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Sample records for exploratory cross-sectional study

  1. Assessment of Anxiety and Depression among Dental Practitioners-An Exploratory Cross-sectional Study

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    Monika Prasad

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Dentists face a great deal of professional stress, in the dental school as well as in clinical practice. Their personal, as well as professional lives, get affected negatively by the stress and poor mental health. Aim: To assess the prevalence of anxiety and depression among dentists practicing in Ghaziabad city of Uttar Pradesh, India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out among 242 registered dentists in Ghaziabad city. Data regarding demographic, work-related characteristic, lifestyle and self-reported physical and mental status was collected. Mental status was measured through prevalidated questionnaire Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS and the Zung Self- Rating Depression Scale (SDS. Data were analysed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS 16.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA and descriptive statistics and Pearson Chi-square test were used (p< 0.05. Results: Of the 242 dentists, only one dentist did not respond to the questionnaire thus generating the response rate of 99.5%. The prevalence of anxiety and depression among dentist was found to be 44.4% and 36.9% respectively. Almost all sociodemographic (except gender, work-related characteristics (except frequency of conflicts and working hours per week, lifestyle were significantly associated with anxiety symptoms (p< 0.05 and demographic characteristics like marital status, years of experience, lifestyle, income per month, additional source of income were significantly also associated with depression (p< 0.05. Conclusion: Dentists are prone to stress which leads to further anxiety and depression. Stress coping strategies should be included in dental education curriculum to tackle these forms of tensions which indirectly improves their professional abilities and personal life.

  2. The roll-your-own cigarette market in Canada: a cross-sectional exploratory study

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    Leatherdale Scott T

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Even though the use and prevalence of roll-your-own cigarettes (RYO has been declining over the past decades, RYO remains important. Given the paucity of research examining RYO use, there is a need to better understand the current and potential future context of RYO use. Methods Data from the 2002 Canadian Tobacco Use Monitoring Survey (CTUMS were used to examine RYO tobacco use among 23,341 Canadians aged 15 and older. Logistic regression models were conducted to examine factors which differentiate smokers who smoke RYO tobacco all of the time, most of the time or sometimes from smokers who do not smoke RYO tobacco. Results We found that 17% (n = 925,000 of current smokers in Canada reported smoking RYO. When compared to manufactured cigarette (MC smokers, RYO users were heavier smokers, more addicted to nicotine, and less likely to consider quitting smoking. Lower income smokers were more likely to smoke RYO tobacco compared to smokers with high income. Conversely, smokers who had completed secondary school or university were less likely to smoke RYO tobacco compared to smokers who had not completed secondary school. Conclusion This study demonstrates that RYO tobacco use is not a negligible problem within Canada and provides valuable new insight for developing future tobacco control initiatives for this population of smokers.

  3. Dental Caries and its Socio-Behavioral Predictors- An Exploratory Cross-Sectional Study.

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    Kumar, Santhosh; Tadakamadla, Jyothi; Duraiswamy, Prabu; Kulkarni, Suhas

    To assess dental caries status and oral health related behavior of 12 year old school children in relation to urbanization and gender; to analyze the effect of socio-demographic and behavioral variables on dental caries experience. Study sample comprised 831, 12 year old school children in, India. Caries status was assessed by Decayed, missing, filled teeth (DMFT) index and a 16 item closed ended questionnaire was administered to children for assessing their oral health related knowledge, beliefs and behavior. Mean caries experience and prevalence was 1.94 and 64.9% respectively. Decay was the dominant component of DMFT. Greater proportion of female and urban children presented better oral health knowledge, beliefs and practices. Boys were more liable (OR=1.2, 95% CI=1.10-1.96) for having caries than girls. Children living in rural areas and whose parents were not professionals or semiprofessionals were more likely to experience caries. Children whose mothers were unskilled or house wives were more than twice likely to present caries (OR=2.14, 95% CI-2.03-2.45) than those children whose mothers were skilled or semi-skilled. Children of illiterate fathers and mothers were 1.09 (95% CI, 1.02-1.49) and 1.98 (95% CI, 1.13-1.99) times more likely to have dental caries than those children whose parents had greater than 10 years of education. Children, those who cleaned their teeth less than once a day presented an odds ratio of 1.36 (CI-1.17-1.86) also higher odds of dental caries was observed in children consuming sweets or soft drinks more than once a day. The prevalence and severity of dental caries was low among urban children and girls than their rural and boy counterparts. In general, oral health knowledge, beliefs and practices were low, predominantly in rural and male children. Caries experience was significantly associated with gender, location of residence, brushing frequency, frequency of consumption of soft drinks and sweets, parents' occupation and education.

  4. The association of resilience and age in individuals with colorectal cancer: an exploratory cross-sectional study.

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    Cohen, Miri; Baziliansky, Svetlana; Beny, Alex

    2014-01-01

    Studies generally report lower emotional distress in older patients with cancer than in younger patients with cancer. The personality construct of resilience was previously found to be higher with age, but has not been assessed in relation to emotional distress in older patients with cancer. To assess the mediating effect of resilience on the associations between age and emotional distress in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). An exploratory cross-sectional study of 92 individuals, aged 27-87 years, diagnosed with CRC stage II-III, 1-5 years prior to enrollment in the study. They completed the Wagnild and Young's resilience scale and Brief Symptoms Inventory-18, cancer-related problem list, and demographic and disease-related details. Older age, male gender, and less cancer-related problems were associated with higher resilience and lower emotional distress. A Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) analysis and mediation tests showed that, while controlling for cancer-related problems, resilience mediated the effects of age and gender on emotional distress. The study enlarges the explanation for the consistent previous findings on the better adjustment of older patients with cancer. Increased professional support should be provided for patients with low resilience levels. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Compliance and enforcement of a partial smoking ban in Lisbon taxis: an exploratory cross-sectional study

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    Ravara Sofia B

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research evaluating enforcement and compliance with smoking partial bans is rather scarce, especially in countries with relative weak tobacco control policies, such as Portugal. There is also scarce evidence on specific high risk groups such as vehicle workers. In January 2008, Portugal implemented a partial ban, followed by poor enforcement. The purpose of this study was to explore the effectiveness of a partial smoking ban in a pro-smoking environment, specifically transportation by taxi in the city of Lisbon. Ban effectiveness was generally defined by ban awareness and support, compliance and enforcement. Methods Exploratory cross-sectional study; purposive sampling in selected Lisbon streets. Structured interviews were conducted by trained researchers while using taxi services (January 2009-December 2010. Participants: 250 taxi drivers (98.8% participation rate. Chi-square, McNemar, Man Whitney tests and multiple logistic regression were performed. Results Of the participants, 249 were male; median age was 53.0 years; 43.6% were current smokers. Most participants (82.8% approved comprehensive bans; 84.8% reported that clients still asked to smoke in their taxis; 16.8% allowed clients to smoke. Prior to the ban this value was 76.9% (p  Conclusions Despite the strong ban support observed, high smoking prevalence and poor enforcement contribute to low compliance. The findings also suggest low compliance among night-shift and vehicle workers. This study clearly demonstrates that a partial and poorly-enforced ban is vulnerable to breaches, and highlights the need for clear and strong policies.

  6. Level of colorectal cancer awareness: a cross sectional exploratory study among multi-ethnic rural population in Malaysia

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    Su, Tin Tin; Goh, Jun Yan; Tan, Jackson; Muhaimah, Abdul Rahim; Pigeneswaren, Yoganathan; Khairun, Nasirin Sallamun; Normazidah, Abdul Wahab; Tharisini, Devi Kunasekaran; Majid, Hazreen Abd

    2013-01-01

    Background This paper presents the level of colorectal cancer awareness among multi-ethnic rural population in Malaysia. Methods A rural-based cross sectional survey was carried out in Perak state in Peninsular Malaysia in March 2011. The survey recruited a population-representative sample using multistage sampling. Altogether 2379 participants were included in this study. Validated bowel/colorectal cancer awareness measure questionnaire was used to assess the level of colorectal cancer aware...

  7. Exploratory study into awareness of heart disease and health care seeking behavior among Emirati women (UAE) - Cross sectional descriptive study.

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    Khan, Sarah; Ali, Syed Adnan

    2017-09-26

    Cardiovascular disease was the leading cause of death among women in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) in 2010. Heart attacks usually happen in older women thus symptoms of heart disease may be masked by symptoms of chronic diseases, which could explain the delay in seeking health care and higher mortality following an ischaemic episode among women. This study seeks to a) highlight the awareness of heart diseases among Emirati women and b) to understand Emirati women's health care seeking behaviour in UAE. A cross sectional, descriptive study was conducted using a survey instrument adapted from the American Heart Association National survey. A convenience sample of 676 Emirati women between the ages of 18-55 years completed the questionnaire. The study showed low levels of awareness of heart disease and associated risk factors in Emirati women; only 19.4% participants were found to be aware of heart diseases. Awareness levels were highest in Dubai (OR 2.18, p seeking health care. Interestingly, just 49.1% Emirati women believed that good quality and affordable health care was available in the UAE. Only 28.8% of the participants believed there were sufficient female doctors to respond to health needs of women in UAE. Furthermore, only 36.7% Emirati women chose to be treated in the UAE over treatment in other countries. Emirati women clearly lack the knowledge on severity and vulnerability to heart disease in the region that is essential to improve cardiovascular related health outcomes. This study has identified the need for wider outreach that focuses on gender and age specific awareness on heart disease risks and symptoms. The study has also highlighted potential modifiable barriers in seeking health care that should be overcome to reduce morbidity and mortality due to heart disease among national women of UAE.

  8. Level of colorectal cancer awareness: a cross sectional exploratory study among multi-ethnic rural population in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Tin Tin; Goh, Jun Yan; Tan, Jackson; Muhaimah, Abdul Rahim; Pigeneswaren, Yoganathan; Khairun, Nasirin Sallamun; Normazidah, Abdul Wahab; Tharisini, Devi Kunasekaran; Majid, Hazreen Abd

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the level of colorectal cancer awareness among multi-ethnic rural population in Malaysia. A rural-based cross sectional survey was carried out in Perak state in Peninsular Malaysia in March 2011. The survey recruited a population-representative sample using multistage sampling. Altogether 2379 participants were included in this study. Validated bowel/colorectal cancer awareness measure questionnaire was used to assess the level of colorectal cancer awareness among study population. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was done to identify socio-demographic variance of knowledge score on warning signs and risk factors of colorectal cancer. Among respondents, 38% and 32% had zero knowledge score for warning signs and risk factors respectively. Mean knowledge score for warning signs and risk factors were 2.89 (SD 2.96) and 3.49 (SD 3.17) respectively. There was a significant positive correlation between the knowledge score of warning signs and level of confidence in detecting a warning sign. Socio-demographic characteristics and having cancer in family and friends play important role in level of awareness. Level of awareness on colorectal cancer warning signs and risk factors in the rural population of Malaysia is very low. Therefore, it warrants an extensive health education campaign on colorectal cancer awareness as it is one of the commonest cancer in Malaysia. Health education campaign is urgently needed because respondents would seek medical attention sooner if they are aware of this problem

  9. Level of colorectal cancer awareness: a cross sectional exploratory study among multi-ethnic rural population in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Tin Tin; Goh, Jun Yan; Tan, Jackson; Muhaimah, Abdul Rahim; Pigeneswaren, Yoganathan; Khairun, Nasirin Sallamun; Normazidah, Abdul Wahab; Tharisini, Devi Kunasekaran; Majid, Hazreen Abd

    2013-08-07

    This paper presents the level of colorectal cancer awareness among multi-ethnic rural population in Malaysia. A rural-based cross sectional survey was carried out in Perak state in Peninsular Malaysia in March 2011. The survey recruited a population-representative sample using multistage sampling. Altogether 2379 participants were included in this study. Validated bowel/colorectal cancer awareness measure questionnaire was used to assess the level of colorectal cancer awareness among study population. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was done to identify socio-demographic variance of knowledge score on warning signs and risk factors of colorectal cancer. Among respondents, 38% and 32% had zero knowledge score for warning signs and risk factors respectively. Mean knowledge score for warning signs and risk factors were 2.89 (SD 2.96) and 3.49 (SD 3.17) respectively. There was a significant positive correlation between the knowledge score of warning signs and level of confidence in detecting a warning sign. Socio-demographic characteristics and having cancer in family and friends play important role in level of awareness. Level of awareness on colorectal cancer warning signs and risk factors in the rural population of Malaysia is very low. Therefore, it warrants an extensive health education campaign on colorectal cancer awareness as it is one of the commonest cancer in Malaysia. Health education campaign is urgently needed because respondents would seek medical attention sooner if they are aware of this problem.

  10. Factors Associated with Migration in Individuals Affected by Leprosy, Maranhão, Brazil: An Exploratory Cross-Sectional Study

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    C. Murto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, leprosy is endemic and concentrated in high-risk clusters. Internal migration is common in the country and may influence leprosy transmission and hamper control efforts. We performed a cross-sectional study with two separate analyses evaluating factors associated with migration in Brazil’s Northeast: one among individuals newly diagnosed with leprosy and the other among a clinically unapparent population with no symptoms of leprosy for comparison. We included 394 individuals newly diagnosed with leprosy and 391 from the clinically unapparent population. Of those with leprosy, 258 (65.5% were birth migrants, 105 (26.6% were past five-year migrants, and 43 (10.9% were circular migrants. In multivariate logistic regression, three independent factors were found to be significantly associated with migration among those with leprosy: (1 alcohol consumption, (2 separation from family/friends, and (3 difficulty reaching the healthcare facility. Separation from family/friends was also associated with migration in the clinically unapparent population. The health sector may consider adapting services to meet the needs of migrating populations. Future research is needed to explore risks associated with leprosy susceptibility from life stressors, such as separation from family and friends, access to healthcare facilities, and alcohol consumption to establish causal relationships.

  11. An exploratory cross-sectional study on the impact of education on perception of stigma by Chinese patients with schizophrenia.

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    Ren, Zhibin; Wang, Heqiu; Feng, Bin; Gu, Chenyu; Ma, Yongchun; Chen, Hong; Li, Bingling; Liu, Lanying

    2016-06-30

    Stigma is a major issue across various society and cultures, and few studies focus on the perception of stigma by Chinese patients with schizophrenia. In the current cross-sectional study, we sought to assess the extent of internalized stigma among outpatients with schizophrenia in China and to investigate whether education level correlated with the experience of stigma. Outpatients with schizophrenia were evaluated using the brief psychosis rating scale (BPRS), the positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS), the clinical global impression-severity of illness (CGI-SI) scale and the Stigma Scale for Mental Illness (SSMI 2C). Patients were categorized into the high education and low education group according to their educational levels. One hundred thirty-three subjects were included in the study. Their mean course of illness was 4.32 ± 6.14 years (range, 1 month to 15 years). Their mean BPRS score was 19.87 ± 5.46, their mean PANSS score was 44.11 ± 13.1, and their mean CGI-SI score was 2.22 ± 0.81. In addition, the mean SSMI 2C score of the high education group (7.15 ± 0.98) was markedly higher than that of the low education group (5.75 ± 0.79, P  0.05). The mean domain II score of the high education group (2.42 ± 0.96) was markedly higher than that of the low education group (2.01 ± 0.79, P < 0.05). Moreover, the mean domain III score of the high education group (2.43 ± 0.79) was significantly higher than that of the low education group (1.67 ± 0.77, P < 0.05). Education level impacts on the perception of stigma by patients with schizophrenia and more psycho-education should be done to improve patients' knowledge about schizophrenia.

  12. The Prevalence of Online Health Information Seeking Among Patients in Scotland: A Cross-Sectional Exploratory Study.

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    Moreland, Julia; French, Tara L; Cumming, Grant P

    2015-07-15

    Online health information seeking is an activity that needs to be explored in Scotland. While there are a growing number of studies that adopt a qualitative approach to this issue and attempt to understand the behaviors associated with online health information seeking, previous studies focusing on quantifying the prevalence and pattern of online health seeking in the United Kingdom have been based on Internet users in general. This exploratory study sought to describe the prevalence of online health information seeking in a rural area of Scotland based on primary data from a patient population. A survey design was employed utilizing self-completed questionnaires, based on the Pew Internet and American Life Project; questionnaires were distributed among adult patients in 10 primary care centers in a rural community in Scotland. A convenience sample of 571 (0.10% of the total population in Grampian, N=581,198) patients completed the questionnaire. A total of 68.4% (379/554) of patients had previously used the Internet to acquire health information. A total of 25.4% (136/536) of patients consulted the Internet for health information regarding their current appointment on the day surveyed; 34.6% (47/136) of these patients were influenced to attend their appointment as a result of that online health information. A total of 43.2% (207/479) of patients stated the health information helped improve their health and 67.1% (290/432) indicated that they had learned something new. A total of 34.0% (146/430) of patients talked to a health professional about the information they had found and 90.0% (376/418) reported that the information was useful. In total, 70.4% (145/206) of patients were concerned about obtaining health information online from reliable sources. A total of 67.1% (139/207) of patients were concerned that a health site may sell their personal information, yet only 6.7% (36/535) checked the privacy policy of the site visited. However, 27.9% (55/197) of patients

  13. Fatal injuries while under the influence of psychoactive drugs: a cross-sectional exploratory study in England

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    Oyefeso, Adenekan; Schifano, Fabrizio; Ghodse, Hamid; Cobain, Kathryn; Dryden, Ruth; Corkery, John

    2006-01-01

    Background Studies of drug-related mortality rarely describe fatal injuries due to psychoactive drug intoxication (FIUI). The main aim of this study was to determine the nature, extent and pattern of FIUI. Methods This observational study covered the period January 1999 to December 2001. Data were provided by members of a study panel of coroners in England using a standard protocol. Sources of data for this study included autopsy protocols, death certificates, hospital records, police reports, toxicology reports and inquest transcripts. Inclusion criteria for this were (i) the mention of one or more psychoactive substances as contributing to fatality; and (ii) the presence of a Controlled Drug at post mortem. Results A total of 3,803 drug-related deaths of persons aged 16–64 years were reported by the study panel during the three-year period. The study panel accounted for 86% of drug-related deaths in England in this period. There were 147 FIUI cases (119 males, 28 females), giving a proportionate mortality ratio of approximately 4%. The majority of FIUI cases (84%) were aged 16–44 years, with a median age at death of 33 years (Quartile deviation = 7). Fifty-six percent of FIUI occurred in urban areas of England. The population of the study jurisdictions aged 16–64 years contributed 49,545,766 person-years (py) to the study, giving an annual crude rate of 3/1,000,000 person-years (py). Rates for male and females were 4.9 and 1.1/1,000,000 py respectively, giving a male/female rate ratio of 4.5 (95%CI = 2.9–6.8). The rates of intentional and unintentional FIUI were 2 and 1/1,000,000 py respectively. The leading mechanism for intentional FIUI was suffocation while the predominant mechanisms in unintentional FIUI were road traffic accidents and falls. There is a significant difference in the pattern of drug-specific risk between FIUI and fatal poisoning. Risks of intentional FIUI are elevated among Black and Minority Ethnic groups. Conclusion There are

  14. Fatal injuries while under the influence of psychoactive drugs: a cross-sectional exploratory study in England

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    Dryden Ruth

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies of drug-related mortality rarely describe fatal injuries due to psychoactive drug intoxication (FIUI. The main aim of this study was to determine the nature, extent and pattern of FIUI. Methods This observational study covered the period January 1999 to December 2001. Data were provided by members of a study panel of coroners in England using a standard protocol. Sources of data for this study included autopsy protocols, death certificates, hospital records, police reports, toxicology reports and inquest transcripts. Inclusion criteria for this were (i the mention of one or more psychoactive substances as contributing to fatality; and (ii the presence of a Controlled Drug at post mortem. Results A total of 3,803 drug-related deaths of persons aged 16–64 years were reported by the study panel during the three-year period. The study panel accounted for 86% of drug-related deaths in England in this period. There were 147 FIUI cases (119 males, 28 females, giving a proportionate mortality ratio of approximately 4%. The majority of FIUI cases (84% were aged 16–44 years, with a median age at death of 33 years (Quartile deviation = 7. Fifty-six percent of FIUI occurred in urban areas of England. The population of the study jurisdictions aged 16–64 years contributed 49,545,766 person-years (py to the study, giving an annual crude rate of 3/1,000,000 person-years (py. Rates for male and females were 4.9 and 1.1/1,000,000 py respectively, giving a male/female rate ratio of 4.5 (95%CI = 2.9–6.8. The rates of intentional and unintentional FIUI were 2 and 1/1,000,000 py respectively. The leading mechanism for intentional FIUI was suffocation while the predominant mechanisms in unintentional FIUI were road traffic accidents and falls. There is a significant difference in the pattern of drug-specific risk between FIUI and fatal poisoning. Risks of intentional FIUI are elevated among Black and Minority Ethnic groups

  15. An initial psychometric evaluation and exploratory cross-sectional study of the body checking questionnaire among Brazilian women.

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    Angela Nogueira Neves Betanho Campana

    Full Text Available Body checking is considered an expression of an excessive preoccupation with appearance. The first aim of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of a Brazilian Portuguese version of the Body Checking Questionnaire (BCQ. Additionally, we wanted to examine the questionnaire's associations with body avoidance behaviour, body mass index, dietary habits, and the intensity, frequency, and length of physical exercise. Finally, we also examined the differences between the total BCQ score and the individual BCQ factor scores. Differences between active and sedentary persons and between non-dieters and those on weight-loss diets were also analyzed. For the psychometric study, 546 female public university students from four different courses were surveyed. Two minor samples of university students and eating disorders women were also recruited. In the second part of the study, 403 women were recruited from weight-loss programs, gyms, and a university. All participants were verbally invited to participate in the research and voluntarily took part. Confirmatory factor analysis showed a good fit to the original model of the Brazilian BCQ that retained all 23 items. Satisfactory evidence of construct validity and internal consistency were also generated through analysis of factor loadings, t-values, Cronbach's alpha, and construct reliability tests. The results also showed associations among body checking and body avoidance, body satisfaction, social anxiety, body mass index, and the frequency and intensity of physical exercise. Significant differences were found between non-dieters and weight-loss dieters for all BCQ factors and the total BCQ score. For physically active and sedentary persons, a significant difference was only observed for idiosyncratic checking behaviour. In conclusion, the BCQ appears to be a valid and reliable scale for Brazilian research, and the associations and differences found in this study suggest that women at gyms

  16. Exploratory Cross-Sectional Study of Factors Associated with the Healthfulness of Parental Responses to Child Food Purchasing Requests.

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    Calloway, Eric E; Ranjit, Nalini; Sweitzer, Sara J; Roberts-Gray, Cindy; Romo-Palafox, Maria J; McInnis, Katie A; Briley, Margaret E

    2016-08-01

    Objective The main objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between various factors (e.g., sociodemographic, child, and parental factors) and the healthfulness of parental responses to child in-store food purchasing requests. Additionally, a secondary objective is to describe "resist strategies" used by parents to respond to child food-purchasing requests and their efficacy in avoiding conflict. Methods Parent-child dyads (children aged 2-6 years) completed an audio-/visual-recoded food shopping trip at their usual grocery store and time. Recordings of trips were coded for behavioral and environmental factors. Parental healthful response rate (i.e., percent of responses that were healthful) was the primary outcome variable. A healthful response occurred when a parent yielded to a healthful child request, or resisted a non-healthful request. Parents also completed a questionnaire. Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to assess the relationship between the main outcome variable and sociodemographic, child, and parent factors. Results Parents (n = 39) responded healthfully to 62.9 % (±26.7 %) of child food purchasing requests. Low- and middle-income parents, and black and white parents, had significantly higher healthful response rates compared to high-income parents (p = 0.03) and Hispanic/Indian-descent parents (p = 0.02), respectively. Using the "ignore" strategy proved an effective resist strategy in this study, leading to no parent-child conflicts. Conclusions Programming that seeks to improve the healthfulness of food purchasing in families with young children should address unhealthful response behaviors in Hispanic/Indian-descent parents and high-income parents; although, the needs of these groups are different. Further research is needed to confirm and expand on these findings.

  17. [Eating behaviors and emotional symptoms in childhood obesity: a cross-sectional exploratory study using self-report questionnaires in 63 children and adolescents].

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    d'Autume, C; Musher-Eizenman, D; Marinier, E; Viarme, F; Frelut, M-L; Isnard, P

    2012-08-01

    The main objective was to assess emotional symptoms (anxiety and depression) and to describe eating behaviours in a population of children and adolescents consulting for obesity. The second objective was to examine the interactions between these parameters. A cross-sectional exploratory study in obese children and adolescents was conducted using self-report questionnaires for depression (Child Depression Inventory), anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children), binge eating (Binge Eating Scale adapted for children), emotional, external, and restrained eating (Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire adapted for children) in obese children and adolescents, from both sexes, aged 7-15 years old. Fourty-one children and 22 adolescents were assessed, two-third were female, the mean age was 11 years ± 2.3 and the mean BMI z-score was 4.2 ± 0.9. Nearly half had significant anxiety, nearly one-third had depressive symptoms, and 15% had severe binge eating symptoms. Girls reported more anxiety than boys. Emotional and external eating, binge eating, and emotional symptoms were strongly associated. Binge eating was independently associated with emotional eating, depression, and anxiety (r=0.86, Psymptoms were strongly associated in the child and adolescent overweight population in these out-patient pediatric departments. Emotional symptoms and eating behavior assessments are needed in overweight children and adolescents in order to implement multidisciplinary treatment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Factors associated with secondhand tobacco smoke in the home: an exploratory cross-sectional study among women in Aleta Wondo, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Anne Berit; Thompson, Lisa M; Dadi, Gezahegn Bekele; Tolcha, Alemu; Cataldo, Janine K

    2016-08-31

    In Ethiopia, female smoking rates are currently low (1 %). However, because of male smoking rates (overall 7.7 % and up to 27 % depending on region), women and children's risk of second hand smoke (SHS) exposure is a pressing concern. In order to develop effective public health interventions that prevent the uptake and exposure to smoking, thereby averting the projected increase in tobacco-induced disease, an understanding of Ethiopian women's practices regarding tobacco is needed. The purpose of this study was to explore Ethiopian women's tobacco use and prevalence of SHS exposure, and to identify covariates associated with SHS exposure. We conducted an exploratory cross-sectional study in Southern Ethiopia between August and October 2014, and systematically sampled households in Aleta Wondo town and surrounding districts. Trained interviewers verbally administered surveys to women 18-55 years of age. Descriptive statistics and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed. None of the 353 participants reported current tobacco use and less than 1 % reported ever use, however, 11 % reported ever use of the stimulant leaf khat. Twenty-seven women (7.6 %) reported living with a tobacco user, however, twice that number (14.4 %) overall, and 22 % of urban participants reported that smoking occurred daily in their home. When controlling for other factors, living with a tobacco user (OR = 9.91, 95 % CI [3.32, 29.59]), allowing smoking in the home (OR = 5.67, 95 % CI [2.51, 12.79]), place of residence (OR = 2.74, 95 % CI [1.11, 6.74)]), and exposure to point-of-sale advertising within the last 30 days (OR = 2.87, 95 % CI [1.26, 6.54]) contributed significantly to a model predicting the likelihood of reporting daily occurrence of smoking/SHS in the home. While few women reported having ever used tobacco, one in seven women in this study reported that smoking/SHS occurred daily in their homes. Therefore SHS exposure is a potential health

  19. Factors associated with secondhand tobacco smoke in the home: an exploratory cross-sectional study among women in Aleta Wondo, Ethiopia

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    Anne Berit Petersen

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Ethiopia, female smoking rates are currently low (1 %. However, because of male smoking rates (overall 7.7 % and up to 27 % depending on region, women and children’s risk of second hand smoke (SHS exposure is a pressing concern. In order to develop effective public health interventions that prevent the uptake and exposure to smoking, thereby averting the projected increase in tobacco-induced disease, an understanding of Ethiopian women’s practices regarding tobacco is needed. The purpose of this study was to explore Ethiopian women’s tobacco use and prevalence of SHS exposure, and to identify covariates associated with SHS exposure. Methods We conducted an exploratory cross-sectional study in Southern Ethiopia between August and October 2014, and systematically sampled households in Aleta Wondo town and surrounding districts. Trained interviewers verbally administered surveys to women 18–55 years of age. Descriptive statistics and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed. Results None of the 353 participants reported current tobacco use and less than 1 % reported ever use, however, 11 % reported ever use of the stimulant leaf khat. Twenty-seven women (7.6 % reported living with a tobacco user, however, twice that number (14.4 % overall, and 22 % of urban participants reported that smoking occurred daily in their home. When controlling for other factors, living with a tobacco user (OR = 9.91, 95 % CI [3.32, 29.59], allowing smoking in the home (OR = 5.67, 95 % CI [2.51, 12.79], place of residence (OR = 2.74, 95 % CI [1.11, 6.74], and exposure to point-of-sale advertising within the last 30 days (OR = 2.87, 95 % CI [1.26, 6.54] contributed significantly to a model predicting the likelihood of reporting daily occurrence of smoking/SHS in the home. Conclusions While few women reported having ever used tobacco, one in seven women in this study reported that smoking/SHS occurred

  20. Online versus paper-based screening for depression and anxiety in adults with cystic fibrosis in Ireland: a cross-sectional exploratory study

    OpenAIRE

    Cronly, Jennifer; Duff, Alistair J; Riekert, Kristin A; Perry, Ivan J; Fitzgerald, Anthony P; Horgan, Aine; Lehane, Elaine; Howe, Barbara; Ni Chroinin, Muireann; Savage, Eileen

    2018-01-01

    Objective To compare online and paper-based screening for depression and anxiety in adults with cystic fibrosis (CF). Design and setting Cross-sectional study in CF clinics in Ireland and through the Cystic Fibrosis Ireland online community. Participants 160 adult patients aged 18 or above were recruited. Of these, 147 were included in the analysis; 83 online and 64 paper-based. The remaining 13 were excluded because of incomplete data. Measures Depression and anxiety were measured using the ...

  1. Online versus paper-based screening for depression and anxiety in adults with cystic fibrosis in Ireland: a cross-sectional exploratory study

    OpenAIRE

    Cronly, Jennifer; Duff, Alistair J.; Riekert, Kristin A.; Perry, Ivan J.; Fitzgerald, Anthony P.; Horgan, Aine; Lehane, Elaine; Howe, Barbara; Ni Chroinin, Muireann; Savage, Eileen

    2018-01-01

    Objective: To compare online and paper-based screening for depression and anxiety in adults with cystic fibrosis (CF). Design and setting: Cross-sectional study in CF clinics in Ireland and through the Cystic Fibrosis Ireland online community. Participants: 160 adult patients aged 18 or above were recruited. Of these, 147 were included in the analysis; 83 online and 64 paper-based. The remaining 13 were excluded because of incomplete data. Measures: Depression and anxiety were measured using ...

  2. Equity in access to health care among asylum seekers in Germany: evidence from an exploratory population-based cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozorgmehr, Kayvan; Schneider, Christine; Joos, Stefanie

    2015-11-09

    Research on inequities in access to health care among asylum-seekers has focused on disparities between asylum-seekers and resident populations, but little attention has been paid to potential inequities in access to care within the group of asylum-seekers. We aimed to analyse the principles of horizontal equity (i.e., equal access for equal need irrespective of socioeconomic status, SES) and vertical equity (higher allocation of resources to those with higher need) among asylum-seekers in Germany. We performed a secondary exploratory analysis on cross-sectional data obtained from a population-based questionnaire survey among all asylum-seekers (aged 18 or above) registered in three administrative districts in Germany during the three-month study period (N = 1017). Data were collected on health care access (health care utilisation of four types of services and unmet medical need), health care need (approximated by sex, age and self-rated health status), and SES (highest educational attainment and subjective social status, SSS). We calculated odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI) in multiple logistic regression models to analyse associations between SES indicators and access to health care under control of need. We contacted 60.4% (614) of the total asylum-seekers population, of which 25.4% (N = 156) participated in the study. Educational attainment showed no significant effect on health care access in crude models, but was positively associated with utilisation of psychotherapists and hospital admissions in adjusted models. Higher SSS was positively associated with health care utilisation of all types of services. The odds of hospitals admissions for asylum-seekers in the medium and highest SSS category were 3.18 times [1.06, 9.59] and 1.6 times [0.49, 5.23] the odds of those in the lowest SSS category. After controlling for need variables none of the SES indicators were significantly associated with measures of access to care, but a positive

  3. Elliptical cross section fuel rod study II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taboada, H.; Marajofsky, A.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper it is continued the behavior analysis and comparison between cylindrical fuel rods of circular and elliptical cross sections. Taking into account the accepted models in the literature, the fission gas swelling and release were studied. An analytical comparison between both kinds of rod reveals a sensible gas release reduction in the elliptical case, a 50% swelling reduction due to intragranular bubble coalescence mechanism and an important swelling increase due to migration bubble mechanism. From the safety operation point of view, for the same linear power, an elliptical cross section rod is favored by lower central temperatures, lower gas release rates, greater gas store in ceramic matrix and lower stored energy rates. (author). 6 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  4. [Influence and correlation of attitude, availability and institutional support to research implementation in nursing practice – results from an exploratory, cross-sectional quantitative study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslinger-Baumann, Elisabeth; Lang, Gert; Müller, Gerhard

    2015-06-01

    The concrete application of research findings in nursing practice is a multidimensional process. In Austria, there are currently no results available that explain the impact of and association with the implementation of research in hospitals. The aim of the study was to investigate influences and relationships of individual attitudes towards research utilization, availability of research results and institutional support of nurses in Austrian hospitals with respect to research application. In a non-experimental quantitative cross-sectional design a multi-centre study (n = 10) was performed in 2011. The sample comprises 178 certified nurses who were interviewed with a survey questionnaire. The multiple regression analysis shows that a positive attitude towards research use (β = 0.388, p research results (β = 0.470, p research results. The path analysis proves that course attendance in evidence-based nursing has a strong positive influence towards research application (β = 0.464; p research results into the daily nursing practice.

  5. Schistosoma mansoni Infection and Its Related Morbidity among Adults Living in Selected Villages of Mara Region, North-Western Tanzania: A Cross-Sectional Exploratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazigo, Humphrey D; Nuwaha, Fred; Dunne, David W; Kaatano, Godfrey M; Angelo, Tekla; Kepha, Stella; Kinung'hi, Safari M

    2017-10-01

    Schistosoma mansoni is highly endemic in Tanzania and affects all age groups at different degrees. However, its control approach does not include adult individuals who are equally at risk and infected. To justify the inclusion of adult individuals in MDA programs in Tanzania, the present study focused on determining the prevalence of S. mansoni infection and its related morbidities among adult individuals. This was a cross sectional study conducted among 412 adult individuals aged 18-89 years living in selected villages of Rorya and Butiama districts located along the shoreline of the Lake Victoria. A pretested questionnaire was used to collect socio-demographic and socio-economic information of participants. Ultrasonographic examinations were conducted for all study participants using the Niamey protocol. A single stool sample was obtained from all study participants and examined for S. mansoni using the Kato-Katz technique. The study revealed a high prevalence of S. mansoni (56.3%), and the majority of infected individuals had a light intensity of infection. Ultrasonographic findings revealed that 22.4% of adult individuals had periportal fibrosis (PPF) (grade C-F), with 18.4% having grade C and D and 4% having grade E and F. Males had the highest prevalence of PPF (31.7% vs 10.8%, P<0.001). Organomegaly was common with 28.5% and 29.6% having splenomegaly and hepatomegaly, respectively. S. mansoni infection and its related morbidities included PPF, hepatomegaly, and splenomegaly were common among adult individuals. To reduce the level of transmission of S. mansoni infection, planned mass drug administration campaigns should include adult individuals living in these villages.

  6. Online versus paper-based screening for depression and anxiety in adults with cystic fibrosis in Ireland: a cross-sectional exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronly, Jennifer; Duff, Alistair J; Riekert, Kristin A; Perry, Ivan J; Fitzgerald, Anthony P; Horgan, Aine; Lehane, Elaine; Howe, Barbara; Ni Chroinin, Muireann; Savage, Eileen

    2018-01-21

    To compare online and paper-based screening for depression and anxiety in adults with cystic fibrosis (CF). Cross-sectional study in CF clinics in Ireland and through the Cystic Fibrosis Ireland online community. 160 adult patients aged 18 or above were recruited. Of these, 147 were included in the analysis; 83 online and 64 paper-based. The remaining 13 were excluded because of incomplete data. Depression and anxiety were measured using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Data on pulmonary function (forced expiratory volume in 1 s %) and body mass index were self-reported based on clinical assessments. Sociodemographic data were collected. Compared with the paper-based participants, the online participants were more likely to be female (61.7% vs 48.4%), older (mean 32.2 vs 28.2 years) and were more likely to be married (32.5% vs 15.6%), living with their spouse or partner (42.5% vs 22.6%) and working either full time (33.7% vs 15.9%) or part time (30.1%vs 17.5%). The prevalence rates of elevated anxiety and depression were not significantly different (P=0.71 and P=0.56). HADS anxiety and depression scores were not statistically different between online (P=0.83) and paper-based (P=0.92) participants based on Mann-Whitney U test. A significant negative correlation was found between depression and pulmonary function (r=-0.39, P=0.01) and anxiety and pulmonary function (r=-0.36, P=0.02). Based on Cronbach's alpha, there were no statistically significant differences between the online and paper-based participants on the internal consistency of the HADS anxiety (P=0.073) and depression (P=0.378) scales. Our findings suggest that online and paper-based screening for depression and anxiety in adult patients with CF yield comparable findings on prevalence rates and scores, associations with health and internal consistency of subscales. This study highlights that online screening offers an alternative method to paper-based screening. Further research with a

  7. Aerobic exercise, ball sports, dancing, and weight lifting as moderators of the relationship between stress and depressive symptoms: an exploratory cross-sectional study with swiss university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Markus; Brand, Serge; Elliot, Catherine; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Pühse, Uwe

    2014-12-01

    This exploratory study was designed to compare four types of exercise activities in Swiss university students. A sample of 201 medical students (136 women, 65 men; M age = 23.2 yr., SD = 2.4) and 250 exercise and health sciences students (144 women, 106 men; M age = 22.3 yr., SD = 2.2) participated in the study. They completed the Perceived Stress Scale, the Depression Scale, and the Office in Motion Questionnaire. Interaction effects between stress and exercise activities were analysed using hierarchical regression analyses, after controlling for age, sex, and academic discipline. Frequent participation in ball sports and dancing were associated with decreased depressive symptoms among students with elevated perceived stress, whereas no such relationship existed among their peers with lower perceived stress. No stress-moderating effect was found for aerobic exercise. Weight lifting was only associated with lower depressive symptoms among students with low perceived stress. The present findings suggest that, among Swiss university students, certain exercises may have better potential to moderate the relationship between perceived stress and depressive symptoms than others. Future research could analyze whether personalized exercise programs created to satisfy participants' individual needs are more beneficial for stress management.

  8. Abuses, resilience, behavioural problems and post-traumatic stress symptoms among unaccompanied migrant minors: an Italian cross-sectional exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Longobardi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to explore the type and prevalence of pre-/peri-migratory trauma experiences in unaccompanied minors and the prevalence of mental health problems and resilience. The study included 19 unaccompanied migrant minors aged 16–17 years coming from Egypt, Albania, Senegal, Bangladesh, Gambia, Morocco and Mali. The participants completed self-report questionnaires on emotional and behavioural problems, post-traumatic stress symptoms, abuse and resilience. All the unaccompanied migrant minors in our study were physically and psychologically abused at least once in their life and more than half were sexually abused before or during their migration. The most frequent abuses were: being hit with an object, being punished at school and at home with torture and infliction of pain, being forced to do something dangerous, being insulted, undergoing theft or damage of personal objects, being forced to look at sexual photos or videos and being sexually abused. The scores on post-traumatic stress, depression, anxiety and dissociation are above the clinical cut-off point. Mean scores in the scales of resilience are generally in line with normative data. These scores show that despite their traumatic pre-migratory and peri-migratory experiences of abuse and the clinical psychopathological effects, the minors interviewed proved to have good sources of resilience. Immigration policies however should be based not only on admittance to emergency refuge centres but also on assessing the subjects and providing them with psychological support for the traumas experienced in order to achieve a successful integration process in the host society

  9. A multi-step pathway connecting short sleep duration to daytime somnolence, reduced attention, and poor academic performance: an exploratory cross-sectional study in teenagers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Lloret, Santiago; Videla, Alejandro J; Richaudeau, Alba; Vigo, Daniel; Rossi, Malco; Cardinali, Daniel P; Perez-Chada, Daniel

    2013-05-15

    A multi-step causality pathway connecting short sleep duration to daytime somnolence and sleepiness leading to reduced attention and poor academic performance as the final result can be envisaged. However this hypothesis has never been explored. To explore consecutive correlations between sleep duration, daytime somnolence, attention levels, and academic performance in a sample of school-aged teenagers. We carried out a survey assessing sleep duration and daytime somnolence using the Pediatric Daytime Sleepiness Scale (PDSS). Sleep duration variables included week-days' total sleep time, usual bedtimes, and absolute weekday to-weekend sleep time difference. Attention was assessed by d2 test and by the coding subtest from the WISC-IV scale. Academic performance was obtained from literature and math grades. Structural equation modeling was used to assess the independent relationships between these variables, while controlling for confounding effects of other variables, in one single model. Standardized regression weights (SWR) for relationships between these variables are reported. Study sample included 1,194 teenagers (mean age: 15 years; range: 13-17 y). Sleep duration was inversely associated with daytime somnolence (SWR = -0.36, p academic results (SWR = 0.18, p academic achievements (SWR = -0.16, p sleep duration influenced attention through daytime somnolence (p academic achievements through reduced attention (p academic achievements correlated with reduced attention, which in turn was related to daytime somnolence. Somnolence correlated with short sleep duration.

