec, + or - 50%, consistent with values derived from the ICE experiments. Comparison of the abundance of CO2(+) ions with the total electron density measured by the plasma electron experiment on ICE indicates a deficiency of ions relative to electrons indicating a population of ions not detected by remote sensing. The absence of detectable Mg(+) rules out this species as a possible ion of M/Q = 24 detected by the Ion Composition Instrument, part of the ICE complement of instruments.

  4. Building technological capability within satellite programs in developing countries (United States)

    Wood, Danielle; Weigel, Annalisa


    This paper explores the process of building technological capability in government-led satellite programs within developing countries. The key message is that these satellite programs can learn useful lessons from literature in the international development community. These lessons are relevant to emerging satellite programs that leverage international partnerships in order to establish local capability to design, build and operate satellites. Countries with such programs include Algeria, Nigeria, Turkey, Malaysia and the United Arab Emirates. The paper first provides background knowledge about space activity in developing countries, and then explores the nuances of the lessons coming from the international development literature. Developing countries are concerned with satellite technology because satellites provide useful services in the areas of earth observation, communication, navigation and science. Most developing countries access satellite services through indirect means such as sharing data with foreign organizations. More countries, however, are seeking opportunities to develop satellite technology locally. There are objective, technically driven motivations for developing countries to invest in satellite technology, despite rich debate on this topic. The paper provides a framework to understand technical motivations for investment in satellite services, hardware, expertise and infrastructure in both short and long term. If a country decides to pursue such investments they face a common set of strategic decisions at the levels of their satellite program, their national context and their international relationships. Analysis of past projects shows that countries have chosen diverse strategies to address these strategic decisions and grow in technological capability. What is similar about the historical examples is that many countries choose to leverage international partnerships as part of their growth process. There are also historical examples from

  5. Audio Satellites – Overhearing Everyday Life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breinbjerg, Morten; Højlund, Marie Koldkjær; Riis, Morten S.


    around or displaced arbitrarily in a given landscape. In the web interface, the different sound streams from the individual satellites can be mixed together to form a cooperative soundscape. The project thus allows people to tune into and explore the overheard soundscape of everyday life...

  6. Testing command and control of the satellites in formation flight (United States)

    Gheorghe, Popan; Gheorghe, Gh. Ion; Gabriel, Todoran


    The topics covered in the paper are mechatronic systems for determining the distance between the satellites and the design of the displacement system on air cushion table for satellites testing. INCDMTM has the capability to approach the collaboration within European Programms (ESA) of human exploration of outer space through mechatronic systems and accessories for telescopes, mechatronics systems used by the launchers, sensors and mechatronic systems for the robotic exploration programs of atmosphere and Mars. This research has a strong development component of industrial competitiveness many of the results of space research have direct applicability in industrial fabrication.

  7. Exploration of satellite-derived data products for atmospheric turbulence studies

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Griffith, DJ


    Full Text Available reasonable proxy in the absence of in-situ measurements. 3.2 ORNL DAAC The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) provides a global subsetting and time-series derivation for Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer... (MODIS) data from the NASA Terra and Aqua satellite platforms. The products available for subsetting and time-series generation from the ORNL DAAC are given in Table 2. Moreover, this MODIS facility is available programmatically using the Simple Object...

  8. Ultraviolet observations of AM Herculis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanzi, E.G.; Treves, A.; Milan Univ.; Sandford, M.C.W.; Willis, A.J.; Wilson, R.


    Seven ultraviolet spectra (1100-3200 Angstroem) of AM Her were obtained with the low resolution spectrometer of the IUE satellite. Strong emission features appear superimposed on a well defined continuum which is well fitted by a Fsub(lambda) D lambda -2 law. The observations are compared with the expectations from models of the source. (orig.) 891 WL/orig. 892 HIS

  9. Optical and ultraviolet study of five stars in the Pleiades open cluster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Younan, K.F.; Dufton, P.L.


    Optical and ultraviolet observations of five low-reddened stars in the Pleiades open cluster have been obtained with an echelle spectrograph and the IUE satellite. The observed interstellar absorption lines have been analysed with different cloud models to estimate interstellar gas abundances for each line-of-sight. These results have been discussed in the light of current models for diatomic formation. (author)

  10. Observation of Galactic and Solar Cosmic Rays from October 13, 1959 to February 17, 1961 with Explorer VII (Satellite 1959 Iota) (United States)

    Lin, Wei Ching


    This paper gives a comprehensive summary of cosmic-ray intensity observations at high latitudes over North America and over Australia in the altitude range 550 to 1100 km by means of Geiger tubes in Explorer VII (Earth satellite 1959 Iota). The time period covered is October 13, 1959 to February 17, 1961. Of special interest are the observational data on some 20 solar cosmic-ray events including major events of early April 1960, early September 1960, and of mid-November 1960. Detailed study of the latitude dependence of solar cosmic ray intensity will be presented in a later companion paper.

  11. Abundances of the elements in sharp-lined early-type stars from IUE high-dispersion spectrograms; 2, the nitrogen deficiency in mercury- manganese stars

    CERN Document Server

    Roby, S W; Adelman, S J


    For pt.I see ibid., vol.419, no.1, p.276-85 (1993). The authors determine nitrogen abundances from co-added IUE high-dispersion SWP spectrograms of four HgMn stars and five normal or superficially normal main-sequence B and A stars. They find N deficiencies in the HgMn stars greater than previously reported (depletion factors of 135-400 relative to the Sun). N abundance discrepancies from UV and IR studies of normal stars are discussed in light of possible non-LTE effects. Their data set for their sample of HgMn stars (observed with a consistent strategy to maximize the benefits of co-additions) is an improvement over the single or few images previously used to derive N abundances for most of these stars. (37 refs).

  12. Petroleum exploration in Africa from space (United States)

    Gianinetto, Marco; Frassy, Federico; Aiello, Martina; Rota Nodari, Francesco


    Hydrocarbons are nonrenewable resources but today they are the cheaper and easier energy we have access and will remain the main source of energy for this century. Nevertheless, their exploration is extremely high-risk, very expensive and time consuming. In this context, satellite technologies for Earth observation can play a fundamental role by making hydrocarbon exploration more efficient, economical and much more eco-friendly. Complementary to traditional geophysical methods such as gravity and magnetic (gravmag) surveys, satellite remote sensing can be used to detect onshore long-term biochemical and geochemical alterations on the environment produced by invisible small fluxes of light hydrocarbons migrating from the underground deposits to the surface, known as microseepage effect. This paper describes two case studies: one in South Sudan and another in Mozambique. Results show how remote sensing is a powerful technology for detecting active petroleum systems, thus supporting hydrocarbon exploration in remote or hardly accessible areas and without the need of any exploration license.

  13. Requirements and design structure for Surya Satellite-1 (United States)

    Steven, H.; Huzain, M. F.


    Currently, there are various references on the manufacture of nanosatellite specifications weighing 1KG - 10KG.The Surya Satellite-1 is the first nanosatellite made by universities in Indonesia. The Surya Satellite-1 team gets a launch offer from Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) and, all the nanosatellites manufacturer racers at ICD (Interface Control Document) obtained from JAXA. The formation of the Satellite-1 Surya framework is also based on the provisions of JAXA. The various specifications and requirements specified by the JAXA space agency consisting of specific specifications such as the mass of nanosatellite 1U (10cm x 10cm x 11.65cm) size of at least 0.13KG and a maximum of 1.33KG, with the determination of a gravity point not exceeding 2 cm from the nanosatellite geometry center point. In the case of preventing solar radiation in space, there is a requirement that the structure of satellite structures on hard black anodization should be more than 10 meters in the surface of the satellite structure. In terms of detail, the satellite structure is a black hard anodized aluminum after its manufacturing process derived from the MIL-A-8625 document, type 3.

  14. Satellite Remote Sensing in Seismology. A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew A. Tronin


    Full Text Available A wide range of satellite methods is applied now in seismology. The first applications of satellite data for earthquake exploration were initiated in the ‘70s, when active faults were mapped on satellite images. It was a pure and simple extrapolation of airphoto geological interpretation methods into space. The modern embodiment of this method is alignment analysis. Time series of alignments on the Earth's surface are investigated before and after the earthquake. A further application of satellite data in seismology is related with geophysical methods. Electromagnetic methods have about the same long history of application for seismology. Stable statistical estimations of ionosphere-lithosphere relation were obtained based on satellite ionozonds. The most successful current project "DEMETER" shows impressive results. Satellite thermal infra-red data were applied for earthquake research in the next step. Numerous results have confirmed previous observations of thermal anomalies on the Earth's surface prior to earthquakes. A modern trend is the application of the outgoing long-wave radiation for earthquake research. In ‘80s a new technology—satellite radar interferometry—opened a new page. Spectacular pictures of co-seismic deformations were presented. Current researches are moving in the direction of pre-earthquake deformation detection. GPS technology is also widely used in seismology both for ionosphere sounding and for ground movement detection. Satellite gravimetry has demonstrated its first very impressive results on the example of the catastrophic Indonesian earthquake in 2004. Relatively new applications of remote sensing for seismology as atmospheric sounding, gas observations, and cloud analysis are considered as possible candidates for applications.

  15. Ultraviolet spectrophotometry of Comet Giacobini-Zinner during the ICE encounter. [International Cometary Explorer (United States)

    Mcfadden, Lucy A.; Ahearn, Michael F.; Feldman, Paul D.; Boehnhardt, Hermann; Rahe, Juergen; Festou, Michel C.; Brandt, John C.; Maran, Stephen P.; Niedner, Malcolm B.; Smith, Andrew M.


    The IUE's UV spectrophotometer was used to monitor Comet Giacobini-Zinner's H2O production rate from June to October, 1985, in support of the International Cometary Explorer (ICE) mission. Observation results for the spatial and temporal variation and the abundance or upper limits of C, CO, CO(+), CO2(+), CS, H, Mg(+), O, OH, and S, between September 9 and 12, included the time of the ICE encounter: at this time, the H2O production rate obtained was consistent with a number of gas production rates derived indirectly from the ICE experiments. A comparison of the CO2(+) ion abundance with the total electron density measured by the plasma electron and radio science experiments on ICE implies an ion deficiency relative to electrons, so that the satisfaction of charge balance criteria requires the presence of a major ion population not detected by remote sensing.

  16. Recent successes and emerging challenges for coordinated satellite/ground-based magnetospheric exploration and modeling. (United States)

    Angelopoulos, Vassilis

    With the availability of a distributed constellation of spacecraft (THEMIS, Geotail, Cluster) and increased capability ground based arrays (SuperDARN, THEMIS/GBOs), it is now pos-sible to infer simply from timing significant information regarding mapping of magnetospheric phenomena. Optical, magnetometer and radar data can pinpoint the location and nature of onset signatures. On the other hand, magnetic field modeling constrained by physical bound-aries (such as the isotropy boundary) the measured magnetic field and total pressure values at a distibuted network of satellites has proven to do a much better job at correlating ionospheric precipitation and diffuse auroral boundaries to magnetospheric phenomena, such as the inward boundary of the dipolarization fronts. It is now possible to routinely compare in-situ measured phase space densities of ion and electron distributions during ionosphere -magnetosphere con-junctions, in the absense of potential drops. It is also possible to not only infer equivalent current systems from the ground, but use reconstruction of the ionospheric current system from space to determine the full electrodynamics evolution of the ionosphere and compare with radars. Assimilation of this emerging ground based and global magnetospheric panoply into a self consistent magnetospheric model will likely be one of the most fruitful endeavors in magnetospheric exploration during the next few years.

  17. Satellite communications - Intelsat and global patterns (United States)

    Astrain, S.


    The global pattern of mankind's population growth is examined, taking into account the exponential increase in population which began only in the 17th century. As world population has grown, trade has increased, and transportation and communications have become vitally important. A revolution in global communications was initiated when Intelsat launched the first international communications satellite, 'Early Bird', in April 1965. Since April 1965, a tremendous development in global communications by means of satellites has taken place. The Intelsat VI satellite will have a capacity of 36,000 telephone circuits plus 2 TV channels, while the capacity of Early Bird was only 240 telephone circuits. Today, Intelsat is truly an international organization which includes 108 member countries. Attention is given to the particular importance of the Intelsat services to the developing countries, the exploration of new technologies and system concepts, and the extension of services to those portions of the global village which have remained electronically isolated.

  18. Exploring Global Patterns in Human Appropriation of Net Primary Production Using Earth Observation Satellites and Statistical Data (United States)

    Imhoff, M.; Bounoua, L.


    A unique combination of satellite and socio-economic data were used to explore the relationship between human consumption and the carbon cycle. Biophysical models were applied to consumption data to estimate the annual amount of Earth's terrestrial net primary production humans require for food, fiber and fuel using the same modeling architecture as satellite-supported NPP measurements. The amount of Earth's NPP required to support human activities is a powerful measure of the aggregate human impacts on the biosphere and indicator of societal vulnerability to climate change. Equations were developed estimating the amount of landscape-level NPP required to generate all the products consumed by 230 countries including; vegetal foods, meat, milk, eggs, wood, fuel-wood, paper and fiber. The amount of NPP required was calculated on a per capita basis and projected onto a global map of population to create a spatially explicit map of NPP-carbon demand in units of elemental carbon. NPP demand was compared to a map of Earth's average annual net primary production or supply created using 17 years (1982-1998) of AVHRR vegetation index to produce a geographically accurate balance sheet of terrestrial NPP-carbon supply and demand. Globally, humans consume 20 percent of Earth's total net primary production on land. Regionally the NPP-carbon balance percentage varies from 6 to over 70 percent and locally from near 0 to over 30,000 percent in major urban areas. The uneven distribution of NPP-carbon supply and demand, indicate the degree to which various human populations rely on NPP imports, are vulnerable to climate change and suggest policy options for slowing future growth in NPP demand.

  19. Detailed observations of NGC 4151 with IUE. Paper 1. Low dispersion data up to 1979 January

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penston, M.V.; Boksenberg, A.; Bromage, G.E.


    This paper reports low resolution ultraviolet spectroscopic monitoring of NGC 4151 with IUE in the period 1978 February to 1979 January. Observations were made at 7 different epochs. Continuum points can be isolated in both long-wave (1950 to 3250 A) and, with some difficulty, short-wave (1150 to 1950 A) regions. 15 absorption features are identified and their equivalent widths measured. Some arise from metastable levels, some are variable and others are stronger than can be accounted for by the interstellar media of our galaxy and of the NGC 4151 galaxy alone. Most arise in the nucleus of NGC 4151. Velocity variations in the absorption region are indicated by changing V/R ratios in the overall C IV feature. The Si IV lines are unsaturated and must therefore be broad. The lower limit to the absorbing column is much less than the X-ray column but this latter amount could be present but escape detection if in the form of clouds with low velocity dispersions. The strong emission lines include those seen in quasars; weaker features including some unidentified ones are also discussed. The intensities of the high-ionization emission lines are variable, as are the line widths of C IV. Most variable parameters vary in phase or anti-phase with the continuum and may be explained in terms of changing ionization conditions in the absorption and emission regions. (author)

  20. Research of the key technology in satellite communication networks (United States)

    Zeng, Yuan


    According to the prediction, in the next 10 years the wireless data traffic will be increased by 500-1000 times. Not only the wireless data traffic will be increased exponentially, and the demand for diversified traffic will be increased. Higher requirements for future mobile wireless communication system had brought huge market space for satellite communication system. At the same time, the space information networks had been greatly developed with the depth of human exploration of space activities, the development of space application, the expansion of military and civilian application. The core of spatial information networks is the satellite communication. The dissertation presented the communication system architecture, the communication protocol, the routing strategy, switch scheduling algorithm and the handoff strategy based on the satellite communication system. We built the simulation platform of the LEO satellites networks and simulated the key technology using OPNET.

  1. The Wilson-Bappu effect of the MgII k line - dependence on stellar temperature, activity and metallicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elgaroy, O.; Engvold, O.; Lund, Niels


    widths around the regression lines. The sample contains slowly rotating stars of different activity levels and is suitable for investigations of a possible relation between line width and stellar activity. A difference in behavior between dwarfs and giants (and supergiants) of spectral class K seems......The Wilson-Bappu effect is investigated using accurate absolute magnitudes of 65 stars obtained through early release of data from the Hipparcos satellite together with MgII k fine widths determined from high resolution spectra observed with the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) observatory....... Stars of spectral classes F, G, K and M and luminosity classes I-V are represented in the sample. Wilson-Bappu relations for the Mg II k line for stars of different temperatures i.e. spectral classes are determined. The relation varies with spectral class and there is a significant scatter of the line...

  2. A Reflight of the Explorer-1 Science Mission: The Montana EaRth Orbiting Pico Explorer (MEROPE) (United States)

    Klumpar, D. M.; Obland, M.; Hunyadi, G.; Jepsen, S.; Larsen, B.; Kankelborg, C.; Hiscock, W.


    Montana State University's interdisciplinary Space Science and Engineering Laboratory (SSEL) under support from the Montana NASA Space Grant Consortium is engaged in an earth orbiting satellite student design and flight project. The Montana EaRth Orbiting Pico Explorer (MEROPE) will carry a modern-day reproduction of the scientific payload carried on Explorer-1. On February 1, 1958 the United States launched its first earth orbiting satellite carrying a 14 kg scientific experiment built by Professor James Van Allen's group at the State University of Iowa (now The University of Iowa). The MEROPE student satellite will carry a reproduction, using current-day technology, of the scientific payload flown on Explorer-1. The CubeSat-class satellite will use currently available, low cost technologies to produce a payload-carrying satellite with a total orbital mass of 1 kg in a volume of 1 cubic liter. The satellite is to be launched in late 2001 into a 600 km, 65° inclination orbit. MEROPE will utilize passive magnetic orientation for 2-axis attitude control. A central microprocessor provides timing, controls on-board operations and switching, and enables data storage. Body mounted GaAs solar arrays are expected to provide in excess of 1.5 W. to maintain battery charge and operate the bus and payload. The Geiger counter will be operated at approximately 50% duty cycle, primarily during transits of the earth's radiation belts. Data will be stored on board and transmitted approximately twice per day to a ground station located on the Bozeman campus of the Montana State University. Owing to the 65° inclination, the instrument will also detect the higher energy portion of the electron spectrum responsible for the production of the Aurora Borealis. This paper describes both the technical implementation and design of the satellite and its payload as well as the not inconsiderable task of large team organization and management. As of March 2001, the student team consists of

  3. Emperors in hiding: when ice-breakers and satellites complement each other in Antarctic exploration. (United States)

    Ancel, André; Cristofari, Robin; Fretwell, Peter T; Trathan, Phil N; Wienecke, Barbara; Boureau, Matthieu; Morinay, Jennifer; Blanc, Stéphane; Le Maho, Yvon; Le Bohec, Céline


    Evaluating the demographic trends of marine top predators is critical to understanding the processes involved in the ongoing rapid changes in Antarctic ecosystems. However, the remoteness and logistical complexity of operating in Antarctica, especially during winter, make such an assessment difficult. Satellite imaging is increasingly recognised as a valuable method for remote animal population monitoring, yet its accuracy and reliability are still to be fully evaluated. We report here the first ground visit of an emperor penguin colony first discovered by satellite, but also the discovery of a second one not indicated by satellite survey at that time. Several successive remote surveys in this coastal region of East Antarctica, both before and after sudden local changes, had indeed only identified one colony. These two colonies (with a total of ca. 7,400 breeding pairs) are located near the Mertz Glacier in an area that underwent tremendous habitat change after the glacier tongue broke off in February 2010. Our findings therefore suggest that a satellite survey, although offering a major advance since it allows a global imaging of emperor penguin colonies, may miss certain colony locations when challenged by certain features of polar ecosystems, such as snow cover, evolving ice topology, and rapidly changing habitat. Moreover our survey shows that this large seabird has considerable potential for rapid adaptation to sudden habitat loss, as the colony detected in 2009 may have moved and settled on new breeding grounds. Overall, the ability of emperor penguin colonies to relocate following habitat modification underlines the continued need for a mix of remote sensing and field surveys (aerial photography and ground counts), especially in the less-frequented parts of Antarctica, to gain reliable knowledge about the population demography and dynamics of this flagship species of the Antarctic ecosystem.

  4. Emperors in hiding: when ice-breakers and satellites complement each other in Antarctic exploration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Ancel

    Full Text Available Evaluating the demographic trends of marine top predators is critical to understanding the processes involved in the ongoing rapid changes in Antarctic ecosystems. However, the remoteness and logistical complexity of operating in Antarctica, especially during winter, make such an assessment difficult. Satellite imaging is increasingly recognised as a valuable method for remote animal population monitoring, yet its accuracy and reliability are still to be fully evaluated. We report here the first ground visit of an emperor penguin colony first discovered by satellite, but also the discovery of a second one not indicated by satellite survey at that time. Several successive remote surveys in this coastal region of East Antarctica, both before and after sudden local changes, had indeed only identified one colony. These two colonies (with a total of ca. 7,400 breeding pairs are located near the Mertz Glacier in an area that underwent tremendous habitat change after the glacier tongue broke off in February 2010. Our findings therefore suggest that a satellite survey, although offering a major advance since it allows a global imaging of emperor penguin colonies, may miss certain colony locations when challenged by certain features of polar ecosystems, such as snow cover, evolving ice topology, and rapidly changing habitat. Moreover our survey shows that this large seabird has considerable potential for rapid adaptation to sudden habitat loss, as the colony detected in 2009 may have moved and settled on new breeding grounds. Overall, the ability of emperor penguin colonies to relocate following habitat modification underlines the continued need for a mix of remote sensing and field surveys (aerial photography and ground counts, especially in the less-frequented parts of Antarctica, to gain reliable knowledge about the population demography and dynamics of this flagship species of the Antarctic ecosystem.

  5. The Chinese FY-1 Meteorological Satellite Application in Observation on Oceanic Environment (United States)

    Weimin, S.

    meteorological satellite is stated in this paper. exploration of the ocean resources has been a very important question of global strategy in the world. The exploration of the ocean resources includes following items: Making full use of oceanic resources and space, protecting oceanic environment. to observe the ocean is by using of satellite. In 1978, US successfully launched the first ocean observation satellite in the world --- Sea Satellite. It develops ancient oceanography in to advanced space-oceanography. FY-1 B and FY- IC respectively. High quality data were acquired at home and abroad. FY-1 is Chinese meteorological satellite, but with 0.43 ~ 0.48 μm ,0.48 ~ 0.53 μm and 0.53 ~ 0.58 μm three ocean color channels, actually it is a multipurpose remote sensing satellite of meteorology and oceanography. FY-1 satellite's capability of observation on ocean partly, thus the application field is expanded and the value is increased. With the addition of oceanic channels on FY-1, the design of the satellite is changed from the original with meteorological observation as its main purpose into remote sensing satellite possessing capability of observing meteorology and ocean as well. Thus, the social and economic benefit of FY-1 is increased. the social and economic benefit of the development of the satellite is the key technique in the system design of the satellite. technically feasible but also save the funds in researching and manufacturing of the satellite, quicken the tempo of researching and manufacturing satellite. the scanning radiometer for FY-1 is conducted an aviation experiment over Chinese ocean. This experiment was of vital importance to the addition of oceanic observation channel on FY-1. FY-1 oceanic channels design to be correct. detecting ocean color. This is the unique character of Chinese FY-1 meteorological satellite. meteorological remote sensing channel on FY-1 to form detecting capability of three visible channels: red, yellow and blue

  6. Testing Lorentz invariance of dark matter with satellite galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bettoni, Dario [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg, Philosophenweg 16, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Nusser, Adi [Physics Department and the Asher Space Science Institute—Technion, Haifa 32000 (Israel); Blas, Diego; Sibiryakov, Sergey, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Theoretical Physics Department, CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)


    We develop the framework for testing Lorentz invariance in the dark matter sector using galactic dynamics. We consider a Lorentz violating (LV) vector field acting on the dark matter component of a satellite galaxy orbiting in a host halo. We introduce a numerical model for the dynamics of satellites in a galactic halo and for a galaxy in a rich cluster to explore observational consequences of such an LV field. The orbital motion of a satellite excites a time dependent LV force which greatly affects its internal dynamics. Our analysis points out key observational signatures which serve as probes of LV forces. These include modifications to the line of sight velocity dispersion, mass profiles and shapes of satellites. With future data and a more detailed modeling these signatures can be exploited to constrain a new region of the parameter space describing the LV in the dark matter sector.

  7. Satellite switching concepts for European business services in the nineties (United States)

    Lombard, D.; Rouffet, D.

    A first generation of business communication satellites are now operational or to be launched. Increased demands for communication satellite facilities will develop, if special services, such as videoconferencing, can be provided at a reasonable cost. For such developments, it will be necessary to define a second generation of business communication satellites. The present investigation evaluates briefly the size of the expected European market for 1995. A study is conducted of the payload structure for the required satellite system, and aspects related to link budgets and power consumption are explored. It is found that system dimensioning is determined by the up-link and by technology. Critical factors are related to the output and input multiplexors for the link budget, the switching matrix, and implications for the mass budget. The best trade-off between technological, mass, and link budget limitations is achieved in connection with the employment of a hinged antennas satellite, using an intermediate number of spot beams and associated earth stations of reasonable size.

  8. SDR Implementation for Satellite Communication


    Jakobsson, Carin; Sjödin, Olof


    SDR (Software Defined Radio) is a radio communicationsystem that has been of great interest and developmentover the last 20 years. It decreases communication costs significantlyas it replaces expensive analogue system components withcheap and flexible digital ones. In this article we describe anSDR implementation for communication with the SEAM (SmallExplorer for Advances Missions) satellite, a CubeSat satellitethat will perform high quality magnetic measurements in theEarth orbit. The projec...

  9. Demonstration of Planet Labs web explorer combined with data from danish field boundaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    Exploring planet labs satellite data using Land-parcel identification system (LPIS) data from Denmark. The video is intended as a short demo to show how one can manually find the cloud-free satellite images for a specific agricultural field. Afterward, the relevant satellite images can be download...

  10. Ocean tides for satellite geodesy (United States)

    Dickman, S. R.


    Spherical harmonic tidal solutions have been obtained at the frequencies of the 32 largest luni-solar tides using prior theory of the author. That theory was developed for turbulent, nonglobal, self-gravitating, and loading oceans possessing realistic bathymetry and linearized bottom friction; the oceans satisfy no-flow boundary conditions at coastlines. In this theory the eddy viscosity and bottom drag coefficients are treated as spatially uniform. Comparison of the predicted degree-2 components of the Mf, P1, and M2 tides with those from numerical and satellite-based tide models allows the ocean friction parameters to be estimated at long and short periods. Using the 32 tide solutions, the frequency dependence of tidal admittance is investigated, and the validity of sideband tide models used in satellite orbit analysis is examined. The implications of admittance variability for oceanic resonances are also explored.

  11. Saturn satellites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruskol, E.L.


    The characteristics of the Saturn satellites are discussed. The satellites close to Saturn - Janus, Mimas, Enceladus, Tethys, Dione and Rhea - rotate along the circular orbits. High reflectivity is attributed to them, and the density of the satellites is 1 g/cm 3 . Titan is one of the biggest Saturn satellites. Titan has atmosphere many times more powerful than that of Mars. The Titan atmosphere is a peculiar medium with a unique methane and hydrogen distribution in the whole Solar system. The external satellites - Hyperion, Japetus and Phoebe - are poorly investigated. Neither satellite substance density, nor their composition are known. The experimental data on the Saturn rings obtained on the ''Pioneer-11'' and ''Voyager-1'' satellites are presented [ru

  12. Odyssey, an optimized personal communications satellite system (United States)

    Rusch, Roger J.

    . Deployment of the satellites permits phased introduction of service. After only three launches, in which two satellites are launched into each plane, continuous service can be provided to most of the world. After three more launches for a total of 12 satellites, service can be expanded to all populated regions of the Earth with path diversity to most regions. The Odyssey system is superior to both geostationary satellites and low earth orbiting satellites. Odyssey provides many benefits to the end user which are described in the paper. These include: low cost, convenience, high availability, reliability, and acceptable time delay. Odyssey exhibits benefits for telecommunications operators: simple operations, incremental, phased startup, long space segment life-time, high profitability, dynamic flexibility for adjustment and short time to market. Since submission of an FCC application in 1991, TRW has continued to explore ways to further improve the Odyssey approach by expanding coverage to the entire world and reducing the initial investment while maintaining high quality service.

  13. NASDA'S activities and roles in promoting satellite utilization experiments (United States)

    Shigeta, Tsutomu; Miyoshi, Takashi


    While NASDA has been engaged in the development of new satellite missions and the bus technologies, NASDA explores new and attractive applications by promoting the utilization of satellite missions and strengthening the relationships with external parties. Offering opportunities to external parties for conducting application experiments will bring great chances for them in challenging and experimenting new space-based applications. Consequently, it is expected that the outcomes of the space development are returned to general public, research institutes, industries, and that ideas or requirements for new satellite mission could emerge and be materialized. With these objectives in mind, NASDA is presently planning a new space project that is named "i-Space". The i-Space project aims to contribute to the progressing "IT Revolution" by providing new space communication capabilities and to develop practical applications by collaborating with external parties. This paper introduces the activities and roles of NASDA in promoting satellite utilization experiments, particularly focusing on the i-Space project.

  14. Galactic conformity and central/satellite quenching, from the satellite profiles of M* galaxies at 0.4 < z < 1.9 in the UKIDSS UDS (United States)

    Hartley, W. G.; Conselice, C. J.; Mortlock, A.; Foucaud, S.; Simpson, C.


    We explore the redshift evolution of a curious correlation between the star formation properties of central galaxies and their satellites (`galactic conformity') at intermediate to high redshift (0.4 9.7, around central galaxies at the characteristic Schechter function mass, M ˜ M*. We fit the radial profiles of satellite number densities with simple power laws, finding slopes in the range -1.1 to -1.4 for mass-selected satellites, and -1.3 to -1.6 for passive satellites. We confirm the tendency for passive satellites to be preferentially located around passive central galaxies at 3σ significance and show that it exists to at least z ˜ 2. Meanwhile, the quenched fraction of satellites around star-forming galaxies is consistent with field galaxies of equal stellar masses. We find no convincing evidence for a redshift-dependent evolution of these trends. One simple interpretation of these results is that only passive central galaxies occupy an environment that is capable of independently shutting off star formation in satellite galaxies. By examining the satellites of higher stellar mass star-forming galaxies (log(M*/M⊙) > 11), we conclude that the origin of galactic conformity is unlikely to be exclusively due to the host dark matter halo mass. A halo-mass-independent correlation could be established by either formation bias or a more physical connection between central and satellite star formation histories. For the latter, we argue that a star formation (or active galactic nucleus) related outburst event from the central galaxy could establish a hot halo environment which is then capable of quenching both central and satellite galaxies.

  15. VSAT: opening new horizons to oil and gas explorations (United States)

    Al-Dhamen, Muhammad I.


    Whether exploring in the Empty Quarter, drilling offshore in the Gulf of Mexico, or monitoring gas pipelines or oil wells in the deserts, communications is a key element to the success of oil and gas operations. Secure, efficient communications is required between remote, isolated locations and head offices to report on work status, dispatch supplies and repairs, report on-site emergencies, transfer geophysical surveys and real-time drilling data. Drilling and exploration firms have traditionally used land-based terrestrial networks that rely on radio transmissions for voice and data communications to offshore platforms and remote deep desert drilling rigs. But these systems are inefficient and have proven inflexible with today's drilling and exploration communications demands, which include high-speed data access, telephone and video conferencing. In response, numerous oil and gas exploration entities working in deep waters and remote deep deserts have all tapped into what is an ideal solution for these needs: Very Small Aperture Terminal Systems (VSAT) for broadband access services. This led to the use of Satellite Communication Systems for a wide range of applications that were difficult to achieve in the past, such as real-time applications transmission of drilling data and seismic information. This paper provides a thorough analysis of opportunities for satellite technology solutions in support of oil and gas operations. Technologies, architecture, service, networking and application developments are discussed based upon real field experience. More specifically, the report addresses: VSAT Opportunities for the Oil and Gas Operations, Corporate Satellite Business Model Findings, Satellite Market Forecasts

  16. Exploration for fossil and nuclear fuels from orbital altitudes (United States)

    Short, N. M.


    The paper discusses the application of remotely sensed data from orbital satellites to the exploration for fossil and nuclear fuels. Geological applications of Landsat data are described including map editing, lithologic identification, structural geology, and mineral exploration. Specific results in fuel exploration are reviewed and a series of related Landsat images is included.

  17. The Cosmic Background Explorer (United States)

    Gulkis, Samuel; Lubin, Philip M.; Meyer, Stephan S.; Silverberg, Robert F.


    The Cosmic Background Explorer (CBE), NASA's cosmological satellite which will observe a radiative relic of the big bang, is discussed. The major questions connected to the big bang theory which may be clarified using the CBE are reviewed. The satellite instruments and experiments are described, including the Differential Microwave Radiometer, which measures the difference between microwave radiation emitted from two points on the sky, the Far-Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer, which compares the spectrum of radiation from the sky at wavelengths from 100 microns to one cm with that from an internal blackbody, and the Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment, which searches for the radiation from the earliest generation of stars.

  18. Economic strategies to maximize profits from satellite field developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antia, D.D.J.


    The main strategies that can be used to maximize profits from integrated satellite field developments are: (1) restructuring the cost, production and revenue profile of the satellite field; and (2) increasing the volume of oil/gas processed, and available for future use, by the central processing and distribution facility through: (a) using a combined strategy of low tariffs, volume discount, and netback agreements; (b) using reusable facilities, shared facilities, extended reach wells, contractor finance, partnering agreements, netback agreements, oil/gas price swaps; and (c) improving development, discovery and exploration efficiency

  19. UV spectroscopy of Titan's atmosphere, planetary organic chemistry and prebiological synthesis. II - Interpretation of new IUE observations in the 220-335 nm range (United States)

    Courtin, Regis; Wagener, Richard; Mckay, Christopher P.; Caldwell, John; Fricke, Karl-Heinrich


    The theoretical model developed by McKay et al. (1989) to characterize the size distribution, thermal structure, and chemical composition of the stratospheric haze of Titan is applied to new 220-335-nm albedo measurements obtained with the long-wavelength prime camera of the IUE during August 1987. Data and model predictions are presented in extensive graphs and discussed in detail. It is shown that a simple model with particles of one size at a given altitude does not accurately reproduce the observed features in all spectral regions, but that good general agreement is obtained using a model with a uniformly mixed layer at 150-600 km and a bimodal distribution of small 'polymer' haze particles (radius less than 20 nm) and larger haze particles (radius 100-500 nm). The number densities implied by this model require, however, a mechanism such as electrostatic charging or reaction kinetics to inhibit coagulation of the smaller particles.

  20. The YORP effect on the GOES 8 and GOES 10 satellites: A case study (United States)

    Albuja, Antonella A.; Scheeres, Daniel J.; Cognion, Rita L.; Ryan, William; Ryan, Eileen V.


    The Yarkovsky-O'Keefe-Radzievskii-Paddack (YORP) effect is a proposed explanation for the observed rotation behavior of inactive satellites in Earth orbit. This paper further explores the YORP effect for highly asymmetric inactive satellites. Satellite models are developed to represent the GOES 8 and GOES 10 satellites, both of which are currently inactive in geosynchronous Earth orbit (GEO). A simple satellite model for the GOES 8 satellite is used to analyze the short period variations of the angular velocity and obliquity as a result of the YORP effect. A more complex model for the rotational dynamics of the GOES 8 and GOES 10 satellites are developed to probe their sensitivity and to match observed spin periods and states of these satellites. The simulated rotation periods are compared to observations for both satellites. The comparison between YORP theory and observed rotation rates for both satellites show that the YORP effect could be the cause for the observed rotational behavior. The YORP model also predicts a novel state for the GOES 8 satellite, namely that it could periodically fall into a tumbling rotation state. Recent observations of this satellite are consistent with this prediction.

  1. Use of a GCM to Explore Sampling Issues in Connection with Satellite Remote Sensing of the Earth Radiation Budget (United States)

    Fowler, Laura D.; Wielicki, Bruce A.; Randall, David A.; Branson, Mark D.; Gibson, Gary G.; Denn, Fredrick M.


    Collocated in time and space, top-of-the-atmosphere measurements of the Earth radiation budget (ERB) and cloudiness from passive scanning radiometers, and lidar- and radar-in-space measurements of multilayered cloud systems, are the required combination to improve our understanding of the role of clouds and radiation in climate. Experiments to fly multiple satellites "in formation" to measure simultaneously the radiative and optical properties of overlapping cloud systems are being designed. Because satellites carrying ERB experiments and satellites carrying lidars- or radars-in space have different orbital characteristics, the number of simultaneous measurements of radiation and clouds is reduced relative to the number of measurements made by each satellite independently. Monthly averaged coincident observations of radiation and cloudiness are biased when compared against more frequently sampled observations due, in particular, to the undersampling of their diurnal cycle, Using the Colorado State University General Circulation Model (CSU GCM), the goal of this study is to measure the impact of using simultaneous observations from the Earth Observing System (EOS) platform and companion satellites flying lidars or radars on monthly averaged diagnostics of longwave radiation, cloudiness, and its cloud optical properties. To do so, the hourly varying geographical distributions of coincident locations between the afternoon EOS (EOS-PM) orbit and the orbit of the ICESAT satellite set to fly at the altitude of 600 km, and between the EOS PM orbit and the orbits of the PICASSO satellite proposed to fly at the altitudes of 485 km (PICA485) or 705 km (PICA705), are simulated in the CSU GCM for a 60-month time period starting at the idealistic July 1, 2001, launch date. Monthly averaged diagnostics of the top-of-the-atmosphere, atmospheric, and surface longwave radiation budgets and clouds accumulated over grid boxes corresponding to satellite overpasses are compared against

  2. Optical Multiple Access Network (OMAN) for advanced processing satellite applications (United States)

    Mendez, Antonio J.; Gagliardi, Robert M.; Park, Eugene; Ivancic, William D.; Sherman, Bradley D.


    An OMAN breadboard for exploring advanced processing satellite circuit switch applications is introduced. Network architecture, hardware trade offs, and multiple user interference issues are presented. The breadboard test set up and experimental results are discussed.

  3. Strumenti d’osservazione per il telerilevamento da satellite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Perrotta


    Full Text Available Earth observation instruments for satellite remote sensingThis article features a brief description of the instrumentation  families commonly used during Earth Observation activities. The optical exploration of our planet, already anticipated more than 50 years ago at the beginning of the exploration era with the first analogic photographic instrumentation, is now complemented by sophisticated instruments that work under the domain of radio  waves in order to produce informations useful fo a wide variety of applications.

  4. Observational studies of X-ray binary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klis, M. van der.


    The subject of Chapter 1 is theoretical. The other chapters, Ch. 2 to 6, contain original observational data and efforts towards their interpretation. Of these, Ch. 3, 4 and 5 deal with massive X-ray binaries, Ch. 6 with low-mass systems and Ch. 2 with Cygnus X-3, which we have not yet been able to assign to any of these two classes. The X-ray observations described were made with the COS-B satellite. Work based on UV and optical observations is described in Ch. 5. The UV observations were made with the IUE satellite, the optical observations at several ground-based observatories. (Auth.)

  5. Exploration of mineral resource deposits based on analysis of aerial and satellite image data employing artificial intelligence methods (United States)

    Osipov, Gennady


    We propose a solution to the problem of exploration of various mineral resource deposits, determination of their forms / classification of types (oil, gas, minerals, gold, etc.) with the help of satellite photography of the region of interest. Images received from satellite are processed and analyzed to reveal the presence of specific signs of deposits of various minerals. Course of data processing and making forecast can be divided into some stages: Pre-processing of images. Normalization of color and luminosity characteristics, determination of the necessary contrast level and integration of a great number of separate photos into a single map of the region are performed. Construction of semantic map image. Recognition of bitmapped image and allocation of objects and primitives known to system are realized. Intelligent analysis. At this stage acquired information is analyzed with the help of a knowledge base, which contain so-called "attention landscapes" of experts. Used methods of recognition and identification of images: a) combined method of image recognition, b)semantic analysis of posterized images, c) reconstruction of three-dimensional objects from bitmapped images, d)cognitive technology of processing and interpretation of images. This stage is fundamentally new and it distinguishes suggested technology from all others. Automatic registration of allocation of experts` attention - registration of so-called "attention landscape" of experts - is the base of the technology. Landscapes of attention are, essentially, highly effective filters that cut off unnecessary information and emphasize exactly the factors used by an expert for making a decision. The technology based on denoted principles involves the next stages, which are implemented in corresponding program agents. Training mode -> Creation of base of ophthalmologic images (OI) -> Processing and making generalized OI (GOI) -> Mode of recognition and interpretation of unknown images. Training mode

  6. Cultures in orbit: Satellite technologies, global media and local practice (United States)

    Parks, Lisa Ann

    Since the launch of Sputnik in 1957, satellite technologies have had a profound impact upon cultures around the world. "Cultures in Orbit" examines these seemingly disembodied, distant relay machines in relation to situated social and cultural processes on earth. Drawing upon a range of materials including NASA and UNESCO documents, international satellite television broadcasts, satellite 'development' projects, documentary and science fiction films, remote sensing images, broadcast news footage, World Wide Web sites, and popular press articles I delineate and analyze a series of satellite mediascapes. "Cultures in Orbit" analyzes uses of satellites for live television relay, surveillance, archaeology and astronomy. The project examines such satellite media as the first live global satellite television program Our World, Elvis' Aloha from Hawaii concert, Aboriginal Australian satellite programs, and Star TV's Asian music videos. In addition, the project explores reconnaissance images of mass graves in Bosnia, archaeological satellite maps of Cleopatra's underwater palace in Egypt, and Hubble Space Telescope images. These case studies are linked by a theoretical discussion of the satellite's involvement in shifting definitions of time, space, vision, knowledge and history. The satellite fosters an aesthetic of global realism predicated on instantaneous transnational connections. It reorders linear chronologies by revealing traces of the ancient past on the earth's surface and by searching in deep space for the "edge of time." On earth, the satellite is used to modernize and develop "primitive" societies. Satellites have produced new electronic spaces of international exchange, but they also generate strategic maps that advance Western political and cultural hegemony. By technologizing human vision, the satellite also extends the epistemologies of the visible, the historical and the real. It allows us to see artifacts and activities on earth from new vantage points

  7. Monitoring coastal inundation with Synthetic Aperture Radar satellite data (United States)

    Suzuoki, Yukihiro; Rangoonwala, Amina; Ramsey, Elijah W.


    Maps representing the presence and absence of surface inundation in the Louisiana coastal zone were created from available satellite scenes acquired by the Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency's Advanced Land Observing Satellite and by the European Space Agency's Envisat from late 2006 through summer 2009. Detection of aboveground surface flooding relied on the well-documented and distinct signature of decreased backscatter in Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR), which is indicative of inundated marsh in the Gulf of Mexico. Even though decreases in backscatter were distinctive, the multiplicity of possible interactions between changing flood depths and canopy height yielded complex SAR-based representations of the marshes.

  8. Farside explorer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mimoun, David; Wieczorek, Mark A.; Alkalai, Leon


    the primary differentiation and evolution of the Moon, it can be continuously monitored from the Earth-Moon L2 Lagrange point, and there is a complete lack of reflected solar illumination from the Earth. Farside Explorer will exploit these properties and make the first radio-astronomy measurements from...... the most radio-quiet region of near-Earth space, determine the internal structure and thermal evolution of the Moon, from crust to core, and quantify impact hazards in near-Earth space by the measurement of flashes generated by impact events. The Farside Explorer flight system includes two identical solar......Farside Explorer is a proposed Cosmic Vision medium-size mission to the farside of the Moon consisting of two landers and an instrumented relay satellite. The farside of the Moon is a unique scientific platform in that it is shielded from terrestrial radio-frequency interference, it recorded...

  9. Analysis of satellite-derived solar irradiance over the Netherlands (United States)

    Dirksen, Marieke; Fokke Meirink, Jan; Sluiter, Raymond


    Measurements from geostationary satellites allow the retrieval of surface solar irradiance homogeneously over large areas, thereby providing essential information for the solar energy sector. In this paper, the SICCS solar irradiance data record derived from 12 years of Meteosat Second Generation satellite measurements is analysed with a focus on the Netherlands, where the spatial resolution is about 6 by 3 km2. Extensive validation of the SICCS data with pyranometer observations is performed, indicating a bias of approximately 3 W/m2 and RMSE of 11 W/m2 for daily data. Long term averages and seasonal variations of solar irradiance show regional patterns related to the surface type (e.g., coastal waters, forests, cities). The inter-annual variability over the time frame of the data record is quantified. Methods to merge satellite and surface observations into an optimized data record are explored.

  10. Engineering parameter determination from the radio astronomy explorer /RAE I/ satellite attitude data (United States)

    Lawlor, E. A.; Davis, R. M.; Blanchard, D. L.


    An RAE-I satellite description is given, taking into account a dynamics experiment and the attitude sensing system. A computer program for analyzing flexible spacecraft attitude motions is considered, giving attention to the geometry of rod deformation. The characteristics of observed attitude data are discussed along with an analysis of the main boom root angle, the bending rigidity, and the damper plane angle.

  11. Multi-satellite observations of magnetic fields in space plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potemra, T.A.; Zanetti, L.J.; Bythrow, P.F.; Erlandson, R.E.


    The most common method of detecting electric currents in space has been by virtue of the magnetic perturbations they produce. A satellite can pass through a field-aligned ''Birkeland'' current and measure the in-situ magnetic perturbations. Satellite-borne magnetic field experiments may also be used to observe characteristics of resonant oscillations of the Earth's magnetic field at ULF frequencies. Examples of such measurements with magnetic field experiments on the Viking, AMPTE/CCE, and DMSP-F7 satellites will be presented. The Viking satellite, launched in February, 1986, is Sweden's first satellite and is in a polar orbit with 3.1 R/sub e/ apogee. AMPTE/CCE was launched in August, 1984, with satellites from West Germany and the United Kingdom, for the purpose of creating artificial comets in space. It is in an equatorial orbit with a 8.8 R/sub e/ apogee. The Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP)-F7 satellite was launched in October, 1983 into an 800 km circular sun-synchronous orbit in the 0830-2030 magnetic local time plane. Viking and AMPTE/CCE observed harmonic ULF pulsations when they were near the same flux tube, but separated by about 10 R/sub e/. These unique observations are used to investigate the characteristics and sources of multiple field line resonances of Alfven waves. On another occasion, Viking and DMSP-F7 observed similar magnetic perturbations at widely separated locations. The authors interpret these perturbations as due to a complicated system of large-scale stable Birkeland currents in the morning sector. This multi-satellite data set is in the early stages of exploration, but already confirms the usefulness of coordinated multi-position observations of magnetic fields in space

  12. IUE observations of interstellar Si IV and C IV lines observed in the spectra of Wolf-Rayet stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, L.J.; Willis, A.J.; Wilson, R.


    Recent IUE observations of Wolf-Rayet stars show narrow absorption lines in the highly ionized species of Si IV and C IV. The strengths of these 'interstellar' Si IV and C IV lines observed in the spectra of 10 WR stars and two other early-type stars are compared. Of the WR sample, six stars exhibit very strong Si IV and C IV lines (Wsub(lambda) approximately 0.3 to 0.5 A) whilst the other four stars show much weaker lines (Wsub(lambda) approximately 0.1 A). There is no correlation between the strengths of these lines with either stellar distance or colour excess. The weaker absorptions may arise in the individual stellar H II regions, the observed strengths being consistent with those expected for stars with Tsub(eff) = 30 000 K. Five of the other stars which exhibit very strong absorptions lie in the line of sight to active interstellar regions (Cygnus and Carina nebulae) and it is considered probable that, in addition to their H II region components, the bulk of the strong Si IV and C IV absorptions originate in hot gas associated with these active regions. In the case of the WN5 star HD 50896 violet-displaced components are observed in the interstellar lines of low ionization species. These are thought to be produced in the ring nebula S308 surrounding HD 50896. (author)

  13. Web-based Data Exploration, Exploitation and Visualization Tools for Satellite Sensor VIS/IR Calibration Applications (United States)

    Gopalan, A.; Doelling, D. R.; Scarino, B. R.; Chee, T.; Haney, C.; Bhatt, R.


    The CERES calibration group at NASA/LaRC has developed and deployed a suite of online data exploration and visualization tools targeted towards a range of spaceborne VIS/IR imager calibration applications for the Earth Science community. These web-based tools are driven by the open-source R (Language for Statistical Computing and Visualization) with a web interface for the user to customize the results according to their application. The tool contains a library of geostationary and sun-synchronous imager spectral response functions (SRF), incoming solar spectra, SCIAMACHY and Hyperion Earth reflected visible hyper-spectral data, and IASI IR hyper-spectral data. The suite of six specific web-based tools was designed to provide critical information necessary for sensor cross-calibration. One of the challenges of sensor cross-calibration is accounting for spectral band differences and may introduce biases if not handled properly. The spectral band adjustment factors (SBAF) are a function of the earth target, atmospheric and cloud conditions or scene type and angular conditions, when obtaining sensor radiance pairs. The SBAF will need to be customized for each inter-calibration target and sensor pair. The advantages of having a community open source tool are: 1) only one archive of SCIAMACHY, Hyperion, and IASI datasets needs to be maintained, which is on the order of 50TB. 2) the framework will allow easy incorporation of new satellite SRFs and hyper-spectral datasets and associated coincident atmospheric and cloud properties, such as PW. 3) web tool or SBAF algorithm improvements or suggestions when incorporated can benefit the community at large. 4) The customization effort is on the user rather than on the host. In this paper we discuss each of these tools in detail and explore the variety of advanced options that can be used to constrain the results along with specific use cases to highlight the value-added by these datasets.

  14. Smallsats, Cubesats and Scientific Exploration (United States)

    Stofan, E. R.


    Smallsats (including Cubesats) have taken off in the aerospace research community - moving beyond simple tools for undergraduate and graduate students and into the mainstream of science research. Cubesats started the "smallsat" trend back in the late 1990's early 2000's, with the first Cubesats launching in 2003. NASA anticipates a number of future benefits from small satellite missions, including lower costs, more rapid development, higher risk tolerance, and lower barriers to entry for universities and small businesses. The Agency's Space Technology Mission Directorate is currently addressing technology gaps in small satellite platforms, while the Science Mission Directorate pursues miniaturization of science instruments. Launch opportunities are managed through the Cubesat Launch Initiative, and the Agency manages these projects as sub-orbital payloads with little program overhead. In this session we bring together scientists and technologists to discuss the current state of the smallsat field. We explore ideas for new investments, new instruments, or new applications that NASA should be investing in to expand the utility of smallsats. We discuss the status of a NASA-directed NRC study on the utility of small satellites. Looking to the future, what does NASA need to invest in now, to enable high impact ("decadal survey" level) science with smallsats? How do we push the envelope? We anticipate smallsats will contribute significantly to a more robust exploration and science program for NASA and the country.

  15. Development of the Lunar and Solar Perturbations in the Motion of an Artificial Satellite (United States)

    Musen, P.; Bailie, A.; Upton, E.


    Problems relating to the influence of lunar and solar perturbations on the motion of artificial satellites are analyzed by an extension of Cayley's development of the perturbative function in the lunar theory. In addition, the results are modified for incorporation into the Hansen-type theory used by the NASA Space Computing Center. The theory is applied to the orbits of the Vanguard I and Explorer VI satellites, and the results of detailed computations for these satellites are given together with a physical description of the perturbations in terms of resonance effects.

  16. Ultraviolet properties of the symbiotic stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slovak, M.H.; Lambert, D.L.


    This article is an interim report on a survey of the symbiotic stars with the IUE satellite, both at low resolution and, for AG Pegasi and CH Cygni, at high resolution. The UV spectra, including both the emission lines and the continua, are presented and discussed. Since it is somewhat premature to draw general conclusions, the emphasis is biased towards a discussion of individual stars. AG Pegasi is used as an illustrative, albeit atypical, example. (Auth./C.F.)

  17. Small Explorer project: Submillimeter Wave Astronomy Satellite (SWAS). Mission operations and data analysis plan (United States)

    Melnick, Gary J.


    The Mission Operations and Data Analysis Plan is presented for the Submillimeter Wave Astronomy Satellite (SWAS) Project. It defines organizational responsibilities, discusses target selection and navigation, specifies instrument command and data requirements, defines data reduction and analysis hardware and software requirements, and discusses mission operations center staffing requirements.

  18. Satellite technology and the control of parasitic diseases in Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The potential application of these techniques in the surveillance, control and prevention of parasitic diseases in Africa is explored in this write-up. Keywords: surveillance, parasitic diseases, satellite techniques, remote sensing, Geographical Information System (GIS), Global Positioning Sytem (GPS), human and robotic, ...

  19. Leveraging the NPS Femto Satellite for Alternative Satellite Communication Networks (United States)


    programmed for eventual integration with the Iridium Network , which is then tested. C. THESIS ORGANIZATION The thesis addresses these questions...NPS FEMTO SATELLITE FOR ALTERNATIVE SATELLITE COMMUNICATION NETWORKS by Faisal S. Alshaya September 2017 Co-Advisors: Steven J. Iatrou...TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE LEVERAGING THE NPS FEMTO SATELLITE FOR ALTERNATIVE SATELLITE COMMUNICATION NETWORKS 5

  20. L’ITSS “Majorana-Giorgi” di Genova in orbita con i sistemi di navigazione via satellite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Primo Bartoli


    GNSS satellites (GPS, GLONASS or Galileo, based on a commercial multi-constellation receiver and on a software program developed in National Instruments LabVIEW, with the dual aim to explore the techniques of satellite navigation and to provide an attractive teaching aid for universities and secondary level technical institutes.

  1. Synthesis of results obtained within the framework of international satellite land surface climatology projects. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolle, H.J.; Katergiannakis, U.; Billing, H.; Koslowsky, D.; Langer, I.; Tonn, W.


    In large-scale field experiments, methods were validated with whose aid characteristics of the terrestrial surfaces can be derived from satellite data; these characteristics are required for the exploration of the global change. The report gives an overview. The following topics are treated: Problems of calibration of satellite sensors; the geographical matching of ground observations to the satellite measurements; necessary corrections; dimensional integration of the data up to the dimensions of raster grids of global climate models. The report discusses in detail in what manner the remote exploration data can be connected with information on the terrestrial surfaces, in particular with energy balances. Few experiments only have been executed up to now within the framework of land surface climatology; however, they contributed a great deal to the better understanding of linking satellite data with terrestrial surface processes. If one wants to apply the elaborated methods globally wants, one needs, however, complex algorithms as well as - at least for the time being - constant quality control in the different landscape regions of the earth. (orig.) [de

  2. Boomerang Satellites (United States)

    Hesselbrock, Andrew; Minton, David A.


    We recently reported that the orbital architecture of the Martian environment allows for material in orbit around the planet to ``cycle'' between orbiting the planet as a ring, or as coherent satellites. Here we generalize our previous analysis to examine several factors that determine whether satellites accreting at the edge of planetary rings will cycle. In order for the orbiting material to cycle, tidal evolution must decrease the semi-major axis of any accreting satellites. In some systems, the density of the ring/satellite material, the surface mass density of the ring, the tidal parameters of the system, and the rotation rate of the primary body contribute to a competition between resonant ring torques and tidal dissipation that prevent this from occurring, either permanently or temporarily. Analyzing these criteria, we examine various bodies in our solar system (such as Saturn, Uranus, and Eris) to identify systems where cycling may occur. We find that a ring-satellite cycle may give rise to the current Uranian ring-satellite system, and suggest that Miranda may have formed from an early, more massive Uranian ring.

  3. Exploring New Challenges of High-Resolution SWOT Satellite Altimetry with a Regional Model of the Solomon Sea (United States)

    Brasseur, P.; Verron, J. A.; Djath, B.; Duran, M.; Gaultier, L.; Gourdeau, L.; Melet, A.; Molines, J. M.; Ubelmann, C.


    The upcoming high-resolution SWOT altimetry satellite will provide an unprecedented description of the ocean dynamic topography for studying sub- and meso-scale processes in the ocean. But there is still much uncertainty on the signal that will be observed. There are many scientific questions that are unresolved about the observability of altimetry at vhigh resolution and on the dynamical role of the ocean meso- and submesoscales. In addition, SWOT data will raise specific problems due to the size of the data flows. These issues will probably impact the data assimilation approaches for future scientific or operational oceanography applications. In this work, we propose to use a high-resolution numerical model of the Western Pacific Solomon Sea as a regional laboratory to explore such observability and dynamical issues, as well as new data assimilation challenges raised by SWOT. The Solomon Sea connects subtropical water masses to the equatorial ones through the low latitude western boundary currents and could potentially modulate the tropical Pacific climate. In the South Western Pacific, the Solomon Sea exhibits very intense eddy kinetic energy levels, while relatively little is known about the mesoscale and submesoscale activities in this region. The complex bathymetry of the region, complicated by the presence of narrow straits and numerous islands, raises specific challenges. So far, a Solomon sea model configuration has been set up at 1/36° resolution. Numerical simulations have been performed to explore the meso- and submesoscales dynamics. The numerical solutions which have been validated against available in situ data, show the development of small scale features, eddies, fronts and filaments. Spectral analysis reveals a behavior that is consistent with the SQG theory. There is a clear evidence of energy cascade from the small scales including the submesoscales, although those submesoscales are only partially resolved by the model. In parallel

  4. Dynamical and observational constraints on satellites in the inner Pluto-Charon system (United States)

    Stern, S. Alan; Parker, Joel William; Duncan, Martin J.; Snowdall, J. Clark, Jr.; Levison, Harold F.


    It is not known if Pluto has other satellites besides its massive partner Charon. In the past, searches for additional satellites in the Pluto-Charon system have extended from the solar-tidal stability boundary (approximately 90 arcsec from Pluto) inward to about 1 arcsec from Pluto. Here we further explore the inner (i.e., less than 10 arcsec) region of the Pluto-Charon system to determine where additional satellites might lie. In particular, we report on (1) dynamical simulations to delineate the region where unstable orbits lie around Charon, (2) dynamical simulations which use the low orbital eccentricity of Charon to constrain the mass of any third body near Pluto, and (3) analysis of Hubble Space Telescope (HST) archival images to search for satellites in the inner Pluto-Charon system. Although no objects were found, significant new constraints on bodies orbiting in the inner Pluto-Charon system were obtained.

  5. Gigabit Satellite Network for NASA's Advanced Communication Technology Satellite (ACTS) (United States)

    Hoder, Douglas; Bergamo, Marcos


    The advanced communication technology satellite (ACTS) gigabit satellite network provides long-haul point-to-point and point-to-multipoint full-duplex SONET services over NASA's ACTS. at rates up to 622 Mbit/s (SONET OC-12), with signal quality comparable to that obtained with terrestrial fiber networks. Data multiplexing over the satellite is accomplished using time-division multiple access (TDMA) techniques coordinated with the switching and beam hopping facilities provided by ACTS. Transmissions through the satellite are protected with Reed-Solomon encoding. providing virtually error-free transmission under most weather conditions. Unique to the system are a TDMA frame structure and satellite synchronization mechanism that allow: (a) very efficient utilization of the satellite capacity: (b) over-the-satellite dosed-loop synchronization of the network in configurations with up to 64 ground stations: and (c) ground station initial acquisition without collisions with existing signalling or data traffic. The user interfaces are compatible with SONET standards, performing the function of conventional SONET multiplexers and. as such. can be: readily integrated with standard SONET fiber-based terrestrial networks. Management of the network is based upon the simple network management protocol (SNMP). and includes an over-the-satellite signalling network and backup terrestrial internet (IP-based) connectivity. A description of the ground stations is also included.

  6. The far-UV spectrum of the low-excitation planetary nebula HD 138403


    Surdej, Jean; Heck, A.


    Two high-resolution far-UV spectra of the low-excitation planetary nebula HD 138403 are analyzed which were obtained with the IUE satellite over the wavelength range from 1170 to 2070 A. It is shown that the nebula's far-UV spectrum comprises a stellar continuum on which are superimposed a few emission lines, numerous interstellar absorption lines, and various types of P Cygni profiles. Evidence is examined for substantial mass loss from the central nucleus, with terminal velocities of the or...

  7. Centriolar satellites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tollenaere, Maxim A X; Mailand, Niels; Bekker-Jensen, Simon


    Centriolar satellites are small, microscopically visible granules that cluster around centrosomes. These structures, which contain numerous proteins directly involved in centrosome maintenance, ciliogenesis, and neurogenesis, have traditionally been viewed as vehicles for protein trafficking...... highlight newly discovered regulatory mechanisms targeting centriolar satellites and their functional status, and we discuss how defects in centriolar satellite components are intimately linked to a wide spectrum of human diseases....

  8. Cost-Effective Icy Bodies Exploration using Small Satellite Missions (United States)

    Jonsson, Jonas; Mauro, David; Stupl, Jan; Nayak, Michael; Aziz, Jonathan; Cohen, Aaron; Colaprete, Anthony; Dono-Perez, Andres; Frost, Chad; Klamm, Benjamin; hide


    It has long been known that Saturn's moon Enceladus is expelling water-rich plumes into space, providing passing spacecraft with a window into what is hidden underneath its frozen crust. Recent discoveries indicate that similar events could also occur on other bodies in the solar system, such as Jupiter's moon Europa and the dwarf planet Ceres in the asteroid belt. These plumes provide a possible giant leap forward in the search for organics and assessing habitability beyond Earth, stepping stones toward the long-term goal of finding extraterrestrial life. The United States Congress recently requested mission designs to Europa, to fit within a cost cap of $1B, much less than previous mission designs' estimates. Here, innovative cost-effective small spacecraft designs for the deep-space exploration of these icy worlds, using new and emerging enabling technologies, and how to explore the outer solar system on a budget below the cost horizon of a flagship mission, are investigated. Science requirements, instruments selection, rendezvous trajectories, and spacecraft designs are some topics detailed. The mission concepts revolve around a comparably small-sized and low-cost Plume Chaser spacecraft, instrumented to characterize the vapor constituents encountered on its trajectory. In the event that a plume is not encountered, an ejecta plume can be artificially created by a companion spacecraft, the Plume Maker, on the target body at a location timed with the passage of the Plume Chaser spacecraft. Especially in the case of Ceres, such a mission could be a great complimentary mission to Dawn, as well as a possible future Europa Clipper mission. The comparably small volume of the spacecraft enables a launch to GTO as a secondary payload, providing multiple launch opportunities per year. Plume Maker's design is nearly identical to the Plume Chaser, and fits within the constraints for a secondary payload launch. The cost-effectiveness of small spacecraft missions enables the

  9. Far-ultraviolet fluorescence of carbon monoxide in the red giant Arcturus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayres, T.R.; Moos, H.W.; Linsky, J.L.


    We present evidence that many of the weak features observed with the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) in the far-ultraviolet (1150--2000 A) spectrum of the archetype red giant Arcturus (K2 III) are A--X fourth positive bands of carbon monoxide excited by chromospheric emissions of O I, C I, and H I. The appearance of fluorescent CO bands near the wavelengths of commonly used indicators of high-temperature (T>2 x 10 4 K) plasma, such as C II lambda1335 and C IV lambda1548, introduces a serious ambiguity in diagnosing the presence of hot material in the outer atmospheres of the cool giants by means of low-dispersion IUE spectra

  10. About the parametric interplay between ionic mach number, body-size, and satellite potential in determining the ion depletion in the wake of the S3-2 Satellite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samir, U.; Wildman, P.J.; Rich, F.; Brinton, H.C.; Sagalyn, R.C.


    Measurements of ion current, electron temperature, and density and values of satellite potential from the U.S. Air Force Satellite S3-2 together with ion composition measurements from the Atmosphere Explorer (AE-E) satellite were used to examine the variation of the ratio α = [I/sub +/(wake)]/[I/sub +/(ambient)] (where I/sub +/ is the ion current) with altitude and to examine the significance of the parametric interplay between ionic Mach number, normalized body size R/sub D/( = R0/lambda/sub D/, where R 0 is the satellite radius and lambda/sub D/ is the ambient debye length) and normalized body potenital phi/sub N/( = ephis/KT/sub e/, where phi/sub s/ is the satellite potential, T/sub e/ is the electron temperature, and e and K are constants). It was possible to separate between the influence of R/sub D/ and phi/sub N/ on α for a specific range parameters. Uncertainty, however, remains regarding the competiton between R/sub D/ and S(H + ) and S(O + ) are oxygen and hydrogen ionic Mach numbers, respectively) in determining the ion distribution in the nearest vicincity to the satellite surface. A brief discussion relevant to future experiments in the area of body plasma flow interactions to be conducted on board the Shuttle/Spacelab facility, is also included

  11. Exploring the relationship between monitored ground-based and satellite aerosol measurements over the City of Johannesburg

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Garland, Rebecca M


    Full Text Available This project studied the relationship between aerosol optical depth (AOD) from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) instrument on the Terra satellite, and ground-based monitored particulate matter (PM) mass concentrations measured...

  12. Using satellite-based measurements to explore spatiotemporal scales and variability of drivers of new particle formation (United States)

    New particle formation (NPF) can potentially alter regional climate by increasing aerosol particle (hereafter particle) number concentrations and ultimately cloud condensation nuclei. The large scales on which NPF is manifest indicate potential to use satellite-based (inherently ...

  13. Satellite myths (United States)

    Easton, Roger L.; Hall, David


    Richard Corfield's article “Sputnik's legacy” (October 2007 pp23-27) states that the satellite on board the US Vanguard rocket, which exploded during launch on 6 December 1957 two months after Sputnik's successful take-off, was “a hastily put together contraption of wires and circuitry designed only to send a radio signal back to Earth”. In fact, the Vanguard satellite was developed over a period of several years and put together carefully using the best techniques and equipment available at the time - such as transistors from Bell Laboratories/Western Electric. The satellite contained not one but two transmitters, in which the crystal-controlled oscillators had been designed to measure both the temperature of the satellite shell and of the internal package.

  14. The Emergent Capabilities of Distributed Satellites and Methods for Selecting Distributed Satellite Science Missions (United States)

    Corbin, B. A.; Seager, S.; Ross, A.; Hoffman, J.


    Distributed satellite systems (DSS) have emerged as an effective and cheap way to conduct space science, thanks to advances in the small satellite industry. However, relatively few space science missions have utilized multiple assets to achieve their primary scientific goals. Previous research on methods for evaluating mission concepts designs have shown that distributed systems are rarely competitive with monolithic systems, partially because it is difficult to quantify the added value of DSSs over monolithic systems. Comparatively little research has focused on how DSSs can be used to achieve new, fundamental space science goals that cannot be achieved with monolithic systems or how to choose a design from a larger possible tradespace of options. There are seven emergent capabilities of distributed satellites: shared sampling, simultaneous sampling, self-sampling, census sampling, stacked sampling, staged sampling, and sacrifice sampling. These capabilities are either fundamentally, analytically, or operationally unique in their application to distributed science missions, and they can be leveraged to achieve science goals that are either impossible or difficult and costly to achieve with monolithic systems. The Responsive Systems Comparison (RSC) method combines Multi-Attribute Tradespace Exploration with Epoch-Era Analysis to examine benefits, costs, and flexible options in complex systems over the mission lifecycle. Modifications to the RSC method as it exists in previously published literature were made in order to more accurately characterize how value is derived from space science missions. New metrics help rank designs by the value derived over their entire mission lifecycle and show more accurate cumulative value distributions. The RSC method was applied to four case study science missions that leveraged the emergent capabilities of distributed satellites to achieve their primary science goals. In all four case studies, RSC showed how scientific value was

  15. The study of hydrothermal alteration zones in Kahang exploration area (north eastern of Isfahan, central of Iran) using microscopy studies and TM and Aster satellite data (United States)

    Zahra Afshooni, Seyedeh; Esmaeily, Dariush


    Kahang ore deposit located in 73 km to the northeast of Isfahan city and 10 km to the east of Zefreh town, covering an area about 18.6 km2. This ore deposit is a part of Uromieh-Dokhtar volcanopolotonic belt. The rocks of the area included Andesite, Porphyritic Andesite, Dacite, Porphyritic, Rhyodacite, Diorite, Quartz Monzonite and Porphyry Micro Granite. In plutons, there is a trend from basic to acid features along with decreasing of age from margin to center of massive. Kahang region is an alteration and breccia zone. The occurrence of alteration zones and iron oxides were confirmed by satellite images processing. Generally, more than 90% of rocks of this region have been affected by hydrothermal fluids. Remote sensing refers to detection and measurement from a distance. For the first time, this exploration area was studied using satellite images processing (TM) and primary results showed that is suitable place for resources of Copper (Cu) and Molybdenum (Mo). Hydrothermal alteration commonly occurs in geothermal areas in association with ore deposits producing alteration assemblages typically dominated by silicates, sulfides, sulfates and carbonates. In the alteration zones studies the subject discussed is the study of existing minerals in such zones and study of chemical specifications of altering fluids. Four alteration zones Based on observations derived from the study of thin sections, XRD analysis and deep remote sensing using TM and Aster satellite images studies could be identified in this area: propylitic alteration zone with chlorite, epidot, calcite; argillic alteration zone with clay minerals; phyllic (qartz-sericite) alteration zone with quartz, sericite and pyrite and silicic alteration zone with abundant quartz.

  16. History of Satellite TV Broadcasting and Satellite Broadcasting Market in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihalis KUYUCU


    Full Text Available The present study analyses the satellite broadcasting that is the first important development that emerged as a result of digitalization in communication technologies and its reflections in Turkey. As the first milestone in the globalization of television broadcasting, satellite broadcasting provided substantial contribution towards the development of the media. Satellite bro adcasting both increased the broadcasting quality and geographical coverage of the television media. A conceptual study was carried out in the first part of the study in connection with the history of satellite broadcasting in Turkey and across the world. In the research part of the study, an analysis was performed on 160 television channels that broadcast in Turkey via Turksat Satellite. Economic structure of the television channels broadcasting in Turkey via satellite was studied and an analysis was perfo rmed on the operational structure of the channels. As a result of the study, it was emphasized that the television channels broadcasting via satellite platform also use other platforms for the purpose of spreading their broadcasts and television channel ow ners make investments in different branches of the media, too. Capital owners invest in different business areas other than the media although television channels broadcasting via Turksat mostly focus on thematic broadcasting and make effort to generate ec onomic income from advertisements. Delays are encountered in the course of the convergence between the new media and television channels that broadcast only from the satellite platform and such television channels experience more economic problems than the other channels. New media and many TV broadcasting platforms emerged as a result of the developments in the communication technologies. In television broadcasting, satellite platform is not an effective platform on its own. Channels make effort to reach t o more people by using other platforms in addition to

  17. Relative tracking control of constellation satellites considering inter-satellite link (United States)

    Fakoor, M.; Amozegary, F.; Bakhtiari, M.; Daneshjou, K.


    In this article, two main issues related to the large-scale relative motion of satellites in the constellation are investigated to establish the Inter Satellite Link (ISL) which means the dynamic and control problems. In the section related to dynamic problems, a detailed and effective analytical solution is initially provided for the problem of satellite relative motion considering perturbations. The direct geometric method utilizing spherical coordinates is employed to achieve this solution. The evaluation of simulation shows that the solution obtained from the geometric method calculates the relative motion of the satellite with high accuracy. Thus, the proposed analytical solution will be applicable and effective. In the section related to control problems, the relative tracking control system between two satellites will be designed in order to establish a communication link between the satellites utilizing analytical solution for relative motion of satellites with respect to the reference trajectory. Sliding mode control approach is employed to develop the relative tracking control system for body to body and payload to payload tracking control. Efficiency of sliding mode control approach is compared with PID and LQR controllers. Two types of payload to payload tracking control considering with and without payload degree of freedom are designed and suitable one for practical ISL applications is introduced. Also, Fuzzy controller is utilized to eliminate the control input in the sliding mode controller.

  18. Mobile satellite service communications tests using a NASA satellite (United States)

    Chambers, Katherine H.; Koschmeder, Louis A.; Hollansworth, James E.; ONeill, Jack; Jones, Robert E.; Gibbons, Richard C.


    Emerging applications of commercial mobile satellite communications include satellite delivery of compact disc (CD) quality radio to car drivers who can select their favorite programming as they drive any distance; transmission of current air traffic data to aircraft; and handheld communication of data and images from any remote corner of the world. Experiments with the enabling technologies and tests and demonstrations of these concepts are being conducted before the first satellite is launched by utilizing an existing NASA spacecraft.

  19. Programming a real-time operating system for satellite control applications Satellite Control Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omer, M.; Anjum, O.; Suddle, M.R.


    With the realization of ideas like formation flights and multi-body space vehicles the demands on an attitude control system have become increasingly complex. Even in its most simplified form, the control system for a typical geostationary satellite has to run various supervisory functions along with determination and control algorithms side by side. Within each algorithm it has to employ multiple actuation and sensing mechanisms and service real time interrupts, for example, in the case of actuator saturation and sensor data fusion. This entails the idea of thread scheduling and program synchronization, tasks specifically meant for a real time OS. This paper explores the embedding of attitude determination and control loop within the framework of a real time operating system provided for TI's DSP C6xxx series. The paper details out the much functionality provided within the scaleable real time kernel and the analysis and configuration tools available, It goes on to describe a layered implementation stack associated with a typical control for Geo Stationary satellites. An application for control is then presented in which state of the art analysis tools are employed to view program threads, synchronization semaphores, hardware interrupts and data exchange pipes operating in real time. (author)

  20. Network flexibility of the IRIDIUM (R) Global Mobile Satellite System (United States)

    Hutcheson, Jonathan; Laurin, Mala


    The IRIDIUM system is a global personal communications system supported by a constellation of 66 low earth orbit (LEO) satellites and a collection of earth-based 'gateway' switching installations. Like traditional wireless cellular systems, coverage is achieved by a grid of cells in which bandwidth is reused for spectral efficiency. Unlike any cellular system ever built, the moving cells can be shared by multiple switching facilities. Noteworthy features of the IRIDIUM system include inter-satellite links, a GSM-based telephony architecture, and a geographically controlled system access process. These features, working in concert, permit flexible and reliable administration of the worldwide service area by gateway operators. This paper will explore this unique concept.

  1. Interim Service ISDN Satellite (ISIS) simulator development for advanced satellite designs and experiments (United States)

    Pepin, Gerard R.


    The simulation development associated with the network models of both the Interim Service Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) Satellite (ISIS) and the Full Service ISDN Satellite (FSIS) architectures is documented. The ISIS Network Model design represents satellite systems like the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) orbiting switch. The FSIS architecture, the ultimate aim of this element of the Satellite Communications Applications Research (SCAR) Program, moves all control and switching functions on-board the next generation ISDN communications satellite. The technical and operational parameters for the advanced ISDN communications satellite design will be obtained from the simulation of ISIS and FSIS engineering software models for their major subsystems. Discrete event simulation experiments will be performed with these models using various traffic scenarios, design parameters, and operational procedures. The data from these simulations will be used to determine the engineering parameters for the advanced ISDN communications satellite.

  2. HF Radio Astronomy from a Small Satellite (United States)


    SSC16-XI-03 HF Radio Astronomy from a Small Satellite Frank C. Robey1, Mary Knapp2, Alan J. Fenn1, Mark Silver1, Kerry Johnson1 Frank J. Lind3...frequency end of the electromagnetic spectrum (below 15 MHz) is one of the least explored windows in observational astronomy . Observations at these...pdf. [Accessed: 17-Oct-2015]. 3. G. Hallinan, “The Owens Valley LWA,” in Exascale Radio Astronomy , 2014, vol. 2. 4. C. J. Lonsdale, R. J. Cappallo

  3. Handbook of satellite applications

    CERN Document Server

    Madry, Scott; Camacho-Lara, Sergio


    The first edition of this ground breaking reference work was the most comprehensive reference source available about the key aspects of the satellite applications field. This updated second edition covers the technology, the markets, applications and regulations related to satellite telecommunications, broadcasting and networking—including civilian and military systems; precise satellite navigation and timing networks (i.e. GPS and others); remote sensing and meteorological satellite systems. Created under the auspices of the International Space University based in France, this brand new edition is now expanded to cover new innovative small satellite constellations, new commercial launching systems, innovation in military application satellites and their acquisition, updated appendices, a useful glossary and more.

  4. Satellite image collection optimization (United States)

    Martin, William


    Imaging satellite systems represent a high capital cost. Optimizing the collection of images is critical for both satisfying customer orders and building a sustainable satellite operations business. We describe the functions of an operational, multivariable, time dynamic optimization system that maximizes the daily collection of satellite images. A graphical user interface allows the operator to quickly see the results of what if adjustments to an image collection plan. Used for both long range planning and daily collection scheduling of Space Imaging's IKONOS satellite, the satellite control and tasking (SCT) software allows collection commands to be altered up to 10 min before upload to the satellite.

  5. Satellite constraints on surface concentrations of particulate matter (United States)

    Ford Hotmann, Bonne

    Because of the increasing evidence of the widespread adverse effects on human health from exposure to poor air quality and the recommendations of the World Health Organization to significantly reduce PM2.5 in order to reduce these risks, better estimates of surface air quality globally are required. However, surface measurements useful for monitoring particulate exposure are scarce, especially in developing countries which often experience the worst air pollution. Therefore, other methods are necessary to augment estimates in regions with limited surface observations. The prospect of using satellite observations to infer surface air quality is attractive; however, it requires knowledge of the complicated relationship between satellite-observed aerosol optical depth (AOD) and surface concentrations. This dissertation explores how satellite observations can be used in conjunction with a chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem) to better understand this relationship. First, we investigate the seasonality in aerosols over the Southeastern United States using observations from several satellite instruments (MODIS, MISR, CALIOP) and surface network sites (IMPROVE, SEARCH, AERONET). We find that the strong summertime enhancement in satellite-observed aerosol optical depth (factor 2-3 enhancement over wintertime AOD) is not present in surface mass concentrations (25-55% summertime enhancement). Goldstein et al. [2009] previously attributed this seasonality in AOD to biogenic organic aerosol; however, surface observations show that organic aerosol only accounts for ~35% of PM2.5 mass and exhibits similar seasonality to total surface PM2.5. The GEOS-Chem model generally reproduces these surface aerosol measurements, but under represents the AOD seasonality observed by satellites. We show that seasonal differences in water uptake cannot sufficiently explain the magnitude of AOD increase. As CALIOP profiles indicate the presence of additional aerosol in the lower troposphere

  6. The first detection of ionized helium in the local ISM - EUVE and IUE spectroscopy of the hot DA white dwarf GD 246 (United States)

    Vennes, Stephane; Dupuis, Jean; Rumph, Todd; Drake, Jeremy; Bowyer, Stuart; Chayer, Pierre; Fontaine, Gilles


    We report observations of the extreme ultraviolet spectrum of the hot degenerate star GD 246 obtained with the EUVE. Our initial attempt at modeling the photospheric emission from the white dwarf reveals a relatively uncontaminated pure H spectrum in the range above 200 A, allowing a study of interstellar continuum absorption features in the line of sight of GD 246. Modeling of the He I autoionization transition discussed by Rumph et al. (1993), and the EUV continuum using the white dwarf as a source of background radiation provides measurements of both neutral and, for the first time, singly ionized He column densities in the local ISM (LISM). We estimate the He ionization fraction He II/(He I + He II) at roughly 25 percent with a total He column of 1.40-1.65 x 10 exp 18/sq cm. We have measured and compared H I column densities from the saturated Ly-alpha ISM absorption in IUE high-dispersion spectroscopy and from EUV continuum absorption: the two measurements are in good agreement with a total H column of 1.2-1.6 x 10 exp 19/sq cm. We discuss some implications for the nature of the LISM, particularly in the context of current models of the EUV radiation field.

  7. Trends in communications satellites

    CERN Document Server

    Curtin, Denis J


    Trends in Communications Satellites offers a comprehensive look at trends and advances in satellite communications, including experimental ones such as NASA satellites and those jointly developed by France and Germany. The economic aspects of communications satellites are also examined. This book consists of 16 chapters and begins with a discussion on the fundamentals of electrical communications and their application to space communications, including spacecraft, earth stations, and orbit and wavelength utilization. The next section demonstrates how successful commercial satellite communicati

  8. Theory of satellite geodesy applications of satellites to geodesy

    CERN Document Server

    Kaula, William M


    The main purpose of this classic text is to demonstrate how Newtonian gravitational theory and Euclidean geometry can be used and developed in the earth's environment. The second is to collect and explain some of the mathematical techniques developed for measuring the earth by satellite.Book chapters include discussions of the earth's gravitational field, with special emphasis on spherical harmonies and the potential of the ellipsoid; matrices and orbital geometry; elliptic motion, linear perturbations, resonance, and other aspects of satellite orbit dynamics; the geometry of satellite obser

  9. Satellite Communications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Satellite Communications. Arthur C Clarke wrote a seminal paper in 1945 in wireless world. Use three satellites in geo-synchronous orbit to enable intercontinental communications. System could be realised in '50 to 100 years'

  10. Joint Polar Satellite System: the United States New Generation Civilian Polar Orbiting Environmental Satellite System (United States)

    Mandt, G.


    The Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) is the Nation's advanced series of polar-orbiting environmental satellites. JPSS represents significant technological and scientific advancements in observations used for severe weather prediction and environmental monitoring. The Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) is providing state-of-the art atmospheric, oceanographic, and environmental data, as the first of the JPSS satellites while the second in the series, J-1, is scheduled to launch in October 2017. The JPSS baseline consists of a suite of four instruments: an advanced microwave and infrared sounders which are critical for weather forecasting; a leading-edge visible and infrared imager critical to data sparse areas such as Alaska and needed for environmental assessments such as snow/ice cover, droughts, volcanic ash, forest fires and surface temperature; and an ozone sensor primarily used for global monitoring of ozone and input to weather and climate models. The same suite of instruments that are on JPSS-1 will be on JPSS-2, 3 and 4. The JPSS-2 instruments are well into their assembly and test phases and are scheduled to be completed in 2018. The JPSS-2 spacecraft critical design review (CDR) is scheduled for 2Q 2018 with the launch in 2021. The sensors for the JPSS-3 and 4 spacecraft have been approved to enter into their acquisition phases. JPSS partnership with the US National Aeronautics and Space Agency (NASA) continues to provide a strong foundation for the program's success. JPSS also continues to maintain its important international relationships with European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT) and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA). JPSS works closely with its user community through the Proving Ground and Risk Reduction (PGRR) Program to identify opportunities to maximize the operational application of current JPSS capabilities. The PGRR Program also helps identify and evaluate the use of JPSS

  11. Geostationary Satellite (GOES) Images (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Visible and Infrared satellite imagery taken from radiometer instruments on SMS (ATS) and GOES satellites in geostationary orbit. These satellites produced...

  12. UV time-dependent emission in SY Muscae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michalitsianos, A.G.; Kafatos, M.


    Ultraviolet spectra acquired with the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) of SY Mus = HD 10036 on 20 September 1980 and 11 June 1981 indicate a substantial enhancement of UV emission over a nine month period. The general UV flux level appears to have increased by approximately one order of magnitude between the first and second observing epochs. The strong ultraviolet continuum evident throughout the entire IUE spectral range lambdalambda1200-3200 A on 11 June 1981 is closely approximated by a star with Tsub(eff) = 40,000 K, where previously on 20 September 1980 the continuum distribution presented a more complex structure that is possibly explained by a combination of thermal emission from an early type main sequence star, and nebular recombination emission (Michalitsianos et al. 1981). (Auth.)

  13. Model atmospheres and parameters of central stars of planetary nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patriarchi, P.; Cerruti-sola, M.; Perinotto, M.


    Non-LTE hydrogen and helium model atmospheres have been obtained for temperatures and gravities relevant to the central stars of planetary nebulae. Low-resolution and high-resolution observations obtained by the IUE satellite have been used along with optical data to determine Zanstra temperatures of the central stars of NGC 1535, NGC 6210, NGC 7009, IC 418, and IC 4593. Comparison of the observed stellar continuum of these stars with theoretical results allowed further information on the stellar temperature to be derived. The final temperatures are used to calculate accurate stellar parameters. 62 refs

  14. Theory of geostationary satellites

    CERN Document Server

    Zee, Chong-Hung


    Geostationary or equatorial synchronous satellites are a daily reminder of our space efforts during the past two decades. The nightly television satellite weather picture, the intercontinental telecommunications of television transmissions and telephone conversations, and the establishrnent of educational programs in remote regions on Earth are constant reminders of the presence of these satellites. As used here, the term 'geo­ stationary' must be taken loosely because, in the long run, the satellites will not remain 'stationary' with respect to an Earth-fixed reference frame. This results from the fact that these satellites, as is true for all satellites, are incessantly subject to perturbations other than the central-body attraction of the Earth. Among the more predominant pertur­ bations are: the ellipticity of the Earth's equator, the Sun and Moon, and solar radiation pressure. Higher harmonics of the Earth's potential and tidal effects also influence satellite motion, but they are of second­ order whe...

  15. Space Solar Power Satellite Systems, Modern Small Satellites, and Space Rectenna (United States)

    Bergsrud, Corey Alexis Marvin

    Space solar power satellite (SSPS) systems is the concept of placing large satellite into geostationary Earth orbit (GEO) to harvest and convert massive amounts of solar energy into microwave energy, and to transmit the microwaves to a rectifying antenna (rectenna) array on Earth. The rectenna array captures and converts the microwave power into usable power that is injected into the terrestrial electric grid for use. This work approached the microwave power beam as an additional source of power (with solar) for lower orbiting satellites. Assuming the concept of retrodirectivity, a GEO-SSPS antenna array system tracks and delivers microwave power to lower orbiting satellites. The lower orbiting satellites are equipped with a stacked photovoltaic (PV)/rectenna array hybrid power generation unit (HPGU) in order to harvest solar and/or microwave energy for on-board use during orbit. The area, and mass of the PV array part of the HPGU was reduced at about 32% beginning-of-life power in order to achieve the spacecraft power requirements. The HPGU proved to offer a mass decrease in the PGU, and an increase in mission life due to longer living component life of the rectenna array. Moreover, greater mission flexibility is achieved through a track and power delivery concept. To validate the potential advantages offered by a HPGU, a mission concept was presented that utilizes modern small satellites as technology demonstrators. During launch, a smaller power receiving "daughter" satellite sits inside a larger power transmitting "mother" satellite. Once separated from the launch vehicle the daughter satellite is ejected away from the mother satellite, and each satellite deploys its respective power transmitting or power receiving hardware's for experimentation. The concept of close proximity mission operations between the satellites is considered. To validate the technology of the space rectenna array part of the HPGU, six milestones were completed in the design. The first

  16. SatelliteDL: a Toolkit for Analysis of Heterogeneous Satellite Datasets (United States)

    Galloy, M. D.; Fillmore, D.


    SatelliteDL is an IDL toolkit for the analysis of satellite Earth observations from a diverse set of platforms and sensors. The core function of the toolkit is the spatial and temporal alignment of satellite swath and geostationary data. The design features an abstraction layer that allows for easy inclusion of new datasets in a modular way. Our overarching objective is to create utilities that automate the mundane aspects of satellite data analysis, are extensible and maintainable, and do not place limitations on the analysis itself. IDL has a powerful suite of statistical and visualization tools that can be used in conjunction with SatelliteDL. Toward this end we have constructed SatelliteDL to include (1) HTML and LaTeX API document generation,(2) a unit test framework,(3) automatic message and error logs,(4) HTML and LaTeX plot and table generation, and(5) several real world examples with bundled datasets available for download. For ease of use, datasets, variables and optional workflows may be specified in a flexible format configuration file. Configuration statements may specify, for example, a region and date range, and the creation of images, plots and statistical summary tables for a long list of variables. SatelliteDL enforces data provenance; all data should be traceable and reproducible. The output NetCDF file metadata holds a complete history of the original datasets and their transformations, and a method exists to reconstruct a configuration file from this information. Release 0.1.0 distributes with ingest methods for GOES, MODIS, VIIRS and CERES radiance data (L1) as well as select 2D atmosphere products (L2) such as aerosol and cloud (MODIS and VIIRS) and radiant flux (CERES). Future releases will provide ingest methods for ocean and land surface products, gridded and time averaged datasets (L3 Daily, Monthly and Yearly), and support for 3D products such as temperature and water vapor profiles. Emphasis will be on NPP Sensor, Environmental and

  17. Interim Service ISDN Satellite (ISIS) network model for advanced satellite designs and experiments (United States)

    Pepin, Gerard R.; Hager, E. Paul


    The Interim Service Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) Satellite (ISIS) Network Model for Advanced Satellite Designs and Experiments describes a model suitable for discrete event simulations. A top-down model design uses the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) as its basis. The ISDN modeling abstractions are added to permit the determination and performance for the NASA Satellite Communications Research (SCAR) Program.

  18. Geologic Exploration of the Planets: The First 50 Years (United States)

    Carr, Michael H.


    Fifty years ago, on 14 December 1962, the Mariner 2 spacecraft flew by Venus and inaugurated the modern era of planetary exploration. Since that first Venus flyby, roughly 80 spacecraft have successfully probed, orbited, flown by, landed on, or roved on other planets, satellites, asteroids, and comets. As Carl Sagan used to say, only one generation of humankind can be the first explorers of the solar system, and we are that generation.

  19. Comparing Satellite Rainfall Estimates with Rain-Gauge Data: Optimal Strategies Suggested by a Spectral Model (United States)

    Bell, Thomas L.; Kundu, Prasun K.; Lau, William K. M. (Technical Monitor)


    Validation of satellite remote-sensing methods for estimating rainfall against rain-gauge data is attractive because of the direct nature of the rain-gauge measurements. Comparisons of satellite estimates to rain-gauge data are difficult, however, because of the extreme variability of rain and the fact that satellites view large areas over a short time while rain gauges monitor small areas continuously. In this paper, a statistical model of rainfall variability developed for studies of sampling error in averages of satellite data is used to examine the impact of spatial and temporal averaging of satellite and gauge data on intercomparison results. The model parameters were derived from radar observations of rain, but the model appears to capture many of the characteristics of rain-gauge data as well. The model predicts that many months of data from areas containing a few gauges are required to validate satellite estimates over the areas, and that the areas should be of the order of several hundred km in diameter. Over gauge arrays of sufficiently high density, the optimal areas and averaging times are reduced. The possibility of using time-weighted averages of gauge data is explored.

  20. Satellite Communications

    CERN Document Server

    Pelton, Joseph N


    The field of satellite communications represents the world's largest space industry. Those who are interested in space need to understand the fundamentals of satellite communications, its technology, operation, business, economic, and regulatory aspects. This book explains all this along with key insights into the field's future growth trends and current strategic challenges. Fundamentals of Satellite Communications is a concise book that gives all of the key facts and figures as well as a strategic view of where this dynamic industry is going. Author Joseph N. Pelton, PhD, former Dean of the International Space University and former Director of Strategic Policy at Intelstat, presents a r

  1. The American Satellite Company (ASC) satellite deployed from payload bay (United States)


    The American Satellite Company (ASC) communications satellite is deployed from the payload bay of the Shuttle Discovery. A portion of the cloudy surface of the earth can be seen to the left of the frame.

  2. The Italian contribution to the CSES satellite (United States)

    Conti, Livio


    parameters and stability of Van Allen belt are constantly modified by natural non-seismic and man-made processes. Therefore, in order to identify seismo-associated perturbations, it is needed to reject the "normal" background effects of the e.m. emissions due to: geomagnetic storms, tropospheric phenomena, and artificial sources (such as power lines, VLF transmitters, HF stations, etc.). Currently, the only available large database is that collected by the Demeter satellite and by rare observations made by some previous space missions, non-dedicated to this purpose. The CSES satellite aims at continuing the exploration started by Demeter with advanced multi-parametric measurements. The configuration of the CSES sensors foresees measurements of energetic particle fluxes, ionospheric plasma parameters and electromagnetic fields, in a wide range of energy and frequencies. The main sensors onboard the satellite are: the HEPD (High Energy Particle Detector) developed by the Italian participants, and the following Chinese sensors: LEPD (Low Energy Particle Detector), LP (Langmuir Probes), IDM (Ion Drift Meter), ICM (Ion Capture Meter), RPA (Retarding Potential Analyzer), EFD (Electric Field Detectors) developed in collaboration with Italian team, HPM (High Precision Magnetometer) and SCM (Search-Coil Magnetometer). The research activity is at an advanced phase, being the various payloads already built and, right now, an intense activity is going on for calibration of the various sensors. In particular, the Italian payload HEPD is under test at the laboratories of the National Institute for Nuclear Physics (INFN) and the Chinese payloads LP, IDM, ICM, RPA and EFD are tested at the INAF-IAPS "Plasma Chamber" in Rome, which is a facility where the response of the sensors, and their compatibility with ionospheric plasma, can be verified in environmental conditions very similar to those met by the satellite in orbit.

  3. Trends in mobile satellite communication (United States)

    Johannsen, Klaus G.; Bowles, Mike W.; Milliken, Samuel; Cherrette, Alan R.; Busche, Gregory C.


    Ever since the U.S. Federal Communication Commission opened the discussion on spectrum usage for personal handheld communication, the community of satellite manufacturers has been searching for an economically viable and technically feasible satellite mobile communication system. Hughes Aircraft Company and others have joined in providing proposals for such systems, ranging from low to medium to geosynchronous orbits. These proposals make it clear that the trend in mobile satellite communication is toward more sophisticated satellites with a large number of spot beams and onboard processing, providing worldwide interconnectivity. Recent Hughes studies indicate that from a cost standpoint the geosynchronous satellite (GEOS) is most economical, followed by the medium earth orbit satellite (MEOS) and then by the low earth orbit satellite (LEOS). From a system performance standpoint, this evaluation may be in reverse order, depending on how the public will react to speech delay and collision. This paper discusses the trends and various mobile satellite constellations in satellite communication under investigation. It considers the effect of orbital altitude and modulation/multiple access on the link and spacecraft design.

  4. Detailed empirical models for the winds of early-type stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, G.L.; Castor, J.I.


    Owing to the recent accumulation of ultraviolet data from the IUE satellite, of X-ray data from the Einstein (HEAO 2) satellite, of visible data from ground based electronic detectors, and of radio data from the Very Large Array (VLA) telescope, it is becoming possible to build much more complete models for the winds of early-type stars. The present work takes the empirical approach of assuming that there exists a coronal region at the base of a cool wind (T/sub e/roughly-equalT/sub eff/). This will be an extension of previous papers by Olson and by Cassinelli and Olson; however, refinements to the model will be presented, and the model will be applied to seven O stars and one BO star. Ionization equilibria are computed to match the line strengths found in UV spectra. The coronal fluxes that are required to produce the observed abundance of O +5 are compared to the X-ray fluxes observed by the Einstein satellite

  5. JPSS Preparations at the Satellite Proving Ground for Marine, Precipitation, and Satellite Analysis (United States)

    Folmer, Michael J.; Berndt, E.; Clark, J.; Orrison, A.; Kibler, J.; Sienkiewicz, J.; Nelson, J.; Goldberg, M.; Sjoberg, W.


    The ocean prediction center at the national hurricane center's tropical analysis and forecast Branch, the Weather Prediction center and the Satellite analysis branch of NESDIS make up the Satellite Proving Ground for Marine, Precipitation and Satellite Analysis. These centers had early exposure to JPSS products using the S-NPP Satellite that was launched in 2011. Forecasters continue to evaluate new products in anticipation for the launch of JPSS-1 sometime in 2017.

  6. Understanding and Analyzing Latency of Near Real-time Satellite Data (United States)

    Han, W.; Jochum, M.; Brust, J.


    Acquiring and disseminating time-sensitive satellite data in a timely manner is much concerned by researchers and decision makers of weather forecast, severe weather warning, disaster and emergency response, environmental monitoring, and so on. Understanding and analyzing the latency of near real-time satellite data is very useful and helpful to explore the whole data transmission flow, indentify the possible issues, and connect data providers and users better. The STAR (Center for Satellite Applications and Research of NOAA) Central Data Repository (SCDR) is a central repository to acquire, manipulate, and disseminate various types of near real-time satellite datasets to internal and external users. In this system, important timestamps, including observation beginning/end, processing, uploading, downloading, and ingestion, are retrieved and organized in the database, so the time length of each transmission phase can be figured out easily. Open source NoSQL database MongoDB is selected to manage the timestamp information because of features of dynamic schema, aggregation and data processing. A user-friendly user interface is developed to visualize and characterize the latency interactively. Taking the Himawari-8 HSD (Himawari Standard Data) file as an example, the data transmission phases, including creating HSD file from satellite observation, uploading the file to HimawariCloud, updating file link in the webpage, downloading and ingesting the file to SCDR, are worked out from the above mentioned timestamps. The latencies can be observed by time of period, day of week, or hour of day in chart or table format, and the anomaly latencies can be detected and reported through the user interface. Latency analysis provides data providers and users actionable insight on how to improve the data transmission of near real-time satellite data, and enhance its acquisition and management.

  7. Space micropropulsion systems for Cubesats and small satellites: From proximate targets to furthermost frontiers (United States)

    Levchenko, Igor; Bazaka, Kateryna; Ding, Yongjie; Raitses, Yevgeny; Mazouffre, Stéphane; Henning, Torsten; Klar, Peter J.; Shinohara, Shunjiro; Schein, Jochen; Garrigues, Laurent; Kim, Minkwan; Lev, Dan; Taccogna, Francesco; Boswell, Rod W.; Charles, Christine; Koizumi, Hiroyuki; Shen, Yan; Scharlemann, Carsten; Keidar, Michael; Xu, Shuyan


    Rapid evolution of miniaturized, automatic, robotized, function-centered devices has redefined space technology, bringing closer the realization of most ambitious interplanetary missions and intense near-Earth space exploration. Small unmanned satellites and probes are now being launched in hundreds at a time, resurrecting a dream of satellite constellations, i.e., wide, all-covering networks of small satellites capable of forming universal multifunctional, intelligent platforms for global communication, navigation, ubiquitous data mining, Earth observation, and many other functions, which was once doomed by the extraordinary cost of such systems. The ingression of novel nanostructured materials provided a solid base that enabled the advancement of these affordable systems in aspects of power, instrumentation, and communication. However, absence of efficient and reliable thrust systems with the capacity to support precise maneuvering of small satellites and CubeSats over long periods of deployment remains a real stumbling block both for the deployment of large satellite systems and for further exploration of deep space using a new generation of spacecraft. The last few years have seen tremendous global efforts to develop various miniaturized space thrusters, with great success stories. Yet, there are critical challenges that still face the space technology. These have been outlined at an inaugural International Workshop on Micropropulsion and Cubesats, MPCS-2017, a joint effort between Plasma Sources and Application Centre/Space Propulsion Centre (Singapore) and the Micropropulsion and Nanotechnology Lab, the G. Washington University (USA) devoted to miniaturized space propulsion systems, and hosted by CNR-Nanotec—P.Las.M.I. lab in Bari, Italy. This focused review aims to highlight the most promising developments reported at MPCS-2017 by leading world-reputed experts in miniaturized space propulsion systems. Recent advances in several major types of small

  8. The satellite situation center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teague, M.J.; Sawyer, D.M.; Vette, J.I.


    Considerations related to the early planning for the International Magnetospheric Study (IMS) took into account the desirability of an establishment of specific entities for generating and disseminating coordination information for both retrospective and predictive periods. The organizations established include the IMS/Satellite Situation Center (IMS/SSC) operated by NASA. The activities of the SSC are related to the preparation of reports on predicted and actually achieved satellite positions, the response to inquiries, the compilation of information on satellite experiments, and the issue of periodic status summaries. Attention is given to high-altitude satellite services, other correlative satellite services, non-IMS activities of the SSC, a summary of the SSC request activity, and post-IMS and future activities

  9. Plan of Time Management of Satellite Positioning System using Quasi-zenith Satellite (United States)

    Takahashi, Yasuhiro; Fujieda, Miho; Amagai, Jun; Yokota, Shoichiro; Kimura, Kazuhiro; Ito, Hiroyuki; Hama, Shin'ichi; Morikawa, Takao; Kawano, Isao; Kogure, Satoshi

    The Quasi-Zenith satellites System (QZSS) is developed as an integrated satellite service system of communication, broadcasting and positioning for mobile users in specified regions of Japan from high elevation angle. Purposes of the satellite positioning system using Quasi-Zenith satellite (QZS) are to complement and augment the GPS. The national institutes concerned have been developing the positioning system using QZS since 2003 and will carry out experiments and researches in three years after the launch. In this system, National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT) is mainly in charge of timing system for the satellite positioning system using QZS, such as onboard hydrogen maser atomic clock and precise time management system of the QZSS. We started to develop the engineering model of the time management system for the QZSS. The time management system for the QZSS will be used to compare time differences between QZS and earth station as well as to compare between three onboard atomic clocks. This paper introduces time management of satellite positioning system using the QZSS.