  10. Coinfection of intestinal schistosomiasis and malaria and association with haemoglobin levels and nutritional status in school children in Mara region, Northwestern Tanzania: a cross-sectional exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinung'hi, Safari M; Mazigo, Humphrey D; Dunne, David W; Kepha, Stella; Kaatano, Godfrey; Kishamawe, Coleman; Ndokeji, Samuel; Angelo, Teckla; Nuwaha, Fred

    2017-11-09

    Schistosomiasis represents a major public health problem in Tanzania despite ongoing national control efforts. This study examined whether intestinal schistosomiasis is associated with malaria and assessed the contribution of intestinal schistosomiasis and malaria on anaemia and undernutrition in school children in Mara region, North-western Tanzania. Stool samples were collected from each of 928 school children randomly selected from 5 schools and examined for intestinal schistosomiasis using the Kato Katz method. Finger prick blood samples were collected and examined for malaria parasites and haemoglobin concentrations using the Giemsa stain and Haemocue methods, respectively. Nutritional status was assessed by taking anthropometric measurements. The overall prevalence and infection intensity of S. mansoni was 85.6% (794/928) and 192 (100-278), respectively. The prevalence of malaria was 27.4% (254/928) with significant differences among villages (χ 2  = 96.11, p children, 217 (26.4%) had multiple parasite infections (two to three parasites). The prevalence of co-infections occurred more frequently in boys than in girls (χ 2  = 21.65, p = 0.010). Mean haemoglobin concentrations for co-infected children was significantly lower than that of children not co-infected (115.2 vs 119.6; t = 0.01, p = 0.002). Co-infected children were more likely to be stunted than children who were not co-infected (χ 2  = 11.6, p = 0.003). On multivariate analysis, age group, village of residence and severe anaemia were significant predictors of stunting after adjusting for sex and infection status. Intestinal schistosomiasis and malaria are prevalent in Mara region. Coinfections of these parasites as well as chronic undernutrition were also common. We recommend Mara region to be included in national schistosomiasis control programmes.

  11. Formal support for informal caregivers to older persons with dementia through the course of the disease: an exploratory, cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lethin, Connie; Leino-Kilpi, Helena; Roe, Brenda; Soto, Maria Martin; Saks, Kai; Stephan, Astrid; Zwakhalen, Sandra; Zabalegui, Adelaida; Karlsson, Staffan

    2016-01-29

    In European countries, knowledge about availability and utilization of support for informal caregivers caring for older persons (≥65 years) with dementia (PwD) is lacking. To be able to evaluate and develop the dementia support system for informal caregivers to PwD, a survey of European support systems and professionals involved is needed. The aim of this study was to explore support for informal caregivers to PwD in European countries. We investigated the availability and utilization of support in each of the participating countries, and the professional care providers involved, through the dementia disease. A mapping system was used in 2010-2011 to gather information about estimations of availability, utilization, and professional providers of support to informal caregivers caring for PwD. Data collected was representing each country as a whole. There was high availability of counselling, caregiver support, and education from the diagnosis to the intermediate stage, with a decrease in the late to end of life stage. Utilization was low, although there was a small increase in the intermediate stage. Day care and respite care were highly available in the diagnosis to the intermediate stage, with a decrease in the late to end of life stage, but both types of care were utilized by few or no caregivers through any of the disease stages. Professionals specialized in dementia (Bachelor to Master's degree) provided counselling and education, whereas caregiver support for informal caregivers and day care, respite care, and respite care at home were provided by professionals with education ranging from upper secondary schooling to a Master's degree. Counselling, caregiver support, and education were highly available in European countries from diagnosis to the intermediate stage of the dementia disease, decreasing in the late/end of life stages but were rarely utilized. Countries with care systems based on national guidelines for dementia care seem to be more aware of the

  12. Perception of the Professional Knowledge of and Education on the Medical Technology Products among the Pharmacists in the Baltic and Nordic Countries—A Cross-Sectional Exploratory Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisy Volmer

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available With increased development of medical technology (MT, new challenges emerge related to education and training of pharmacists and other healthcare specialists. Currently, only a few universities in the EU promote MT education and research. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the current status, views on, and need for the education on MT for the pharmacy students and practicing pharmacists in the Baltic and Nordic countries. Methods: The representatives of higher education institutions and community/hospital pharmacists from six Baltic and Nordic countries participated in a qualitative cross-sectional exploratory internet-based study from May to October 2014. Results: Approximately two-third of the respondents considered professional knowledge about MT products important for pharmacists, but half of them had never participated in any MT courses. More practicing pharmacists than representatives of academia underlined the need for increased MT education for pharmacy students in the future. Conclusions: The pharmacists in the Baltic and Nordic countries consider the professional knowledge about MT as pertinent in their education and work. The limited number and status of MT courses available today, however, is a major concern among both pharmacy students and practicing pharmacists in these countries. In the future, increasing education combining theory and practice about MT products would be one possible solution to overcome this challenge.

  13. A cross-sectional study in Morocco

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: In Morocco, there are no studies that focused on the hypertension and its associated risk factors through patients with type 2 diabetes. Different findings show that the frequency of type 2 diabetes has risen rapidly in Morocco. The main objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of hypertension and its ...

  14. Cross-sectional study of health effects of cryolite production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Henrik; Clausen, J; Gyntelberg, F

    1989-01-01

    A cross-sectional health study of 101 cryolite workers was performed, using spirometry and a questionnaire. Multiple regression analysis revealed a significant correlation between the index of smoking and a decrease in FEV1 (per cent). There was no significant correlation between work...... in relation to work, compared to 3.8 per cent of 1752 men participating in the Copenhagen Male Study....

  15. Health Problems Among the Elderly: A Cross.Sectional Study ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aims: To identify the geriatric health problems in samples drawn from a slum and a village, and also to explore any gender and urban.rural difference morbidity. Subject and. Methods: A community.based cross.sectional study was carried out by house to house survey of all people aged over 60 years in an urban slum and a ...

  16. A Cross-Sectional Study on Knowledge and Perceptions of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To assess the perceptions and knowledge of pharmacovigilance and adverse drug reactions (ADRs) reporting among Bachelor of Pharmacy (BPharm) and Doctor of Pharmacy (PharmD) students of selected tertiary institutions in Jordan. Methods: A cross-sectional study involving 434 pharmacy students from three ...

  17. Nutritional status and coronary artery disease: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanbari, Behrooz; Khaleghparast, Shiva; Ghadrdoost, Behshid; Bakhshandeh, Hooman

    2014-03-01

    Nutrition is among the most important factors influencing coronary artery disease. Here we aimed to study the nutritional status of patients with and without coronary artery disease (CAD). We performed a cross-sectional study on 600 patients referred to a cardiology clinic with the signs of ACS. The patients were then classified in to two groups (CAD group and the normal group) based on angiographic findings. The amount of nutritional profile was questioned from all participants. Men were more often diagnosed with CAD compared to women (198/362 vs. 102/238; P nutritional factors predicting CAD. White mean and type of tea were the most important predictors of CAD. Dietary prevention strategies from childhood could prevent early CAD.

  18. INJURIES IN DISC GOLF - A DESCRIPTIVE CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahbek, Martin Amadeus; Nielsen, Rasmus Oestergaard

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Disc golf is rapidly increasing in popularity and more than two million people are estimated to regularly participate in disc golf activities. Despite this popularity, the epidemiology of injuries in disc golf remains under reported. PURPOSE: The purpose of the present study was to in......BACKGROUND: Disc golf is rapidly increasing in popularity and more than two million people are estimated to regularly participate in disc golf activities. Despite this popularity, the epidemiology of injuries in disc golf remains under reported. PURPOSE: The purpose of the present study...... was to investigate the prevalence and anatomic distribution of injuries acquired through disc-golf participation in Danish disc golf players. METHODS: The study was a cross-sectional study conducted on Danish disc-golf players. In May 2015, invitations to complete a web-based questionnaire were spread online via...... social media, and around disc-golf courses in Denmark. The questionnaire included questions regarding disc-golf participation and the characteristics of injuries acquired through disc golf participation. The data was analyzed descriptively. RESULTS: An injury prevalence of 13.3% (95% CI: 6.7% to 19...

  19. Employee Engagement within the NHS: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadava Bapurao Jeve

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Employee engagement is the emotional commitment of the employee towards the organisation. We aimed to analyse baseline work engagement using Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES at a teaching hospital. Methods We have conducted a cross-sectional study within the National Health Service (NHS Teaching Hospital in the UK. All participants were working age population from both genders directly employed by the hospital. UWES has three constituting dimensions of work engagement as vigor, dedication, and absorption. We conducted the study using UWES-9 tool. Outcome measures were mean score for each dimension of work engagement (vigor, dedication, absorption and total score compared with control score from test manual. Results We found that the score for vigor and dedication is significantly lower than comparison group (P< 0.0001 for both. The score for absorption was significantly higher than comparison group (P< 0.0001. However, total score is not significantly different. Conclusion The study shows that work engagement level is below average within the NHS employees. Vigor and dedication are significantly lower, these are characterised by energy, mental resilience, the willingness to invest one’s effort, and persistence as well as a sense of significance, enthusiasm, inspiration, pride, and challenge. The NHS employees are immersed in work. Urgent need to explore strategies to improve work engagement as it is vital for improving productivity, safety and patient experience.

  20. Employee engagement within the NHS: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeve, Yadava Bapurao; Oppenheimer, Christina; Konje, Justin

    2015-02-01

    Employee engagement is the emotional commitment of the employee towards the organisation. We aimed to analyse baseline work engagement using Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES) at a teaching hospital. We have conducted a cross-sectional study within the National Health Service (NHS) Teaching Hospital in the UK. All participants were working age population from both genders directly employed by the hospital. UWES has three constituting dimensions of work engagement as vigor, dedication, and absorption. We conducted the study using UWES-9 tool. Outcome measures were mean score for each dimension of work engagement (vigor, dedication, absorption) and total score compared with control score from test manual. We found that the score for vigor and dedication is significantly lower than comparison group (P< 0.0001 for both). The score for absorption was significantly higher than comparison group (P< 0.0001). However, total score is not significantly different. The study shows that work engagement level is below average within the NHS employees. Vigor and dedication are significantly lower, these are characterised by energy, mental resilience, the willingness to invest one's effort, and persistence as well as a sense of significance, enthusiasm, inspiration, pride, and challenge. The NHS employees are immersed in work. Urgent need to explore strategies to improve work engagement as it is vital for improving productivity, safety and patient experience.

  1. Tobacco use among Kosovar schoolchildren: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadani, Naser; Berisha, Merita; Thaçi, Agim; Gashi-Luci, Lumturije; Koçinaj, Dardan; Jerliu, Naim

    2009-01-01

    One out of ten deaths worldwide among adults is attributable to tobacco use. Most people begin using tobacco before the age of 18. The European Region of WHO faces nearly one third of the worldwide burden of tobacco-related diseases. We aimed to study the prevalence of tobacco use among Kosovar schoolchildren, knowledge and behaviors related to tobacco use and its health impact. A cross-sectional study was performed, using anonymous self-administered questionnaire carried out among 7088 students in 110 schools. The target population group were students aged between 13 and 15 years were enrolled in all the targeted grade levels. The questionnaire consists of two main parts developed especially for the European region. Statistical analysis and the complex sampling design were done by EPI Info 2000 statistical software package. Around one-third (2622=37%) of all students, reported to have smoked cigarettes. One-fifth (20.9%) of ever smokers initiated smoking before the age often. Significantly more boys than girls ever smoked cigarettes (43.5% and 30.4% respectively). Over one-third (37.0%) had ever smoked cigarettes, as compared to over one-half (53.9%) of secondary students. There is a high probability of an increased burden of disease from tobacco in the future decades in Kosova. Special attention should be paid to the cessation needs of current smokers, school-based programs on environmental tobacco smoke, and the health risk of exposure due to smoking by siblings and friends.

  2. Determinants of burn first aid knowledge: Cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Hilary J; O'Neill, Tomas B; Wood, Fiona M; Edgar, Dale W; Rea, Suzanne M

    2013-09-01

    This study investigated demographic factors, experience of burn/care and first aid course attendance as factors influencing burn first aid knowledge. A cross-sectional study was undertaken using convenience sampling of members of sporting and recreation clubs. The main outcome measure was the proportion of correct responses to multiple-choice questions relating to four burn scenarios: (1) scald, (2) contact burn, (3) ignited clothing, and (4) chemical burn. A total of 2602 responses were obtained. Large gaps (30-50% incorrect answers) were identified in burn first aid knowledge across all scenarios. 15% more individuals gave correct answers if they had attended a first aid course compared to those who had not (pfirst aid knowledge. Gender and age were significant predictors of first aid course attendance, with males and younger (≤25 years) and older (≥65 years) age-groups less likely to have attended a first aid course. In this sample, first aid training undertaken within the last 5 years with a specific burns component was associated with enhanced burn first aid knowledge. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  3. Study of direct photon photoproduction. Cross sections and characteristic events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wormser, G.

    1984-12-01

    The study of high transverse momentum scattering of energetic photons is a powerful way to get a deep understanding of matter structure. The measurement of elastic photon-quark scattering (QED Compton effect) provides a unique possibility of testing the fractional charge of the quarks. Quantum chromodynamics predicts other reactions leading to prompt γ in the final state. We present the results obtained by the NA14 experiment carried out at the CERN SPS, using a photon beam of mean energy, 80 GeV. The inclusive transverse momentum and energy spectra are presented for both π 0 and prompt γ candidates. A clear prompt γ signal, for transverse momentum > 2.5 GeV/c, is then seen, using an estimation of the contamination given by the analysis of π - beam data taken in our apparatus and a Monte-Carlo simulation. The observed cross-section is in good agreement with QCD prediction. We can rule out the gauge integer charge models proposed so far. The study of exclusive characteristics of events associated with a prompt γ candidate enables us to measure in an independant way the fraction of QED Compton-like events in our data sample. The result is in good agreement with the theoretical prediction and shows that QED Compton is the dominant sources of prompt γ at high transverse momentum [fr

  4. Swimming and spinal deformities: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaina, Fabio; Donzelli, Sabrina; Lusini, Monia; Minnella, Salvatore; Negrini, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    To compare the prevalence of spinal deformities and low back pain (LBP) in adolescent competitive swimmers and normal controls. This was a cross-sectional study with convenience sample of 112 adolescent competitive swimmers (62 females) compared with 217 students (106 females) of the same age (12.5 years). We designed a questionnaire to collect data on LBP and measured the angle of trunk rotation with a Bunnell scoliometer to screen for scoliosis, along with the plumbline distances for kyphosis and lordosis. Clinical cutoffs defined in the literature for detection of spinal deformities were applied. Analyses were performed using the t test and χ(2) test, and ORs and 95% CIs were calculated. Swimming was found to increase the risk of trunk asymmetries (OR, 1.86; 95% CI, 1.08-3.20). Swimming also increased the risk of hyperkyphosis (OR, 2.26; 95% CI, 1.35-3.77) and hyperlordosis (OR, 2.24; 95% CI, 1.06-4.73), and increased LBP in females by 2.1-fold (95% CI, 1.08-4.06). Swimming is associated with an increased risk of trunk asymmetries and hyperkyphosis. Although swimming has been considered a complete sport and a treatment option for scoliosis, our data contradict that approach, and also show a higher prevalence of LBP in females. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Organizational home care models across Europe: A cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Eenoo, Liza; van der Roest, Henriëtte; Onder, Graziano; Finne-Soveri, Harriet; Garms-Homolova, Vjenka; Jonsson, Palmi V; Draisma, Stasja; van Hout, Hein; Declercq, Anja

    2018-01-01

    Decision makers are searching for models to redesign home care and to organize health care in a more sustainable way. The aim of this study is to identify and characterize home care models within and across European countries by means of structural characteristics and care processes at the policy and the organization level. At the policy level, variables that reflected variation in health care policy were included based on a literature review on the home care policy for older persons in six European countries: Belgium, Finland, Germany, Iceland, Italy, and the Netherlands. At the organizational level, data on the structural characteristics and the care processes were collected from 36 home care organizations by means of a survey. Data were collected between 2013 and 2015 during the IBenC project. An observational, cross sectional, quantitative design was used. The analyses consisted of a principal component analysis followed by a hierarchical cluster analysis. Fifteen variables at the organizational level, spread across three components, explained 75.4% of the total variance. The three components made it possible to distribute home care organizations into six care models that differ on the level of patient-centered care delivery, the availability of specialized care professionals, and the level of monitoring care performance. Policy level variables did not contribute to distinguishing between home care models. Six home care models were identified and characterized. These models can be used to describe best practices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Acromegaly and aging: a comparative cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatipoglu, Esra; Yuruyen, Mehmet; Keskin, Ela; Yavuzer, Hakan; Niyazoglu, Mutlu; Doventas, Alper; Erdincler, Deniz Suna; Beger, Tanju; Kadioglu, Pinar; Gundogdu, Sadi

    2015-02-01

    Cognitive and functional geriatric assessment may change in acromegaly. Herein we aimed to determine at which points geriatric assessment of the cases with acromegaly differs from that of general elderly population. In this comparative cross-sectional study, a total of 30 cases with acromegaly (controlled n = 14, uncontrolled n = 16) and 30 gender and body-mass index-matched cases without acromegaly (control group, CG) above 60 years old were included. Cognitive functions were evaluated on the basis of the mini-mental state exam (MMSE). Affective status was determined using the geriatric depression scale. Activities of daily living (ADL) were ranked according to the Barthel index while instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) were graded on the basis of the Lawton scale. Nutritional status was evaluated using the mini-nutritional assessment (MNA). Body composition was measured through bioimpedance analysis. Functional mobility was determined using the Timed Up and Go test (TUG) and muscle strength with the handgrip strength test. Scores on the MMSE were significantly lower in the elderly cases with acromegaly than in the cases without acromegaly (p functional impairment based on Barthel ADL in the acromegaly group than in the CG (p = 0.04). Acromegaly may impair cognitive functions, functional mobility and instrumental daily living activities in the geriatric population. With acromegaly, the risk of malnutrition may also increase. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Optimizing muscle power after stroke: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavric Verna A

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stroke remains a leading cause of disability worldwide and results in muscle performance deficits and limitations in activity performance. Rehabilitation aims to address muscle dysfunction in an effort to improve activity and participation. While muscle strength has an impact on activity performance, muscle power has recently been acknowledged as contributing significantly to activity performance in this population. Therefore, rehabilitation efforts should include training of muscle power. However, little is known about what training parameters, or load, optimize muscle power performance in people with stroke. The purpose of this study was to investigate lower limb muscle power performance at differing loads in people with and without stroke. Methods A cross-sectional study design investigated muscle power performance in 58 hemiplegic and age matched control participants. Lower limb muscle power was measured using a modified leg press machine at 30, 50 and 70% of one repetition maximum (1-RM strength. Results There were significant differences in peak power between involved and uninvolved limbs of stroke participants and between uninvolved and control limbs. Peak power was greatest when pushing against a load of 30% of 1RM for involved, uninvolved and control limbs. Involved limb peak power irrespective of load (Mean:220 ± SD:134 W was significantly lower (p  Conclusions Significant power deficits were seen in both the involved and uninvolved limbs after stroke. Maximal muscle power was produced when pushing against lighter loads. Further intervention studies are needed to determine whether training of both limbs at lighter loads (and higher velocities are preferable to improve both power and activity performance after stroke.

  8. Nursing Student Attitudes toward Euthanasia: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinzadeh, Kazem; Rafiei, Hossein

    2017-01-01

    Euthanasia is among the most common and controversial end-of-life care issues. Examining the attitudes of nursing students to this issue is important because they may well encounter these issues during the course of their clinical placements. Research aims: This study aims to examine the attitudes of a sample of Iranian nursing students towards euthanasia. This is a descriptive cross-sectional study. Participants and research context: Using convenience sampling, 382 Muslim nursing students were enrolled in this study. Data were collected using a demographic variables checklist and a self-administered questionnaire that included a definition of euthanasia and 11 closed questions that sought to record participants' level of agreement with euthanasia based on a Likert scale. Ethical consideration: Consent for participation was implicit, indicated by the participants having returned the completed questionnaires. Participants were assured that their data would remain anonymous, be kept confidential and be stored safely. Of the 382 participants, 61.5% were female, and the remainder were male. The mean age was 62.6 ± 14.1 years (range: 32-91 years). In total, 34.2%, 41.6% and 24% of students reported a negative, neutral and positive attitude to euthanasia, respectively. Most students with clinical experience, and 38.5% of students with no clinical experience, indicated their agreement with active euthanasia. There are a number of misconceptions among Iranian Muslim nursing students regarding the definition of euthanasia. Nonetheless, most students exhibit positive attitudes to euthanasia consistent with their clinical experiences. It is recommended to explore the factors that induced nursing students' tendency to euthanasia.

  9. Cardiovascular Complications of Acute Amphetamine Abuse; Cross-sectional study

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    Elham Bazmi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate cardiovascular complications among patients who abuse amphetamines. Methods: This cross-sectional study took place between April 2014 and April 2015 among 3,870 patients referred to the Toxicology Emergency Department of Baharlou Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Those with clinical signs of drug abuse and positive urine screening tests were included in the study, while cases of chronic abuse were excluded. Cardiac complications were evaluated via electrocardiography (ECG and transthoracic echocardiography. Results: A total of 230 patients (5.9% had a history of acute amphetamine abuse and positive urine tests. Of these, 32 patients (13.9% were <20 years old and 196 (85.2% were male. In total, 119 (51.7% used amphetamine and methamphetamine compounds while 111 (48.3% used amphetamines with morphine or benzodiazepines. The most common ECG finding was sinus tachycardia (43.0%, followed by sinus tachycardia plus a prolonged QT interval (34.3%. Mean creatine kinase-MB and troponin I levels were 35.9 ± 4.3 U/mL and 0.6 ± 0.2 ng/mL, respectively. A total of 60 patients (26.1% were admitted to the Intensive Care Unit. The majority (83.3% of these patients had normal echocardiography results. The mean aortic root diameter (ARD was 27.2 ± 2.8 mm. Abnormalities related to the ARD were found in 10 patients (16.7%, three of whom subsequently died. Conclusion: According to these findings, cardiac complications were common among Iranian patients who abuse amphetamines, although the majority of patients had normal echocardiography and ECG findings.

  10. Sleep disorders and oral health: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carra, Maria Clotilde; Schmitt, Audrey; Thomas, Frederique; Danchin, Nicolas; Pannier, Bruno; Bouchard, Philippe

    2017-05-01

    Sleep disorders (SDs), particularly sleep deprivation, may alter the immune system and induce systemic inflammation. Recent evidence supports an association between SDs and periodontal diseases. This cross-sectional epidemiological study aims to compare oral health variables, such as the amount of plaque/calculus, gingival inflammation, and masticatory function, in individuals with and without SDs. The study population consisted in a French cohort of individuals who underwent medical and oral examinations between 2012 and 2013. Multivariate logistic regression and general linear models were used for group comparisons. Over a total of 29,870 individuals, 11,185 (37.4 %) reported to suffer from SDs on a regular basis. Compared to individuals without SDs, SD individuals were older (mean age 44.2 vs. 45.3 years; p < 0.0001), prevalently female (38.6 vs. 52.1 %; p < 0.0001), and with higher BMI (25.3 vs. 25.7; p < 0.0001). Moreover, SD individuals displayed a significantly higher prevalence of comorbidities, higher level of gingival inflammation (adjusted odds ratio 1.22 [95 % confidence interval 1.13-1.32]), and lower masticatory function (1.45 [1.33-1.58]). Short sleepers (<6 h of sleep/night) were found to be at an increased risk of gingival inflammation (1.25 [1.1-1.4]). SD individuals with moderate-to-high gingival inflammation showed a significantly increased risk of cardiovascular disease (1.39 [1.04-1.84]) compared to SD individuals with low or no gingival inflammation. Individuals with self-report SDs are at increased risk of gingival inflammation. The coexistence of SDs and gingival inflammation is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. These findings provide evidence for an association between SDs and gingival inflammation and support further clinical and experimental studies.

  11. Perimenopausal contraception in Turkish women: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kharbouch Sema B

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiologic research has shown that perimenopausal contraception is an important medical issue, because women during the perimenopause still need effective contraception. The objective of the study was to assess the contraceptive choices of perimenopausal Turkish women. Methods This is a descriptive cross-sectional study that in a non – random fashion recruited 202 perimenopausal and naturally menopausal women who lived in a suburban area of Istanbul. Women who took part were aged between 45–59 years old. Chief database used to identify the suitable participants in the district. Subjects who voluntarily participated in the study were interviewed in their homes by the researcher. The analysis of the data was evaluated using percentages. Results The percentage of sexually active women among the participants was 87.6%. A large majority – 80.2% – of the participants did not have any idea of when they should bring contraception to an end. The method most commonly used was withdrawal (Coitus Interruptus, represented by 38.8%. In regard to the participants' choices of medical contraception, those being utilized were the IUD (24.3%, tubal sterilization (8.9%, condom (5.9% and COC (6.4%. Additionally, 18% of women used other traditional methods including vaginal lavage, vaginal aspirin, and even inserting a small sponge presoaked with fresh lemon juice or cola deep into the vagina. Among the perimenopausal women who participated, the IUD was the most popular and appropriate contraceptive method. Conclusion Most perimenopausal Turkish women are still using traditional methods and women's knowledge about contraception in the menopausal stages is very limited. Health professionals should provide information about perimenopausal contraception.

  12. Pet ownership and adolescent health: cross-sectional population study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathers, Megan; Canterford, Louise; Olds, Tim; Waters, Elizabeth; Wake, Melissa

    2010-12-01

    To determine whether adolescent health and well-being are associated with having a pet in the household (any pet, or specifically dogs, cats or horses/ponies) or average daily time spent caring for/playing with pet(s). Design, setting and participants--Cross-sectional data from the third wave of the Health of Young Victorians Study (HOYVS), a school-based population study in Victoria, Australia. Predictors--Adolescent-reported pet ownership and average daily time spent caring for/playing with pet(s). Outcomes--Self-reported quality of life (KIDSCREEN); average 4-day daily physical activity level from a computerised diary; parent-proxy and self-reported physical and psychosocial health status (PedsQL); measured BMI status (not overweight, overweight, obese) and blood pressure. Statistical Analysis--Regression methods, adjusted for socio-demographic factors, and non-parametric methods. Household pet data were available for 928 adolescents (466 boys; mean age of 15.9 (SD 1.2) years). Most adolescents (88.7%) reported having a pet in their household. Of these, 75.1% reported no activity involving pets over the surveyed days. It appeared that neither owning a pet nor time spent caring for/playing with a pet was related, positively or negatively, to adolescent health or well-being. Despite high rates of pet ownership, adolescents had little interaction with pets. It appears that owning a pet and time spent caring for/playing with a pet was not clearly associated with adolescents' health or well-being. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2010 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  13. Decisional conflict in asthma patients: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Des Cormiers, Annick; Légaré, France; Simard, Serge; Boulet, Louis-Philippe

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at determining the level of decisional conflict in asthmatic individuals facing recommendation-based decisions provided to improve asthma control. This was a cross-sectional study performed on a convenience sample of 50 adults aged between 18 and 65 years with a diagnosis of asthma. They completed a decisional conflict scale (possible range of 0-100%), asthma knowledge and control questionnaires (both 0% and 100%), and a general questionnaire on socio-demographic characteristics. A decisional conflict was considered clinically significant with a score greater than 37.5%. Simple descriptive statistics were used to investigate associations with decisional conflict. Participants were mainly women (76%) and diagnosed with mild asthma (72%). The median age (1st and 3rd quartile) was 25 years (22 and 42). The median score (1st and 3rd quartile) of decisional conflict was 33% (24 and 44). A clinically significant score (>37.5%) was obtained in 36% of subjects. A statistically significant negative correlation between the knowledge score and the decisional conflict score (r(p) = -0.38; p = 0.006) was observed. The level of knowledge was the only statistically independent variable associated with the decisional conflict score (p = 0.0043). A considerable proportion of patients with asthma have a clinically significant level of decisional conflict when facing decisions aimed at improving asthma control. Patients with poor knowledge of asthma are more at risk of clinically significant level of decisional conflict. These findings support the relevance of providing asthmatic patients with relevant information in decision aids.

  14. Adolescents and Body Image: A Cross Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mannat M; Ashok, Lena; Binu, V S; Parsekar, Shradha S; Bhumika, T V

    2015-12-01

    To assess proportion of adolescents perceiving their body image as normal and to study association between body shape, self-esteem and body mass index; each with body image perception. A cross sectional study was conducted among pre university college (PUC) students of Udupi taluk. A total of 550 students in the age group of 15-19y were randomly selected from 11 PUC's: four were taken from government and unaided strata respectively and three from aided. The PUC's were selected based on proportional allocation from a total of 48 PUC's. From each PUC a class was randomly chosen as a cluster; all students in the class were included. Body shape questionnaire and Rosenberg self-esteem scale were used to assess body shape concerns and self-esteem respectively. Height and weight was measured and body mass index was calculated. SPSS version 15 has been used for analysis. Results were tabulated using frequency distribution and proportions. Multinomial logistic regression was done. About 38 % of the respondents perceived their body image as normal. Body shape [OR = 0.48,95 % CI: 0.305, 0.76], self-esteem [OR = 6.12,95 % CI: 2.76, 13.9] and body mass index [OR = 4.65,95 % CI: 2.13,10.12] were found to be independently associated with body image perception. Educational institutes are a major component of adolescent's lives; the identified factors for body image perception should be taken into consideration and appropriate educational efforts to be incorporated into the routine curriculum.

  15. Pediatric Dance Injuries: A Cross-Sectional Epidemiological Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Amy X; Sugimoto, Dai; Martin, Daniel J; Stracciolini, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze characteristics of dance injuries evaluated by sports medicine physicians. A cross-sectional epidemiological study of a 5% random probability sample of patients presenting for sports medicine evaluation between January 1, 2000, and December 31, 2009. Sports medicine clinic of a tertiary-level pediatric medical center. A total of 181 pediatric dancers (171 female and 10 male; 14.8 ± 2.0 years of age) with 222 injuries. Injury diagnoses, location, type, and treatment. Forty-six injury diagnoses were recorded in this random sample of pediatric dancers, with the most common being tendonitis/tendinopathy, patellofemoral pain syndrome, apophysitis, ankle impingement syndrome, and hip labral tear. Most of the injuries occurred in the lower extremities, with knee and ankle injuries being the most common. Injury classification by type revealed that joints were the body structure most likely to be injured, followed by soft tissues, skeletal elements, and growth plates. The most frequent joint injury was patellofemoral pain syndrome. The most frequent soft tissue injury was tendonitis/tendinopathy. The most common skeletal injury was a pars stress reaction/spondylolysis. The most common physeal injury was apophysitis. Dancers were treated mainly with physical therapy, surgery, or physical therapy, in addition to orthotics. Pediatric dancers experienced significant, and occasionally rare, injuries that may have long-term health consequences. Although injuries occurred mostly in the lower extremities and involved mainly joints, the most common specific diagnosis was tendonitis/tendinopathy. There is still much to learn about the management of dancers, and there is a need for further research into injury prevention, diagnosis, and treatment. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Drug-related celebrity deaths: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Just, Johannes M; Bleckwenn, Markus; Schnakenberg, Rieke; Skatulla, Philipp; Weckbecker, Klaus

    2016-12-09

    Celebrities are at risk for premature mortality as well as drug-related death. Despite being a vulnerable patient group, celebrities influence people's health behaviours through biological, psychological and social processes. Therefore, celebrity endorsement of the topic could be one way to challenge the current "opioid endemic". Our aim was to better understand the factors surrounding drug-related celebrity deaths by investigating the incidence as well as substances used between 1970 and 2015 using a cross-sectional study design. We searched public databases for drug-related celebrity deaths between 1970 and 2015. They were categorized for sex, profession, age at death, year of death and substances involved. The main outcome measures are descriptive values including number of drug deaths per year and substances involved. Secondary outcome measures are analytical questions to examine whether and which factors influence age at death and year of death (e.g. type of substance use disorder). We identified 220 celebrities who died a drug-related death with a clear indication of involved substances between 1970 and 2015. The average age at death was 38.6 years; 75% were male. Most celebrities died between the age of 25 and 40. The number of drug-related deaths increased in the 21st century, with a significant increase in the use of prescription opioids. Deaths involving prescription opioids and heroin were associated with a significantly lower mean age at death compared to deaths where these substances were not involved. Compared to the 20th century, the total number of celebrities who died from a drug-related death in the 21st century increased, possibly due to an increased involvement of prescription opioids. Negative effects on individual health decisions of celebrity's followers could be the result.

  17. Patients for patient safety in China: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiongwen; Li, Yulin; Li, Jing; Mao, Xuanyue; Zhang, Lijuan; Ying, Qinghua; Wei, Xin; Shang, Lili; Zhang, Mingming

    2012-02-01

    To investigate the baseline status of patients' awareness, knowledge, and attitudes to patient safety in China, and to determine the factors that influence patients' involvement in patient safety. We conducted a cross sectional survey using questionnaires adapted from recent studies on patient safety from outside China. The items included medical errors, infection, medication safety, and other aspects of patient safety. The questionnaire included 17 items and 5 domains. The survey was conducted between Jan. 2009 and Dec. 2010 involving 1000 patients from ten grade-A hospitals in seven provinces or cities in China. Most patients from the surgery departments completed the questionnaires voluntarily and anonymously. Five reviewers independently input the data into Microsoft Excel 2003, and the data were double-checked. Data were analyzed using SPSS 15.0 software for differences in the perceptions and attitudes of patients toward patient safety among different genders, ages, and regions. We distributed 1000 questionnaires and collected 959 completed questionnaires (response rate: 96%). Among the respondents, 58% of patients did not know what medical error is. Sixty-five percent of patients wanted disclosure of all medical errors. After errors occurred, 58% of patients wanted explanations of all possible harms that had resulted. Among 187 patients who had experienced medical errors, 83% of patients had sought appropriate legal action. About 52% of patients understood hospital infection, but 28% patients did not know that infections could occur in hospital. Seventy-eight percent of patients thought that medical staff should wash their hands before examining patients. More than half of the patients (68%) were willing to remind the staff of hygiene if they saw unsanitary conditions in a health clinic. Only 14% of patients knew the side effects of medications that they took. The majority of patients surveyed expressed willingness to contribute to patient safety, but their

  18. Workplace violence against nurses: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liuyi; Wang, Anni; Xie, Xia; Zhou, Yanhong; Li, Jing; Yang, Lijun; Zhang, Jingping

    2017-07-01

    Workplace violence is a serious problem for clinical nurses, as it leads to a series of adverse consequences. However, little information is available on the prevalence and influencing factors of workplace violence in China. To determine the prevalence of workplace violence against Chinese nurses, and its influencing factors. A multi-center, cross-sectional study. The seven geographical regions (i.e., northeast, north, central, east, south, northwest, and southwest) of China. Four thousand one hundred and twenty-five nurses. We randomly selected 28 hospitals, located in 14 cities over 13 provinces across the seven geographical regions. We distributed 4125 questionnaires between May 4 and September 23, 2014. The questionnaire included demographic information, the Workplace Violent Incident Questionnaire, the Jefferson Scale of Empathy-Health Professionals, and the Practice Environment Scale of Nursing Work Index. Workplace violence was assessed in terms of physical violence, non-physical violence, sexual harassment, and organized healthcare disturbances. We then performed descriptive analyses and logistic regressions on the collected data. The response rate was 92.97% (n=3835). Additionally, we obtained valid questionnaires from 3004 individuals. Of these, 25.77% reported experiencing physical violence, 63.65% non-physical violence, 2.76% sexual harassment, and 11.72% organized healthcare disturbances. A logistic regression analysis revealed that nurses who have less experience, work a rotating roster, work in emergency rooms and pediatrics departments, have low empathy levels, and who work in poor nursing environments have greater odds of experiencing violence. Experiences of workplace violence are prevalent among Chinese nurses, and several complex factors are associated with a greater risk of such violence, including nurses' personal characteristics, work settings, and work environments. Our results might help nursing managers understand their employees' work

  19. PHOSPHATE METABOLISM IN KIDNEY DONORS: A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayakumar Edathedathe

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available AIM To study the changes in phosphate metabolism in kidney donors, to study the correlation of albuminuria, fractional excretion of phosphorus [FE Pi] and estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] with fibroblast growth factor 23 [FGF 23] in kidney donors, to study the early tubule interstitial injury in the remnant kidney of donors by measuring urine transforming growth factor beta [TGF beta] levels. MATERIALS AND METHODS A cross-sectional study in which kidney donors with 1 year or more after donation were included. 69 kidney donors with a mean duration of 5.86 years after kidney donation were studied. Serum phosphate level, fractional excretion of phosphorus [FE Pi] and serum levels of parathyroid hormone were measured. Plasma levels of FGF 23 were measured by a second generation enzyme linked immune sorbent assay [ELISA]. Renal function was assessed by estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] and degree of albuminuria. Urine levels of transforming growth factor beta [TGF beta] were measured by ELISA. A hypothesis that in kidney donors with reduced nephron number, the single nephron excretion of phosphorus will be increased to maintain normal phosphorus homeostasis and that this increase in single nephron phosphorus excretion may be mediated by FGF 23 was proposed. Testing of this hypothesis was done by studying the correlation between parameters of phosphorus metabolism, FGF 23 and the renal function of the donors. RESULTS The mean eGFR was 70.36 mL/min/1.73 m2 . 52.2% of donors had moderate increase in albuminuria [microalbuminuria], Serum phosphorus, fractional excretion of phosphorus and serum PTH levels were in the normal range. FGF 23 levels were in the normal reference range and showed no correlation with FE pi, eGFR or albuminuria, Urine TGF-beta levels were undetectable in all the donors. DISCUSSION Normal phosphorus homeostasis is maintained in kidney donors. There was no correlation between FE pi and FGF 23 levels. Kidney

  20. Overweight in adult cats: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öhlund, Malin; Palmgren, Malin; Holst, Bodil Ström

    2018-01-19

    Overweight in cats is a major risk factor for diabetes mellitus and has also been associated with other disorders. Overweight and obesity are believed to be increasing problems in cats, as is currently seen in people, with important health consequences. The objectives of the present study were to determine the prevalence of overweight in cats from two different cohorts in a cross-sectional study design and to assess associations between overweight and diagnoses, and between overweight and demographic and environmental factors. Data were obtained from medical records for cats (n = 1072) visiting an academic medical center during 2013-2015, and from a questionnaire on insured cats (n = 1665). From the medical records, information on body condition score, breed, age, sex, neutering status, and diagnosis was obtained. The questionnaire included questions relating to the cat's body condition, breed, age, sex, neutering status, outdoor access, activity level, and diet. Data were analyzed by multivariable logistic regression. The prevalence of overweight was 45% in the medical records cohort and 22% in the questionnaire cohort, where owners judged their pet's body condition. Overweight cats in the medical records cohort were more likely to be diagnosed with lower urinary tract disease, diabetes mellitus, respiratory disease, skin disorders, locomotor disease, and trauma. Eating predominantly dry food, being a greedy eater, and inactivity were factors associated with an increased risk of overweight in the final model in the questionnaire cohort. In both cohorts, the Birman and Persian breeds, and geriatric cats, were less likely to be overweight, and male cats were more likely to be overweight. The prevalence of overweight cats (45%) as assessed by trained personnel was high and in the same range as previously reported. Birman and Persian cats had a lower risk of overweight. The association with dry food found in adult, neutered cats is potentially important because

  1. A Cross-Sectional Study of the Effect of Quality Circles on Twelve Attitudinal Variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-09-01

    Q * N I-I ~OF - A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF QUALITY CIRCLES NON TWELVE ATTITUDINAL VARIABLES A R THESIS Norman E. Mucklow Donald H...LSB/85 ! A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF QUALITY CIRCLES ON TWELVE ATTITUDINAL VARIABLES THESIS Norman L. Mucklow Donald H. Seger Captain...CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF QUALITY CIRCLES ON TWELVE ATTITUDINAL VARIABLES THESIS Presented to the Faculty of the School of Systems and

  2. [Pathogenesis of temporomandibular joint dysfunction. I. Cross sectional study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vágó, P

    1989-07-01

    The forming of the pathography is explained from several view points by the publications dealing with the aetiology of the mandible joint disfunction. One viewpoint emphasizes the role of teeth factors, another one stresses the significance of the mandible joint disfunction were examined in the course of statistical analyses, causality. For the epidemiologic examination of the mandible joint disfunction a questionary was worked out which was filled in by the examined persons, this followed by a clinical examination in which factors seemingly important concerning the development of the disease were examined. In knowledge of the statistical methods employed in the foregoing researches it was tried to elaborate the cross-sectional examination results in a modern way.

  3. Contrast-enhanced US with Perfluorobutane(Sonazoid) used as a surveillance test for Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) in Cirrhosis (SCAN): an exploratory cross-sectional study for a diagnostic trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ji Hoon; Park, Mi-Suk; Lee, So Jung; Jeong, Woo Kyoung; Lee, Jae Young; Park, Min Jung; Han, Kyunghwa; Nam, Chung Mo; Park, Seong Ho; Lee, Kyoung Ho

    2017-04-18

    Ultrasonography (US) is widely used as a standard surveillance tool for patients who are at a high risk of having hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC); however, conventional B-mode US appears to be insufficient in order to ensure the early detection of HCC. Perfluorobutane allows very stable Kupffer phase imaging for at least 60 min, which is tolerable for examinations of the entire liver. The purpose of our study is to evaluate the added value of contrast-enhanced US using perfluorobutane to that of conventional B-mode US as an HCC surveillance tool for patients with liver cirrhosis. SCAN (Sonazoid-US for surveillance of hepatoCellulArcarciNoma) is a prospective, multi-institutional, diagnostic trial using an intra-individual comparison design in a single arm of patients. This study was approved by our five institutional review board and informed consent was obtained from all participating. We obtained consent for publication of these data (contrast enhanced US images, CT or MRI images, laboratory findings, age, sex) from all participating patients. All patients will undergo conventional B-mode US immediately followed by contrast-enhanced US. The standardized case report forms will be completed by operating radiologists after B-mode US and contrast-enhanced US, respectively. If any lesion(s) is detected, the likelihood of HCC will be recorded. The primary endpoints are a detection rate of early-stage HCC and a false referral rate of HCC. Intra-individual comparison using Mcnemar's test will be performed between B-mode US and contrast-enhanced US. The study will include 523 patients under HCC surveillance in five medical institutions in Korea. SCAN is the first study to investigate the efficacy of contrast-enhanced US in surveillance using two reciprocal endpoints specialized for the evaluation of a surveillance test. SCAN will provide evidence regarding whether patients can truly benefit from contrast-enhanced US in terms of the detection of early stage HCC while

  4. Practicing Dentists' Self-Efficacy and Associated Factors in Managing the Treatment of Adults with Mental and Physical Disabilities: An Exploratory Cross-Sectional Study in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlQahtani, Sakher; Murshid, Ebtissam Zakaria; Fadel, Hani Talal; Kassim, Saba

    2017-12-11

    Background: Provision of oral healthcare to adults with mental and physical disabilities (AMPD) remains a challenging area across various healthcare systems. The present study aimed to assess self-reported efficacy and investigate factors associated with self-efficacy in the management of AMPD among practicing dentists in Saudi Arabia. Methods: A pilot-tested, self-administered questionnaire was distributed to a convenience sample of 1000 dentists. Descriptive and inferential analyses were performed on the collected responses. Results: Among the respondents (54%), 43% were males. Only 14% described their self-efficacy in managing AMPD as "High". Multivariable regression analyses revealed significant associations between "High" self-efficacy and male gender (Odd ratio (OR) = 2.39, 95% CI = 1.16-4.89), experience practicing dentistry for 11 years or more (OR = 2.19, 95% CI = 1.04-4.47), specialization in pediatric dentistry (OR = 3.98, 95% CI = 1.31-12.07), previous experience in managing AMPD (OR = 4.23, 95% CI = 1.59-11.22), and awareness of regulations for managing AMPD (OR = 2.62, 95% CI = 1.42-4.38). The interaction of gender x age was significantly associated ( p = 0.028) with "High" self-efficacy. Gender-stratified analyses revealed a significant association between age and "High" self-efficacy among male dentists only. Conclusions: The findings of the present study highlight that a large percentage of dentists reported "Low/Moderate" self-efficacy in managing AMPD, particularly among female dentists. However, further studies are required to verify the factors associated with self-efficacy in the present study, and to identify other factors that may influence self-efficacy in managing AMPD.

  5. Studying the ωN elastic and inelastic cross section with nucleons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golubeva, Ye.S.; Kondratyuk, L.A.; Buescher, M.

    2000-01-01

    We explore the possibility to measure the elastic and inelastic ωN cross section in p+d→d+ω+p sp and p+A reactions. Our studies indicate that the elastic scattering cross sections can be determined for ω momenta above 1 GeV/c in p+d reactions by gating on high proton spectator momenta whereas the ωN absorption cross section down to low relative ω momenta is most effectively studied in p+A reactions at beam energies 2.0-2.7 GeV. (orig.)

  6. Nurses' attitudes towards euthanasia: a cross-sectional study in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naseh, Ladan; Rafiei, Hossein; Heidari, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Nurses have an important role in caring for terminally ill patients. They are often confronted with euthanasia but little is known about their attitudes towards it. The present study aimed to examine Iranian Muslim nurses' attitudes towards euthanasia. In this exploratory cross-sectional study, all qualified registered nurses working in two teaching hospitals (Kashani and Hajar hospitals) in Iran were invited to participate. The Euthanasia Attitude Scale (EAS) was used to assess the nurses' attitude towards euthanasia. Of 266 nurses who fit the criteria, 190 participated in the study (response rate 72.9%); 91.1% (n=173) were female and 8.9% (n=17) were male. In total, 57.4%, 3.2% and 39.5% of nurses reported a negative, neutral and positive attitude to euthanasia respectively. Nurses reported their most negative attitude to the domain 'practical consideration' with mean of 2.36±0.9 and most positive attitude to the domain 'treasuring life' with a mean EAS score of 2.85±0.4. The majority of Muslim nurses were found to have negative attitudes to euthanasia. We recommend that future studies should be conducted to examine Muslim nurses' attitudes to euthanasia in different cultures to determine the role of culture and religious beliefs in attitude to euthanasia.

  7. Dynamics of study strategies and teacher regulation in virtual patient learning activities: a cross sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelbring, Samuel; Wahlström, Rolf

    2016-04-23

    Students' self-regulated learning becomes essential with increased use of exploratory web-based activities such as virtual patients (VPs). The purpose was to investigate the interplay between students' self-regulated learning strategies and perceived benefit in VP learning activities. A cross-sectional study (n = 150) comparing students' study strategies and perceived benefit of a virtual patient learning activity in a clinical clerkship preparatory course. Teacher regulation varied among three settings and was classified from shared to strong. These settings were compared regarding their respective relations between regulation strategies and perceived benefit of the virtual patient activity. Self-regulation learning strategy was generally associated with perceived benefit of the VP activities (rho 0.27, p regulated settings. The external regulation strategy did generally associate weakly with perceived benefit (rho 0.17, p regulation seem to be productive for increasing learners' perceived benefit. Awareness of the interplay among teacher regulation (external) and various study strategies can increase the value of flexible web-based learning resources to students.

  8. A sera-epidemiological cross-sectional study of hepatitis B virus in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    epidemiological community-based cross- sectional study. Setting. All nine provinces of Zimbabwe. Palticipants. From April 1989 to December 1991 serum samples were collected tram 1 461 males and 1 933 females in the age group 10 - 61 ...

  9. A cross section study to correlate fine needle aspiration cytology and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross section study to correlate fine needle aspiration cytology and histopathology in the diagnosis of parotid tumoursat four major hospitals in Zambia. S.M.E. Kazuma, L Mucheleng'anga, R Zulu, H Hanna ...

  10. A Cross Sectional Study of Food Safety Related Perceptions and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Obtaining enough information on the knowledge and practices of a target group is essential for the development of effective health education programs. This study was conducted to assess food safety knowledge, perception and practices among women working in a north Indian University. Materials and methods: ...

  11. Institution Based Prospective Cross-Sectional Study on Patterns of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Every year, millions of babies are born and a large proportion of them are being admitted to hospital for various indications. This study was conducted to identify the general characteristics, disease spectrum and common causes of Neonatal morbidity and mortality at Gondar University Hospital, Neonatal ...

  12. Cross sectional studies published in Indian journal of community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    About 46% (37/80) articles reported 12–15 items of the STROBE checklist. Bias, nonparticipants and reasons for nonparticipation, other analyses done, generalizability, and source of funding were reported by < 25% of studies. The most frequently reported items of the checklist were summary of what was done and what ...

  13. Treatment of 5413 hypertensive patients: a cross-sectional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Margit; Sondergaard, J; Reuther, Lene Ørskov

    2011-01-01

    Most hypertensive patients are managed in primary care in Denmark, but previous studies have shown that only 21-43% of hypertensive patients achieve optimal blood pressure (BP) control. Antihypertensive drug treatment, risk factors and cardiovascular disease (CVD) are some of the important factors...... to consider when optimizing the individual treatment strategy in hypertensive patients....

  14. A Cross Section Study to Correlate Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADMIN

    Background: Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC) is cheap, simple, quick, minimally invasive procedure that is widely used for preoperative diagnosis of Parotid tumours. Methods: Twenty five patients were prospectively studied over a two-year period at four major hospitals in Zambia. FNAC was done using a 10cc syringe ...

  15. A Cross-Sectional Study Of Mastitis In Camels ( Camelus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Camelus dromedarius) were examined in Somali Region, southeastern Ethiopia to study the prevalence and bacterial causes of mastitis between Nov. 2002 – April 2003. Out of the 137 lactating camels, 10.2% (14/137) were positive for clinical ...

  16. Computational study of axisymmetric modes in noncircular cross section tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.L.; Chance, M.S.; Greene, J.M.; Grimm, R.C.; Jardin, S.C.; Kerner, W.; Manickam, J.; Weimer, K.E.

    1976-09-01

    A major computational program to investigate the MHD equilibrium, stability, and nonlinear evolution properties of realistic tokamak configurations is proceeding. Preliminary application is made to the Princeton PDX device. Both axisymmetric (n = 0) modes and kink (n = 1) modes are found; the growth rates depend sensitively on the configuration. A study of the nonlinear evolution of axisymmetric modes in such a device shows that flux conservation in the vacuum region can limit their growth

  17. Cross-sectional study on respiratory effect of toner exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terunuma, Niina; Kurosaki, Shizuka; Kitamura, Hiroko; Hata, Koichi; Ide, Reiko; Kuga, Hiroaki; Kakiuchi, Noriaki; Masuda, Masashi; Totsuzaki, Takafumi; Osato, Atsushi; Uchino, Bungo; Kitahara, Kayo; Iwasaki, Akio; Yoshizumi, Koji; Morimoto, Yasuo; Kasai, Hiroshi; Murase, Tadashi; Higashi, Toshiaki

    2009-06-01

    In this baseline study, part of a cohort study to clarify the effect of toner exposure on the respiratory system, we surveyed 803 male toner workers and 802 referents with regard to their subjective respiratory symptoms and chest X-ray results. We also examined individual exposure history, current working conditions, and personal exposure levels to toner. There was a significantly higher prevalence of "coughing and sputum" related complaints among toner-exposed workers in the 30 and 40-year age groups. The group with toner-exposure history showed a higher odds ratio, by logistic regression, in relation to all questions regarding coughing. Mild fibrotic changes were observed in the chest X-rays of four workers who had engaged in toner-exposure work for at least a decade or more, and all four had reported allergic disease. Although we observed a tendency of higher prevalence of "coughing and sputum" in toner-exposed workers, the possibility of information bias cannot be eliminated. It should also be noted that this tendency did not exceed that of the general public. Further analysis is required in this ongoing 10-year cohort study to clarify the effect of toner exposure on the respiratory system.

  18. Neurological symptoms among dental assistants: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hollund BE

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dental assistants help the dentist in preparing material for filling teeth. Amalgam was the filling material mostly commonly used in Norway before 1980, and declined to about 5% of all fillings in 2005. Amalgam is usually an alloy of silver, copper, tin and mercury. Copper amalgam, giving particularly high exposure to mercury was used in Norway until 1994. Metallic mercury is neurotoxic. Few studies of the health of dental assistants exist, despite their exposure to mercury. There are questions about the existence of possible chronic neurological symptoms today within this working group, due to this exposure. The aim of this study was to compare the occurrence of neurological symptoms among dental assistants likely to be exposed to mercury from work with dental filling material, compared to similar health personnel with no such exposure. Methods All dental assistants still at work and born before 1970 registered in the archives of a trade union in Hordaland county of Norway were invited to participate (response rate 68%, n = 41, as well as a similar number of randomly selected assistant nurses (response rate 87%, n = 64 in the same age group. The participants completed a self-administered, mailed questionnaire, with questions about demographic variables, life-style factors, musculoskeletal, neurological and psychosomatic symptoms (Euroquest. Results The dental assistants reported significant higher occurrence of neurological symptoms; psychosomatic symptoms, problems with memory, concentration, fatigue and sleep disturbance, but not for mood. This was found by analyses of variance, adjusting for age, education, alcohol consumption, smoking and personality traits. For each specific neurological symptom, adjusted logistic regression analyses were performed, showing that these symptoms were mainly from arms, hands, legs and balance organs. Conclusion There is a possibility that the higher occurrence of neurological symptoms

  19. Work stress related lipid disorders and arterial hypertension in professional drivers: A cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Đinđić, Nataša; Jovanović, Jovica; Đinđić, Boris; Jovanović, Milan; Pešić, Milica; Jovanović, Jovana J.

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aim. Occupational stress is a term used to define ongoing stress that is related to the workplace. The study was conducted to determine association of occupational stress index (OSI) and its aspects with arterial hypertension and lipid disorders using data from a cross-sectional survey of male professional drivers. Methods. The cross-sectional study was performed in 439 professional drivers divided into groups (city- and intercity bus drivers, truck and taxi drivers). The OSI...

  20. Maxillary lateral incisor agenesis; a retrospective cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naji Ziad Arandi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aims to estimate the prevalence of congenitally missing lateral incisors in a sample of 2662 dental patients in Palestine. Methods: A total of 2662 digital panoramic radiographs were retrospectively examined for the presence of congenitally missing permanent lateral incisors. The radiographs were obtained from the archival records of patients attending a local dental center at the city of Nablus in Palestine. Results: The prevalence of missing lateral incisors among the examined population (n = 2662 was found to be 1.91%. Unilateral agenesis accounted for 66.6% of the total cases that showed at least one missing lateral incisor. Around 79% of the unilateral cases were on the left side while 21% were on the right side. Bilateral agenesis accounted for 33.3% of 34 cases that had at least one congenitally missing permanent maxillary lateral incisor. Conclusion: The prevalence of missing maxillary lateral incisors in this study population was 1.91% which was within the range reported in different populations. Keywords: Tooth agenesis, Permanent maxillary lateral incisors, Retrospective, Prevalence

  1. Quick assessment of hopelessness: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheung Yin

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lengthy questionnaires reduce data quality and impose a burden on respondents. Previous researchers proposed that a single item ("My future seems dark to me" and a 4-item component of the Beck's Hopelessness Scale (BHS can summarise most of the information the BHS provides. There is no clear indication of what BHS cutoff values are useful in identifying people with suicide tendency. Methods In a population-based study of Chinese people aged between 15 and 59 in Hong Kong, the Chinese version of the BHS and the Centre for Epidemiologic Studies – Depression scale were administered by trained interviewers and suicidal ideation and suicidal attempts were self-reported. Receiver operating characteristics curve analysis and regression analysis were used to compare the performance of the BHS and its components in identifying people with suicidality and depression. Smoothed level of suicidal tendency was assessed in relation to scores on the BHS and its component to identify thresholds. Results It is found that the 4-item component and, to a lesser extent, the single item of the BHS perform in ways similar to the BHS. There are non-linear relationship between suicidality and scores on the BHS and the 4-item component; cutoff values identified accordingly have sensitivity and specificity of about 65%. Conclusion The 4-item component is a useful alternative to the BHS. Shortening of psycho-social measurement scales should be considered in order to reduce burden on patients or respondents and to improve response rate.

  2. Cyberdrugs: a cross-sectional study of online pharmacies characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orizio, Grazia; Schulz, Peter; Domenighini, Serena; Caimi, Luigi; Rosati, Cristina; Rubinelli, Sara; Gelatti, Umberto

    2009-08-01

    As e-commerce and online pharmacies (OPs) arose, the potential impact of the Internet on the world of health shifted from merely the spread of information to a real opportunity to acquire health services directly. Aim of the study was to investigate the offer of prescription drugs in OPs, analysing their characteristics, using the content analysis method. The research performed using the Google search engine led to an analysis of 118 online pharmacies. Only 51 (43.2%) of them stated their precise location. Ninety-six (81.4%) online pharmacies did not require a medical prescription from the customer's physician. Online pharmacies rise complex issues in terms of patient-doctor relationship, consumer empowerment, drug quality, regulation and public health implications.

  3. Self-stigma and schizophrenia: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vrbova K

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Kristyna Vrbova,1 Jan Prasko,1 Michaela Holubova,1,2 Dana Kamaradova,1 Marie Ociskova,1 Marketa Marackova,1 Klara Latalova,1 Ales Grambal,1 Milos Slepecky,3 Marta Zatkova3 1Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Palacky University in Olomouc, University Hospital Olomouc, Olomouc, 2Department of Psychiatry, Hospital Liberec, Liberec, Czech Republic; 3Department of Psychology Sciences, Faculty of Social Science and Health Care, Constantine the Philosopher University, Nitra, Slovak Republic Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the degree of self-stigma in schizophrenia and its association with clinical and demographic factors. Patients and methods: A total of 197 outpatients (54.3% females diagnosed with schizophrenia spectrum disorders (schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, delusional disorder according to International Classification of Diseases – tenth edition participated in the study. The mean age of the patients was 40.10±11.49 years. All individuals completed the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness (ISMI scale and a demographic questionnaire. The disorder severity was assessed by both a psychiatrist (the objective version of Clinical Global Impression – severity scale [objCGI-S] and the patients (the subjective version of Clinical Global Impression – severity scale [subjCGI-S]. Treatment with antipsychotics stabilized the patients. Results: The overall level of self-stigma measured by the total score of the ISMI was 63.32±13.59. The total score of the ISMI positively correlated with the severity of the disorder measured by the objCGI-S and subjCGI-S. In addition, self-stigma positively correlated with the treatment duration and the number of psychiatric hospitalizations. The backward stepwise regression was applied to identify the most significant factors connected to self-stigma. The regression analysis identified the following regressors as the most relevant to self-stigma: the number of

  4. Medical tourism in Thailand: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noree, Thinakorn; Hanefeld, Johanna; Smith, Richard

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the magnitude and characteristics of medical tourism in Thailand and the impact of such tourism on the Thai health system and economy. In 2010, we checked the records of all visits to five private hospitals that are estimated to cover 63% of all foreign patients. We reviewed hospital records of foreign patients and obtained data on their countries of origin, diagnoses and interventions. We surveyed 293 medical tourists to collect demographic characteristics and information on their expenditure and travelling companions. To help understand the impact of medical tourism on the Thai health system, we also interviewed 15 hospital executives and 28 service providers from the private hospitals. We obtained 911,913 records of hospital visits, of which 324,906 came from 104,830 medical tourists. We estimated that there were 167,000 medical tourists in Thailand in 2010. Of the medical tourists who attended our study hospitals, 67,987 (64.8%) came from the eastern Mediterranean region or Asia and 109,509 (34%) of them were treated for simple and uncomplicated conditions - i.e. general check-ups and medical consultations. The mean self-reported non-medical expenditure was 2750 United States dollars. According to the hospital staff interviewed, medical tourism in 2010 brought benefits to - and apparently had no negative impacts on - the Thai health system and economy. We estimate that the total number of medical tourists visiting Thailand is about 10% of previous national government estimates of 1.2 million. Such tourists appear to bring economic benefits to Thailand and to have negligible effects on the health system.

  5. Postural development in school children: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harrison Deed E

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little information on quantitative sagittal plane postural alignment and evolution in children exists. The objectives of this study are to document the evolution of upright, static, sagittal posture in children and to identify possible critical phases of postural evolution (maturation. Methods A total of 1084 children (aged 4–12 years received a sagittal postural evaluation with the Biotonix postural analysis system. Data were retrieved from the Biotonix internet database. Children were stratified and analyzed by years of age with n = 36 in the youngest age group (4 years and n = 184 in the oldest age group (12 years. Children were analyzed in the neutral upright posture. Variables measured were sagittal translation distances in millimeters of: the knee relative to the tarsal joint, pelvis relative to the tarsal joint, shoulder relative to the tarsal joint, and head relative to the tarsal joint. A two-way factorial ANOVA was used to test for age and gender effects on posture, while polynomial trend analyses were used to test for increased postural displacements with years of age. Results Two-way ANOVA yielded a significant main effect of age for all 4 sagittal postural variables and gender for all variables except head translation. No age × gender interaction was found. Polynomial trend analyses showed a significant linear association between child age and all four postural variables: anterior head translation (p Conclusion A significant linear trend for increasing sagittal plane postural translations of the head, thorax, pelvis, and knee was found as children age from 4 years to 12 years. These postural translations provide preliminary normative data for the alignment of a child's sagittal plane posture.

  6. Identifying domestic violence: cross sectional study in primary care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Jo; Coid, Jeremy; Petruckevitch, Ann; Chung, Wai Shan; Moorey, Stirling; Feder, Gene

    2002-01-01

    politicians are promoting a policy of screening for domestic violenceWhat this study addsOver a third of women attending general practices had experienced physical violence from a male partner or former partnerMost women who had experienced physical violence were not identified by general practitioners, according to data extracted from their medical recordsWomen pregnant in the previous year were at high risk for current physical violenceA substantial minority of women object to routine questioning about domestic violence PMID:11823360

  7. C4P cross-section libraries for safety analyses with SIMMER and related studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rineiski, A.; Sinitsa, V.; Gabrielli, F.; Maschek, W.

    2011-01-01

    A code and data system, C 4 P, is under development at KIT. It includes fine-group master libraries and tools for generating problem-oriented cross-section libraries, primarily for safety studies with the SIMMER code and related analyses. In the paper, the 560-group master library and problem oriented 40-group and 72-group cross-section libraries, for thermal and fast systems, respectively, are described and their performances are investigated. (author)

  8. Molecular dynamical and structural studies for the bakelite by neutron cross section measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voi, D.L.

    1992-05-01

    Neutron reaction cross sections were determined by transmission and scattering measurements, to study the dynamics and molecular structure of calcined bakelites. Total cross sections were determined, with a deviation smaller than 5%, from the literature values, by neutron transmission method and a specially devised approximation. These cross sections were then correlated with data obtained with infra-red spectroscopy, elemental analysis and other techniques to get the probable molecular formulae of bakelite. Double differential scattering cross sections, scattering law values and frequency distributions were determined with 15% error using the neutron inelastic scattering method. The frequency distributions as well as the overall results from all experimental techniques used in this work allowed to suggest a structural model like polycyclic hydrocarbons, for calcined bakelite at 800 0 C. (author)

  9. Cross-Sectional Shape of Rat Mesenteric Arterioles at Branching Studied by Confocal Laser Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Atushi; Minamiyama, Motomu; Niimi, Hideyuki

    This study was aimed to investigate the cross-sectional shape of mesenteric arterioles at branching, using confocal laser microscopy. Wistar rats (8 weeks, male) were anesthetized with thiobutabarbital sodium. Blood flow and microvascular network in the mesentery were observed using video microscopy. The rat intestine with mesentery was extracted and the intestinal vasculature was perfused with Krebs-Ringer and then fixed with paraformaldehyde under a static pressure of 100mmHg. A section of mesentery was isolated from the intestine, and spread up to the in vivo geometry based on the intravital microscopic observation. The mesentery section was stained with tetramethyl rhodamine isothiocyanate (TRITC)-phalloidin. The samples were observed under a confocal laser microscope. The cross-sectional image was re-sliced to measure the cross-sectional area and major/minor axes of the best fitting ellipse. The aspect ratio was defined in terms of the minor/major diameter ratio. The extended focus image of mesenteric arterioles showed that the cross-sectional shape was not circular but elliptic-like. The cross-sectional area of the parent vessel decreased from proximal to distal positions. The mean aspect ratio of the parent vessel was approximately 0.5, while that of the branching vessel was approximately 0.8. The flattened shape and variation of the cross-sectional area of arterioles requires some correction of in vivo data of the two-dimensional mesenteric microvasculature obtained using intravital microscopy.

  10. Advanced Neutron Source Cross Section Libraries (ANSL-V): ENDF/B-V based multigroup cross-section libraries for advanced neutron source (ANS) reactor studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, W.E. III; Arwood, J.W.; Greene, N.M.; Moses, D.L.; Petrie, L.M.; Primm, R.T. III; Slater, C.O.; Westfall, R.M.; Wright, R.Q.

    1990-09-01

    Pseudo-problem-independent, multigroup cross-section libraries were generated to support Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) Reactor design studies. The ANS is a proposed reactor which would be fueled with highly enriched uranium and cooled with heavy water. The libraries, designated ANSL-V (Advanced Neutron Source Cross Section Libraries based on ENDF/B-V), are data bases in AMPX master format for subsequent generation of problem-dependent cross-sections for use with codes such as KENO, ANISN, XSDRNPM, VENTURE, DOT, DORT, TORT, and MORSE. Included in ANSL-V are 99-group and 39-group neutron, 39-neutron-group 44-gamma-ray-group secondary gamma-ray production (SGRP), 44-group gamma-ray interaction (GRI), and coupled, 39-neutron group 44-gamma-ray group (CNG) cross-section libraries. The neutron and SGRP libraries were generated primarily from ENDF/B-V data; the GRI library was generated from DLC-99/HUGO data, which is recognized as the ENDF/B-V photon interaction data. Modules from the AMPX and NJOY systems were used to process the multigroup data. Validity of selected data from the fine- and broad-group neutron libraries was satisfactorily tested in performance parameter calculations

  11. Personality Traits Are Associated with Research Misbehavior in Dutch Scientists: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joeri K Tijdink

    Full Text Available Personality influences decision making and ethical considerations. Its influence on the occurrence of research misbehavior has never been studied. This study aims to determine the association between personality traits and self-reported questionable research practices and research misconduct. We hypothesized that narcissistic, Machiavellianistic and psychopathic traits as well as self-esteem are associated with research misbehavior.Included in this cross-sectional study design were 535 Dutch biomedical scientists (response rate 65% from all hierarchical layers of 4 university medical centers in the Netherlands. We used validated personality questionnaires such as the Dark Triad (narcissism, psychopathy, and Machiavellianism, Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale, the Publication Pressure Questionnaire (PPQ, and also demographic and job-specific characteristics to investigate the association of personality traits with a composite research misbehavior severity score.Machiavellianism was positively associated (beta 1.28, CI 1.06-1.53 with self-reported research misbehavior, while narcissism, psychopathy and self-esteem were not. Exploratory analysis revealed that narcissism and research misconduct were more severe among persons in higher academic ranks (i.e., professors (p<0.01 and p<0.001, respectively, and self-esteem scores and publication pressure were lower (p<0.001 and p<0.01, respectively as compared to postgraduate PhD fellows.Machiavellianism may be a risk factor for research misbehaviour. Narcissism and research misbehaviour were more prevalent among biomedical scientists in higher academic positions. These results suggest that personality has an impact on research behavior and should be taken into account in fostering responsible conduct of research.

  12. The Development of Learning Patterns of Student Teachers: A Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donche, Vincent; Van Petegem, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Research on learning pattern development during pre-service teacher education is scarce. In a cross-sectional (study 1) and longitudinal study (study 2) the development of learning patterns of student teachers is analysed. Participants in study 1 were 646 first-year and 350 third-year student teachers enrolled in an initial pre-service teacher…

  13. Theoretical study of cross sections of proton-induced reactions on cobalt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Yiğit

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear fusion may be among the strongest sustainable ways to replace fossil fuels because it does not contribute to acid rain or global warming. In this context, activated cobalt materials in corrosion products for fusion energy are significant in determination of dose levels during maintenance after a coolant leak in a nuclear fusion reactor. Therefore, cross-section studies on cobalt material are very important for fusion reactor design. In this article, the excitation functions of some nuclear reaction channels induced by proton particles on 59Co structural material were predicted using different models. The nuclear level densities were calculated using different choices of available level density models in ALICE/ASH code. Finally, the newly calculated cross sections for the investigated nuclear reactions are compared with the experimental values and TENDL data based on TALYS nuclear code. Keywords: Cobalt, Nuclear Structural Materials, Reaction Cross Section, TENDL Database

  14. A Cross-Sectional Study of School Experiences of Boys with Duchenne and Becker Muscular Dystrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soim, Aida; Lamb, Molly; Campbell, Kimberly; Pandya, Shree; Peay, Holly; Howard, James F., Jr.; Fox, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate types of supportive school services received and factors related to provision of these services. We conducted a cross-sectional study to describe the school experience of males with Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophies. Study subjects were identified through the Muscular Dystrophy Surveillance,…

  15. Cross-section studies of relativistic deuteron reactions obtained by activation method

    CERN Document Server

    Wagner, V; Svoboda, O; Vrzalová, J; Majerle, M; Krása, A; Chudoba, P; Honusek, M; Kugler, A; Adam, J; Baldin, A; Furman, W; Kadykov, M; Khushvaktov, J; Sol-nyskhin, A; Tsoupko-Sitnikov, V; Závorka, L; Tyutyunnikov, S; Vladimirova, N

    2014-01-01

    The cross-sections of relativistic deuteron reactions on natural copper were studied in detail by means of activation method. The copper foils were irradiated during experiments with the big Quinta uranium target at Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR) in Dubna, Russia. The deuteron beams with energies ranging from 1 GeV up to 8 GeV were produced by JINR Nuclotron. Residual nuclides were identified by the gamma spectrometry. Lack of such experimental cross-section values prevents the usage of copper foils from beam integral monitoring.

  16. Internet addictive behavior in adolescence: a cross-sectional study in seven European countries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsitsika, A.; Janikian, M.; Schoenmakers, T.M.; Tzavela, E.C.; Olafsson, K.; Wojcik, S.; Macarie, G.F.; Tzavara, C.

    2014-01-01

    A cross-sectional school-based survey study (N= 13,284; 53% females; mean age 15.8 – 0.7) of 14–17-year-old adolescents was conducted in seven European countries (Greece, Spain, Poland, Germany, Romania, the Netherlands, and Iceland). The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence of

  17. A cross-sectional study of peripartum blood transfusion in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross-sectional study of peripartum blood transfusion in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. ... To assess the incidence of peripartum transfusion in a sample of Eastern Cape, SA hospitals to evaluate generalisability of preceding study findings. Methods. Hospital chart reviews were conducted of all deliveries at three large ...

  18. Comparison of red autofluorescing plaque and disclosed plaque—a cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volgenant, C.M.C.; Fernandez y Mostajo, M.; Rosema, N.A.M.; van der Weijden, F.A.; ten Cate, J.M.; van der Veen, M.H.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess the correlation between dental plaque scores determined by the measurement of red autofluorescence or by visualization with a two-tone solution. Clinical photographs were used for this study. Materials and methods Overnight plaque from

  19. A cross-sectional study of cutaneous drug reactions in a private ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Cutaneous drug reactions are a common impediment in therapy, the incidence ranging from 2% to 8%. This cross-sectional study was designed to compare different trends of cutaneous drug reaction in two different socioeconomic groups of patients in the same region. Aims: The aim was to evaluate common ...

  20. Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorder in Nurseries in Lebanon: A Cross Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaaya, Monique; Saab, Dahlia; Maalouf, Fadi T.; Boustany, Rose-Mary

    2016-01-01

    In Lebanon, no estimate for autism prevalence exists. This cross-sectional study examines the prevalence of Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in toddlers in nurseries in Beirut and Mount-Lebanon. The final sample included 998 toddlers (16-48 months) from 177 nurseries. We sent parents the Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (M-CHAT) for…

  1. A cross-sectional study of factors affecting seasonality in bipolar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-07-02

    Jul 2, 2014 ... A cross-sectional study of factors affecting seasonality in bipolar disorder. P K Mittal,1 MD; S Mehta,2 MD; R K Solanki,3 MD; M K Swami,4 MD; P S Meena,2 MD. 1 Department of Psychiatry, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India. 2 Department of Psychiatry, Sawai Man Singh ...

  2. A cross-sectional study among detergent workers exposed to liquid detergent enzymes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rooy, F.G.; Houba, R.; Palmen, N.; Zengeni, M.; Sander, I.P.; Spithoven, J.H.; Rooijackers, J.M.; Heederik, D.J.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/072910542

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate sensitisation and respiratory health among workers who produce liquid detergent products and handle liquid detergent enzymes. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study among 109 eligible workers of a detergent products plant. 108 were interviewed for respiratory and

  3. Bullying and symptoms among school-aged children: international comparative cross sectional study in 28 countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due, Pernille; Holstein, Bjørn E; Lynch, John

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There have been no large-scale international comparisons on bullying and health among adolescents. This study examined the association between bullying and physical and psychological symptoms among adolescents in 28 countries. METHODS: This international cross-sectional survey include...

  4. A cross-sectional study on the quality of life of patients with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross-sectional study on the quality of life of patients with peripheral diabetic neuropathy pain in Hospital Tegku Ampaun Afzan, Kuantan, Malaysia. Sinan Mohammed Abdullah AL-Mahmood, Tariq Abdul Razak, Nik Nur Fatnoon Nik Ahmad, Abdul Hadi Bin Mohamed, Shahrin Tarmizi Bin Che Abdullah ...

  5. Is Nurses' Professional Competence Related to Their Personality and Emotional Intelligence? A Cross-Sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    Abbas Heydari; Hossein Kareshki; Mohammad Reza Armat

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Nurses' professional competence is a crucial factor in clinical practice. Systematic evaluation of nurses’ competence and its related factors are essential for enhancing the quality of nursing care. This study aimed to assess the nurses’ competence level and its possible relationship with their personality and emotional intelligence. Methods: Using a cross-sectional survey design, three instruments including Nurse Competence Scale, sh...

  6. Food buying habits of people who buy wine or beer: cross sectional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Ditte; Friis, Karina; Skovenborg, Erik

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether people who buy wine buy healthier food items than those who buy beer. DESIGN: Cross sectional study. SETTING: Supermarkets in Denmark. Data Information on number, type of item, and total charge from 3.5 million transactions over a period of six months. RESULTS...... made more purchases of healthy food items than people who buy beer....

  7. A cross-sectional study of cutaneous drug reactions in a private ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-07-20

    Jul 20, 2011 ... This cross-sectional study was designed to compare different trends of cutaneous drug reaction in two different socio- ... maculopapular rash, all other skin reactions were observed more frequently with NSAIDS in dental College whereas ..... and causative agents in a tertiary care center in South India.

  8. Psychosocial Functioning Before and After Laparoscopic Adjustable Gastric Banding: a Cross-Sectional Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larsen, J.K.; Geenen, R.; Ramshorst, B. van; Brand, N.; Wit, P. de; Stroebe, W.; Doornen, L.J.P. van

    2003-01-01

    Background: The aim of this cross-sectional study was to examine short and long-term physical, mental and, particularly, social quality of life (QoL) of patients with severe obesity after laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB). Methods: 250 patients (221 female, 29 male, mean age 39.6 years,

  9. Students' Needs, Teachers' Support, and Motivation for Doing Homework: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Idit; Kaplan, Avi; Gueta, Gila

    2010-01-01

    Self-determination theory provided the theoretical framework for a cross-sectional investigation of elementary and junior high school students' autonomous motivation for homework. More specifically, the study focused on the role of teachers' support of students' psychological needs in students' motivation for homework in the two school systems.…

  10. Parental social determinants of risk for intentional injury: a cross-sectional study of Swedish adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engström, Karin; Diderichsen, Finn; Laflamme, Lucie

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We investigated the effect of family social and economic circumstances on intentional injury among adolescents. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional register study of youths aged 10 to 19 years who lived in Sweden between 1990 and 1994. We used socioeconomic status, number of parents......-injury prevention and victim treatment need to be tailored to household social circumstances....

  11. A cross-sectional study on bovine trypanosomosis in Jawi district of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross-sectional study was carried out from December 2008 to March 2009 in Jawi district of Amhara Regional State northwest Ethiopia to assess the prevalence of bovine trypanosomosis. Blood sample was collected randomly from a total of 300 cattle through piercing of the marginal ear vein to determine the prevalence ...

  12. Environmental determinants of outdoor play in children : A large-scale cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarts, M.J.; Wendel-Vos, W.; van Oers, J.A.M.; van de Goor, L.A.M.; Schuit, A.J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Outdoor play is a cheap and natural way for children to be physically active. Purpose: This study aims to identify physical as well as social correlates of outdoor play in the home and neighborhood environment among children of different age groups. Methods: Cross-sectional data were

  13. Delay in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Uzbekistan: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Belkina, T.V.; Khojiev, D.S.; Tillyashaykhov, M.N.; Tigay, Z.N.; Kudenov, M.U.; Duintjer Tebbens, Jurjen; Vlček, J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 14, November (2014), article 624 ISSN 1471-2334 Grant - others:SVV UK(CZ) 260 066 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : cross-sectional study * pulmonary tuberculosis * self-medication * Uzbekistan Subject RIV: FR - Pharmacology ; Medidal Chemistry Impact factor: 2.613, year: 2014

  14. Influence of the Visual Attention Span on Child Reading Performance: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosse, Marie-Line; Valdois, Sylviane

    2009-01-01

    The visual attention (VA) span deficit hypothesis was found successfully to account for variability in developmental dyslexia (Bosse, Tainturier & Valdois, 2007). We conducted a cross-sectional study on 417 typically developing children from first, third and fifth grades examining the role of VA span on the development of reading skills. A battery…

  15. Cross-sectional study of 168 patients with hepatorenal tyrosinaemia and implications for clinical practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mayorandan, Sebene; Meyer, Uta; Gokcay, Guelden; Segarra, Nuria Garcia; de Baulny, Helene Ogier; van Spronsen, Francjan; Zeman, Jiri; de laet, Corinne; Spiekerkoetter, Ute; Thimm, Eva; Maiorana, Arianna; Dionisi-Vici, Carlo; Moeslinger, Dorothea; Brunner-Krainz, Michaela; Lotz-Havla, Amelie Sophia; de Juan, Jose Angel Cocho; Pico, Maria Luz Couce; Santer, Rene; Scholl-Buergi, Sabine; Mandel, Hanna; Bliksrud, Yngve Thomas; Freisinger, Peter; Aldamiz-Echevarria, Luis Jose; Hochuli, Michel; Gautschi, Matthias; Endig, Jessica; Jordan, Jens; McKiernan, Patrick; Ernst, Stefanie; Morlot, Susanne; Vogel, Arndt; Sander, Johannes; Das, Anibh Martin

    2014-01-01

    Background: Hepatorenal tyrosinaemia (Tyr 1) is a rare inborn error of tyrosine metabolism. Without treatment, patients are at high risk of developing acute liver failure, renal dysfunction and in the long run hepatocellular carcinoma. The aim of our study was to collect cross-sectional data.

  16. A cross-sectional study of home-based management of malaria in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A community-based cross-sectional study was designed to assess knowledge on signs, symptoms and treatment options for malaria in Bakaano, a suburb of Cape Coast, to determine the extent to which malaria is managed at homes. Our observations showed that the community had good knowledge of signs and ...

  17. Study of the elastic scattering differential cross sections of a proton beam by a cesium target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Maddarsi, Mohamed.