  10. Ultraviolet spectra of DA white dwarfs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelan, E.P.


    Using the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) satellite, observations of cool to moderately warm DA white dwarfs showed the presence of broad absorption features at lambda 1400 and 1600. The lambda 1600 feature is prominent for T/sub eff/ 0 K and the lambda 1400 feature is visible up to about T/sub eff/ = 18,000 0 K. Proposed mechanisms for absorption at lambda 1400 have included a Si V doublet, H 2 Lyman bands, and the Call ionization edge at lambda 1420. It was recently suggested that the lambda 1600 feature is due to the photoionization edge of Mg I at lambda 1625. None of these has been able to explain all of the observations without invoking some quite unconventional circumstances. On the basis of computer models, this thesis proposes that the absorption in both cases is due to perturbations of the energy level structure of neutral hydrogen atoms undergoing collisions. The lambda 1600 feature is due to absorption by the hydrogen quasi-molecule while that at lambda 1400 arises from a ground state transition of the hydrogen quasi-molecule ion

  11. Evaluating the hydrological consistency of satellite based water cycle components

    KAUST Repository

    Lopez Valencia, Oliver Miguel


    Advances in multi-satellite based observations of the earth system have provided the capacity to retrieve information across a wide-range of land surface hydrological components and provided an opportunity to characterize terrestrial processes from a completely new perspective. Given the spatial advantage that space-based observations offer, several regional-to-global scale products have been developed, offering insights into the multi-scale behaviour and variability of hydrological states and fluxes. However, one of the key challenges in the use of satellite-based products is characterizing the degree to which they provide realistic and representative estimates of the underlying retrieval: that is, how accurate are the hydrological components derived from satellite observations? The challenge is intrinsically linked to issues of scale, since the availability of high-quality in-situ data is limited, and even where it does exist, is generally not commensurate to the resolution of the satellite observation. Basin-scale studies have shown considerable variability in achieving water budget closure with any degree of accuracy using satellite estimates of the water cycle. In order to assess the suitability of this type of approach for evaluating hydrological observations, it makes sense to first test it over environments with restricted hydrological inputs, before applying it to more hydrological complex basins. Here we explore the concept of hydrological consistency, i.e. the physical considerations that the water budget impose on the hydrologic fluxes and states to be temporally and spatially linked, to evaluate the reproduction of a set of large-scale evaporation (E) products by using a combination of satellite rainfall (P) and Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) observations of storage change, focusing on arid and semi-arid environments, where the hydrological flows can be more realistically described. Our results indicate no persistent hydrological

  12. The FUSE satellite is encased in a canister before being moved to the Launch Pad. (United States)


    At Hangar AE, Cape Canaveral Air Station (CCAS), the last segment is lifted over the top of NASA's Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) satellite already encased in a protective canister. The satellite will next be moved to Launch Pad 17A, CCAS, for its scheduled launch June 23 aboard a Boeing Delta II rocket. FUSE was developed by The Johns Hopkins University under contract to Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., to investigate the origin and evolution of the lightest elements in the universe - hydrogen and deuterium. In addition, the FUSE satellite will examine the forces and process involved in the evolution of the galaxies, stars and planetary systems by investigating light in the far ultraviolet portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.

  13. A small satellite design for deep space network testing and training (United States)

    Mcwilliams, Dennis; Slatton, Clint; Norman, Cassidy; Araiza, Joe; Jones, Jason; Tedesco, Mark; Wortman, Michael; Opiela, John; Lett, Pat; Clavenna, Michael


    With the continuing exploration of the Solar System and the reemphasis on Earth focused missions, the need for faster data transmission rates has grown. Ka-band could allow a higher data delivery rate over the current X-band, however the adverse effects of the Earth's atmosphere on Ka are as yet unknown. The Deep Space Network and Jet Propulsion Lab have proposed to launch a small satellite that would simultaneously transmit X and Ka signals to test the viability of switching to Ka-band. The Mockingbird Design Team at the University of Texas at Austin applied small satellite design principles to achieve this objective. The Mockingbird design, named BATSAT, incorporates simple, low-cost systems designed for university production and testing. The BATSAT satellite is a 0.64 m diameter, spherical panel led satellite, mounted with solar cells and omni-directional antennae. The antennae configuration negates the need for active attitude control or spin stabilization. The space-frame truss structure was designed for 11 g launch loads while allowing for easy construction and solar-panel mounting. The communication system transmits at 1 mW by carrying the required Ka and X-band transmitters, as well as an S band transmitter used for DSN training. The power system provides the 8.6 W maximum power requirements via silicon solar arrays and nickel-cadmium batteries. The BATSAT satellite will be lofted into an 1163 km, 70 deg orbit by the Pegasus launch system. This orbit fulfills DSN dish slew rate requirements while keeping the satellite out of the heaviest regions of the Van Allen radiation belts. Each of the three DSN stations capable of receiving Ka-band (Goldstone, Canberra, and Madrid) will have an average of 85 minutes of view-time per day over the satellites ten year design life. Mockingbird Designs hopes that its small satellite design will not only be applicable to this specific mission scenario, but that it could easily be modified for instrument capability for

  14. A small satellite design for deep space network testing and training (United States)

    McWilliams, Dennis; Slatton, Clint; Norman, Cassidy; Araiza, Joe; Jones, Jason; Tedesco, Mark; Wortman, Michael; Opiela, John; Lett, Pat; Clavenna, Michael


    With the continuing exploration of the Solar System and the reemphasis on Earth focused missions, the need for faster data transmission rates has grown. Ka-band could allow a higher data delivery rate over the current X-band, however the adverse effects of the Earth's atmosphere on Ka are as yet unknown. The Deep Space Network and Jet Propulsion Lab have proposed to launch a small satellite that would simultaneously transmit X and Ka signals to test the viability of switching to Ka-band. The Mockingbird Design Team at the University of Texas at Austin applied small satellite design principles to achieve this objective. The Mockingbird design, named BATSAT, incorporates simple, low-cost systems designed for university production and testing. The BATSAT satellite is a 0.64 m diameter, spherical panel led satellite, mounted with solar cells and omni-directional antennae. The antennae configuration negates the need for active attitude control or spin stabilization. The space-frame truss structure was designed for 11 g launch loads while allowing for easy construction and solar-panel mounting. The communication system transmits at 1 mW by carrying the required Ka and X-band transmitters, as well as an S band transmitter used for DSN training. The power system provides the 8.6 W maximum power requirements via silicon solar arrays and nickel-cadmium batteries. The BATSAT satellite will be lofted into an 1163 km, 70 deg orbit by the Pegasus launch system. This orbit fulfills DSN dish slew rate requirements while keeping the satellite out of the heaviest regions of the Van Allen radiation belts. Each of the three DSN stations capable of receiving Ka-band (Goldstone, Canberra, and Madrid) will have an average of 85 minutes of view-time per day over the satellites ten year design life. Mockingbird Designs hopes that its small satellite design will not only be applicable to this specific mission scenario, but that it could easily be modified for instrument capability for

  15. Deuterium and Oxygen Toward Feige 110: Results from the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) Mission (United States)

    Friedman, S. D.; Howk, J. C.; Chayer, P.; Tripp, T. M.; Hebrard, G.; Andre, M.; Oliveira, C.; Jenkins, E. B.; Moos, H. W.; Oegerle, William R.


    We present measurements of the column densities of interstellar D I and O I made with the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE), and of H I made with the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) toward the sdOB star Feige 110 [(l,b) = (74.09 deg., - 59.07 deg.); d = 179(sup +265, sub -67) pc; Z = -154(sup +57, Sub -227 pc). Our determination of the D I column density made use of curve of growth fitting and profile fitting analyses, while our O I column density determination used only curve of growth techniques. The H I column density was estimated by fitting the damping wings of the interstellar Ly(lpha) profile. We find log N(D I) = 15.47 +/- 0.06, log N(O I) = 16.73 +/- 0.10, and log N(H I) = 20.14(sup +0.13, sub -0.20) (all errors 2(sigma)). This implies D/H = (2.14 +/- 0.82) x 10(esp -5), D/O = (5.50(sup + 1.64, sub -133)) x 10(exp -2), and O/H = (3.89 +/- 1.67) x 10(exp -4). Taken with the FUSE results reported in companion papers and previous measurements of the local interstellar medium, this suggests the possibility of spatial variability in D/H for sight lines exceeding approx. 100 pc. This result may constrain models which characterize the mixing time and length scales of material in the local interstellar medium.

  16. Human Artificial Chromosomes with Alpha Satellite-Based De Novo Centromeres Show Increased Frequency of Nondisjunction and Anaphase Lag


    Rudd, M. Katharine; Mays, Robert W.; Schwartz, Stuart; Willard, Huntington F.


    Human artificial chromosomes have been used to model requirements for human chromosome segregation and to explore the nature of sequences competent for centromere function. Normal human centromeres require specialized chromatin that consists of alpha satellite DNA complexed with epigenetically modified histones and centromere-specific proteins. While several types of alpha satellite DNA have been used to assemble de novo centromeres in artificial chromosome assays, the extent to which they fu...

  17. Second-generation mobile satellite system. A conceptual design and trade-off study (United States)

    Sue, M. K.; Park, Y. H.


    In recent years, interest has grown in the mobile satellite (MSAT) system, a satellite-based communications system capable of providing integrated voice and data services to a large number of users. To explore the potential of a commercial mobile satellite system (MSS) beyond the horizon of the first generation, using technologies of the 1990's and to assist MSAT-X in directing its efforts, a conceptual design has been performed for a second-generation system to be launched around the mid-1990's. The design goal is to maximize the number of satellite channels and/or minimize the overall life-cycle cost, subject to the constraint of utilizing a commercial satellite bus with minimum modifications. To provide an optimal design, a series of trade-offs are performed, including antenna sizing, feed configurations, and interference analysis. Interference is a serious problem for MSAT and often an overlapping feed design is required to reduce interbeam interference. The trade-off studies will show that a simple non-overlapping feed is sufficient for the second-generation system, thus avoiding the need for the complicated beam-forming network that is associated with the overlapping feed designs. In addition, a system that operates at L-band, an alternative frequency band that is being considered by some for possible MSAT applications, is also presented.

  18. Effects of DeOrbitSail as applied to Lifetime predictions of Low Earth Orbit Satellites (United States)

    Afful, Andoh; Opperman, Ben; Steyn, Herman


    Orbit lifetime prediction is an important component of satellite mission design and post-launch space operations. Throughout its lifetime in space, a spacecraft is exposed to risk of collision with orbital debris or operational satellites. This risk is especially high within the Low Earth Orbit (LEO) region where the highest density of space debris is accumulated. This paper investigates orbital decay of some LEO micro-satellites and accelerating orbit decay by using a deorbitsail. The Semi-Analytical Liu Theory (SALT) and the Satellite Toolkit was employed to determine the mean elements and expressions for the time rates of change. Test cases of observed decayed satellites (Iridium-85 and Starshine-1) are used to evaluate the predicted theory. Results for the test cases indicated that the theory fitted observational data well within acceptable limits. Orbit decay progress of the SUNSAT micro-satellite was analysed using relevant orbital parameters derived from historic Two Line Element (TLE) sets and comparing with decay and lifetime prediction models. This paper also explored the deorbit date and time for a 1U CubeSat (ZACUBE-01). The use of solar sails as devices to speed up the deorbiting of LEO satellites is considered. In a drag sail mode, the deorbitsail technique significantly increases the effective cross-sectional area of a satellite, subsequently increasing atmospheric drag and accelerating orbit decay. The concept proposed in this study introduced a very useful technique of orbit decay as well as deorbiting of spacecraft.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bernard


    Full Text Available End of 2011 a new optical satellite, called Pléiades, was launched by the French space agency (CNES. It provides 20 km x 20 km images at 0.5 meters. This agile acquisition system is able to relocate very rapidly and scan the earth in any direction. The agility of the system offers the ability to acquire multi viewing angle images of the same area during the same orbit. This ability to capture, from a single stereoscopic pair, to a sequence of 25 images, allows enhancing the quality and the completeness of automatically extracted 3D maps. The aim of the study is to validate and quantify the capacity of the Pléiades system to perform 3D mapping. The analysis explores the advantages in terms of quality and automatism to use more than 2 stereoscopic images. In the last 10 years, automatic 3D processing of digital images became more and more popular and efficient. Thanks to aerial images with very large overlap and very high resolution satellite images, new methodologies and algorithms have been implemented to improve the quality and accuracy of automatic 3D processing. We propose to experiment the same type of approaches using Pléiades images to produce digital elevation models (DEM. A focus is made on analysing the 3D processing using video like (multi viewing acquisitions. Different reference sites with very accurate 3D control points are used to quantify the quality of the Pléiades DEM. Different acquisition modes are explored from a single stereo pair to a sequence of 17 images.

  20. The Future of Satellite Communications Technology. (United States)

    Nowland, Wayne


    Discusses technical advances in satellite technology since the 1960s, and the International Telecommunications Satellite Organization's role in these developments; describes how AUSSAT, Australia's domestic satellite system, exemplifies the latest developments in satellite technology; and reviews satellite system features, possible future…

  1. Applications of Robust, Radiation Hard AlGaN Optoelectronic Devices in Space Exploration and High Energy Density Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, K.


    This slide show presents: space exploration applications; high energy density physics applications; UV LED and photodiode radiation hardness; UV LED and photodiode space qualification; UV LED AC charge management; and UV LED satellite payload instruments. A UV LED satellite will be launched 2nd half 2012.

  2. Cooperative and cognitive satellite systems

    CERN Document Server

    Chatzinotas, Symeon; De Gaudenzi, Riccardo


    Cooperative and Cognitive Satellite Systems provides a solid overview of the current research in the field of cooperative and cognitive satellite systems, helping users understand how to incorporate state-of-the-art communication techniques in innovative satellite network architectures to enable the next generation of satellite systems. The book is edited and written by top researchers and practitioners in the field, providing a comprehensive explanation of current research that allows users to discover future technologies and their applications, integrate satellite and terrestrial systems

  3. New Opportunitie s for Small Satellite Programs Provided by the Falcon Family of Launch Vehicles (United States)

    Dinardi, A.; Bjelde, B.; Insprucker, J.


    The Falcon family of launch vehicles, developed by Space Exploration Technologies Corporation (SpaceX), are designed to provide the world's lowest cost access to orbit. Highly reliable, low cost launch services offer considerable opportunities for risk reduction throughout the life cycle of satellite programs. The significantly lower costs of Falcon 1 and Falcon 9 as compared with other similar-class launch vehicles results in a number of new business case opportunities; which in turn presents the possibility for a paradigm shift in how the satellite industry thinks about launch services.

  4. Contrast in low-cost operational concepts for orbiting satellites (United States)

    Walyus, Keith D.; Reis, James; Bradley, Arthur J.


    Older spacecraft missions, especially those in low Earth orbit with telemetry intensive requirements, required round-the-clock control center staffing. The state of technology relied on control center personnel to continually examine data, make decisions, resolve anomalies, and file reports. Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is a prime example of this description. Technological advancements in hardware and software over the last decade have yielded increases in productivity and operational efficiency, which result in lower cost. The re-engineering effort of HST, which has recently concluded, utilized emerging technology to reduce cost and increase productivity. New missions, of which NASA's Transition Region and Coronal Explorer Satellite (TRACE) is an example, have benefited from recent technological advancements and are more cost-effective than when HST was first launched. During its launch (1998) and early orbit phase, the TRACE Flight Operations Team (FOT) employed continually staffed operations. Yet once the mission entered its nominal phase, the FOT reduced their staffing to standard weekday business hours. Operations were still conducted at night and during the weekends, but these operations occurred autonomously without compromising their high standards for data collections. For the HST, which launched in 1990, reduced cost operations will employ a different operational concept, when the spacecraft enters its low-cost phase after its final servicing mission in 2004. Primarily due to the spacecraft"s design, the HST Project has determined that single-shift operations will introduce unacceptable risks for the amount of dollars saved. More importantly, significant cost-savings can still be achieved by changing the operational concept for the FOT, while still maintaining round-the-clock staffing. It"s important to note that the low-cost solutions obtained for one satellite may not be applicable for other satellites. This paper will contrast the differences between

  5. Multi-Satellite Orbit Determination Using Interferometric Observables with RF Localization Applications (United States)

    Geeraert, Jeroen L.

    satellite state with respect to the chief. Once again the results demonstrate that the TDOA and FDOA OD results are favorable with faster dynamics over classical measurements. This dissertation not only explores the OD side, but also gaps in geolocation research. First the mapping of ephemeris uncertainty to the geolocation covariance to provide a more realistic covariance was implemented. Furthermore, the geolocation solution was improved by appending a probabilistic altitude constraint to the posterior covariance, significantly reducing the projected geolocation uncertainty ellipse. The feasibility of using the geolocation setup to passively locate a LEO satellite was also considered. Finally the simulated results were verified using a long-arc of real data. The use of FDOA for small-body navigation and gravity recovery was also examined as an extended application.

  6. Caught in the rhythm. I. How satellites settle into a plane around their central galaxy (United States)

    Welker, C.; Dubois, Y.; Pichon, C.; Devriendt, J.; Chisari, N. E.


    Context. The anisotropic distribution of satellites around the central galaxy of their host halo is both well-documented in observations and predicted by the ΛCDM model. However its amplitude, direction and possible biases associated to the specific dynamics of such satellite galaxies are still highly debated. Aims: Using the cosmological hydrodynamics simulation Horizon-AGN, we aim to quantify the anisotropy of the spatial distribution of satellite galaxies relative to their central counterpart and explore its connexion to the local cosmic web, in the redshift range between 0.3 and 0.8. Methods: Haloes and galaxies were identified and their kinematics computed using their dark matter and stellar particles respectively. Sub-haloes were discarded and galaxies lying within 5 Rvir of a given halo are matched to it. The filamentary structure of the cosmic web was extracted from the density field - smoothed over a 3 h-1 Mpc typical scale - as a network of contiguous segments. We then investigated the distribution function of relevant angles, most importantly the angle α between the central-to-satellite separation vector and the group's nearest filament, aside with the angle between this same separation and the central minor axis. This allowed us to explore the correlations between filamentary infall, intra-cluster inspiralling and the resulting distribution of satellites around their central counterpart. Results: We find that, on average, satellites tend to be located on the galactic plane of the central object. This effect is detected for central galaxies with a stellar mass larger than 1010 M⊙ and found to be strongest for red passive galaxies, while blue galaxies exhibit a weaker trend. For galaxies with a minor axis parallel to the direction of the nearest filament, we find that the coplanarity is stronger in the vicinity of the central galaxy, and decreases when moving towards the outskirts of the host halo. By contrast, the spatial distribution of satellite

  7. Gigantic Jets and the Tropical Paradigm: A Satellite Perspective (United States)

    Lazarus, S. M.; Splitt, M. E.


    While not exclusively oceanic, gigantic jets (GJ) appear to have a preference for the tropical environment. In particular, a number of GJs have been observed in conjunction with tropical disturbances (i.e., weak tropical storms, depressions, and remnant lows). Given the remote aspect of TC convection and general lack of radar coverage, we explore this subset of events via analysis of their infrared and water vapor satellite presentations. The satellite perspective is relevant given that storm top mixing (dilution) of charge associated with storm-scale turbulence in this portion of the storm is thought to be connected to GJs. The thunderstorm overshoot, upper level divergence / outflow are examined in an effort to better understand the tropical paradigm. Specifically, an analysis of cloud top temperature, anvil expansion rates and asymmetries as well as placement of the GJ events with respect to the large (storm) scale circulation will be conducted.

  8. Thematic mapping from satellite imagery

    CERN Document Server

    Denègre, J


    Thematic Mapping from Satellite Imagery: A Guidebook discusses methods in producing maps using satellite images. The book is comprised of five chapters; each chapter covers one stage of the process. Chapter 1 tackles the satellite remote sensing imaging and its cartographic significance. Chapter 2 discusses the production processes for extracting information from satellite data. The next chapter covers the methods for combining satellite-derived information with that obtained from conventional sources. Chapter 4 deals with design and semiology for cartographic representation, and Chapter 5 pre

  9. Full Service ISDN Satellite (FSIS) network model for advanced ISDN satellite design and experiments (United States)

    Pepin, Gerard R.


    The Full Service Integrated Services Digital Network (FSIS) network model for advanced satellite designs describes a model suitable for discrete event simulations. A top down model design uses the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) as its basis. The ACTS and the Interim Service ISDN Satellite (ISIS) perform ISDN protocol analyses and switching decisions in the terrestrial domain, whereas FSIS makes all its analyses and decisions on-board the ISDN satellite.

  10. Advanced Microelectronics Technologies for Future Small Satellite Systems (United States)

    Alkalai, Leon


    Future small satellite systems for both Earth observation as well as deep-space exploration are greatly enabled by the technological advances in deep sub-micron microelectronics technologies. Whereas these technological advances are being fueled by the commercial (non-space) industries, more recently there has been an exciting new synergism evolving between the two otherwise disjointed markets. In other words, both the commercial and space industries are enabled by advances in low-power, highly integrated, miniaturized (low-volume), lightweight, and reliable real-time embedded systems. Recent announcements by commercial semiconductor manufacturers to introduce Silicon On Insulator (SOI) technology into their commercial product lines is driven by the need for high-performance low-power integrated devices. Moreover, SOI has been the technology of choice for many space semiconductor manufacturers where radiation requirements are critical. This technology has inherent radiation latch-up immunity built into the process, which makes it very attractive to space applications. In this paper, we describe the advanced microelectronics and avionics technologies under development by NASA's Deep Space Systems Technology Program (also known as X2000). These technologies are of significant benefit to both the commercial satellite as well as the deep-space and Earth orbiting science missions. Such a synergistic technology roadmap may truly enable quick turn-around, low-cost, and highly capable small satellite systems for both Earth observation as well as deep-space missions.

  11. Magsat - A new satellite to survey the earth's magnetic field (United States)

    Mobley, F. F.; Eckard, L. D.; Fountain, G. H.; Ousley, G. W.


    The Magsat satellite was launched on Oct. 30, 1979 into a sun-synchronous dawn-dusk orbit, of 97 deg inclination, 350 km perigee, and 550 km apogee. It contains a precision vector magnetometer and a cesium-vapor scalar magnetometer at the end of a 6-m long graphite epoxy scissors boom. The magnetometers are accurate to 2 nanotesla. A pair of star cameras are used to define the body orientation to 10 arc sec rms. An 'attitude transfer system' measures the orientation of the magnetometer sensors relative to the star cameras to approximately 5 arc sec rms. The satellite position is determined to 70 meters rms by Doppler tracking. The overall objective is to determine each component of the earth's vector magnetic field to an accuracy of 6 nanotesla rms. The Magsat satellite gathers a complete picture of the earth's magnetic field every 12 hours. The vector components are sampled 16 times per second with a resolution of 0.5 nanotesla. The data will be used by the U.S. Geological Survey to prepare 1980 world magnetic field charts and to detect large-scale magnetic anomalies in the earth's crust for use in planning resource exploration strategy.

  12. Orbit Propagation and Determination of Low Earth Orbit Satellites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho-Nien Shou


    Full Text Available This paper represents orbit propagation and determination of low Earth orbit (LEO satellites. Satellite global positioning system (GPS configured receiver provides position and velocity measures by navigating filter to get the coordinates of the orbit propagation (OP. The main contradictions in real-time orbit which is determined by the problem are orbit positioning accuracy and the amount of calculating two indicators. This paper is dedicated to solving the problem of tradeoffs. To plan to use a nonlinear filtering method for immediate orbit tasks requires more precise satellite orbit state parameters in a short time. Although the traditional extended Kalman filter (EKF method is widely used, its linear approximation of the drawbacks in dealing with nonlinear problems was especially evident, without compromising Kalman filter (unscented Kalman Filter, UKF. As a new nonlinear estimation method, it is measured at the estimated measurements on more and more applications. This paper will be the first study on UKF microsatellites in LEO orbit in real time, trying to explore the real-time precision orbit determination techniques. Through the preliminary simulation results, they show that, based on orbit mission requirements and conditions using UKF, they can satisfy the positioning accuracy and compute two indicators.

  13. Polar-Orbiting Satellite (POES) Images (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Visible and Infrared satellite imagery taken from camera systems or radiometer instruments on satellites in orbit around the poles. Satellite campaigns include...

  14. The Eccentric Satellites Problem: Comparing Milky Way Satellite Orbital Properties to Simulation Results (United States)

    Haji, Umran; Pryor, Carlton; Applebaum, Elaad; Brooks, Alyson


    We compare the orbital properties of the satellite galaxies of the Milky Way to those of satellites found in simulated Milky Way-like systems as a means of testing cosmological simulations of galaxy formation. The particular problem that we are investigating is a discrepancy in the distribution of orbital eccentricities. Previous studies of Milky Way-mass systems analyzed in a semi-analytic ΛCDM cosmological model have found that the satellites tend to have significantly larger fractions of their kinetic energy invested in radial motion with respect to their central galaxy than do the real-world Milky Way satellites. We analyze several high-resolution ("zoom-in") hydrodynamical simulations of Milky Way-mass galaxies and their associated satellite systems to investigate why previous works found Milky Way-like systems to be rare. We find a possible relationship between a quiescent galactic assembly history and a distribution of satellite kinematics resembling that of the Milky Way. This project has been supported by funding from National Science Foundation grant PHY-1560077.

  15. The role of scientific ballooning for exploration of the magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Block, L.P.; Lazutin, L.L.; Riedler, W.


    The magnetosphere is explored in situ by satellites, but measurements near the low altitude magnetospheric boundary by rockets, balloons and groundbased instruments play a very significant role. The geomagnetic field provides a frame with anisotropic wave and particle propagation effects, enabling remote sensing of the distant magnetosphere by means of balloon-borne and groundbased instruments. Examples will be given of successful studies, with coordinated satellite and balloon observations, of substorm, pulsation and other phenomena propagating both along and across the geomagnetic field. Continued efforts with sophisticated balloon-borne instrumentations should contribute substantially to our understanding of magnetospheric physics. (Author)

  16. Satellite switched FDMA advanced communication technology satellite program (United States)

    Atwood, S.; Higton, G. H.; Wood, K.; Kline, A.; Furiga, A.; Rausch, M.; Jan, Y.


    The satellite switched frequency division multiple access system provided a detailed system architecture that supports a point to point communication system for long haul voice, video and data traffic between small Earth terminals at Ka band frequencies at 30/20 GHz. A detailed system design is presented for the space segment, small terminal/trunking segment at network control segment for domestic traffic model A or B, each totaling 3.8 Gb/s of small terminal traffic and 6.2 Gb/s trunk traffic. The small terminal traffic (3.8 Gb/s) is emphasized, for the satellite router portion of the system design, which is a composite of thousands of Earth stations with digital traffic ranging from a single 32 Kb/s CVSD voice channel to thousands of channels containing voice, video and data with a data rate as high as 33 Mb/s. The system design concept presented, effectively optimizes a unique frequency and channelization plan for both traffic models A and B with minimum reorganization of the satellite payload transponder subsystem hardware design. The unique zoning concept allows multiple beam antennas while maximizing multiple carrier frequency reuse. Detailed hardware design estimates for an FDMA router (part of the satellite transponder subsystem) indicate a weight and dc power budget of 353 lbs, 195 watts for traffic model A and 498 lbs, 244 watts for traffic model B.

  17. Human artificial chromosomes with alpha satellite-based de novo centromeres show increased frequency of nondisjunction and anaphase lag. (United States)

    Rudd, M Katharine; Mays, Robert W; Schwartz, Stuart; Willard, Huntington F


    Human artificial chromosomes have been used to model requirements for human chromosome segregation and to explore the nature of sequences competent for centromere function. Normal human centromeres require specialized chromatin that consists of alpha satellite DNA complexed with epigenetically modified histones and centromere-specific proteins. While several types of alpha satellite DNA have been used to assemble de novo centromeres in artificial chromosome assays, the extent to which they fully recapitulate normal centromere function has not been explored. Here, we have used two kinds of alpha satellite DNA, DXZ1 (from the X chromosome) and D17Z1 (from chromosome 17), to generate human artificial chromosomes. Although artificial chromosomes are mitotically stable over many months in culture, when we examined their segregation in individual cell divisions using an anaphase assay, artificial chromosomes exhibited more segregation errors than natural human chromosomes (P artificial chromosomes missegregate over a fivefold range, the data suggest that variable centromeric DNA content and/or epigenetic assembly can influence the mitotic behavior of artificial chromosomes.

  18. Partnership via Satellite. (United States)

    Powell, Marie Clare


    Segments of the 1980 National Catholic Educational Association (NCEA) conference were to be telecast nationally by satellite. The author briefly explains the satellite transmission process and advises Catholic educators on how to pick up the broadcast through their local cable television system. (SJL)

  19. Role of light satellites in the high-resolution Earth observation domain (United States)

    Fishman, Moshe


    Current 'classic' applications using and exploring space based earth imagery are exclusive, narrow niche tailored, expensive and hardly accessible. On the other side new, inexpensive and widely used 'consumable' applications will be only developed concurrently to the availability of appropriate imagery allowing that process. A part of these applications can be imagined today, like WWW based 'virtual tourism' or news media, but the history of technological, cultural and entertainment evolution teaches us that most of future applications are unpredictable -- they emerge together with the platforms enabling their appearance. The only thing, which can be ultimately stated, is that the definitive condition for such applications is the availability of the proper imagery platform providing low cost, high resolution, large area, quick response, simple accessibility and quick dissemination of the raw picture. This platform is a constellation of Earth Observation satellites. Up to 1995 the Space Based High Resolution Earth Observation Domain was dominated by heavy, super-expensive and very inflexible birds. The launch of Israeli OFEQ-3 Satellite by MBT Division of Israel Aircraft Industries (IAI) marked the entrance to new era of light, smart and cheap Low Earth Orbited Imaging satellites. The Earth Resource Observation System (EROS) initiated by West Indian Space, is based on OFEQ class Satellites design and it is capable to gather visual data of Earth Surface both at high resolution and large image capacity. The main attributes, derived from its compact design, low weight and sophisticated logic and which convert the EROS Satellite to valuable and productive system, are discussed. The major advantages of Light Satellites in High Resolution Earth Observation Domain are presented and WIS guidelines featuring the next generation of LEO Imaging Systems are included.

  20. Appraising city-scale pollution monitoring capabilities of multi-satellite datasets using portable pollutant monitors (United States)

    Aliyu, Yahaya A.; Botai, Joel O.


    The retrieval characteristics for a city-scale satellite experiment was explored over a Nigerian city. The study evaluated carbon monoxide and aerosol contents in the city atmosphere. We utilized the MSA Altair 5× gas detector and CW-HAT200 particulate counter to investigate the city-scale monitoring capabilities of satellite pollution observing instruments; atmospheric infrared sounder (AIRS), measurement of pollution in the troposphere (MOPITT), moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS), multi-angle imaging spectroradiometer (MISR) and ozone monitoring instrument (OMI). To achieve this, we employed the Kriging interpolation technique to collocate the satellite pollutant estimations over 19 ground sample sites for the period of 2015-2016. The portable pollutant devices were validated using the WHO air filter sampling model. To determine the city-scale performance of the satellite datasets, performance indicators: correlation coefficient, model efficiency, reliability index and root mean square error, were adopted as measures. The comparative analysis revealed that MOPITT carbon monoxide (CO) and MODIS aerosol optical depth (AOD) estimates are the appropriate satellite measurements for ground equivalents in Zaria, Nigeria. Our findings were within the acceptable limits of similar studies that utilized reference stations. In conclusion, this study offers direction to Nigeria's air quality policy organizers about available alternative air pollution measurements for mitigating air quality effects within its limited resource environment.

  1. Satellite-based emission constraint for nitrogen oxides: Capability and uncertainty (United States)

    Lin, J.; McElroy, M. B.; Boersma, F.; Nielsen, C.; Zhao, Y.; Lei, Y.; Liu, Y.; Zhang, Q.; Liu, Z.; Liu, H.; Mao, J.; Zhuang, G.; Roozendael, M.; Martin, R.; Wang, P.; Spurr, R. J.; Sneep, M.; Stammes, P.; Clemer, K.; Irie, H.


    Vertical column densities (VCDs) of tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2) retrieved from satellite remote sensing have been employed widely to constrain emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx). A major strength of satellite-based emission constraint is analysis of emission trends and variability, while a crucial limitation is errors both in satellite NO2 data and in model simulations relating NOx emissions to NO2 columns. Through a series of studies, we have explored these aspects over China. We separate anthropogenic from natural sources of NOx by exploiting their different seasonality. We infer trends of NOx emissions in recent years and effects of a variety of socioeconomic events at different spatiotemporal scales including the general economic growth, global financial crisis, Chinese New Year, and Beijing Olympics. We further investigate the impact of growing NOx emissions on particulate matter (PM) pollution in China. As part of recent developments, we identify and correct errors in both satellite NO2 retrieval and model simulation that ultimately affect NOx emission constraint. We improve the treatments of aerosol optical effects, clouds and surface reflectance in the NO2 retrieval process, using as reference ground-based MAX-DOAS measurements to evaluate the improved retrieval results. We analyze the sensitivity of simulated NO2 to errors in the model representation of major meteorological and chemical processes with a subsequent correction of model bias. Future studies will implement these improvements to re-constrain NOx emissions.

  2. A simple and efficient algorithm to estimate daily global solar radiation from geostationary satellite data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Ning; Qin, Jun; Yang, Kun; Sun, Jiulin


    Surface global solar radiation (GSR) is the primary renewable energy in nature. Geostationary satellite data are used to map GSR in many inversion algorithms in which ground GSR measurements merely serve to validate the satellite retrievals. In this study, a simple algorithm with artificial neural network (ANN) modeling is proposed to explore the non-linear physical relationship between ground daily GSR measurements and Multi-functional Transport Satellite (MTSAT) all-channel observations in an effort to fully exploit information contained in both data sets. Singular value decomposition is implemented to extract the principal signals from satellite data and a novel method is applied to enhance ANN performance at high altitude. A three-layer feed-forward ANN model is trained with one year of daily GSR measurements at ten ground sites. This trained ANN is then used to map continuous daily GSR for two years, and its performance is validated at all 83 ground sites in China. The evaluation result demonstrates that this algorithm can quickly and efficiently build the ANN model that estimates daily GSR from geostationary satellite data with good accuracy in both space and time. -- Highlights: → A simple and efficient algorithm to estimate GSR from geostationary satellite data. → ANN model fully exploits both the information from satellite and ground measurements. → Good performance of the ANN model is comparable to that of the classical models. → Surface elevation and infrared information enhance GSR inversion.

  3. Ultraviolet, optical and infra-red observations of the Wolf-Rayet contact-eclipsing binary CQ Cephei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stickland, D.J.; Budding, E.; Howarth, I.D.; Willis, A.J.; Jameson, R.; Sherrington, M.R.; Bromage, G.E.; Burton, W.M.


    The present study on wolf-rayet contact-eclipsing binary CQ Cephei is an attempt to combine the best observational previous results with an extensive set of UV data from the IUE Satellite and with new IR photometric data. The orbital variations of the CQ Cep system are investigated as well as the secondary component. The early studies of CQ Cep are reviewed, and the observations used in the present analysis described. Continuum energy distribution, interstellar extinction, photometric variability, light curves, time dependence of the emission and absorption line spectra and models for the CQ Cept system are discussed. (U.K.)

  4. An analysis of Jupiter data from the RAE-1 satellite (United States)

    Carr, T. D.


    The analysis of Radio Astronomy Explorer Satellite data are presented. Radio bursts from Jupiter are reported in the frequency range 4700 KHz to 45 KHz. Strong correlations with lo were found at 4700, 3930, and 2200 KHz, while an equally strong Europa effect was observed at 1300, 900, and 700 KHz. Histograms indicating the relative probability and the successful identification of Jupiter activity were plotted, using automatic computer and visual search techniques.

  5. Framework of Jitter Detection and Compensation for High Resolution Satellites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohua Tong


    Full Text Available Attitude jitter is a common phenomenon in the application of high resolution satellites, which may result in large errors of geo-positioning and mapping accuracy. Therefore, it is critical to detect and compensate attitude jitter to explore the full geometric potential of high resolution satellites. In this paper, a framework of jitter detection and compensation for high resolution satellites is proposed and some preliminary investigation is performed. Three methods for jitter detection are presented as follows. (1 The first one is based on multispectral images using parallax between two different bands in the image; (2 The second is based on stereo images using rational polynomial coefficients (RPCs; (3 The third is based on panchromatic images employing orthorectification processing. Based on the calculated parallax maps, the frequency and amplitude of the detected jitter are obtained. Subsequently, two approaches for jitter compensation are conducted. (1 The first one is to conduct the compensation on image, which uses the derived parallax observations for resampling; (2 The second is to conduct the compensation on attitude data, which treats the influence of jitter on attitude as correction of charge-coupled device (CCD viewing angles. Experiments with images from several satellites, such as ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiaometer, LRO (Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter and ZY-3 (ZiYuan-3 demonstrate the promising performance and feasibility of the proposed framework.

  6. Climate Model Diagnostic and Evaluation: With a Focus on Satellite Observations (United States)

    Waliser, Duane


    Each year, we host a summer school that brings together the next generation of climate scientists - about 30 graduate students and postdocs from around the world - to engage with premier climate scientists from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and elsewhere. Our yearly summer school focuses on topics on the leading edge of climate science research. Our inaugural summer school, held in 2011, was on the topic of "Using Satellite Observations to Advance Climate Models," and enabled students to explore how satellite observations can be used to evaluate and improve climate models. Speakers included climate experts from both NASA and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), who provided updates on climate model diagnostics and evaluation and remote sensing of the planet. Details of the next summer school will be posted here in due course.

  7. Spectrum and power allocation in cognitive multi-beam satellite communications with flexible satellite payloads (United States)

    Liu, Zhihui; Wang, Haitao; Dong, Tao; Yin, Jie; Zhang, Tingting; Guo, Hui; Li, Dequan


    In this paper, the cognitive multi-beam satellite system, i.e., two satellite networks coexist through underlay spectrum sharing, is studied, and the power and spectrum allocation method is employed for interference control and throughput maximization. Specifically, the multi-beam satellite with flexible payload reuses the authorized spectrum of the primary satellite, adjusting its transmission band as well as power for each beam to limit its interference on the primary satellite below the prescribed threshold and maximize its own achievable rate. This power and spectrum allocation problem is formulated as a mixed nonconvex programming. For effective solving, we first introduce the concept of signal to leakage plus noise ratio (SLNR) to decouple multiple transmit power variables in the both objective and constraint, and then propose a heuristic algorithm to assign spectrum sub-bands. After that, a stepwise plus slice-wise algorithm is proposed to implement the discrete power allocation. Finally, simulation results show that adopting cognitive technology can improve spectrum efficiency of the satellite communication.

  8. Assessing exergy of forest ecosystem using airborne and satellite data (United States)

    Brovkina, Olga; Fabianek, Tomas; Lukes, Petr; Zemek, Frantisek


    Interactions of the energy flows of forest ecosystem with environment are formed by a suite of forest structure, functions and pathways of self-control. According to recent thermodynamic theory for open systems, concept of exergy of solar radiation has been applied to estimate energy consumptions on evapotranspiration and biomass production in forest ecosystem or to indicate forest decline and human land use impact on ecosystem stability. However, most of the methods for exergy estimation in forest ecosystem is not stable and its physical meaning remains on the surface. This study was aimed to contribute to understanding the exergy of forest ecosystem using combination of remote sensing (RS) and eddy covariance technologies, specifically: 1/to explore exergy of solar radiation depending on structure of solar spectrum (number of spectral bands of RS data), and 2/to explore the relationship between exergy and flux tower eddy covariance measurements. Two study forest sites were located in Western Beskids in the Czech Republic. The first site was dominated by young Norway spruce, the second site was dominated by mature European beech. Airborne hyperspectral data in VNIR, SWIR and TIR spectral regions were acquired 9 times for study sites during a vegetation periods in 2015-2016. Radiometric, geometric and atmospheric corrections of airborne data were performed. Satellite multispectral Landsat-8 cloud-free 21 scenes were downloaded and atmospherically corrected for the period from April to November 2015-2016. Evapotranspiration and latent heat fluxes were collected from operating flux towers located on study sites according to date and time of remote sensing data acquisition. Exergy was calculated for each satellite and airborne scene using various combinations of spectral bands as: Ex=E^out (K+ln E^out/E^in )+R, where Ein is the incoming solar energy, Eout is the reflected solar energy, R = Ein-Eout is absorbed energy, Eout/Ein is albedo and K is the Kullback increment

  9. Interim Service ISDN Satellite (ISIS) hardware experiment development for advanced ISDN satellite designs and experiments (United States)

    Pepin, Gerard R.


    The Interim Service Integrated Service Digital Network (ISDN) Satellite (ISIS) Hardware Experiment Development for Advanced Satellite Designs describes the development of the ISDN Satellite Terminal Adapter (ISTA) capable of translating ISDN protocol traffic into Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) signals for use by a communications satellite. The ISTA connects the Type 1 Network Termination (NT1) via the U-interface on the line termination side of the CPE to the RS-499 interface for satellite uplink. The same ISTA converts in the opposite direction the RS-499 to U-interface data with a simple switch setting.

  10. Interim Service ISDN Satellite (ISIS) hardware experiment design for advanced ISDN satellite design and experiments (United States)

    Pepin, Gerard R.


    The Interim Service Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) Satellite (ISIS) Hardware Experiment Design for Advanced Satellite Designs describes the design of the ISDN Satellite Terminal Adapter (ISTA) capable of translating ISDN protocol traffic into time division multiple access (TDMA) signals for use by a communications satellite. The ISTA connects the Type 1 Network Termination (NT1) via the U-interface on the line termination side of the CPE to the V.35 interface for satellite uplink. The same ISTA converts in the opposite direction the V.35 to U-interface data with a simple switch setting.

  11. The Skeletal Muscle Satellite Cell (United States)


    The skeletal muscle satellite cell was first described and named based on its anatomic location between the myofiber plasma and basement membranes. In 1961, two independent studies by Alexander Mauro and Bernard Katz provided the first electron microscopic descriptions of satellite cells in frog and rat muscles. These cells were soon detected in other vertebrates and acquired candidacy as the source of myogenic cells needed for myofiber growth and repair throughout life. Cultures of isolated myofibers and, subsequently, transplantation of single myofibers demonstrated that satellite cells were myogenic progenitors. More recently, satellite cells were redefined as myogenic stem cells given their ability to self-renew in addition to producing differentiated progeny. Identification of distinctively expressed molecular markers, in particular Pax7, has facilitated detection of satellite cells using light microscopy. Notwithstanding the remarkable progress made since the discovery of satellite cells, researchers have looked for alternative cells with myogenic capacity that can potentially be used for whole body cell-based therapy of skeletal muscle. Yet, new studies show that inducible ablation of satellite cells in adult muscle impairs myofiber regeneration. Thus, on the 50th anniversary since its discovery, the satellite cell’s indispensable role in muscle repair has been reaffirmed. PMID:22147605

  12. Non-LTE model atmosphere analysis of Nova Cygni 1992 (United States)

    Hauschildt, P. H.; Starrfield, S.; Austin, S.; Wagner, R. M.; Shore, S. N.; Sonneborn, G.


    We use spherically symmetric non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (non-LTE), line-blanketed, expanding model atmospheres to analyze the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) and optical spectra of Nova Cygni 1992 during the early phases of its outburst. We find that the first IUE spectrum obtained just after discovery on 1992 February 20, is best reproduced by a model atmosphere with a steep density gradient and homologous expansion, whereas the IUE and optical spectra obtained on February 24 show an extended, optically thick, wind structure. Therefore, we distinguish two phases of the early evolution of the nova photosphere: the initial, rapid, 'fireball' phase and the subsequent, much longer, optically thick 'wind' phase. The importance of line-blanketing in nova spectra is demonstrated. Our preliminary abundance analysis implies that hydrogen is depeleted in the ejecta, corresponding to abundance enhancements of Fe by a factor of approximately 2 and of CNO by more than a factor of 10 when compared to solar abundances. The synthetic spectra reproduce both the observed pseudo-continua as well as most of the observed features from the UV to the optical spectral range and demonstrate the importance of obtaining nearly simultaneous UV and optical spectra for performing accurate analyses of expanding stellar atmospheres (for both novae and supernovae).

  13. Japan’s efforts to promote global health using satellite remote sensing data from the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency for prediction of infectious diseases and air quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamotsu Igarashi


    Full Text Available In this paper we review the status of new applications research of the Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA for global health promotion using information derived from Earth observation data by satellites in cooperation with inter-disciplinary collaborators. Current research effort at JAXA to promote global public health is focused primarily on the use of remote sensing to address two themes: (i prediction models for malaria and cholera in Kenya, Africa; and (ii air quality assessment of small, particulate matter (PM2.5, nitrogen dioxide (NO2 and ozone (O3. Respiratory and cardivascular diseases constitute cross-boundary public health risk issues on a global scale. The authors report here on results of current of a collaborative research to call attention to the need to take preventive measures against threats to public health using newly arising remote sensing information from space.

  14. Telelibrary: Library Services via Satellite. (United States)

    Liu, Rosa


    Investigates the provision of library services via satellite, explains briefly the operation and advantages of communication satellites, and discusses the various telecommunications equipment and services which, when coupled with satellite transmission, will enhance library activities. Demand trend projections for telecommunications services…

  15. Preparing Precipitation Data Access, Value-added Services and Scientific Exploration Tools for the Integrated Multi-satellitE Retrievals for GPM (IMERG) (United States)

    Ostrenga, D.; Liu, Z.; Kempler, S. J.; Vollmer, B.; Teng, W. L.


    The Precipitation Data and Information Services Center (PDISC) ( or google: NASA PDISC), located at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Earth Sciences (GES) Data and Information Services Center (DISC), is home of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) data archive. For over 15 years, the GES DISC has served not only TRMM, but also other space-based, airborne-based, field campaign and ground-based precipitation data products to the precipitation community and other disciplinary communities as well. The TRMM Multi-Satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA) products are the most popular products in the TRMM product family in terms of data download and access through Mirador, the GES-DISC Interactive Online Visualization ANd aNalysis Infrastructure (Giovanni) and other services. The next generation of TMPA, the Integrated Multi-satellitE Retrievals for GPM (IMERG) to be released in 2014 after the launch of GPM, will be significantly improved in terms of spatial and temporal resolutions. To better serve the user community, we are preparing data services and samples are listed below. To enable scientific exploration of Earth science data products without going through complicated and often time consuming processes, such as data downloading, data processing, etc., the GES DISC has developed Giovanni in consultation with members of the user community, requesting quick search, subset, analysis and display capabilities for their specific data of interest. For example, the TRMM Online Visualization and Analysis System (TOVAS, has proven extremely popular, especially as additional datasets have been added upon request. Giovanni will continue to evolve to accommodate GPM data and the multi-sensor data inter-comparisons that will be sure to follow. Additional PDISC tool and service capabilities being adapted for GPM data include: An on-line PDISC Portal (includes user guide, etc

  16. Rich client data exploration and research prototyping for NOAA (United States)

    Grossberg, Michael; Gladkova, Irina; Guch, Ingrid; Alabi, Paul; Shahriar, Fazlul; Bonev, George; Aizenman, Hannah


    Data from satellites and model simulations is increasing exponentially as observations and model computing power improve rapidly. Not only is technology producing more data, but it often comes from sources all over the world. Researchers and scientists who must collaborate are also located globally. This work presents a software design and technologies which will make it possible for groups of researchers to explore large data sets visually together without the need to download these data sets locally. The design will also make it possible to exploit high performance computing remotely and transparently to analyze and explore large data sets. Computer power, high quality sensing, and data storage capacity have improved at a rate that outstrips our ability to develop software applications that exploit these resources. It is impractical for NOAA scientists to download all of the satellite and model data that may be relevant to a given problem and the computing environments available to a given researcher range from supercomputers to only a web browser. The size and volume of satellite and model data are increasing exponentially. There are at least 50 multisensor satellite platforms collecting Earth science data. On the ground and in the sea there are sensor networks, as well as networks of ground based radar stations, producing a rich real-time stream of data. This new wealth of data would have limited use were it not for the arrival of large-scale high-performance computation provided by parallel computers, clusters, grids, and clouds. With these computational resources and vast archives available, it is now possible to analyze subtle relationships which are global, multi-modal and cut across many data sources. Researchers, educators, and even the general public, need tools to access, discover, and use vast data center archives and high performance computing through a simple yet flexible interface.

  17. Activities of Canadian Satellite Communications, Inc. (United States)


    Canadian Satellite Communications (Cancom) has as its core business the provision of television and radio signals to cable systems in Canada, with the objective of making affordable broadcast signals available to remote and/or small communities. Cancom also provides direct-to-home services to backyard receiving dishes, as well as satellite digital data business communications services, satellite business television, and satellite network services. Its business communication services range from satellite links for big-city businesses with small branch operations located far from major centers, to a mobile messaging and tracking system for the trucking industry. Revenues in 1992 totalled $48,212,000 and net income was just over $7 million. Cancom bought 10 percent interest in Leosat Corp. of Washington, DC, who are seeking approval to operate a position locator network from low-orbit satellites. Cancom has also become a partner in SovCan Star Satellite Communications Inc., which will build an international satellite system in partnership with Russia. The first satellite in this east-west business network will be placed in a Russian orbital slot over the Atlantic by 1996, and a second satellite will follow for the Pacific region. This annual report of Cancom's activities for 1992 includes financial statements and a six year financial review.