    1978-01-01

    The elastic differential cross section of H + on Cs is studied experimentally and theoretically. The experimental device is described, after which the differential cross-section values obtained as a function of the laboratory angle are given for four incident energies: 13.4 eV, 15.1 eV, 17.7 eV and 24.2 eV. By means of an interaction potential of the quasi-molecule H + Cs the differential cross sections are calculated for the same incident energies; this calculation uses the semi-classical method of stationary phases which shows clearly the limits of conventional description and the changes introduced by quantum effects. Very good agreement is obtained between theoretical and experimental results, which shows that elastic scattering is very little perturbed by inelastic channels in this energy range. The estimated inelastic cross section at 24 eV is about 1.9 10 -15 cm 2 , corresponding to 1.6% of the scattering process [fr

  18. International survey on attitudes toward ethics in health technology assessment: An exploratory study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arellano, L.E.; Willett, J.M.; Borry, P.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this exploratory study was to survey international health technology assessment (HTA) professionals to determine attitudes toward ethics in HTA. Methods: An exploratory, quantitative, cross-sectional study design was developed. The sample population (n = 636) was

  19. Missing data in longitudinal studies: cross-sectional multiple imputation provides similar estimates to full-information maximum likelihood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro, Mark A

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research was to examine, in an exploratory manner, whether cross-sectional multiple imputation generates valid parameter estimates for a latent growth curve model in a longitudinal data set with nonmonotone missingness. A simulated longitudinal data set of N = 5000 was generated and consisted of a continuous dependent variable, assessed at three measurement occasions and a categorical time-invariant independent variable. Missing data had a nonmonotone pattern and the proportion of missingness increased from the initial to the final measurement occasion (5%-20%). Three methods were considered to deal with missing data: listwise deletion, full-information maximum likelihood, and multiple imputation. A latent growth curve model was specified and analysis of variance was used to compare parameter estimates between the full data set and missing data approaches. Multiple imputation resulted in significantly lower slope variance compared with the full data set. There were no differences in any parameter estimates between the multiple imputation and full-information maximum likelihood approaches. This study suggested that in longitudinal studies with nonmonotone missingness, cross-sectional imputation at each time point may be viable and produces estimates comparable with those obtained with full-information maximum likelihood. Future research pursuing the validity of this method is warranted. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Family leadership styles and adolescent dietary and physical activity behaviors: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Katie L; Wilson, Alexandra H; Perlmutter, Lisa S; Beauchamp, Mark R

    2012-04-30

    Transformational leadership is conceptualized as a set of behaviors designed to inspire, energize and motivate others to achieve higher levels of functioning, and is associated with salient health-related outcomes in organizational settings. Given (a) the similarities that exist between leadership within organizational settings and parenting within families, and (b) the importance of the family environment in the promotion of adolescent health-enhancing behaviors, the purpose of this exploratory study was to examine the cross-sectional relationships between parents' transformational leadership behaviors and adolescent dietary and physical activity behaviors. 857 adolescents (aged 13-15, mean age = 14.70 yrs) completed measures of transformational parenting behaviors, healthful dietary intake and leisure-time physical activity. Regression analyses were conducted to examine relationships between family transformational leadership and adolescent health outcomes. A further 'extreme group analysis' was conducted by clustering families based on quartile splits. A MANCOVA (controlling for child gender) was conducted to examine differences between families displaying (a) HIGH levels of transformational parenting (consistent HIGH TP), (b) LOW levels of transformational parenting (consistent LOW TP), and (c) inconsistent levels of transformational parenting (inconsistent HIGH-LOW TP). Results revealed that adolescents' perceptions of family transformational parenting were associated with both healthy dietary intake and physical activity. Adolescents who perceived their families to display the highest levels of transformational parenting (HIGH TP group) displayed greater healthy eating and physical activity behaviors than adolescents who perceived their families to display the lowest levels of transformational parenting behaviors (LOW TP group). Adolescents who perceived their families to display inconsistent levels of transformational parenting behaviors (HIGH-LOW TP group

  1. Correlates of alcohol consumption in rural western Kenya: A cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Takahashi, Risa; Wilunda, Calistus; Magutah, Karani; Mwaura-Tenambergen, Wanja; Wilunda, Boniface; Perngparn, Usaneya

    2017-01-01

    Background Studies on alcohol consumption in rural areas in sub-Saharan Africa are scarce. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and determinants of alcohol consumption in rural western Kenya. The study was conducted as a preliminary stage of a community-based intervention to reduce hazardous alcohol consumption. Methods A cross-sectional survey of 478 participants aged 18?65?years residing in Ikolomani Sub-county, Kakamega County was conducted in April 2015. Data were collected using ...

  2. Causes of job stress in nurses: A cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Najimi, Arash; Goudarzi, Ali Moazemi; Sharifirad, Gholamreza

    2012-01-01

    Background: Nursing is naturally a stressful job. Stress in nurses can cause depression, isolation from patients, absence and decrease in their qualification. This study aimed to determine the causes of job stress in nurses of Kashan, Iran. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 189 nurses from Kashan hospitals of different wards were studied. The information collection tool was Occupational Stress Inventory-Revised? (OSI-R?). Findings: The most important job stress aspects in ...

  3. Insomnia and Its Temporal Association with Academic Performance among University Students: A Cross-Sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    Haile, Yohannes Gebreegziabhere; Alemu, Sisay Mulugeta; Habtewold, Tesfa Dejenie

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Studies show that 9.4% to 38.2% of university students are suffering from insomnia. However, research data in developing countries is limited. Thus, the aim of the study was to assess insomnia and its temporal association with academic performance. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Institution based cross-sectional study was conducted with 388 students at Debre Berhan University. Data were collected at the nine colleges. Logistic and linear regression analysis was performed for modeling in...

  4. Normal bladder wall thickness measurement in healthy Iranian children, a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Adibi, Atoosa; Kazemian, Afarin; Toghiani, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Background: Normal bladder function is necessary for micturition. Many causes such as urinary tract infection, bladder outlet obstruction, and neuropathic bladder can influence bladder wall thickness (BWT).This study was designed to determine normal BWT in Iranian children. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study done in Isfahan in 2012 comprising 82 children aged 2-14 years without any urinary complaint. We measured thickness of posterior and lateral walls of the bladder ...

  5. Urea cycle disorders in Spain: an observational, cross-sectional and multicentric study of 104 cases

    OpenAIRE

    Martín-Hernández, Elena; Aldámiz-Echevarría, Luis; Castejón-Ponce, Esperanza; Pedrón-Giner, Consuelo; Couce, María Luz; Serrano-Nieto, Juliana; Pintos-Morell, Guillem; Bélanger-Quintana, Amaya; Martínez-Pardo, Mercedes; García-Silva, María Teresa; Quijada-Fraile, Pilar; Vitoria-Miñana, Isidro; Dalmau, Jaime; Lama-More, Rosa A; Bueno-Delgado, María Amor

    2014-01-01

    Background Advances in the diagnosis and treatment of urea cycle disorders (UCDs) have led to a higher survival rate. The purpose of this study is to describe the characteristics of patients with urea cycle disorders in Spain. Methods Observational, cross-sectional and multicenter study. Clinical, biochemical and genetic data were collected from patients with UCDs, treated in the metabolic diseases centers in Spain between February 2012 and February 2013, covering the entire Spanish populatio...

  6. Practice of use of diapers in hospitalized adults and elderly: cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Bitencourt, Graziele Ribeiro; Alves, Luise de Almeida Ferreira; Santana, Rosimere Ferreira

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: analyze the practice of use of diapers in adults and elderly in hospital. Method: observational cross-sectional study, with a sample of 105 participants assigned according to the data collection period, from September 2013 to January 2014, in the surgical clinic wards in a University Hospital. Results: it was observed that 38% of the 105 participants of the study did not need the use of diapers. 18% used it because they were disabled and 16% had their cognitive system d...

  7. Sexual behaviours and associated factors among students at Bahir Dar University: a cross sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Mulu, Wondemagegn; Yimer, Mulat; Abera, Bayeh

    2014-01-01

    Background Sexual behaviour is the core of sexuality matters in adolescents and youths. Their modest or dynamic behaviour vulnerable them to risky sexual behaviours. In Ethiopia, there is scarcity of multicentered representative data on sexual behaviours in students to have a national picture at higher education. This study therefore conducted to assess sexual behaviours and associated factors at Bahir Dar University, Ethiopia. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted among Bahir Dar Uni...

  8. Nutritional supplement practices of professional Ugandan athletes: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Muwonge, Haruna; Zavuga, Robert; Kabenge, Peninnah Aligawesa; Makubuya, Timothy

    2017-01-01

    Background The use of nutritional supplements (NS) places athletes at great risk for inadvertent doping. Due to the paucity of data on supplement use, this study aimed to determine the proportion of Ugandan athletes using nutritional supplements and to investigate the athletes’ motivation to use these supplements. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in which an interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to collect data from 359 professional athletes participating in individual ...

  9. A cross sectional study on health status of infants in rural areas of Kamrup, Assam

    OpenAIRE

    Madhur Borah; Rupali Baruah; Kanika K Baruah

    2015-01-01

    Introduction:  Infancy is the period of growth and development of a child. Inadequate care, malnutrition and infections in this crucial period lead to high neonatal and infant deaths and also high prevalence of morbidities. But data on childhood and infant mortality and morbidities are still not adequate in North Eastern part of India, so this cross sectional study was initiated. Objectives: To assess the nutritional status and morbidity profile of infants and to study the associated socio-ec...

  10. Knowledge of the abortion legislation among South African women: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Myer Landon; Morroni Chelsea; Tibazarwa Kemilembe

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background In order to ensure that legalized abortion in South Africa improves reproductive health, women must know that abortion is a legal option in the case of unwanted pregnancy. This study investigated knowledge of abortion legislation eight years after the introduction of legal abortion services in one province of South Africa. Methods In 2004/2005, we conducted a cross-sectional study among 831 sexually-active women attending 26 public health clinics in one urban and one rural...

  11. General Physicians’ Viewpoints Towards Nutrition Course in the Medical School: a Cross-Sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    Fallahi E

    2006-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Although nutrition has a very important role in individual and society’s health and disease, it has not yet received proper attention in the medical curricula. The objective of this study is to assess the opinions of general physician who worked at private offices in Khorramabadcity about nutrition course in Iranian medical schools.Methods: In this cross-sectional study the data were collected by posting a self-administrated questionnaire to all GPs who worked at priva...

  12. Health literacy among refugees in Sweden : a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Wångdahl, Josefin; Lytsy, Per; Mårtensson, Lena; Westerling, Ragnar

    2014-01-01

    Background Refugees have poorer health compared to indigenous populations, which may be explained by lower health literacy, i.e. not being able to access, understand, appraise or apply health information. This study aims to determine levels of functional and comprehensive health literacy, and factors associated with inadequate health literacy, in refugees coming to Sweden. Method A cross-sectional study was performed among 455 adult refugees speaking Arabic, Dari, Somali or English. Participa...

  13. Six Nursing Care Problems in Hospitals: A Cross-Sectional Study of Quality of Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eglseer, Doris; Hödl, Manuela; Lohrmann, Christa

    2017-12-08

    Investigations about the quality of nursing care on structure, process, and outcome levels relating to various nursing care problems are rare. This cross-sectional multicenter study was conducted in 30 Austrian hospitals with 2878 patients. The quality of nursing care differed significantly with respect to the individual problems (pressure ulcer, incontinence, malnutrition, falls, restraints, pain), highlighting the need for studies that focus specifically on the quality of care and not merely on single nursing care problems.

  14. Association between adolescent suicide and sociodemographic factors in Chile: cross-sectional ecological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuadrado, Cristóbal; Zitko, Pedro; Covarrubias, Trinidad; Hernandez, Dunia; Sade, Cristina; Klein, Carolina; Gomez, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    Adolescent suicide rates (ASR) are a matter of concern worldwide. Causes of this trend are not understood and could correspond to socioeconomic factors such as inequality. To investigate sociodemographic variables related to ASR, particularly the potential association with indicators of socioeconomic inequality. Cross-sectional ecological study analyzing data from 29 health districts with univariate and multivariable multilevel Poisson models. ASR were higher in male adolescents and at increasing age. No association was found between ASR and inequality (Gini coefficient and 20/20 ratio). Analysis revealed that living in a single-parent family is associated with ASR. The usual demographic patterns of adolescent suicide apply in Chile. An emerging variable of interest is single-parent family. No cross-sectional association between social inequality and ASR was found based on conflicting evidence. These results should be explored in future prospective population studies to further understand associated social factors.

  15. Serum leptin concentration, obesity, and insulin resistance in Western Samoans: cross sectional study.

    OpenAIRE

    Zimmet, P.; Hodge, A.; Nicolson, M.; Staten, M.; de Courten, M.; Moore, J.; Morawiecki, A.; Lubina, J.; Collier, G.; Alberti, G.; Dowse, G.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To measure serum leptin concentrations in the Polynesian population of Western Samoa and to examine epidemiological associations of leptin with anthropometric, demographic, behavioural, and metabolic factors in this population with a high prevalence of obesity and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. DESIGN: Cross sectional study, leptin concentration being measured in a subgroup of a population based sample. SUBJECTS: 240 Polynesian men and women aged 28-74 years were selected...

  16. Candidate salivary biomarkers associated with alveolar bone loss: cross-sectional and in vitro studies

    OpenAIRE

    Ng, Patricia Yen Bee; Donley, Maureen; Hausmann, Ernest; Hutson, Alan D.; Rossomando, Edward F.; Scannapieco, Frank A.

    2007-01-01

    This cross-sectional study evaluated the association between radiographic evidence of alveolar bone loss and the concentration of host-derived bone resorptive factors (interleukin-1 beta, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6, prostaglandin-E2), and markers of bone turnover [pyridinoline cross-linked carboxyterminal telopeptide of type I collagen (ICTP), osteocalcin, osteonectin] in stimulated human whole saliva collected from 110 untreated dental patients. Alveolar bone loss scores for ...

  17. Basic Competence of Intensive Care Unit Nurses: Cross-Sectional Survey Study

    OpenAIRE

    Riitta-Liisa Lakanmaa; Tarja Suominen; Marita Ritmala-Castrén; Tero Vahlberg; Helena Leino-Kilpi

    2015-01-01

    Critical care patients benefit from the attention of nursing personnel with a high competence level. The aim of the study was to describe and evaluate the self-assessed basic competence of intensive care unit nurses and related factors. A cross-sectional survey design was used. A basic competence scale (Intensive and Critical Care Nursing Competence Scale version 1, Likert scale 1?5, 1 = poor and 5 = excellent) was employed among Finnish intensive care unit nurses (n = 431). Intensive care un...

  18. COMMON MENTAL DISORDER AMONG ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSERS: A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Lucchese, Roselma; Silva, Paloma Cinthia Duarte; Denardi, Tainara Catozzi; Felipe, Rodrigo Lopes de; Vera, Ivânia; Castro, Paulo Alexandre de; Bueno, Alexandre de Assis; Fernandes, Inaina Lara

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: to estimate the prevalence of the probability of common mental disorders among abusers of alcohol and other drugs. Method: a cross-sectional study. The sample was made up of 234 individuals undergoing treatment and rehabilitation for chemical dependence in private clinics and in a Psychosocial Care Center in the Southeast area of the state of Goiás, Brazil. Instruments on sociodemographic profile, use of licit and/or illicit drugs, and a questionnaire that tracks common...

  19. Mahjong playing and eye-hand coordination in older adults?a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Tsang, William W.N.; Wong, Gloria C.K.; Gao, Kelly L.

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Eye-hand coordination declines with age, but physical activity is known to slow down the degeneration. Playing mahjong involves lots of eye-hand coordination. The objective was to investigate the relationship between playing mahjong and eye-hand coordination in older adults using a fast finger-pointing paradigm. [Subjects and Methods] Forty-one community dwelling older adults aged sixty or above were recruited by convenience sampling in this cross-sectional study. They were tested o...

  20. Quality of sleep and selective attention in university students: descriptive cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Silvia Alicia Fontana; Waldina Raimondi; María Laura Rizzo

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Sleep quality not only refers to sleeping well at night, but also includes appropriate daytime functioning. Poor quality of sleep can affect a variety of attention processes. PURPOSE The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the relationship between the perceived quality of sleep and selective focus in a group of college students. METHODS A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out in a group of 52 Argentinian college students of the Universidad Adven...

  1. Salt intake belief, knowledge, and behavior: a cross-sectional study of older rural Chinese adults

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Jing; Wu, Tao; Chu, Hongling; Feng, Xiangxian; Shi, Jingpu; Zhang, Ruijuan; Zhang, Yuhong; Zhang, Jianxin; Li, Nicole; Yan, Lijing; Niu, Wenyi; Wu, Yangfeng

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Excess sodium consumption is a major cause of high blood pressure and subsequent vascular disease. However, the factors driving people's salt intake behavior remains largely unknown. This study aims to assess the relationship of salt intake behaviors with knowledge and belief on salt and health among older adults in rural China. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 4693 older participants (men ?50 and women ?60 years old) randomly selected from 120 rural villages in 5 norther...

  2. Skin cancer knowledge and attitudes in the region of Fez, Morocco: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    kelati, Awatef; Baybay, Hanane; Atassi, Mariam; Elfakir, Samira; Gallouj, Salim; Meziane, Mariame; Mernissi, Fatima Zahra

    2017-01-01

    Background The prevalence of skin cancers is constantly increasing in Morocco, and they have gradually become more aggressive due to a significant delay in the diagnosis. Our aim was to assess the levels of awareness and the influencing factors related to skin cancer knowledge in Morocco. Methods This cross-sectional study was carried out in Morocco through the medium of a validated questionnaire, which contained several items ? demographics, skin cancer knowledge and attitudes towards skin c...

  3. Lying obliquely?a clinical sign of cognitive impairment: cross sectional observational study

    OpenAIRE

    Kraft, Peter; Gadeholt, Ottar; Wieser, Matthias J; Jennings, Jenifer; Classen, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    Objective To determine if failure to spontaneously orient the body along the longitudinal axis of a hospital bed when asked to lie down is associated with cognitive impairment in older patients. Design Cross sectional observational study. Setting Neurology department of a university hospital in Germany. Participants Convenience sample of 110 older (?60 years) inpatients with neurological conditions and 23 staff neurologists. Main outcome measures The main outcome measure was the association b...

  4. A cross-sectional study among detergent workers exposed to liquid detergent enzymes.

    OpenAIRE

    van Rooy, F.G.; Houba, R.; Palmen, N.; Zengeni, M.; Sander, I.P.; Spithoven, J.H.; Rooijackers, J.M.; Heederik, D.J.J.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate sensitisation and respiratory health among workers who produce liquid detergent products and handle liquid detergent enzymes. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study among 109 eligible workers of a detergent products plant. 108 were interviewed for respiratory and allergic symptoms and 106 blood samples were taken from them to examine sensitisation to enzymes. Those sensitised to >=1 enzymes were referred for clinical evaluation. Workers and representatives we...

  5. Flat foot and associated factors among primary school children: A cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Ezema, C.I.; Abaraogu, U.O.; Okafor, G.O.

    2014-01-01

    Prevalence of flat foot and its associated personal characteristics among public primary school students was investigated. This cross-sectional study involved 474 public primary school students (253 females and 221 males) between the ages of 6 and 10 years. Flat foot diagnosis was made using Staheli plantar index (PI), where values >1.15 were indicative of flat foot. The number of children diagnosed with flat foot was 106, yielding a prevalence rate of 22.4%. Flexible flat foot accounted for ...

  6. Assessment of medical students? attitudes on social media use in medicine: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Avc?, Kadriye; ?elikden, Sevda Gerek; Eren, Semih; Aydeniz?z, Do?ukan

    2015-01-01

    Background Social media has created a revolution in health services. Information available on the Internet and via social media is now being used as reference guides for sensitive health issues by nonprofessionals, physicians, and medical students. When used by physicians and medical students, social media has the potential to raise issues such as the blurring of the line between professional and private lives, patient relations, and medical ethics. The aim of this cross-sectional study was t...

  7. High Prevalence of Undernutrition among Elderly People in Northwest Ethiopia: A Cross Sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    Molla Mesele Wassie

    2014-01-01

    "Background: Nutritional status of elderly is an important determinant of their health and quality of life. Elderly people are more vulnerable for nutritional insults as compared to adults. Undernutrition among elderly people is becoming significantly high regardless of the progress on health care system. This study was aimed to assess prevalence and associated factors of under nutrition among elderly people in Gondar town, Northwest Ethiopia. Methods: A community based cross-sectional st...

  8. Studies of jet cross-sections and production properties with the ATLAS and CMS detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Anjos, Nuno; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    Several aspects of jet production in pp collisions have been measured by the ATLAS and CMS collaborations. The jet production cross sections probe the dynamics of QCD and can constrain the parton proton structure. Double-differential cross sections for inclusive, di-, three- and four-jet final states are measured at different centre-of-mass energies of pp collisions with the ATLAS detector and are compared to expectations based on NLO QCD calculations. The distribution of the jet charge has been measured in dijet events using pp collision data at 8 TeV with the ATLAS detector. Jet-jet energy correlations are sensitive to the strong coupling constant. Measurements of multi-jet systems with a veto on additional jets, probe QCD radiation effects. These measurements constitute precision tests of QCD in a new energy regime. Studies of large-radius jet properties including N-subjettines, splitting scales and other jet substructure related quantities will be presented.

  9. Positron Scattering from Molecules: An Experimental Cross Section Compilation for Positron Transport Studies and Benchmarking Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunger, M. J.; Buckman, S. J.; Ratnavelu, K.

    2017-06-01

    We present a compilation of recommended positron-molecule cross sections for a range of scattering processes including elastic scattering, vibrational excitation, discrete electronic-state excitation, positronium formation, ionization, and also for the grand total cross section. Where possible, in particular for possible application in positron transport simulations for a given molecule, we try and list data for energies in the range 0.1-1000 eV although in practice the actual energy is highly target-molecule and scattering process specific. Aside from being relevant to positron transport studies, through, for example, Monte Carlo simulations, the present compilation should also be germane for benchmarking the validity and accuracy of positron-molecule scattering calculations and, just as importantly, to allow a comparison with corresponding electron scattering results. That latter comparison can shed real light on the projectile-target interactions that underpin the scattering dynamics.

  10. Theoretical study of hydrogen and nitrogen interactions - N-H transport cross sections and collision integrals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallcop, James R.; Bauschlischer, Charles W., Jr.; Partridge, Harry; Levin, E.

    1992-01-01

    Potential energy curves have been calculated for the X 3Sigma(-) and 5Sigma(-) states of NH using a complete-active-space self-consistent-field/multireference configuration-interaction procedure and extensive Gaussian basis sets. An accurate dipole moment function is computed for the X 3Sigma(-) state. Transport cross sections have been calculated for the collisions of hydrogen and nitrogen atoms in their ground states. The mean transport cross sections are tabulated for collision energies in the range 0.0001-1 E(h); the mean collision integrals are listed for temperatures between 100 and 100,000 K. The ab initio energies for the 5 Sigma(-) state of NH are found to be consistent with the results of correlation studies and agree well with the prediction from combining relations using the energies of the highest spin states of H2 and N2.

  11. Cross Sectional Area of the Supraspinatus Muscle and Acromio-humeral Distance in Overhead Athletes With and Without Shoulder Pain: A Cross-sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benitez-Martinez, Josep C; Casaña-Granell, Jose; de Llago, Yasmin Ezzatvar; Villaron-Casales, Carlos; Espi-Lopez, Gemma V; Jimenez-Diaz, Fernando

    2017-11-01

    The supraspinatus muscle has an important role in the stabilization of the glenohumeral joint. Identifying abnormalities concerning its size and the subacromial space in the presence of pain may be relevant to provide more specific treatments focused on the etiology of pain. To determinate whether painful shoulder causes changes in the supraspinatus cross-sectional area (CSA) and the acromio-humeral distance (AHD) between overhead athletes. Cross-sectional study. University campus and local sports clubs' Physical Therapist room. 81 male overhead athletes were divided into 2 groups according to the presence of shoulder pain and clinical symptoms. Ultrasonography measurements of the supraspinatus CSA and the AHD in 2 groups of overhead athletes with and without pain. In the pain group, the CSA was significantly smaller compared with the no pain group. No differences between groups were found in the AHD measurement. Shoulder pain in overhead athletes was associated with a reduction in their supraspinatus muscle CSA, but not in the AHD. These findings suggest that muscle atrophy exists in the presence of pain. However, in active overhead athletes, the AHD is not clearly reduced in overhead athletes with shoulder pain. Further studies are needed to understand this condition.

  12. Infrared cross-sections and integrated band intensities of propylene: Temperature-dependent studies

    KAUST Repository

    Es-sebbar, Et-touhami

    2014-01-01

    Propylene, a by-product of biomass burning, thermal cracking of hydrocarbons and incomplete combustion of fossil fuels, is a ubiquitous molecule found in the environment and atmosphere. Accurate infrared (IR) cross-sections and integrated band intensities of propylene are essential for quantitative measurements and atmospheric modeling. We measured absolute IR cross-sections of propylene using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy over the wavenumber range of 400-6500cm-1 and at gas temperatures between 296 and 460K. We recorded these spectra at spectral resolutions ranging from 0.08 to 0.5cm-1 and measured the integrated band intensities for a number of vibrational bands in certain spectral regions. We then compared the integrated band intensities measured at room temperature with values derived from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) databases. Our results agreed well with the results reported in the two databases with a maximum deviation of about 4%. The peak cross-sections for the primary bands decreased by about 20-54% when the temperature increased from 296 to 460K. Moreover, we determined the integrated band intensities as a function of temperature for certain features in various spectral regions; we found no significant temperature dependence over the range of temperatures considered here. We also studied the effect of temperature on absorption cross-section using a Difference Frequency Generation (DFG) laser system. We compared the DFG results with those obtained from the FTIR study at certain wavenumbers over the 2850-2975cm-1 range and found a reasonable agreement with less than 10% discrepancy. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Knowledge of Ebola virus disease among a university population: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salman, Muhammad; Shehzadi, Naureen; Hussain, Khalid; Saleem, Fahad; Khan, Muhammad Tanveer; Asif, Nauman; Yousaf, Maria; Rafique, Maham; Bedar, Rushda; Tariq, Sonia; AbuBakar, Usman; Syed Sulaiman, Syed Azhar

    2017-02-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed to evaluate the knowledge of a Pakistani university population (students and employees) regarding Ebola virus disease. A total of 2,200 individuals were approached and 1,647 were enrolled in the study. We observed that the vast majority of study participants (91.8%) had inadequate knowledge of Ebola virus disease (knowledge score ≤ 12). Our findings highlight the need to increase the knowledge of Ebola virus disease by using multidimensional approach involving awareness campaigns, print, electronic, and social media. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Occupational pesticide intoxications among farmers in Bolivia: a cross-sectional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørs, Erik; Morant, Rafael Cervantes; Aguilar, Guido Condarco

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pesticide use and its consequences are of concern in Bolivia due to an intensive and increasing use. METHODS: To assess the magnitude and reasons for occupational pesticide intoxication, a cross-sectional study with interviews and blood-tests was performed among 201 volunteer farmers...... spraying operations while this had no influence on the serum cholinesterase level. CONCLUSION: The study showed that occupational pesticide intoxications were common among farmers and did depend on multiple factors. Pesticide use is probably one of the largest toxicological problems in Bolivia......, and a coordinated action by authorities, society and international bodies is needed to limit the number of intoxications and the environmental pollution....

  15. Toothache and associated factors in Brazilian adults: a cross-sectional population-based study

    OpenAIRE

    Kuhnen, Mirian; Peres, Marco A; Masiero, Anelise V; Peres, Karen G

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Toothache is a dental public health problem and one of the predictors of dental attendance and it is strongly associated with the life quality of individuals. In spite of this, there are few population-based epidemiological studies on this theme. Objective: To estimate the prevalence of toothache and associated factors in adults of Lages, Southern Brazil. Methods A cross-sectional population-based study was carried out in a sample of 2,022 adults aged 20 to 59 years living...

  16. Hidradenitis Suppurativa and electrocardiographic changes - a cross-sectional population study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, C R; Miller, I M; Jemec, G B

    2018-01-01

    changes associated with HS, which recently have been associated with significant cardiovascular burden. METHODS: Data were derived from the cross-sectional population study, The Danish General Population Study (GESUS). HS diagnosis was based on a validated self-reported questionnaire and 404 individuals...... met the HS diagnosis criteria and 19,001 controls without HS were identified in the population. Severity of HS was staged according to a modified Hurley score. The electrocardiographic parameters, Heart Rate (HR), PR-interval, QRS-duration, JTc-interval and QTc-interval, were obtained from 12-lead....... This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  17. The burden of pediatric HIV/AIDS in Constanta, Romania: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cazacu Andreaa

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background By 1990, 94 percent of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS cases in Romania were in children less than 13 years of age. The majority of the cases were identified in the city of Constanta. The purpose of this paper was to describe the current burden of pediatric human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection in the Constanta county. Methods A cross-sectional study was designed to address the primary objective. Between April 1999 and March 2000, all living cases of pediatric HIV infection in the Constanta county were identified from records at the HIV hospital clinic which serves the Constanta county. Standard demographic, social, clinical, treatment and hospitalization data were collected for each study subject. Data were analyzed according to cross-sectional study design methodology. Results Of the 762 subjects, the majority were seven to 11 years of age, lived with their parents and attended school. Only 70% of the fathers and 13% of the mothers were employed. Horizontal transmission accounted for 90% of the cases. Most of the children had moderate to severe disease as indicated by their AIDS-defining signs; 40% had AIDS. Less than half of the children were receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART. ART and children of mothers with a high school or greater education were independent predictors of long-term non-progression of HIV disease. Conclusions This cross-sectional study demonstrated that ten years after the HIV epidemic was identified in Romania, it remains a health and economic burden. The infected children are very ill, but ART is not available for all. The proportion with vertical transmission has increased from an estimated four % to nine %. Our findings support the need to get HIV therapy to economically challenged countries such as Romania.

  18. Factors associated with dental fluorosis in school children in southern Brazil: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Marina Sousa; Goettems, Marília Leão; Torriani, Dione Dias; Demarco, Flávio Fernando

    2014-01-01

    This cross-sectional study assessed risk factors for dental fluorosis (DF) among 8- to 12-year-old children in southern Brazil. Children attending 20 schools were randomly selected (n=1,196). They were interviewed and their parents answered a questionnaire that was sent home. Prevalence of DF was 8.53% (modified Dean's criteria), and the prevalence of severe DF was 0.17%. The results of multiple logistic regression analyses indicated that DF was associated with a higher frequency of tooth brushing and with initial use of fluoride toothpaste at the emergence of the first tooth. DF does not constitute a public health problem in southern Brazil.

  19. Bullying Among School Children in Postwar Bosnia and Herzegovina: Cross-Sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    Černi Obrdalj, Edita; Rumboldt, Mirjana

    2008-01-01

    Aim To compare the prevalence and characteristics of bullying between two towns in Bosnia and Herzegovina – Stolac, which was exposed to firearm conflict during the 1992-1995 war in Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Posušje, which was outside of the active combat zone. Methods In this cross-sectional study, we included 484 primary school pupils attending 4th-8th grade of elementary school, 217 (44.8%) of them from Stolac and 267 (55.2%) from Posušje. The pupils were interviewed using a standardized...

  20. The relationship between cyberbullying and friendship dynamics on adolescent body dissatisfaction: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Ursula; Sullivan, Lindsay; Callaghan, Mary; Molcho, Michal; Kelly, Colette

    2018-03-01

    The relationship between cyberbullying and friendship dynamics on adolescent body dissatisfaction was examined. Data from the Irish contribution to the international cross-sectional 2013/2014 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study were used. Results showed that girls were three times more likely than boys to report that their body is too fat, and adolescents who were cyberbullied were almost twice as likely as adolescents who were not cyberbullied to consider themselves too fat. Stronger friendship dynamics were associated with decreased levels of body dissatisfaction, and friendship dynamics were found to partially mediate the relationship between cyberbullying and body dissatisfaction.

  1. Low Back Pain among Medical Students in Belgrade (Serbia): A Cross-Sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    Vujcic, Isidora; Stojilovic, Nemanja; Dubljanin, Eleonora; Ladjevic, Nebojsa; Ladjevic, Ivana; Sipetic-Grujicic, Sandra

    2018-01-01

    Aim. To examine the prevalence of low back pain, to identify self-perceived triggers of low back pain, and to investigate the impact of perceived pain on the daily activities and mood among medical students. Methods. This cross-sectional study enrolled 459 fourth year students at the Faculty of Medicine in Belgrade during December 2014. The anonymous questionnaire was used for data collection. In data analysis, the chi-square test and t-test were used. Results. The lifetime prevalence of low ...

  2. Exercise on Prescription: A Cross-sectional Study with Self-reported Outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Helene Buch; Helmer-Nielsen, Morten; Dieperink, Karin B.

    2015-01-01

    consisting of supervised interventions of different intensities. This study aims to describe and compare self-reported physical activity in the long term among participants in three EOP modules of different intensities. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 1,152 former participants in EOP...... between July 2005 and May 2007 in two Danish counties. Physical activity was measured as number of days with a minimum 30 minutes of moderate/vigorous activity. Results: Seventy-five percent (n=854) returned the questionnaire. Of these, 36% reported being physically active ≥ 5 days/week. Significant...

  3. Drinking water in drinkingan urban area in South India – A community based cross sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanna Mithra P

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The World Health Organisation estimates that 94% of diarrhoeal cases are preventable through interventions to increase the availability of clean water, and to improve sanitation and hygiene. This community based cross sectional study was conducted in Mangalore in South India. Seventeen percent of those surveyed had a private water source The team found that 5% of the sample did not use any method to treat water in their households. All these belonged to lower socio economic groups and it could lead to higher chances of water borne diseases among them.

  4. Cross-sectional nanophotoluminescence studies of Stark effects in self-assembled quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Htoon, H.; Keto, J. W.; Baklenov, O.; Holmes, A. L. Jr.; Shih, C. K.

    2000-01-01

    By using a cross-sectional geometry, we show the capability to perform single-dot spectroscopy in self-assembled quantum dots using far-field optics. By using this method, we study the quantum-confined Stark effect in self-assembled quantum dots. For single-stack quantum dots (QDs), we find that the spectra are redshifted with an increase in electric field. For vertically coupled double-stack quantum dots, while most of the QDs are redshifted, some QDs show blueshifted spectra, which can be interpreted as an evidence of coupled QD molecules. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  5. Weaknesses in the reporting of cross-sectional studies according to the STROBE statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaga, German; Miranda, Jaime

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The inadequate reporting of cross-sectional studies, as in the case of the prevalence of metabolic syndrome, could cause problems in the synthesis of new evidence and lead to errors in the formulation of public policies. Objective: To evaluate the reporting quality of the articles regarding metabolic syndrome prevalence in Peruvian adults using the STROBE recommendations. Methods: We conducted a thorough literature search with the terms "Metabolic Syndrome", "Sindrome Metabolico" and "Peru" in MEDLINE/PubMed, LILACS, SciELO, LIPECS and BVS-Peru until December 2014. We selected those who were population-based observational studies with randomized sampling that reported prevalence of metabolic syndrome in adults aged 18 or more of both sexes. Information was analysed through the STROBE score per item and recommendation. Results: Seventeen articles were included in this study. All articles met the recommendations related to the report of the study's rationale, design, and provision of summary measures. The recommendations with the lowest scores were those related to the sensitivity analysis (8%, n= 1/17), participant flowchart (18%, n= 3/17), missing data analysis (24%, n= 4/17), and number of participants in each study phase (24%, n= 4/17). Conclusion: Cross-sectional studies regarding the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in peruvian adults have an inadequate reporting on the methods and results sections. We identified a clear need to improve the quality of such studies. PMID:26848197

  6. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Chinese psoriasis patients: A hospital-based cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, Xin-Yu; Yu, Xiao-Ling; Jin, Hong-Zhong; Zuo, Ya-Gang; Wu, Chao

    2018-01-01

    Psoriasis, a chronic autoimmune skin disorder, is believed to contribute to cardiovascular diseases and metabolic syndrome. Psoriasis's association with the components of metabolic syndrome has been reported previously. However, large-scale cross-sectional studies about psoriasis and metabolic syndrome are rare in China. We assessed the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Chinese psoriasis patients and controls. A total of 859 psoriasis patients and 1,718 controls were recruited in an age- and sex-matched cross-sectional study. Metabolic syndrome occurred in 14.3% of the psoriasis patients as opposed to 10.0% of the control participants (P = 0.001). Psoriasis patients had a higher prevalence of overweight/obesity, hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia when compared with controls. Meanwhile, psoriasis patients with metabolic syndrome were older, and had an older age of onset and a longer disease duration when compared with those without metabolic syndrome. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome is higher in the Chinese psoriatic population, which can favor cardiovascular events. The present study strengthens the value of treating psoriasis patients not only dealing with the skin lesions, and we suggest appropriate screening and relevant health education be carried out in the treatment of psoriasis patients. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Diabetes Investigation published by Asian Association for the Study of Diabetes (AASD) and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  7. Prevalence and clinical features of celiac disease in patients with autoimmune thyroiditis: cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Aline; Ronsoni, Marcelo Fernando; Shiozawa, Maria Beatriz Cacese; Dantas-Corrêa, Esther Buzaglo; Canalli, Maria Heloisa Busi da Silva; Schiavon, Leonardo de Lucca; Narciso-Schiavon, Janaína Luz

    2014-12-01

    Celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder with an average prevalence of 1% in Europe and the United States. Because of strong European ancestry in southern Brazil, this study aimed to evaluate the seroprevalence of celiac disease among autoimmune thyroiditis patients. Cross-sectional study in a public university hospital. This cross-sectional prevalence study included autoimmune thyroiditis patients who were tested for anti-endomysial and anti-transglutaminase antibodies between August 2010 and July 2011. Fifty-three patients with autoimmune thyroiditis were included; 92.5% were women, with mean age of 49.0 ± 13.5 years. Five patients (9.3%) were serologically positive for celiac disease: three of them (5.6%) were reactive for anti-endomysial antibodies and two (3.7%) for anti-transglutaminase. None of them exhibited anemia and one presented diarrhea. Endoscopy was performed on two patients: one with normal histology and the other with lymphocytic infiltrate and villous atrophy. The prevalence of celiac disease among patients with autoimmune thyroid disease was 9.3%; one patient complained of diarrhea and none presented anemia. Among at-risk populations, like autoimmune thyroiditis patients, the presence of diarrhea or anemia should not be used as a criterion for indicating celiac disease investigation. This must be done for all autoimmune thyroiditis patients because of its high prevalence.

  8. Prevalence and clinical features of celiac disease in patients with autoimmune thyroiditis: cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Ventura

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder with an average prevalence of 1% in Europe and the United States. Because of strong European ancestry in southern Brazil, this study aimed to evaluate the seroprevalence of celiac disease among autoimmune thyroiditis patients.DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study in a public university hospital.METHODS: This cross-sectional prevalence study included autoimmune thyroiditis patients who were tested for anti-endomysial and anti-transglutaminase antibodies between August 2010 and July 2011.RESULTS: Fifty-three patients with autoimmune thyroiditis were included; 92.5% were women, with mean age of 49.0 ± 13.5 years. Five patients (9.3% were serologically positive for celiac disease: three of them (5.6% were reactive for anti-endomysial antibodies and two (3.7% for anti-transglutaminase. None of them exhibited anemia and one presented diarrhea. Endoscopy was performed on two patients: one with normal histology and the other with lymphocytic infiltrate and villous atrophy.CONCLUSION: The prevalence of celiac disease among patients with autoimmune thyroid disease was 9.3%; one patient complained of diarrhea and none presented anemia. Among at-risk populations, like autoimmune thyroiditis patients, the presence of diarrhea or anemia should not be used as a criterion for indicating celiac disease investigation. This must be done for all autoimmune thyroiditis patients because of its high prevalence.

  9. The relation between patient education, patient empowerment and patient satisfaction: A cross-sectional-comparison study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Mei-Yu; Wu, Shu-Chen; Tung, Tao-Hsin

    2018-02-01

    Patient empowerment is a paradigm of clinical practice. The goal of patient empowerment is to lead patients' health and wellbeing. The aim of this study is to evaluate the relation between patient education, patient empowerment and patient satisfaction based on multi-hospital cross-sectional study design in Taiwan. In this cross-sectional survey, 609 inpatients in four teaching hospitals in northern Taiwan from August 2009 to July 2010 were recruited. Data were collected using Chinese version of the Patient Perceptions of Empowerment Scale (PPES), Sufficiency of Patient Education Questionnaire (SPEQ) and Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire (PSQ). The multiple linear regression model was used to assess the independent effects of relevant factors on patient empowerment after controlling for the covariates. The overall mean empowerment scores was 44.80±5.94. There was a significant difference between the total scores and four dimensions of patient empowerment at different hospitals (t=5.44, p≤0.01). Sufficient patient education (β=0.568, 95%CI: 0.486-0.649) and patient satisfaction (β=0.317, 95%CI: 0.259-0.375) could significantly predict patient empowerment based on the multiple linear regression analysis, with a total variance was 54.4%. In conclusion, both sufficient patient education and patient satisfaction were positively related to patient empowerment. Hospitals in Taiwan should try to improve their patients' active involvement toward empowerment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Study of principle error sources in gamma spectrometry. Application to cross sections measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majah, M. Ibn.

    1985-01-01

    The principle error sources in gamma spectrometry have been studied in purpose to measure cross sections with great precision. Three error sources have been studied: dead time and pile up which depend on counting rate, and coincidence effect that depends on the disintegration scheme of the radionuclide in question. A constant frequency pulse generator has been used to correct the counting loss due to dead time and pile up in cases of long and short disintegration periods. The loss due to coincidence effect can reach 25% and over, depending on the disintegration scheme and on the distance source-detector. After establishing the correction formula and verifying its validity for four examples: iron 56, scandium 48, antimony 120 and gold 196 m, an application has been done by measuring cross sections of nuclear reactions that lead to long disintegration periods which need short distance source-detector counting and thus correcting the loss due to dead time effect, pile up and coincidence effect. 16 refs., 45 figs., 25 tabs. (author)

  11. Work stress related lipid disorders and arterial hypertension in professional drivers - a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djindjić, Natasa; Jovanović, Jovica; Djindjić, Boris; Jovanović, Milan; Pesić, Milica; Jovanović, Jovana J

    2013-06-01

    Occupational stress is a term used to define ongoing stress that is related to the workplace. The study was conducted to determine association of occupational stress index (OSI) and its aspects with arterial hypertension and lipid disorders using data from a cross-sectional survey of male professional drivers. The cross-sectional study was performed in 439 professional drivers divided into groups (city- and intercity bus drivers, truck and taxi drivers). The OSI and OSI aspects (high demands, strictness, underload, extrinsic time pressure, noxious exposure, avoidance and conflict) were calculated using the standardized questionnaire. Determination of serum lipids, blood pressure (BP) and cardiovascular risk factors were done. A significant difference in prevalence of diagnosed hypertension and dyslipidemia was found along with a difference in total OSI and OSI aspects among examined subgroups of drivers. A total OSI was highest in city, high in intercity bus drivers, and the lowest one in truck and taxi drivers (82.79 +/- 3.5, 81.28 +/- 3.7, 73.75 +/- 3.5, 71.61 +/- 4.4, respectively; p stress and coronary heart disease. Regular periodical examinations and workplace interventions aimed to decrease total OSI and underload are important aspects in primary prevention and additional reduction of cardiovascular risk.