  18. Congestion control and routing over satellite networks (United States)

    Cao, Jinhua

    Satellite networks and transmissions find their application in fields of computer communications, telephone communications, television broadcasting, transportation, space situational awareness systems and so on. This thesis mainly focuses on two networking issues affecting satellite networking: network congestion control and network routing optimization. Congestion, which leads to long queueing delays, packet losses or both, is a networking problem that has drawn the attention of many researchers. The goal of congestion control mechanisms is to ensure high bandwidth utilization while avoiding network congestion by regulating the rate at which traffic sources inject packets into a network. In this thesis, we propose a stable congestion controller using data-driven, safe switching control theory to improve the dynamic performance of satellite Transmission Control Protocol/Active Queue Management (TCP/AQM) networks. First, the stable region of the Proportional-Integral (PI) parameters for a nominal model is explored. Then, a PI controller, whose parameters are adaptively tuned by switching among members of a given candidate set, using observed plant data, is presented and compared with some classical AQM policy examples, such as Random Early Detection (RED) and fixed PI control. A new cost detectable switching law with an interval cost function switching algorithm, which improves the performance and also saves the computational cost, is developed and compared with a law commonly used in the switching control literature. Finite-gain stability of the system is proved. A fuzzy logic PI controller is incorporated as a special candidate to achieve good performance at all nominal points with the available set of candidate controllers. Simulations are presented to validate the theory. An effocient routing algorithm plays a key role in optimizing network resources. In this thesis, we briefly analyze Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellite networks, review the Cross Entropy (CE

  19. Satellite remote sensing for estimating leaf area index, FPAR and primary production. A literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boresjoe Bronge, Laine


    Land vegetation is a critical component of several biogeochemical cycles that have become the focus of concerted international research effort. Most ecosystem productivity models, carbon budget models, and global models of climate, hydrology and biogeochemistry require vegetation parameters to calculate land surface photosynthesis, evapotranspiration and net primary production. Therefore, accurate estimates of vegetation parameters are increasingly important in the carbon cycle, the energy balance and in environmental impact assessment studies. The possibility of quantitatively estimating vegetation parameters of importance in this context using satellite data has been explored by numerous papers dealing with the subject. This report gives a summary of the present status and applicability of satellite remote sensing for estimating vegetation productivity by using vegetation index for calculating leaf area index (LAI) and fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (FPAR). Some possible approaches for use of satellite data for estimating LAI, FPAR and net primary production (NPP) on a local scale are suggested. Recommendations for continued work in the Forsmark and Oskarshamn investigation areas, where vegetation data and NDVI-images based on satellite data have been produced, are also given

  20. Satellite remote sensing for estimating leaf area index, FPAR and primary production. A literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boresjoe Bronge, Laine [SwedPower AB, Stockholm (Sweden)


    Land vegetation is a critical component of several biogeochemical cycles that have become the focus of concerted international research effort. Most ecosystem productivity models, carbon budget models, and global models of climate, hydrology and biogeochemistry require vegetation parameters to calculate land surface photosynthesis, evapotranspiration and net primary production. Therefore, accurate estimates of vegetation parameters are increasingly important in the carbon cycle, the energy balance and in environmental impact assessment studies. The possibility of quantitatively estimating vegetation parameters of importance in this context using satellite data has been explored by numerous papers dealing with the subject. This report gives a summary of the present status and applicability of satellite remote sensing for estimating vegetation productivity by using vegetation index for calculating leaf area index (LAI) and fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (FPAR). Some possible approaches for use of satellite data for estimating LAI, FPAR and net primary production (NPP) on a local scale are suggested. Recommendations for continued work in the Forsmark and Oskarshamn investigation areas, where vegetation data and NDVI-images based on satellite data have been produced, are also given.

  1. Security Concepts for Satellite Links (United States)

    Tobehn, C.; Penné, B.; Rathje, R.; Weigl, A.; Gorecki, Ch.; Michalik, H.


    The high costs to develop, launch and maintain a satellite network makes protecting the assets imperative. Attacks may be passive such as eavesdropping on the payload data. More serious threat are active attacks that try to gain control of the satellite, which may lead to the total lost of the satellite asset. To counter these threats, new satellite and ground systems are using cryptographic technologies to provide a range of services: confidentiality, entity & message authentication, and data integrity. Additionally, key management cryptographic services are required to support these services. This paper describes the key points of current satellite control and operations, that are authentication of the access to the satellite TMTC link and encryption of security relevant TM/TC data. For payload data management the key points are multi-user ground station access and high data rates both requiring frequent updates and uploads of keys with the corresponding key management methods. For secure satellite management authentication & key negotiation algorithms as HMAC-RIPEMD160, EC- DSA and EC-DH are used. Encryption of data uses algorithms as IDEA, AES, Triple-DES, or other. A channel coding and encryption unit for payload data provides download data rates up to Nx250 Mbps. The presented concepts are based on our experience and heritage of the security systems for all German MOD satellite projects (SATCOMBw2, SAR-Lupe multi- satellite system and German-French SAR-Lupe-Helios- II systems inter-operability) as well as for further international (KOMPSAT-II Payload data link system) and ESA activities (TMTC security and GMES).

  2. Solar Electric Propulsion Triple-Satellite-Aided Capture With Mars Flyby (United States)

    Patrick, Sean

    Triple-Satellite-aided-capture sequences use gravity-assists at three of Jupiter's four massive Galilean moons to reduce the DeltaV required to enter into Jupiter orbit. A triple-satellite-aided capture at Callisto, Ganymede, and Io is proposed to capture a SEP spacecraft into Jupiter orbit from an interplanetary Earth-Jupiter trajectory that employs low-thrust maneuvers. The principal advantage of this method is that it combines the ISP efficiency of ion propulsion with nearly impulsive but propellant-free gravity assists. For this thesis, two main chapters are devoted to the exploration of low-thrust triple-flyby capture trajectories. Specifically, the design and optimization of these trajectories are explored heavily. The first chapter explores the design of two solar electric propulsion (SEP), low-thrust trajectories developed using the JPL's MALTO software. The two trajectories combined represent a full Earth to Jupiter capture split into a heliocentric Earth to Jupiter Sphere of Influence (SOI) trajectory and a Joviocentric capture trajectory. The Joviocentric trajectory makes use of gravity assist flybys of Callisto, Ganymede, and Io to capture into Jupiter orbit with a period of 106.3 days. Following this, in chapter two, three more SEP low-thrust trajectories were developed based upon those in chapter one. These trajectories, devised using the high-fidelity Mystic software, also developed by JPL, improve upon the original trajectories developed in chapter one. Here, the developed trajectories are each three separate, full Earth to Jupiter capture orbits. As in chapter one, a Mars gravity assist is used to augment the heliocentric trajectories. Gravity-assist flybys of Callisto, Ganymede, and Io or Europa are used to capture into Jupiter Orbit. With between 89.8 and 137.2-day periods, the orbits developed in chapters one and two are shorter than most Jupiter capture orbits achieved using low-thrust propulsion techniques. Finally, chapter 3 presents an

  3. JPSS Preparations at the Satellite Proving Ground for Marine, Precipitation, and Satellite Analysis (United States)

    Folmer, M. J.; Berndt, E.; Clark, J.; Orrison, A.; Kibler, J.; Sienkiewicz, J. M.; Nelson, J. A., Jr.; Goldberg, M.


    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Satellite Proving Ground (PG) for Marine, Precipitation, and Satellite Analysis (MPS) has been demonstrating and evaluating Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) products along with other polar-orbiting satellite platforms in preparation for the Joint Polar Satellite System - 1 (JPSS-1) launch in March 2017. The first S-NPP imagery was made available to the MPS PG during the evolution of Hurricane Sandy in October 2012 and has since been popular in operations. Since this event the MPS PG Satellite Liaison has been working with forecasters on ways to integrate single-channel and multispectral imagery from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS), the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), and the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR)into operations to complement numerical weather prediction and geostationary satellite savvy National Weather Service (NWS) National Centers. Additional unique products have been introduced to operations to address specific forecast challenges, including the Cooperative Institute for Research in the Atmosphere (CIRA) Layered Precipitable Water, the National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service (NESDIS) Snowfall Rate product, NOAA Unique Combined Atmospheric Processing System (NUCAPS) Soundings, ozone products from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), Cross-track Infrared Sounder/Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (CrIS/ATMS), and Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI). In addition, new satellite domains have been created to provide forecasters at the NWS Ocean Prediction Center and Weather Prediction Center with better quality imagery at high latitudes. This has led to research projects that are addressing forecast challenges such as tropical to extratropical transition and explosive cyclogenesis. This presentation will provide examples of how the MPS PG has been introducing and integrating

  4. Satellite services system overview (United States)

    Rysavy, G.


    The benefits of a satellite services system and the basic needs of the Space Transportation System to have improved satellite service capability are identified. Specific required servicing equipment are discussed in terms of their technology development status and their operative functions. Concepts include maneuverable television systems, extravehicular maneuvering unit, orbiter exterior lighting, satellite holding and positioning aid, fluid transfer equipment, end effectors for the remote manipulator system, teleoperator maneuvering system, and hand and power tools.

  5. Mobility management in satellite networks (United States)

    Johanson, Gary A.


    This paper addresses the methods used or proposed for use in multi-beam and/or multi-satellite networks designed to provide Mobile Satellite Services (MSS). Specific topics include beam crossover in the North American Mobile Satellite (MSAT) system as well as registration and live call hand-off for a multi-regional geosynchronous (GEO) satellite based system and a global coverage Low Earth Orbiting (LEO) system. In the MSAT system, the individual satellite beams cover very large geographic areas so the need for live call hand-off was not anticipated. This paper discusses the methods used to keep track of the beam location of the users so that incoming call announcements or other messages may be directed to them. Proposed new GEO systems with large numbers of beams will provide much smaller geographic coverage in individual beams and thus the need arises to keep track of the user's location as well as to provide live call hand-off as the user traverses from beam to beam. This situation also occurs in proposed LEO systems where the problems are worsened by the need for satellite to satellite hand-off as well as beam to beam hand-off within a single satellite. The paper discusses methods to accomplish these handoffs and proposes system architectures to address the various hand-off scenarios.

  6. Satellite Imagery Assisted Road-Based Visual Navigation System (United States)

    Volkova, A.; Gibbens, P. W.


    There is a growing demand for unmanned aerial systems as autonomous surveillance, exploration and remote sensing solutions. Among the key concerns for robust operation of these systems is the need to reliably navigate the environment without reliance on global navigation satellite system (GNSS). This is of particular concern in Defence circles, but is also a major safety issue for commercial operations. In these circumstances, the aircraft needs to navigate relying only on information from on-board passive sensors such as digital cameras. An autonomous feature-based visual system presented in this work offers a novel integral approach to the modelling and registration of visual features that responds to the specific needs of the navigation system. It detects visual features from Google Earth* build a feature database. The same algorithm then detects features in an on-board cameras video stream. On one level this serves to localise the vehicle relative to the environment using Simultaneous Localisation and Mapping (SLAM). On a second level it correlates them with the database to localise the vehicle with respect to the inertial frame. The performance of the presented visual navigation system was compared using the satellite imagery from different years. Based on comparison results, an analysis of the effects of seasonal, structural and qualitative changes of the imagery source on the performance of the navigation algorithm is presented. * The algorithm is independent of the source of satellite imagery and another provider can be used

  7. GPS Satellite Simulation Facility (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The GPS satellite simulation facility consists of a GPS satellite simulator controlled by either a Silicon Graphics Origin 2000 or PC depending upon unit under test...

  8. DS-CDMA satellite diversity reception for personal satellite communication: Downlink performance analysis (United States)

    DeGaudenzi, Riccardo; Giannetti, Filippo


    The downlink of a satellite-mobile personal communication system employing power-controlled Direct Sequence Code Division Multiple Access (DS-CDMA) and exploiting satellite-diversity is analyzed and its performance compared with a more traditional communication system utilizing single satellite reception. The analytical model developed has been thoroughly validated by means of extensive Monte Carlo computer simulations. It is shown how the capacity gain provided by diversity reception shrinks considerably in the presence of increasing traffic or in the case of light shadowing conditions. Moreover, the quantitative results tend to indicate that to combat system capacity reduction due to intra-system interference, no more than two satellites shall be active over the same region. To achieve higher system capacity, differently from terrestrial cellular systems, Multi-User Detection (MUD) techniques are likely to be required in the mobile user terminal, thus considerably increasing its complexity.

  9. Satellite-Based Sunshine Duration for Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodo Ahrens


    Full Text Available In this study, two different methods were applied to derive daily and monthly sunshine duration based on high-resolution satellite products provided by the European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT Satellite Application Facility on Climate Monitoring using data from Meteosat Second Generation (MSG SEVIRI (Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager. The satellite products were either hourly cloud type or hourly surface incoming direct radiation. The satellite sunshine duration estimates were not found to be significantly different using the native 15-minute temporal resolution of SEVIRI. The satellite-based sunshine duration products give additional spatial information over the European continent compared with equivalent in situ-based products. An evaluation of the satellite sunshine duration by product intercomparison and against station measurements was carried out to determine their accuracy. The satellite data were found to be within ±1 h/day compared to high-quality Baseline Surface Radiation Network or surface synoptic observations (SYNOP station measurements. The satellite-based products differ more over the oceans than over land, mainly because of the treatment of fractional clouds in the cloud type-based sunshine duration product. This paper presents the methods used to derive the satellite sunshine duration products and the performance of the different retrievals. The main benefits and disadvantages compared to station-based products are also discussed.

  10. An interdisciplinary analysis of multispectral satellite data for selected cover types in the Colorado Mountains, using automatic data processing techniques. [geological lineaments and mineral exploration (United States)

    Hoffer, R. M. (Principal Investigator)


    The author has identified the following significant results. One capability which has been recognized by many geologists working with space photography is the ability to see linear features and alinements which were previously not apparent. To the exploration geologist, major lineaments seen on satellite images are of particular interest. A portion of ERTS-1 frame 1407-17193 (3 Sept. 1973) was used for mapping lineaments and producing an iso-lineament intersection map. Skylab photography over the area of prime area was not useable due to snow cover. Once the lineaments were mapped, a grid with 2.5 km spacing was overlayed on the map and the lineament intersections occurring within each grid square were counted and the number plotted in the center of the grid square. These numbers were then contoured producing a contour map of equal lineament intersection. It is believed that the areas of high intersection concentration would be the most favorable area for ore mineralization if favorable host rocks are also present. These highly fractured areas would act as conduits for carrying the ore forming solutions to the site of deposition in a favorable host rock. Two of the six areas of high intersection concentration are over areas of present or past mining camps and small claims are known to exist near the others. These would be prime target areas for future mineral exploration.

  11. Encryption protection for communication satellites (United States)

    Sood, D. R.; Hoernig, O. W., Jr.

    In connection with the growing importance of the commercial communication satellite systems and the introduction of new technological developments, users and operators of these systems become increasingly concerned with aspects of security. The user community is concerned with maintaining confidentiality and integrity of the information being transmitted over the satellite links, while the satellite operators are concerned about the safety of their assets in space. In response to these concerns, the commercial satellite operators are now taking steps to protect the communication information and the satellites. Thus, communication information is being protected by end-to-end encryption of the customer communication traffic. Attention is given to the selection of the NBS DES algorithm, the command protection systems, and the communication protection systems.

  12. Satellite Communications Industry (United States)


    Ariane $loom SAJAC 1 Hughes Satellite Japan 06/94 $150m SAJAC 2 Hughes Satellite Japan -- (spare) $150m SatcomHl GE GE Americom /95 $50m SOLIDARIDAD ...1 Hughes SCT (Mexico) 11/93 Ariane $loom SOLIDARIDAD 2 Hughes SCT (Mexico) /94 $loom Superbird Al Loral Space Com Gp (Jap) 11/92 Ariane $175m

  13. Solar Power Satellites

    CERN Document Server

    Flournoy, Don M


    Communication satellites are a $144 billion industry. Is there any space-based industry that could possibly beat that market? 'Solar Power Satellites' shows why and how the space satellite industry will soon begin expanding its market from relaying signals to Earth to generating energy in space and delivering it to the ground as electricity. In all industrialized nations, energy demand is growing exponentially. In the developing world, the need for energy is as basic as food and water. The Sun's energy is available everywhere, and it is non-polluting. As business plans demonstrate its technical feasibility, commercial potential, and environmental acceptability, every country on Earth will look to space for the power it needs.

  14. Geostationary satellites collocation

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Hengnian


    Geostationary Satellites Collocation aims to find solutions for deploying a safe and reliable collocation control. Focusing on the orbital perturbation analysis, the mathematical foundations for orbit and control of the geostationary satellite are summarized. The mathematical and physical principle of orbital maneuver and collocation strategies for multi geostationary satellites sharing with the same dead band is also stressed. Moreover, the book presents some applications using the above algorithms and mathematical models to help readers master the corrective method for planning station keeping maneuvers. Engineers and scientists in the fields of aerospace technology and space science can benefit from this book. Hengnian Li is the Deputy Director of State Key Laboratory of Astronautic Dynamics, China.

  15. Errors of Mean Dynamic Topography and Geostrophic Current Estimates in China's Marginal Seas from GOCE and Satellite Altimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jin, Shuanggen; Feng, Guiping; Andersen, Ole Baltazar


    and geostrophic current estimates from satellite gravimetry and altimetry are investigated and evaluated in China's marginal seas. The cumulative error in MDT from GOCE is reduced from 22.75 to 9.89 cm when compared to the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) gravity field model ITG-Grace2010 results......The Gravity Field and Steady-State Ocean Circulation Explorer (GOCE) and satellite altimetry can provide very detailed and accurate estimates of the mean dynamic topography (MDT) and geostrophic currents in China's marginal seas, such as, the newest high-resolution GOCE gravity field model GO......-CONS-GCF-2-TIM-R4 and the new Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales mean sea surface model MSS_CNES_CLS_11 from satellite altimetry. However, errors and uncertainties of MDT and geostrophic current estimates from satellite observations are not generally quantified. In this paper, errors and uncertainties of MDT...

  16. Muscle satellite cell heterogeneity and self-renewal (United States)

    Motohashi, Norio; Asakura, Atsushi


    Adult skeletal muscle possesses extraordinary regeneration capacities. After muscle injury or exercise, large numbers of newly formed muscle fibers are generated within a week as a result of expansion and differentiation of a self-renewing pool of muscle stem cells termed muscle satellite cells. Normally, satellite cells are mitotically quiescent and reside beneath the basal lamina of muscle fibers. Upon regeneration, satellite cells are activated, and give rise to daughter myogenic precursor cells. After several rounds of proliferation, these myogenic precursor cells contribute to the formation of new muscle fibers. During cell division, a minor population of myogenic precursor cells returns to quiescent satellite cells as a self-renewal process. Currently, accumulating evidence has revealed the essential roles of satellite cells in muscle regeneration and the regulatory mechanisms, while it still remains to be elucidated how satellite cell self-renewal is molecularly regulated and how satellite cells are important in aging and diseased muscle. The number of satellite cells is decreased due to the changing niche during ageing, resulting in attenuation of muscle regeneration capacity. Additionally, in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) patients, the loss of satellite cell regenerative capacity and decreased satellite cell number due to continuous needs for satellite cells lead to progressive muscle weakness with chronic degeneration. Thus, it is necessary to replenish muscle satellite cells continuously. This review outlines recent findings regarding satellite cell heterogeneity, asymmetric division and molecular mechanisms in satellite cell self-renewal which is crucial for maintenance of satellite cells as a muscle stem cell pool throughout life. In addition, we discuss roles in the stem cell niche for satellite cell maintenance, as well as related cell therapies for approaching treatment of DMD. PMID:25364710

  17. Muscle Satellite Cell Heterogeneity and Self-Renewal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norio eMotohashi


    Full Text Available Adult skeletal muscle possesses extraordinary regeneration capacities. After muscle injury or exercise, large numbers of newly formed muscle fibers are generated within a week as a result of expansion and differentiation of a self-renewing pool of muscle stem cells termed muscle satellite cells. Normally, satellite cells are mitotically quiescent and reside beneath the basal lamina of muscle fibers. Upon regeneration, satellite cells are activated, and give rise to daughter myogenic precursor cells. After several rounds of proliferation, these myogenic precursor cells contribute to the formation of new muscle fibers. During cell division, a minor population of myogenic precursor cells returns to quiescent satellite cells as a self-renewal process. Currently, accumulating evidence has revealed the essential roles of satellite cells in muscle regeneration and the regulatory mechanisms, while it still remains to be elucidated how satellite cell self-renewal is molecularly regulated and how satellite cells are important in aging and diseased muscle. The number of satellite cells is decreased due to the changing niche during ageing, resulting in attenuation of muscle regeneration capacity. Additionally, in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD patients, the loss of satellite cell regenerative capacity and decreased satellite cell number due to continuous needs for satellite cells lead to progressive muscle weakness with chronic degeneration. Thus, it is necessary to replenish muscle satellite cells continuously. This review outlines recent findings regarding satellite cell heterogeneity, asymmetric division and molecular mechanisms in satellite cell self-renewal which is crucial for maintenance of satellite cells as a muscle stem cell pool throughout life. In addition, we discuss roles in the stem cell niche for satellite cell maintenance, as well as related cell therapies for approaching treatment of DMD.

  18. Jupiter Icy Moons Explorer (JUICE) : Science Objectives, Mission and Instruments (abstract)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gurvits, L.; Plaut, J.J.; Barabash, S.; Bruzzone, L.; Dougherty, M.; Erd, C.; Fletcher, L.; Gladstone, R.; Grasset, O.; Hartogh, P.; Hussmann, H.; Iess, L.; Jaumann, R.; Langevin, Y.; Palumbo, P.; Piccioni, G.; Titov, D.; Wahlund, J.E.


    The JUpiter ICy Moons Explorer (JUICE) is a European Space Agency mission that will fly by and observe the Galilean satellites Europa, Ganymede and Callisto, characterize the Jovian system in a lengthy Jupiter-orbit phase, and ultimately orbit Ganymede for in-depth studies of habitability, evolution

  19. The impact of earth resources exploration from space (United States)

    Nordberg, W.


    Remote sensing of the earth from satellite systems such as Landsat, Nimbus, and Skylab has demonstrated the potential influence of such observations on a number of major human concerns. These concerns include the management of food, water and fiber resources, the exploration and management of mineral and energy resources, the protection of the environment, the protection of life and property, and improvements in shipping and navigation.

  20. Satellite communications network design and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Jo, Kenneth Y


    This authoritative book provides a thorough understanding of the fundamental concepts of satellite communications (SATCOM) network design and performance assessments. You find discussions on a wide class of SATCOM networks using satellites as core components, as well as coverage key applications in the field. This in-depth resource presents a broad range of critical topics, from geosynchronous Earth orbiting (GEO) satellites and direct broadcast satellite systems, to low Earth orbiting (LEO) satellites, radio standards and protocols.This invaluable reference explains the many specific uses of

  1. Research on the new type of multi-functional satellite system for space debris detection (United States)

    Guo, Linghua; Fu, Qiang; Jiang, Huilin; Xu, Xihe


    With the rapid development of space exploration and utilization, orbital debris increases dramatically, leading to great threat to human space activities and spacecraft security. In this paper, a new type of multi-functional space debris satellite system (MSDS) was put forward, which shared main optical system, and possessed functions of multidimensional information detection, polarized remote sensing and high rate transmission. The MSDS system can meet the requirements of detection and identification for the small orbital debris which is 1000km faraway, as well as the requirements of the data transmission by 50 Mbps to 2.5 Gbps@200-1000 km. At the same time, by the method of satellite orbital maneuver and attitude adjusting, the orbital debris information that is real-time, complex and refined, allweather can be acquired and transmitted by the new system. Such new type of multifunctional satellite system can provide important and effective technology for international orbital debris detection.

  2. Satellites You Can See for Homework (United States)

    Broderick, Stephen


    Artificial satellites are easily observed most nights when the weather is fine. The website called "Heavens Above" at will help locate these satellites flying over one's location. It also includes how bright they will appear. The direction of travel of each satellite in the night sky also indicates the type of satellite. For…

  3. University Satellite Consortium and Space Education in Japan Centered on Micro-Nano Satellites (United States)

    Nakasuka, S.; Kawashima, R.


    in Japan especially centered on micro or nano class satellites. Hands-on training using micro-nano satellites provide unique opportunity of space education to university level students, by giving them a chance to experience the whole space project cycle from mission creation, satellite design, fabrication, test, launch, operation through analysis of the results. Project management and team working are other important skills that can be trained in these projects. include 1) low cost, which allows one laboratory in university to carry out a project, 2) short development period such as one or two year, which enables students to obtain the results of their projects before they graduate, and 3) small size and weight, which enables fabrication and test within usually very narrow university laboratory areas. In Japan, several projects such as CanSat, CubeSat or Whale Observation Satellite have been carried out, proving that micro-nano satellites provide very unique and valuable educational opportunity. with the objective to make a university student and staff community of these micro-nano satellite related activities in Japan. This consortium aims for many activities including facilitating information and skills exchange and collaborations between member universities, helping students to use ground test facilities of national laboratories, consulting them on political or law related matters, coordinating joint development of equipments or projects, and bridging between these university activities and the needs or interests of the people in general. This kind of outreach activity is essential because how to create missions of micro-nano satellites should be pursued in order for this field to grow larger than a merely educational enterprise. The final objectives of the consortium is to make a huge community of the users, mission creators, investors and manufactures(i.e., university students) of micro-nano satellites, and provide a unique contribution to the activation of

  4. Handbook of satellite applications

    CERN Document Server

    Madry, Scott; Camacho-Lara, Sergio


    Top space experts from around the world have collaborated to produce this comprehensive, authoritative, and clearly illustrated reference guide to the fast growing, multi-billion dollar field of satellite applications and space communications. This handbook, done under the auspices of the International Space University based in France, addresses not only system technologies but also examines market dynamics, technical standards and regulatory constraints. The handbook is a completely multi-disciplinary reference book that covers, in an in-depth fashion, the fields of satellite telecommunications, Earth observation, remote sensing, satellite navigation, geographical information systems, and geosynchronous meteorological systems. It covers current practices and designs as well as advanced concepts and future systems. It provides a comparative analysis of the common technologies and design elements for satellite application bus structures, thermal controls, power systems, stabilization techniques, telemetry, com...

  5. The NASA Earth Science Program and Small Satellites (United States)

    Neeck, Steven P.


    Earth's changing environment impacts every aspect of life on our planet and climate change has profound implications on society. Studying Earth as a single complex system is essential to understanding the causes and consequences of climate change and other global environmental concerns. NASA's Earth Science Division (ESD) shapes an interdisciplinary view of Earth, exploring interactions among the atmosphere, oceans, ice sheets, land surface interior, and life itself. This enables scientists to measure global and climate changes and to inform decisions by Government, other organizations, and people in the United States and around the world. The data collected and results generated are accessible to other agencies and organizations to improve the products and services they provide, including air quality indices, disaster prediction and response, agricultural yield projections, and aviation safety. ESD's Flight Program provides the spacebased observing systems and supporting infrastructure for mission operations and scientific data processing and distribution that support NASA's Earth science research and modeling activities. The Flight Program currently has 21 operating Earth observing space missions, including the recently launched Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission, the Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2), the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission, and the International Space Station (ISS) RapidSCAT and Cloud-Aerosol Transport System (CATS) instruments. The ESD has 22 more missions and instruments planned for launch over the next decade. These include first and second tier missions from the 2007 Earth Science Decadal Survey, Climate Continuity missions to assure availability of key climate data sets, and small-sized competitively selected orbital missions and instrument missions of opportunity belonging to the Earth Venture (EV) Program. Small satellites (500 kg or less) are critical contributors to these current and future satellite missions

  6. Modern Exploration of Galileo's New Worlds (United States)

    Johnson, Torrence V.


    Four hundred years ago Galileo turned his telescope to the heavens and changed the way we view the cosmos forever. Among his discoveries in January of 1610 were four new 'stars', following Jupiter in the sky but changing their positions with respect to the giant planet every night. Galileo showed that these 'Medicean stars', as he named them, were moons orbiting Jupiter in the same manner that the Earth and planets revolve about the Sun in the Copernican theory of the solar system. Over the next three centuries these moons, now collectively named the Galilean satellites after their discoverer, remained tiny dots of light in astronomers' telescopes. In the latter portion of the twentieth century Galileo's new worlds became important targets of exploration by robotic spacecraft. This paper reviews the history of this exploration through the discoveries made by the Galileo mission from 1995 to 2003, setting the stage for on-going exploration in the new century.

  7. Design and Fabrication of DebriSat - A Representative LEO Satellite for Improvements to Standard Satellite Breakup Models (United States)

    Clark, S.; Dietrich, A.; Fitz-Coy, N.; Weremeyer, M.; Liou, J.-C.


    This paper discusses the design and fabrication of DebriSat, a 50 kg satellite developed to be representative of a modern low Earth orbit satellite in terms of its components, materials used, and fabrication procedures. DebriSat will be the target of a future hypervelocity impact experiment to determine the physical characteristics of debris generated after an on-orbit collision of a modern LEO satellite. The major ground-based satellite impact experiment used by DoD and NASA in their development of satellite breakup models was SOCIT, conducted in 1992. The target used for that experiment was a Navy transit satellite (40 cm, 35 kg) fabricated in the 1960's. Modern satellites are very different in materials and construction techniques than those built 40 years ago. Therefore, there is a need to conduct a similar experiment using a modern target satellite to improve the fidelity of the satellite breakup models. To ensure that DebriSat is truly representative of typical LEO missions, a comprehensive study of historical LEO satellite designs and missions within the past 15 years for satellites ranging from 1 kg to 5000 kg was conducted. This study identified modern trends in hardware, material, and construction practices utilized in recent LEO missions. Although DebriSat is an engineering model, specific attention is placed on the quality, type, and quantity of the materials used in its fabrication to ensure the integrity of the outcome. With the exception of software, all other aspects of the satellite s design, fabrication, and assembly integration and testing will be as rigorous as that of an actual flight vehicle. For example, to simulate survivability of launch loads, DebriSat will be subjected to a vibration test. As well, the satellite will undergo thermal vacuum tests to verify that the components and overall systems meet typical environmental standards. Proper assembly and integration techniques will involve comprehensive joint analysis, including the precise

  8. Evolving earth-based and in-situ satellite network architectures for Mars communications and navigation support (United States)

    Hastrup, Rolf; Weinberg, Aaron; McOmber, Robert


    Results of on-going studies to develop navigation/telecommunications network concepts to support future robotic and human missions to Mars are presented. The performance and connectivity improvements provided by the relay network will permit use of simpler, lower performance, and less costly telecom subsystems for the in-situ mission exploration elements. Orbiting relay satellites can serve as effective navigation aids by supporting earth-based tracking as well as providing Mars-centered radiometric data for mission elements approaching, in orbit, or on the surface of Mars. The relay satellite orbits may be selected to optimize navigation aid support and communication coverage for specific mission sets.

  9. The ITU and managing satellite orbital and spectrum resources in the 21st century

    CERN Document Server

    Allison, Audrey L


    Access to satellite orbits and spectrum is managed by the ITU, a United Nations body that strives to extend the benefits of new technologies to the world, while ensuring equitable access to these resources. This book explores how the ITU approaches these dual missions in light of the increasing saturation of the geostationary orbit by a vibrant global satellite industry and the rising interests of developing countries in accessing these limited resources. These issues were the subject of debate at the 2012 World Radiocommunication Conference. This book describes and assesses various regulatory approaches undertaken to manage the increasing requests for access to space and especially access to spectrum and orbital locations in the geosynchronous or “The Clarke” orbit.

  10. Satellite failures revisited (United States)

    Balcerak, Ernie


    In January 1994, the two geostationary satellites known as Anik-E1 and Anik-E2, operated by Telesat Canada, failed one after the other within 9 hours, leaving many northern Canadian communities without television and data services. The outage, which shut down much of the country's broadcast television for hours and cost Telesat Canada more than $15 million, generated significant media attention. Lam et al. used publicly available records to revisit the event; they looked at failure details, media coverage, recovery effort, and cost. They also used satellite and ground data to determine the precise causes of those satellite failures. The researchers traced the entire space weather event from conditions on the Sun through the interplanetary medium to the particle environment in geostationary orbit.

  11. Space Systems Technology Conference, San Diego, CA, June 9-12, 1986, Technical Papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    Papers are presented on liquid droplet radiator thermal characteristics, battery designs, mobile satellite communications, space-based air traffic surveillance, the Italsat regenerative downlink performance, nondisruptive group delay and amplitude measurement, the Polar Platform of the Space Shuttle, EVA tasks and services, fault diagnosis, and an autonomous power system test bed. Topics discussed include space debris and manned space operations, data transport and command management services for the Space Station, a thermodynamic approach to data processor analysis, anomaly detection and resolution system, the Telemetry, Timing, Command, and Control system, the Space Construction Shuttle Flight experiment, and structural analysis of the Space Shuttle propulsion components. Consideration is given to electrostatic charging and arc discharges on satellite dielectrics, the attitude control system of the IUE, orbital acceleration, spaceborne distributed aperture/coherent array processing, the propulsion module for the Columbus Space Platform, the next-generation STS, trajectory performance evaluation, the Hubble Space Telescope, a linear quadratic tracker for control moment gyro based attitude control of the Space Station, and existing satellite systems and networks

  12. Normalization and calibration of geostationary satellite radiances for the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (United States)

    Desormeaux, Yves; Rossow, William B.; Brest, Christopher L.; Campbell, G. G.


    Procedures are described for normalizing the radiometric calibration of image radiances obtained from geostationary weather satellites that contributed data to the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project. The key step is comparison of coincident and collocated measurements made by each satellite and the concurrent AVHRR on the 'afternoon' NOAA polar-orbiting weather satellite at the same viewing geometry. The results of this comparison allow transfer of the AVHRR absolute calibration, which has been established over the whole series, to the radiometers on the geostationary satellites. Results are given for Meteosat-2, 3, and 4, for GOES-5, 6, and 7, for GMS-2, 3, and 4 and for Insat-1B. The relative stability of the calibrations of these radiance data is estimated to be within +/- 3 percent; the uncertainty of the absolute calibrations is estimated to be less than 10 percent. The remaining uncertainties are at least two times smaller than for the original radiance data.

  13. Satellite Cell Self-Renewal. (United States)

    Giordani, Lorenzo; Parisi, Alice; Le Grand, Fabien


    Adult skeletal muscle is endowed with regenerative potential through partially recapitulating the embryonic developmental program. Upon acute injury or in pathological conditions, quiescent muscle-resident stem cells, called satellite cells, become activated and give rise to myogenic progenitors that massively proliferate, differentiate, and fuse to form new myofibers and restore tissue functionality. In addition, a proportion of activated cells returns back to quiescence and replenish the pool of satellite cells in order to maintain the ability of skeletal muscle tissue to repair. Self-renewal is the process by which stem cells divide to make more stem cells to maintain the stem cell population throughout life. This process is controlled by cell-intrinsic transcription factors regulated by cell-extrinsic signals from the niche and the microenvironment. This chapter provides an overview about the general aspects of satellite cell biology and focuses on the cellular and molecular aspects of satellite cell self-renewal. To date, we are still far from understanding how a very small proportion of the satellite cell progeny maintain their stem cell identity when most of their siblings progress through the myogenic program to construct myofibers. © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Weather Satellite Pictures and How to Obtain Them. (United States)

    Petit, Noel J.; Johnson, Philip


    An introduction to satellite meteorology is presented to promote use of live weather satellite photographs in the classroom. Topics addressed include weather satellites, how they work, earth emissions, satellite photography, satellite image analysis, obtaining satellite pictures, and future considerations. Includes sources for materials to…

  15. Donor Satellite Cell Engraftment is Significantly Augmented When the Host Niche is Preserved and Endogenous Satellite Cells are Incapacitated (United States)

    Boldrin, Luisa; Neal, Alice; Zammit, Peter S; Muntoni, Francesco; Morgan, Jennifer E


    Stem cell transplantation is already in clinical practice for certain genetic diseases and is a promising therapy for dystrophic muscle. We used the mdx mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy to investigate the effect of the host satellite cell niche on the contribution of donor muscle stem cells (satellite cells) to muscle regeneration. We found that incapacitation of the host satellite cells and preservation of the muscle niche promote donor satellite cell contribution to muscle regeneration and functional reconstitution of the satellite cell compartment. But, if the host niche is not promptly refilled, or is filled by competent host satellite cells, it becomes nonfunctional and donor engraftment is negligible. Application of this regimen to aged host muscles also promotes efficient regeneration from aged donor satellite cells. In contrast, if the niche is destroyed, yet host satellite cells remain proliferation-competent, donor-derived engraftment is trivial. Thus preservation of the satellite cell niche, concomitant with functional impairment of the majority of satellite cells within dystrophic human muscles, may improve the efficiency of stem cell therapy. Stem Cells2012;30:1971–1984 PMID:22730231

  16. Probability of satellite collision (United States)

    Mccarter, J. W.


    A method is presented for computing the probability of a collision between a particular artificial earth satellite and any one of the total population of earth satellites. The collision hazard incurred by the proposed modular Space Station is assessed using the technique presented. The results of a parametric study to determine what type of satellite orbits produce the greatest contribution to the total collision probability are presented. Collision probability for the Space Station is given as a function of Space Station altitude and inclination. Collision probability was also parameterized over miss distance and mission duration.

  17. Combined Global Navigation Satellite Systems in the Space Service Volume (United States)

    Force, Dale A.; Miller, James J.


    Besides providing position, velocity, and timing (PVT) for terrestrial users, the Global Positioning System (GPS) is also being used to provide PVT information for earth orbiting satellites. In 2006, F. H. Bauer, et. al., defined the Space Service Volume in the paper GPS in the Space Service Volume , presented at ION s 19th international Technical Meeting of the Satellite Division, and looked at GPS coverage for orbiting satellites. With GLONASS already operational, and the first satellites of the Galileo and Beidou/COMPASS constellations already in orbit, it is time to look at the use of the new Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) coming into service to provide PVT information for earth orbiting satellites. This presentation extends GPS in the Space Service Volume by examining the coverage capability of combinations of the new constellations with GPS GPS was first explored as a system for refining the position, velocity, and timing of other spacecraft equipped with GPS receivers in the early eighties. Because of this, a new GPS utility developed beyond the original purpose of providing position, velocity, and timing services for land, maritime, and aerial applications. GPS signals are now received and processed by spacecraft both above and below the GPS constellation, including signals that spill over the limb of the earth. Support of GPS space applications is now part of the system plan for GPS, and support of the Space Service Volume by other GNSS providers has been proposed to the UN International Committee on GNSS (ICG). GPS has been demonstrated to provide decimeter level position accuracy in real-time for satellites in low Earth orbit (centimeter level in non-real-time applications). GPS has been proven useful for satellites in geosynchronous orbit, and also for satellites in highly elliptical orbits. Depending on how many satellites are in view, one can keep time locked to the GNSS standard, and through that to Universal Time as long as at least one

  18. Quantum Heterogeneous Computing for Satellite Positioning Optimization (United States)

    Bass, G.; Kumar, V.; Dulny, J., III


    Hard optimization problems occur in many fields of academic study and practical situations. We present results in which quantum heterogeneous computing is used to solve a real-world optimization problem: satellite positioning. Optimization problems like this can scale very rapidly with problem size, and become unsolvable with traditional brute-force methods. Typically, such problems have been approximately solved with heuristic approaches; however, these methods can take a long time to calculate and are not guaranteed to find optimal solutions. Quantum computing offers the possibility of producing significant speed-up and improved solution quality. There are now commercially available quantum annealing (QA) devices that are designed to solve difficult optimization problems. These devices have 1000+ quantum bits, but they have significant hardware size and connectivity limitations. We present a novel heterogeneous computing stack that combines QA and classical machine learning and allows the use of QA on problems larger than the quantum hardware could solve in isolation. We begin by analyzing the satellite positioning problem with a heuristic solver, the genetic algorithm. The classical computer's comparatively large available memory can explore the full problem space and converge to a solution relatively close to the true optimum. The QA device can then evolve directly to the optimal solution within this more limited space. Preliminary experiments, using the Quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) algorithm to simulate QA hardware, have produced promising results. Working with problem instances with known global minima, we find a solution within 8% in a matter of seconds, and within 5% in a few minutes. Future studies include replacing QMC with commercially available quantum hardware and exploring more problem sets and model parameters. Our results have important implications for how heterogeneous quantum computing can be used to solve difficult optimization problems in any

  19. Solar satellites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poher, C.


    A reference system design, projected costs, and the functional concepts of a satellite solar power system (SSPS) for converting sunlight falling on solar panels of a satellite in GEO to a multi-GW beam which could be received by a rectenna on earth are outlined. Electricity transmission by microwaves has been demonstrated, and a reference design system for supplying 5 GW dc to earth was devised. The system will use either monocrystalline Si or concentrator GaAs solar cells for energy collection in GEO. Development is still needed to improve the lifespan of the cells. Currently, the cell performance degrades 50 percent in efficiency after 7-8 yr in space. Each SSPS satellite would weigh either 34,000 tons (Si) or 51,000 tons (GaAs), thereby requiring the fabrication of a heavy lift launch vehicle or a single-stage-to-orbit transport in order to minimize launch costs. Costs for the solar panels have been estimated at $500/kW using the GaAs technology, with transport costs for materials to GEO being $40/kg.

  20. Solar satellites (United States)

    Poher, C.

    A reference system design, projected costs, and the functional concepts of a satellite solar power system (SSPS) for converting sunlight falling on solar panels of a satellite in GEO to a multi-GW beam which could be received by a rectenna on earth are outlined. Electricity transmission by microwaves has been demonstrated, and a reference design system for supplying 5 GW dc to earth was devised. The system will use either monocrystalline Si or concentrator GaAs solar cells for energy collection in GEO. Development is still needed to improve the lifespan of the cells. Currently, the cell performance degrades 50 percent in efficiency after 7-8 yr in space. Each SSPS satellite would weigh either 34,000 tons (Si) or 51,000 tons (GaAs), thereby requiring the fabrication of a heavy lift launch vehicle or a single-stage-to-orbit transport in order to minimize launch costs. Costs for the solar panels have been estimated at $500/kW using the GaAs technology, with transport costs for materials to GEO being $40/kg.

  1. Lunar Exploration Missions Since 2006 (United States)

    Lawrence, S. J. (Editor); Gaddis, L. R.; Joy, K. H.; Petro, N. E.


    The announcement of the Vision for Space Exploration in 2004 sparked a resurgence in lunar missions worldwide. Since the publication of the first "New Views of the Moon" volume, as of 2017 there have been 11 science-focused missions to the Moon. Each of these missions explored different aspects of the Moon's geology, environment, and resource potential. The results from this flotilla of missions have revolutionized lunar science, and resulted in a profoundly new emerging understanding of the Moon. The New Views of the Moon II initiative itself, which is designed to engage the large and vibrant lunar science community to integrate the results of these missions into new consensus viewpoints, is a direct outcome of this impressive array of missions. The "Lunar Exploration Missions Since 2006" chapter will "set the stage" for the rest of the volume, introducing the planetary community at large to the diverse array of missions that have explored the Moon in the last decade. Content: This chapter will encompass the following missions: Kaguya; ARTEMIS (Acceleration, Reconnection, Turbulence, and Electrodynamics of the Moon’s Interaction with the Sun); Chang’e-1; Chandrayaan-1; Moon Impact Probe; Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO); Lunar Crater Observation Sensing Satellite (LCROSS); Chang’e-2; Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL); Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE); Chang’e-3.

  2. Discovering the cosmos with small spacecraft the American explorer program

    CERN Document Server

    Harvey, Brian


    Explorer was the original American space program and Explorer 1 its first satellite, launched in 1958. Sixty years later, it is the longest continuously running space program in the world, demonstrating to the world how we can explore the cosmos with small spacecraft. Almost a hundred Explorers have already been launched.  Explorers have made some of the fundamental discoveries of the Space Age.Explorer 1 discovered Earth’s radiation belts. Later Explorers surveyed the Sun, the X-ray and ultraviolet universes, black holes, magnetars and gamma ray bursts. An Explorer found the remnant of the Big Bang. One Explorer chased and was the first to intercept a comet. The program went through a period of few launches during the crisis of funding for space science in the 1980s. However, with the era of ‘faster, cheaper, better,’ the program was reinvented, and new exiting missions began to take shape, like Swift and the asteroid hunter WISE.  Discovering the Cosmos with Small Spacecraft gives an account of ...

  3. Next-Generation NASA Earth-Orbiting Relay Satellites: Fusing Optical and Microwave Communications (United States)

    Israel, David J.; Shaw, Harry


    NASA is currently considering architectures and concepts for the generation of relay satellites that will replace the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS) constellation, which has been flying since 1983. TDRS-M, the last of the second TDRS generation, launched in August 2017, extending the life of the TDRS constellation beyond 2030. However, opportunities exist to re-engineer the concepts of geosynchronous Earth relay satellites. The needs of the relay satellite customers have changed dramatically over the last 34 years since the first TDRS launch. There is a demand for greater bandwidth as the availability of the traditional RF spectrum for space communications diminishes and the demand for ground station access grows. The next generation of NASA relay satellites will provide for operations that have factored in these new constraints. In this paper, we describe a heterogeneous constellation of geosynchronous relay satellites employing optical and RF communications. The new constellation will enable new optical communications services formed by user-to-space relay, space relay-to-space relay and space relay-to-ground links. It will build upon the experience from the Lunar Laser Communications Demonstration from 2013 and the Laser Communications Relay Demonstration to be launched in 2019.Simultaneous to establishment of the optical communications space segment, spacecraft in the TDRS constellation will be replaced with RF relay satellites with targeted subsets of the TDRS capabilities. This disaggregation of the TDRS service model will allow for flexibility in replenishing the needs of legacy users as well as addition of new capabilities for future users. It will also permit the U.S. government access to launch capabilities such as rideshare and to hosted payloads that were not previously available.In this paper, we also explore how the next generation of Earth relay satellites provides a significant boost in the opportunities for commercial providers to the

  4. Next-Generation NASA Earth-Orbiting Relay Satellites: Fusing Microwave and Optical Communications (United States)

    Israel, David J.


    NASA is currently considering architectures and concepts for the generation of relay satellites that will replace the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS) constellation, which has been flying since 1983. TDRS-M, the last of the second TDRS generation, launched in August 2017, extending the life of the TDRS constellation beyond 2030. However, opportunities exist to re-engineer the concepts of geosynchronous Earth relay satellites. The needs of the relay satellite customers have changed dramatically over the last 34 years since the first TDRS launch. There is a demand for greater bandwidth as the availability of the traditional RF spectrum for space communications diminishes and the demand for ground station access grows. The next generation of NASA relay satellites will provide for operations that have factored in these new constraints. In this paper, we describe a heterogeneous constellation of geosynchronous relay satellites employing optical and RF communications. The new constellation will enable new optical communications services formed by user-to-space relay, space relay-to-space relay and space relay-to-ground links. It will build upon the experience from the Lunar Laser Communications Demonstration from 2013 and the Laser Communications Relay Demonstration to be launched in 2019.Simultaneous to establishment of the optical communications space segment, spacecraft in the TDRS constellation will be replaced with RF relay satellites with targeted subsets of the TDRS capabilities. This disaggregation of the TDRS service model will allow for flexibility in replenishing the needs of legacy users as well as addition of new capabilities for future users. It will also permit the U.S. government access to launch capabilities such as rideshare and to hosted payloads that were not previously available. In this paper, we also explore how the next generation of Earth relay satellites provides a significant boost in the opportunities for commercial providers to the

  5. SOVCAN STAR: An international satellite system (United States)

    Skatchkov, Valery A.

    SOVCAN STAR is a Russian-Canadian cooperative venture company formed to manufacture, test, launch and operate a Ku-band satellite system. Drawing on the more than twenty years communications satellite experience of the founding companies, the SOVCAN STAR satellites are being designed to be competitive and cost effective. They will be equipped with 24 transponders and four steerable antennas. The design allows the operators to switch individual transponders between the various antenna coverage beams. These satellites will offer a high degree of operational flexibility and performance. The SOVCAN STAR strategy is to develop a network of satellites in parallel with the growth and evolution of the traffic requirements. Such an approach minimizes the technical, schedule and program risks while at the same time significantly reduces the financial exposure. The first SOVCAN STAR satellite will be commissioned in 1996 and operated at 14 deg W. The beams will be aligned to North America and Europe offering International service between Canada, the Eastern U.S.A., Europe, Russia and the Western C.I.S. Republics. The second SOVCAN STAR satellite will be commissioned a year later and operated at 145 deg E. This satellite will cover the Western Pacific Ocean, Eastern Asia and Australasia.

  6. "Data Day" and "Data Night" Definitions - Towards Producing Seamless Global Satellite Imagery (United States)

    Schmaltz, J. E.


    For centuries, the art and science of cartography has struggled with the challenge of mapping the round earth on to a flat page, or a flat computer monitor. Earth observing satellites with continuous monitoring of our planet have added the additional complexity of the time dimension to this procedure. The most common current practice is to segment this data by 24-hour Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) day and then split the day into sun side "Data Day" and shadow side "Data Night" global imagery that spans from dateline to dateline. Due to the nature of satellite orbits, simply binning the data by UTC date produces significant discontinuities at the dateline for day images and at Greenwich for night images. Instead, imagery could be generated in a fashion that follows the spatial and temporal progression of the satellite which would produce seamless imagery everywhere on the globe for all times. This presentation will explore approaches to produce such imagery but will also address some of the practical and logistical difficulties in implementing such changes. Topics will include composites versus granule/orbit based imagery, day/night versus ascending/descending definitions, and polar versus global projections.