  12. Hypertension and type 2 diabetes: a cross-sectional study in Morocco (EPIDIAM Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berraho, Mohamed; El Achhab, Youness; Benslimane, Abdelilah; El Rhazi, Karima; Chikri, Mohamed; Nejjari, Chakib

    2012-01-01

    In Morocco, there are no studies that focused on the hypertension and its associated risk factors through patients with type 2 diabetes. Different findings show that the frequency of type 2 diabetes has risen rapidly in Morocco. The main objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of hypertension and its associated risk factors among a group of patients with type 2 diabetes and to examine the level of control of hypertension among type 2 diabetic patients with hypertension. A cross-sectional study was carried out on 525 type 2 diabetics in three Moroccan regions. The structured questionnaire was used to gather information on sociodemographic variables, history of hypertension, use of anti-hypertensive medications and duration of diabetes. Anthropometric measurements including weight and height were measured by trained staff. Blood pressure was measured using standardized sphygmomanometers. The prevalence of hypertension was 70.4%. The logistic regression indicated that hypertension was positively associated with age (peducation, counseling and behavioral interventions designed to modify lifestyle such as increasing physical activity and adopting recommended dietary changes, as well as compliance with medications.

  13. Effects of Badminton Expertise on Representational Momentum: A Combination of Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Jin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Representational momentum (RM has been found to be magnified in experts (e.g., sport players with respect to both real and implied motion in expert-familiar domains. However, it remains unclear whether similar effects can be achieved in expert-unfamiliar domains, especially within the context of implied motion. To answer this question, we conducted two independent experiments using an implied motion paradigm and examined the expert effects of badminton training on RM in both adult and child players. In Experiment 1, we used a cross-sectional design and compared RM between adult professional badminton players and matched controls. The results revealed significantly enhanced RM for adult players, supporting the expert effect in expert-unfamiliar domains for implied motion. However, cross-sectional studies could not ascertain whether the observed expert effect was due to innate factors or expertise acquirement. Therefore, in Experiment 2, we used a longitudinal design and compared RM between two groups of child participants, naming child players who had enrolled professional badminton training program at a sports school and age-matched peer non-players who attended an ordinary primary school without sports training. Before training, there were no differences in RM among child players, their non-player peers, and adult non-players. However, after 4 years of badminton training, child players demonstrated significantly enhanced RM compared to themselves prior to training. The increased RM observed in both adult and child players suggests that badminton expertise modulates implied motion RM.

  14. Information technology and hospital patient safety: a cross-sectional study of US acute care hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appari, Ajit; Johnson, Eric M; Anthony, Denise L

    2014-11-01

    To determine whether health information technology (IT) systems are associated with better patient safety in acute care settings. In a cross-sectional retrospective study, data on hospital patient safety performance for October 2008 to June 2010 were combined with 2007 information technology systems data. The sample included 3002 US non-federal acute care hospitals. Electronic health record (EHR) system was coded as a composite dichotomous variable based on the presence of 10 major clinical and administrative applications that (if in use) could potentially meet stage 1 "meaningful use" objectives. The surgical IT system was measured as a dichotomous variable if a hospital used at least 1 of the perioperative, preoperative, or postoperative information systems. Hospital patient safety performance was measured by risk-standardized estimated rates per 1000 admissions. Statistical analyses were conducted using an estimated dependent variable methodology with gamma-log link-based weighted generalized linear models, adjusting for hospital characteristics, historical composite process quality, and propensity for EHR adoption. We found that the use of surgical IT systems was associated with 7% to 26% lower rates for 7 of 8 patient safety indicators (incidence rate ratio [IRR] range from 0.74 to 0.93; all P values hospitals. However, the cross-sectional design limits our ability to make causal conclusions.

  15. Studies of 2D reflector effects in cross section preparation for deep burn VHTRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Descotes, Vincent [Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal, Institut de Genie Nucleaire, Station Centre-Ville, P.O. Box 6079, Montreal, QC, H3C 3A7 (Canada); Pope, Michael A.; Ortensi, Javier [Idaho National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415-3870 (United States); Hebert, Alain, E-mail: alain.hebert@polymtl.ca [Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal, Institut de Genie Nucleaire, Station Centre-Ville, P.O. Box 6079, Montreal, QC, H3C 3A7 (Canada)

    2012-01-15

    The prismatic VHTR neutronic simulation presents challenges due to thermalization of the neutrons in the graphite reflector which leads to a spectral change in the peripheral fuel blocks. Two calculation schemes were tested on a simple 2D core calculation: a single block path wherein a classical single block lattice calculation provides the homogenized cross-sections, and a supercell path where the homogenized cross-sections are generated using a lattice of a fuel block surrounded by some of its surroundings. In both paths, several group condensations were performed to assess the effect of increasing the number of groups in the core calculation from 2 to 295. Core and lattice calculations were validated with respect to MCNP. The study revealed that the supercells lead to improvement in the calculation of power shape over the single-block path. This improvement is rather pronounced with small numbers of energy groups. For larger numbers of energy groups, however, both solution methods appear to yield adequate accuracy and the improvement gained through supercells in these cases may not warrant the computational cost. Lattice depletion calculations also show that the presence of the reflector creates strong heterogeneities on isotopic densities after 1000 days of burning.

  16. Contacting of authors by systematic reviewers: protocol for a cross-sectional study and a survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meursinge Reynders, Reint; Ladu, Luisa; Di Girolamo, Nicola

    2017-12-08

    Synthesizing outcomes of underreported primary studies can pose a serious threat to the validity of outcomes and conclusions of systematic reviews. To address this problem, the Cochrane Collaboration recommends reviewers to contact authors of eligible primary studies to obtain additional information on poorly reported items. In this protocol, we present a cross-sectional study and a survey to assess (1) how reviewers of new Cochrane intervention reviews report on procedures and outcomes of contacting of authors of primary studies to obtain additional data, (2) how authors reply, and (3) the consequences of these additional data on the outcomes and quality scores in the review. All research questions and methods were pilot tested on 2 months of Cochrane reviews and were subsequently fine-tuned. Eligibility criteria are (1) all new (not-updates) Cochrane intervention reviews published in 2016, (2) reviews that included one or more primary studies, and (3) eligible interventions refer to contacting of authors of the eligible primary studies included in the review to obtain additional research data (e.g., information on unreported or missing data, individual patient data, research methods, and bias issues). Searching for eligible reviews and data extraction will be conducted by two authors independently. The cross-sectional study will primarily focus on how contacting of authors is conducted and reported, how contacted authors reply, and how reviewers report on obtained additional data and their consequences for the review. The same eligible reviews for the cross-sectional study will also be eligible for the survey. Surveys will be sent to the contact addresses of these reviews according to a pre-defined protocol. We will use Google Forms as our survey platform. Surveyees are asked to answer eight questions. The survey will primarily focus on the consequences of contacting authors of eligible primary studies for the risk of bias and Grading of Recommendations

  17. A study of the multipolar composition of the electrofission cross section of 237Np

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paschoal, S.L.

    1987-01-01

    The electrofission cross section for 237 Np was measured over the energy range from 0,6 to 60,0 MeV. The multipolar composition of this cross section was investigated using the virtual photons formalism with three different techniques of analysis: unfolding and two versions of multiple parameter regression. (A.C.A.S.) [pt

  18. Analytical study of a reversed-field pinch with rectangular cross section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Peng

    1990-01-01

    An analyic solution of the force-free equation for a toroidal configuration of rectangular cross section is presented. It is shown that the critical value of contraction ratio for the appearance of a reversed field as well as of the ohmic current increases as the elongation of the cross section increases

  19. A study of morbidity pattern in street sweepers: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabde Yogesh

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Street sweepers play an important role in maintaining the health and hygiene within the cities. This job exposes the street sweepers to a variety of risk factors such as dust, toxins and diesel exhaust pollution, which make them vulnerable to develop certain occupational diseases. Therefore, it was thought necessary to study the morbidity profile in this occupational group. Objectives: To study the prevalence of morbidities among street sweepers and comparison group. Study Design: A cross-sectional study with a comparison group. Study Setting: Nagpur Municipal Corporation, Nagpur. Subjects: The study included two groups: (1 A study group comprising 273 street sweepers. (2 A comparison group comprising 142 class IV workers working in the office buildings of Nagpur Municipal Corporation, Nagpur. Materials and Methods: A pretested proforma was used to record the necessary information such as clinical history, sociodemographic factors, findings of clinical examination and investigations performed. Results and Conclusions: The important morbidities detected among street sweepers were the following: anemia (20.5%, hypertension (9.5%, upper respiratory tract infections (URTI (7.3% and chronic bronchitis (5.9%. In the comparison group, important morbidities detected were the following: anemia (20.4%, hypertension (11.3%, hyperacidity (9.9%, URTI (7.0% and refractive error (7.0%. Chronic bronchitis was detected in two subjects (1.4% of the comparison group. The prevalence of chronic bronchitis was significantly high among street sweepers than that of subjects of the comparison group. Therefore, it is recommended that further studies with a larger sample size be undertaken to identify the factors responsible for higher prevalence of chronic bronchitis among the street sweepers.

  20. Social inequality in breakfast, lunch and evening meal frequency among adolescents: a cross-sectional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meilstrup, Charlotte; Pagh Pedersen, Trine; Holstein, Bjørn Evald

    Abstract Purpose: Regular meal habits facilitate healthy dietary habits and especially low breakfast frequency shows associations with risk of overweight among adolescents. Studies on social inequality in meal frequencies among children and adolescents are limited, and especially studies of lunch...... and evening meals are lacking. The present study aims to investigate the association between socioeconomic position and breakfast, lunch and evening meal frequencies among adolescents. Methods: Data are from the Danish contribution to the International cross-sectional questionnaire study Health Behavior...... measured by frequency questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regressions were conducted adjusted by age, gender and family structure. Results: Analyses showed that adolescents from low family social class had significantly higher odds of low breakfast, lunch and evening meal frequency than adolescents from...

  1. Adiponectin and peak bone mass in men: a cross-sectional, population-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten Frost; Abrahamsen, B; Nielsen, T L

    2010-01-01

    Adiponectin, a protein classically known to be secreted by adipocytes, is also secreted by bone-forming cells. Results of previous studies have been contradictory as to whether serum adiponectin and bone mineral density (BMD) are associated. The aim of this study was to investigate a possible...... association between serum adiponectin and BMD in young, healthy men at a time of peak bone mass. BMD in the femoral neck, total hip, and lumbar spine were measured in this population-based cross-sectional study of 700 men aged 20-29 years participating in the Odense Androgen Study. Magnetic resonance imaging...... was inversely associated with total hip BMD in men at the time of peak bone mass, but this association may be explained by factors related to muscle size and function. The observed association between adiponectin and femoral bone marrow size was retained even after adjustment for potential covariates....

  2. Determinants of infant growth in Eastern Uganda: a community-based cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engebretsen, Ingunn Marie Stadskleiv; Tylleskär, Thorkild; Wamani, Henry; Karamagi, Charles; Tumwine, James K

    2008-12-22

    Child under-nutrition is a leading factor underlying child mortality and morbidity in Sub-Saharan Africa. Several studies from Uganda have reported impaired growth, but there have been few if any community-based infant anthropometric studies from Eastern Uganda. The aim of this study was to describe current infant growth patterns using WHO Child Growth Standards and to determine the extent to which these patterns are associated with infant feeding practices, equity dimensions, morbidity and use of primary health care for the infants. A cross-sectional survey of infant feeding practices, socio-economic characteristics and anthropometric measurements was conducted in Mbale District, Eastern Uganda in 2003; 723 mother-infant (0-11 months) pairs were analysed. Infant anthropometric status was assessed using z-scores for weight-for-length (WLZ), length-for-age (LAZ) and weight-for-age (WAZ). Dependent dichotomous variables were constructed using WLZ growth among Ugandan infants.

  3. A Cross-Sectional Study of Ageing and Cardiovascular Function over the Baboon Lifespan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen R Yeung

    Full Text Available Ageing is associated with changes at the molecular and cellular level that can alter cardiovascular function and ultimately lead to disease. The baboon is an ideal model for studying ageing due to the similarities in genetic, anatomical, physiological and biochemical characteristics with humans. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the changes in cardiovascular profile of baboons over the course of their lifespan.Data were collected from 109 healthy baboons (Papio hamadryas at the Australian National Baboon Colony. A linear regression model, adjusting for sex, was used to analyse the association between age and markers of ageing with P 12 years had significantly shorter telomeres when compared to younger (<3 years baboons (P = 0.001.This study is the first to demonstrate that cardiovascular function alters with age in the baboon. This research identifies similarities within cardiovascular parameters between humans and baboon even though the length of life differs between the two species.

  4. Functional outcome of hip disarticulation and hemipelvectomy : a cross-sectional national descriptive study in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yari, Parwin; Dijkstra, Pieter U.; Geartzen, Jan H. B.; Geertzen, J.H.B.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To describe characteristics of hip disarticulation and hemipelvectomy amputees, to assess their level of activities, participation and experienced limitations in mobility and to describe the amputation-related problems. Design: A cross-sectional study. Setting: Patients were mainly

  5. An Epidemiologic Study of Pediatric Poisoning; a Six-month Cross-sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Manouchehrifar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Intentional and unintentional poisoning are among the most common reasons for referrals to emergency department (ED. Therefore, the present study was designed to evaluate epidemiologic features and effective risk factors of intentional and unintentional poisoning in children. Methods: This prospective cross-sectional study was carried out in ED of Loghman Hakim Hospital, greatest referral poison center of Iran, Tehran during March to August 2014. Demographic data, medical history, history of psychiatric disease in child, the cause of poisoning, parents’ educational level, household monthly income, location of residence, history of addiction or divorce in family, and the poisoning intentionality were gathered. Data were analyzed using SPSS 18 and appropriate statistical tests based on the purpose of study. Results: 414 participants with the mean age of 4.2 ± 3.43 years were included (57.5% male. Children in the 0-4 year(s age range had the most frequency with 281 (67.9% cases. 29 (7% cases were intentional (62% female, 76% in the 10-14 years old group. Methadone with 123 (29.7% cases was the most frequent toxic agent in general and in unintentional cases. 10-14 years of age (p = 0.001, and the history of psychiatric disease in children (p <0.001, had a direct correlation with probability of intentional poisoning. While, history of addiction in the family showed an indirect correlation with this probability (p = 0.045. Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, most cases of poisoning in the children were unintentional methadone intoxication in boys in the 0-4 age range with a history of a psychiatric disease, and those who had a history of addiction in the family. In addition, the most powerful risk factor for the children’s intentional poisoning was their history of psychiatric disease. The history of addiction in the child’s family had indirect correlation with intentional intoxications.

  6. Neck pain and postural balance among workers with high postural demands - a cross-sectional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Marie B.; Skotte, Jørgen H.; Holtermann, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Neck pain is related to impaired postural balance among patients and is highly prevalent among workers with high postural demands, for example, cleaners. We therefore hypothesised, that cleaners with neck pain suffer from postural dysfunction. This cross-sectional study tested if cleaners with neck...... pain have an impaired postural balance compared with cleaners without neck pain. Postural balance of 194 cleaners with (n = 85) and without (N = 109) neck pain was studied using three different tests. Success or failure to maintain the standing position for 30 s in unilateral stance was recorded....... Furthermore a perturbation test was performed. More cleaners with neck pain (81%) failed the unilateral stance compared with cleaners without neck pain (61%) (p

  7. Folate and MMA predict cognitive impairment in elderly stroke survivors: A cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascoe, Michaela C; Linden, Thomas

    2016-09-30

    Elderly stroke survivors are at risk of malnutrition and long-term cognitive impairment. Vitamin B-related metabolites, folate and methylmalonic acid, have been implicated in cognitive function. We conducted a study exploring the relationship between blood folate, methylmalonic acid and post-stroke cognitive impairment. This is a cross sectional study of elderly Swedish patients (n=149) 20 months post-stroke, assessed using the Mini Mental State Examination, serum blood levels of methylmalonic acid and red blood cell levels of folate. Linear modeling indicated that low levels of blood folate and elevated methylmalonic acid significantly contributed to cognitive impairment in stroke survivors. Half of the stroke survivors were shown to have folate deficiency at 20 months after stroke. Folate deficiency is common long term after stroke and both low folate and elevated methylmalonic acid appear to be associated with long term cognitive impairment, in elderly Swedish stroke survivors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Antibiotic prescribing in general practice--the rhythm of the week: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehlein, Thomas; Szecsenyi, Joachim; Gutscher, Andreas; Laux, Gunter

    2010-12-01

    Overprescribing of antibiotics in primary care is a worldwide phenomenon. Prescriptions can be used to reduce the uncertainty inherent in general practice. We assumed a heightened prescribing rate on Fridays because of more uncertainty before the pending weekend. Cross-sectional study from a general practice research database with 102 140 patients of 32 practices in Germany. Prescribing rates of antibiotics on different days of the week were analysed. In order to evaluate the influence of the weekday within a multivariate setting, we used SAS PROC GENMOD. This procedure was parameterized accordingly to account for the cluster design of the study. The prescribing rate of antibiotics on Fridays was 23.3% higher than the average of the other days of the working week (6.04% versus 4.90%, P overprescribing.

  9. Does androgyny have psychoprotective attributes? A cross-sectional community-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti Prakash

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In our society, adherence to feminine traits by the female gender had been culturally promoted and socially desired. A few studies, however, entertained the possibility that healthy men and women have some common attributes in their gender orientation. Androgyny and masculinity were found related to positive mental health. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the level of masculinity and femininity and its relationship with the perception of stress and various psychopathology including anxiety and depression. Results: Masculinity scores of the participants negatively correlated while femininity scores positively correlated with the scores on General Health Questionnaire, Beck′s Depressive Inventory, Beck′s Anxiety Inventory, and Perceived Stress Scale. Conclusion: Androgyny is psychoprotective. Empowerment-oriented psychological approaches aimed to encourage psychological androgyny, and masculinity might be therapeutic.

  10. Knowledge of the abortion legislation among South African women: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myer Landon

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to ensure that legalized abortion in South Africa improves reproductive health, women must know that abortion is a legal option in the case of unwanted pregnancy. This study investigated knowledge of abortion legislation eight years after the introduction of legal abortion services in one province of South Africa. Methods In 2004/2005, we conducted a cross-sectional study among 831 sexually-active women attending 26 public health clinics in one urban and one rural health region of the Western Cape Province. Results Thirty-two percent of women did not know that abortion is currently legal. Among those who knew of legal abortion, few had knowledge of the time restrictions involved. Conclusion In South Africa there is an unmet need among women for information on abortion. Strategies should be developed to address this gap so that women are fully informed of their rights to a safe and legal termination of pregnancy.

  11. Regional specific groundwater arsenic levels and neuropsychological functioning: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Melissa; Johnson, Leigh; Mauer, Cortney; Barber, Robert; Hall, James; O'Bryant, Sid

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the link between geographic information system (GIS)-estimated regional specific groundwater levels and neuropsychological functioning in a sample of individuals with and without cognitive impairment. This cross-sectional study design analyzed data from 1390 participants (733 Alzheimer's disease, 127 Mild Cognitive Impairment, and 530 with normal cognition) enrolled in the Texas Alzheimer's Research and Care Consortium. GISs analyses were used to estimate regional specific groundwater arsenic concentrations using the Environmental Systems Research Institute and arsenic concentrations from the Texas Water Development Board. In the full cohort, regional specific arsenic concentrations were positively associated with language abilities (p = 0.008), but associated with poorer verbal memory, immediate (p = 0.008), and delayed (p groundwater arsenic levels were negatively associated with neuropsychological performance.

  12. Body image trends among Icelandic adolescents: a cross-sectional national study from 1997 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgeirsdottir, Bryndis Bjork; Ingolfsdottir, Gudrun; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate trends in body image among Icelandic adolescents from 1997 to 2010. Data from five cross-sectional surveys conducted among national samples of 9th and 10th graders in Iceland using five time points (1997, 2000, 2006, 2009, and 2010) were compared to examine changes in body image. In total, 32,397 adolescents participated in the study. Body image among 14-15-year-old adolescents in Iceland improved significantly over the 13-year period. Girls reported more negative body image than boys at all time points. However, the positive change in body image from 1997 to 2010 was more pronounced for girls than boys, resulting in a narrower gap between the genders. The current results are encouraging and indicate that in an age of increased overweight and obesity, the body image of Icelandic adolescents is becoming more positive. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Peer assisted learning among Sri Lankan medical undergraduates: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Silva, Nipun Lakshitha; Parththipan, Balasundaram; Rodrigo, Chaturaka; Constantine, Godwin; Fernando, Sumadhya Deepika; Rajapakse, Senaka

    2017-11-14

    The objectives of this study were to; (a) evaluate the current practices of peer assisted learning among second year and final year medical students of Faculty of Medicine, University of Colombo, Sri Lanka; (b) identify reasons for engaging in peer assisted learning; (c) identify perceived weaknesses in current learning activities; and (d) determine student characteristics associated with engaging in peer assisted learning. This cross sectional study interviewed two hundred and eighty-four eligible students. Average number of hours spent on peer assisted learning during a week was significantly greater among second year students compared to final year students (15.1 vs. 7.1 h, p learning than male students. In second year, most common method of peer assisted learning was mass lectures offered by batch mates or seniors, while in final year it was group discussions. This reflected a transition to more focused, interactive, active learning among senior students.

  14. Danish emergency nurses' attitudes towards self-harm - a cross-sectional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perbøll, Penille Wimmer; Hammer, N. M.; Østergaard, Birte

    2015-01-01

    was applied. Nurses from seven emergency departments (EDs) in a region in Denmark were asked to complete the Danish version of Attitudes towards Deliberate Self-Harm Questionnaire (ADSHQ). RESULTS: Of the 254 eligible nurses working in the ED, 122 returned the questionnaires, leaving the response rate at 48...... on self-harm, and this education seems to produce more positive attitudes and a greater self-efficacy in relation to managing the patient group. CONCLUSION: Nurses working in the ED generally hold positive attitudes toward patients with acetaminophen poisoning. It is suggested that education on self......AIM: The aim of this study was to examine Danish emergency nurses' attitudes toward people hospitalized after an acetaminophen poisoning. Furthermore, the study examined the relationship between attitudes and factors such as age, gender, and education on self-harm. METHODS: A cross-sectional design...

  15. Seroepidemiology of pertussis in a cross-sectional study of an adult general population in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønn, P F; Dalby, T; Simonsen, J

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY An increase in pertussis has been observed in several countries over the last decades, especially in adult populations. The seroprevalence of pertussis was determined in a cross-sectional study of the adult population in the Copenhagen area, Denmark, conducted between 2006 and 2008....... Specific IgG antibodies against pertussis toxin (PT) were measured in 3440 persons resulting in an age-standardized seroprevalence of 3·0% (95% confidence interval 1·9-4·7) using an IgG anti-PT cut-off of 75 IU/ml. By using antibody decay profiles from longitudinal data the estimated seroincidence was 143....../1000 person-years. In contrast, an incidence of 0·03/1000 person-years was estimated from the official data of notified cases during the same period. Of the investigated risk factors, only age and education were significantly associated with pertussis infection. This study indicates that pertussis is highly...

  16. Do "Myths" of low back pain exist among Irish population? A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munigangaiah, Sudarshan; Basavaraju, Navya; Jadaan, Dima Y; Devitt, Aiden T; McCabe, John P

    2016-01-01

    Low back pain remains major public health problem in the Western industrialized world. The known prevalence of low back pain in Ireland is approximately 13 %. It is one of the leading causes of sickness compensation and disability pension in our justification. We hypothesized that there is a widespread misconception about the perception of low back pain among the Irish population. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the "Myths" of low back pain existed among the Irish population. We carried out a cross-sectional study in the Republic of Ireland from April 2013 to August 2013. The Irish population who visited Galway University Hospital, Galway, Ireland, was contacted randomly at point of entry to the hospital. During the survey, the authors obtained verbal consent before handing the questionnaire, which contained the Deyo's seven myths. The responders were asked to mark their response in a three-point scale (agree, unsure, disagree) to the seven statements. Out of 500 responders, 59 (11.8 %) people answered none of the questions correctly. Fifty-six (11.2 %) answered one question correctly, 106 (21.2 %) answered two questions correctly, 85 (17 %) people disagreed with three myths, 88 (17.6 %) disagreed with four myths, 55 (11 %) people answered five questions correctly, and 34 (6.8 %) answered six questions correctly. Therefore, only 17 (3.4 %) people disagreed with all the seven myths. In conclusion, this cross-sectional study showed that myths of low back pain widely exist among Irish population studied . The level of education played an important role. The findings from this study suggest that public health information regarding low back pain is inadequate and has not affected attitudes to low back pain in an Irish population.

  17. Patterns of electronic cigarette use in current and ever users among college students in France: a cross?sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Tavolacci, Marie-Pierre; Vasiliu, Anca; Romo, Lucia; Kotbagi, Gayatri; Kern, Laurence; Ladner, Jo?l

    2016-01-01

    Objective There is sparse information on electronic cigarette use and health behaviours among college student populations. Our objectives were to identify the patterns of electronic cigarette use in current and ever users among college students in France. Design Cross-sectional study. Settings A multicentre cross-sectional study was conducted on two major campuses in France. Students filled in an anonymous questionnaire on their use of electronic cigarettes and on targeted behaviours such as ...

  18. Literacy and health outcomes: a cross-sectional study in 1002 adults with diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MacLean Charles D

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inconsistent findings reported in the literature contribute to the lack of complete understanding of the association of literacy with health outcomes. We evaluated the association between literacy, physiologic control and diabetes complications among adults with diabetes. Methods A cross-sectional study of 1,002 English speaking adults with diabetes, randomly selected from the Vermont Diabetes Information System, a cluster-randomized trial of a diabetes decision support system in a region-wide sample of primary care practices was conducted between July 2003 and March 2005. Literacy was assessed by the Short-Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults. Outcome measures included glycated hemoglobin, low density lipoprotein, blood pressure and self-reported complications. Results After adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, duration of diabetes, diabetes education, depression, alcohol use, and medication use we did not find a significant association between literacy and glycemic control (beta coefficent,+ 0.001; 95% confidence interval [CI], -0.01 to +0.01; P = .88, systolic blood pressure (beta coefficent, +0.08; 95% CI, -0.10 to +0.26; P = .39, diastolic blood pressure (beta coefficent, -0.03; 95% CI, -0.12 to +0.07, P = .59, or low density lipoprotein (beta coefficent, +0.04; 95% CI, -0.27 to +0.36, P = .77. We found no association between literacy and report of diabetes complications. Conclusion These findings suggest that literacy, as measured by the S-TOFHLA, is not associated with glycated hemoglobin, blood pressure, lipid levels or self-reported diabetes complications in a cross-sectional study of older adults with diabetes under relatively good glycemic control. Additional studies to examine the optimal measurement of health literacy and its relationship to health outcomes over time are needed.

  19. Hearing loss in workers exposed to epoxy adhesives and noise: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hsiao-Yu; Shie, Ruei-Hao; Chen, Pau-Chung

    2016-02-18

    Epoxy adhesives contain organic solvents and are widely used in industry. The hazardous effects of epoxy adhesives remain unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate the risk of hearing loss among workers exposed to epoxy adhesives and noise. Cross-sectional study. For this cross-sectional study, we recruited 182 stone workers who were exposed to both epoxy adhesives and noise, 89 stone workers who were exposed to noise only, and 43 workers from the administrative staff who had not been exposed to adhesives or noise. We obtained demographic data, occupational history and medical history through face-to-face interviews and arranged physical examinations and pure-tone audiometric tests. We also conducted walk-through surveys in the stone industry. A total of 40 representative noise assessments were conducted in 15 workplaces. Air sampling was conducted at 40 workplaces, and volatile organic compounds were analysed using the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) TO-15 method. The mean sound pressure level was 87.7 dBA (SD 9.9). The prevalence of noise-induced hearing loss was considerably increased in the stone workers exposed to epoxy adhesives (42%) compared with the stone workers who were not exposed to epoxy adhesives (21%) and the administrative staff group (9.3%). A multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that exposure to epoxy adhesives significantly increased the risk of hearing loss between 2 and 6 kHz after adjusting for age. Significant interactions between epoxy adhesives and noise and hearing impairment were observed at 3, 4 and 6 kHz. Epoxy adhesives exacerbate hearing impairment in noisy environments, with the main impacts occurring in the middle and high frequencies. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  20. Restraint use among nursing home residents: cross-sectional study and prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Gabriele; Köpke, Sascha; Haastert, Burkhard; Mühlhauser, Ingrid

    2009-04-01

    To investigate (1) the prevalence of physical restraints and psychoactive medication, (2) newly administered physical restraints, frequency of application of the devices and frequency of psychoactive medication on demand during 12-month follow-up and (3) characteristics associated with restraint use in nursing homes. High quality data on restraint use in German nursing homes are lacking so far. Such information is the basis for interventions to achieve a restraint-free care. Cross-sectional study and prospective cohort study. Thirty nursing homes with 2367 residents in Hamburg, Germany. External investigators obtained prevalence of physical restraints by direct observation on three occasions on one day, psychoactive drugs were extracted from residents' records and prospective data were documented by nurses. Residents' mean age was 86 years, 81% were female. Prevalence of residents with at least one physical restraint was 26.2% [95% confidence interval (CI) 21.3-31.1]. Centre prevalence ranged from 4.4 to 58.9%. Bedrails were most often used (in 24.5% of residents), fixed tables, belts and other restraints were rare. Prevalence of residents with at least one psychoactive drug was 52.4% (95% CI 48.7-56.1). The proportion of residents with at least one physical restraint after the first observation week of 26.3% (21.3-31.3) cumulated to 39.5% (33.3-45.7) at the end of follow-up (10.4 SD 3.3 months). The relative frequency of observation days with at least one device ranged from 4.9-64.8% between centres. No characteristic was found to explain centre differences. The frequency of physical restraints and psychoactive drugs in German nursing homes is substantial. Pronounced centre variation suggests that standard care is possible without restraints. Effective restraint minimisation approaches are urgently warranted. An evidence-based guideline may overcome centre differences towards a restraint-free nursing home care.

  1. Reporting violence to a health care employer: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findorff, Mary J; McGovern, Patricia M; Wall, Melanie M; Gerberich, Susan G

    2005-09-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to identify individual and employment characteristics associated with reporting workplace violence to an employer and to assess the relationship between reporting and characteristics of the violent event. Current and former employees of a Midwest health care organization responded to a specially designed mailed questionnaire. The researchers also used secondary data from the employer. Of those who experienced physical and non-physical violence at work, 57% and 40%, respectively, reported the events to their employer. Most reports were oral (86%). Women experienced more adverse symptoms, and reported violence more often than men did. Multivariate analyses by type of reporting (to supervisors or human resources personnel) were conducted for non-physical violence. Reporting work-related violence among health care workers was low and most reports were oral. Reporting varied by gender of the victim, the perpetrator, and the level of violence experienced.

  2. Thymus is enlarged in children with current atopic dermatitis. A cross-sectional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Anne Braae; Andersen, G.; Jeppesen, D.L.

    2005-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis is a common skin disorder of unknown aetiology with peak incidence in early childhood. The disease is associated with peripheral T-cell accumulation in the skin. The thymus is a key organ of the cellular immune response early in life. We hypothesized that atopic dermatitis...... is associated with an unbalanced establishment of the peripheral T-lymphocyte system. This cross-sectional study was performed to compare thymus sizes in patients with atopic dermatitis and healthy controls. Thirty-seven children with current atopic dermatitis were enrolled and compared with 29 healthy controls....... An interview and medical examination were performed by one doctor, an ultrasound scan was performed within 3 days of the examination, and the thymus index, a marker of thymus size, was measured. The thymus index was on average 32% higher (95% CI 3%-67%) in children with active atopic dermatitis compared...

  3. Factors associated with dental fluorosis in school children in southern Brazil: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Sousa Azevedo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional study assessed risk factors for dental fluorosis (DF among 8- to 12-year-old children in southern Brazil. Children attending 20 schools were randomly selected (n = 1,196. They were interviewed and their parents answered a questionnaire that was sent home. Prevalence of DF was 8.53% (modified Dean’s criteria, and the prevalence of severe DF was 0.17%. The results of multiple logistic regression analyses indicated that DF was associated with a higher frequency of tooth brushing and with initial use of fluoride toothpaste at the emergence of the first tooth. DF does not constitute a public health problem in southern Brazil.

  4. The role of psychological eating styles in obesity among Turkish adolescents: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogay, Nalan Hakime

    2017-04-01

    To determine the relationship between eating behaviours and adiposity indicators including body mass index, waist-hip ratio and waist-height ratio in adolescents. This descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted at Kirklareli University Health College, Kirklareli, Turkey, from April to June 2014, and comprised students of the 2013-14 academic year. Height and weight were measured and students' body mass indexes were calculated. Waist and hip circumferences were measured. Eating behaviours were evaluated using the three-factor eating questionnaire. SPSS 15 was used for data analysis. Of the520, 353(67.9%) were female and 167(32.1%) were male. Cognitive restraint and emotional eating scores of females were significantly higher than those of males (pemotional eating subscales, whereas there was a significant negative correlation between emotional eating and waist-height ratio (pemotional eating increased the risk of obesity (pemotional eating and limiting food intake cognitively increased the risk of obesity.

  5. Obtaining adjusted prevalence ratios from logistic regression models in cross-sectional studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos, Leonardo Soares; Oliveira, Raquel de Vasconcellos Carvalhaes de; Velasque, Luciane de Souza

    2015-03-01

    In the last decades, the use of the epidemiological prevalence ratio (PR) instead of the odds ratio has been debated as a measure of association in cross-sectional studies. This article addresses the main difficulties in the use of statistical models for the calculation of PR: convergence problems, availability of tools and inappropriate assumptions. We implement the direct approach to estimate the PR from binary regression models based on two methods proposed by Wilcosky & Chambless and compare with different methods. We used three examples and compared the crude and adjusted estimate of PR, with the estimates obtained by use of log-binomial, Poisson regression and the prevalence odds ratio (POR). PRs obtained from the direct approach resulted in values close enough to those obtained by log-binomial and Poisson, while the POR overestimated the PR. The model implemented here showed the following advantages: no numerical instability; assumes adequate probability distribution and, is available through the R statistical package.

  6. Medical Students' Stress, Psychological Morbidity, and Coping Strategies: a Cross-Sectional Study from Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imran, Nazish; Tariq, Khaula Fatima; Pervez, Muhammad Ijaz; Jawaid, Masood; Haider, Imran Ijaz

    2016-02-01

    The authors studied the prevalence of psychological morbidity, sources and severity of stresses, as well as coping strategies in Pakistani medical students. Medical students in Lahore, Pakistan, completed a cross-sectional, self-administered questionnaire in 2013 on the sources and severity of various stressors. The General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12) and Brief COPE assessed the psychological morbidity and coping strategies. Out of 1500 students, 527 responded to the survey. The prevalence of psychological morbidity was 23.3%; 52.3% respondents showed evidence of distress. By logistic regression analysis, GHQ-12 caseness was associated with being male and occurrence of health-related stressors. The most common stressors were related to academic concerns. Coping strategies showed variation by GHQ-caseness. The significant psychological morbidity and distress warrants establishing support systems to support students and bringing about evidence-based changes to teaching and evaluation systems. Adequate counseling facilities should be made available and students encouraged to seek help.

  7. Palliative therapy in adults with cancer: a cross-sectional study

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    Angelita Visentin

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To characterize the socioeconomic and clinical profile of adult cancer patients in palliative therapy. Method: Cross-sectional study in an oncology hospital in Paraná, with 124 adult patients who started palliative therapy in the period from Jan. 2 to June 30, 2015. Results: Of the participating population, 60.5% were women, 68.5% white, 48.4% married, 72.6% catholic and with income of one to two minimum wages. Non-smokers, 45.2%, non-alcoholics 75%, and 92% had Performance Status 1 and 2. The predominant primary diagnosis was breast cancer, with previous chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The sites of metastasis were lung/mediastinum/bronchi and lymph nodes. Conclusion: The socioeconomic and clinical context characterized the profile of adult patients in palliative therapy. The demand arising from the increase in cases of advanced cancer requires nursing care at all stages of treatment.

  8. Examining the Promotion of Healthy Eating among Exercise Specialists: A Cross-sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Steven T; Cornish, Stephen M; Lytvyak, Ellina; Taylor, Lorian M; Bell, Gordon; Vallance, Jeff; Fraser, Shawn; Murray, Terra

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to survey exercise specialists about nutrition counselling practices, their own dietary practices, and to identify potential relationships. An electronic survey was used to examine characteristics and strategies used for assessing and promoting healthy eating to clients. Exercise specialists (n = 94) were recruited through a public registry and through targeted advertising on 2 professional websites in Alberta, Canada. Eighty-five percent of respondents promoted healthy eating to clients. Confidence in assessing and promoting healthy eating was moderate to low. Those with more than 6 years of professional experience reported higher confidence compared with those with less than 1 year of experience in assessing healthy eating (P healthy eating (P healthy eating by exercise specialists. Promoting collaborative relationships between registered dietitians and exercise specialists would likely benefit exercise specialists when they are assessing and promoting healthy eating among their clients.

  9. Dental anxiety prediction using Venham Picture test: A preliminary cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Agarwal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Anxiety or fearfulness affects a child′s behavior, and to a large extent, determines the success of a dental treatment. It is essential to identify anxious children at the earliest age possible rather than simply deal with them later. It is crucial that every effort be made to ensure a positive experience for each child patient. Appropriate acknowledgment of patient′s anxiety can solidify their confidence and allows the pediatric dentist an informed review of potential management options specific to every individual. In the present cross-sectional study, Venham Picture, a psychometric test, was used to estimate the prevalence of dental anxiety among children in the age group 6-10 years, with and without previous dental experience.

  10. Parental social determinants of risk for intentional injury: a cross-sectional study of Swedish adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engström, Karin; Diderichsen, Finn; Laflamme, Lucie

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We investigated the effect of family social and economic circumstances on intentional injury among adolescents. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional register study of youths aged 10 to 19 years who lived in Sweden between 1990 and 1994. We used socioeconomic status, number of parents...... in the household (1- or 2-parent home), receipt of welfare benefits, parental country of birth, and population density as exposures and compiled relative risks and population-attributable risks (PARs) for self-inflicted and interpersonal violence-related injury. RESULTS: For both genders and for both injury types......, receipt of welfare benefits showed the largest crude and net relative risks and the highest PARs. The socioeconomic status-related PAR for self-inflicted injury and the PAR related to number of parents in the household for interpersonal violence-related injury also were high. CONCLUSIONS: Intentional...

  11. Minor psychiatric disorders among Brazilian ragpickers: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Marcelo Cozzensa; Fassa, Anaclaudia Gastal; Kriebel, David

    2006-01-01

    Background Ragpickers are informal workers who collect recyclable materials to earn a small wage. Their life and working conditions are extremely difficult. We examined minor psychiatric disorders (MPD) among a cohort of ragpickers in Pelotas, a city in southern Brazil. Methods Ragpickers were matched by sex, age, and years of schooling with a sample of non-ragpickers from the same poor neighborhoods. The cross-sectional study gathered data by interview on 990 individuals in 2004. MPD were assessed using a standard self-reporting questionnaire, the SRQ-20. Results The prevalence of MPD among ragpickers was 44.7%, higher than reported by neighborhood controls (33.6%; p work accidents. Conclusion Ragpickers more frequently report MPD than other poor workers living in the same neighborhoods, with many of the same life conditions. Improving the work lives of these precarious workers should address not only the physical hazards of their jobs but their mental and emotional health as well. PMID:16734911

  12. Psychosomatic symptoms and stressful working conditions among Palestinian nurses: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaradat, Yousef; Nijem, Khaldoun; Lien, Lars; Stigum, Hein; Bjertness, Espen; Bast-Pettersen, Rita

    2016-08-01

    High levels of perceived stressful working conditions have been found to have an adverse effect on physical and mental health. To examine the associations between self-reported stressful working conditions and Psychosomatic Symptoms (PSS), and to investigate possible gender differences. The present cross-sectional study comprises 430 nurses employed in Hebron district, Palestine. Self-reported stressful working conditions were recorded, and a Psychosomatic Symptoms Check list was used to assess prevalence of PSS. Median score on the psychosomatic symptom checklist for the group was 11, (range 1-21). Women reported more symptoms than men, with medians 11.6 and 10.0, respectively (p = .0001). PSS were associated with more self-reported stressful working conditions for both men (p < .0001) and women (p < .0001). The association was strongest among men. PSS were associated with high self-reported stressful working conditions, and this association was strongest among the men.