  7. Geodesy and cartography methods of exploration of the outer planetary systems: Galilean satellites and Enceladus (United States)

    Zubarev, Anatoliy; Kozlova, Natalia; Kokhanov, Alexander; Oberst, Jürgen; Nadezhdina, Irina; Patraty, Vyacheslav; Karachevtseva, Irina

    Introduction. While Galilean satellites have been observed by different spacecrafts, including Pioneer, Voyager-1 and -2, Galileo, New Horizons, and Enceladus by Cassini and Voyager-2, only data from Galileo, Cassini and the two Voyagers are useful for precise mapping [1, 2]. For purposes of future missions to the system of outer planets we have re-computed the control point network of the Io, Ganymede and Enceladus to support spacecraft navigation and coordinate knowledge. Based on the control networks, we have produced global image mosaics and maps. Geodesy approach. For future mission Laplace-P we mainly focused on Ganymede which coverage is nearly complete except for polar areas (which includes multispectral data). However, large differences exist in data resolutions (minimum global resolution: 30 km/pixel). Only few areas enjoy coverage by highest resolution images, so we suggest to obtain regional Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) from stereo images for selected areas. Also using our special software, we provide calculation of illumination conditions of Ganymede surface in various representations [3]. Finally, we propose a careful evaluation of all available data from the previous Voyager and Galileo missions to re-determine geodetic control and rotation model for other Galilean satellites - Callisto and Europe. Mapping. Based on re-calculated control point networks and global mosaics we have prepared new maps for Io, Ganymede and Enceladus [4]. Due to the difference in resolution between the images, which were also taken from different angles relative to the surface, we can prepare only regional high resolution shape models, so for demonstrating of topography and mapping of the satellites we used orthographic projection with different parameters. Our maps, which include roughness calculations based on our GIS technologies [5], will also be an important tool for studies of surface morphology. Conclusions. Updated data collection, including new calculation of

  8. Bringing satellite winds to hub-height

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badger, Merete; Pena Diaz, Alfredo; Bredesen, Rolv Erlend


    Satellite observations of the ocean surface can provide detailed information about the spatial wind variability over large areas. This is very valuable for the mapping of wind resources offshore where other measurements are costly and sparse. Satellite sensors operating at microwave frequencies...... measure the amount of radar backscatter from the sea surface, which is a function of the instant wind speed, wind direction, and satellite viewing geometry. A major limitation related to wind retrievals from satellite observations is that existing empirical model functions relate the radar backscatter...... to wind speed at the height 10 m only. The extrapolation of satellite wind fields to higher heights, which are more relevant for wind energy, remains a challenge which cannot be addressed by means of satellite data alone. As part of the EU-NORSEWInD project (2008-12), a hybrid method has been developed...

  9. 47 CFR 25.279 - Inter-satellite service. (United States)


    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Inter-satellite service. 25.279 Section 25.279 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Operations § 25.279 Inter-satellite service. (a) Any satellite communicating with other space...

  10. VLBI Observations of Geostationary Satellites (United States)

    Artz, T.; Nothnagel, A.; La Porta, L.


    For a consistent realization of a Global Geodetic Observing System (GGOS), a proper tie between the individual global reference systems used in the analysis of space-geodetic observations is a prerequisite. For instance, the link between the terrestrial, the celestial and the dynamic reference system of artificial Earth orbiters may be realized by Very Long O Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) observations of one or several satellites. In the preparation phase for a dedicated satellite mission, one option to realize this is using a geostationary (GEO) satellite emitting a radio signal in X-Band and/or S-Band and, thus, imitating a quasar. In this way, the GEO satellite can be observed by VLBI together with nearby quasars and the GEO orbit can, thus, be determined in a celestial reference frame. If the GEO satellite is, e.g., also equipped with a GNSS-type transmitter, a further tie between GNSS and VLBI may be realized. In this paper, a concept for the generation of a radio signal is shown. Furthermore, simulation studies for estimating the GEO position are presented with a GEO satellite included in the VLBI schedule. VLBI group delay observations are then simulated for the quasars as well as for the GEO satellite. The analysis of the simulated observations shows that constant orbit changes are adequately absorbed by estimated orbit parameters. Furthermore, the post-fit residuals are comparable to those from real VLBI sessions.

  11. Adding a Mission to the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) Common Ground System (CGS) (United States)

    Miller, S. W.; Grant, K. D.; Jamilkowski, M. L.


    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are jointly acquiring the next-generation civilian weather and environmental satellite system: the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS). The Joint Polar Satellite System will replace the afternoon orbit component and ground processing system of the current Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) managed by NOAA. The JPSS satellites will carry a suite of sensors designed to collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological and geophysical observations of the Earth. The ground processing system for JPSS is known as the JPSS Common Ground System (JPSS CGS). Developed and maintained by Raytheon Intelligence, Information and Services (IIS), the CGS is a multi-mission enterprise system serving NOAA, NASA and their national and international partners. The CGS provides a wide range of support to a number of missions: 1) Command and control and mission management for the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) mission today, expanding this support to the JPSS-1 satellite and the Polar Free Flyer mission in 2017 2) Data acquisition via a Polar Receptor Network (PRN) for S-NPP, the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency's (JAXA) Global Change Observation Mission - Water (GCOM-W1), POES, and the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) and Coriolis/WindSat for the Department of Defense (DoD) 3) Data routing over a global fiber Wide Area Network (WAN) for S-NPP, JPSS-1, Polar Free Flyer, GCOM-W1, POES, DMSP, Coriolis/WindSat, the NASA Space Communications and Navigation (SCaN, which includes several Earth Observing System [EOS] missions), MetOp for the European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT), and the National Science Foundation (NSF) 4) Environmental data processing and distribution for S-NPP, GCOM-W1 and JPSS-1 With this established infrastructure and existing suite of missions, the CGS

  12. Ultraviolet energy distributions and the temperatures of peculiar B and A stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adelman, S.J.; NASA, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD)


    Color temperatures have been estimated by comparing ultraviolet observations of HgMn and magnetic Ap stars with those of normal stars. Ultraviolet data from the OAO-2, ANS, TD-1, and IUE satellites generally give similar results. The values for the normal stars were derived from comparison of fluxes predicted by solar-composition fully line-blanketed model atmospheres with optical region spectrophotometry. The ultraviolet temperatures of the HgMn stars cover a narrower temperature range than do their optical region values. Magnetic Ap stars with similar optical region temperatures can show substantial differences in their ultraviolet color temperatures. This may result from magnetic field configuration and abundance differences. 27 references

  13. Temporal influences on satellite retrieval of cyanobacteria bloom: an examination in Lake Taihu, China (United States)

    Zhang, Yue; Liu, Yuanbo; Ruan, Renzong; Zhao, Dongbo


    Satellite imagery provides a cost-effective way to retrieve the cyanbacteria bloom dynamics, which is useful to early warning of the blooms. However, temporal variations in sun-target-satellite geometry and atmosphere may generate inconsistencies in multi-temporal images. To explore to what extent temporal influences could affect the retrieved results, we applied the single band and the band ratio approaches to retrieve cyanobacteria bloom in Lake Taihu of China. We used the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) products in the cases with and without correction for sun-target-satellite geometry and atmospheric effects for the whole year 2006. In addition, we made use of MODIS data including aerosol optical thickness (AOT), solar zenith angle and sensor zenith angle, all of which are indicators of the temporal influences. We then analyzed the relationships of retrieval differences with the three indicators to evaluate the temporal influences quantitatively. Our results showed that both AOT and solar zenith angle had a positive correlation with the retrieval of cyanobacteria bloom. Although it is yet under investigation if this relationship could hold on for other cases, here we emphasized that for reliable monitoring the dynamics of bloom, it should be careful to apply the approaches using satellite data without radiometric correction.

  14. Hurricane Satellite (HURSAT) from International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) B1, Version 6 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Hurricane Satellite (HURSAT) from derived International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) B1 observations of tropical cyclones worldwide. The B1 data...

  15. Using satellite and airborne LiDAR to model woodpecker habitat occupancy at the landscape scale (United States)

    Lee A. Vierling; Kerri T. Vierling; Patrick Adam; Andrew T. Hudak


    Incorporating vertical vegetation structure into models of animal distributions can improve understanding of the patterns and processes governing habitat selection. LiDAR can provide such structural information, but these data are typically collected via aircraft and thus are limited in spatial extent. Our objective was to explore the utility of satellite-based LiDAR...

  16. Scientific Objectives of China Chang E 4 CE-4 Lunar Far-side Exploration Mission (United States)

    Zhang, Hongbo; Zeng, Xingguo; Chen, Wangli


    China has achieved great success in the recently CE-1~CE-3 lunar missions, and in the year of 2018, China Lunar Exploration Program (CLEP) is going to launch the CE-4 mission. CE-4 satellite is the backup satellite of CE-3, so that it also consists of a Lander and a Rover. However, CE-4 is the first mission designed to detect the far side of the Moon in human lunar exploration history. So the biggest difference between CE-4 and CE-3 is that it will be equipped with a relay satellite in Earth-Moon-L2 Point for Earth-Moon Communication. And the scientific payloads carried on the Lander and Rover will also be different. It has been announced by the Chinese government that CE-4 mission will be equipped with some new international cooperated scientific payloads, such as the Low Frequency Radio Detector from Holland, Lunar Neutron and Radiation Dose Detector from Germany, Neutral Atom Detector from Sweden, and Lunar Miniature Optical Imaging Sounder from Saudi Arabia. The main scientific objective of CE-4 is to provide scientific data for lunar far side research, including: 1)general spatial environmental study of lunar far side;2)general research on the surface, shallow layer and deep layer of lunar far side;3)detection of low frequency radio on lunar far side using Low Frequency Radio Detector, which would be the first time of using such frequency band in lunar exploration history .

  17. Mobile satellite communications in the 1990's (United States)

    Singh, Jai


    The evolution of Inmarsat global services from a single market and single service of the 1980's to all of the key mobile markets and a wide range of new terminals and services in the 1990's is described. An overview of existing mobile satellite services, as well as new services under implementation for introduction in the near and longer term, including a handheld satellite phone (Inmarsat-P), is provided. The initiative taken by Inmarsat in the integration of its global mobile satellite services with global navigation capability derived from GPS (Global Positioning System) and the GLONASS (Russian GPS) navigation satellite systems and the provision of an international civil overlay for GPS/GLONASS integrity and augmentation is highlighted. To complete the overview of the development of mobile satellite services in the 1990's, the known national and regional mobile satellite system plans and the various recent proposals for both orbiting and geostationary satellite systems for proving handheld satellite phone and/or data messaging services are described.

  18. Operation of a quadripole probe on magnetospheric satellite (GEOS experiment). Contribution to cold plasma behaviour study near equatorial plasma pause

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decreau-Prior, P.


    This thesis is concerned with the exploitation of GEOS Satellite RF quadripole probe measurements, GEOS satellites have explored magnetosphere on the geostationary orbit and around it. Results a low to qualify the instrument in magnetospheric plasma (previously, it had been used only in ionosphere). Furthermore existence, outside the outer plasmasphere, of a cold population (from 0,4 to 8 eV) with medium density (from 2 to 50 particles cm -3 ) is shown. This population had been ignored until then, by in situ particle measure experiment. So, new perspectives on coupling nature of the explored region with ionosphere, and with plasma sheet, more particularly because the temperature measured at the equator is on an average, clearly higher than in high ionosphere the principal source of magnetospheric cold plasma [fr

  19. Planning alternative organizational frameworks for a large scale educational telecommunications system served by fixed/broadcast satellites (United States)

    Walkmeyer, J.


    This memorandum explores a host of considerations meriting attention from those who are concerned with designing organizational structures for development and control of a large scale educational telecommunications system using satellites. Part of a broader investigation at Washington University into the potential uses of fixed/broadcast satellites in U.S. education, this study lays ground work for a later effort to spell out a small number of hypothetical organizational blueprints for such a system and for assessment of potential short and long term impacts. The memorandum consists of two main parts. Part A deals with subjects of system-wide concern, while Part B deals with matters related to specific system components.

  20. GOES-R: Satellite Insight (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Austin J.; Leon, Nancy J.; Novati, Alexander; Lincoln, Laura K.; Fisher, Diane K.


    GOES-R: Satellite Insight seeks to bring awareness of the GOES-R (Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite -- R Series) satellite currently in development to an audience of all ages on the emerging medium of mobile games. The iPhone app (Satellite Insight) was created for the GOES-R Program. The app describes in simple terms the types of data products that can be produced from GOES-R measurements. The game is easy to learn, yet challenging for all audiences. It includes educational content and a path to further information about GOESR, its technology, and the benefits of the data it collects. The game features action-puzzle game play in which the player must prevent an overflow of data by matching falling blocks that represent different types of GOES-R data. The game adds more different types of data blocks over time, as long as the player can prevent a data overflow condition. Points are awarded for matches, and players can compete with themselves to beat their highest score.

  1. Satellite tracking of threatened species (United States)

    Williams, M.; Lunsford, A.; Ellis, D.; Robinson, J.; Coronado, P.; Campbell, W.


    In 1990, a joint effort of two U.S. federal agencies, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) and the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, began. We initially joined forces in a project that used satellite telemetry to discover the winter home of a tiny dwindling population of Siberian Cranes. Since then several projects have emerged, and a web site was created to follow some of these activities. This web site is called the Satellite Tracking of Threatened Species and its location is It describes the overall program, and links you to three subsections that describe the projects in more detail: Satellite Direct Readout, Birdtracks, and Birdworld.

  2. Detection and retrieval of multi-layered cloud properties using satellite data (United States)

    Minnis, Patrick; Sun-Mack, Sunny; Chen, Yan; Yi, Helen; Huang, Jianping; Nguyen, Louis; Khaiyer, Mandana M.


    Four techniques for detecting multilayered clouds and retrieving the cloud properties using satellite data are explored to help address the need for better quantification of cloud vertical structure. A new technique was developed using multispectral imager data with secondary imager products (infrared brightness temperature differences, BTD). The other methods examined here use atmospheric sounding data (CO2-slicing, CO2), BTD, or microwave data. The CO2 and BTD methods are limited to optically thin cirrus over low clouds, while the MWR methods are limited to ocean areas only. This paper explores the use of the BTD and CO2 methods as applied to Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer EOS (AMSR-E) data taken from the Aqua satellite over ocean surfaces. Cloud properties derived from MODIS data for the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Project are used to classify cloud phase and optical properties. The preliminary results focus on a MODIS image taken off the Uruguayan coast. The combined MW visible infrared (MVI) method is assumed to be the reference for detecting multilayered ice-over-water clouds. The BTD and CO2 techniques accurately match the MVI classifications in only 51 and 41% of the cases, respectively. Much additional study is need to determine the uncertainties in the MVI method and to analyze many more overlapped cloud scenes.

  3. Advanced mobile satellite communications using COMETS satellite in MM-wave and Ka-band (United States)

    Ohmori, Shingo; Isobe, Shunkichi; Takeuchi, Makoto; Naito, Hideyuki


    Early in the 21st century, the demand for personal communications using mobile, hand-held, and VSAT terminals will rapidly increase. In a future system, many different types of services should be provided with one-hop connection. The Communications Research Laboratory (CRL) has studied a future advanced mobile satellite communications system using millimeter wave and Ka band. In 1990, CRL started the Communications and Broadcasting Engineering Test Satellite (COMETS) project. The satellite has been developed in conjunction with NASDA and will be launched in 1997. This paper describes the COMETS payload configuration and the experimental system for the advanced mobile communications mission.

  4. Computing Thermal Imbalance Forces On Satellites (United States)

    Vigue, Yvonne; Schutz, Robert E.; Sewell, Granville; Abusali, Pothai A. M.


    HEAT.PRO computer program calculates imbalance force caused by heating of surfaces of satellite. Calculates thermal imbalance force and determines its effect on orbit of satellite, especially where shadow cast by Earth Causes periodic changes in thermal environment around satellite. Written in FORTRAN 77.

  5. Experiment In Aeronautical-Mobile/Satellite Communication (United States)

    Jedrey, Thomas C.; Lay, Norman E.; Dessouky, Khaled


    Report describes study of performance of digital mobile/satellite communication terminals of advanced design intended for use in ground stations and airplanes in aeronautical-mobile service. Study was collaboration of NASA, Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Communications Satellite Corp. (COMSAT), and International Maritime Satellite System (INMARSAT).


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    López-Corredoira, Martín; Kroupa, Pavel


    We show that a significant correlation (up to 5σ) emerges between the bulge index, defined to be larger for a larger bulge/disk ratio, in spiral galaxies with similar luminosities in the Galaxy Zoo 2 of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the number of tidal-dwarf galaxies in the catalog by Kaviraj et al. In the standard cold or warm dark matter cosmological models, the number of satellite galaxies correlates with the circular velocity of the dark matter host halo. In generalized gravity models without cold or warm dark matter, such a correlation does not exist, because host galaxies cannot capture infalling dwarf galaxies due to the absence of dark-matter-induced dynamical friction. However, in such models, a correlation is expected to exist between the bulge mass and the number of satellite galaxies because bulges and tidal-dwarf satellite galaxies form in encounters between host galaxies. This is not predicted by dark matter models in which bulge mass and the number of satellites are a priori uncorrelated because higher bulge/disk ratios do not imply higher dark/luminous ratios. Hence, our correlation reproduces the prediction of scenarios without dark matter, whereas an explanation is not found readily from the a priori predictions of the standard scenario with dark matter. Further research is needed to explore whether some application of the standard theory may explain this correlation

  7. Integrated Satellite-HAP Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cianca, Ernestina; De Sanctis, Mauro; De Luise, Aldo


    Thus far, high-altitude platform (HAP)-based systems have been mainly conceived as an alternative to satellites for complementing the terrestrial network. This article aims to show that HAP should no longer be seen as a competitor technology by investors of satellites, but as a key element for an...

  8. Shadow imaging of geosynchronous satellites (United States)

    Douglas, Dennis Michael

    Geosynchronous (GEO) satellites are essential for modern communication networks. If communication to a GEO satellite is lost and a malfunction occurs upon orbit insertion such as a solar panel not deploying there is no direct way to observe it from Earth. Due to the GEO orbit distance of ~36,000 km from Earth's surface, the Rayleigh criteria dictates that a 14 m telescope is required to conventionally image a satellite with spatial resolution down to 1 m using visible light. Furthermore, a telescope larger than 30 m is required under ideal conditions to obtain spatial resolution down to 0.4 m. This dissertation evaluates a method for obtaining high spatial resolution images of GEO satellites from an Earth based system by measuring the irradiance distribution on the ground resulting from the occultation of the satellite passing in front of a star. The representative size of a GEO satellite combined with the orbital distance results in the ground shadow being consistent with a Fresnel diffraction pattern when observed at visible wavelengths. A measurement of the ground shadow irradiance is used as an amplitude constraint in a Gerchberg-Saxton phase retrieval algorithm that produces a reconstruction of the satellite's 2D transmission function which is analogous to a reverse contrast image of the satellite. The advantage of shadow imaging is that a terrestrial based redundant set of linearly distributed inexpensive small telescopes, each coupled to high speed detectors, is a more effective resolved imaging system for GEO satellites than a very large telescope under ideal conditions. Modeling and simulation efforts indicate sub-meter spatial resolution can be readily achieved using collection apertures of less than 1 meter in diameter. A mathematical basis is established for the treatment of the physical phenomena involved in the shadow imaging process. This includes the source star brightness and angular extent, and the diffraction of starlight from the satellite

  9. Exobiology of icy satellites (United States)

    Simakov, M. B.

    At the beginning of 2004 the total number of discovered planets near other stars was 119 All of them are massive giants and met practically in all orbits In a habitable zone from 0 8 up to 1 1 AU at less 11 planets has been found starting with HD 134987 and up to HD 4203 It would be naive to suppose existence of life in unique known to us amino-nucleic acid form on the gas-liquid giant planets Nevertheless conditions for onset and evolutions of life can be realized on hypothetical satellites extrasolar planets All giant planets of the Solar system have a big number of satellites 61 of Jupiter 52 of Saturn known in 2003 A small part of them consist very large bodies quite comparable to planets of terrestrial type but including very significant share of water ice Some from them have an atmosphere E g the mass of a column of the Titan s atmosphere exceeds 15 times the mass of the Earth atmosphere column Formation or capture of satellites is a natural phenomenon and satellite systems definitely should exist at extrasolar planets A hypothetical satellite of the planet HD 28185 with a dense enough atmosphere and hydrosphere could have biosphere of terrestrial type within the limits of our notion about an origin of terrestrial biosphere As an example we can see on Titan the largest satellite of Saturn which has a dense nitrogen atmosphere and a large quantity of liquid water under ice cover and so has a great exobiological significance The most recent models of the Titan s interior lead to the conclusion that a substantial liquid layer

  10. Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) satellites collect visible and infrared cloud imagery as well as monitoring the atmospheric, oceanographic,...

  11. Satellite Ocean Heat Content Suite (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This collection contains an operational Satellite Ocean Heat Content Suite (SOHCS) product generated by NOAA National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information...

  12. Initial results of centralized autonomous orbit determination of the new-generation BDS satellites with inter-satellite link measurements (United States)

    Tang, Chengpan; Hu, Xiaogong; Zhou, Shanshi; Liu, Li; Pan, Junyang; Chen, Liucheng; Guo, Rui; Zhu, Lingfeng; Hu, Guangming; Li, Xiaojie; He, Feng; Chang, Zhiqiao


    Autonomous orbit determination is the ability of navigation satellites to estimate the orbit parameters on-board using inter-satellite link (ISL) measurements. This study mainly focuses on data processing of the ISL measurements as a new measurement type and its application on the centralized autonomous orbit determination of the new-generation Beidou navigation satellite system satellites for the first time. The ISL measurements are dual one-way measurements that follow a time division multiple access (TDMA) structure. The ranging error of the ISL measurements is less than 0.25 ns. This paper proposes a derivation approach to the satellite clock offsets and the geometric distances from TDMA dual one-way measurements without a loss of accuracy. The derived clock offsets are used for time synchronization, and the derived geometry distances are used for autonomous orbit determination. The clock offsets from the ISL measurements are consistent with the L-band two-way satellite, and time-frequency transfer clock measurements and the detrended residuals vary within 0.5 ns. The centralized autonomous orbit determination is conducted in a batch mode on a ground-capable server for the feasibility study. Constant hardware delays are present in the geometric distances and become the largest source of error in the autonomous orbit determination. Therefore, the hardware delays are estimated simultaneously with the satellite orbits. To avoid uncertainties in the constellation orientation, a ground anchor station that "observes" the satellites with on-board ISL payloads is introduced into the orbit determination. The root-mean-square values of orbit determination residuals are within 10.0 cm, and the standard deviation of the estimated ISL hardware delays is within 0.2 ns. The accuracy of the autonomous orbits is evaluated by analysis of overlap comparison and the satellite laser ranging (SLR) residuals and is compared with the accuracy of the L-band orbits. The results indicate

  13. Illuminating the star clusters and satellite galaxies with multi-scale baryonic simulations (United States)

    Maji, Moupiya; Zhu, Qirong; Li, Yuexing; Marinacci, Federico; Charlton, Jane; Hernquist, Lars; Knebe, Alexander


    Over the past decade, advances in computational architecture have made it possible for the first time to investigate some of the fundamental questions around the formation, evolution and assembly of the building blocks of the universe; star clusters and galaxies. In this talk, I will focus on two major questions: What is the origin of the observed universal lognormal mass function in globular clusters? What is the statistical distribution of the properties of satellite planes in a large sample of satellite systems?Observations of globular clusters show that they have universal lognormal mass functions with a characteristic peak at 2X105 MSun, although the origin of this peaked distribution is unclear. We investigate the formation of star clusters in interacting galaxies using baryonic simulations and found that massive clusters preferentially form in extremely high pressure gas clouds which reside in highly shocked regions produced by galaxy interactions. These massive clusters have quasi-lognormal initial mass functions with a peak around ~106MSun which may survive dynamical evolution and slowly evolve into the universal lognormal profiles observed today.The classical Milky Way (MW) satellites are observed to be distributed in a highly-flattened plane, called Disk of Satellites (DoS). However the significance, coherence and origin of DoS is highly debated. To understand this, we first analyze all MW satellites and find that a small sample size can artificially produce a highly anisotropic spatial distribution and a strong clustering of their angular momentum. Comparing a baryonic simulation of a MW-sized galaxy with its N-body counterpart we find that an anisotropic DoS can originate from baryonic processes. Furthermore, we explore the statistical distribution of DoS properties by analyzing 2591 satellite systems in the cosmological hydrodynamic simulation Illustris. We find that the DoS becomes more isotropic with increasing sample sizes and most (~90%) satellite

  14. Satellite Eye for Galathea 3. Annual report 2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Sørensen, Peter; Pedersen, Leif Toudal

    The Satellite Eye for Galathea 3 project is collecting satellite images from many satellites and, in particular, from the European ENVISAT satellite along the Galathea 3 global route. The expedition takes place from 11 August 2006 to 27 April 2007. Prior to the expedition several satellite images...... Vædderen, pupils in the classrooms and the public at any moment can take a look at the conditions seen from the eyes of the Earth observing satellites....

  15. Satellite imagery and the Department of Safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chitumbo, K.; Bunney, J.; Leve, G.; Robb, S.


    Full text: The presentation examines some of the challenges the Satellite Imagery and Analysis Laboratory (SIAL) is facing in supporting Strengthened Safeguards. It focuses on the analytical process, starting with specifying initial tasking and continuing through to end products that are a direct result of in-house analysis. In addition it also evaluates the advantages and disadvantages of SIAL's mission and introduces external forces that the agency must consider, but cannot itself, predict or control. Although SIAL's contribution to tasks relating to Article 2a(iii) of the Additional Protocol are known and are presently of great benefit to operations areas, this is only one aspect of its work. SIAL's ability to identify and analyze historical satellite imagery data has the advantage of permitting operations to take a more in depth view of a particular area of interest's (AOI) development, and thus may permit operations to confirm or refute specific assertions relating to the AOI's function or abilities. These assertions may originate in-house or may be open source reports the agency feels it is obligated to explore. SIAL's mission is unique in the world of imagery analysis. Its aim is to support all operations areas equally and in doing so it must maintain global focus. The task is tremendous, but the resultant coverage and concentration of unique expertise will allow SIAL to develop and provide operations with datasets that can be exploited in standalone mode or be incorporated into new cutting edge tools to be developed in SGIT. At present SIAL relies on two remote sensors, IKONOS-2 and EROS-AI, for present high- resolution imagery data and is using numerous sources for historical, pre 1999, data. A multiplicity of sources for high-resolution data is very important to SIAL, but is something that it cannot influence. It is hoped that the planned launch of two new sensors by Summer 2002 will be successful and will offer greater flexibility for image collection

  16. Agent control of cooperating satellites


    Lincoln, N.K.; Veres, S.M.; Dennis, Louise; Fisher, Michael; Lisitsa, Alexei


    A novel, hybrid, agent architecture for (small)swarms of satellites has been developed. The software architecture for each satellite comprises ahigh-level rational agent linked to a low-level control system. The rational agent forms dynamicgoals, decides how to tackle them and passes theactual implementation of these plans to the control layer. The rational agent also has access to aMatLabmodel of the satellite dynamics, thus allowing it to carry out selective hypothetical reasoningabout pote...


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassidy, Timothy A.; Johnson, Robert E.; Mendez, Rolando; Arras, Phil; Skrutskie, Michael F.


    We study the orbits, tidal heating and mass loss from satellites around close-in gas giant exoplanets. The focus is on large satellites which are potentially observable by their transit signature. We argue that even Earth-size satellites around hot Jupiters can be immune to destruction by orbital decay; detection of such a massive satellite would strongly constrain theories of tidal dissipation in gas giants, in a manner complementary to orbital circularization. The star's gravity induces significant periodic eccentricity in the satellite's orbit. The resulting tidal heating rates, per unit mass, are far in excess of Io's and dominate radioactive heating out to planet orbital periods of months for reasonable satellite tidal Q. Inside planet orbital periods of about a week, tidal heating can completely melt the satellite. Lastly, we compute an upper limit to the satellite mass loss rate due to thermal evaporation from the surface, valid if the satellite's atmosphere is thin and vapor pressure is negligible. Using this upper limit, we find that although rocky satellites around hot Jupiters with orbital periods less than a few days can be significantly evaporated in their lifetimes, detectable satellites suffer negligible mass loss at longer orbital periods.

  18. 14 CFR 141.91 - Satellite bases. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Satellite bases. 141.91 Section 141.91... OTHER CERTIFICATED AGENCIES PILOT SCHOOLS Operating Rules § 141.91 Satellite bases. The holder of a... assistant chief instructor is designated for each satellite base, and that assistant chief instructor is...

  19. Monitoring Cyanobacteria with Satellites Webinar (United States)

    real-world satellite applications can quantify cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms and related water quality parameters. Provisional satellite derived cyanobacteria data and different software tools are available to state environmental and health agencies.

  20. Hurricane Satellite (HURSAT) Microwave (MW) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Hurricane Satellite (HURSAT) from Microwave (MW) observations of tropical cyclones worldwide data consist of raw satellite observations. The data derive from the...

  1. Spanish Earth Observation Satellite System (United States)

    Borges, A.; Cerezo, F.; Fernandez, M.; Lomba, J.; Lopez, M.; Moreno, J.; Neira, A.; Quintana, C.; Torres, J.; Trigo, R.; Urena, J.; Vega, E.; Vez, E.


    The Spanish Ministry of Industry, Tourism and Trade (MITyC) and the Ministry of Defense (MoD) signed an agreement in 2007 for the development of a "Spanish Earth Observation Satellite System" based, in first instance, on two satellites: a high resolution optical satellite, called SEOSAT/Ingenio, and a radar satellite based on SAR technology, called SEOSAR/Paz. SEOSAT/Ingenio is managed by MITyC through the Centre for the Development of Industrial Technology (CDTI), with technical and contractual support from the European Space Agency (ESA). HISDESA T together with the Spanish Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aeroespacial (INTA, National Institute for Aerospace Technology) will be responsible for the in-orbit operation and the commercial operation of both satellites, and for the technical management of SEOSAR/Paz on behalf of the MoD. In both cases EADS CASA Espacio (ECE) is the prime contractor leading the industrial consortia. The ground segment development will be assigned to a Spanish consortium. This system is the most important contribution of Spain to the European Programme Global Monitoring for Environment and Security, GMES. This paper presents the Spanish Earth Observation Satellite System focusing on SEOSA T/Ingenio Programme and with special emphasis in the potential contribution to the ESA Third Party Missions Programme and to the Global Monitoring for Environment and Security initiative (GMES) Data Access.

  2. Satellite transmission of oceanographic data

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Desa, E.S.; Desai, R.G.P.; DeSa, E.J.

    Oceanographic data collected on a research vessel has been transmitted to a shore laboratory using the INMARSAT maritime satellite The system configuration used, consisted of Satellite Communication Terminals interfaced to desk top computers...

  3. Satellite Tags- Guam/CNMI EEZ (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Satellite tagging was implemented in 2013. Satellite tagging is conducted using a Dan Inject air rifle and deployment arrows designed by Wildlife Computers. Two...

  4. Temperature diagnostics using lithium-like satellites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datla, R.U.; Jones, L.A.; Thomson, D.B.


    A 60-kJ theta-pinch was operated at a filling pressure of 16 mtorr using a gas mixture of 2% neon and 98% helium. The resonance and intercombination lines from Ne IX and the Li-like satellites were observed with a Bragg crystal monochromator. The electron temperature of the plasma was deduced from the intensity ratios of the Ne IX resonance line and the dielectronic satellites using recent theoretical calculations. The temperature values ranged from 210 eV to 340 eV during the time of occurrence of these satellites. The temperature measured at 1.0 μs by laser scattering for a similar plasma condition was in close agreement with that obtained by the resonance line/satellite ratio. This lends confidence to use of the satellite technique for temperature measurements in other plasmas

  5. Future Satellite Gravimetry and Earth Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Flury, Jakob


    Currently, a first generation of dedicated satellite missions for the precise mapping of the Earth’s gravity field is in orbit (CHAMP, GRACE, and soon GOCE). The gravity data from these satellite missions provide us with very new information on the dynamics of planet Earth. In particular, on the mass distribution in the Earth’s interior, the entire water cycle (ocean circulation, ice mass balance, continental water masses, and atmosphere), and on changes in the mass distribution. The results are fascinating, but still rough with respect to spatial and temporal resolution. Technical progress in satellite-to-satellite tracking and in gravity gradiometry will allow more detailed results in the future. In this special issue, Earth scientists develop visions of future applications based on follow-on high-precision satellite gravimetry missions.

  6. Living antennas on communication satellites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lumholt, Michael


    Crises change the global pattern of communication. The communications problems occur because the satellites are optimized to cover specific geographic areas, and these areas cannot be altered once the satellites are in Earth orbit. An effective solution to the problem is to equip communication sa...... satellites with "living" antennas that can adjust their radiation coverage areas according to the new demands. The development of living antennas is, therefore, among the focus areas identified and supported by the European Space Agency, ESA....

  7. New Tools to Explore Troy (United States)


    During the Golden Age of Greece the poet Homer wrote of the epic battles between Agamemnon and Priam-the fabled Trojan War. Although the city of Troy was a tourist attraction in Greek and Roman times, by the 1800s its location was lost, and many believed the story was only a myth. Frank Calvert and Heinrich Schliemann thought otherwise, and in the 1870s began excavating an earthen mound in western Turkey, near the Dardanelles. The site did indeed turn out to be the legendary city of Troy, and much more. Different layers-each corresponding to a different city-revealed evidence of a sequence (progression) of human habitation stretching back almost 5000 years. Although the ruins of Troy have been explored for 130 years, archaeologists have only excavated 10 percent of the site. To help them, NASA scientists are exploring new ways of using remote sensing data. The image above shows Troy and the surrounding image in true color. Taken by the Advanced Land Imager (ALI) aboard the EO-1 satellite, the full-size image has a resolution of 10 meters. The city of Troy is circled, and the body of water to the north is the Dardanelles. These and other sensors may help find the boundaries of a harbor near Trojan-war era Troy that has since filled with sediment, trace the route of a Roman aqueduct that carried water to the city 2000 years ago, locate an ancient cemetary, and map the outer walls. A high-resolution image of Troy from the Ikonos satellite, posted previously on the Earth Observatory, reveals more details of the city. Image courtesy Konstantinos Stefanidis, EO-1 team

  8. Study of chaos in chaotic satellite systems (United States)

    Khan, Ayub; Kumar, Sanjay


    In this paper, we study the qualitative behaviour of satellite systems using bifurcation diagrams, Poincaré section, Lyapunov exponents, dissipation, equilibrium points, Kaplan-Yorke dimension etc. Bifurcation diagrams with respect to the known parameters of satellite systems are analysed. Poincaré sections with different sowing axes of the satellite are drawn. Eigenvalues of Jacobian matrices for the satellite system at different equilibrium points are calculated to justify the unstable regions. Lyapunov exponents are estimated. From these studies, chaos in satellite system has been established. Solution of equations of motion of the satellite system are drawn in the form of three-dimensional, two-dimensional and time series phase portraits. Phase portraits and time series display the chaotic nature of the considered system.

  9. Satellite cells in human skeletal muscle plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim eSnijders


    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle satellite cells are considered to play a crucial role in muscle fiber maintenance, repair and remodelling. Our knowledge of the role of satellite cells in muscle fiber adaptation has traditionally relied on in vitro cell and in vivo animal models. Over the past decade, a genuine effort has been made to translate these results to humans under physiological conditions. Findings from in vivo human studies suggest that satellite cells play a key role in skeletal muscle fiber repair/remodelling in response to exercise. Mounting evidence indicates that aging has a profound impact on the regulation of satellite cells in human skeletal muscle. Yet, the precise role of satellite cells in the development of muscle fiber atrophy with age remains unresolved. This review seeks to integrate recent results from in vivo human studies on satellite cell function in muscle fiber repair/remodelling in the wider context of satellite cell biology whose literature is largely based on animal and cell models.

  10. Satellite cells in human skeletal muscle plasticity. (United States)

    Snijders, Tim; Nederveen, Joshua P; McKay, Bryon R; Joanisse, Sophie; Verdijk, Lex B; van Loon, Luc J C; Parise, Gianni


    Skeletal muscle satellite cells are considered to play a crucial role in muscle fiber maintenance, repair and remodeling. Our knowledge of the role of satellite cells in muscle fiber adaptation has traditionally relied on in vitro cell and in vivo animal models. Over the past decade, a genuine effort has been made to translate these results to humans under physiological conditions. Findings from in vivo human studies suggest that satellite cells play a key role in skeletal muscle fiber repair/remodeling in response to exercise. Mounting evidence indicates that aging has a profound impact on the regulation of satellite cells in human skeletal muscle. Yet, the precise role of satellite cells in the development of muscle fiber atrophy with age remains unresolved. This review seeks to integrate recent results from in vivo human studies on satellite cell function in muscle fiber repair/remodeling in the wider context of satellite cell biology whose literature is largely based on animal and cell models.

  11. Multi-agent robotic systems and applications for satellite missions (United States)

    Nunes, Miguel A.

    A revolution in the space sector is happening. It is expected that in the next decade there will be more satellites launched than in the previous sixty years of space exploration. Major challenges are associated with this growth of space assets such as the autonomy and management of large groups of satellites, in particular with small satellites. There are two main objectives for this work. First, a flexible and distributed software architecture is presented to expand the possibilities of spacecraft autonomy and in particular autonomous motion in attitude and position. The approach taken is based on the concept of distributed software agents, also referred to as multi-agent robotic system. Agents are defined as software programs that are social, reactive and proactive to autonomously maximize the chances of achieving the set goals. Part of the work is to demonstrate that a multi-agent robotic system is a feasible approach for different problems of autonomy such as satellite attitude determination and control and autonomous rendezvous and docking. The second main objective is to develop a method to optimize multi-satellite configurations in space, also known as satellite constellations. This automated method generates new optimal mega-constellations designs for Earth observations and fast revisit times on large ground areas. The optimal satellite constellation can be used by researchers as the baseline for new missions. The first contribution of this work is the development of a new multi-agent robotic system for distributing the attitude determination and control subsystem for HiakaSat. The multi-agent robotic system is implemented and tested on the satellite hardware-in-the-loop testbed that simulates a representative space environment. The results show that the newly proposed system for this particular case achieves an equivalent control performance when compared to the monolithic implementation. In terms on computational efficiency it is found that the multi

  12. Satellite interference analysis and simulation using personal computers (United States)

    Kantak, Anil


    This report presents the complete analysis and formulas necessary to quantify the interference experienced by a generic satellite communications receiving station due to an interfering satellite. Both satellites, the desired as well as the interfering satellite, are considered to be in elliptical orbits. Formulas are developed for the satellite look angles and the satellite transmit angles generally related to the land mask of the receiving station site for both satellites. Formulas for considering Doppler effect due to the satellite motion as well as the Earth's rotation are developed. The effect of the interfering-satellite signal modulation and the Doppler effect on the power received are considered. The statistical formulation of the interference effect is presented in the form of a histogram of the interference to the desired signal power ratio. Finally, a computer program suitable for microcomputers such as IBM AT is provided with the flowchart, a sample run, results of the run, and the program code.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payne, Matthew J.; Holman, Matthew J.; Deck, Katherine M.; Perets, Hagai B.


    We perform numerical integrations of four-body (star, planet, planet, satellite) systems to investigate the stability of satellites in planetary systems with tightly packed inner planets (STIPs). We find that the majority of closely spaced stable two-planet systems can stably support satellites across a range of parameter-space which is only slightly decreased compared to that seen for the single-planet case. In particular, circular prograde satellites remain stable out to ∼0.4 R H (where R H is the Hill radius) as opposed to 0.5 R H in the single-planet case. A similarly small restriction in the stable parameter-space for retrograde satellites is observed, where planetary close approaches in the range 2.5-4.5 mutual Hill radii destabilize most satellites orbits only if a ∼ 0.65 R H . In very close planetary pairs (e.g., the 12:11 resonance) the addition of a satellite frequently destabilizes the entire system, causing extreme close approaches and the loss of satellites over a range of circumplanetary semi-major axes. The majority of systems investigated stably harbored satellites over a wide parameter-space, suggesting that STIPs can generally offer a dynamically stable home for satellites, albeit with a slightly smaller stable parameter-space than the single-planet case. As we demonstrate that multi-planet systems are not a priori poor candidates for hosting satellites, future measurements of satellite occurrence rates in multi-planet systems versus single-planet systems could be used to constrain either satellite formation or past periods of strong dynamical interaction between planets

  14. A MODIS-Based Robust Satellite Technique (RST for Timely Detection of Oil Spilled Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodosio Lacava


    Full Text Available Natural crude-oil seepages, together with the oil released into seawater as a consequence of oil exploration/production/transportation activities, and operational discharges from tankers (i.e., oil dumped during cleaning actions represent the main sources of sea oil pollution. Satellite remote sensing can be a useful tool for the management of such types of marine hazards, namely oil spills, mainly owing to the synoptic view and the good trade-off between spatial and temporal resolution, depending on the specific platform/sensor system used. In this paper, an innovative satellite-based technique for oil spill detection, based on the general robust satellite technique (RST approach, is presented. It exploits the multi-temporal analysis of data acquired in the visible channels of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS on board the Aqua satellite in order to automatically and quickly detect the presence of oil spills on the sea surface, with an attempt to minimize “false detections” caused by spurious effects associated with, for instance, cloud edges, sun/satellite geometries, sea currents, etc. The oil spill event that occurred in June 2007 off the south coast of Cyprus in the Mediterranean Sea has been considered as a test case. The resulting data, the reliability of which has been evaluated by both carrying out a confutation analysis and comparing them with those provided by the application of another independent MODIS-based method, showcase the potential of RST in identifying the presence of oil with a high level of accuracy.

  15. A mars communication constellation for human exploration and network science (United States)

    Castellini, Francesco; Simonetto, Andrea; Martini, Roberto; Lavagna, Michèle


    This paper analyses the possibility of exploiting a small spacecrafts constellation around Mars to ensure a complete and continuous coverage of the planet, for the purpose of supporting future human and robotic operations and taking advantage of optical transmission techniques. The study foresees such a communications mission to be implemented at least after 2020 and a high data-rate requirement is imposed for the return of huge scientific data from massive robotic exploration or to allow video transmissions from a possible human outpost. In addition, the set-up of a communication constellation around Mars would give the opportunity of exploiting this multi-platform infrastructure to perform network science, that would largely increase our knowledge of the planet. The paper covers all technical aspects of a feasibility study performed for the primary communications mission. Results are presented for the system trade-offs, including communication architecture, constellation configuration and transfer strategy, and the mission analysis optimization, performed through the application of a multi-objective genetic algorithm to two models of increasing difficulty for the low-thrust trajectory definition. The resulting communication architecture is quite complex and includes six 530 kg spacecrafts on two different orbital planes, plus one redundant unit per plane, that ensure complete coverage of the planet’s surface; communications between the satellites and Earth are achieved through optical links, that allow lower mass and power consumption with respect to traditional radio-frequency technology, while inter-satellite links and spacecrafts-to-Mars connections are ensured by radio transmissions. The resulting data-rates for Earth-Mars uplink and downlink, satellite-to-satellite and satellite-to-surface are respectively 13.7 Mbps, 10.2 Mbps, 4.8 Mbps and 4.3 Mbps, in worst-case. Two electric propulsion modules are foreseen, to be placed on a C3˜0 escape orbit with two

  16. The Implementation of Satellite Control System Software Using Object Oriented Design (United States)

    Anderson, Mark O.; Reid, Mark; Drury, Derek; Hansell, William; Phillips, Tom


    NASA established the Small Explorer (SMEX) program in 1988 to provide frequent opportunities for highly focused and relatively inexpensive space science missions that can be launched into low earth orbit by small expendable vehicles. The development schedule for each SMEX spacecraft was three years from start to launch. The SMEX program has produced five satellites; Solar Anomalous and Magnetospheric Particle Explorer (SAMPEX), Fast Auroral Snapshot Explorer (FAST), Submillimeter Wave Astronomy Satellite (SWAS), Transition Region and Coronal Explorer (TRACE) and Wide-Field Infrared Explorer (WIRE). SAMPEX and FAST are on-orbit, TRACE is scheduled to be launched in April of 1998, WIRE is scheduled to be launched in September of 1998, and SWAS is scheduled to be launched in January of 1999. In each of these missions, the Attitude Control System (ACS) software was written using a modular procedural design. Current program goals require complete spacecraft development within 18 months. This requirement has increased pressure to write reusable flight software. Object-Oriented Design (OOD) offers the constructs for developing an application that only needs modification for mission unique requirements. This paper describes the OOD that was used to develop the SMEX-Lite ACS software. The SMEX-Lite ACS is three-axis controlled, momentum stabilized, and is capable of performing sub-arc-minute pointing. The paper first describes the high level requirements which governed the architecture of the SMEX-Lite ACS software. Next, the context in which the software resides is explained. The paper describes the benefits of encapsulation, inheritance and polymorphism with respect to the implementation of an ACS software system. This paper will discuss the design of several software components that comprise the ACS software. Specifically, Object-Oriented designs are presented for sensor data processing, attitude control, attitude determination and failure detection. The paper addresses

  17. Regulation of satellite cell function in sarcopenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen E Alway


    Full Text Available The mechanisms contributing to sarcopenia include reduced satellite cell (myogenic stem cell function that is impacted by the environment (niche of these cells. Satellite cell function is affected by oxidative stress, which is elevated in aged muscles, and this along with changes in largely unknown systemic factors, likely contribute to the manner in which satellite cells respond to stressors such as exercise, disuse or rehabilitation in sarcopenic muscles. Nutritional intervention provides one therapeutic strategy to improve the satellite cell niche and systemic factors, with the goal of improving satellite cell function in aging muscles. Although many elderly persons consume various nutraceuticals with the hope of improving health, most of these compounds have not been thoroughly tested, and the impacts that they might have on sarcopenia, and satellite cell function are not clear. This review discusses data pertaining to the satellite cell responses and function in aging skeletal muscle, and the impact that three compounds: resveratrol, green tea catechins and β-Hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate have on regulating satellite cell function and therefore contributing to reducing sarcopenia or improving muscle mass after disuse in aging. The data suggest that these nutraceutical compounds improve satellite cell function during rehabilitative loading in animal models of aging after disuse (i.e., muscle regeneration. While these compounds have not been rigorously tested in humans, the data from animal models of aging provide a strong basis for conducting additional focused work to determine if these or other nutraceuticals can offset the muscle losses, or improve regeneration in sarcopenic muscles of older humans via improving satellite cell function.

  18. Regulation of Satellite Cell Function in Sarcopenia (United States)

    Alway, Stephen E.; Myers, Matthew J.; Mohamed, Junaith S.


    The mechanisms contributing to sarcopenia include reduced satellite cell (myogenic stem cell) function that is impacted by the environment (niche) of these cells. Satellite cell function is affected by oxidative stress, which is elevated in aged muscles, and this along with changes in largely unknown systemic factors, likely contribute to the manner in which satellite cells respond to stressors such as exercise, disuse, or rehabilitation in sarcopenic muscles. Nutritional intervention provides one therapeutic strategy to improve the satellite cell niche and systemic factors, with the goal of improving satellite cell function in aging muscles. Although many elderly persons consume various nutraceuticals with the hope of improving health, most of these compounds have not been thoroughly tested, and the impacts that they might have on sarcopenia and satellite cell function are not clear. This review discusses data pertaining to the satellite cell responses and function in aging skeletal muscle, and the impact that three compounds: resveratrol, green tea catechins, and β-Hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate have on regulating satellite cell function and therefore contributing to reducing sarcopenia or improving muscle mass after disuse in aging. The data suggest that these nutraceutical compounds improve satellite cell function during rehabilitative loading in animal models of aging after disuse (i.e., muscle regeneration). While these compounds have not been rigorously tested in humans, the data from animal models of aging provide a strong basis for conducting additional focused work to determine if these or other nutraceuticals can offset the muscle losses, or improve regeneration in sarcopenic muscles of older humans via improving satellite cell function. PMID:25295003

  19. Absence of satellites of asteroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gehrels, T.; Drummond, J.D.; Levenson, N.A.


    The absence of satellites within 0.1-7.0 arcmin of minor planets noted in the present CCD imaging survey is judged consistent with previous theoretical studies of collisions in which it is held that satellites would have to be larger than about 30 km in order to be collisionally stable. In view of tidal stability, the only main belt asteroid satellites which could conceivably possess stability over eons are near-contact binaries. Any recent collisional debris would be chaotic and collisionally unstable. 15 references

  20. Discriminating satellite IR anomalies associated with the MS 7.1 Yushu earthquake in China (United States)

    Qin, Kai; Wu, Lixin; Zheng, Shuo; Ma, Weiyu


    In the process of exploring pre-earthquake thermal anomalies using satellite infrared data, Blackett et al. (2011) found that the previously reported anomalies before the 2001 Mw 7.7 Gujarat earthquake, in India, were related to positive biases caused by data gaps due to cloud cover and mosaicing of neighboring orbits of MODIS satellite data. They supposed that such effects could also be responsible for other cases. We noted a strip-shaped TIR anomaly on March 17th, 2010, 28 days before the Ms. 7.1 Yushu earthquake (Qin et al., 2011). Here we again investigate multi-year infrared satellite data in different bands to discriminate whether the anomaly is associated with the earthquake, or is only bias caused by the data gaps. From the water vapor images, we find lots of clouds that have TIR anomalies. However, on the cloudiness background, there is an obvious strip-shaped gap matching the tectonic faults almost perfectly. In particular, the animation loops of hourly water vapor images show that the cloud kept moving from west to east, while they never covered the strip-shaped gap. We consider that the cloud with this special spatial pattern should have implied the abnormal signals associated with the seismogenic process. Based on current physical models, the satellite IR anomalies both on TIR and water vapor bands can qualitatively be explained using synthetic mechanisms.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conn, A. R.; Parker, Q. A.; Zucker, D. B.; Lewis, G. F.; Ibata, R. A.; Martin, N. F.; McConnachie, A. W.; Valls-Gabaud, D.; Tanvir, N.; Irwin, M. J.; Ferguson, A. M. N.; Chapman, S. C.


    We undertake an investigation into the spatial structure of the M31 satellite system utilizing the distance distributions presented in a previous publication. These distances make use of the unique combination of depth and spatial coverage of the Pan-Andromeda Archaeological Survey to provide a large, homogeneous sample consisting of 27 of M31's satellites, as well as M31 itself. We find that the satellite distribution, when viewed as a whole, is no more planar than one would expect from a random distribution of equal size. A disk consisting of 15 of the satellites is however found to be highly significant, and strikingly thin, with an rms thickness of just 12.34 +0.75 -0.43 kpc. This disk is oriented approximately edge-on with respect to the Milky Way and almost perpendicular to the Milky Way disk. It is also roughly orthogonal to the disk-like structure regularly reported for the Milky Way satellite system and in close alignment with M31's Giant Stellar Stream. A similar analysis of the asymmetry of the M31 satellite distribution finds that it is also significantly larger than one would expect from a random distribution. In particular, it is remarkable that 20 of the 27 satellites most likely lie on the Milky Way side of the galaxy, with the asymmetry being most pronounced within the satellite subset forming the aforementioned disk. This lopsidedness is all the more intriguing in light of the apparent orthogonality observed between the satellite disk structures of the Milky Way and M31.