  13. Sexual and reproductive health knowledge: a cross-sectional study with adolescents

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    Patrícia Carvalho Oliveira

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to investigate and compare sexual and reproductive knowledge and sources of information, between public school adolescents from Goiânia-Goiás. A cross-sectional study conducted with 2,449 students. We analyzed data from the self-reported questionnaire using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences, version 13.0. We investigated the differences between proportions using c2 tests and a significance level (p<0.05. We observed a statistical difference between sex considering the knowledge about Sexually Transmitted Infections and, STI and contraception prevention (p<0.000. Additionally, male adolescents presented higher exposure risk to sexual relations without preservative (p<0.000. About the acquisition of preventive methods for STIs and contraception, women were more knowledgeable about access to devices, as well as; they searched different sources and content information about sexual and reproductive health. We concluded that male adolescents presented higher social and individual vulnerability profiles.

  14. Marked differences in GPs' diagnosis of pneumonia between Denmark and Spain: a cross-sectional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, S.F.; Jørgensen, L.C.; Cordoba Currea, Gloria Cristina

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In patients with lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) it is a challenge to identify who should be treated with antibiotics. According to international guidelines, antibiotics should be prescribed to patients with suspected pneumonia while acute bronchitis is considered a viral...... infection and should, generally, not be treated with antibiotics. Overdiagnosis of pneumonia in patients with LRTIs may lead to antibiotic overprescribing. AIMS: To investigate the prevalence of presumed pneumonia in patients with LRTI in two countries with different antibiotic prescribing rates (Denmark...... and Spain) and to compare which symptoms and clinical tests are of most importance for the GP when choosing a diagnosis of pneumonia rather than acute bronchitis. METHODS: A cross-sectional study including GPs from Denmark and Spain was conducted as part of the EU-funded project HAPPY AUDIT. A total of 2...

  15. Central Obesity and Albuminuria: Both Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Studies in Chinese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wen-Yuan; Pi-Sunyer, F. Xavier; Liu, Chiu-Shong; Li, Chia-Ing; Davidson, Lance E.; Li, Tsai-Chung; Lin, Cheng-Chieh

    2012-01-01

    Background Albuminuria is recognized as a marker of vascular dysfunction. Central obesity increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. Little is known about the association between albuminuria and central obesity in Chinese. We aimed to assess the association between central obesity and prevalence and incidence of albuminuria in a middle-aged population-based cohort study. Methods This is a cross-sectional and longitudinal cohort study. A total of 2350 subjects aged ≥40 years were recruited in 2004 in Taiwan for cross-sectional analysis. Longitudinal analysis included 1432 baseline normoalbuminuria subjects with a mean 2.8 years follow-up, 67 of whom exhibited incident albuminuria. Albuminuria was defined as urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio ≥30 mg/g creatinine. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate the relationship between central obesity and prevalence and incidence of albuminuria after adjustment for age, gender, body mass index, blood pressure, renal function, glucose, high sensitivity c-reactive protein, smoking, betel nut chewing, alcohol drinking, and physical activity. Results At baseline, albuminuria is significantly associated with central obesity. The adjusted odds ratio of having albuminuria among subjects with central obesity was 1.73(95% confidence interval (CI): 1.04–2.85), compared to the subjects without central obesity. In multivariable models, participants with central obesity at baseline had a 112% increase in risk of incident albuminuria (adjusted incidence rate ratio (95% CI): 2.12(1.01–4.44)) compared with participants with non-central obesity. Conclusions Abdominal adiposity was independently associated with increased prevalence and incidence of albuminuria in Chinese. The mechanisms linking adiposity and albuminuria need to be addressed. PMID:23251329

  16. Cross-Sectional Investigation of HEMS Activities in Europe: A Feasibility Study

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    Stefano Di Bartolomeo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To gather information on helicopter emergency medical services (HEMSs activities across Europe. Methods. Cross-sectional data-collection on daily (15 November 2013 activities of a sample of European HEMSs. A web-based questionnaire with both open and closed questions was used, developed by experts of the European Prehospital Research Alliance (EUPHOREA. Results. We invited 143 bases from 11 countries; 85 (60% reported base characteristics only and 73 (51% sample-day data too. The variety of base characteristics was enormous; that is, the target population ranged from 94.000 to 4.500.000. Of 158 requested primary missions, 62 (0.82 per base resulted in landing. Cardiac aetiology (36% and trauma (36% prevailed, mostly of life-threatening severity (43%, 0.64 per mission. Had HEMS been not dispatched, patients would have been attended by another physician in 67% of cases, by paramedics in 24%, and by nurses in 9%. On-board physicians estimated to have caused a major decrease of death risk in 47% of missions, possible decrease in 22%, minor benefit in 17%, no benefit in 11%, and damage in 3%. Earlier treatment and faster transport to hospital were the main reasons for benefit. The most frequent therapeutic procedure was drug administration (78% of missions; endotracheal intubation occurred in 25% of missions and was an option hardly offered by ground crews. Conclusions. The study proved feasible, establishing an embryonic network of European HEMS. The participation rate was low and limits the generalizability of the results. Fortunately, because of its cross-sectional characteristics and the handy availability of the web platform, the study is easily repeatable with an enhanced network.

  17. Improving Access to Mental Health Care by Delivering Psychotherapeutic Care in the Workplace: A Cross-Sectional Exploratory Trial.

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    Eva Rothermund

    Full Text Available Common mental disorders like mood and anxiety disorders and somatoform disorders have high costs, yet under-treatment is still frequent. Many people with common mental disorders are employed, so the workplace is potentially a suitable context in which to provide early treatment. Our study investigates whether a change of setting (workplace versus standard care improves access to treatment for common mental disorders.Conditional latent profile analysis was applied to identify user profiles for work ability (WAI, clinical symptoms like depression (patient health questionnaire depression, PHQ-9, health-related quality of life (QoL, SF-12, and work-related stress (Maslach Burnout Inventory, irritation scale. Patients were recruited consecutively, via psychotherapeutic consultation in the workplace (n = 174 or psychotherapeutic consultation in outpatient care (n = 193.We identified four user profiles in our model: 'severe' (n = 99, 'moderate I-low QoL' (n = 88, 'moderate II-low work ability' (n = 83, and 'at risk' (n = 97. The 'at risk' profile encompassed individuals with reduced work ability (36.0, 34.73 to 37.37, only mild clinical symptoms (PHQ-9 5.7, 4.92 to 6.53, no signs of work-related stress and good quality of life. A higher proportion of the 'at risk' group than of the 'severe' group sought help via the psychotherapeutic consultation in the workplace (OR 0.287, P < 0.01; this effect remained after controlling for gender.Offering secondary mental health care in the workplace is feasible and accepted by users. Offering treatment in the workplace as an alternative to standard outpatient settings is a viable strategy for improving access to treatment for common mental disorders.

  18. A Preliminary Study on Sensitivity and Uncertainty Analysis with Statistic Method: Uncertainty Analysis with Cross Section Sampling from Lognormal Distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Myung Sub; Kim, Song Hyun; Kim, Jong Kyung; Noh, Jae Man

    2013-01-01

    The uncertainty evaluation with statistical method is performed by repetition of transport calculation with sampling the directly perturbed nuclear data. Hence, the reliable uncertainty result can be obtained by analyzing the results of the numerous transport calculations. One of the problems in the uncertainty analysis with the statistical approach is known as that the cross section sampling from the normal (Gaussian) distribution with relatively large standard deviation leads to the sampling error of the cross sections such as the sampling of the negative cross section. Some collection methods are noted; however, the methods can distort the distribution of the sampled cross sections. In this study, a sampling method of the nuclear data is proposed by using lognormal distribution. After that, the criticality calculations with sampled nuclear data are performed and the results are compared with that from the normal distribution which is conventionally used in the previous studies. In this study, the statistical sampling method of the cross section with the lognormal distribution was proposed to increase the sampling accuracy without negative sampling error. Also, a stochastic cross section sampling and writing program was developed. For the sensitivity and uncertainty analysis, the cross section sampling was pursued with the normal and lognormal distribution. The uncertainties, which are caused by covariance of (n,.) cross sections, were evaluated by solving GODIVA problem. The results show that the sampling method with lognormal distribution can efficiently solve the negative sampling problem referred in the previous studies. It is expected that this study will contribute to increase the accuracy of the sampling-based uncertainty analysis

  19. Health status and disease burden of unaccompanied asylum-seeking adolescents in Bielefeld, Germany: cross-sectional pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquardt, L; Krämer, A; Fischer, F; Prüfer-Krämer, L

    2016-02-01

    This exploratory pilot study aimed to investigate the physical and mental disease burden of unaccompanied asylum-seeking adolescents arriving in Bielefeld, a medium-size city in Germany. A cross-sectional survey with purposive sampling of 102 unaccompanied asylum-seeking adolescents aged 12-18 years was performed. Information on general health status, selected infectious and non-communicable diseases, iron deficiency anaemia and mental illness was collected during routine check-up medical examinations upon arrival in Bielefeld, Germany. The data were analysed using descriptive statistics. The analysis revealed a complex disease burden with a high prevalence of infections (58.8%), mental illness (13.7%) and iron deficiency anaemia (17.6%) and a very low prevalence of non-communicable diseases (<2.0%). One in five of the refugees were infected with parasites. Whilst sub-Saharan Africans showed the highest prevalence of infections (86.7%), including highest prevalences of parasites (46.7%), West Asians had the highest prevalence of mental disorders (20.0%). Overall, the disease burden in females was higher. A thorough medical and psychological screening after arrival is highly recommended to reduce the individual disease burden and the risk of infection for others. This promotes good physical and mental health, which is needed for successful integration into the receiving society. Barriers to health service access for unaccompanied asylum-seeking adolescents need to be lowered to allow need-specific health care and prevention. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Equity in access to health care in a rural population in Malaysia: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Ka Keat; Sivasampu, Sheamini; Mahmud, Fatihah

    2017-04-01

    To examine the extent of equity in access to health care, their determinants and reasons of unmet need of a rural population in Malaysia. Exploratory cross-sectional survey administered by trained interviewers among participants of a health screening program. A rural plantation estate in the West Coast of Peninsular Malaysia. One hundred and thirty out of 142 adults above 18 years old who attended the program. Percentages of respondents reporting realised access and unmet need to health care, determinants of both access indicators and reasons for unmet need. Realised access associated with need but not predisposing or enabling factors and unmet need not associated with any variables were considered equitable. A total of 88 (67.7%) respondents had visited a doctor (realised access) in the past 6 months and 24.8% (n = 31) experienced unmet need in the past 12 months. Using logistic regression, realised access was associated with presence of chronic disease (OR 6.97, P  RM 2000 per month) (OR 51.27, P population, the latter associated with education level, subjective health status and income. Despite not being generalisable, the findings highlight the need for a national level study on equity in access before the country reforms its health system. © 2016 National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  1. [Nurses' experiences with aggressive behaviour of nursing home residents: a cross sectional study in Swiss nursing homes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeller, Adelheid; Needham, Ian; Dassen, Theo; Kok, Gerjo; Halfens, Ruud J G

    2013-10-01

    The present exploratory descriptive cross-sectional study with the participation of 814 (51.8%) caregivers in 21 Swiss nursing homes provides insight into caregivers' experiences and handling of residents' aggressive behaviour. Moreover, caregiver burden with regard to resident aggression and the consequences on the caregiver-resident-relationship were investigated. The survey was carried out by means of validated questionnaire. Approximately 38% of participants experienced aggressive incidents during the last seven days prior to data collection. In most cases aggressive behaviour was caused by residents suffering from dementia and/or depression and occurred during nursing interventions involving physical contact. As a trigger for aggressive behaviour participants predominately assumed "non-understanding and excessive demand" of residents. Reassuring conversation and keeping oneself at a distance were most often used to calm the situation. Approximately 40% of participants experienced physical attacks as especially distressing and circa 23% were frightened, particularly when aggressive behaviour occurred without warning. Approximately 4% of caregivers avoided contact with residents after an aggressive incident and 12.3% perceived a disturbed relationship. It can be assumed that caregivers do not adequately perceive emotions possibly underlying aggressive behaviour in the escalation phase and therefore may not identify early signs of beginning aggression.

  2. SPECTRUM OF SKULL FRACTURES IN TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY (TBI – A CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY

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    Bhola Kumar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Traumatic brain injury (TBI is a considerable cause of morbidity and mortality in India and around the world. Head injury provides one of the major contributions to death and better practical understanding of intracranial injuries is essential to the forensic expert. The cross sectional CT imaging makes the radiologic contribution to forensic autopsy more valuable and may improve accuracy of forensic investigation. To this reason we retrospectively evaluated the patterns of skull fractures on CT scan imaging of deceased patients. METHODS This cross sectional analysis was conducted in the department of forensic medicine Career institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow over a period of two years 2013-2015. In this study, we reviewed images of all the deceased patients (died in our hospital who underwent CT scanning at index admission for head injury. Demographic details and mode of injury was recorded from available data. Age was presented using mean and standard deviation, gender, mode of injury and type of skull fractures were presented as numbers and percentages. RESULTS Linear skull fractures were 172 out of which RTA due to unknown was 99 followed by fall of unknown reason was 32, RTA fall from two wheeler was 32. The cause of death in all these cases was due to head injury associated with fracture of skull or intracranial hemorrhages or brain injury. CONCLUSION Majority of fatal head injuries are due to road traffic accidents (RTA especially in younger and middle age, followed by fall from height. The common skull fracture type was linear (fissured skull fractures followed by depressed fractures. Retrospective CT evaluated has reinforced reporting medico legal of these cases.

  3. A cross-sectional study on person-centred communication in the care of older people: the COMHOME study protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hafskjold, L.; Sundler, A.J.; Holmstrom, I.K.; Sundling, V.; Dulmen, S. van; Eide, H.

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: This paper presents an international cross-sectional study on person-centred communication with older people receiving healthcare (COMHOME). Person-centred care relies on effective communication, but few studies have explored this with a specific focus on older people. The main aim of

  4. A cross-sectional study on person-centred communication in the care of older people: the COMHOME study protocol.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hafskjold, L.; Sundler, A.J.; Holmström, I.K.; Sundling, V.; Dulmen, S. van; Eide, H.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: This paper presents an international cross-sectional study on person-centred communication with older people receiving healthcare (COMHOME). Person-centred care relies on effective communication, but few studies have explored this with a specific focus on older people. The main aim of

  5. Epidemiology and Reporting Characteristics of Systematic Reviews of Biomedical Research: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J Page

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Systematic reviews (SRs can help decision makers interpret the deluge of published biomedical literature. However, a SR may be of limited use if the methods used to conduct the SR are flawed, and reporting of the SR is incomplete. To our knowledge, since 2004 there has been no cross-sectional study of the prevalence, focus, and completeness of reporting of SRs across different specialties. Therefore, the aim of our study was to investigate the epidemiological and reporting characteristics of a more recent cross-section of SRs.We searched MEDLINE to identify potentially eligible SRs indexed during the month of February 2014. Citations were screened using prespecified eligibility criteria. Epidemiological and reporting characteristics of a random sample of 300 SRs were extracted by one reviewer, with a 10% sample extracted in duplicate. We compared characteristics of Cochrane versus non-Cochrane reviews, and the 2014 sample of SRs versus a 2004 sample of SRs. We identified 682 SRs, suggesting that more than 8,000 SRs are being indexed in MEDLINE annually, corresponding to a 3-fold increase over the last decade. The majority of SRs addressed a therapeutic question and were conducted by authors based in China, the UK, or the US; they included a median of 15 studies involving 2,072 participants. Meta-analysis was performed in 63% of SRs, mostly using standard pairwise methods. Study risk of bias/quality assessment was performed in 70% of SRs but was rarely incorporated into the analysis (16%. Few SRs (7% searched sources of unpublished data, and the risk of publication bias was considered in less than half of SRs. Reporting quality was highly variable; at least a third of SRs did not report use of a SR protocol, eligibility criteria relating to publication status, years of coverage of the search, a full Boolean search logic for at least one database, methods for data extraction, methods for study risk of bias assessment, a primary outcome, an

  6. Empathy in senior year and first year medical students: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Eunice; Salgueira, Ana P; Costa, Patrício; Costa, Manuel J

    2011-07-29

    The importance of fostering the development of empathy in undergraduate students is continuously emphasized in international recommendations for medical education. Paradoxically, some studies in the North-American context using self-reported measures have found that empathy declines during undergraduate medical training. Empathy is also known to be gender dependent- (highest for female medical students) and related to specialty preference - (higher in patient-oriented than technology-oriented specialties). This factor has not been studied in Portuguese medical schools. This is a cross-sectional study of undergraduate medical students on self-rated measures of empathy collected at entrance and at the conclusion of the medical degree, and on the association of empathy measures with gender and specialty preferences in one medical school in Portugal. Empathy was assessed using the Portuguese adaptation of the Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy-students version (JSPE-spv) among three cohorts of undergraduate medical students in the first (N = 356) and last (N = 120) year. The construct validity of JSPE-spv was cross-validated with Principal Component Analysis and Confirmatory Factor Analysis. Reliability was assessed using Cronbach' Alpha. Global JSPE-spv score differences were examined by year of medical school, gender and specialty preferences (people-oriented vs technology-oriented specialties). The empathy scores of students in the final year were higher as compared to first year students (F (1,387) = 19.33, p students had higher empathy scores than male students (F (1,387) = 8.82, p students who prefer people-oriented specialties compared to those who favor the technology-oriented specialties (F (1,387) = 2.44, p = .12, ɳ 2p = 0.06; π = 0.06). This cross-sectional study in one medical school in Portugal showed that the empathy measures of senior year students were higher than the scores of freshmen. A longitudinal cohort study is needed to test variations in

  7. Job satisfaction and mental health of Palestinian nurses with shift work: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaradat, Yousef; Birkeland Nielsen, Morten; Kristensen, Petter; Bast-Pettersen, Rita

    2018-02-21

    Shift work is associated with sleep disturbances, mental health problems, and job dissatisfaction. Disparities between male and female nurses in the effect of shift work on mental distress and job satisfaction have been scarcely studied. We aimed to examine differences between female and male nurses in the associations between shift work and job satisfaction and mental health. In this cross-sectional study, male and female nurses were recruited to rate their job satisfaction on the Generic Job Satisfaction Scale and to complete the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-30). Associations between shift work, mental distress, and satisfaction were estimated from χ 2 tests and linear regression analyses using Stata/IC10. The study was approved by the ministry of health. Written informed consent was provided by all participants. In 2012, we recruited 372 registered nurses from the Hebron governorate in the occupied Palestinian territory. 28 (8%) nurses were excluded, and the final sample (n=344) included 213 (62%) women and 131 (38%) men. 338 nurses rated their job satisfaction, and 309 nurses completed the GHQ-30. After adjusting for covariates, men with shift work reported significantly lower job satisfaction (β-coefficient -3·3, 95% CI -6·2 to -0·5) than men with day schedules. Women with shift work reported significantly higher levels of mental distress (3·6, 95% CI 0·3 to 7·0) than women with day schedules. Distress was reported by more women than men, but this difference concerned only nurses working day shifts. No differences in job satisfaction associated with shift work was seen between men and women. We found no demonstrable interaction between sex and shift work for job satisfaction (β-coefficient -1·6, 95% CI -4·4 to 1·2) or distress (-0·03, 95% CI -5·3 to 5·3). Shift work was associated with low job satisfaction in male nurses and high distress in female nurses. Because the study had a cross-sectional design and both exposure and outcomes were

  8. Impact assessment of gilgel gibe hydroelectric dam on schitosomiasis: a cross sectional study in southwest ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yami, Alemeshet; Kebede, Sileshi; Mamo, Yoseph

    2010-07-01

    Intestinal schistosomiasis is prevalent in East Africa including Ethiopia. Constructed five years back, Gilgel Gibe dam is suspected to harbor the intermediate host for transmission of schistosomiasis. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of intestinal schistosomiasis and risk factors among school children. A comparative cross-sectional study was carried out in October 2008 in four Woredas bordering Gilgel Gibe dam, within 10 kilometers, and Bulbul, which is 30 Kms away from the dam. Children attending grades 1-8 in the schools located adjacent to the dam constituted the cases and those living in Bulbul constitute the controls. Using Epinfo version 6.0 for cross-sectional study, a sample size of 937 was determined. Sample size allocation was done 2:1 for cases and control. After interview, stool sample was collected and analyzed. Screening for the presence of intermediate host and physiochemical analyses of selected water bodies along the major water contact sites of the reservoir was also done Data were entered into computer and analyzed using SPSS for windows version 13.0.1. Out of 624 sampled cases and 312 controls, 585 and 270 participated in the study giving a response rate of 93.8% and 86.5%, respectively. Four hundred seventy four (81.0% of the cases and 203 (75.2%) controls use latrine regularly. On stool examination, 406 (47.5%) children, 295 (50.4%) cases and 111 (41.1%) controls) were positive to intestinal parasites but only two children, both from the control groups, were positive for Schistosoma mansoni. The three river water samples on which malacological survey was done had similar physicochemical characteristics in many ways except high conductivity, pH and percent of dissolved oxygen concentration (milligram per liter) at one site where uninfected Biomphilaria Pfeifferi was found The study revealed that schistosomiasis is not yet a problem at Gilgel-Gibe dam. But, continuous surveying is required as the intermediate host is

  9. Proportion of medication error reporting and associated factors among nurses: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jember, Abebaw; Hailu, Mignote; Messele, Anteneh; Demeke, Tesfaye; Hassen, Mohammed

    2018-01-01

    A medication error (ME) is any preventable event that may cause or lead to inappropriate medication use or patient harm. Voluntary reporting has a principal role in appreciating the extent and impact of medication errors. Thus, exploration of the proportion of medication error reporting and associated factors among nurses is important to inform service providers and program implementers so as to improve the quality of the healthcare services. Institution based quantitative cross-sectional study was conducted among 397 nurses from March 6 to May 10, 2015. Stratified sampling followed by simple random sampling technique was used to select the study participants. The data were collected using structured self-administered questionnaire which was adopted from studies conducted in Australia and Jordan. A pilot study was carried out to validate the questionnaire before data collection for this study. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression models were fitted to identify factors associated with the proportion of medication error reporting among nurses. An adjusted odds ratio with 95% confidence interval was computed to determine the level of significance. The proportion of medication error reporting among nurses was found to be 57.4%. Regression analysis showed that sex, marital status, having made a medication error and medication error experience were significantly associated with medication error reporting. The proportion of medication error reporting among nurses in this study was found to be higher than other studies.

  10. Alcohol Consumption and Physical Activity in Austrian College Students-A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedermeier, Martin; Frühauf, Anika; Kopp-Wilfling, Prisca; Rumpold, Gerhard; Kopp, Martin

    2018-01-30

    The age of college students is considered as crucial for developing health-related behaviors, e.g., alcohol consumption or a physically active lifestyle. Previous research reported a positive relationship between alcohol consumption and physical activity (PA) in college students. However, the main body of research was done in students from the United States who might differ from European students. Thus the aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between alcohol consumption and PA in a sample of Austrian college students. In a cross-sectional design, 861 Austrian students from various study fields responded to a web-based questionnaire. Self-reported alcohol consumption, PA, and relevant sociodemographic variables were assessed. Multiple regression analyses were used to study the relationship between alcohol consumption and PA. In none of the regression models, a significant relationship between alcohol consumption and PA was found. There was a significant influence of sex, age, relationship status, education level, and study field on alcohol consumption. Male, older, and undergraduate students studying social sciences without a relationship reported higher alcohol consumption. Conclusions/Importance: The results do not support a general relationship between alcohol consumption and PA among urban Austrian college students of various study fields. Compared to other variables (e.g., sex, relationship status), PA seems to be less important in relation to the consumption of alcohol. This study challenges a global perspective on a positive relationship between alcohol consumption and PA and highlights the need for more cross-cultural investigations.

  11. Cycling and Female Sexual and Urinary Function: Results From a Large, Multinational, Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaither, Thomas W; Awad, Mohannad A; Murphy, Gregory P; Metzler, Ian; Sanford, Thomas; Eisenberg, Michael L; Sutcliffe, Siobhan; Osterberg, E Charles; Breyer, Benjamin N

    2018-04-01

    Bicycle riding has become an increasingly popular mode of transportation and exercise, especially among women, and previous studies have demonstrated a relationship between cycling and sexual dysfunction, albeit using non-validated questionnaires. We aimed to explore the relationship between cycling and sexual and urinary dysfunction. Cyclists were recruited to complete a survey through Facebook advertisements and outreach to sporting clubs across 5 English-speaking countries. Swimmers and runners were recruited as a comparison group. Participants were queried using validated questionnaires, including the Female Sexual Function Index, the American Urological Association Symptom Index, and non-validated questions about history of urinary tract infections (UTIs), genital numbness, and genital saddle sores (all self-reported). 3,118 (53.3%) Women completed the survey, comprising 1,053 (34%) non-cyclists, 1,656 (53%) low-intensity cyclists, and 409 (13%) high-intensity cyclists. After adjusting for age, body mass index, hypertension, diabetes, ischemic heart disease, tobacco use, race, marital status, urinary symptoms, and sexual activity, high-intensity cyclists had lower odds of self-reported sexual dysfunction compared to non-cyclists (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 0.7, P = .02). There were no statistically significant differences in urinary symptoms across groups. Compared to non-cyclists, both low- and high-intensity cyclists had higher odds of reporting a previous UTI (aOR 1.4, P < .001, and aOR 1.4, P = .009, respectively), genital numbness (odds ratio [OR] 6.5, P < .001, and OR 9.1, P < .001, respectively), and saddle sores (OR 6.3, P < .001, and OR 22.7, P < .001, respectively). Women cyclists were more likely to report other genitourinary conditions, including UTIs, genital numbness, and saddle sores. This is the largest study comparing cyclists to other athletes with respect to sexual and urinary function. The study is limited by its cross-sectional design

  12. Prevalence of depression in mothers of intellectually disabled children: A cross-sectional study

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    Gourav Chandravanshi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Intellectual disability (ID is a permanent and highly disabling condition. The birth of a disabled child induces complex feelings in mother and other family members. This study was planned to investigate phenomenology of ID and the prevalence of depression in their mothers. Objective: To find prevalence, influence of various sociodemographic variables, and its clinical correlation with depression in mothers of ID children. Study Design: A cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 patients diagnosed as ID were included in the study. Objective data were collected in a special Pro forma, and mothers of these patients were evaluated with the Beck's Anxiety Inventory and Beck's Depression Inventory. Results: The mean age of patients with ID was 11.52 years, had received an average of 3.01 years of schooling, mean age at diagnosis was 6.01 years, mean intelligence quotient was 45.17, and 79% had significant comorbidities. The prevalence of depression in mothers was 79%; it was more in mothers of female ID child, ID child with significant comorbidities, severer forms of retardation, and with higher levels of anxiety in the mother. Conclusions: The prevalence of depression in mothers of ID children in the present study seems to be much greater than those reported from the previous studies. The determination of predictors of depression among mothers of ID children may help health professionals in identifying mothers at risk. Regular screening of mothers of ID children should be included in the protocol for management.

  13. Comparison of Dermatoglyphic Pattern among Cleft and Noncleft Children: A Cross-sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    S Mayall, Sandeep; Chaudhary, Seema; Kaur, Harsimran; Manuja, Naveen; Ravishankar, Telegi; A Sinha, Ashish

    2017-01-01

    Oral clefts are among the common congenital birth defects with a broad phenotypic gamut. Since the epidermal ridges of the fingers and palms as well as the facial structures like lip, alveolus, and palate are formed from the same embryonic tissues during the same embryonic period, the genetic and environmental factors responsible for causing cleft lip and palate might also affect dermatoglyphic patterns. Thus, study was undertaken to compare the dermato-glyphic pattern of children with orofacial clefts and normal children and to determine the correlation of dermatoglyphics with orofacial clefts. Total study sample consisted of 120 children in the age group of 3 to 16 years being divided into study and control groups. Dermatoglyphic data obtained from both control and study groups were then subjected to statistical analysis. Statistically no significant difference was found in the dermatoglyphic pattern and atd angle for both the groups. It was observed that dermatoglyphics in orofacial clefts may not be distinctive. Further, large-scale studies are recommended to confirm the same. Mayall SS, Chaudhary S, Kaur H, Manuja N, Ravishankar T, Sinha AA. Comparison of Derma-toglyphic Pattern among Cleft and Noncleft Children: A Cross-sectional Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2017;10(3):245-249.

  14. Prevalence of Musculoskeletal Injuries in Shiraz Male Wushu Players: A Cross Sectional Study

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    Farahnaz Emami

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Wushu is one of the martial arts that combines explosive strength and speed movements with combat techniques. Most studies to date of wushurelated injuries have been published in Chinese languages. No published studies have reported the prevalence of these injuries in Iran. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of musculoskeletal injuries in male wushu players in Shiraz. Methods: Male wushu athletes aged 18 to 30 years were included in this cross sectional study if they had been practicing for 2 hours per session, twice a week during the past 3 years. The athletes were recruited by convenience sampling from 30 wushu clubs in Shiraz, Iran. The sample size was 165. The study was conducted from June to September 2016. Each participant was asked to complete an information questionnaire about his musculoskeletal injuries related to wushu during the previous year. Results: About two third (65.45% of wushu players had one or more injuries during the previous year. Severe injuries were most commonly located in the head/neck and knee/tibia areas, and inflammation was more prevalent than the other types of injuries. Conclusion: Wushu players in this study reported a high prevalence of injuries affecting different parts of the body.

  15. Erectile dysfunction in methadone maintenance patients: a cross sectional study in northern iran.

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    Seyed Hamzeh Hosseini

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Erectile dysfunction affects quality of life and is a common dysfunction in drug abusers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of erectile dysfunction in drug abusers on methadone maintenance therapy to reduce this drug side effect in the future studies.This cross-sectional study was conducted with two hundred addicted individuals on methadone maintenance therapy. Erectile dysfunction was surveyed using the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF. Finally, all data were collected and analyzed by descriptive statistics such as measures of variability and central tendency and Chi-squared (χ(2 test using SPSS Version18.0 software.The amount of the total frequency of erectile dysfunction was pointed 30 or less among the two hundred patients and included the moderate and severe cases. In this study, the number of patients with erectile dysfunction was fifty three (26.5%.The frequency of erectile dysfunction in our study was approximately 1.5 times of prevalence of the public (16.1%. In this study, all the factors related to sexual function such as erectile function, libido, orgasm, and sexual pleasure showed a decline among drug abusers.

  16. ZZ ANSLV, Multigroup Cross Sections Library for ANS Reactor Design Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    A - Description of program or function: - Format: AMPX Master Interface Library format. Number of groups: Fine Group (99 energy groups) General Purpose Neutron Library. Materials: H, He, Be, B, Graphite, N, O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, K, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Kr, Zr, Mo, Tc, Ru, Ag, Cd, Cs, Ce, Pr, Pm, Sm, Eu, Hf, Ta, U, C, F, Cu, Sn, Pb, Rh, I, Xe, Nd, Th, Np, Pu, Am, Cm, Bk, Cf, Es, MAFP, WAFP. Origin: ENDF/B-V. - Format: AMPX Master Interface Library format. Number of groups: Broad Group (39 energy groups) General Purpose Neutron Library. Materials: H, He, Be, B, Graphite, N, O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, K, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Kr, Zr, Mo, Tc, Ru, Ag, Cd, Cs, Ce, Pr, Pm, Sm, Eu, Hf, Ta, U, C, F, Cu, Sn, Pb, Rh, I, Xe, Nd, Th, Np, Pu, Am, Cm, Bk, Cf, Es, MAFP, WAFP. Origin: ENDF/B-V. - Format: AMPX Master Interface Library format. Number of groups: Gamma-Ray Interaction (GRI) Library in 44-groups. Materials: H, He, Be, B, C, N, O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, K, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zr, Mo, Ag, Cd, Xe, Sm, Eu, Hf, Ta, Ir, Pb, Th, U, Pu. Origin: ENDF/B-V; LENDL-V evaluations for 12 materials. - Format: AMPX Master Interface Library format. Number of groups: Coupled Library containing (CNG) 99-group neutron and 44-group gamma-ray data. Materials: H, Be, B, C, N, O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, K, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zr, Mo, Ag, Cd, Eu, Hf, Ta, Pb, Th, U, Pu. Origin: ENDF/B-V. - Format: AMPX Master Interface Library format. Number of groups: Coupled neutron-gamma (CNG) Library containing 39-group, and 44-group gamma-ray data. Materials: H, Be, B, C, N, O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, K, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zr, Mo, Ag, Cd, Eu, Hf, Ta, Pb, Th, U, Pu. Origin: ENDF/B-V. Weighting spectrum: Maxwellian 300 K + 1/(E*sigma-total) + fission spectrum4 types of boundaries have been used depending isotope and library type (see report). Pseudo-problem-independent, multigroup cross section libraries were generated to support the Advanced Neutron source (ANS) reactor design studies. The ANS was

  17. Counselling practices in community pharmacies in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaqeel, Sinaa; Abanmy, Norah O

    2015-12-15

    Community pharmacists play a crucial role in optimising medication use and improving patient outcomes, whilst preventing medication misuse and reducing costs. Evidence suggests that pharmacists counselling improves clinical outcomes, quality of life, drug and disease knowledge and reduces health service utilisation. This study aims to investigate the counselling practices of community pharmacists in Riyadh, the capital of Saudi Arabia. The study consisted of two parts: simulated patients (SPs) visits to observe actual counselling practices, and a cross-sectional survey of community pharmacists to assess their reported counselling practices. In the SPs method, there were four scenarios involving four medications. Scenarios 1 and 2 concerned drug-drug interactions, scenario 3 concerned the proper time of administration, and scenario 4 concerned side effects. The simulated visits were conducted between April and May 2012. A four-sections questionnaire was distributed in the same period. We conducted 161 simulated visits. Out of the 161 visits a medicine was dispensed in 150 visits. When SPs requested medications, pharmacists asked questions during 15 visits (10.0%), provided information during 7 visits (4.6%), and both asked questions and provided information, i.e. provided counselling, during 4 visits (2.6%). When the SPs started to be inquisitive and demanded information, pharmacists asked SPs questions during 71 visits (47.3%), provided information during 150 visits (100%), and both asked questions and provided information, i.e. provided counselling, during 65 visits (43.3%). Information regarding dose was the most common type of information provided in 146 visits (97.3%). After the SPs started to be inquisitive and probed for information, only 10% were counselled on precautions. In the cross-sectional survey, four hundred pharmacists were approached and 350 agreed to participate in the questionnaire (87% response rate). Of the respondents, 223 (63.7%) reported

  18. Work stress related lipid disorders and arterial hypertension in professional drivers: A cross-sectional study

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    Đinđić Nataša

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Occupational stress is a term used to define ongoing stress that is related to the workplace. The study was conducted to determine association of occupational stress index (OSI and its aspects with arterial hypertension and lipid disorders using data from a cross-sectional survey of male professional drivers. Methods. The cross-sectional study was performed in 439 professional drivers divided into groups (city- and intercity bus drivers, truck and taxi drivers. The OSI and OSI aspects (high demands, strictness, underload, extrinsic time pressure, noxious exposure, avoidance and conflict were calculated using the standardized questionnaire. Determination of serum lipids, blood pressure (BP and cardiovascular risk factors were done. Results. A significant difference in prevalence of diagnosed hypertension and dyslipidemia was found along with a difference in total OSI and OSI aspects among examined subgroups of drivers. A total OSI was highest in city, high in intercity bus drivers, and the lowest one in truck and taxi drivers (82.79 ± 3.5, 81.28 ± 3.7, 73.75 ± 3.5, 71.61 ± 4.4, respectively; p < 0.01. Similar pattern showed triglycerides (TG, total cholesterol (TC and LDL cholesterol and BP, while HDL-cholesterol showed reverse order (p < 0.01. Logistic regression analyses with multiple OSI aspects adjusted for age and years of exposure showed associations of total OSI with arterial hypertension [OR 5.5; 95% CI (2.24-7.95] and dyslipidemia [OR 1.43 95% CI (1.09-2.80]. Underload was the most important OSI aspect associated with the arterial hypertension [OR 1.18; 95% CI (1.04-2.58] and elevated LDL cholesterol [1.26; 95 CI (1.19-2.1]. A total OSI had a significant association with elevated LDL cholesterol [2.64; 95% CI (1.19- 7.7], triglycerides [OR 3.27; 95% CI (1.20-5.1] and low HDL cholesterol [OR 3.29; 95% CI (1.8-5.8] (p < 0.01. Conclusion. The study provides the evidence for the significant association of total OSI and

  19. Prospective Cross-Sectional Study of Tuberculosis Screening in United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almarzooqi, Farida; Alkhemeiri, Aysha; Aljaberi, Ahmed; Hashmey, Rayhan; Zoubeidi, Taoufik; Souid, Abdul-Kader

    2018-03-08

    Intense migrations from tuberculosis endemic areas to Gulf countries create special risks to people in the region. The purpose of this study is to provide data that could justify implementing a universal, regular TB screening in UAE. This prospective, cross-sectional study used interferon-γ release assay (IGRA) to screen for TB among Emirati citizens between August-2016 and May-2017; expatriates were not included in this study. Participants were recruited from Emiratis attending Tawam Hospital Polyclinics for problems unrelated to TB risk assessment. IGRA was requested for all enrolled participants. A risk-assessment questionnaire was completed by all participants. In addition, a retrospective review of IGRA results (January-2011 to April-2016) was conducted to compare prevalence of positive IGRA in the 'prospective sample' with that in 'patients screened in the past'. Four hundred fifty-five participants (69% females) were enrolled in this study. Participants' age (mean±SD) was 42±16y. The majority of participants had traveled to or had helpers from TB-endemic areas. Two hundred forty (53%) participants had IGRA test. Forty-five (18.8%) participants had positive IGRA, similar to the retrospective results of 12.4% to 23.5%. The prevalence of positive-IGRA in this study is high. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Temporomandibular disorders and associated factors in Brazilian teenagers: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoy, Fabiana; Rosenblatt, Aronita; Godoy-Bezerra, Juliana

    2007-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the prevalence of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) and associated variables among adolescents from 16 to 18 years of age in their senior year of high school in the city of Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil, in 2005. The studied variables were gender, self-esteem and nervous behavior, type of occlusion, and use of orthodontic appliances. In this cross-sectional study, the nonpatient population comprised 410 adolescents attending private and state schools. The data collection was conducted using 2 questionnaires, the first of which was used to evaluate the prevalence of TMD and the second to assess self-esteem. A clinical examination was conducted for the occlusion aspect of the evaluation. The prevalence of TMD was 16.3% in the study group and there was no statistical difference between occlusions judged as normal or as malocclusions (P = .1148). There was a statistically significant association between students who had previously undergone orthodontic treatment and TMD (P = .0033, odds ratio: 3.08). The students classified in the low self-esteem group showed a significant increase in TMD (P= .0140). The group that classified themselves as nervous also showed an increase (P = .0034), with a higher prevalence also found in females (P = .0021). This study suggests that low self-esteem and gender may be more frequently related than dental factors to TMD in adolescents.

  1. Prevalence of risk factors for stuttering among boys: analytical cross-sectional study

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    Cristiane Moço Canhetti Oliveira

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE:There have been few studies on the risk factors for subgroups of stuttering. The aim of this study was to characterize the risk factors for developmental familial stuttering among boys who stutter and who do not stutter, such as disfluency types, associated quality and communication factors, emotional and physical stress, familial attitudes and personal reactions.DESIGN AND SETTING:Analytical cross-sectional study with a control group, performed at the Fluency Studies Laboratory of the Department of Speech and Hearing Disorders of a public university.METHODS: The parents of 40 age-matched stuttering and non-stuttering boys took part in this study. The participants were divided into two groups: stuttering children (SC and non-stuttering children (NSC, with ages between 6 years 0 months and 11 years 11 months. Initially, all of the participants underwent a fluency assessment and then data were gathered using the Protocol for the Risk of Developmental Stuttering.RESULTS:There were no differences in the physical stress distribution factors and personal reactions between the groups. Inappropriate familial attitudes were presented by 95% of the SC and 30% of the NSC. Four risk factors analyzed were not shown by the NSC, namely stuttering-like disfluency, quality factors, physical stress and emotional stresses.CONCLUSIONS:The findings suggest that the presence of stuttering-like disfluency, associated quality and communication factors, emotional stress and inappropriate family attitudes are important risk factors for familial developmental stuttering among boys.