  2. Exploring cosmic origins with CORE: Inflation (United States)

    Finelli, F.; Bucher, M.; Achúcarro, A.; Ballardini, M.; Bartolo, N.; Baumann, D.; Clesse, S.; Errard, J.; Handley, W.; Hindmarsh, M.; Kiiveri, K.; Kunz, M.; Lasenby, A.; Liguori, M.; Paoletti, D.; Ringeval, C.; Väliviita, J.; van Tent, B.; Vennin, V.; Ade, P.; Allison, R.; Arroja, F.; Ashdown, M.; Banday, A. J.; Banerji, R.; Bartlett, J. G.; Basak, S.; de Bernardis, P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bonaldi, A.; Borril, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Boulanger, F.; Brinckmann, T.; Burigana, C.; Buzzelli, A.; Cai, Z.-Y.; Calvo, M.; Carvalho, C. S.; Castellano, G.; Challinor, A.; Chluba, J.; Colantoni, I.; Coppolecchia, A.; Crook, M.; D'Alessandro, G.; D'Amico, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Desjacques, V.; De Zotti, G.; Diego, J. M.; Di Valentino, E.; Feeney, S.; Fergusson, J. R.; Fernandez-Cobos, R.; Ferraro, S.; Forastieri, F.; Galli, S.; García-Bellido, J.; de Gasperis, G.; Génova-Santos, R. T.; Gerbino, M.; González-Nuevo, J.; Grandis, S.; Greenslade, J.; Hagstotz, S.; Hanany, S.; Hazra, D. K.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Hervias-Caimapo, C.; Hills, M.; Hivon, E.; Hu, B.; Kisner, T.; Kitching, T.; Kovetz, E. D.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lamagna, L.; Lattanzi, M.; Lesgourgues, J.; Lewis, A.; Lindholm, V.; Lizarraga, J.; López-Caniego, M.; Luzzi, G.; Maffei, B.; Mandolesi, N.; Martínez-González, E.; Martins, C. J. A. P.; Masi, S.; McCarthy, D.; Matarrese, S.; Melchiorri, A.; Melin, J.-B.; Molinari, D.; Monfardini, A.; Natoli, P.; Negrello, M.; Notari, A.; Oppizzi, F.; Paiella, A.; Pajer, E.; Patanchon, G.; Patil, S. P.; Piat, M.; Pisano, G.; Polastri, L.; Polenta, G.; Pollo, A.; Poulin, V.; Quartin, M.; Ravenni, A.; Remazeilles, M.; Renzi, A.; Roest, D.; Roman, M.; Rubiño-Martin, J. A.; Salvati, L.; Starobinsky, A. A.; Tartari, A.; Tasinato, G.; Tomasi, M.; Torrado, J.; Trappe, N.; Trombetti, T.; Tucci, M.; Tucker, C.; Urrestilla, J.; van de Weygaert, R.; Vielva, P.; Vittorio, N.; Young, K.; Zannoni, M.


    We forecast the scientific capabilities to improve our understanding of cosmic inflation of CORE, a proposed CMB space satellite submitted in response to the ESA fifth call for a medium-size mission opportunity. The CORE satellite will map the CMB anisotropies in temperature and polarization in 19 frequency channels spanning the range 60–600 GHz. CORE will have an aggregate noise sensitivity of 1.7 μKṡ arcmin and an angular resolution of 5' at 200 GHz. We explore the impact of telescope size and noise sensitivity on the inflation science return by making forecasts for several instrumental configurations. This study assumes that the lower and higher frequency channels suffice to remove foreground contaminations and complements other related studies of component separation and systematic effects, which will be reported in other papers of the series "Exploring Cosmic Origins with CORE." We forecast the capability to determine key inflationary parameters, to lower the detection limit for the tensor-to-scalar ratio down to the 10‑3 level, to chart the landscape of single field slow-roll inflationary models, to constrain the epoch of reheating, thus connecting inflation to the standard radiation-matter dominated Big Bang era, to reconstruct the primordial power spectrum, to constrain the contribution from isocurvature perturbations to the 10‑3 level, to improve constraints on the cosmic string tension to a level below the presumptive GUT scale, and to improve the current measurements of primordial non-Gaussianities down to the fNLlocal inflation. Its capabilities will be further enhanced by combining with complementary future cosmological observations.

  3. Fine-tuning satellite-based rainfall estimates (United States)

    Harsa, Hastuadi; Buono, Agus; Hidayat, Rahmat; Achyar, Jaumil; Noviati, Sri; Kurniawan, Roni; Praja, Alfan S.


    Rainfall datasets are available from various sources, including satellite estimates and ground observation. The locations of ground observation scatter sparsely. Therefore, the use of satellite estimates is advantageous, because satellite estimates can provide data on places where the ground observations do not present. However, in general, the satellite estimates data contain bias, since they are product of algorithms that transform the sensors response into rainfall values. Another cause may come from the number of ground observations used by the algorithms as the reference in determining the rainfall values. This paper describe the application of bias correction method to modify the satellite-based dataset by adding a number of ground observation locations that have not been used before by the algorithm. The bias correction was performed by utilizing Quantile Mapping procedure between ground observation data and satellite estimates data. Since Quantile Mapping required mean and standard deviation of both the reference and the being-corrected data, thus the Inverse Distance Weighting scheme was applied beforehand to the mean and standard deviation of the observation data in order to provide a spatial composition of them, which were originally scattered. Therefore, it was possible to provide a reference data point at the same location with that of the satellite estimates. The results show that the new dataset have statistically better representation of the rainfall values recorded by the ground observation than the previous dataset.

  4. GPS satellite surveying

    CERN Document Server

    Leick, Alfred; Tatarnikov, Dmitry


    THE MOST COMPREHENSIVE, UP-TO-DATE GUIDE ON GPS TECHNOLOGY FOR SURVEYING Three previous editions have established GPS Satellite Surveying as the definitive industry reference. Now fully updated and expanded to reflect the newest developments in the field, this Fourth Edition features cutting-edge information on GNSS antennas, precise point positioning, real-time relative positioning, lattice reduction, and much more. Expert authors examine additional tools and applications, offering complete coverage of geodetic surveying using satellite technologies. The past decade has seen a major evolut

  5. Farside explorer : Unique science from a mission to the farside of the moon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mimoun, D.; Wieczorek, M.A.; Gurvits, L.


    Farside Explorer is a proposed Cosmic Vision medium-size mission to the farside of theMoon consisting of two landers and an instrumented relay satellite. The farside of the Moon is a unique scientific platform in that it is shielded from terrestrial radio-frequency interference, it recorded the

  6. Physical characteristics of satellite surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veverka, J.; Thomas, P.; Johnson, T.V.; Matson, D.; Housen, K.


    Both exogenic and endogenic effects have been proposed to explain the major observed characteristics of satellite surfaces. The current view is that the basic properties of most surfaces result from the intrinsic composition of a body and its geologic history. Exogenic effects have, however, played a role in modifying the appearance of nearly all surfaces. The most important exogenic effect is impact cratering, one manifestation of which is the production of micrometeoroid gardened regoliths on airless bodies. On large, silicate bodies the micrometeoroid bombardment can produce an optically mature, dark agglutinate-rich soil; the nature of regoliths on predominantly icy satellites remains uncertain. Direct accumulation of infalling material does not appear to play a major role in modifying most surfaces. Solar wind radiation effects have not altered greatly the optical properties of solar system objects; magnetospheric charged particles may have modified the optical properties of some outer planet satellites (e.g., sulfur ion bombardment in the case of some of the satellites of Jupiter). Other effects, such as aeolian and liquid/solid chemical weathering, may be important on satellites with atmospheres like Titan and Triton

  7. Choosing ESRO's first scientific satellites (United States)

    Russo, Arturo


    The choice of the scientific payloads of the European Space Research Organization's (ESRO's) first generation of satellites is analyzed. Concentration is on those aspects of the decision process that involved more directly the scientific community and that emerged as major issues in the discussion of the Launching Program Advisory Committee (LPAC). The main theme was the growing competition between the various fields of space science within the progressive retrenching of the Organization's financial resources available for the satellite program. A general overview of the status of the program by the end of 1966 is presented. The choice of the first small satellites' payloads (ESRO 1 and 2, and HEOS-A) and the difficult definition of the TD satellite program are discussed. This part covers a time span going from early 1963 to the spring of 1966. In the second part, the narrative starts from the spring of 1967, when the decision to recommend a second HEOS-type satellite was taken, and then analyzes the complex situation determined by the crisis of the TD program in 1968, and the debates which eventually led to the abandonment of TD-2 and the start of the far less ambitious ESRO 5 project.

  8. Satellite DNA: An Evolving Topic. (United States)

    Garrido-Ramos, Manuel A


    Satellite DNA represents one of the most fascinating parts of the repetitive fraction of the eukaryotic genome. Since the discovery of highly repetitive tandem DNA in the 1960s, a lot of literature has extensively covered various topics related to the structure, organization, function, and evolution of such sequences. Today, with the advent of genomic tools, the study of satellite DNA has regained a great interest. Thus, Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS), together with high-throughput in silico analysis of the information contained in NGS reads, has revolutionized the analysis of the repetitive fraction of the eukaryotic genomes. The whole of the historical and current approaches to the topic gives us a broad view of the function and evolution of satellite DNA and its role in chromosomal evolution. Currently, we have extensive information on the molecular, chromosomal, biological, and population factors that affect the evolutionary fate of satellite DNA, knowledge that gives rise to a series of hypotheses that get on well with each other about the origin, spreading, and evolution of satellite DNA. In this paper, I review these hypotheses from a methodological, conceptual, and historical perspective and frame them in the context of chromosomal organization and evolution.

  9. The Study of a Super Low Altitude Satellite (United States)

    Noda, Atsushi; Homma, Masanori; Utashima, Masayoshi

    This paper reports the result of a study for super low altitude satellite. The altitude of this satellite's orbit is lower than ever. The altitude of a conventional earth observing satellite is generally around from 600km to 900km. The lowest altitude of earth observing satellite launched in Japan was 350km; the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). By comparison, the satellite reported in this paper is much lower than that and it is planned to orbit below 200km. Furthermore, the duration of the flight planned is more than two years. Any satellite in the world has not achieved to keep such a low altitude that long term. The satellite in such a low orbit drops quickly because of the strong air drag. Our satellite will cancel the air drag effect by ion engine thrust. To realize this idea, a drag-free system will be applied. This usually leads a complicated and expensive satellite system. We, however, succeeded in finding a robust control law for a simple system even under the unpredictable change of air drag. When the altitude of the satellite is lowered successfully, the spatial resolution of an optical sensor can be highly improved. If a SAR is equipped with the satellite, it enables the drastic reduction of electric power consumption and the fabulous spatial resolution improvement at the same time.

  10. Satellite constellation design and radio resource management using genetic algorithm.


    Asvial, Muhamad.


    A novel strategy for automatic satellite constellation design with satellite diversity is proposed. The automatic satellite constellation design means some parameters of satellite constellation design can be determined simultaneously. The total number of satellites, the altitude of satellite, the angle between planes, the angle shift between satellites and the inclination angle are considered for automatic satellite constellation design. Satellite constellation design is modelled using a mult...

  11. Commercial satellite broadcasting for Europe (United States)

    Forrest, J. R.


    A review is presented of the current television broadcasting situation in European countries, which involves a varied mix of terrestrial VHF or UHF systems and cable networks. A small market has emerged in Europe for receivers using the low-power telecommunications satellite transmission between the program providers and cable network companies. This is expected to change with the launch of medium-power pan-European telecommunication satellites (e.g. ASTRA, EUTELSAT II), which are now directly addressing the market of home reception. DBS (direct broadcast satellite) in the UK, using the D-MAC transmission standard, will offer three additional television channels, data broadcasting services, and a planned evolution to compatible forms of wide-screen, high-definition television. Comments are given on receiver and conditional access system standardization. Some views are expressed on satellite broadcasting as part of an overall broadcasting framework for the future.

  12. Satellite communications principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Calcutt, David


    Satellites are increasingly used for global communications, as well as for radio and television transmissions. With the growth of mobile communications, and of digital technology, the use of satellite systems is set to expand substantially and already all students of electronics or communications engineering must study the subject.This book steers a middle path between offering a basic understanding of the process of communication by satellite and the methodology used; and the extensive mathematical analysis normally adopted in similar texts. It presents the basic concepts, using as mu

  13. The Emerging Trends in Satellite and Wireless Communications ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Table of contents. The Emerging Trends in Satellite and Wireless Communications Technologies · Satellite Communications · Communications Satellites for Global Coverage · Satellite Transponders · The Four Generations Of Commercial Communication Geo-Sat · PowerPoint Presentation · An Indian Scenario INSAT ...

  14. Alenia Spazio: Space Programs for Solar System Exploration . (United States)

    Ferri, A.

    Alenia Spazio is the major Italian space industry and one of the largest in Europe, with 2,400 highly skilled employees and 16,000 square meters of clean rooms and laboratories for advanced technological research that are among the most modern and well-equipped in Europe. The company has wide experience in the design, development, assembly, integration, verification and testing of complete space systems: satellites for telecommunications and navigation, remote sensing, meteorology and scientific applications; manned systems and space infrastructures; launch, transport and re-entry systems, and control centres. Alenia Spazio has contributed to the construction of over 200 satellites and taken part in the most important national and international space programmes, from the International Space Station to the new European global navigation system Galileo. Focusing on Solar System exploration, in the last 10 years the Company took part, with different roles, to the major European and also NASA missions in the field: Rosetta, Mars Express, Cassini; will soon take part in Venus Express, and is planning the future with Bepi Colombo, Solar Orbiter, GAIA and Exomars. In this paper, as in the presentation, a very important Earth Observation mission is also presented: GOCE. All in all, the Earth is by all means part of the Solar system as well and we like to see it as a planet to be explored.

  15. Advanced mobile satellite communications system using Ka and MM-wave bands in Japan's R and D satellite project (United States)

    Isobe, Shunkichi; Ohmori, Shingo; Hamamoto, Naokazu; Yamamoto, Minoru


    Communications Research Laboratory (CRL) studied an advanced mobile satellite communications system using Ka and millimeter-wave bands in the R&D Satellite project. The project started in 1990 and the satellite will be launched in 1997. On-board multi-beam interconnecting is one of basic functions to realize one-hop connection among Very Small Aperture Terminals (VSATs), mobile, and hand-held terminals in future mobile satellite communications system. An Intermediate Frequency (IF) filter bank and regenerative transponder are suitable for this function. The transponder configuration of an advanced mobile communications mission of the R&D Satellite for experiment is shown. High power transmitters of Ka and millimeter-wave bands, a 3x3 IF filter band and Single Channel Per Carrier/Time Division Multiplexing (SCPC/TDM) regenerative MODEMS, which will be boarded on the R&D Satellite, are being developed for the purpose of studying the feasibility of advanced mobile communications system.

  16. PRMT7 Preserves Satellite Cell Regenerative Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roméo Sébastien Blanc


    Full Text Available Regeneration of skeletal muscle requires the continued presence of quiescent muscle stem cells (satellite cells, which become activated in response to injury. Here, we report that whole-body protein arginine methyltransferase PRMT7−/− adult mice and mice conditionally lacking PRMT7 in satellite cells using Pax7-CreERT2 both display a significant reduction in satellite cell function, leading to defects in regenerative capacity upon muscle injury. We show that PRMT7 is preferentially expressed in activated satellite cells and, interestingly, PRMT7-deficient satellite cells undergo cell-cycle arrest and premature cellular senescence. These defects underlie poor satellite cell stem cell capacity to regenerate muscle and self-renew after injury. PRMT7-deficient satellite cells express elevated levels of the CDK inhibitor p21CIP1 and low levels of its repressor, DNMT3b. Restoration of DNMT3b in PRMT7-deficient cells rescues PRMT7-mediated senescence. Our findings define PRMT7 as a regulator of the DNMT3b/p21 axis required to maintain muscle stem cell regenerative capacity.

  17. Texstar: The all-Texas educational satellite system (United States)


    Longhorn Satellite Company (LSC) has designed Texstar, and educational satellite communications system which will be considered as a means of equalizing the distribution of educational resources throughout the state of Texas. Texstar will be capable of broadcasting live lectures and documentaries in addition to transmitting data from a centralized receiving-transmitting station. Included in the design of Texstar is the system and subsystem design for the satellite and the design of the ground stations. The launch vehicle used will be the Texas-built Conestoga 421-48. The Texstar system incorporates three small satellites in slightly inclined geosynchronous orbits. Due to the configuration and spacing of these satellites, the system will be accessed as if it were one large, geostationary satellite. Texstar is shown to be a viable option to the educational crisis in the state of Texas.

  18. Capture of irregular satellites at Jupiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nesvorný, David; Vokrouhlický, David; Deienno, Rogerio


    The irregular satellites of outer planets are thought to have been captured from heliocentric orbits. The exact nature of the capture process, however, remains uncertain. We examine the possibility that irregular satellites were captured from the planetesimal disk during the early solar system instability when encounters between the outer planets occurred. Nesvorný et al. already showed that the irregular satellites of Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune were plausibly captured during planetary encounters. Here we find that the current instability models present favorable conditions for capture of irregular satellites at Jupiter as well, mainly because Jupiter undergoes a phase of close encounters with an ice giant. We show that the orbital distribution of bodies captured during planetary encounters provides a good match to the observed distribution of irregular satellites at Jupiter. The capture efficiency for each particle in the original transplanetary disk is found to be (1.3-3.6) × 10 –8 . This is roughly enough to explain the observed population of jovian irregular moons. We also confirm Nesvorný et al.'s results for the irregular satellites of Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune.

  19. Education and the Satellite: Possibilities for Saudi Arabia? (United States)

    Al-Sharhan, Jamal


    Discussion of developments in satellite communications and educational applications focuses on the possibilities of adapting satellite technology for instruction in developing countries. Topics include satellite use in Australia and the United States; and recommendations for the adoption of satellite technology in Saudi Arabia. (Author/LRW)

  20. Several thoughts for using new satellite remote sensing and global modeling for aerosol and cloud climate studies (United States)

    Nakajima, Teruyuki; Hashimoto, Makiko; Takenaka, Hideaki; Goto, Daisuke; Oikawa, Eiji; Suzuki, Kentaroh; Uchida, Junya; Dai, Tie; Shi, Chong


    The rapid growth of satellite remote sensing technologies in the last two decades widened the utility of satellite data for understanding climate impacts of aerosols and clouds. The climate modeling community also has received the benefit of the earth observation and nowadays closed-collaboration of the two communities make us possible to challenge various applications for societal problems, such as for global warming and global-scale air pollution and others. I like to give several thoughts of new algorithm developments, model use of satellite data for climate impact studies and societal applications related with aerosols and clouds. Important issues are 1) Better aerosol detection and solar energy application using expanded observation ability of the third generation geostationary satellites, i.e. Himawari-8, GOES-R and future MTG, 2) Various observation functions by directional, polarimetric, and high resolution near-UV band by MISR, POLDER&PARASOL, GOSAT/CAI and future GOSAT2/CAI2, 3) Various applications of general purpose-imagers, MODIS, VIIRS and future GCOM-C/SGLI, and 4) Climate studies of aerosol and cloud stratification and convection with active and passive sensors, especially climate impact of BC aerosols using CLOUDSAT&CALIPSO and future Earth Explorer/EarthCARE.

  1. The 3D Radiation Dose Analysis For Satellite (United States)

    Cai, Zhenbo; Lin, Guocheng; Chen, Guozhen; Liu, Xia


    the earth. These particles come from the Van Allen Belt, Solar Cosmic Ray and Galaxy Cosmic Ray. They have different energy and flux, varying with time and space, and correlating with solar activity tightly. These particles interact with electrical components and materials used on satellites, producing various space radiation effects, which will damage satellite to some extent, or even affect its safety. orbit. Space energy particles inject into components and materials used on satellites, and generate radiation dose by depositing partial or entire energy in them through ionization, which causes their characteristic degradation or even failure. As a consequence, the analysis and protection for radiation dose has been paid more attention during satellite design and manufacture. Designers of satellites need to analyze accurately the space radiation dose while satellites are on orbit, and use the results as the basis for radiation protection designs and ground experiments for satellites. can be calculated, using the model of the trapped proton and the trapped electron in the Van Allen Belt (AE8 and AP8). This is the 1D radiation dose analysis for satellites. Obviously, the mass shielding from the outside space to the computed point in all directions is regarded as a simple sphere shell. The actual structure of satellites, however, is very complex. When energy particles are injecting into a given equipment inside satellite from outside space, they will travel across satellite structure, other equipment, the shell of the given equipment, and so on, which depends greatly on actual layout of satellite. This complex radiation shielding has two characteristics. One is that the shielding masses for the computed point are different in different injecting directions. The other is that for different computed points, the shielding conditions vary in all space directions. Therefore, it is very difficult to tell the differences described above using the 1D radiation analysis, and

  2. Effect of Ionosphere on Geostationary Communication Satellite Signals (United States)

    Erdem, Esra; Arikan, Feza; Gulgonul, Senol


    Geostationary orbit (GEO) communications satellites allow radio, television, and telephone transmissions to be sent live anywhere in the world. They are extremely important in daily life and also for military applications. Since, satellite communication is an expensive technology addressing crowd of people, it is critical to improve the performance of this technology. GEO satellites are at 35,786 kilometres from Earth's surface situated directly over the equator. A satellite in a geostationary orbit (GEO) appears to stand still in the sky, in a fixed position with respect to an observer on the earth, because the satellite's orbital period is the same as the rotation rate of the Earth. The advantage of this orbit is that ground antennas can be fixed to point towards to satellite without their having to track the satellite's motion. Radio frequency ranges used in satellite communications are C, X, Ku, Ka and even EHG and V-band. Satellite signals are disturbed by atmospheric effects on the path between the satellite and the receiver antenna. These effects are mostly rain, cloud and gaseous attenuation. It is expected that ionosphere has a minor effect on the satellite signals when the ionosphere is quiet. But there are anomalies and perturbations on the structure of ionosphere with respect to geomagnetic field and solar activity and these conditions may cause further affects on the satellite signals. In this study IONOLAB-RAY algorithm is adopted to examine the effect of ionosphere on satellite signals. IONOLAB-RAY is developed to calculate propagation path and characteristics of high frequency signals. The algorithm does not have any frequency limitation and models the plasmasphere up to 20,200 km altitude, so that propagation between a GEO satellite and antenna on Earth can be simulated. The algorithm models inhomogeneous, anisotropic and time dependent structure of the ionosphere with a 3-D spherical grid geometry and calculates physical parameters of the

  3. ``High energy Electron exPeriment (HEP)'' onboard the ERG satellite (United States)

    Mitani, T.; Takashima, T.; Kasahara, S.; Miyake, W.; Hirahara, M.


    The Exploration of energization and Radiation in Geospace (ERG) satellite was successfully launched on December 20, 2016, and now explores how relativistic electrons in the radiation belts are generated during space storms. "High energy Electron exPeriment (HEP)" onboard the ERG satellite observes 70 keV - 2 MeV electrons and provides three-dimensional velocity distribution of electrons every spacecraft spin period. Electrons are observed by two types of camera designs, HEP-L and HEP-H, with regard to geometrical factor and energy range. HEP-L observes 0.1 - 1 MeV electrons and its geometrical factor (G-factor) is 10-3 cm2 str, and HEP-H observes 0.7 - 2 MeV and G-factor is 10-2 cm2 str. HEP-L and HEP-H each consist of three pin-hole type cameras, and each camera consist of mechanical collimator, stacked silicon semiconductor detectors and readout ASICs. HEP-H has larger opening angle of the collimator and more silicon detectors to observe higher energy electrons than HEP-L. The initial checkout in orbit was carried out in February 2017 and it was confirmed that there was no performance degradation by comparing the results of the initial checkout in orbit and the prelaunch function tests. Since late March, HEP has carried out normal observation. HEP observed losses and recovery of the outer radiation belt electrons several times up to now. In this presentation we introduce the HEP instrument design, prelaunch tests results and report the initial results in orbit.

  4. Ground test of satellite constellation based quantum communication


    Liao, Sheng-Kai; Yong, Hai-Lin; Liu, Chang; Shentu, Guo-Liang; Li, Dong-Dong; Lin, Jin; Dai, Hui; Zhao, Shuang-Qiang; Li, Bo; Guan, Jian-Yu; Chen, Wei; Gong, Yun-Hong; Li, Yang; Lin, Ze-Hong; Pan, Ge-Sheng


    Satellite based quantum communication has been proven as a feasible way to achieve global scale quantum communication network. Very recently, a low-Earth-orbit (LEO) satellite has been launched for this purpose. However, with a single satellite, it takes an inefficient 3-day period to provide the worldwide connectivity. On the other hand, similar to how the Iridium system functions in classic communication, satellite constellation (SC) composed of many quantum satellites, could provide global...

  5. Using satellite communications for a mobile computer network (United States)

    Wyman, Douglas J.


    The topics discussed include the following: patrol car automation, mobile computer network, network requirements, network design overview, MCN mobile network software, MCN hub operation, mobile satellite software, hub satellite software, the benefits of patrol car automation, the benefits of satellite mobile computing, and national law enforcement satellite.

  6. Solar array experiments on the SPHINX satellite. [Space Plasma High voltage INteraction eXperiment satellite (United States)

    Stevens, N. J.


    The Space Plasma, High Voltage Interaction Experiment (SPHINX) is the name given to an auxiliary payload satellite scheduled to be launched in January 1974. The principal experiments carried on this satellite are specifically designed to obtain the engineering data on the interaction of high voltage systems with the space plasma. The classes of experiments are solar array segments, insulators, insulators with pin holes and conductors. The satellite is also carrying experiments to obtain flight data on three new solar array configurations: the edge illuminated-multijunction cells, the teflon encased cells, and the violet cells.

  7. The Use of a Satellite Human Interaction System in Conjunction with a Satellite Media Distribution System. Satellite Technology Demonstration, Technical Report No. 0217. (United States)

    Dale, Joyce B.

    Satellite Technology Demonstration (STD) was designed to provide data on the use of a satellite to deliver educational programs to 56 rural-isolated schools in eight Rocky Mountain States. Three series were broadcast: (1) a junior high school career development, (2) career development for public school administrators and teachers, and (3) topical…

  8. Satellite-Based Precipitation Datasets (United States)

    Munchak, S. J.; Huffman, G. J.


    Of the possible sources of precipitation data, those based on satellites provide the greatest spatial coverage. There is a wide selection of datasets, algorithms, and versions from which to choose, which can be confusing to non-specialists wishing to use the data. The International Precipitation Working Group (IPWG) maintains tables of the major publicly available, long-term, quasi-global precipitation data sets ( ipwg/data/datasets.html), and this talk briefly reviews the various categories. As examples, NASA provides two sets of quasi-global precipitation data sets: the older Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA) and current Integrated Multi-satellitE Retrievals for Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission (IMERG). Both provide near-real-time and post-real-time products that are uniformly gridded in space and time. The TMPA products are 3-hourly 0.25°x0.25° on the latitude band 50°N-S for about 16 years, while the IMERG products are half-hourly 0.1°x0.1° on 60°N-S for over 3 years (with plans to go to 16+ years in Spring 2018). In addition to the precipitation estimates, each data set provides fields of other variables, such as the satellite sensor providing estimates and estimated random error. The discussion concludes with advice about determining suitability for use, the necessity of being clear about product names and versions, and the need for continued support for satellite- and surface-based observation.

  9. Next generation satellite communications networks (United States)

    Garland, P. J.; Osborne, F. J.; Streibl, I.

    The paper introduces two potential uses for new space hardware to permit enhanced levels of signal handling and switching in satellite communication service for Canada. One application involves increased private-sector services in the Ku band; the second supports new personal/mobile services by employing higher levels of handling and switching in the Ka band. First-generation satellite regeneration and switching experiments involving the NASA/ACTS spacecraft are described, where the Ka band and switching satellite network problems are emphasized. Second-generation satellite development is outlined based on demand trends for more packet-based switching, low-cost earth stations, and closed user groups. A demonstration mission for new Ka- and Ku-band technologies is proposed, including the payload configuration. The half ANIK E payload is shown to meet the demonstration objectives, and projected to maintain a fully operational payload for at least 10 years.

  10. The Exploration of Titan and the Saturnian System (United States)

    Coustenis, Athena

    The exploration of the outer solar system and in particular of the giant planets and their environments is an on-going process with the Cassini spacecraft currently around Saturn, the Juno mission to Jupiter preparing to depart and two large future space missions planned to launch in the 2020-2025 time frame for the Jupiter system and its satellites (Europa and Ganymede) on the one hand, and the Saturnian system and Titan on the other hand [1,2]. Titan, Saturn's largest satellite, is the only other object in our Solar system to possess an extensive nitrogen atmosphere, host to an active organic chemistry, based on the interaction of N2 with methane (CH4). Following the Voyager flyby in 1980, Titan has been intensely studied from the ground-based large telescopes (such as the Keck or the VLT) and by artificial satellites (such as the Infrared Space Observatory and the Hubble Space Telescope) for the past three decades. Prior to Cassini-Huygens, Titan's atmospheric composition was thus known to us from the Voyager missions and also through the explorations by the ISO. Our perception of Titan had thus greatly been enhanced accordingly, but many questions remained as to the nature of the haze surrounding the satellite and the composition of the surface. The recent revelations by the Cassini-Huygens mission have managed to surprise us with many discoveries [3-8] and have yet to reveal more of the interesting aspects of the satellite. The Cassini-Huygens mission to the Saturnian system has been an extraordinary success for the planetary community since the Saturn-Orbit-Insertion (SOI) in July 2004 and again the very successful probe descent and landing of Huygens on January 14, 2005. One of its main targets was Titan. Titan was revealed to be a complex world more like the Earth than any other: it has a dense mostly nitrogen atmosphere and active climate and meteorological cycles where the working fluid, methane, behaves under Titan conditions the way that water does on

  11. An introduction to optimal satellite range scheduling

    CERN Document Server

    Vázquez Álvarez, Antonio José


    The satellite range scheduling (SRS) problem, an important operations research problem in the aerospace industry consisting of allocating tasks among satellites and Earth-bound objects, is examined in this book. SRS principles and solutions are applicable to many areas, including: Satellite communications, where tasks are communication intervals between sets of satellites and ground stations Earth observation, where tasks are observations of spots on the Earth by satellites Sensor scheduling, where tasks are observations of satellites by sensors on the Earth. This self-contained monograph begins with a structured compendium of the problem and moves on to explain the optimal approach to the solution, which includes aspects from graph theory, set theory, game theory and belief networks. This book is accessible to students, professionals and researchers in a variety of fields, including: operations research, optimization, scheduling theory, dynamic programming and game theory. Taking account of the distributed, ...

  12. Escape of natural satellites from Mercury and Venus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, S S [Virginia Univ., Charlottesville (USA)


    It is suggested that the slow rotations of Mercury and Venus may be connected with the absence of natural satellites around them. If Mercury or Venus possessed a satellite at the time of formation, the tidal evolution would have caused the satellite to recede. At a sufficiently large distance from the planet, the Sun's gravitational influence makes the satellite orbit unstable. The natural satellites of Mercury and Venus might have escaped as a consequence of this instability.

  13. Protected transitional solution to transformational satellite communications (United States)

    Brand, Jerry C.


    As the Warfighter progresses into the next generation battlefield, transformational communications become evident as an enabling technology. Satellite communications become even more vital as the battles range over greater non-contiguous spaces. While current satellite communications provide suitable beyond line-of-sight communications and the Transformational Communications Architecture (TCA) sets the stage for sound information exchange, a realizable transition must occur to ensure successful succession to this higher level. This paper addresses the need for a planned escalation to the next generation satellite communications architecture and offers near-term alternatives. Commercial satellite systems continue to enable the Warfighter to reach back to needed information resources, providing a large majority of available bandwidth. Four areas of concentration for transition include encrypted Telemetry, Tracking and Control (or Command) (TT&C), encrypted and covered data, satellite attack detection and protection, and operational mobility. Solution methodologies include directly embedding COMSEC devices in the satellites and terminals, and supplementing existing terminals with suitable equipment and software. Future satellites planned for near-term launches can be adapted to include commercial grade and higher-level secure equipment. Alternately, the expected use of programmable modems (Software Defined Radios (SDR)) enables incorporation of powerful cipher methods approaching military standards as well as waveforms suitable for on-the-move operation. Minimal equipment and software additions on the satellites can provide reasonable attack detection and protection methods in concert with the planned satellite usage. Network management suite modifications enable cohesive incorporation of these protection schemes. Such transitional ideas offer a smooth and planned transition as the TCA takes life.

  14. ESA's satellite communications programme (United States)

    Bartholome, P.


    The developmental history, current status, and future plans of the ESA satellite-communications programs are discussed in a general survey and illustrated with network diagrams and maps. Consideration is given to the parallel development of national and European direct-broadcast systems and telecommunications networks, the position of the European space and electronics industries in the growing world market, the impact of technological improvements (both in satellite systems and in ground-based networks), and the technological and commercial advantages of integrated space-terrestrial networks. The needs for a European definition of the precise national and international roles of satellite communications, for maximum speed in implementing such decisions (before the technology becomes obsolete), and for increased cooperation and standardization to assure European equipment manufacturers a reasonable share of the market are stressed.

  15. Landsat—Earth observation satellites (United States)



    Since 1972, Landsat satellites have continuously acquired space-based images of the Earth’s land surface, providing data that serve as valuable resources for land use/land change research. The data are useful to a number of applications including forestry, agriculture, geology, regional planning, and education. Landsat is a joint effort of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). NASA develops remote sensing instruments and the spacecraft, then launches and validates the performance of the instruments and satellites. The USGS then assumes ownership and operation of the satellites, in addition to managing all ground reception, data archiving, product generation, and data distribution. The result of this program is an unprecedented continuing record of natural and human-induced changes on the global landscape.

  16. Small Aperture Telescope Observations of Co-located Geostationary Satellites (United States)

    Scott, R.; Wallace, B.

    As geostationary orbit (GEO) continues to be populated, satellite operators are increasing usage of co-location techniques to maximize usage of fewer GEO longitude slots. Co-location is an orbital formation strategy where two or more geostationary satellites reside within one GEO stationkeeping box. The separation strategy used to prevent collision between the co-located satellites generally uses eccentricity (radial separation) and inclination (latitude separation) vector offsets. This causes the satellites to move in relative motion ellipses about each other as the relative longitude drift between the satellites is near zero. Typical separations between the satellites varies from 1 to 100 kilometers. When co-located satellites are observed by optical ground based space surveillance sensors the participants appear to be separated by a few minutes of arc or less in angular extent. Under certain viewing geometries, these satellites appear to visually conjunct even though the satellites are, in fact, well separated spatially. In situations where one of the co-located satellites is more optically reflective than the other, the reflected sunglint from the more reflective satellite can overwhelm the other. This less frequently encountered issue causes the less reflective satellite to be glint masked in the glare of the other. This paper focuses on space surveillance observations on co-located Canadian satellites using a small optical telescope operated by Defence R&D Canada - Ottawa. The two above mentioned problems (cross tagging and glint masking) are investigated and we quantify the results for Canadian operated geostationary satellites. The performance of two line element sets when making in-frame CCD image correlation between the co-located satellites is also examined. Relative visual magnitudes between the co-located members are also inspected and quantified to determine the susceptibility of automated telescopes to glint masking of co-located satellite members.

  17. Satellite Communication and Long Distance Education


    Hafied Cangara


    Since Indonesia introduced communication satellite for telecommunication network, the satellite has brought a number of advantages for national development in various areas, such as telephone network, mass media development, business, education, politics, security and national defence as well as regional and International cooperation. In education, satellite communication could be used for long-distance learning as implemented by 13 state universities in eastern parts of Indonesia. It is also...

  18. Small Satellite Constellations for Geospace Sciences (United States)

    Spence, H. E.


    The recent National Academy of Sciences Solar and Space Physics Decadal Survey (DS) identified community-consensus science priorities for the decade spanning 2013 - 2022. In this talk, we discuss the ways by which small satellite constellations are already and may soon accelerate progress toward achieving many of these science targets. The DS outlined four overarching science goals: (1) determine the origins of the Sun's activity and predict the variations in the space environment; (2) determine the dynamics and coupling of Earth's magnetosphere, ionosphere, and atmosphere and their response to solar and terrestrial inputs; (3) determine the interaction of the Sun with the solar system and the interstellar medium; and, (4) discover and characterize fundamental processes that occur both within the heliosphere and throughout the universe. These DS science goals provide the context for key science challenges in the three connected parts of the system that encompass all of solar and space physics, herein referred to as geospace: the Sun and heliosphere; the coupled solar wind-magnetosphere system; and, the coupled atmosphere-ionosphere-magnetosphere system. The DS further presented the role that small satellites play in resolving many of these science challenges, with a particular emphasis on the role that constellations of small satellites will play. While once considered by many as being "futuristic" or even "unrealizable", constellations of small satellites are already making important contributions to geospace science and with the promise for more to come. Using the DS as a guidepost, in this presentation, we outline representative small satellite constellation missions alread underway, some in development, and others notionally proposed over the next several years that employ small satellite constellations to tackle large science imperatives. Finally, we give examples of key small satellite technologies in development that will potentially enable great scientific

  19. Satellite Power Systems (SPS) concept definition study. Volume 5: Special emphasis studies. [rectenna and solar power satellite design studies (United States)

    Hanley, G. M.


    Satellite configurations based on the Satellite Power System baseline requirements were analyzed and a preferred concept selected. A satellite construction base was defined, precursor operations incident to establishment of orbital support facilities identified, and the satellite construction sequence and procedures developed. Rectenna construction requirement were also addressed. Mass flow to orbit requirements were revised and traffic models established based on construction of 60 instead of 120 satellites. Analyses were conducted to determine satellite control, resources, manufacturing, and propellant requirements. The impact of the laser beam used for space-to-Earth power transmission upon the intervening atmosphere was examined as well as the inverse effect. The significant space environments and their effects on spacecraft components were investigated to define the design and operational limits imposed by the environments on an orbit transfer vehicle. The results show that LEO altitude 300 nmi and transfer orbit duration 6 months are preferrable.

  20. Smoothing of Fused Spectral Consistent Satellite Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sveinsson, Johannes; Aanæs, Henrik; Benediktsson, Jon Atli


    on satellite data. Additionally, most conventional methods are loosely connected to the image forming physics of the satellite image, giving these methods an ad hoc feel. Vesteinsson et al. (2005) proposed a method of fusion of satellite images that is based on the properties of imaging physics...

  1. A Primer on Satellite Equipment. (United States)

    Doan, Michael


    Information provided for school districts desiring to offer distance education courses to their students describes the kind of satellite dish needed; its size, sturdiness, placement, and number of dishes needed; satellite receivers; the function of a descrambler; copyright restrictions; features of an Integrated Receiver/Descrambler; selecting a…

  2. Artificial Satellites and How to Observe Them

    CERN Document Server

    Schmude, Jr , Richard


    Astronomers' Observing Guides provide up-to-date information for amateur astronomers who want to know all about what it is they are observing. This is the basis for the first part of the book. The second part details observing techniques for practical astronomers, working with a range of different instruments. Every amateur astronomer sees "stars" that aren't natural objects steadily slide across the background of the sky. Artificial satellites can be seen on any night, and some are as bright as the planets. But can you identify which satellite or spent launch vehicle casing you are seeing? Do you know how to image it? Artificial Satellites and How to Observe Them describes all of the different satellites that can be observed, including communication, scientific, spy satellites, and of course, the International Space Station. Richard Schmude describes how to recognize them and even how to predict their orbits. The book tells how to observe artificial satellites with the unaided eye, binoculars and with telesc...

  3. An optimization tool for satellite equipment layout (United States)

    Qin, Zheng; Liang, Yan-gang; Zhou, Jian-ping


    Selection of the satellite equipment layout with performance constraints is a complex task which can be viewed as a constrained multi-objective optimization and a multiple criteria decision making problem. The layout design of a satellite cabin involves the process of locating the required equipment in a limited space, thereby satisfying various behavioral constraints of the interior and exterior environments. The layout optimization of satellite cabin in this paper includes the C.G. offset, the moments of inertia and the space debris impact risk of the system, of which the impact risk index is developed to quantify the risk to a satellite cabin of coming into contact with space debris. In this paper an optimization tool for the integration of CAD software as well as the optimization algorithms is presented, which is developed to automatically find solutions for a three-dimensional layout of equipment in satellite. The effectiveness of the tool is also demonstrated by applying to the layout optimization of a satellite platform.

  4. Ultraviolet, X-ray, and infrared observations of HDE 226868 equals Cygnus X-1 (United States)

    Treves, A.; Chiappetti, L.; Tanzi, E. G.; Tarenghi, M.; Gursky, H.; Dupree, A. K.; Hartmann, L. W.; Raymond, J.; Davis, R. J.; Black, J.


    During April, May, and July of 1978, HDE 226868, the optical counterpart of Cygnus X-1, was repeatedly observed in the ultraviolet with the IUE satellite. Some X-ray and infrared observations have been made during the same period. The general shape of the spectrum is that expected from a late O supergiant. Strong absorption features are apparent in the ultraviolet, some of which have been identified. The equivalent widths of the most prominent lines appear to be modulated with the orbital phase. This modulation is discussed in terms of the ionization contours calculated by Hatchett and McCray, for a binary X-ray source in the stellar wind of the companion.

  5. The UV spectrum of the BL Lac object PKS 0521-36

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danziger, I.J.; Bergeron, J.; Maraschi, L.; Treves, A.; Milan Univ.; Tanzi, E.G.


    Ultraviolet observations (1200 to 3000 A) with the IUE satellite of the BL Lac object PKS 0521-36 are presented. The only emission line which appears clearly in the spectrum is Lyα, which is asymmetric with a component displaced approx. 3000 km s - 1 to the red. The intensity of the line and the upper limits on other lines are compared with the model calculations on QSOs and Seyfert nuclei by Kwan and Krolik. The continuous energy distribution is discussed, combining non-simultaneous observations from the ultraviolet to the infrared. The spectral range of the non-thermal source from far IR to far UV can be described by a single power law of index -1.5. (author)

  6. UV spectrum of the BL Lac object PKS 0521-36

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danziger, I.J. (European Southern Observatory, Garching (Germany, F.R.)); Bergeron, J. (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 75 - Paris (France). Inst. d' Astrophysique); Fosbury, R.A.E. (Royal Greenwich Observatory, Hailsham (UK)); Maraschi, L.; Treves, A. (Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Milan (Italy). Lab. di Fisica Cosmica; Milan Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica); Tanzi, E.G. (Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Milan (Italy). Lab. di Fisica Cosmica)


    Ultraviolet observations (1200 to 3000 A) with the IUE satellite of the BL Lac object PKS 0521-36 are presented. The only emission line which appears clearly in the spectrum is Ly..cap alpha.., which is asymmetric with a component displaced approx. 3000 km s/sup -1/ to the red. The intensity of the line and the upper limits on other lines are compared with the model calculations on QSOs and Seyfert nuclei by Kwan and Krolik. The continuous energy distribution is discussed, combining non-simultaneous observations from the ultraviolet to the infrared. The spectral range of the non-thermal source from far IR to far UV can be described by a single power law of index -1.5.

  7. The method of quick satellite aiming with 3-Steps on the mobile satellite station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Liang


    Full Text Available The study analyses and concludes the technology of the satellite aiming during real-time broadcast of mobile video.We conclude a method of quick satellite aiming with 3-steps according to practical exercises and users' requirement to meet situation of facts and standardized operation,which can improve efficiency and quality of service.

  8. Satellite Image Classification of Building Damages Using Airborne and Satellite Image Samples in a Deep Learning Approach (United States)

    Duarte, D.; Nex, F.; Kerle, N.; Vosselman, G.


    The localization and detailed assessment of damaged buildings after a disastrous event is of utmost importance to guide response operations, recovery tasks or for insurance purposes. Several remote sensing platforms and sensors are currently used for the manual detection of building damages. However, there is an overall interest in the use of automated methods to perform this task, regardless of the used platform. Owing to its synoptic coverage and predictable availability, satellite imagery is currently used as input for the identification of building damages by the International Charter, as well as the Copernicus Emergency Management Service for the production of damage grading and reference maps. Recently proposed methods to perform image classification of building damages rely on convolutional neural networks (CNN). These are usually trained with only satellite image samples in a binary classification problem, however the number of samples derived from these images is often limited, affecting the quality of the classification results. The use of up/down-sampling image samples during the training of a CNN, has demonstrated to improve several image recognition tasks in remote sensing. However, it is currently unclear if this multi resolution information can also be captured from images with different spatial resolutions like satellite and airborne imagery (from both manned and unmanned platforms). In this paper, a CNN framework using residual connections and dilated convolutions is used considering both manned and unmanned aerial image samples to perform the satellite image classification of building damages. Three network configurations, trained with multi-resolution image samples are compared against two benchmark networks where only satellite image samples are used. Combining feature maps generated from airborne and satellite image samples, and refining these using only the satellite image samples, improved nearly 4 % the overall satellite image

  9. The Strategic Nature of the Tactical Satellite. Part 2 (United States)


    engagement. Again, the myth of the tactical satellite is that they are tactical. Calling a dandelion a rose doesn’t change its smell. As former...a scary satellite weapon called a ‘parasite satellite.’ This is a micro- satellite that could attach itself to just about any type of satellite with

  10. Satellite Remote Sensing and the Hydroclimate: Two Specific Examples of Improved Knowledge and Applications (United States)

    Shepherd, M.; Santanello, J. A., Jr.


    When Explorer 1 launched nearly 60 years ago, it helped usher in a golden age of scientific understanding of arguably the most important planet in our solar system. From its inception NASA and its partners were charged with leveraging the vantagepoint of space to advance knowledge outside and within Earth's atmosphere. Earth is a particularly complex natural system that is increasingly modified by human activities. The hydrological or water cycle is a critical circuit in the Earth system. Its complexity requires novel observations and simulation capability to fully understand it and predict changes. This talk will introduce some of the unique satellite-based observations used for hydroclimate studies. Two specific examples will be presented. The first example explores a relatively new thread of research examining the impact of soil moisture on landfalling and other types of tropical systems. Recent literature suggests that tropical cyclones or large rain-producing systems like the one that caused catastrophic flooding in Louisiana (2016) derive moisture from a "brown ocean" of wet soils or wetlands. The second example summarizes a decade of research on how urbanization has altered the precipitation and land surface hydrology components of the water cycle. With both cases, a multitude of satellite or model-based datesets will be summarized (e.g., TRMM, GPM, SMAP, NLDAS).

  11. Global trends in satellite-based emergency mapping (United States)

    Voigt, Stefan; Giulio-Tonolo, Fabio; Lyons, Josh; Kučera, Jan; Jones, Brenda; Schneiderhan, Tobias; Platzeck, Gabriel; Kaku, Kazuya; Hazarika, Manzul Kumar; Czaran, Lorant; Li, Suju; Pedersen, Wendi; James, Godstime Kadiri; Proy, Catherine; Muthike, Denis Macharia; Bequignon, Jerome; Guha-Sapir, Debarati


    Over the past 15 years, scientists and disaster responders have increasingly used satellite-based Earth observations for global rapid assessment of disaster situations. We review global trends in satellite rapid response and emergency mapping from 2000 to 2014, analyzing more than 1000 incidents in which satellite monitoring was used for assessing major disaster situations. We provide a synthesis of spatial patterns and temporal trends in global satellite emergency mapping efforts and show that satellite-based emergency mapping is most intensively deployed in Asia and Europe and follows well the geographic, physical, and temporal distributions of global natural disasters. We present an outlook on the future use of Earth observation technology for disaster response and mitigation by putting past and current developments into context and perspective.

  12. Leonardo-BRDF: A New Generation Satellite Constellation (United States)

    Esper, Jaime; Neeck, Steven; Wiscombe, Warren; Ryschkewitsch, Michael; Andary, J. (Technical Monitor)


    Instantaneous net radiation flux at the top of the atmosphere is one of the primary drivers of climate and global change. Since the dawn of the satellite era, great efforts and expense have gone into measuring this flux from single satellites and even (for a several-year period) from a constellation of three satellites called ERBE. However, the reflected solar flux is an angular and spectral integral over the so-called "BRDF" or Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function, which is the angular distribution of reflected solar radiation for each solar zenith angle and each wavelength. Previous radiation flux satellites could not measure instantaneous BRDF, so scientists have had to fall back on models or composites. Because their range of observed solar zenith angles was very limited due to sunsynchronous orbits, the resultant flux maps are too inaccurate to see the dynamics of radiation flux or to reliably correlate it with specific phenomena (hurricanes, biomass fires, urban pollution, dust outbreaks, etc.). Accuracy only becomes acceptable after monthly averaging, but this washes out almost all cause-and-effect information, further exacerbated by the lack of spectral resolution. Leonardo-BRDF is a satellite system designed to measure the instantaneous spectral BRDF using a formation of highly coordinated satellites, all pointing at the same Earth targets at the same time. It will allow scientists for the first time to assess the radiative forcing of climate due to specific phenomena, which is bound to be important in the ongoing debate about global warming and what is causing it. The formation is composed of two satellite types having, as instrument payloads, single highly-integrated miniature imaging spectrometers or radiometers. Two nearby "keystone" satellites anchor the formation and fly in static orbits. They employ wide field of view imaging spectrometers that are extremely light and compact. The keystone satellites are identical and can operate in

  13. Launching the First Indian Satellite

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    materials and chemicals, rocket propulsion, satellite technology, control and guidance system, etc. ... entire country, especially the rural areas, and in the survey and management of natural resources. Listeners are no .... satellite will store the information over a longer period and then on command from the ground station at ...

  14. Newspaper Uses of Satellite Technology. (United States)

    Johns, David

    Replacing slower mail service, satellite transmission now gives the newspaper industry a practical and almost spontaneous method for sending all kinds of information to any newspaper across the country. Unlike other communication industries, newspapers did not begin to make widespread use of satellite technology until 1979, when government…

  15. Tracking and data relay satellite system (TDRSS) capabilities (United States)

    Spearing, R. E.


    The Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) is the latest implementation to tracking and data acquisition network for near-earth orbiting satellite support designed to meet the requirements of the current and projected (to the year 2000) satellite user community. The TDRSS consists of a space segment (SS) and a ground segment (GS) that fit within NASA's Space Network (SN) complex controlled at the Goddard Space Flight Center. The SS currently employs a single satellite, TDRS-1, with two additional satellites to be deployed in January 1986 and July 1986. The GS contains the communications and equipment required to manage the three TDR satellites and to transmit and receive information to and from TDRSS user satellites. Diagrams and tables illustrating the TDRSS signal characteristics, the situation of TDRSS within the SN, the SN operations and element interrelationships, as well as future plans for new missions are included.

  16. VIP Data Explorer: A Tool for Exploring 30 years of Vegetation Index and Phenology Observations (United States)

    Barreto-munoz, A.; Didan, K.; Rivera-Camacho, J.; Yitayew, M.; Miura, T.; Tsend-Ayush, J.


    Continuous acquisition of global satellite imagery over the years has contributed to the creation of long term data records from AVHRR, MODIS, TM, SPOT-VGT and other sensors. These records account for 30+ years, as these archives grow, they become invaluable tools for environmental, resources management, and climate studies dealing with trends and changes from local, regional to global scale. In this project, the Vegetation Index and Phenology Lab (VIPLab) is processing 30 years of daily global surface reflectance data into an Earth Science Data Record of Vegetation Index and Phenology metrics. Data from AVHRR (N07,N09,N11 and N14) and MODIS (AQUA and TERRA collection 5) for the periods 1981-1999 and 2000-2010, at CMG resolution were processed into one seamless and sensor independent data record using various filtering, continuity and gap filling techniques (Tsend-Ayush et al., AGU 2011, Rivera-Camacho et al, AGU 2011). An interactive online tool (VIP Data Explorer) was developed to support the visualization, qualitative and quantitative exploration, distribution, and documentation of these records using a simple web 2.0 interface. The VIP Data explorer ( can display any combination of multi temporal and multi source data, enable the quickly exploration and cross comparison of the various levels of processing of this data. It uses the Google Earth (GE) model and was developed using the GE API for images rendering, manipulation and geolocation. These ESDRs records can be quickly animated in this environment and explored for visual trends and anomalies detection. Additionally the tool enables extracting and visualizing any land pixel time series while showing the different levels of processing it went through. User can explore this ESDR database within this data explorer GUI environment, and any desired data can be placed into a dynamic "cart" to be ordered and downloaded later. More functionalities are planned and will be

  17. Near-Infrared Mapping Spectrometer for investigation of Jupiter and its satellites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aptaker, I.M.


    The Near-Infrared-Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS) is one of the science instruments in the Galileo mission, which will explore Jupiter and its satellites in the mid-1990's. The NIMS experiment will map geological units on the surfaces of the Jovian satellites and characterize their mineral content; and, for the atmosphere of Jupiter, investigate cloud properties and the spatial and temporal variability of molecular abundances. The optics are gold-coated reflective and consist of a telescope and a grating spectrometer. The balance of the instrument includes a 17-detector (silicon and indium antimonide) focal plane array, a tuning fork chopper, microprocessor-controlled electronics, and a passive radiative cooler. A wobbling secondary mirror in the telescope provides 20 pixels in one dimension of spatial scanning in a pushbroom mode with 0.5 mr x 0.5 mr instantaneous field of view. The spectral range is 0.7-5.2 microns; resolution is 0.025 micron. NIMS is the first infrared experiment to combine both spatial and spectral mapping capability in one instrument


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojce Ilcev


    Full Text Available Abstract. This paper introduces development and implementation of new Local Satellite AugmentationSystem as an integration component of the Regional Satellite Augmentation System (RSAS employingcurrent and new Satellite Communications, Navigation and Surveillance (CNS for improvement of the AirTraffic Control (ATC and Air Traffic Management (ATM and for enhancement safety systems includingtransport security and control of flights in all stages, airport approaching, landing, departures and allmovements over airport surface areas. The current first generation of the Global Navigation Satellite SystemGNSS-1 applications are represented by fundamental military solutions for Position, Velocity and Time ofthe satellite navigation and determination systems such as the US GPS and Russian GLONASS (Former-USSR requirements, respectively. The establishment of Aeronautical CNS is also discussed as a part ofGlobal Satellite Augmentation Systems of GPS and GLONASS systems integrated with existing and futureRSAS and LSAS in airports areas. Specific influence and factors related to the Comparison of the Currentand New Aeronautical CNS System including the Integration of RSAS and GNSS solutions are discussedand packet of facts is determined to maximize the new satellite Automatic Dependent Surveillance System(ADSS and Special Effects of the RSAS Networks. The possible future integration of RSAS and GNSS andthe common proposal of the satellite Surface Movement Guidance and Control are presented in thechangeless ways as of importance for future enfacements of ATC and ATM for any hypothetical airportinfrastructure.Keywords: ADSS, ATC, ATM, CNS, GSAS, LRAS, RSAS, SMGC, Special Effects of RSAS.

  19. New Equipment Training Center-Satellite Facility (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The ARDEC Satellite Facility is a 24-hour on-site military satellite transmission and downlink capability to Southwest Asia and all other military OCONUS and CONUS...

  20. Influence of tides in viscoelastic bodies of planet and satellite on the satellite's orbital motion (United States)

    Emelyanov, N. V.


    The problem of influence of tidal friction in both planetary and satellite bodies upon satellite's orbital motion is considered. Using the differential equations in satellite's rectangular planetocentric coordinates, the differential equations describing the changes in semimajor axis and eccentricity are derived. The equations in rectangular coordinates were taken from earlier works on the problem. The calcultations carried out for a number of test examples prove that the averaged solutions of equations in coordinates and precise solutions of averaged equations in the Keplerian elements are identical. For the problem of tides raised on planet's body, it was found that, if satellite's mean motion n is equal to 11/18 Ω, where Ω is the planet's angular rotation rate, the orbital eccentricity does not change. This conclusion is in agreement with the results of other authors. It was also found that there is essential discrepancy between the equations in the elements obtained in this paper and analogous equations published by earlier researchers.

  1. Extraction of prospecting information of uranium deposit based on high spatial resolution satellite data. Taking bashibulake region as an example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Xu; Liu Dechang; Zhang Jielin


    In this study, the signification and content of prospecting information of uranium deposit are expounded. Quickbird high spatial resolution satellite data are used to extract the prospecting information of uranium deposit in Bashibulake area in the north of Tarim Basin. By using the pertinent methods of image processing, the information of ore-bearing bed, ore-control structure and mineralized alteration have been extracted. The results show a high consistency with the field survey. The aim of this study is to explore practicability of high spatial resolution satellite data for prospecting minerals, and to broaden the thinking of prospectation at similar area. (authors)

  2. Space industrialization - Education. [via communication satellites (United States)

    Joels, K. M.


    The components of an educational system based on, and perhaps enhanced by, space industrialization communications technology are considered. Satellite technology has introduced a synoptic distribution system for various transmittable educational media. The cost of communications satellite distribution for educational programming has been high. It has, therefore, been proposed to utilize Space Shuttle related technology and Large Space Structures (LSS) to construct a system with a quantum advancement in communication capability and a quantum reduction in user cost. LSS for communications purposes have three basic advantages for both developed and emerging nations, including the ability to distribute signals over wide geographic areas, the reduced cost of satellite communications systems versus installation of land based systems, and the ability of a communication satellite system to create instant educational networks.

  3. An Unsupervised Anomalous Event Detection and Interactive Analysis Framework for Large-scale Satellite Data (United States)

    LIU, Q.; Lv, Q.; Klucik, R.; Chen, C.; Gallaher, D. W.; Grant, G.; Shang, L.


    Due to the high volume and complexity of satellite data, computer-aided tools for fast quality assessments and scientific discovery are indispensable for scientists in the era of Big Data. In this work, we have developed a framework for automated anomalous event detection in massive satellite data. The framework consists of a clustering-based anomaly detection algorithm and a cloud-based tool for interactive analysis of detected anomalies. The algorithm is unsupervised and requires no prior knowledge of the data (e.g., expected normal pattern or known anomalies). As such, it works for diverse data sets, and performs well even in the presence of missing and noisy data. The cloud-based tool provides an intuitive mapping interface that allows users to interactively analyze anomalies using multiple features. As a whole, our framework can (1) identify outliers in a spatio-temporal context, (2) recognize and distinguish meaningful anomalous events from individual outliers, (3) rank those events based on "interestingness" (e.g., rareness or total number of outliers) defined by users, and (4) enable interactively query, exploration, and analysis of those anomalous events. In this presentation, we will demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of our framework in the application of detecting data quality issues and unusual natural events using two satellite datasets. The techniques and tools developed in this project are applicable for a diverse set of satellite data and will be made publicly available for scientists in early 2017.

  4. FOP is a centriolar satellite protein involved in ciliogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Y Lee

    Full Text Available Centriolar satellites are proteinaceous granules that are often clustered around the centrosome. Although centriolar satellites have been implicated in protein trafficking in relation to the centrosome and cilium, the details of their function and composition remain unknown. FOP (FGFR1 Oncogene Partner is a known centrosome protein with homology to the centriolar satellite proteins FOR20 and OFD1. We find that FOP partially co-localizes with the satellite component PCM1 in a cell cycle-dependent manner, similarly to the satellite and cilium component BBS4. As for BBS4, FOP localization to satellites is cell cycle dependent, with few satellites labeled in G1, when FOP protein levels are lowest, and most labeled in G2. FOP-FGFR1, an oncogenic fusion that causes a form of leukemia called myeloproliferative neoplasm, also localizes to centriolar satellites where it increases tyrosine phosphorylation. Depletion of FOP strongly inhibits primary cilium formation in human RPE-1 cells. These results suggest that FOP is a centriolar satellite cargo protein and, as for several other satellite-associated proteins, is involved in ciliogenesis. Localization of the FOP-FGFR1 fusion kinase to centriolar satellites may be relevant to myeloproliferative neoplasm disease progression.

  5. Dynamical history of coplanar two-satellite systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruskol, E.L.; Nikolajeva, E.V.; Syzdykov, A.S.


    One of the possible early states of the Earth-Moon system was a system of several large satellites around the Earth. The dynamical evolution of coplanar three-body systems is studied; a planet (Earth) and two massive satellites (proto-moons) with geocentric orbits of slightly different radii. Such configurations may arise in multiple satellite systems receding from a planet due to tidal friction. The numerical integration of the equations of motion shows that initially circular Keplerian orbits are soon transformed into disturbed elliptic orbits which are intersecting. The life-time of such a coplanar system between two probable physical collisions of satellites is roughly from one day to one year for satellite systems with radii less than 20 R(Earth), and may reach 100 yr for three-dimensional systems. This time-scale is short in comparison with the duration of the removal of satellites due to tides raised on the planet, which is estimated as 10 6 -10 8 yr for the same orbital dimensions. Therefore, the life-time of a system of several proto-moons is mainly determined by their tidal interactions with the Earth. For conditions which we have considered, the most probable result of the evolution was coalescence of satellites as the consequence of the collisions. (Auth.)

  6. 47 CFR 76.127 - Satellite sports blackout. (United States)


    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Satellite sports blackout. 76.127 Section 76... Sports Blackout § 76.127 Satellite sports blackout. (a) Upon the request of the holder of the broadcast rights to a sports event, or its agent, no satellite carrier shall retransmit to subscribers within the...

  7. Potential markets for advanced satellite communications (United States)

    Adamson, Steven; Roberts, David; Schubert, Leroy; Smith, Brian; Sogegian, Robert; Walters, Daniel


    This report identifies trends in the volume and type of traffic offered to the U.S. domestic communications infrastructure and extrapolates these trends through the year 2011. To describe how telecommunications service providers are adapting to the identified trends, this report assesses the status, plans, and capacity of the domestic communications infrastructure. Cable, satellite, and radio components of the infrastructure are examined separately. The report also assesses the following major applications making use of the infrastructure: (1) Broadband services, including Broadband Integrated Services Digital Network (BISDN), Switched Multimegabit Data Service (SMDS), and frame relay; (2) mobile services, including voice, location, and paging; (3) Very Small Aperture Terminals (VSAT), including mesh VSAT; and (4) Direct Broadcast Satellite (DBS) for audio and video. The report associates satellite implementation of specific applications with market segments appropriate to their features and capabilities. The volume and dollar value of these market segments are estimated. For the satellite applications able to address the needs of significant market segments, the report also examines the potential of each satellite-based application to capture business from alternative technologies.

  8. Potential markets for advanced satellite communications (United States)

    Adamson, Steven; Roberts, David; Schubert, Leroy; Smith, Brian; Sogegian, Robert; Walters, Daniel


    This report identifies trends in the volume and type of traffic offered to the U.S. domestic communications infrastructure and extrapolates these trends through the year 2011. To describe how telecommunications service providers are adapting to the identified trends, this report assesses the status, plans, and capacity of the domestic communications infrastructure. Cable, satellite, and radio components of the infrastructure are examined separately. The report also assesses the following major applications making use of the infrastructure: (1) Broadband services, including Broadband Integrated Services Digital Network (BISDN), Switched Multimegabit Data Service (SMDS), and frame relay; (2) mobile services, including voice, location, and paging; (3) Very Small Aperture Terminals (VSAT), including mesh VSAT; and (4) Direct Broadcast Satellite (DBS) for audio and video. The report associates satellite implementation of specific applications with market segments appropriate to their features and capabilities. The volume and dollar value of these market segments are estimated. For the satellite applications able to address the needs of significant market segments, the report also examines the potential of each satellite-based application to capture business from alternative technologies.

  9. Web Transfer Over Satellites Being Improved (United States)

    Allman, Mark


    Extensive research conducted by NASA Lewis Research Center's Satellite Networks and Architectures Branch and the Ohio University has demonstrated performance improvements in World Wide Web transfers over satellite-based networks. The use of a new version of the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) reduced the time required to load web pages over a single Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) connection traversing a satellite channel. However, an older technique of simultaneously making multiple requests of a given server has been shown to provide even faster transfer time. Unfortunately, the use of multiple simultaneous requests has been shown to be harmful to the network in general. Therefore, we are developing new mechanisms for the HTTP protocol which may allow a single request at any given time to perform as well as, or better than, multiple simultaneous requests. In the course of study, we also demonstrated that the time for web pages to load is at least as short via a satellite link as it is via a standard 28.8-kbps dialup modem channel. This demonstrates that satellites are a viable means of accessing the Internet.

  10. Aircraft monitoring by the fusion of satellite and ground ADS-B data (United States)

    Zhang, Xuan; Zhang, Jingjing; Wu, Shufan; Cheng, Qian; Zhu, Rui


    The Automatic Dependent Surveillance- Broadcast (ADS-B) system is today a standard equipment on civil aircraft, transmitting periodically data packages containing information of key data such as aircraft ID, position, altitude and intention. It is designed for terrestrial based ground station to monitor air traffic flow in certain regions. Space based ADS-B is the idea to place sensitive receivers on board satellites in orbit, which can receive ADS-B packages and relay them the relevant ground stations. The terrestrial ADS-B receiver has been widely applied for airport information system, help monitor and control traffic flow, etc. However, its coverage is strongly limited by sea or mountain conditions. This paper first introduces the CubeSat mission, then discusses the integrated application of ADS-B data received from ground stations and from satellites, analyze their characteristics with statistical results of comparison, and explore the technologies to fuse these two different data resources for an integrated application. The satellite data is based on a Chinese CubeSat, STU-2C, being launched into space on Sept 25th 2015. The ADS-B data received from two different resources have shown a good complementary each other, such as to increase the coverage of space for air traffic, and to monitor the whole space in a better and complete way.

  11. Satellite-Relayed Intercontinental Quantum Network. (United States)

    Liao, Sheng-Kai; Cai, Wen-Qi; Handsteiner, Johannes; Liu, Bo; Yin, Juan; Zhang, Liang; Rauch, Dominik; Fink, Matthias; Ren, Ji-Gang; Liu, Wei-Yue; Li, Yang; Shen, Qi; Cao, Yuan; Li, Feng-Zhi; Wang, Jian-Feng; Huang, Yong-Mei; Deng, Lei; Xi, Tao; Ma, Lu; Hu, Tai; Li, Li; Liu, Nai-Le; Koidl, Franz; Wang, Peiyuan; Chen, Yu-Ao; Wang, Xiang-Bin; Steindorfer, Michael; Kirchner, Georg; Lu, Chao-Yang; Shu, Rong; Ursin, Rupert; Scheidl, Thomas; Peng, Cheng-Zhi; Wang, Jian-Yu; Zeilinger, Anton; Pan, Jian-Wei


    We perform decoy-state quantum key distribution between a low-Earth-orbit satellite and multiple ground stations located in Xinglong, Nanshan, and Graz, which establish satellite-to-ground secure keys with ∼kHz rate per passage of the satellite Micius over a ground station. The satellite thus establishes a secure key between itself and, say, Xinglong, and another key between itself and, say, Graz. Then, upon request from the ground command, Micius acts as a trusted relay. It performs bitwise exclusive or operations between the two keys and relays the result to one of the ground stations. That way, a secret key is created between China and Europe at locations separated by 7600 km on Earth. These keys are then used for intercontinental quantum-secured communication. This was, on the one hand, the transmission of images in a one-time pad configuration from China to Austria as well as from Austria to China. Also, a video conference was performed between the Austrian Academy of Sciences and the Chinese Academy of Sciences, which also included a 280 km optical ground connection between Xinglong and Beijing. Our work clearly confirms the Micius satellite as a robust platform for quantum key distribution with different ground stations on Earth, and points towards an efficient solution for an ultralong-distance global quantum network.

  12. Satellite-Relayed Intercontinental Quantum Network (United States)

    Liao, Sheng-Kai; Cai, Wen-Qi; Handsteiner, Johannes; Liu, Bo; Yin, Juan; Zhang, Liang; Rauch, Dominik; Fink, Matthias; Ren, Ji-Gang; Liu, Wei-Yue; Li, Yang; Shen, Qi; Cao, Yuan; Li, Feng-Zhi; Wang, Jian-Feng; Huang, Yong-Mei; Deng, Lei; Xi, Tao; Ma, Lu; Hu, Tai; Li, Li; Liu, Nai-Le; Koidl, Franz; Wang, Peiyuan; Chen, Yu-Ao; Wang, Xiang-Bin; Steindorfer, Michael; Kirchner, Georg; Lu, Chao-Yang; Shu, Rong; Ursin, Rupert; Scheidl, Thomas; Peng, Cheng-Zhi; Wang, Jian-Yu; Zeilinger, Anton; Pan, Jian-Wei


    We perform decoy-state quantum key distribution between a low-Earth-orbit satellite and multiple ground stations located in Xinglong, Nanshan, and Graz, which establish satellite-to-ground secure keys with ˜kHz rate per passage of the satellite Micius over a ground station. The satellite thus establishes a secure key between itself and, say, Xinglong, and another key between itself and, say, Graz. Then, upon request from the ground command, Micius acts as a trusted relay. It performs bitwise exclusive or operations between the two keys and relays the result to one of the ground stations. That way, a secret key is created between China and Europe at locations separated by 7600 km on Earth. These keys are then used for intercontinental quantum-secured communication. This was, on the one hand, the transmission of images in a one-time pad configuration from China to Austria as well as from Austria to China. Also, a video conference was performed between the Austrian Academy of Sciences and the Chinese Academy of Sciences, which also included a 280 km optical ground connection between Xinglong and Beijing. Our work clearly confirms the Micius satellite as a robust platform for quantum key distribution with different ground stations on Earth, and points towards an efficient solution for an ultralong-distance global quantum network.

  13. Space Solar Power: Satellite Concepts (United States)

    Little, Frank E.


    Space Solar Power (SSP) applies broadly to the use of solar power for space related applications. The thrust of the NASA SSP initiative is to develop concepts and demonstrate technology for applying space solar power to NASA missions. Providing power from satellites in space via wireless transmission to a receiving station either on earth, another celestial body or a second satellite is one goal of the SSP initiative. The sandwich design is a satellite design in which the microwave transmitting array is the front face of a thin disk and the back of the disk is populated with solar cells, with the microwave electronics in between. The transmitter remains aimed at the earth in geostationary orbit while a system of mirrors directs sunlight to the photovoltaic cells, regardless of the satellite's orientation to the sun. The primary advantage of the sandwich design is it eliminates the need for a massive and complex electric power management and distribution system for the satellite. However, it requires a complex system for focusing sunlight onto the photovoltaic cells. In addition, positioning the photovoltaic array directly behind the transmitting array power conversion electronics will create a thermal management challenge. This project focused on developing designs and finding emerging technology to meet the challenges of solar tracking, a concentrating mirror system including materials and coatings, improved photovoltaic materials and thermal management.

  14. RFP for the italien satellite AGILE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Peter Buch; Jørgensen, John Leif; Riis, Troels


    The document descibes the ASC Star Tracker (performance, functionality, requirements etc.) to the Italian satellite AGILE.......The document descibes the ASC Star Tracker (performance, functionality, requirements etc.) to the Italian satellite AGILE....

  15. Applications of Geostationary Satellite Data to Aviation (United States)

    Ellrod, Gary P.; Pryor, Kenneth


    Weather is by far the most important factor in air traffic delays in the United States' National Airspace System (NAS) according to the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). Geostationary satellites have been an effective tool for the monitoring of meteorological conditions that affect aviation operations since the launch of the first Synchronous Meteorological Satellite (SMS) in the United States in 1974. This paper will review the global use of geostationary satellites in support of aviation weather since their inception, with an emphasis on the latest generation of satellites, such as Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES)-R (16) with its Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) and Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM). Specific applications discussed in this paper include monitoring of convective storms and their associated hazards, fog and low stratus, turbulence, volcanic hazards, and aircraft icing.

  16. The role of satellite cells in muscle hypertrophy. (United States)

    Blaauw, Bert; Reggiani, Carlo


    The role of satellite cells in muscle hypertrophy has long been a debated issue. In the late 1980s it was shown that proteins remain close to the myonucleus responsible for its synthesis, giving rise to the idea of a nuclear domain. This, together with the observation that during various models of muscle hypertrophy there is an activation of the muscle stem cells, i.e. satellite cells, lead to the idea that satellite cell activation is required for muscle hypertrophy. Thus, satellite cells are not only responsible for muscle repair and regeneration, but also for hypertrophic growth. Further support for this line of thinking was obtained after studies showing that irradiation of skeletal muscle, and therefore elimination of all satellite cells, completely prevented overload-induced hypertrophy. Recently however, using different transgenic approaches, it has become clear that muscle hypertrophy can occur without a contribution of satellite cells, even though in most situations of muscle hypertrophy satellite cells are activated. In this review we will discuss the contribution of satellite cells, and other muscle-resident stem cells, to muscle hypertrophy both in mice as well as in humans.

  17. Recent Korean R&D in Satellite Communications (United States)

    Lee, Ho-Jin; Kim, Jae Moung; Lee, Byung-Seub; Lee, Han; Ryoo, Jang-Soo

    The R&D in satellite communications in Korea has been driven mainly by KCC (Korea Communications Commission) but in a small scale compared to Korea space development program organized by MEST (Ministry of Education, Science and Technology). Public and civilian satcom sector R&D has been led mainly by ETRI with small/medium companies contrary to rare investment in private sector while military sector R&D has been orchestrated by ADD with defense industry. By the COMS (Communication, Ocean and Meteorological Satellite) experimental Ka-band payload, Korea pursues a space qualification of own technology for national infrastructure evolution as well as industrialization of space R&D results. Once COMS launched and space qualified in 2009, subsequent application experiments and new technology R&D like UHDTV will entail service and industry promotion. The payload technology is expected for the next Korean commercial satellites or for new OBP satellites. The COMS ground control system and GNSS ground station technologies are under development for COMS operation and enhanced GNSS services along with advent of Galileo respectively. Satellite broadband mobile VSAT based on DVB-S2/RCS (+M) and low profile tracking antennas have been developed for trains, ships, and planes. While APSI is developing GMR-1 based Thuraya handset functions, ETRI is designing IMT-Advanced satellite radio interface for satellite and terrestrial dual-mode handheld communication system like Japanese STICS, with universities' satellite OFDM researches. A 21GHz Ka-band higher-availability scalable HD broadcasting technology and SkyLife's hybrid satellite IPTV technology are being developed. In near term Korea will extend R&D programs to upgrade the space communication infrastructure for universal access to digital opportunity and safer daily life from disaster, and to promote space green IT industrialization, national security, and space resources sovereign. Japanese stakeholders are invited to establish

  18. Satellite ATM Networks: Architectures and Guidelines Developed (United States)

    vonDeak, Thomas C.; Yegendu, Ferit


    An important element of satellite-supported asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) networking will involve support for the routing and rerouting of active connections. Work published under the auspices of the Telecommunications Industry Association (, describes basic architectures and routing protocol issues for satellite ATM (SATATM) networks. The architectures and issues identified will serve as a basis for further development of technical specifications for these SATATM networks. Three ATM network architectures for bent pipe satellites and three ATM network architectures for satellites with onboard ATM switches were developed. The architectures differ from one another in terms of required level of mobility, supported data rates, supported terrestrial interfaces, and onboard processing and switching requirements. The documentation addresses low-, middle-, and geosynchronous-Earth-orbit satellite configurations. The satellite environment may require real-time routing to support the mobility of end devices and nodes of the ATM network itself. This requires the network to be able to reroute active circuits in real time. In addition to supporting mobility, rerouting can also be used to (1) optimize network routing, (2) respond to changing quality-of-service requirements, and (3) provide a fault tolerance mechanism. Traffic management and control functions are necessary in ATM to ensure that the quality-of-service requirements associated with each connection are not violated and also to provide flow and congestion control functions. Functions related to traffic management were identified and described. Most of these traffic management functions will be supported by on-ground ATM switches, but in a hybrid terrestrial-satellite ATM network, some of the traffic management functions may have to be supported by the onboard satellite ATM switch. Future work is planned to examine the tradeoffs of placing traffic management functions onboard a satellite as

  19. Cibola flight experiment satellite (United States)

    Davies, P.; Liddle, Doug; Paffett, John; Sweeting, Martin; Curiel, A.; Sun, Wei; Eves, Stuart


    In order to achieve an "economy of scale" with respect to payload capacity the major trend in telecommunications satellites is for larger and larger platforms. With these large platforms the level of integration between platform and payload is increasing leading to longer delivery schedules. The typical lifecycle for procurement of these large telecommunications satellites is now 3-6 years depending on the level of non-recurring engineering needed. Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd (SSTL) has designed a low-cost platform aimed at telecommunications and navigation applications. SSTL's Geostationary Minisatellite Platform (GMP) is a new entrant addressing the lower end of the market with payloads up to 250kg requiring less than 1.5 kW power. The British National Space Centre through the MOSAIC Small Satellite Initiative supported the development of GMP. The main design goals for GMP are low-cost for the complete mission including launch and operations and a platform allowing flexible payload accommodation. GMP is specifically designed to allow rapid development and deployment with schedules typically between 1 and 2 years from contract signature to flight readiness. GMP achieves these aims by a modular design where the level of integration between the platform and payload is low. The modular design decomposes the satellite into three major components - the propulsion bay, the avionics bay and the payload module. Both the propulsion and avionics bays are reusable, largely unchanged, and independent of the payload configuration. Such a design means that SSTL or a 3rd party manufacturer can manufacture the payload in parallel to the platform with integration taking place quite late in the schedule. In July 2003 SSTL signed a contract for ESA's first Galileo navigation satellite known as GSTBV2/A. The satellite is based on GMP and ESA plan to launch it into a MEO orbit late in 2005. The second flight of GMP is likely to be in 2006 carrying a geostationary payload

  20. Core Flight System Satellite Starter Kit (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Core Flight System Satellite Starter Kit (cFS Kit) will allow a small satellite or CubeSat developer to rapidly develop, deploy, test, and operate flight...

  1. Multiple Usage of Existing Satellite Sensors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Keeney, James T


    .... Space offers a near-perfect vacuum to operate a passive or active sensor. Volume, mass and power on satellites is limited and risk management approaches tended to remove such sensors from satellite systems...

  2. Design Concepts for a Small Space-Based GEO Relay Satellite for Missions Between Low Earth and near Earth Orbits (United States)

    Bhasin, Kul B.; Warner, Joseph D.; Oleson, Steven; Schier, James


    the number of links looking above and below GEO; the detailed design of a GEO SSBS spacecraft bus and its accommodation of the communication payload, and a summary of the trade study that resulted in the selection of the Falcon 9 launch vehicle to deploy the SSBS and its impact on cost reductions per satellite. ======================================================================== Several initiatives have taken place within NASA1 and international space agencies2 to create a human exploration strategy for expanding human presence into the solar system; these initiatives have been driven by multiple factors to benefit Earth. Of the many elements in the strategy one stands out: to send robotic and human missions to destinations beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO), including cis-lunar space, Near-Earth Asteroids (NEAs), the Moon, and Mars and its moons.3, 4 The time frame for human exploration to various destinations, based on the public information available,1,4 is shown in Figure 1. Advance planning is needed to define how future space communications services will be provided in the new budget environment to meet future space communications needs. The spacecraft for these missions can be dispersed anywhere from below LEO to beyond GEO, and to various destinations within the solar system. NASA's Space Communications and Navigation (SCaN) program office provides communication and tracking services to space missions during launch, in-orbit testing, and operation phases. Currently, SCaN's space networking relay satellites mainly provide services to users below GEO, at Near Earth Orbit (NEO), below LEO, and in deep space. The potential exists for using a space-based relay satellite, located in the vicinity of various solar system destinations, to provide communication space links to missions both below and above its orbit. Such relays can meet the needs of human exploration missions for maximum connectivity to Earth locations and for reduced latency. In the past, several studies

  3. Advanced domestic digital satellite communications systems experiments (United States)

    Iso, A.; Izumisawa, T.; Ishida, N.


    The characteristics of advanced digital transmission systems were measured, using newly developed small earth stations and a K-band and C-band communication satellite. Satellite link performance for data, facsimile, video and packet switching information transmission at bit rates ranging from 6.4 kbit/s to 6.3 Mbit/s have been confirmed, using a small K-band earth station and a demand-assignment time division multiple access system. A low-capacity omni-use C-band terminal experiment has verified a telephone channel transmission performance by spread-spectrum multiple access. Single point to multipoint transmission characteristics of the 64 kbit/s data signals from the computer center were tested, using a receive-only 4 GHz earth terminal. Basic satellite link performance was confirmed under clear-sky conditions. Precise satellite orbit and attitude keeping experiments were carried out to obtain precise satellite antenna pointing accuracy for development of K-band earth stations that do not require satellite tracking equipment. Precise station keeping accuracy of 0.02 degrees was obtained.

  4. Structural Analysis of Components of the Students for the Exploration and Development of Space Satellite (SEDSAT) for the Small Expendable Deployer System (SEDS) Project Office (United States)

    Maddux, Gary A.


    During the time frame allocated by the delivery order, members of the UAH Applied Research Program, with the cooperation of representatives from NASA investigated and conducted stress analysis of the SEDSAT1 satellite. The main area of concern was with the design of the deployable 10 m antennas. The placement of the holes for the antenna door hinge pin was too close to the edge of the antenna canister. Because of the load placed on the hinge pin, the stress analysis of this area suggested that more space would be needed between the holes and the edge of the material. Due to other conflicts, SEDSATI was removed from flying on the space shuttle and moved to the Delta Launch Vehicle. This changed many of the design requirements for the mounting and deployment of the satellite that forced a new design for the satellite. Once this happened, the stress analysis became obsolete, and the task was concluded.

  5. New Results on Cepheid Masses (United States)

    Evans, N. R.; Bohm-Vitense, E.; Carpenter, K.; Robinson, R.; Beck-Winchatz, B.


    Masses for Cepheid variable stars can be measured by combining the orbital velocity amplitude for the Cepheid (from a ground-based orbit) with the orbital velocity amplitude of a hot main sequence companion (observed in the ultraviolet from satellites such as IUE and HST) and the mass of the companion (inferred from from the ultraviolet energy distribution). Observations of 5 binary systems are now completed or in progress with the Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph on the Hubble Space Telescope. Recently completed observations of U Aql lead to a mass of 5.1 +/- 1.1 Msun . We will discuss the results for S Mus, V350 Sgr, U Aql, and Y Car, and the constraints they place on stellar evolution calculations. As would be expected, some of the B companions have high rotational velocities, decreasing the accuracy with which their orbital velocities can be measured. The preliminary conclusion from the 4 HST targets and SU Cyg (mass from IUE observations) is that a weighted mean indicates no convective overshoot but the mode (which reflects the HST results better) agrees with the modest overshoot used in the Geneva evolutionary calculations. Financial Support was provided by a NASA grant GO-4541-01 to EB--V and GO-4541.02 to KGC, a grant from the Natural Sciences and Engineering Council, Canada to NRE, from the AXAF Science Center NASA Contract NAS8-39073.

  6. X-Ray, UV and Optical Observations of Classical Cepheids: New Insights into Cepheid Evolution, and the Heating and Dynamics of Their Atmospheres


    Engle, Scott G.; Guinan, Edward F.


    To broaden the understanding of classical Cepheid structure, evolution and atmospheres, we have extended our continuing secret lives of Cepheids program by obtaining XMM/Chandra X-ray observations, and Hubble space telescope (HST) / cosmic origins spectrograph (COS) FUV-UV spectra of the bright, nearby Cepheids Polaris, {\\delta} Cep and {\\beta} Dor. Previous studies made with the international ultraviolet explorer (IUE) showed a limited number of UV emission lines in Cepheids. The well-known ...

  7. Detecting potential ship objects from satellite pictures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, B.; Yang, C.C.; Chang, S.K.; Yang, M.C.K.


    Heuristic techniques are presented to detect potential ship objects from satellite pictures. These techniques utilize some noise structures of the pixel gray levels, and certain inherent features of a ship in a satellite picture. The scheme has been implemented and successfully tested on SEASAT satellite pictures. A general approach for database-oriented object detection is also suggested

  8. Orbit determination for ISRO satellite missions (United States)

    Rao, Ch. Sreehari; Sinha, S. K.

    Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) has been successful in using the in-house developed orbit determination and prediction software for satellite missions of Bhaskara, Rohini and APPLE. Considering the requirements of satellite missions, software packages are developed, tested and their accuracies are assessed. Orbit determination packages developed are SOIP, for low earth orbits of Bhaskara and Rohini missions, ORIGIN and ODPM, for orbits related to all phases of geo-stationary missions and SEGNIP, for drift and geo-stationary orbits. Software is tested and qualified using tracking data of SIGNE-3, D5-B, OTS, SYMPHONIE satellites with the help of software available with CNES, ESA and DFVLR. The results match well with those available from these agencies. These packages have supported orbit determination successfully throughout the mission life for all ISRO satellite missions. Member-Secretary

  9. Function of Junk: Pericentromeric Satellite DNA in Chromosome Maintenance. (United States)

    Jagannathan, Madhav; Yamashita, Yukiko M


    Satellite DNAs are simple tandem repeats that exist at centromeric and pericentromeric regions on eukaryotic chromosomes. Unlike the centromeric satellite DNA that comprises the vast majority of natural centromeres, function(s) for the much more abundant pericentromeric satellite repeats are poorly understood. In fact, the lack of coding potential allied with rapid divergence of repeat sequences across eukaryotes has led to their dismissal as "junk DNA" or "selfish parasites." Although implicated in various biological processes, a conserved function for pericentromeric satellite DNA remains unidentified. We have addressed the role of satellite DNA through studying chromocenters, a cytological aggregation of pericentromeric satellite DNA from multiple chromosomes into DNA-dense nuclear foci. We have shown that multivalent satellite DNA-binding proteins cross-link pericentromeric satellite DNA on chromosomes into chromocenters. Disruption of chromocenters results in the formation of micronuclei, which arise by budding off the nucleus during interphase. We propose a model that satellite DNAs are critical chromosome elements that are recognized by satellite DNA-binding proteins and incorporated into chromocenters. We suggest that chromocenters function to preserve the entire chromosomal complement in a single nucleus, a fundamental and unquestioned feature of eukaryotic genomes. We speculate that the rapid divergence of satellite DNA sequences between closely related species results in discordant chromocenter function and may underlie speciation and hybrid incompatibility. © 2017 Jagannathan and Yamashita; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  10. Pervasive satellite cell contribution to uninjured adult muscle fibers. (United States)

    Pawlikowski, Bradley; Pulliam, Crystal; Betta, Nicole Dalla; Kardon, Gabrielle; Olwin, Bradley B


    Adult skeletal muscle adapts to functional needs, maintaining consistent numbers of myonuclei and stem cells. Although resident muscle stem cells or satellite cells are required for muscle growth and repair, in uninjured muscle, these cells appear quiescent and metabolically inactive. To investigate the satellite cell contribution to myofibers in adult uninjured skeletal muscle, we labeled satellite cells by inducing a recombination of LSL-tdTomato in Pax7(CreER) mice and scoring tdTomato+ myofibers as an indicator of satellite cell fusion. Satellite cell fusion into myofibers plateaus postnatally between 8 and 12 weeks of age, reaching a steady state in hindlimb muscles, but in extra ocular or diaphragm muscles, satellite cell fusion is maintained at postnatal levels irrespective of the age assayed. Upon recombination and following a 2-week chase in 6-month-old mice, tdTomato-labeled satellite cells fused into myofibers as 20, 50, and 80 % of hindlimb, extra ocular, and diaphragm myofibers, respectively, were tdTomato+. Satellite cells contribute to uninjured myofibers either following a cell division or directly without an intervening cell division. The frequency of satellite cell fusion into the skeletal muscle fibers is greater than previously estimated, suggesting an important functional role for satellite cell fusion into adult myofibers and a requirement for active maintenance of satellite cell numbers in uninjured skeletal muscle.

  11. First European Workshop on 'Remote sensing in mineral exploration'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Wambeke, L.; Sanderson, D.J.; Dolan, J.M.


    The First European Workshop on 'Remote sensing in mineral exploration' organized by the Commission of the European Communities in February 1985 took stock of the results obtained within the European Community on the application of remote sensing techniques in exploration. The papers presented in this publication are essentially based on data obtained with the first generation of satellites and some airborne experiments. Important progress in data processing and interpretation has been made in the EEC since 1979 and is continuing to be made. The main aim is to provide the EC mining industry with a new tool for exploration. Significant results have already been obtained with the EEC playing an important role in the promotion of this relatively new technique. The main R and D trend is towards an integration of multidata sets (remote sensing, geochemical, geophysical and other data) to improve the methodology for delineating new targets in exploration. Another general trend is the participation of mining companies in remote sensing experiments. Further improvement for exploration is expected in the near future with the thematic mapper and the spot imageries as well as new airborne sensors

  12. Analysis of air pollution over Hanoi, Vietnam using multi-satellite and MERRA reanalysis datasets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristofer Lasko

    Full Text Available Air pollution is one of the major environmental concerns in Vietnam. In this study, we assess the current status of air pollution over Hanoi, Vietnam using multiple different satellite datasets and weather information, and assess the potential to capture rice residue burning emissions with satellite data in a cloud-covered region. We used a timeseries of Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI Ultraviolet Aerosol Index (UVAI satellite data to characterize absorbing aerosols related to biomass burning. We also tested a timeseries of 3-hourly MERRA-2 reanalysis Black Carbon (BC concentration data for 5 years from 2012-2016 and explored pollution trends over time. We then used MODIS active fires, and synoptic wind patterns to attribute variability in Hanoi pollution to different sources. Because Hanoi is within the Red River Delta where rice residue burning is prominent, we explored trends to see if the residue burning signal is evident in the UVAI or BC data. Further, as the region experiences monsoon-influenced rainfall patterns, we adjusted the BC data based on daily rainfall amounts. Results indicated forest biomass burning from Northwest Vietnam and Laos impacts Hanoi air quality during the peak UVAI months of March and April. Whereas, during local rice residue burning months of June and October, no increase in UVAI is observed, with slight BC increase in October only. During the peak BC months of December and January, wind patterns indicated pollutant transport from southern China megacity areas. Results also indicated severe pollution episodes during December 2013 and January 2014. We observed significantly higher BC concentrations during nighttime than daytime with peaks generally between 2130 and 0030 local time. Our results highlight the need for better air pollution monitoring systems to capture episodic pollution events and their surface-level impacts, such as rice residue burning in cloud-prone regions in general and Hanoi, Vietnam in

  13. Satellite-derived SIF and CO2 Observations Show Coherent Responses to Interannual Climate Variations (United States)

    Butterfield, Z.; Hogikyan, A.; Kulawik, S. S.; Keppel-Aleks, G.


    Gross primary production (GPP) is the single largest carbon flux in the Earth system, but its sensitivity to changes in climate is subject to significant uncertainty. Satellite measurements of solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) offer insight into spatial and temporal patterns in GPP at a global scale and, combined with other satellite-derived datasets, provide unprecedented opportunity to explore interactions between atmospheric CO2, GPP, and climate variability. To explore potential drivers of GPP in the Northern Hemisphere (NH), we compare monthly-averaged SIF data from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment 2 (GOME-2) with observed anomalies in temperature (T; CRU-TS), liquid water equivalent (LWE) from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE), and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR; CERES SYN1deg). Using observations from 2007 through 2015 for several NH regions, we calculate month-specific sensitivities of SIF to variability in T, LWE, and PAR. These sensitivities provide insight into the seasonal progression of how productivity is affected by climate variability and can be used to effectively model the observed SIF signal. In general, we find that high temperatures are beneficial to productivity in the spring, but detrimental in the summer. The influences of PAR and LWE are more heterogeneous between regions; for example, higher LWE in North American temperate forest leads to decreased springtime productivity, while exhibiting a contrasting effect in water-limited regions. Lastly, we assess the influence of variations in terrestrial productivity on atmospheric carbon using a new lower tropospheric CO2 product derived from the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT). Together, these data shed light on the drivers of interannual variability in the annual cycle of NH atmospheric CO2, and may provide improved constraints on projections of long-term carbon cycle responses to climate change.

  14. Biophysical applications of satellite remote sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Hanes, Jonathan


    Including an introduction and historical overview of the field, this comprehensive synthesis of the major biophysical applications of satellite remote sensing includes in-depth discussion of satellite-sourced biophysical metrics such as leaf area index.

  15. Satellite recovery - Attitude dynamics of the targets (United States)

    Cochran, J. E., Jr.; Lahr, B. S.


    The problems of categorizing and modeling the attitude dynamics of uncontrolled artificial earth satellites which may be targets in recovery attempts are addressed. Methods of classification presented are based on satellite rotational kinetic energy, rotational angular momentum and orbit and on the type of control present prior to the benign failure of the control system. The use of approximate analytical solutions and 'exact' numerical solutions to the equations governing satellite attitude motions to predict uncontrolled attitude motion is considered. Analytical and numerical results are presented for the evolution of satellite attitude motions after active control termination.

  16. Use of Advanced Solar Cells for Commercial Communication Satellites (United States)

    Bailey, Sheila G.; Landis, Geoffrey A.


    The current generation of communications satellites are located primarily in geosynchronous Earth orbit (GEO). Over the next decade, however, a new generation of communications satellites will be built and launched, designed to provide a world-wide interconnection of portable telephones. For this mission, the satellites must be positioned in lower polar and near-polar orbits. To provide complete coverage, large numbers of satellites will be required. Because the required number of satellites decreases as the orbital altitude is increased, fewer satellites would be required if the orbit chosen were raised from low to intermediate orbit. However, in intermediate orbits, satellites encounter significant radiation due to trapped electrons and protons. Radiation tolerant solar cells may be necessary to make such satellites feasible. We analyze the amount of radiation encountered in low and intermediate polar orbits at altitudes of interest to next-generation communication satellites, calculate the expected degradation for silicon, GaAs, and InP solar cells, and show that the lifetimes can be significantly increased by use of advanced solar cells.

  17. Self-supervised learning as an enabling technology for future space exploration robots: ISS experiments on monocular distance learning (United States)

    van Hecke, Kevin; de Croon, Guido C. H. E.; Hennes, Daniel; Setterfield, Timothy P.; Saenz-Otero, Alvar; Izzo, Dario


    Although machine learning holds an enormous promise for autonomous space robots, it is currently not employed because of the inherent uncertain outcome of learning processes. In this article we investigate a learning mechanism, Self-Supervised Learning (SSL), which is very reliable and hence an important candidate for real-world deployment even on safety-critical systems such as space robots. To demonstrate this reliability, we introduce a novel SSL setup that allows a stereo vision equipped robot to cope with the failure of one of its cameras. The setup learns to estimate average depth using a monocular image, by using the stereo vision depths from the past as trusted ground truth. We present preliminary results from an experiment on the International Space Station (ISS) performed with the MIT/NASA SPHERES VERTIGO satellite. The presented experiments were performed on October 8th, 2015 on board the ISS. The main goals were (1) data gathering, and (2) navigation based on stereo vision. First the astronaut Kimiya Yui moved the satellite around the Japanese Experiment Module to gather stereo vision data for learning. Subsequently, the satellite freely explored the space in the module based on its (trusted) stereo vision system and a pre-programmed exploration behavior, while simultaneously performing the self-supervised learning of monocular depth estimation on board. The two main goals were successfully achieved, representing the first online learning robotic experiments in space. These results lay the groundwork for a follow-up experiment in which the satellite will use the learned single-camera depth estimation for autonomous exploration in the ISS, and are an advancement towards future space robots that continuously improve their navigation capabilities over time, even in harsh and completely unknown space environments.

  18. Rocket and satellite observations of electric fields and ion convection in the dayside auroral ionosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marklund, G.; Heelis, R.A.


    Electric field observations from two high-altitude rocket flights in the polar cusp have been combined with satellite observations of ion drifts to infer details of the electric field and convection pattern of the dayside auroral ionosphere. A region of shear flow reversal can be inferred from the electric field observations on one flight near 15.30 MLT 20 minutes after the Dynamics Explorer 2 satellite crossed through the same region. The drift patterns observed by the two spacecrafts were very similar although shifted by 0.5 degrees, a shift which is expected from the observed change in the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) B(sub)Z component during this time. A region of rotational flow reversal was covered by the other flight shortly after magnetic noon, at the same time the DE-2 satellite travelled along roughly the dawn-dusk meridian. By joining points of equal potential, integrated from the two datasets and assuming the reversal boundary to be an equipotential, the instantaneous convection pattern could be drawn showing crescent-shaped convection contours in the dusk cell and more circular shaped contours in the dawn cell. (author)

  19. Satellite Demonstration: The Videodisc Technology. (United States)

    Propp, George; And Others


    Originally part of a symposium on educational media for the deaf, the paper describes a satellite demonstration of video disc materials. It is explained that a panel of deaf individuals in Washington, D.C. and another in Nebraska came into direct two-way communication for the first time, and video disc materials were broadcast via the satellite.…

  20. The associations between birth outcomes and satellite-estimated maternal PM2.5 exposure in Shanghai, China (United States)

    Xiao, Q.; Liu, Y.; Strickland, M. J.; Chang, H. H.; Kan, H.


    Background: Satellite remote sensing data have been employed for air pollution exposure assessment, with the intent of better characterizing exposure spatio-temproal variations. However, non-random missingness in satellite data may lead to exposure error. Objectives: We explored the differences in health effect estimates due to different exposure metrics, with and without satellite data, when analyzing the associations between maternal PM2.5 exposure and birth outcomes. Methods: We obtained birth registration records of 132,783 singleton live births during 2011-2014 in Shanghai. Trimester-specific and total pregnancy exposures were estimated from satellite PM2.5 predictions with missingness, gap-filled satellite PM2.5 predictions with complete coverage and regional average PM2.5 measurements from monitoring stations. Linear regressions estimated associations between birth weight and maternal PM2.5 exposure. Logistic regressions estimated associations between preterm birth and the first and second trimester exposure. Discrete-time models estimated third trimester and total pregnancy associations with preterm birth. Effect modifications by maternal age and parental education levels were investigated. Results: we observed statistically significant associations between maternal PM2.5 exposure during all exposure windows and adverse birth outcomes. A 10 µg/m3 increase in pregnancy PM2.5 exposure was associated with a 12.85 g (95% CI: 18.44, 7.27) decrease in birth weight for term births, and a 27% (95% CI: 20%, 36%) increase in the risk of preterm birth. Greater effects were observed between first and third trimester exposure and birth weight, as well as between first trimester exposure and preterm birth. Mothers older than 35 years and without college education tended to have higher associations with preterm birth. Conclusions: Gap-filled satellite data derived PM2.5 exposure estimates resulted in reduced exposure error and more precise health effect estimates.

  1. Flight results from the gravity-gradient-controlled RAE-1 satellite (United States)

    Blanchard, D. L.


    The in-orbit dynamics of a large, flexible spacecraft has been modeled with a computer simulation, which was used for designing the control system, developing a deployment and gravity-gradient capture procedure, predicting the steady-state behavior, and designing a series of dynamics experiments for the Radio Astronomy Explorer (RAE) satellite. This flexible body dynamics simulator permits three-dimensional, large-angle rotation of the total spacecraft and includes effects of orbit eccentricity, thermal bending, solar pressure, gravitational accelerations, and the damper system. Flight results are consistent with the simulator predictions and are presented for the deployment and capture phases, the steady-state mission, and the dynamics experiments.

  2. Improving Flood Prediction By the Assimilation of Satellite Soil Moisture in Poorly Monitored Catchments. (United States)

    Alvarez-Garreton, C. D.; Ryu, D.; Western, A. W.; Crow, W. T.; Su, C. H.; Robertson, D. E.