  2. Diabetes Mellitus Among Adults in Herat, Afghanistan: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam Saeed, Khwaja Mir

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Diabetes is reaching epidemic levels in Afghanistan. This study identifies the risk factors associated with diabetes in Herat City, Afghanistan, and explores the prevalence of previously undiagnosed diabetes. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted using multistage cluster sampling by adopting the World Health Organization’s (WHO) STEPwise approach to Surveillance (STEPS). We enrolled 1129 participants aged 25–70 years between May and June of 2015 (47.4% males, 52.6% females). A structured questionnaire was used for data collection of demographic, socioeconomic, and behavioral factors. Investigators collected anthropometric measurements and blood samples from study participants. A multivariable logistic regression model was used to identify factors associated with diabetes prevalence. Results: We found that the prevalence of diabetes in Herat City was 9.9% (9.8% in males and 10.1% in females). Of the 1129 respondents, only 3.3% were previously diagnosed with diabetes or were under treatment, whereas 6.6% of respondents were previously undiagnosed. The multivariable analyses showed that age, frequency of rice consumption, type of cooking oil, and systolic blood pressure were associated with diabetes. Conclusions: This is one of the first studies to discuss the high prevalence of undiagnosed diabetes in Herat, Afghanistan. This study found several modifiable factors that were associated with diabetes in Herat, Afghanistan. Future reduction of disease burden should focus on these factors in the development of the most optimal diabetes prevention programs. PMID:29138737

  3. Driver characteristics associated with child safety seat usage in Malaysia: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulanthayan, S; Razak, Ahmad; Schenk, Ellen

    2010-03-01

    The rapidly motorizing environment in Malaysia has made child occupant safety a current public health concern. The usage of child safety seats (CSS) is a widely regarded intervention to enhance child occupant safety, yet no study has been conducted on CSS in Malaysia. This study aims to determine the CSS usage rates in Malaysia and to assess driver characteristics that are associated with CSS usage. Nine variables - urban versus rural study location, age, gender, marital status, educational status, monthly family income, number of children present in the vehicle, distance traveled to the study location, and attitude - were examined through a cross-sectional study of interviewing drivers of 230 vehicles transporting at least one child Malaysia. The results indicate that interventional efforts should focus on educational programs geared toward drivers that are less educated or extended family members who inconsistently transport young children. Furthermore, any educational efforts could be strongly enhanced by legislation mandating the use of CSS. Every effort should be made to thoroughly assess the effectiveness of any educational or legislative activities that are implemented. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Falls in Hospitalized Children With Neurodevelopmental Conditions: A Cross-sectional, Correlational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Francesco; Castelnuovo, Rosanna; Pacifico, Rossella; Leo, Rosaria; Trabacca, Antonio

    2017-10-04

    The aim of the current study was to investigate in-hospital falls among children with neurological or neurodevelopmental conditions and investigated associated child characteristics. A cross-sectional, correlational study design was used in this study. A total of 446 patients were enrolled in the study, of which 298 were admitted with neurological conditions and 148 with neurodevelopmental conditions. Intelligent quotient (IQ) was assessed according to age, and the Humpty Dumpty Falls Scale (HDFS) was completed and scored for each participant. The neurodevelopmental group showed higher HDFS total mean score (p = .001) compared to the neurological group. We found that fall rates are more frequent (p = .003) in the neurodevelopmental group (12.9%) compared with the neurological group (5.1%). In addition, we found that, in both groups, HDFS total mean score correlates negatively with children's age, gender and IQ. The results of this study suggest that the fall prevention programs must be implemented in children with neurodevelopmental conditions, not only in children with neurological conditions.

  5. A cross sectional study on health status of infants in rural areas of Kamrup, Assam

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    Madhur Borah

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:  Infancy is the period of growth and development of a child. Inadequate care, malnutrition and infections in this crucial period lead to high neonatal and infant deaths and also high prevalence of morbidities. But data on childhood and infant mortality and morbidities are still not adequate in North Eastern part of India, so this cross sectional study was initiated. Objectives: To assess the nutritional status and morbidity profile of infants and to study the associated socio-economic factors. Material and methods: Total 450 singleton infants under 1 year of age in 30 cluster villages were selected for the study. Data collected about socioeconomic condition of the family, infants’ nutrition and morbidity status and anthropometric measurements were done. Results: Out of 450 infants 24% were found to be underweight while 13.3% were stunted and 7.1% were wasted. Female infants were found to be more malnourished. A statistically significant association was found between gender and nutritional status. ARI (20% and Diarrhoea (14% were the most common morbidities among the study population and 6 to 8 months age group was the most vulnerable for these common morbidities. Conclusion: the study revealed that high percentages of the infants were suffering from malnutrition with female predominance and respiratory diseases, diarrhoea and malnutrition were the major causes of morbidity during the first year of life.

  6. Choosing Public Health Dentistry as a Career: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidu, Guntipalli M.; Prasad, Ghanasyam M.; Kandregula, Chaitanya Ram; Babburi, Suresh; KVNR, Pratap

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to assess the attitude of dental students towards considering Public Health Dentistry as their future career. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire based, cross-sectional survey was conducted, which included dental students from different years of study. It consisted of 27 questions that were graded on five point Likert scale. Results: A total of 293 of the 320 registered undergraduate students participated in the study, with an overall response rate of 91.5%. Among the sample, 80 (27%) were males and 213 (73%) were females. Among the total sample which was studied, it was observed that only one third (35.4%) of them had high attitude towards selecting Public Health Dentistry as a future career, and nearly two thirds of them (58.02%) had an average attitude, with very few students having low attitude (6.48%). Conclusion: The present study concluded that there was an average attitude of 58% among dental students, which showed that they had a considerable amount of interest in pursuing post graduation in this speciality. Efforts should be intensified, both by dental council and by the dental colleges, to develop this speciality, keeping in mind the increasing attitude of dental undergraduates towards it. This also helps in increasing the number of dental personnel who are specialized in implementation of oral health policy, which does not exist in India. PMID:24701534

  7. The Profile of Saudi Nursing Workforce: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Alboliteeh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The Royal Monarchy in Saudi Arabia decreed that all sectors of the workforce would be subject to a policy of “Saudisation” to reduce the reliance on the expatriate workforce and to reduce the unemployment rate of Saudi nationals (Al-Mahmoud et al., 2012. Methodology. A cross-sectional design was chosen to investigate the research questions. The population of this study comprised Saudi Registered Nurses working in MOH hospitals in Riyadh which is the main health care provider in Saudi Arabia (Aboul-Enein, 2002; MOH, 2009. Results and Findings. A total number of 1,198 questionnaires were distributed and 61.2% (n=741 were returned. The findings of the study showed that the questionnaires were collected from an equal portion of the study locale and that a sample of 741 is enough to create a strong conclusion and answer the problem set in this study and all the questions in the study have been provided with answers with enough data and literatures to supports its findings. Conclusion and Recommendations. The results indicate that an increase in the recruitment of Saudi males may simply reflect cultural issues such as gender specific facilities and the Saudisation program’s nondiscriminatory approach to employment of both genders into nursing.

  8. Osteoporosis, fragility fracture, and periodontal disease: a cross-sectional study in Spanish postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Maestre, Maria Angeles; Machuca, Guillermo; González-Cejudo, Carmen; Flores, José Ramón Corcuera; Cardoso, Rafael Torrejón; Castelo-Branco, Camil

    2013-01-01

    Osteoporosis and periodontitis are common disorders that affect aging populations. It has been hypothesized that both conditions may be related. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between osteoporosis and periodontitis using vertebral fragility fracture as a real marker of osteoporosis and periodontal clinical examination to define periodontitis. Six hundred thirty-four women aged 55 to 70 years, with fragility spine fractures, and living in the same healthcare region of Seville, Spain, were invited to take part in this cross-sectional study conducted from 2008 to 2010. All the women included in the study were referred to undergo spine radiological examination, spinal densitometry, and full-mouth periodontal assessment. With the exception of number of teeth (19 in the fractured postmenopausal group and 23 in the control group; P 7 mm). None of the definitions of periodontitis used resulted in significant differences between groups. The relationship between periodontitis and osteoporosis remains unclear, and further studies considering fragility fracture as a real marker of osteoporosis are warranted to clarify the exact role and effect of one condition on the other and the corresponding clinical implications.

  9. Association of premature hair graying with family history, smoking, and obesity: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hyoseung; Ryu, Hyeong Ho; Yoon, Junghee; Jo, Seongmoon; Jang, Sihyeok; Choi, Mira; Kwon, Ohsang; Jo, Seong Jin

    2015-02-01

    Many researchers have been concerned about the association of hair graying with systemic diseases. However, the common factors associated with hair graying and systemic diseases have not been elucidated. This study aimed to identify risk factors for premature hair graying (PHG) in young men. We conducted a cross-sectional study using questionnaires in young men. After a pilot study that included 1069 men, we surveyed 6390 men younger than 30 years about their gray hair status and various socioclinical characteristics. The age of participants in the main survey was 20.2 ± 1.3 years (mean ± SD). Of the 6390 participants, 1618 (25.3%) presented with PHG. Family history of PHG (odds ratio [OR], 12.82), obesity (OR, 2.61), and >5 pack-years history of smoking (OR, 1.61) were significantly associated with PHG. In the multivariate analysis, family history of PHG (OR, 2.63) and obesity (OR, 2.22) correlated with the severity of PHG. Owing to the use of questionnaires, the possibility of recall bias exists. Women were not evaluated in this study. Smoking, family history of PHG, and obesity are important factors associated with PHG. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Prevalence of intravenous medication administration errors: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekadu, Tezeta; Teweldemedhin, Mebrahtu; Esrael, Eyerusalem; Asgedom, Solomon Weldegebreal

    2017-01-01

    Intravenous medication administration errors (MAEs) may be accompanied by avoidable undesirable effects, which might result in clinical complications. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of MAEs and to identify the factors associated with such errors. A hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted from March to April 2015. Data were collected by direct observation using a pretested data collection tool. Simple random sampling was used, and bivariate logistic regression model was used to identify the factors associated with MAEs. P value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. A total of 134 patients were found to be eligible for the study. More than half of the study participants were males (76 [56.7%]). The rate of MAE was 46.1%, with the missed dose (n=162, 95.8%) being reported as the most common error. The age groups of 60-79 years (adjusted odds ratio = 2.166, confidence interval = 1.532-8.799) and 80-101 years (adjusted odds ratio = 1.52, confidence interval = 1.198-5.584) were the determinants of MAEs. A high prevalence of MAEs was found. Enhancing the knowledge and practical skills of clinical nurses might minimize such errors.

  11. Sedative Drug Use among King Saud University Medical Students: A Cross-Sectional Sampling Study

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    Ahmed A. Al-Sayed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Medical students experience significant psychological stress and are therefore at higher risk of using sedatives. There are currently no studies describing the prevalence of sedative drug use among medical students in Saudi Arabia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and factors associated with sedative drug use among medical students in Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods. A cross-sectional convenience sampling study gathered data by anonymous questionnaire from students enrolled at the King Saud University College of Medicine in 2011. The questionnaires collected data regarding social and demographic variables, sleep patterns, and the use of stimulant and sedative drugs since enrollment. Sedatives were defined as any pharmaceutical preparations that induce sleep. Results and Discussion. Of the 729 students who returned questionnaires, 17.0% reported sedative drug use at some time since enrollment. Higher academic year, lower grade point average, regular exercise, fewer hours of sleep per day, poorer quality of sleep, and the presence of sleeping disorders were found to be significantly associated with sedative drug use. Conclusions. Further study is required to increase our understanding of sedative drug use patterns in this relatively high-risk group, as such understanding will help in the development of early intervention programs.

  12. Population dynamics and tuberculosis: a cross sectional study of an overlooked disease in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Bishri, Jamal; Masoodi, Ibrahim; Adnan, Mubarki; Tariq, Malik; Abdullah, Harthi; Abdulgoni, Thubaiti; Bander, Guraibi; Altalhi, Mansoor

    2014-01-01

    International travel, migration and human population movements facilitate the spread of tuberculosis (TB). To study the impact of poorly screened expatriates working in Saudi Arabia on the local incidence of TBs. This cross sectional study was carried out in the Chest Disease Hospital, Taif. All confirmed cases of TB from June 2009 to May 2010 admitted to the hospital were enrolled. Inclusion criteria were diagnosed cases of TB (pulmonary & extra-pulmonary) in patients between the ages of 14 to 65 years. Patients with HIV and coexistent malignancies were excluded. The age, gender and ethnic group of each patient was recorded, and patients were divided into two groups. Of the two groups, Group A consisted of Taif residents and group B of patients referred from other cities in the country. Of the 686 cases studied, 370 (54%) were Saudi nationals (Group A = 80 & Group B = 290) and 316 (46%) cases were from other countries. Males outnumbered females and most of the patients were aged 20 to 29 years. The number of cases from the areas close to the pilgrimage sites, i.e. Makah (233) and Jeddah (275), outnumbered those in Taif (110). Our study identifies an increased prevalence of TB cases in areas close to the pilgrimage (Group B). The higher proportion of non-Saudi TB patients in group B is most likely explained by the higher number of poorly screened illegal expatriates in the region.

  13. Sedative Drug Use among King Saud University Medical Students: A Cross-Sectional Sampling Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sayed, Ahmed A; Al-Rashoudi, Abdualltef H; Al-Eisa, Abdulrhman A; Addar, Abdullah M; Al-Hargan, Abdullah H; Al-Jerian, Albaraa A; Al-Omair, Abdullah A; Al-Sheddi, Ahmed I; Al-Nowaiser, Hussam I; Al-Kathiri, Omar A; Al-Hassan, Abdullah H

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Medical students experience significant psychological stress and are therefore at higher risk of using sedatives. There are currently no studies describing the prevalence of sedative drug use among medical students in Saudi Arabia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and factors associated with sedative drug use among medical students in Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods. A cross-sectional convenience sampling study gathered data by anonymous questionnaire from students enrolled at the King Saud University College of Medicine in 2011. The questionnaires collected data regarding social and demographic variables, sleep patterns, and the use of stimulant and sedative drugs since enrollment. Sedatives were defined as any pharmaceutical preparations that induce sleep. Results and Discussion. Of the 729 students who returned questionnaires, 17.0% reported sedative drug use at some time since enrollment. Higher academic year, lower grade point average, regular exercise, fewer hours of sleep per day, poorer quality of sleep, and the presence of sleeping disorders were found to be significantly associated with sedative drug use. Conclusions. Further study is required to increase our understanding of sedative drug use patterns in this relatively high-risk group, as such understanding will help in the development of early intervention programs.

  14. Prevalence of Sonographic Fatty Liver in Overweight and Obese Children A Cross Sectional Study in Isfahan

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    R Kelishadi

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Children’s obesity is strong predictor of obesity in adulthood, which increases the incidence of related diseases such as metabolic syndrome. Fatty liver is an abnormality related to metabolic syndrome with higher prevalence in obese children according to some previous studies. This study investigates the presence of Sonographic Fatty Liver (SFL in Iranian obese children in comparison with normal and overweight children. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study on 962 randomly selected children between the ages of 6 to 18 years. The subjects were divided into three groups of normal, overweight and obese based on body mass index (BMI. A questionnaire including demographic and anthropometrical characteristics was filled for each case. To detect the presence of SFL, all the subjects underwent assessment with ultrasonography by a radiologist who was not aware of their BMI. The incidence of SFL was determined on the basis of ultrasonographic diagnosis criteria. Results: The prevalence of SFL in obese children was 54.4% that was significantly higher than overweight (10.5% and normal children (1%. There was no significant difference in prevalence of SFL between sexes. Conclusion: The high rate of detected SFL in obese children in this study suggests that Iranian obese children are at risk of metabolic syndrome. It is therefore necessary to develop some plan to control obesity and its late complications.

  15. Prevalence of Pulmonary Tuberculosis among Prison Inmates in Ethiopia, a Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Solomon; Haileamlak, Abraham; Wieser, Andreas; Pritsch, Michael; Heinrich, Norbert; Loscher, Thomas; Hoelscher, Michael; Rachow, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the major health problems in prisons. This study was done to assess the prevalence and determinants of active tuberculosis in Ethiopian prisons. A cross-sectional study was conducted from January 2013 to December 2013 in 13 zonal prisons. All incarcerated inmates underwent TB symptom screening according to WHO criteria. From identified TB-suspects two sputum samples were analyzed using smear microscopy and solid culture. A standardized questionnaire assessing TB risk factors was completed for each TB suspect. 765 (4.9%) TB suspects were identified among 15,495 inmates. 51 suspects were already on anti-TB treatment (6.67%) and 20 (2.8%) new culture-confirmed TB cases were identified in the study, resulting in an overall TB prevalence of 458.1/100,000 (95%CI: 350-560/100,000). Risk factors for active TB were alcohol consumption, contact with a TB case before incarceration and no window in prison cell. HIV prevalence was not different between TB suspects and active TB cases. Further, the TB burden in prisons increased with advancing distance from the capital Addis Ababa. The overall TB prevalence in Ethiopian prisons was high and extremely variable among different prisons. TB risk factors related to conditions of prison facilities and the impact of implemented TB control measures need to be further studied in order to improve TB control among inmates.

  16. Professional confidence among Swedish final year midwifery students - A cross-sectional study.

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    Bäck, Lena; Sharma, Bharati; Karlström, Annika; Tunon, Katarina; Hildingsson, Ingegerd

    2017-12-01

    Previous international studies have shown that midwifery students do not feel confident in many areas where they are supposed to practice independently. The knowledge about Swedish midwifery students' confidence is fairly under investigated. The purpose of the present study was to explore final years' midwifery students' professional confidence in basic midwifery skills according to ICM competencies and associated factors. A cross-sectional survey where all midwifery programs in Sweden were invited to participate. Data was collected by a questionnaire that measured midwifery students self-reported assessment of confidence against four selected domains of ICM competencies; antenatal, intrapartum, postpartum and new-born care. The main findings of this study showed that Swedish midwifery students were confident in managing normal pregnancy, labour and birth. Midwifery students at a school with a medical faculty were more confident in handling obstetric emergency situations. Some background variables were also associated with confidence. This study highlighted some midwifery skills that needs further training and reflection. More training and developing confidence in complicated and emergency situations are needed. There seem to be a need of midwifery education reforms if we believe that high levels of confidence at the time of graduation is equal to competent and skilled midwives in the future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. NUTRITIONAL IMPORTANCE DURING MENOPAUSE: A CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY IN URBAN AREA OF DISTRICT VARANASI

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    Pooja Verma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: - Menopause is a universal reproductive phenomenon. All the nutrients plays important role at the time of menopause and in prevention of diseases. Deficiency of vitamin D is one of the major contributory factors responsible for lower bone mineral density (BMD in menopausal women. Iron deficiency anemia is common among menopausal women. The present study was conducted to assess the views on importance of nutrition & intake of various food items during menopause.Methods: - Community based   cross sectional study. A total of 100 women aged 45-55 years in post-menopausal phase were selected from urban areas of district Varanasi during 2012-13. Data were collected by pretested questionnaire cum interview method.Results: - In the present study half of respondent belonged to 40-45 years age group. When they were asked about importance of nutrition during menopause 70% respondent said that they paid attention on their diet during menopause. 79% women preferred food being cooked in their kitchen. 69% women took milk in their regular diet. 95% women’s took fruits and vegetables in their diet. Only 76% have knowledge of added requirement of iron & calcium but only 59% women had iron and calcium reach foods in their regular diet.Conclusion: - In the present study about three fourth respondents knew about nutritional importance during menopause.

  18. Noise Exposure and Hearing Capabilities of Quarry Workers in Ghana: A Cross-Sectional Study

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    Charles Kwame R. Gyamfi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Although quarry operations have high economic significance, the effects they cause to the workers in terms of excessive noise production cannot be overlooked. This cross-sectional study assessed the extent of noise exposure and its influence on hearing capabilities among quarry workers in Ashanti region. Methods. The study involved 400 workers randomly selected from five quarries in Ashanti region from April to June 2012. Data was collected using structured questionnaires, physical examination, and audiological assessments. A logistic regression model was fitted to assess independent predictors of hearing loss. Results. All the machines used at the various quarries produced noise that exceeded the minimum threshold with levels ranging from 85.5 dBA to 102.7 dBA. 176 (44% of study respondents had hearing threshold higher than 25 dBA. 18% and 2% of these were moderately (41–55 dBA and severely (71–90 dBA impaired, respectively. Age, duration of work, and use of earplugs independently predicted the development of hearing loss. Use of earplugs showed a protective effect on the development of hearing loss (OR = 0.45; 95% CI = 0.25, 0.84. Conclusion. This study provides empirical evidence on the extent of damage caused to quarry workers as a result of excessive noise exposure. This will support the institution of appropriate protective measures to minimize this threat.

  19. Factors associated with numbers of remaining teeth among type 2 diabetes: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jui-Chu; Peng, Yun-Shing; Fan, Jun-Yu; Jane, Sui-Whi; Tu, Liang-Tse; Chang, Chang-Cheng; Chen, Mei-Yen

    2013-07-01

    To explore the factors associated with the numbers of remaining teeth among type 2 diabetes community residents. Promoting oral health is an important nursing role for patients with diabetes, especially in disadvantaged areas. However, limited research has been carried out on the relationship between numbers of remaining teeth, diabetes-related biomarkers and personal oral hygiene among diabetic rural residents. A cross-sectional, descriptive design with a simple random sample was used. This study was part of a longitudinal cohort study of health promotion for preventing diabetic foot among rural community diabetic residents. It was carried out in 18 western coastal and inland districts of Chiayi County in central Taiwan. In total, 703 participants were enrolled in this study. The findings indicated that a high percentage of the participants (26%) had no remaining natural teeth. Nearly three quarters (74%) had fewer than 20 natural teeth. After controlling for the potential confounding factors, multivariate analysis demonstrated that the factors determining numbers of remaining teeth were age (p teeth were less tooth-brushing with dental floss, abnormal ankle brachial pressure and poor glycemic control. This study highlights the importance of nursing intervention in oral hygiene for patients with type 2 diabetes. It is necessary to initiate oral health promotion activities when diabetes is first diagnosed, especially for older diabetic residents of rural or coastal areas who are poorly educated. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. The factors associated to psychosocial stress among general practitioners in Lithuania. Cross-sectional study

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    Vanagas Giedrius

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are number of studies showing that general practice is one of the most stressful workplace among health care workers. Since Baltic States regained independence in 1990, the reform of the health care system took place in which new role and more responsibilities were allocated to general practitioners' in Lithuania. This study aimed to explore the psychosocial stress level among Lithuanian general practitioner's and examine the relationship between psychosocial stress and work characteristics. Methods The cross-sectional study of 300 Lithuanian General practitioners. Psychosocial stress was investigated with a questionnaire based on the Reeder scale. Job demands were investigated with the R. Karasek scale. The analysis included descriptive statistics; interrelationship analysis between characteristics and multivariate logistic regression to estimate odds ratios for each of the independent variables in the model. Results Response rate 66% (N = 197. Our study highlighted highest prevalence of psychosocial stress among widowed, single and female general practitioners. Lowest prevalence of psychosocial stress was among males and older age general practitioners. Psychosocial stress occurs when job demands are high and job decision latitude is low (χ2 = 18,9; p Conclusion One half of respondents suffering from work related psychosocial stress. High psychological workload demands combined with low decision latitude has the greatest impact to stress caseness among GP's. High job demands, high patient load and young age of GP's can be assigned as significant predictors of psychosocial stress among GP's.

  1. Interest in nursing among academic degree holders in Israel: A cross-sectional quantitative study.

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    Ben Natan, Merav

    2016-03-01

    The shortage of nurses is a global problem. One strategy for producing more registered nurses worldwide and in Israel in particular is to offer graduate entry nursing programs for individuals with non-nursing academic degrees. In order to recruit academic degree holders into the nursing profession, it is important to identify factors that might attract them. The purpose of this study was to explore whether the perception of nurse characteristics by academic degree holders is associated with their interest in enrolling in a graduate entry nursing program or in recommending this program to a family member, and whether ethnic background, gender and interaction with a nurse have an effect on this interest. A cross-sectional quantitative study. The setting of the study was on the campus of Tel Aviv University. A convenience sample of 522 individuals with an academic education, men and women, aged 18-60 and equally distributed between Jewish and Arab Israelis, took part in the study. Participants completed a questionnaire based on the Porter Nursing Image Scale. A moderate positive correlation was found between perception of nurses and interest in nursing (r=0.32, pnurses, viewed nurses in a more positive light and had a higher interest in nursing than their counterparts. Efforts should be made to foster a positive public image of nursing among the population of people with an academic education. Recruitment strategies should be tailored to each of this population's subgroups. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Cross-sectional retrospective study of muscle function in patients with glycogen storage disease type III.

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    Decostre, Valérie; Laforêt, Pascal; Nadaj-Pakleza, Aleksandra; De Antonio, Marie; Leveugle, Sylvain; Ollivier, Gwenn; Canal, Aurélie; Kachetel, Kahina; Petit, François; Eymard, Bruno; Behin, Anthony; Wahbi, Karim; Labrune, Philippe; Hogrel, Jean-Yves

    2016-09-01

    Glycogen storage disease type III is an inherited metabolic disorder characterized by liver and muscle impairment. This study aimed to identify promising muscle function measures for future studies on natural disease progression and therapeutic trials. The age-effect on the manual muscle testing (MMT), the hand-held dynamometry (HHD), the motor function measure (MFM) and the Purdue pegboard test was evaluated by regression analysis in a cross-sectional retrospective single site study. In patients aged between 13 and 56 years old, the Purdue pegboard test and dynamometry of key pinch and knee extension strength were age-sensitive with annual losses of 1.49, 1.10 and 0.70% of the predicted values (%pred), respectively. The MFM score and handgrip strength were also age-sensitive but only in patients older than 29 and 37 years old with annual losses of 1.42 and 1.84%pred, respectively. Muscle strength assessed by MMT and elbow extension measured by HHD demonstrated an annual loss of less than 0.50%pred and are thus unlikely to be promising outcome measures for future clinical trials. In conclusion, our results identified age-sensitive outcomes from retrospective data and may serve for future longitudinal studies in which an estimation of the minimal number of subjects is provided. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Work ability and health of security guards at a public University: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godinho, Marluce Rodrigues; Ferreira, Aldo Pacheco; Greco, Rosangela Maria; Teixeira, Liliane Reis; Teixeira, Maria Teresa Bustamante

    2016-01-01

    to evaluate the work ability and health status of security guards at a public University. a cross-sectional, descriptive, and analytical study was carried with 119 security guards. The following instruments were used: Work Ability Index (WAI), Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ, short), Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), Medical Outcomes Study (MOS), and Demand-Control-Support (DCS). Descriptive statistics were used to describe the study samples and the Spearman's coefficient correlation was performed to assess the WAI. Significance level was set at 5%. samples were composed by men; the mean age was 54.9 years (SD=5.7); 80% had partners, and 75% had basic education. The majority (95%) had only one job, the average length of service was 24.8 years (SD=11), ranging from 3 to 43 years. 88.9% worked ≤40 hours and 75% did not work at night shift or rotating shifts. The average score given to work ability was good (40.7 points), with significant correlation to social support at work (p-value=0.002), health conditions (p-value=0.094), and depression symptoms (p-value=0.054). this study showed that many characteristics might affect the work ability scores. Considering the results, we note that healthy life habits and a reorganization of work environments should be encouraged.

  4. Insomnia and Its Temporal Association with Academic Performance among University Students: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haile, Yohannes Gebreegziabhere; Alemu, Sisay Mulugeta; Habtewold, Tesfa Dejenie

    2017-01-01

    Studies show that 9.4% to 38.2% of university students are suffering from insomnia. However, research data in developing countries is limited. Thus, the aim of the study was to assess insomnia and its temporal association with academic performance. Institution based cross-sectional study was conducted with 388 students at Debre Berhan University. Data were collected at the nine colleges. Logistic and linear regression analysis was performed for modeling insomnia and academic performance with a p value threshold of 0.05, respectively. Data were entered using EPI-data version 3.1 and analyzed using SPSS version 20. The prevalence of insomnia was 61.6%. Field of study ( p value = 0.01), worshiping frequency ( p value = 0.048), marital status ( p value = 0.03), and common mental disorder ( p value academic performance ( p value = 0.53, β = -0.04). Insomnia explained 1.2% ( r 2 = 0.012) of the difference in academic performance between students. Nearly 3 out of 5 students had insomnia. We recommended that universities would endorse sleep quality and mental health illness screening programs for students.

  5. Insomnia and Its Temporal Association with Academic Performance among University Students: A Cross-Sectional Study

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    Yohannes Gebreegziabhere Haile

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Studies show that 9.4% to 38.2% of university students are suffering from insomnia. However, research data in developing countries is limited. Thus, the aim of the study was to assess insomnia and its temporal association with academic performance. Methods and Materials. Institution based cross-sectional study was conducted with 388 students at Debre Berhan University. Data were collected at the nine colleges. Logistic and linear regression analysis was performed for modeling insomnia and academic performance with a p value threshold of 0.05, respectively. Data were entered using EPI-data version 3.1 and analyzed using SPSS version 20. Results. The prevalence of insomnia was 61.6%. Field of study (p value = 0.01, worshiping frequency (p value = 0.048, marital status (p value = 0.03, and common mental disorder (p value < 0.001 were identified associated factors of insomnia. There was no significant association between insomnia and academic performance (p value = 0.53, β = −0.04. Insomnia explained 1.2% (r2 = 0.012 of the difference in academic performance between students. Conclusions. Nearly 3 out of 5 students had insomnia. We recommended that universities would endorse sleep quality and mental health illness screening programs for students.

  6. Insomnia and Its Temporal Association with Academic Performance among University Students: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemu, Sisay Mulugeta

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Studies show that 9.4% to 38.2% of university students are suffering from insomnia. However, research data in developing countries is limited. Thus, the aim of the study was to assess insomnia and its temporal association with academic performance. Methods and Materials Institution based cross-sectional study was conducted with 388 students at Debre Berhan University. Data were collected at the nine colleges. Logistic and linear regression analysis was performed for modeling insomnia and academic performance with a p value threshold of 0.05, respectively. Data were entered using EPI-data version 3.1 and analyzed using SPSS version 20. Results The prevalence of insomnia was 61.6%. Field of study (p value = 0.01), worshiping frequency (p value = 0.048), marital status (p value = 0.03), and common mental disorder (p value academic performance (p value = 0.53, β = −0.04). Insomnia explained 1.2% (r2 = 0.012) of the difference in academic performance between students. Conclusions Nearly 3 out of 5 students had insomnia. We recommended that universities would endorse sleep quality and mental health illness screening programs for students. PMID:28752093

  7. Knowledge, attitudes and misconceptions of primary care physicians regarding fever in children: a cross sectional study

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    Demir Figen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fever is an extremely common sign in paediatric patients and the most common cause for a child to be taken to the doctor. The literature indicates that physicians and parents have too many misconceptions and conflicting results about fever management. In this study we aim to identify knowledge, attitudes and misconceptions of primary care physicians regarding fever in children. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in April-May 2010 involving primary care physicians (n=80. The physicians were surveyed using a self-administered questionnaire. Descriptive statistics were used. Results In our study only 10% of the physicians knew that a body temperature of above 37.2°C according to an auxiliary measurement is defined as fever. Only 26.2% of the physicians took into consideration signs and symptoms other than fever to prescribe antipyretics. 85% of the physicians prescribed antipyretics to control fever or prevent complications of fever especially febrile seizures. Most of the physicians (76.3% in this study reported that the height of fever may be used as an indicator for severe bacterial infection. A great majority of physicians (91.3% stated that they advised parents to alternate the use of ibuprofen and paracetamol. Conclusions There were misconceptions about the management and complications of fever. There is a perceived need to improve the recognition, assessment, and management of fever with regards to underlying illnesses in children.

  8. Elderly and Health Problems: A Cross Sectional Study in the Shahroud Township

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    Farideh Sadeghiyan

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The elderly is raised as an important issue of nations. In our country due to pyramid of the population program ,planning for any service, needs to understanding the real demands of the elderly the study of health problems of elderly was conducted in2009. Methods & Materials: This study was applied the method of cross-sectional study on 1046 people aged 60-69 years rural and urban in Shahroud. Data gathering tool was a questionnaire, 33 questions from the interview, examination and weighing were completed in the elderly. Data analyze using descriptive and analytical tests were performed using the software spss. Results: 61% of elderly were women. 59.8% lived in urban areas. 60% were illiterate and 13% of those were alone. Elderly problems were 44.7% sleep, 23% hearing, 62% vision, 45.2% of foot, 21.7% constipation, 45.3% impairment of memory, 14.8% of urinary tract, 90.8% stress and 43% reported dental problems. In this study significant relations were found between Sex with joint pain and sleep disorders, living area with visual impairment, visual impairment with education, sleep disorders and dental problems. Conclusion: findings showed that dental, vision, foot and memory were the main problems in the elderly. Development of care and services for the elderly in health and primary health care networks, Health awareness and life skills training to elderly and their families can have an effective role in improving the status of the elderly.

  9. The Relation between Psychiatric Diagnoses and Constipation in Hospitalized Patients: A Cross-Sectional Study

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    Janique G. Jessurun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Constipation is a prevalent problem in patients with psychiatric disorders; it reduces quality of life and may lead to severe complications. The prevalence distribution of constipation across all psychiatric diagnoses in patients with severe mental illness (SMI has hardly been studied. The aim of this study is to estimate the association between psychiatric disorders and constipation in SMI inpatients. Methods. The strength of the association between constipation (based on use of laxatives and DSM-IV psychiatric diagnosis was studied in a cross-sectional study with “adjustment disorders” as the reference group. The association was analyzed using logistic regression. Results. Of the 4728 patients, 20.3% had constipation. In the stratum of patients older than 60 years, all psychiatric categories except for substance related disorders were significantly associated with a higher prevalence of constipation (odds ratios ranging from 3.38 to 6.52, whereas no significant associations were found in the stratum of patients between 18 and 60 years (odds ratios ranging from 1.00 to 2.03. Conclusion. In the elderly, all measured psychiatric diagnoses are strongly associated with an increased prevalence of constipation. Physicians should be extra alert for constipation in SMI patients, independent of specific psychiatric diagnoses.

  10. Complementary and Alternative Medicine: A Cross-Sectional Observational Study in Pediatric Inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhankar, Mukesh

    2018-01-01

    The aim was to study the prevalence of complementary and alternative medicine use in acutely sick hospitalized children and factors associated with it. This is a cross-sectional, hospital-based study in a tertiary care center of Delhi, India. Children admitted to a pediatric unit during the study period were assessed using a specially designed questionnaire. Out of the total 887 admitted children, 161 (18.1%) were using complementary and alternate medicine in one form or another. Of these, 113 (70.2%) were using complementary and alternate medicine for the current illness directly leading to admission and the remaining 48 (29.8%) had used complementary and alternate medicine in past. The common complementary and alternate medicine use observed in our study was combined ayurveda and spiritual approach (25.5%), ayurveda (24.8%), spiritual (21.7%), homeopathic (13%), and 47.2% of children were using spiritual approach in form of Jhada (tying piece of cloth on arm or leg or keeping a knife by the side of child). The significant factors associated with complementary and alternate medicine use were younger age, female gender, and father being employed. Complementary and alternate medicine is commonly used even in acutely sick children.

  11. Prevalence of palatal rugae shapes in Karnataka and Kerala population: A cross-sectional study.

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    Savita, J K; Yathindra Kumar, B N; Satish, G; Divya, K T; Ranjitha, J; Pujari, Ravi Kumar

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to assess the incidence and prevalence of palatal rugae shapes in the male and female populations of Karnataka and Kerala. This study consisted of 100 plaster models of each group, which were equally distributed between both the genders, with an age range of 17-23 years. The rugae patterns were recorded by using Thomas and Kotze classification. Correlation between the rugae shape and population as well as the rugae shape and gender were analyzed using chi-square analysis and discriminant function analysis using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences Version 22 (IBM Corp). Curved, straight, and wavy rugae patterns were the most common in both Kerala and Karnataka sample populations. Chi-square analysis showed significant differences between the populations for the curved pattern; discriminant function analysis showed significant differences between the populations for the curved and straight patterns. Significant gender differences were found in the curved pattern for Karnataka population and in unification patterns for both populations by Chi-square/Fischer exact test. The curved and straight rugae patterns were significantly more frequent in the Kerala population compared to the Karnataka population. Because of the limited sample size of this study, further cross-sectional studies are suggested.

  12. Health Impact of Domestic Violence against Saudi Women: Cross Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Dosary, Ahmad Hamad

    2016-04-01

    Domestic violence is a major public health problem. A wide range of health hazards result from violence against women directly, or from its long-term consequences. The objective of this study is to determine health related consequences of domestic violence against women. A community based cross-sectional study was carried through online survey; convenience sample was taken during the period between December 2013 and February 2014. 421 women completed the survey, who met the inclusion criteria and accepted willing to be a part of this study. The data was collected through online survey website. A validated Arabic version of NorVold Domestic Abuse Questionnaire (NOVAQ) was used as a tool to assess domestic violence among the study sample. Analysis was performed using SPSS, version 18.0. A total of 421 women participated in the survey. There was no significant correlation between socio-demographic characteristics and being abused or not. However, by further analysis we found more sexual abuse among non-working women P=0.048. There was significant correlation between abused women and general health status, doctor visits, depression, insomnia, and somatic symptoms. The consequences of abuse are profound, extending beyond the health of individual to affect the well-being of entire community. So, we recommend to increase community awareness through national awareness campaign, national prevalence survey of domestic violence and well trained health professionals for assessing domestic violence cases.

  13. Attitude toward learning of community medicine: A cross-sectional study among medical school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugavel, Japhereena; Chellaiyan, Vinoth Gnana; Krishnamoorthy, Dhivyatharani

    2017-01-01

    Community medicine strives to protect and promote the health and well-being of the community through primary health care approach. However the preference of community medicine as career among medical school students and curriculum of community medicine is pivotal. The study intended to find the attitude towards learning of community medicine and also to assess the preference of post graduation specialty among medical school students. A cross sectional study conducted at a teaching hospital located in Tamil Nadu, South India. The study questionnaire was administered to a total of 500 study participants and the data collected were analyzed using SPSS IBM version 21.0. Almost 97% were of the opinion that community medicine subject is mandatory. Eighty three percent were interested in learning the principles. Only 21.8% students wanted to pursue post graduation in community medicine. Lack of attraction in terms of scientific technical interest, workplace conditions, and research potential has been reported for being not interested. Majority enjoyed to learn principles of community medicine at undergraduate curriculum but only few preferred to opt community medicine as post graduate specialty. Therefore there is a room to influence the medical students positively towards learning community medicine in curriculum.

  14. Attitude toward learning of community medicine: A cross-sectional study among medical school students

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    Japhereena Murugavel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Community medicine strives to protect and promote the health and well-being of the community through primary health care approach. However the preference of community medicine as career among medical school students and curriculum of community medicine is pivotal. Aim: The study intended to find the attitude towards learning of community medicine and also to assess the preference of post graduation specialty among medical school students. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional study conducted at a teaching hospital located in Tamil Nadu, South India. The study questionnaire was administered to a total of 500 study participants and the data collected were analyzed using SPSS IBM version 21.0. Results: Almost 97% were of the opinion that community medicine subject is mandatory. Eighty three percent were interested in learning the principles. Only 21.8% students wanted to pursue post graduation in community medicine. Lack of attraction in terms of scientific technical interest, workplace conditions, and research potential has been reported for being not interested. Conclusion: Majority enjoyed to learn principles of community medicine at undergraduate curriculum but only few preferred to opt community medicine as post graduate specialty. Therefore there is a room to influence the medical students positively towards learning community medicine in curriculum.

  15. Internet use, Facebook intrusion, and depression: Results of a cross-sectional study.

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    Błachnio, A; Przepiórka, A; Pantic, I

    2015-09-01

    Facebook has become a very popular social networking platform today, particularly among adolescents and young adults, profoundly changing the way they communicate and interact. However, some reports have indicated that excessive Facebook use might have detrimental effects on mental health and be associated with certain psychological problems. Because previous findings on the relationship between Facebook addiction and depression were not unambiguous, further investigation was required. The main objective of our study was to examine the potential associations between Internet use, depression, and Facebook intrusion. A total of 672 Facebook users took part in the cross-sectional study. The Facebook Intrusion Questionnaire and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale were used. For collecting the data, the snowball sampling procedure was used. We showed that depression can be a predictor of Facebook intrusion. Our results provides additional evidence that daily Internet use time in minutes, gender, and age are also predictors of Facebook intrusion: that Facebook intrusion can be predicted by being male, young age, and an extensive number of minutes spent online. On the basis of this study, it is possible to conclude that there are certain demographic - variables, such as age, gender, or time spent online - that may help in outlining the profile of a user who may be in danger of becoming addicted to Facebook. This piece of knowledge may serve for prevention purposes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Noise Exposure and Hearing Capabilities of Quarry Workers in Ghana: A Cross-Sectional Study.

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    Gyamfi, Charles Kwame R; Amankwaa, Isaac; Owusu Sekyere, Frank; Boateng, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Although quarry operations have high economic significance, the effects they cause to the workers in terms of excessive noise production cannot be overlooked. This cross-sectional study assessed the extent of noise exposure and its influence on hearing capabilities among quarry workers in Ashanti region. The study involved 400 workers randomly selected from five quarries in Ashanti region from April to June 2012. Data was collected using structured questionnaires, physical examination, and audiological assessments. A logistic regression model was fitted to assess independent predictors of hearing loss. All the machines used at the various quarries produced noise that exceeded the minimum threshold with levels ranging from 85.5 dBA to 102.7 dBA. 176 (44%) of study respondents had hearing threshold higher than 25 dBA. 18% and 2% of these were moderately (41-55 dBA) and severely (71-90 dBA) impaired, respectively. Age, duration of work, and use of earplugs independently predicted the development of hearing loss. Use of earplugs showed a protective effect on the development of hearing loss (OR = 0.45; 95% CI = 0.25, 0.84). This study provides empirical evidence on the extent of damage caused to quarry workers as a result of excessive noise exposure. This will support the institution of appropriate protective measures to minimize this threat.