    Flood prediction in poorly monitored catchments is among the greatest challenges faced by hydrologists. To address this challenge, an increasing number of studies in the last decade have explored methods to integrate various existing observations from ground and satellites. One approach in particular, is the assimilation of satellite soil moisture (SM-DA) into rainfall-runoff models. The rationale is that satellite soil moisture (SSM) can be used to correct model soil water states, enabling more accurate prediction of catchment response to precipitation and thus better streamflow. However, there is still no consensus on the most effective SM-DA scheme and how this might depend on catchment scale, climate characteristics, runoff mechanisms, model and SSM products used, etc. In this work, an operational SM-DA scheme was set up in the poorly monitored, large (>40,000 km2), semi-arid Warrego catchment situated in eastern Australia. We assimilated passive and active SSM products into the probability distributed model (PDM) using an ensemble Kalman filter. We explored factors influencing the SM-DA framework, including relatively new techniques to remove model-observation bias, estimate observation errors and represent model errors. Furthermore, we explored the advantages of accounting for the spatial distribution of forcing and channel routing processes within the catchment by implementing and comparing lumped and semi-distributed model setups. Flood prediction is improved by SM-DA (Figure), with a 30% reduction of the average root-mean-squared difference of the ensemble prediction, a 20% reduction of the false alarm ratio and a 40% increase of the ensemble mean Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency. SM-DA skill does not significantly change with different observation error assumptions, but the skill strongly depends on the observational bias correction technique used, and more importantly, on the performance of the open-loop model before assimilation. Our findings imply that proper

  3. Revolving scheme for solving a cascade of Abel equations in dynamics of planar satellite rotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey V. Ershkov


    Full Text Available The main objective for this research was the analytical exploration of the dynamics of planar satellite rotation during the motion of an elliptical orbit around a planet. First, we revisit the results of J. Wisdom et al. (1984, in which, by the elegant change of variables (considering the true anomaly f as the independent variable, the governing equation of satellite rotation takes the form of an Abel ordinary differential equation (ODE of the second kind, a sort of generalization of the Riccati ODE. We note that due to the special character of solutions of a Riccati-type ODE, there exists the possibility of sudden jumping in the magnitude of the solution at some moment of time. In the physical sense, this jumping of the Riccati-type solutions of the governing ODE could be associated with the effect of sudden acceleration/deceleration in the satellite rotation around the chosen principle axis at a definite moment of parametric time. This means that there exists not only a chaotic satellite rotation regime (as per the results of J. Wisdom et al. (1984, but a kind of gradient catastrophe (Arnold, 1992 could occur during the satellite rotation process. We especially note that if a gradient catastrophe could occur, this does not mean that it must occur: such a possibility depends on the initial conditions. In addition, we obtained asymptotical solutions that manifest a quasi-periodic character even with the strong simplifying assumptions e→0, p=1, which reduce the governing equation of J. Wisdom et al. (1984 to a kind of Beletskii’s equation.

  4. First data from X-ray astronomy satellite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, J.


    EXOSAT, the European Space Agency's first x-ray astronomy satellite which was launched last year, has sent back information on x-ray sources. The article briefly discusses the observations made by the satellite concerning Cygnus x-1 and the galactic supernova remnant Cassiopeia A. EXOSAT is the first x-ray astronomy satellite to be operated in a deep space orbit

  5. Sustained Satellite Missions for Climate Data Records (United States)

    Halpern, David


    Satellite CDRs possess the accuracy, longevity, and stability for sustained moni toring of critical variables to enhance understanding of the global integrated Earth system and predict future conditions. center dot Satellite CDRs are a critical element of a global climate observing system. center dot Satellite CDRs are a difficult challenge and require high - level managerial commitment, extensive intellectual capital, and adequate funding.

  6. Satellite Contributions to Global Change Studies (United States)

    Parkinson, Claire L.


    By providing a global view with a level playing field (no region missed because of unfavorable surface conditions or political boundaries), satellites have made major contributions to improved monitoring and understanding of our constantly changing planet. The global view has allowed surprising realizations like the relative sparsity of lightning strikes over oceans and the large-scale undulations on the massive Antarctic ice sheet. It has allowed the tracking of all sorts of phenomena, including aerosols, both natural and anthropogenic, as they move with the atmospheric circulation and impact weather and human health. But probably nothing that the global view allows is more important in the long term than its provision. of unbiased data sets to address the issue of global change, considered by many to be among the most important issues facing humankind today. With satellites we can monitor atmospheric temperatures at all latitudes and longitudes, and obtain a global average that lessens the likelihood of becoming endlessly mired in the confusions brought about by the certainty of regional differences. With satellites we can monitor greenhouse gases such as CO2 not just above individual research stations but around the globe. With satellites we can monitor the polar sea ice covers, as we have done since the late 1970s, determining and quantifying the significant reduction in Arctic sea ice and the slight growth in Antarctic sea ice over that period, With satellites we can map the full extent and changes in the Antarctic stratospheric ozone depletions that were first identified from using a single ground station; and through satellite data we have witnessed from afar land surface changes brought about by humans both intentionally, as with wide-scale deforestation, and unintentionally, as with the decay of the Aral Sea. The satellite data are far from sufficient for all that we need in order to understand the global system and forecast its changes, as we also need

  7. Chartering Launchers for Small Satellites (United States)

    Hernandez, Daniel

    The question of how to launch small satellites has been solved over the years by the larger launchers offering small satellites the possibility of piggy-backing. Specific fixtures have been developed and commercialized: Arianespace developed the ASAP interface, the USAF studied ESPA, NASA has promoted Shuttle launch possibilities, Russian authorities and companies have been able to find solutions with many different launchers... It is fair to say that most launcher suppliers have worked hard and finally often been able to find solutions to launch most small satellites into orbit. It is also true, however, that most of these small satellites were technology demonstration missions capable of accepting a wide range of orbit and launch characteristics: orbit altitude and inclination, launch date, etc. In some cases the small satellite missions required a well-defined type of orbit and have therefore been obliged to hire a small launcher on which they were the prime passenger. In our paper we would like to propose an additional solution to all these possibilities: launchers could plan well in advance (for example about 3 years), trips to precisely defined orbits to allow potential passengers to organize themselves and be ready on the D-Day. On the scheduled date the chartered launcher goes to the stated orbit while on another date, another chartered launcher goes to another orbit. The idea is to organize departures for space like trains or airplanes leaving on known schedules for known destinations.

  8. The reionization of galactic satellite populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ocvirk, P.; Gillet, N.; Aubert, D.; Chardin, J. [Observatoire Astronomique de Strasbourg, Université de Strasbourg, CNRS UMR 7550, 11 rue de l' Université, F-67000 Strasbourg (France); Knebe, A.; Yepes, G. [Grupo de Astrofísica, Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Modulo C-8, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco E-280049 (Spain); Libeskind, N.; Gottlöber, S. [Leibniz-Institute für Astrophysik Potsdam (AIP), An der Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam (Germany); Hoffman, Y. [Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel)


    We use high-resolution simulations of the formation of the local group, post-processed by a radiative transfer code for UV photons, to investigate the reionization of the satellite populations of an isolated Milky Way-M31 galaxy pair in a variety of scenarios. We use an improved version of ATON which includes a simple recipe for radiative feedback. In our baseline models, reionization is initiated by low-mass, radiatively regulated halos at high redshift, until more massive halos appear, which then dominate and complete the reionization process. We investigate the relation between reionization history and present-day positions of the satellite population. We find that the average reionization redshift (z {sub r}) of satellites is higher near galaxy centers (MW and M31). This is due to the inside out reionization patterns imprinted by massive halos within the progenitor during the epoch of reionization, which end up forming the center of the galaxy. Due to incomplete dynamical mixing during galaxy assembly, these early patterns survive to present day, resulting in a clear radial gradient in the average satellite reionization redshift, up to the virial radius of MW and M31 and beyond. In the lowest emissivity scenario, the outer satellites are reionized about 180 Myr later than the inner satellites. This delay decreases with increasing source model emissivity, or in the case of external reionization by Virgo or M31, because reionization occurs faster overall and becomes spatially quasi-uniform at the highest emissivity.

  9. The reionization of galactic satellite populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ocvirk, P.; Gillet, N.; Aubert, D.; Chardin, J.; Knebe, A.; Yepes, G.; Libeskind, N.; Gottlöber, S.; Hoffman, Y.


    We use high-resolution simulations of the formation of the local group, post-processed by a radiative transfer code for UV photons, to investigate the reionization of the satellite populations of an isolated Milky Way-M31 galaxy pair in a variety of scenarios. We use an improved version of ATON which includes a simple recipe for radiative feedback. In our baseline models, reionization is initiated by low-mass, radiatively regulated halos at high redshift, until more massive halos appear, which then dominate and complete the reionization process. We investigate the relation between reionization history and present-day positions of the satellite population. We find that the average reionization redshift (z r ) of satellites is higher near galaxy centers (MW and M31). This is due to the inside out reionization patterns imprinted by massive halos within the progenitor during the epoch of reionization, which end up forming the center of the galaxy. Due to incomplete dynamical mixing during galaxy assembly, these early patterns survive to present day, resulting in a clear radial gradient in the average satellite reionization redshift, up to the virial radius of MW and M31 and beyond. In the lowest emissivity scenario, the outer satellites are reionized about 180 Myr later than the inner satellites. This delay decreases with increasing source model emissivity, or in the case of external reionization by Virgo or M31, because reionization occurs faster overall and becomes spatially quasi-uniform at the highest emissivity.

  10. High accuracy satellite drag model (HASDM) (United States)

    Storz, Mark F.; Bowman, Bruce R.; Branson, Major James I.; Casali, Stephen J.; Tobiska, W. Kent

    The dominant error source in force models used to predict low-perigee satellite trajectories is atmospheric drag. Errors in operational thermospheric density models cause significant errors in predicted satellite positions, since these models do not account for dynamic changes in atmospheric drag for orbit predictions. The Air Force Space Battlelab's High Accuracy Satellite Drag Model (HASDM) estimates and predicts (out three days) a dynamically varying global density field. HASDM includes the Dynamic Calibration Atmosphere (DCA) algorithm that solves for the phases and amplitudes of the diurnal and semidiurnal variations of thermospheric density near real-time from the observed drag effects on a set of Low Earth Orbit (LEO) calibration satellites. The density correction is expressed as a function of latitude, local solar time and altitude. In HASDM, a time series prediction filter relates the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) energy index E10.7 and the geomagnetic storm index ap, to the DCA density correction parameters. The E10.7 index is generated by the SOLAR2000 model, the first full spectrum model of solar irradiance. The estimated and predicted density fields will be used operationally to significantly improve the accuracy of predicted trajectories for all low-perigee satellites.

  11. Satellite studies of the stratospheric aerosol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCormick, M.P.; Hamill, P.; Pepin, T.J.; Chu, W.P.; Swissler, T.J.; McMaster, L.R.


    The potential climatological and environmental importance of the stratospheric aerosol layer has prompted great interest in measuring the properties of this aerosol. In this paper we report on two recently deployed NASA satellite systems (SAM II and SAGE) that are monitoring the stratospheric aerosol. The satellite orbits are such that nearly global coverage is obtained. The instruments mounted in the spacecraft are sun photometers that measure solar intensity at specific wavelengths as it is moderated by atmospheric particulates and gases during each sunrise and sunset encountered by the satellites. The data obtained are ''inverted'' to yield vertical aerosol and gaseous (primarily ozone) extinction profiles with 1 km vertical resolution. Thus, latitudinal, longitudinal, and temporal variations in the aerosol layer can be evaluated. The satellite systems are being validated by a series of ground truth experiments using airborne and ground lidar, balloon-borne dustsondes, aircraft-mounted impactors, and other correlative sensors. We describe the SAM II and SAGE satellite systems, instrument characteristics, and mode of operation; outline the methodology of the experiments; and describe the ground truth experiments. We present preliminary results from these measurements

  12. Is radon emission in caves causing deletions in satellite DNA sequences of cave-dwelling crickets?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliana Allegrucci

    Full Text Available The most stable isotope of radon, 222Rn, represents the major source of natural radioactivity in confined environments such as mines, caves and houses. In this study, we explored the possible radon-related effects on the genome of Dolichopoda cave crickets (Orthoptera, Rhaphidophoridae sampled in caves with different concentrations of radon. We analyzed specimens from ten populations belonging to two genetically closely related species, D. geniculata and D. laetitiae, and explored the possible association between the radioactivity dose and the level of genetic polymorphism in a specific family of satellite DNA (pDo500 satDNA. Radon concentration in the analyzed caves ranged from 221 to 26,000 Bq/m3. Specimens coming from caves with the highest radon concentration showed also the highest variability estimates in both species, and the increased sequence heterogeneity at pDo500 satDNA level can be explained as an effect of the mutation pressure induced by radon in cave. We discovered a specific category of nuclear DNA, the highly repetitive satellite DNA, where the effects of the exposure at high levels of radon-related ionizing radiation are detectable, suggesting that the satDNA sequences might be a valuable tool to disclose harmful effects also in other organisms exposed to high levels of radon concentration.

  13. Satellite outreach in Asia and the Pacific. (United States)


    Communication by satellite is rapidly changing information exchange in Asia, especially for rural areas. The integrated education planned for satellite networks includes family planning as part of general development. A series of conferences has already been held successfully via satellite for family planning associations who are members of the East and Southeast Asia and Oceania Region of the International Planned Parenthood Federation. These included a conference on nursing training. In India the Satellite Instructional Television Experiment (SITE) made history during its 1-year trial. By 1981 the entire nation is to be linked by satellite. The question is whether the television education will truly change rural life or whether it will become merely a diversion. In Indonesia, satellites were chosen as the fastest way to obtain interisland communication. The Domsat system links the entire 13,000-island archipelago and is already being used for emergency communications. The system, which was developed in 1 1/2 years by the Hughes Aircraft Corporation will be used for teaching basic health, hygiene, and family planning. It will be several years before Domsat is fully operational, but it bears watching.

  14. Small satellites and space debris issues (United States)

    Yakovlev, M.; Kulik, S.; Agapov, V.


    The objective of this report is the analysis of the tendencies in designing of small satellites (SS) and the effect of small satellites on space debris population. It is shown that SS to include nano- and pico-satellites should be considered as a particularly dangerous source of space debris when elaborating international standards and legal documents concerning the space debris problem, in particular "International Space Debris Mitigation Standard". These issues are in accordance with the IADC goals in its main activity areas and should be carefully considered within the IADC framework.

  15. On-board processing for telecommunications satellites (United States)

    Nuspl, P. P.; Dong, G.


    In this decade, communications satellite systems will probably face dramatic challenges from alternative transmission means. To balance and overcome such competition, and to prepare for new requirements, INTELSAT has developed several on-board processing techniques, including Satellite-Switched TDMA (SS-TDMA), Satellite-Switched FDMA (SS-FDMA), several Modulators/Demodulators (Modem), a Multicarrier Multiplexer and Demodulator MCDD), an International Business Service (IBS)/Intermediate Data Rate (IDR) BaseBand Processor (BBP), etc. Some proof-of-concept hardware and software were developed, and tested recently in the INTELSAT Technical Laboratories. These techniques and some test results are discussed.

  16. ARTES: the future of satellite telecommunication (United States)

    González-Blázquez, Angel; Detain, Dominique


    Throughout its 30-year existence, ESA has played a key role by providing telecommunications infrastructures that have allowed the in-orbit validation, qualification and demonstration of equipment, technology and services. In the past, this has been achieved through the provision of dedicated satellites like OTS, Marecs, Olympus and Artemis, as well as by the implementation of piggy-back payloads on other ESA or commercial satellites. Today, due to the importance of satellite telecommunications, ESA continues to support this sector mainly through its ARTES - Advanced Research in Telecommunications - Programme.

  17. Satellite Communication and Long Distance Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafied Cangara


    Full Text Available Since Indonesia introduced communication satellite for telecommunication network, the satellite has brought a number of advantages for national development in various areas, such as telephone network, mass media development, business, education, politics, security and national defence as well as regional and international cooperation. In education, satellite communication could be used for long-distance learning as implemented by 13 state universities in eastern parts of Indonesia. It is also possible to develop the Open University System in teaching and learning process, particularly since the internet technology has been intensively used

  18. Highly Enhanced Risk Management Emergency Satellite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalmeir, Michael; Gataullin, Yunir; Indrajit, Agung

    HERMES (Highly Enhanced Risk Management Emergency Satellite) is potential European satellite mission for global flood management, being implemented by Technical University Munich and European Space Agency. With its main instrument - a reliable and precise Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) antenna...

  19. Toward the Public Dividend: A Report on Satellite Telecommunications and the Public Interest Satellite Association. (United States)

    McGraw, Walter

    This report points out that the communications satellite appears to be on its way to becoming one of the most dominant and controlling technologies of our time, and this requires that a new evaluation be made of our entire communications process. The first section of the report discusses many aspects of the history of satellites, including the…

  20. Evolution of space drones for planetary exploration: A review (United States)

    Hassanalian, M.; Rice, D.; Abdelkefi, A.


    In the past decade, there has been a tendency to design and fabricate drones which can perform planetary exploration. Generally, there are various ways to study space objects, such as the application of telescopes and satellites, launching robots and rovers, and sending astronauts to the targeted solar bodies. However, due to the advantages of drones compared to other approaches in planetary exploration, ample research has been carried out by different space agencies in the world, including NASA to apply drones in other solar bodies. In this review paper, several studies which have been performed on space drones for planetary exploration are consolidated and discussed. Design and fabrication challenges of space drones, existing methods for their flight tests, different methods for deployment and planet entry, and various navigation and control approaches are reviewed and discussed elaborately. Limitations of applying space drones, proposed solutions for future space drones, and recommendations are also presented and discussed.

  1. The escape of natural satellites from Mercury and Venus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, S.S.


    It is suggested that the slow rotations of Mercury and Venus may be connected with the absence of natural satellites around them. If Mercury or Venus possessed a satellite at the time of formation, the tidal evolution would have caused the satellite to recede. At a sufficiently large distance from the planet, the Sun's gravitational influence makes the satellite orbit unstable. The natural satellites of Mercury and Venus might have escaped as a consequence of this instability. (Auth.)

  2. Satellite Radio

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Satellites have been a highly effective platform for multi- form broadcasts. This has led to a ... diversity offormats, languages, genre, and a universal reach that cannot be met by .... programs can be delivered to whom it is intended. In the case of.

  3. Spectroscopic Observations of Geo-Stationary Satellites Over the Korean Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. K. Lee


    Full Text Available Low resolution spectroscopic observations of geo-stationary satellites over the Korean peninsula have been carried out at the KyungHee Optical Satellite Observing Facility (KOSOF with a 40cm telescope. We have observed 9 telecommunication satellites and 1 weather satellite of 6 countries. The obtained spectral data showed that satellites could be classified and grouped with similar basic spectral feature. We divided the 10 satellites into 4 groups based on spectral slop and reflectance. It is suggested that the material types of the satellites can be determined through spectral comparisons with the ground laboratory data. We will continuously observe additional geo-stationary satellites for the accurate classification of spectral features.

  4. History of Satellite Orbit Determination at NSWCDD (United States)


    meeting of the Satellite Division of ION, Palm Springs, CA., 12–15 Sep 1995. Hughey, Raymond H., Jr., “ History of Mathematics and Computing Technology ...TR-17/229 HISTORY OF SATELLITE ORBIT DETERMINATION AT NSWCDD BY EVERETT R. SWIFT WARFARE SYSTEMS ENGINEERING AND INTEGRATION...AND SUBTITLE History of Satellite Orbit Determination at NSWCDD 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER

  5. Satellite Application for Disaster Management Information Systems (United States)

    Okpanachi, George

    Abstract Satellites are becoming increasingly vital to modern day disaster management activities. Earth observation (EO) satellites provide images at various wavelengths that assist rapid-mapping in all phases of the disaster management cycle: mitigation of potential risks in a given area, preparedness for eventual disasters, immediate response to a disaster event, and the recovery/reconstruction efforts follo wing it. Global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) such as the Global Positioning System (GPS) assist all the phases by providing precise location and navigation data, helping manage land and infrastructures, and aiding rescue crews coordinate their search efforts. Effective disaster management is a complex problem, because it involves many parameters, which are usually not easy to measure and even identify: Analysis of current situation, planning, optimum resource management, coordination, controlling and monitoring current activities and making quick and correct decisions are only some of these parameters, whose complete list is very long. Disaster management information systems (DMIS) assist disaster management to analyse the situation better, make decisions and suggest further actions following the emergency plans. This requires not only fast and thorough processing and optimization abilities, but also real-time data provided to the DMIS. The need of DMIS for disaster’s real-time data can be satisfied by small satellites data utilization. Small satellites can provide up-to-data, plus a better media to transfer data. This paper suggests a rationale and a framework for utilization of small Satellite data by DMIS. DMIS should be used ‘’before’’, ‘’during’’ and ‘’after’’ the disasters. Data provided by the Small Satellites are almost crucial in any period of the disasters, because early warning can save lives, and satellite data may help to identify disasters before they occur. The paper also presents’ ‘when’’,

  6. Structural assurance testing for post-shipping satellite inspection (United States)

    Reynolds, Whitney D.; Doyle, Derek; Arritt, Brandon


    Current satellite transportation sensors can provide a binary indication of the acceleration or shock that a satellite has experienced during the shipping process but do little to identify if significant structural change has occurred in the satellite and where it may be located. When a sensor indicates that the satellite has experienced shock during transit, an extensive testing process begins to evaluate the satellite functionality. If errors occur during the functional checkout, extensive physical inspection of the structure follows. In this work an alternate method for inspecting satellites for structural defects after shipping is presented. Electro- Mechanical Impedance measurements are used as an indication of the structural state. In partnership with the Air Force Research Laboratory University Nanosatellite Program, Cornell's CUSat mass model was instrumented with piezoelectric transducers and tested under several structural damage scenarios. A method for detecting and locating changes in the structure using EMI data is presented.

  7. Orbital evolution and origin of the Martian satellites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szeto, A.M.K.


    The orbital evolution of the Martian satellites is considered from a dynamical point of view. Celestial mechanics relevant to the calculation of satellite orbital evolution is introduced and the physical parameters to be incorporated in the modeling of tidal dissipation are discussed. Results of extrapolating the satellite orbits backward and forward in time are presented and compared with those of other published work. Collision probability calculations and results for the Martian satellite system are presented and discussed. The implications of these calculations for the origin scenarios of the satellites are assessed. It is concluded that Deimos in its present form could not have been captured, for if it had been, it would have collided with Phobos at some point. An accretion model is therefore preferred over capture, although such a model consistent with the likely carbonaceous chondritic composition of the satellites has yet to be established. 91 references

  8. Advanced satellite servicing facility studies (United States)

    Qualls, Garry D.; Ferebee, Melvin J., Jr.


    A NASA-sponsored systems analysis designed to identify and recommend advanced subsystems and technologies specifically for a manned Sun-synchronous platform for satellite management is discussed. An overview of system design, manned and unmanned servicing facilities, and representative mission scenarios are given. Mission areas discussed include facility based satellite assembly, checkout, deployment, refueling, repair, and systems upgrade. The ferrying of materials and consumables to and from manufacturing platforms, deorbit, removal, repositioning, or salvage of satellites and debris, and crew rescue of any other manned vehicles are also examined. Impacted subsytems discussed include guidance navigation and control, propulsion, data management, power, thermal control, structures, life support, and radiation management. In addition, technology issues which would have significant impacts on the system design are discussed.

  9. Inexpensive land-use maps extracted from satellite data (United States)

    Barney, T. W.; Barr, D. J.; Elifrits, C. D.; Johannsen, C. J.


    Satellite images are interpretable with minimal skill and equipment by employing method which uses false color composite print of image of area transmitted from Landsat satellite. Method is effective for those who have little experience with satellite imagery, little time, and little money available.

  10. Automated tracking for advanced satellite laser ranging systems (United States)

    McGarry, Jan F.; Degnan, John J.; Titterton, Paul J., Sr.; Sweeney, Harold E.; Conklin, Brion P.; Dunn, Peter J.


    NASA's Satellite Laser Ranging Network was originally developed during the 1970's to track satellites carrying corner cube reflectors. Today eight NASA systems, achieving millimeter ranging precision, are part of a global network of more than 40 stations that track 17 international satellites. To meet the tracking demands of a steadily growing satellite constellation within existing resources, NASA is embarking on a major automation program. While manpower on the current systems will be reduced to a single operator, the fully automated SLR2000 system is being designed to operate for months without human intervention. Because SLR2000 must be eyesafe and operate in daylight, tracking is often performed in a low probability of detection and high noise environment. The goal is to automatically select the satellite, setup the tracking and ranging hardware, verify acquisition, and close the tracking loop to optimize data yield. TO accomplish the autotracking tasks, we are investigating (1) improved satellite force models, (2) more frequent updates of orbital ephemerides, (3) lunar laser ranging data processing techniques to distinguish satellite returns from noise, and (4) angular detection and search techniques to acquire the satellite. A Monte Carlo simulator has been developed to allow optimization of the autotracking algorithms by modeling the relevant system errors and then checking performance against system truth. A combination of simulator and preliminary field results will be presented.

  11. Planning Alternative Organizational Frameworks For a Large Scale Educational Telecommunications System Served by Fixed/Broadcast Satellites. Memorandum Number 73/3. (United States)

    Walkmeyer, John

    Considerations relating to the design of organizational structures for development and control of large scale educational telecommunications systems using satellites are explored. The first part of the document deals with four issues of system-wide concern. The first is user accessibility to the system, including proximity to entry points, ability…

  12. Satellite Sanitary Systems in Kampala, Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Letema, S.C.; Vliet, van B.J.M.; Lier, van J.B.


    Satellite sewage collection and treatment systems have been independently developed and managed in East African cities outside the centrally planned and sewered areas. A satellite approach is a promising provisioning option parallel to public sewerage for middle- and high-income residential areas,

  13. Satellite Sanitary Systems in Kampala, Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Letema, S.; Van Vliet, B.; Van Lier, J.B.


    Satellite sewage collection and treatment systems have been independently developed and managed in East African cities outside the centrally planned and sewered areas. A satellite approach is a promising provisioning option parallel to public sewerage for middle- and high-income residential areas,

  14. "But, We Don't Have a Library": Exploring Approaches to Addressing Branch Campuses' Library Needs (United States)

    Hostetler, Kirsten; DeSilva, Michele


    Librarians at Central Oregon Community College's Barber Library explored how to best serve the needs of three satellite campuses across a large geographic region. While initially intending to start an embedded librarianship program, a pair of surveys showed the relationships and awareness necessary for the foundation of such a program were…

  15. The next generation of Palapa satellite (Palapa-C) (United States)

    Setiawan, Bambang

    The Indonesian Palapa Communication Satellite System was established in Aug. 1976 when the first satellite of Palapa A series (Palapa A1) began operation. The system is owned and operated by PT. Telekomunikasi Indonesia (Telkom), which is a state owned company. The purpose of the system was to unify the telecommunications of the nation. Many years of operation have shown that satellite technology is the best solution for improving telecommunications in Indonesia. The system was started with 2 (two) satellites, each with 12 transponders (for a total of 24), and 40 earth stations. Now the system has 3 (three) satellites, each with 24 transponders (for a total of 72 transponders), and thousands of earth stations. The services have been extended to satisfy the requirements of the region as well as the original objectives. The use of satellite transponders in the region is increasing rapidly. In the next ten years, opportunities in the satellite communications business will become even more attractive. The next generation Palapa-C will incorporate improvements in capacity, quality, and coverage. The new frequency bands (ku- and Extended-C Band) will be used to meet the new transponder capacity requirements.

  16. Land mobile satellite services in Europe (United States)

    Bartholomé, P.; Berretta, G.; Rogard, R.

    The demand for land-mobile communications on a Europe-wide basis is an important and pressing problem. The pan-European cellular network now in the planning stage will be slow in coming and it will have its limitations. A regional satellite system for Europe to complement the cellular network is the only practical way to satisfy a specialised market that encompasses a population of several hundred thousand mobiles, including road vehicles, merchant shipping, fishing boats, and trains. The deployment of a regional system would take place in a number of phases, the first being based on a simple payload embarked on a host satellite belonging to a European organisation. Further phases will involve the development of more advanced payloads on dedicated satellites. For the long-term future, the use of satellites in highly inclined orbits is being considered as a means of improving their visibility and hence the service quality.

  17. High power communication satellites power systems study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Josloff, A.T.; Peterson, J.R.


    This paper discusses a DOE-funded study to evaluate the commercial attractiveness of high power communication satellites and assesses the attributes of both conventional photovoltaic and reactor power systems. This study brings together a preeminent US Industry/Russian team to cooperate on the role of high power communication satellites in the rapidly expanding communications revolution. These high power satellites play a vital role in assuring availability of universally accessible, wide bandwidth communications, for high definition TV, super computer networks and other services. Satellites are ideally suited to provide the wide bandwidths and data rates required and are unique in the ability to provide services directly to the users. As new or relocated markets arise, satellites offer a flexibility that conventional distribution services cannot match, and it is no longer necessary to be near population centers to take advantage of the telecommunication revolution. The geopolitical implications of these substantially enhanced communications capabilities will be significant

  18. Spectroscopic Observations of Geo-Stationary Satellites Over the Korean Peninsula


    D. K. Lee; S. J. Kim; W. Y. Han; J. S. Park; S. W. Min


    Low resolution spectroscopic observations of geo-stationary satellites over the Korean peninsula have been carried out at the KyungHee Optical Satellite Observing Facility (KOSOF) with a 40cm telescope. We have observed 9 telecommunication satellites and 1 weather satellite of 6 countries. The obtained spectral data showed that satellites could be classified and grouped with similar basic spectral feature. We divided the 10 satellites into 4 groups based on spectral slop and reflectance. It i...

  19. Estimating Rain Attenuation In Satellite Communication Links (United States)

    Manning, R. M.


    Attenuation computed with help of statistical model and meteorological data. NASA Lewis Research Center Satellite Link Attenuation Model (SLAM) program QuickBASIC computer program evaluating static and dynamic statistical assessment of impact of rain attenuation on communication link established between Earth terminal and geosynchronous satellite. Application in specification, design, and assessment of satellite communication links for any terminal location in continental United States. Written in Microsoft QuickBASIC.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nierenberg, A. M.; Auger, M. W.; Treu, T.; Marshall, P. J.; Fassnacht, C. D.


    We study the spatial distribution of faint satellites of intermediate redshift (0.1 s = 1.7 +0.9 -0.8 ) that is comparable to the number of Milky Way satellites with similar host-satellite contrast. The average projected radial profile of the satellite distribution is isothermal (γ p = -1.0 +0.3 -0.4 ), which is consistent with the observed central mass density profile of massive early-type galaxies. Furthermore, the satellite distribution is highly anisotropic (isotropy is ruled out at a >99.99% confidence level). Defining φ to be the offset between the major axis of the satellite spatial distribution and the major axis of the host light profile, we find a maximum posterior probability of φ = 0 and |φ| less than 42 0 at the 68% confidence level. The alignment of the satellite distribution with the light of the host is consistent with simulations, assuming that light traces mass for the host galaxy as observed for lens galaxies. The anisotropy of the satellite population enhances its ability to produce the flux ratio anomalies observed in gravitationally lensed quasars.

  1. Virtual Satellite Construction and Application for Image Classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, W G; Su, F Z; Zhou, C H


    Nowadays, most remote sensing image classification uses single satellite remote sensing data, so the number of bands and band spectral width is consistent. In addition, observed phenomenon such as land cover have the same spectral signature, which causes the classification accuracy to decrease as different data have unique characteristic. Therefore, this paper analyzes different optical remote sensing satellites, comparing the spectral differences and proposes the ideas and methods to build a virtual satellite. This article illustrates the research on the TM, HJ-1 and MODIS data. We obtained the virtual band X 0 through these satellites' bands combined it with the 4 bands of a TM image to build a virtual satellite with five bands. Based on this, we used these data for image classification. The experimental results showed that the virtual satellite classification results of building land and water information were superior to the HJ-1 and TM data respectively

  2. Investigation of Adaptive-threshold Approaches for Determining Area-Time Integrals from Satellite Infrared Data to Estimate Convective Rain Volumes (United States)

    Smith, Paul L.; VonderHaar, Thomas H.


    The principal goal of this project is to establish relationships that would allow application of area-time integral (ATI) calculations based upon satellite data to estimate rainfall volumes. The research is being carried out as a collaborative effort between the two participating organizations, with the satellite data analysis to determine values for the ATIs being done primarily by the STC-METSAT scientists and the associated radar data analysis to determine the 'ground-truth' rainfall estimates being done primarily at the South Dakota School of Mines and Technology (SDSM&T). Synthesis of the two separate kinds of data and investigation of the resulting rainfall-versus-ATI relationships is then carried out jointly. The research has been pursued using two different approaches, which for convenience can be designated as the 'fixed-threshold approach' and the 'adaptive-threshold approach'. In the former, an attempt is made to determine a single temperature threshold in the satellite infrared data that would yield ATI values for identifiable cloud clusters which are closely related to the corresponding rainfall amounts as determined by radar. Work on the second, or 'adaptive-threshold', approach for determining the satellite ATI values has explored two avenues: (1) attempt involved choosing IR thresholds to match the satellite ATI values with ones separately calculated from the radar data on a case basis; and (2) an attempt involved a striaghtforward screening analysis to determine the (fixed) offset that would lead to the strongest correlation and lowest standard error of estimate in the relationship between the satellite ATI values and the corresponding rainfall volumes.

  3. Relativistic Time Transfer for Inter-satellite Links

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Yi, E-mail: [Department of Astronomy, School of Astronomy and Space Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing (China); Shanghai Key Laboratory of Space Navigation and Position Techniques, Shanghai (China); Key Laboratory of Modern Astronomy and Astrophysics, Nanjing University, Ministry of Education, Nanjing (China)


    Inter-Satellite links (ISLs) will be an important technique for a global navigation satellite system (GNSS) in the future. Based on the principles of general relativity, the time transfer in an ISL is modeled and the algorithm for onboard computation is described. It is found, in general, satellites with circular orbits and identical semi-major axes can benefit inter-satellite time transfer by canceling out terms associated with the transformations between the proper times and the Geocentric Coordinate Time. For a GPS-like GNSS, the Shapiro delay is as large as 0.1 ns when the ISL passes at the limb of the Earth. However, in more realistic cases, this value will decrease to about 50 ps.

  4. Advanced Deployable Structural Systems for Small Satellites (United States)

    Belvin, W. Keith; Straubel, Marco; Wilkie, W. Keats; Zander, Martin E.; Fernandez, Juan M.; Hillebrandt, Martin F.


    One of the key challenges for small satellites is packaging and reliable deployment of structural booms and arrays used for power, communication, and scientific instruments. The lack of reliable and efficient boom and membrane deployment concepts for small satellites is addressed in this work through a collaborative project between NASA and DLR. The paper provides a state of the art overview on existing spacecraft deployable appendages, the special requirements for small satellites, and initial concepts for deployable booms and arrays needed for various small satellite applications. The goal is to enhance deployable boom predictability and ground testability, develop designs that are tolerant of manufacturing imperfections, and incorporate simple and reliable deployment systems.

  5. Spatial and energy distributions of satellite-speed helium atoms reflected from satellite-type surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, S.M.; Rodgers, W.E.; Knuth, E.L.


    Interactions of satellite-speed helium atoms (accelerated in an expansion from an arc-heated supersonic-molecular-beam source) with practical satellite surfaces have been investigated experimentally. The density and energy distributions of the scattered atoms were measured using a detection system developed for this study. This detection system includes (a) a target positioning mechanism, (b) a detector rotating mechanism, and (c) a mass spectrometer and/or a retarding-field energy analyzer. (Auth.)

  6. SDI satellite autonomy using AI and Ada (United States)

    Fiala, Harvey E.


    The use of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and the programming language Ada to help a satellite recover from selected failures that could lead to mission failure are described. An unmanned satellite will have a separate AI subsystem running in parallel with the normal satellite subsystems. A satellite monitoring subsystem (SMS), under the control of a blackboard system, will continuously monitor selected satellite subsystems to become alert to any actual or potential problems. In the case of loss of communications with the earth or the home base, the satellite will go into a survival mode to reestablish communications with the earth. The use of an AI subsystem in this manner would have avoided the tragic loss of the two recent Soviet probes that were sent to investigate the planet Mars and its moons. The blackboard system works in conjunction with an SMS and a reconfiguration control subsystem (RCS). It can be shown to be an effective way for one central control subsystem to monitor and coordinate the activities and loads of many interacting subsystems that may or may not contain redundant and/or fault-tolerant elements. The blackboard system will be coded in Ada using tools such as the ABLE development system and the Ada Production system.

  7. Satellite remote sensing in epidemiological studies. (United States)

    Sorek-Hamer, Meytar; Just, Allan C; Kloog, Itai


    Particulate matter air pollution is a ubiquitous exposure linked with multiple adverse health outcomes for children and across the life course. The recent development of satellite-based remote-sensing models for air pollution enables the quantification of these risks and addresses many limitations of previous air pollution research strategies. We review the recent literature on the applications of satellite remote sensing in air quality research, with a focus on their use in epidemiological studies. Aerosol optical depth (AOD) is a focus of this review and a significant number of studies show that ground-level particulate matter can be estimated from columnar AOD. Satellite measurements have been found to be an important source of data for particulate matter model-based exposure estimates, and recently have been used in health studies to increase the spatial breadth and temporal resolution of these estimates. It is suggested that satellite-based models improve our understanding of the spatial characteristics of air quality. Although the adoption of satellite-based measures of air quality in health studies is in its infancy, it is rapidly growing. Nevertheless, further investigation is still needed in order to have a better understanding of the AOD contribution to these prediction models in order to use them with higher accuracy in epidemiological studies.

  8. Technical comparison of several global mobile satellite communications systems (United States)

    Comparetto, Gary M.

    The era of satellite-based mobile satellite communications (MSC) systems started with the first MARISAT satellite which was launched into a geostationary orbit over the Pacific Ocean in 1976 to provide communications between ships and shore stations. The combination of high cost and unacceptably large equipment has kept the space-based MSC systems from appealing to the wider market of personal mobile communications. The progress made over the last ten years, however, in digital voice processing, satellite technology, and component miniaturization has resulted in the viability of satellite-based mobile satellite communications systems to meet the growing market in personal mobile communications using handsets similar to those currently in use with land-based cellular systems. Three of the more mature LEO/MEO satellite systems are addressed in this paper including GLOBALSTAR, Iridium, and Odyssey. The system architectures of each system are presented along with a description of the satellite and user handset designs and the multiaccess techniques employed. It will be shown that, although a number of similarities exist among the system addressed, each system is unique in a variety of significant design areas. It is concluded that the technical feasibility of satellite-based mobile satellite communications systems seems to be secure. It will be challenging, however, for the vendors to actually develop and deploy these systems in a cost effective, timely, and reliable way that meets a continually evolving set of requirements based upon a rapidly changing technology base.

  9. The Advanced Stellar Compass onboard the Oersted satellite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, John Leif; Eisenman, Allan R.; Liebe, Carl Christian


    In 1997 the first Danish satellite will be launched. The primarily scientific objective of the satellite is to map the magnetic field of the Earth. The attitude of the satellite is determined by an advanced stellar compass (star tracker). An advanced stellar compass consists of a CCD camera...

  10. A New Era Begins: Satellite Communications and Development. (United States)

    Pelton, Joseph N.

    This overview of changes in the field of telecommunications development produced by satellite communications over the last 15 years focuses on applications of satellite systems for educational and health purposes in developing countries. Satellite communications development from 1974 to 1986 is identified as the first stage of telecommunications…


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Quan; Libeskind, N. I.; Tempel, E.


    We investigate whether the satellite luminosity function (LF) of primary galaxies identified in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) depends on whether the host galaxy is in a filament or not. Isolated primary galaxies are identified in the SDSS spectroscopic sample, and potential satellites (that are up to four magnitudes fainter than their hosts) are searched for in the much deeper photometric sample. Filaments are constructed from the galaxy distribution by the Bisous process. Isolated primary galaxies are divided into two subsamples: those in filaments and those not in filaments. We examine the stacked mean satellite LF of both the filament and nonfilament samples and find that, on average, the satellite LF of galaxies in filaments is significantly higher than those of galaxies not in filaments. The filamentary environment can increase the abundance of the brightest satellites (M sat. < M prim. + 2.0) by a factor of ∼2 compared with nonfilament isolated galaxies. This result is independent of the primary galaxy magnitude, although the satellite LF of galaxies in the faintest magnitude bin is too noisy to determine if such a dependence exists. Because our filaments are extracted from a spectroscopic flux-limited sample, we consider the possibility that the difference in satellite LF is due to a redshift, color, or environmental bias, finding these to be insufficient to explain our result. The dependence of the satellite LF on the cosmic web suggests that the filamentary environment may have a strong effect on the efficiency of galaxy formation


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Quan; Libeskind, N. I. [Leibniz-Institut für Astrophysik Potsdam, An der Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam (Germany); Tempel, E., E-mail: [Tartu Observatory, Observatooriumi 1, 61602 Tõravere (Estonia)


    We investigate whether the satellite luminosity function (LF) of primary galaxies identified in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) depends on whether the host galaxy is in a filament or not. Isolated primary galaxies are identified in the SDSS spectroscopic sample, and potential satellites (that are up to four magnitudes fainter than their hosts) are searched for in the much deeper photometric sample. Filaments are constructed from the galaxy distribution by the Bisous process. Isolated primary galaxies are divided into two subsamples: those in filaments and those not in filaments. We examine the stacked mean satellite LF of both the filament and nonfilament samples and find that, on average, the satellite LF of galaxies in filaments is significantly higher than those of galaxies not in filaments. The filamentary environment can increase the abundance of the brightest satellites (M {sub sat.} < M {sub prim.} + 2.0) by a factor of ∼2 compared with nonfilament isolated galaxies. This result is independent of the primary galaxy magnitude, although the satellite LF of galaxies in the faintest magnitude bin is too noisy to determine if such a dependence exists. Because our filaments are extracted from a spectroscopic flux-limited sample, we consider the possibility that the difference in satellite LF is due to a redshift, color, or environmental bias, finding these to be insufficient to explain our result. The dependence of the satellite LF on the cosmic web suggests that the filamentary environment may have a strong effect on the efficiency of galaxy formation.

  13. Satellite Remote Sensing of Severe Haze Pollution over Eastern China on June, 2012 (United States)

    Christopher, S. A.; Feng, N.; Guo, Y.; Hong, S.


    Severe yellow haze hit a vast portion of Eastern China during the second week on June, 2012, as large area in Hubei, Henan, Hunan, Jiangsu, Anhui, Jiangxi, Shandong, Zhejiang provinces and Shanghai city were covered by lingering haze. This massive haze conditions caused considerable inconvenience to people's daily lives. Previous global air quality studies have also shown that Eastern China is one of regions with highest fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations around the world. In this study, we estimate spatial and temporal variations of PM2.5 concentrations using satellite observations of this severe haze pollution on June, 2012. Satellite derived Aerosol Optical Thickness (AOT), sites measured hourly PM2.5 and meteorological fields from surface are statistically correlated based on a multiple regression model. We also explore the utility of higher spatial resolution aerosol retrieval from MODIS. Both satellite-derived and in-situ values have peak daily mean concentrations of approximately 400 μg m-3 on June 12th, 2012 in the City of Wuhan, which is nearly 10 times of the primary standard of PM2.5 concentration of China's "Ambient Air Quality Standards" (35 μg m-3). Cities in the Eastern China, e.g. Nanjing, Hangzhou and Nanchang, have also witnessed similar peak values, along with heavy smog during the same period. Satellite observations in this case study demonstrate that the transport of smoke plumes can be one of the main drivers of regional haze pollution over Eastern China. Comparing to the U.S., current limited ground-based stations is one of the biggest problem to develop the PM2.5 monitoring program over China. Our results may suggest the potential of combining satellite remote sensing with atmospheric model to map the PM2.5 spatial concentration over the nationwide level, which can further accelerate the construction of PM2.5 monitoring network over China.

  14. Structure design and enviromental test of BGO calorimeter for satellite DAMPE (United States)

    Hu, Yiming; Feng, Changqing; Zhang, Yunlong; Chen, Dengyi; Chang, Jin


    The Dark Matter Particle Explorer, DAMPE, is a new designed satellite developed for the new Innovation 2020 program of Chinese Academy of Sciences. As the most important payload of China's first scientific satellite for detecting dark matter, the primary purposes of BGO calorimeter is to measure the energy of incident high energy electrons and gamma rays (5GeV-10TeV) and to identify hadron and electronics. BGO calorimeter also provides an important background discriminator by measuring the energy deposition due to the particle shower that produced by the e^{±}, γ and imaging their shower development profile. Structure design of BGO calorimeter is described in this paper. The new designed BGO calorimeter consists of 308 BGO crystals coupled with photomultiplier tubes on its two ends. The envelop size of the BGO calorimeter is 907.5mm×907.5mm×494.5mm,and the weight of which is 1051.4Kg. The most important purpose of mechanical design is how to package so heavy crystals into a detector as required arrangement and to make sure reliability and safety. This paper describes the results of vibration tests using the Flight Module of the BGO Calorimeter for the DAMPE satellite. During the vibration tests, no degradation of the mechanical assembly was observed. After random or sinusoidal vibrations, there was no significant changes of the frequency signatures observed during the modal surveys. The comparison of results of cosmic ray tests before and after the vibration shows no change in the performance of the BGO calorimeter.

  15. Bird migration and avian influenza: a comparison of hydrogen stable isotopes and satellite tracking methods (United States)

    Bridge, Eli S.; Kelly, Jeffrey F.; Xiao, Xiangming; Takekawa, John Y.; Hill, Nichola J.; Yamage, Mat; Haque, Enam Ul; Islam, Mohammad Anwarul; Mundkur, Taej; Yavuz, Kiraz Erciyas; Leader, Paul; Leung, Connie Y.H.; Smith, Bena; Spragens, Kyle A.; Vandegrift, Kurt J.; Hosseini, Parviez R.; Saif, Samia; Mohsanin, Samiul; Mikolon, Andrea; Islam, Ausrafal; George, Acty; Sivananinthaperumal, Balachandran; Daszak, Peter; Newman, Scott H.


    Satellite-based tracking of migratory waterfowl is an important tool for understanding the potential role of wild birds in the long-distance transmission of highly pathogenic avian influenza. However, employing this technique on a continental scale is prohibitively expensive. This study explores the utility of stable isotope ratios in feathers in examining both the distances traveled by migratory birds and variation in migration behavior. We compared the satellite-derived movement data of 22 ducks from 8 species captured at wintering areas in Bangladesh, Turkey, and Hong Kong with deuterium ratios (δD) in the feathers of these and other individuals captured at the same locations. We derived likely molting locations from the satellite tracking data and generated expected isotope ratios based on an interpolated map of δD in rainwater. Although δD was correlated with the distance between wintering and molting locations, surprisingly, measured δD values were not correlated with either expected values or latitudes of molting sites. However, population-level parameters derived from the satellite-tracking data, such as mean distance between wintering and molting locations and variation in migration distance, were reflected by means and variation of the stable isotope values. Our findings call into question the relevance of the rainfall isotope map for Asia for linking feather isotopes to molting locations, and underscore the need for extensive ground truthing in the form of feather-based isoscapes. Nevertheless, stable isotopes from feathers could inform disease models by characterizing the degree to which regional breeding populations interact at common wintering locations. Feather isotopes also could aid in surveying wintering locations to determine where high-resolution tracking techniques (e.g. satellite tracking) could most effectively be employed. Moreover, intrinsic markers such as stable isotopes offer the only means of inferring movement information from

  16. 47 CFR 25.143 - Licensing provisions for the 1.6/2.4 GHz mobile-satellite service and 2 GHz mobile-satellite... (United States)


    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Licensing provisions for the 1.6/2.4 GHz mobile-satellite service and 2 GHz mobile-satellite service. 25.143 Section 25.143 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Applications and Licenses...

  17. Research, planning, design and development of selected components, subsystems and systems for the Students for the Exploration and Development of Space Satellite (SEDSAT) (United States)

    Wingo, Dennis


    The work proposed in this task order was successfully accomplished. This is reflected in the approval by three NASA centers of the SEDSAT satellite to fly as a payload on the shuttle. All documentation necessary for evaluation of the satellite as a Shuttle payload was submitted and approved by the appropriate safety boards. The SEASIS instrument was demonstrated to work and its inclusion as a SEDSAT payload was accomplished in the task period. Finally, the SEDSAT interface to the NASA GSFC PES was approved by MSFC and GSFC with no substantive issues outstanding. As of the end of the contract date all milestones were met. However the NASA MSFC SEDS program was cancelled by the center. Since that time SEDSAT has gone on to be manifested on a Delta vehicle.

  18. Cyber security with radio frequency interferences mitigation study for satellite systems (United States)

    Wang, Gang; Wei, Sixiao; Chen, Genshe; Tian, Xin; Shen, Dan; Pham, Khanh; Nguyen, Tien M.; Blasch, Erik


    Satellite systems including the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) and the satellite communications (SATCOM) system provide great convenience and utility to human life including emergency response, wide area efficient communications, and effective transportation. Elements of satellite systems incorporate technologies such as navigation with the global positioning system (GPS), satellite digital video broadcasting, and information transmission with a very small aperture terminal (VSAT), etc. The satellite systems importance is growing in prominence with end users' requirement for globally high data rate transmissions; the cost reduction of launching satellites; development of smaller sized satellites including cubesat, nanosat, picosat, and femtosat; and integrating internet services with satellite networks. However, with the promising benefits, challenges remain to fully develop secure and robust satellite systems with pervasive computing and communications. In this paper, we investigate both cyber security and radio frequency (RF) interferences mitigation for satellite systems, and demonstrate that they are not isolated. The action space for both cyber security and RF interferences are firstly summarized for satellite systems, based on which the mitigation schemes for both cyber security and RF interferences are given. A multi-layered satellite systems structure is provided with cross-layer design considering multi-path routing and channel coding, to provide great security and diversity gains for secure and robust satellite systems.

  19. The utility of satellite observations for constraining fine-scale and transient methane sources (United States)

    Turner, A. J.; Jacob, D.; Benmergui, J. S.; Brandman, J.; White, L.; Randles, C. A.


    Resolving differences between top-down and bottom-up emissions of methane from the oil and gas industry is difficult due, in part, to their fine-scale and often transient nature. There is considerable interest in using atmospheric observations to detect these sources. Satellite-based instruments are an attractive tool for this purpose and, more generally, for quantifying methane emissions on fine scales. A number of instruments are planned for launch in the coming years from both low earth and geostationary orbit, but the extent to which they can provide fine-scale information on sources has yet to be explored. Here we present an observation system simulation experiment (OSSE) exploring the tradeoffs between pixel resolution, measurement frequency, and instrument precision on the fine-scale information content of a space-borne instrument measuring methane. We use the WRF-STILT Lagrangian transport model to generate more than 200,000 column footprints at 1.3×1.3 km2 spatial resolution and hourly temporal resolution over the Barnett Shale in Texas. We sub-sample these footprints to match the observing characteristics of the planned TROPOMI and GeoCARB instruments as well as different hypothetical observing configurations. The information content of the various observing systems is evaluated using the Fisher information matrix and its singular values. We draw conclusions on the capabilities of the planned satellite instruments and how these capabilities could be improved for fine-scale source detection.

  20. Swarm Satellites : Design, Characteristics and Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelen, S.


    Satellite swarms are a novelty, yet promise to deliver unprecedented robustness and data-collection efficiency. They are so new in fact that even the definition of what a satellite swarm is is disputable, and consequently, the term "swarm" is used for practically any type of distributed space