  17. Influence of maternal anxiety on child anxiety during dental care: cross-sectional study.

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    Busato, Paloma; Garbín, Raíssa Rigo; Santos, Catielma Nascimento; Paranhos, Luiz Renato; Rigo, Lilian

    2017-01-01

    Anxiety is usually classified as a disorder of neurotic nature and is often related to contexts of stress, which may include worries, motor tension and autonomic hyperactivity. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of mothers' anxiety on their children's anxiety during dental care. Analytical cross-sectional study conducted at in a private dentistry school in the south of Brazil. Convenience sampling was used. All mothers of children undergoing treatment were invited to participate in this study. Data to investigate anxiety related to dental treatment among the children were collected through applying the Venham Picture Test (VPT) scale. For the mothers, the Corah scale was applied. A self-administered sociodemographic questionnaire with questions about demographic, behavioral, oral health and dental service variables was also used. 40 mother-child pairs were included in the study. The results showed that 40% of the children were anxious and 60% of the mothers were slightly anxious. Local anesthesia was the procedure that caused most anxiety among the mothers, making them somewhat uncomfortable and anxious (60%). Family income higher than R$ 1,577.00 had an influence on maternal anxiety (75.6%). Maternal anxiety had an influence on child anxiety (81.3%). Most of the children showed the presence of anxiety, which ranged from fear of dental care to panic, inferring that maternal anxiety has an influence on children's anxiety. Dental procedures did not interfere with the mothers' anxiety, but caused positive feelings, whereas they affected the children more.

  18. Prevalence and associated factors of alexithymia among adult prisoners in China: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li; Xu, Linna; You, Weimin; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Ling, Nanpeng

    2017-08-03

    Prison is an extremely stressful environment and prisoners have an increasing risk of suffering from alexithymia. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the prevalence and associated factors of alexithymia among prisoners in China. A cross-sectional study was conducted in five main jails of the district of Zhejiang province in China, and a total of 1705 adult prisoners ultimately took part in the study. Toronto Alexithymia Scale, Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, Beck Depression Inventory, Beck Anxiety Inventory, Beck Hopelessness Scale and several short demographic questions were applied. Over 30% of prisoners were classified as alexithymics and as high as 96.2% of prisoners suffered from at least one traumatic experience in their childhood, meanwhile, 81.5%, 53.4% and 85.8% were found to be positive for depression, anxiety and hopelessness symptoms respectively. Education, childhood trauma, negative emotional symptoms including depression, anxiety and hopelessness of the respondents, were negatively or positively associated with alexithymia among prisoners. The results indicated that high prevalence of alexithymia among prisoners is linked with their level of education, experience of childhood trauma and symptoms of negative emotions. Accordingly, the findings in our study can be used for prevention and intervention of alexithymia among prisoners.

  19. Cosmetics Utilization Practice in Jigjiga Town, Eastern Ethiopia: A Community Based Cross-Sectional Study

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    Arebu I. Bilal

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The trend of cosmetics utilization has increased globally; however, the exact amount of usage is not researched well. Lack of population awareness on proper use of cosmetics, particularly in developing countries, causes a prominent health challenge. Therefore, this study was conducted to assess the cosmetics utilization practices in Jigjiga town, Eastern Ethiopia. A community based cross-sectional study, using a semi-structured questionnaire, was used to assess factors associated with cosmetics use. Of the 559 participants, 93% used at least one type of cosmetics in the two weeks prior to the survey. The most commonly used products were body creams and lotions (68%, shampoos and conditioners (35%, and deodorants and perfumes (29%. Being single, female, and in the age group of 18–20 years increased the odds of cosmetics utilization. However, being in primary school and being self-employed showed a less likely use of cosmetics. Two hundred forty-seven (44% of the interviewed household members reported that they use traditional herbal cosmetics. A higher likelihood of traditional herbal cosmetics use was observed in the age group of 18–20 years. This study indicated that the community in Jigjiga town use different types of cosmetics. Education, occupation, marital status, age, and gender were all important factors that determined the use of cosmetics in the study area.

  20. Systemic Thinking and Partnership Working: A Cross Sectional Study in a Medical Sciences University in Iran

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    Mohammad Khammarnia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Systemic thinking can provide practice in multidisciplinary team working and improve the organizational efficacy. This study aimed to determine the association between systemic thinking and partnership working in the employees of a medical sciences university in the south of Iran. Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed in Zahedan University of Medical Sciences (ZAUMS in 2015. The study population consisted of all employees in ZAUMS; 370 participants were selected through stratified random sampling. Two standard questionnaires were used for data gathering. The data were analyzed in SPSS (v21 using Pearson, One way ANOVA, and logistic regression. The level of significance was considered as 0.05. Results: In this study, 225 participants (60.8% were female and their mean age was 34.7±8.7. The score of partnership working for 362 participants was higher than the mean standard (40. Systemic thinking had a positive association with partnership working (p=0.001 and married status of the participants (p=0.04. Partnership working in male and older staff was more than others in ZAUMS (p<0.001 and p=0.01, respectively. Conclusion: Systematic thinking had a positive association with the employees’ working partnership. Moreover, the male staff had better systematic thinking. It is recommended that the managers should promote systematic thinking in staff, especially in females, for better partnership and efficacy in organizations.

  1. Alcohol consumers' attention to warning labels and brand information on alcohol packaging: Findings from cross-sectional and experimental studies.

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    Kersbergen, Inge; Field, Matt

    2017-01-26

    Alcohol warning labels have a limited effect on drinking behavior, potentially because people devote minimal attention to them. We report findings from two studies in which we measured the extent to which alcohol consumers attend to warning labels on alcohol packaging, and aimed to identify if increased attention to warning labels is associated with motivation to change drinking behavior. Study 1 (N = 60) was an exploratory cross-sectional study in which we used eye-tracking to measure visual attention to brand and health information on alcohol and soda containers. In study 2 (N = 120) we manipulated motivation to reduce drinking using an alcohol brief intervention (vs control intervention) and measured heavy drinkers' attention to branding and warning labels with the same eye-tracking paradigm as in study 1. Then, in a separate task we experimentally manipulated attention by drawing a brightly colored border around health (or brand) information before measuring participants' self-reported drinking intentions for the subsequent week. Study 1 showed that participants paid minimal attention to warning labels (7% of viewing time). Participants who were motivated to reduce drinking paid less attention to alcohol branding and alcohol warning labels. Results from study 2 showed that the alcohol brief intervention decreased attention to branding compared to the control condition, but it did not affect attention to warning labels. Furthermore, the experimental manipulation of attention to health or brand information did not influence drinking intentions for the subsequent week. Alcohol consumers allocate minimal attention to warning labels on alcohol packaging and even if their attention is directed to these warning labels, this has no impact on their drinking intentions. The lack of attention to warning labels, even among people who actively want to cut down, suggests that there is room for improvement in the content of health warnings on alcohol packaging.

  2. Burnout Syndrome and associated factors among medical students: a cross-sectional study.

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    Costa, Edméa Fontes de Oliva; Santos, Shirley Andrade; Santos, Ana Teresa Rodrigues de Abreu; Melo, Enaldo Vieira de; Andrade, Tarcísio Matos de

    2012-01-01

    To assess the prevalence and levels of burnout syndrome among medical students at the Universidade Federal de Sergipe-Brazil and to identify associated factors. A cross-sectional study was performed with randomly selected students in 2009. The Maslach Burnout Inventory/Student Survey (MBI-SS) and a structured questionnaire on socio-demographic characteristics, the educational process, and individual aspects were used. Statistical evaluation of multiple variables was performed through backward stepwise logistic regression analysis. The prevalence of burnout was 10.3% (n = 369). The prevalence was higher among those who did not have confidence in their clinical skills (Odds Ratio-OR = 6.47), those who felt uncomfortable with course activities (OR = 5.76), and those who did not see the coursework as a source of pleasure (OR = 4.68). There was a significant prevalence of burnout among the medical students studied. Three variables, in particular, were associated with burnout and were directly related to the medical education process. Preventive and intervention measures must be adopted, and longitudinal studies should be conducted.

  3. Prevalence of Postpartum Depression and its Correlation with Breastfeeding: A Cross-Sectional Study

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    Wedad Saad Al-Muhaish

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The relationship between breastfeeding and postpartum depression is bidirectional. Breastfeeding improves the maternal and neonatal health. There is now growing evidence that it might play a role in the prevention of postpartum depression. Objective: This study explores the relationship between breastfeeding and maternal postpartum depression. It also estimates the prevalence rate of postpartum depression among Saudi women. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study. Three-hundred postpartum women were recruited for this study from various hospitals in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. Likelihood of depression was assessed using the Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale (EPDS. Socio-demographic data were collected as well as data regarding breastfeeding duration and intention to breastfeed. Data analysis was done using SPSS version 21, using parametric tests; independent t-test and One-Way ANOVA. Results: Postpartum mothers who intended to breast-feed their babies had a lower EPDS scores compared with those who did not intend to breast-feed. No correlation was found between the duration of breastfeeding and EPDS scores. Prevalence rate of postpartum depression in our sample was 14%. Greater age, having previous babies, intention to breastfeed and vaginal delivery were significantly associated with actual breastfeeding. Conclusion: Screening for mothers in the early postpartum period is essential to detect those who are at risk for postpartum depression. Breastfeeding may help to reduce and prevent the appearance of symptoms of depression. Prevalence rate of postpartum depression in Saudi Arabia, 14%, is similar to the worldwide rate.

  4. A cross sectional and longitudinal study of endodontic and periapical status in an Australian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmerman, A; Calache, H; Parashos, P

    2017-09-01

    This study describes the cross sectional and longitudinal data of endodontic and periapical status of new patients presenting to a major dental hospital, and assesses the relationships between tooth-related variables with apical periodontitis. The records of 695 patients were randomly selected and the orthopantomograms of these patients up to 31 October 2014 were reviewed by two endodontists. The periapical status of teeth was recorded using the periapical index. The presence and quality of root fillings and coronal restorations were recorded. Statistical analysis included Fleiss' kappa, Cohen's kappa and logistic regression set at P < 0.05. Of 695 patient records and 16 936 teeth examined, 138 (19.9%) patients or 284 (1.7%) teeth had root fillings and 179 (25.8%) patients or 325 (1.9%) teeth had apical periodontitis. Root fillings and coronal restorations were adequate in 34.6% and 69.4% teeth, respectively. A large proportion (47%) of teeth with apical periodontitis remained unchanged in subsequent orthopantomograms. There was lower prevalence of root filled teeth or apical periodontitis in the present study compared with international studies. The frequency of adequate root fillings must be considered unacceptably low. Teeth with apical periodontitis may remain quiescent in the absence of caries or restorative breakdown. © 2017 Australian Dental Association.

  5. Intrauterine growth standards: a cross-sectional study in a population of Nigerian newborns

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    Olugbenga A. Mokuolu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to define an intrauterine growth curve for a population of Nigerian newborn babies. A cross-sectional observational study design was adopted. Weight, length and head circumference were all measured in consecutive singleton deliveries at the University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital over a 3-year period. Gestational age (GA of the babies was estimated from the last menstrual period or first trimester ultrasound. The estimates obtained were clinically validated using the Ballard score. Mean birth weights and percentiles of the weight, length and head circumferences for the respective GA were estimated using the SPSS 15 software package. A total of 5273 babies were recruited for the study with GA ranging from 25-44 weeks. Comparison of the mean birth weights of the various GA with the data from Denver, Colorado, showed that Nigerian babes tended to weigh less at the early GA, although these differences were not statistically significant. Between 26-36 weeks, the average weights of both sexes were similar; however, beyond this time point there was a consistent increase in the average weight of the males over the female babies. Growth curves for Nigerian newborn babies were generated and showed that the mean birth weight of Nigerian preterm babies was lighter than that of babies in Colorado. The impact of these differences on the classification of newborns will require further evaluation.

  6. Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii in pregnant women in Aguascalientes City, Mexico: a cross-sectional study.

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    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Terrones-Saldívar, María Del Carmen; Hernández-Tinoco, Jesús; Muñoz-Terrones, María Daniela Enriqueta; Gallegos-González, Roberto Oswaldo; Sánchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Reyes-Robles, Martha Elena; Jaramillo-Juárez, Fernando; Liesenfeld, Oliver; Estrada-Martínez, Sergio

    2016-07-01

    We determined the seroprevalence and correlates of Toxoplasma gondii infection in pregnant women in Aguascalientes City, Mexico. A cross-sectional survey. Pregnant women were enrolled in the central Mexican city of Aguascalientes. We studied 338 pregnant women who attended prenatal care in 3 public health centres. Women were examined for IgG/IgM antibodies to T. gondii by using commercially available enzyme immunoassays, and an avidity test. Multiple analyses were used to determine the association of T. gondii seropositivity with the characteristics of the pregnant women. Of the 338 pregnant women studied, 21 (6.2%) had IgG antibodies to T. gondii, and 1 (4.8%) of them was also positive for IgM antibodies to T. gondii. Avidity of IgG antibodies to T. gondii was high in the IgM-positive sample. Logistic regression analysis of sociodemographic, behavioural and housing variables showed that T. gondii seropositivity was associated with white ethnicity (OR=149.4; 95% CI 10.8 to 2054.1; pprimary infection. Factors associated with T. gondii exposure found in this study, including food hygiene, may be useful to determine preventive measures against T. gondii infection and its sequelae. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  7. Normal bladder wall thickness measurement in healthy Iranian children, a cross-sectional study

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    Adibi, Atoosa; Kazemian, Afarin; Toghiani, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Background: Normal bladder function is necessary for micturition. Many causes such as urinary tract infection, bladder outlet obstruction, and neuropathic bladder can influence bladder wall thickness (BWT). This study was designed to determine normal BWT in Iranian children. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study done in Isfahan in 2012 comprising 82 children aged 2-14 years without any urinary complaint. We measured thickness of posterior and lateral walls of the bladder in all children. Mean bladder wall thickness (MBWT) and mean bladder volume (BV) were also calculated. Results: In this study, we included 82 children (40 boys and 42 girls). Patients’ mean age was 6.43 ± 2.89 years, mean weight was 21.32 ± 8.40 kg, mean height was 111.57 ± 20.51 cm, and mean Body Mass Index was 17.12 ± 4.93. Mean lateral bladder wall thickness (LBWT) was 1.75 ± 0.32 mm and mean posterior bladder wall thickness (PBWT) was 1.59 ± 0.34 mm. Mean BV was 111.65 ± 72.11 ml and MBWT was 1.67 ± 0.28 mm. BVW all Index (BVWI) was 1249.05 ± 701.67. Conclusions: LBWT was1.75 ± 0.32 mm and PBWT was 1.59 ± 0.34 mm. PMID:25250302

  8. Normal bladder wall thickness measurement in healthy Iranian children, a cross-sectional study

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    Atoosa Adibi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Normal bladder function is necessary for micturition. Many causes such as urinary tract infection, bladder outlet obstruction, and neuropathic bladder can influence bladder wall thickness (BWT.This study was designed to determine normal BWT in Iranian children. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study done in Isfahan in 2012 comprising 82 children aged 2-14 years without any urinary complaint. We measured thickness of posterior and lateral walls of the bladder in all children. Mean bladder wall thickness (MBWT and mean bladder volume (BV were also calculated. Results: In this study, we included 82 children (40 boys and 42 girls. Patients′ mean age was 6.43 ± 2.89 years, mean weight was 21.32 ± 8.40 kg, mean height was 111.57 ± 20.51 cm, and mean Body Mass Index was 17.12 ± 4.93. Mean lateral bladder wall thickness (LBWT was 1.75 ± 0.32 mm and mean posterior bladder wall thickness (PBWT was 1.59 ± 0.34 mm. Mean BV was 111.65 ± 72.11 ml and MBWT was 1.67 ± 0.28 mm. BVW all Index (BVWI was 1249.05 ± 701.67. Conclusions: LBWT was1.75 ± 0.32 mm and PBWT was 1.59 ± 0.34 mm.

  9. Post-traumatic stress disorder among Syrian refugees in Turkey: a cross-sectional study.

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    Alpak, Gokay; Unal, Ahmet; Bulbul, Feridun; Sagaltici, Eser; Bez, Yasin; Altindag, Abdurrahman; Dalkilic, Alican; Savas, Haluk A

    2015-03-01

    Refugees have had major challenges to meet their health care needs throughout history especially in war zones and natural disaster times. The health care needs of Syrian refugees have been becoming an increasingly important issue. We aimed to examine the prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and explore its relation with various socioeconomic variables among Syrian refugees, who sought asylum in Turkey. This cross-sectional study was conducted in a tent city. Sample size calculation yielded 352 and the participants of the study were determined randomly. Experienced and native Arabic speaking, psychiatrist evaluated the participants. The frequency of PTSD was 33.5%. Through the binary logistic regression analysis, we calculated that the probability of having PTSD among Syrian refugees in our sample was 71%, if they had the following features: with female gender; being diagnosed with psychiatric disorder in the past; having a family history of psychiatric disorder; and experiencing 2 or more traumas. The findings of our study suggest that PTSD among Syrian refugees in Turkey might be an important mental health issue in refugee camps especially among female refugees, who were exposed to 2 or more traumatic events and had a personal or family history of psychiatric disorder.

  10. Polish medical students' perceptions of the nursing profession: a cross-sectional study.

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    Marcinowicz, Ludmiła; Foley, Mary; Zarzycka, Danuta; Chlabicz, Sławomir; Windak, Adam; Buczkowski, Krzysztof

    2009-09-01

    This study explored perceptions of the nursing profession held by medical students in Poland. Specifically, this study aimed to: (i) elicit medical students' opinions about the nursing profession; (ii) identify what skills and abilities they perceive as important for nurses and (iii) ascertain what nursing functions are considered a major component of the nurse's job. A cross-sectional study, based on the social construct of role theory, was conducted in medical universities from 2005 to 2006 in three cities situated in different regions of Poland: Białystok, Bydgoszcz and Kraków. A total of 900 medical students, 300 students in each region, in medical school years 1, 3 and 6 completed the Professional Nursing Image Survey. The most favourable nurse characteristics were: 'professional reliability', 'demonstration of good technical skills' and the personal characteristics of friendliness and courteousness. Medication administration, recording vital signs and administering intravenous therapy were most frequently identified as a major part of the nurses' role. In conclusion, the opinions of Polish medical students suggest that nursing therapeutic activities trump independent nursing practice activities. © 2008 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2008 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  11. Psychosocial reactions to upper extremity limb salvage: A cross-sectional study.

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    Sposato, Lindsay; Yancosek, Kathleen; Lospinoso, Josh; Cancio, Jill

    2017-08-09

    Descriptive cross-sectional survey study. Limb salvage spares an extremity at risk for amputation after a major traumatic injury. Psychosocial recovery for individuals with lower extremity limb salvage has been discussed in the literature. However, to date, psychosocial reactions for individuals with upper extremity (UE) limb salvage have not been examined. To determine which factors may influence psychosocial adaptation to UE limb salvage. Participants (n = 30; 28 males) were adults (mean, 30.13; range, 18-61) who sustained an UE limb salvage from a traumatic event. Adaptation was measured using a modified version of the Reactions to Impairment and Disability Inventory. A linear mixed-effects regression found that worse psychosocial adaptation was associated with having less than a college degree, being less than 6 months post-injury, being older than 23 years, and having more pain. Dominant hand injuries were found to influence poor adaptation on the denial Reactions to Impairment and Disability Inventory subscale only. The results of this study indicate that there is potential for nonadaptive reactions and psychological distress with certain variables in UE limb salvage. Therapists may use these results to anticipate which clients may be at risk for poor psychosocial outcomes. This study indicates the need for early consideration to factors that affect psychological prognosis for the UE limb salvage population. However, future research is indicated to better understand the unique psychosocial challenges and needs of these individuals. 4. Copyright © 2017 Hanley & Belfus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Health care utilization and symptom severity in Ghanaian children--a cross-sectional study.

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    Krumkamp, Ralf; Sarpong, Nimako; Kreuels, Benno; Ehlkes, Lutz; Loag, Wibke; Schwarz, Norbert Georg; Zeeb, Hajo; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw; May, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify factors influencing health care utilization behavior for children with mild or severe disease symptoms in rural Ghana. Between March and September 2008 a cross-sectional health care utilization survey was conducted and 8,715 caregivers were interviewed regarding their intended behavior in case their children had mild or severe fever or diarrhea. To show associations between hospital attendance and further independent factors (e.g. travel distance or socio-economic status) prevalence ratios were calculated for the four disease symptoms. A Poisson regression model was used to control for potential confounding. Frequency of hospital attendance decreased constantly with increasing distance to the health facility. Being enrolled in the national health insurance scheme increased the intention to attend a hospital. The effect of the other factors diminished in the Poisson regression if modeled together with travel distance. The observed associations weakened with increasing severity of symptoms, which indicates that barriers to visit a hospital are less important if children experience a more serious illness. As shown in other studies, travel distance to a health care provider had the strongest effect on health care utilization. Studies to identify local barriers to access health care services are important to inform health policy making as they identify deprived populations with low access to health services and to early treatment.

  13. Health care utilization and symptom severity in Ghanaian children--a cross-sectional study.

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    Ralf Krumkamp

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify factors influencing health care utilization behavior for children with mild or severe disease symptoms in rural Ghana. Between March and September 2008 a cross-sectional health care utilization survey was conducted and 8,715 caregivers were interviewed regarding their intended behavior in case their children had mild or severe fever or diarrhea. To show associations between hospital attendance and further independent factors (e.g. travel distance or socio-economic status prevalence ratios were calculated for the four disease symptoms. A Poisson regression model was used to control for potential confounding. Frequency of hospital attendance decreased constantly with increasing distance to the health facility. Being enrolled in the national health insurance scheme increased the intention to attend a hospital. The effect of the other factors diminished in the Poisson regression if modeled together with travel distance. The observed associations weakened with increasing severity of symptoms, which indicates that barriers to visit a hospital are less important if children experience a more serious illness. As shown in other studies, travel distance to a health care provider had the strongest effect on health care utilization. Studies to identify local barriers to access health care services are important to inform health policy making as they identify deprived populations with low access to health services and to early treatment.

  14. Conflict management styles among Iranian critical care nursing staff: a cross-sectional study.

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    Ahanchian, Mohammad Reza; Emami Zeydi, Amir; Armat, Mohammad Reza

    2015-01-01

    Conflict among nurses has been recognized as an extremely important issue within health care settings throughout the world. Identifying the conflict management style would be a key strategy for conflict management. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of conflict management styles and its related factors among Iranian critical care nursing staff. In a descriptive cross-sectional study, a total of 149 critical care nurses who worked in the critical care units of 4 teaching hospitals in Sari (Iran) were evaluated. A 2-part self-reported questionnaire including personal information and Rahim Organizational Conflict Inventory II was used for data collection. Although Iranian critical care nurses used all 5 conflict management styles to manage conflict with their peers, the collaborating style was the most prevalent conflict management style used by them, followed by compromising, accommodating, avoiding, and competing. Male gender was a predictor for both compromising and competing styles, whereas position and shift time were significant predictors for compromising and competing styles, respectively. Based on the results of this study, nurse managers need to take these factors into account in designing programs to help nurses constructively manage unavoidable conflicts in health care setting.

  15. Prevalence and patterns of multimorbidity among elderly people in rural Bangladesh: a cross-sectional study.

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    Khanam, Masuma Akter; Streatfield, Peter Kim; Kabir, Zarina Nahar; Qiu, Chengxuan; Cornelius, Christel; Wahlin, Åke

    2011-08-01

    Data on multimorbidity among the elderly people in Bangladesh are lacking. This paper reports the prevalence and distribution patterns of multimorbidity among the elderly people in rural Bangladesh. This cross-sectional study was conducted among persons aged > or = 60 years in Matlab, Bangladesh. Information on their demographics and literacy was collected through interview in the home. Information about their assets was obtained from a surveillance database. Physicians conducted clinical examinations at a local health centre. Two physicians diagnosed medical conditions, and two senior geriatricians then evaluated the same separately. Multimorbidity was defined as suffering from two or more of nine chronic medical conditions, such as arthritis, stroke, obesity, signs of thyroid hypofunction, obstructive pulmonary symptoms, symptoms of heart failure, impaired vision, hearing impairment, and high blood pressure. The overall prevalence of multimorbidity among the study population was 53.8%, and it was significantly higher among women, illiterates, persons who were single, and persons in the non-poorest quintile. In multivariable logistic regression analyses, female sex and belonging to the non-poorest quintile were independently associated with an increased odds ratio of multimorbidity. The results suggest that the prevalence of multimorbidity is high among the elderly people in rural Bangladesh. Women and the non-poorest group of the elderly people are more likely than men and the poorest people to be affected by multimorbidity. The study sheds new light on the need of primary care for the elderly people with multimorbidity in rural Bangladesh.

  16. A cross-sectional study on tobacco use and dependence among women: Does menthol matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbloom, Judith; Rees, Vaughan W; Reid, Kathleen; Wong, Jeannie; Kinnunen, Taru

    2012-11-27

    The question of whether mentholation of cigarettes enhances tobacco dependence has generated conflicting findings. Potential mediating factors in a putative relationship between menthol use and tobacco dependence may include race and gender. While an association between menthol use and dependence is mixed, research on the role of race solely among women smokers is scarce. This study examined whether women menthol smokers have higher tobacco use and dependence than non-menthol smokers. Further, the study investigated differences between White and African American smokers. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 928 women seeking tobacco dependence treatment in Boston, Massachusetts. Measures obtained included preferred brand and menthol content, dependence markers (cigarettes per day (CPD); time to first cigarette in the morning; number of and longest previous quit attempts) and smoking history (age of initiation; years smoking; menthol or non-menthol cigarette preference). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to detect interactions between menthol preference by race for continuous variables, and Pearson's chi-squared test was used for analyses with dichotomous variables. A greater proportion of menthol smokers smoked their first cigarette within five minutes of waking (p preferences. However, African American smokers smoked fewer CPD (pbrand for longer (p= .04). Women menthol smokers showed signs of greater tobacco dependence than non-menthol smokers. African Americans smoked fewer CPD but nevertheless had evidence of greater dependence.

  17. Postural Sway Parameters and Gait Symmetry in Preschool Children: Cross-sectional study

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    Fabiane E de Sá

    Full Text Available Abstract The most important function of posture is to ensure the maintenance of control during the start and the continuation of human movement, moreover, posture serves as a reference for the production of precise movements. The aim of this study was to relate the postural sway parameters and gait symmetry in preschool children.This study is a cross-sectional study, conducted in 49 children with a mean age of 4.65 ± 0.44 years. Initially, height and body mass of children were measured using anthropometric scales. Next, an electronic baropodometer was used to evaluate the distribution of dynamic plantar pressure (gait and stabilometry (balance.A Student t test or Mann-Whitney test for comparing two groups was used. To correlate variables, a Pearson's correlation or Spearman's correlation coefficient was used. The stabilometric parameters showed no significant difference between an eyes open test and eyes closed test in preschool child. We found a moderate relationship between axis inclination and cadence symmetry (R=0.40;p=0.007. Postural sway parameters have relationship cadence symmetry of the gait in preschool children.

  18. Workplace Stresses and Musculoskeletal Disorders Among Nurses: A Cross-Sectional Study

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    Alireza Dehdashti

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives Work-related musculoskeletal disorders are a significant occupational problem among employees and workers. This study attempted to explore the effect of stressors in the hospital environment on nurses’ development of musculoskeletal disorders. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey in a random sample of 123 hospital nurses from Semnan University of Medical Sciences. Data were collected during working days over 3 months starting from January 2014. Participants completed a standardized questionnaire for stresses and musculoskeletal disorders at work. Musculoskeletal disorders were used as the dependent variables, while demographic, physical, and psychosocial work factors were used as independent variables. Results Our study revealed prevalence of low back ache, neck ache, shoulder ache, arm-elbow ache, and hand-wrist pain rated 48.3%, 39.5%, 33.1%, 31.3%, and 23.4%, respectively. The findings showed significant statistical association between musculoskeletal complaints in neck and upper extremity with exposed stress levels (P = 0.04. Musculoskeletal symptoms rates increased in employees experienced poor work posture (P = 0.01, fatigue (P = 0.04, and work-family conflict (P = 0.04. Conclusions This study provides indication of the relationship between work environment stress levels and musculoskeletal disorders. Physical and psychosocial stressors should be considered for the development of preventive measures.

  19. Role stress and personal resources in nursing: a cross-sectional study of burnout and engagement.

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    Garrosa, Eva; Moreno-Jiménez, Bernardo; Rodríguez-Muñoz, Alfredo; Rodríguez-Carvajal, Raquel

    2011-04-01

    The experience of role stress has been linked to burnout as an important job stressor, but the impact of this stressor in the context of engagement (characterized by vigor, dedication, and absorption) has not yet been sufficiently studied among nurses. Personal resources also appear to influence the process of burnout and engagement. This study examines the influence of role stress and personal resources (optimism, hardy personality and emotional competence) in nursing on burnout and engagement dimensions. Cross-sectional data from 508 nurses from general hospitals in Madrid (Spain) showed that both role stress and personal resources were related to burnout and engagement dimensions, although role stress was more closely related to nursing burnout, whereas personal resources were more closely related to nursing engagement. In addition, optimism as a personal resource, showed a moderator effect on exhaustion and the three dimensions of engagement. The study provides additional support about role stress as an important predictor of burnout and engagement in nursing, even after controlling for personal resources and socio-demographic variables. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Associations between green space and health in English cities: an ecological, cross-sectional study.

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    Honor Bixby

    Full Text Available Green space has been identified as a modifiable feature of the urban environment and associations with physiological and psychological health have been reported at the local level. This study aims to assess whether these associations between health and green space are transferable to a larger scale, with English cities as the unit of analysis. We used an ecological, cross-sectional study design. We classified satellite-based land cover data to quantify green space coverage for the 50 largest cities in England. We assessed associations between city green space coverage with risk of death from all causes, cardiovascular disease, lung cancer and suicide between 2002 and 2009 using Poisson regression with random effect. After adjustment for age, income deprivation and air pollution, we found that at the city level the risk of death from all causes and a priori selected causes, for men and women, did not significantly differ between the greenest and least green cities. These findings suggest that the local health effects of urban green space observed at the neighbourhood level in some studies do not transfer to the city level. Further work is needed to establish how urban residents interact with local green space, in order to ascertain the most relevant measures of green space.

  1. Sleep habits and accident risk among truck drivers: a cross-sectional study in Argentina.

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    Pérez-Chada, Daniel; Videla, Alejandro J; O'Flaherty, Martin E; Palermo, Patricia; Meoni, Jorgelina; Sarchi, Maria I; Khoury, Marina; Durán-Cantolla, Joaquin

    2005-09-01

    Road accidents are a major cause of death, and sleep deprivation affects driving skills. We conducted a cross-sectional study to evaluate sleep habits and accident risk in long-haul truck drivers in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Questionnaires regarding sleep habits, snoring, and daytime sleepiness were administered, and a limited physical examination was performed. We obtained 738 complete answers (response rate 85%). Mean sleep hours during working days was 3.76 (SD 2.40). Mean driving hours was 15.9 (SD 5.60) per day. Frequent sleepiness while driving was reported by 43.7% of responders. Sleepiness while driving was associated with Epworth Sleepiness Scale values >10 (odds ratio 1.85, 95% confidence interval = 1.20-2.85). Snoring was reportea by 71% of drivers and was frequent in 43.8%. Snoring more than 3 times a week (odds ratio 1.73, 95% confidence interval = 1.23-2.44), sleepiness while driving (OR 1.92, 95% confidence interval = 1.08-1.96), and Epworth Sleepiness Scale score > 10 (odds ratio 2.53, 95% confidence interval = 1.61-3.97) were independently associated with reporting of accidents or near accidents. Sleep deprivation and long driving shifts were prevalent in our study. Accident risk was associated with frequent snoring, daytime sleepiness, and reporting of sleepiness at the wheel. This study highlights the need of improving working conditions in this highly exposed population.

  2. A cross sectional study of the respiratory health of workers handling printing toner dust.

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    Nakadate, T; Yamano, Y; Adachi, C; Kikuchi, Y; Nishiwaki, Y; Nohara, M; Satoh, T; Omae, K

    2006-04-01

    Although recent case reports have suggested possible respiratory effects of solid toner dust inhalation, this hypothesis has not been verified by epidemiological studies. To conduct a cross sectional study to evaluate the association between the biological indices of lung fibrosis and toner dust exposure in an occupational cohort handling solid toner dust in their work life. A total of 600 male toner workers and 212 control subjects were surveyed in terms of their subjective respiratory symptoms, pulmonary functions, and chest radiographic findings. In addition to the exposure history, the current working conditions and personal exposure levels to toner dust were also examined. Although subjects handling toner for more than 20 years tended to show a higher prevalence of respiratory symptoms and minimal chest x ray abnormalities, there was no consistent relation between the exposure to toner dust and the biological responses of the respiratory system. Deterioration of respiratory health related to toner dust exposure is less likely to occur in current well controlled work environments, especially if the powdered toner is handled carefully. Nonetheless, it is important to collect further epidemiological evidence on the biological effects of toner dust inhalation, preferably using a longitudinal study design.

  3. Neck pain and postural balance among workers with high postural demands - a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Neck pain is related to impaired postural balance among patients and is highly prevalent among workers with high postural demands, for example, cleaners. We therefore hypothesised, that cleaners with neck pain suffer from postural dysfunction. This cross-sectional study tested if cleaners with neck pain have an impaired postural balance compared with cleaners without neck pain. Methods Postural balance of 194 cleaners with (n = 85) and without (N = 109) neck pain was studied using three different tests. Success or failure to maintain the standing position for 30 s in unilateral stance was recorded. Participants were asked to stand on a force platform for 30 s in the Romberg position with eyes open and closed. The centre of pressure of the sway was calculated, and separated into a slow (rambling) and fast (trembling) component. Subsequently, the 95% confidence ellipse area (CEA) was calculated. Furthermore a perturbation test was performed. Results More cleaners with neck pain (81%) failed the unilateral stance compared with cleaners without neck pain (61%) (p neck pain in comparison with cleaners without neck pain in the Romberg position with eyes closed, but not with eyes open. Conclusions Postural balance is impaired among cleaners with neck pain and the current study suggests a particular role of the slow component of postural sway. Furthermore, the unilateral stance test is a simple test to illustrate functional impairment among cleaners with concurrent neck and low back pain. Trial registration ISRCTN96241850 PMID:21806796

  4. A cross-sectional study on aetiology of diarrhoeal disease, India

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    S Purwar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Global, regional and national estimates clearly place diarrhoeal diseases as a major, albeit to an extant neglected public health problem. Deaths of children aged <5 years owing to diarrhoea was estimated to be 1.87 million at the global level (uncertainty range from 1.56 to 2.19 million, which is approximately 19% of total child deaths. Objectives: The present report is a cross-sectional study undertaken to estimate the role of various aetiological agents causing diarrhoea in North Karnataka and adjoining areas of Maharashtra and Goa. Methods: Three hundred stool samples were collected from patients seeking health care at KLES Dr. Prabhakar Kore Hospital and Medical Research Centre, Belgaum; and processed for detection of various bacterial, viral and parasitic agents. Results: Bacterial pathogens attributed to 65.7% of diarrhoea cases, followed by viral infection (22%, parasitic infection (16.3% and infection by Candida spp. (5.6%. The study identified Escherichia coli in general and Enteropathogenic E. coli in particular, and Group A Rotavirus to be the most frequently isolated pathogens among diarrhoea patients. Conclusion: The data generated from the current study will help the health officials for better interventional and treatment strategies for diarrhoeal diseases.

  5. Burnout Syndrome and associated factors among medical students: a cross-sectional study

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    Edméa Fontes de Oliva Costa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To assess the prevalence and levels of burnout syndrome among medical students at the Universidade Federal de Sergipe-Brazil and to identify associated factors. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed with randomly selected students in 2009. The Maslach Burnout Inventory/Student Survey (MBI-SS and a structured questionnaire on socio-demographic characteristics, the educational process, and individual aspects were used. Statistical evaluation of multiple variables was performed through backward stepwise logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: The prevalence of burnout was 10.3% (n = 369. The prevalence was higher among those who did not have confidence in their clinical skills (Odds Ratio-OR = 6.47, those who felt uncomfortable with course activities (OR = 5.76, and those who did not see the coursework as a source of pleasure (OR = 4.68. CONCLUSION: There was a significant prevalence of burnout among the medical students studied. Three variables, in particular, were associated with burnout and were directly related to the medical education process. Preventive and intervention measures must be adopted, and longitudinal studies should be conducted.

  6. Burnout Syndrome and associated factors among medical students: a cross-sectional study

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    de Oliva Costa, Edméa Fontes; Santos, Shirley Andrade; de Abreu Santos, Ana Teresa Rodrigues; de Melo, Enaldo Vieira; de Andrade, Tarcísio Matos

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the prevalence and levels of burnout syndrome among medical students at the Universidade Federal de Sergipe-Brazil and to identify associated factors. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed with randomly selected students in 2009. The Maslach Burnout Inventory/Student Survey (MBI-SS) and a structured questionnaire on socio-demographic characteristics, the educational process, and individual aspects were used. Statistical evaluation of multiple variables was performed through backward stepwise logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: The prevalence of burnout was 10.3% (n = 369). The prevalence was higher among those who did not have confidence in their clinical skills (Odds Ratio–OR = 6.47), those who felt uncomfortable with course activities (OR = 5.76), and those who did not see the coursework as a source of pleasure (OR = 4.68). CONCLUSION: There was a significant prevalence of burnout among the medical students studied. Three variables, in particular, were associated with burnout and were directly related to the medical education process. Preventive and intervention measures must be adopted, and longitudinal studies should be conducted. PMID:22760894

  7. Static postural sway of women with and without fibromyalgia syndrome: A cross-sectional study.

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    Trevisan, Deborah Colucci; Driusso, Patricia; Avila, Mariana Arias; Gramani-Say, Karina; Moreira, Fernando Manuel Araujo; Parizotto, Nivaldo Antonio

    2017-05-01

    There is a frequent complaint about balance problems among fibromyalgia syndrome patients; however, there are not enough studies that have shown static postural sway of women with fibromyalgia syndrome. This study aimed to compare static postural sway of women with and without fibromyalgia syndrome. This is a cross-sectional study in which twenty-nine women with fibromyalgia syndrome and 20 without took part. A posturography evaluation was performed in six different situations (bipedal, right tandem and left tandem, with eyes opened and closed), and questionnaires for clinical depression symptoms, clinical anxiety symptoms, sleep quality, and Visual Analogue Scales for Pain and Fatigue were applied. Mann-Whitney U test was used to check differences among groups; Wilcoxon matched-pair test was used to check differences intragroup; Cohen d coefficient was used to measure effect sizes and Pearson Correlation Coefficient was used for correlations among variables. Level of significance adopted was 5%. Women with fibromyalgia syndrome have presented worse postural sway than women without fibromyalgia syndrome in all situations (Pfibromyalgia syndrome presented worse postural sway than women without in the same conditions. Women with fibromyalgia syndrome have worse performance in the static posture test, more prominent in reduced support bases with eyes closed. Pain, fatigue, depression and anxiety may have directly influenced postural sway in fibromyalgia syndrome patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Association between lumbopelvic pain and pelvic floor dysfunction in women: A cross sectional study.

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    Dufour, Sinéad; Vandyken, Brittany; Forget, Marie-Jose; Vandyken, Carolyn

    2017-12-09

    The prevalence, cost and disability associated with lumbopelvic pain continues to rise despite the range of available therapeutic interventions, indicating a deficiency in current approaches. A literature base highlighting a correlation between lumbopelvic pain and pelvic floor function is developing; however, the features that characterize this correlation have yet to be fully established. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and characteristics of pelvic floor muscle function among women with lumbopelvic pain. A cross-sectional study was conducted on non-pregnant women presenting with lumbopelvic pain to one of seven outpatient orthopaedic clinics in Canada. Potential participants underwent a screening process to assess for pelvic floor muscle dysfunction. A total of 182 women were recruited and 97 were excluded, leaving 85 participants (n = 85). Of these, 95.3% were determined to have some form of pelvic floor dysfunction. Specifically, 71% of the participants had pelvic floor muscle tenderness, 66% had pelvic floor weakness and 41% were found to have a pelvic organ prolapse. Participants with combined low back pain and pelvic girdle pain presented with higher levels of disability and increased characteristics of pelvic floor dysfunction. Our findings corroborate and extend recent research supporting the hypothesis that a high proportion of pelvic floor muscle dysfunction is present among women with lumbopelvic pain. Specifically, increased pelvic floor muscle pressure-pain sensitivity represented the most frequent characteristic, the clinical implications of which require further study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Causes of discontinuity of blood donation among donors in Shiraz, Iran: cross-sectional study

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    Leila Kasraian

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: The adequacy of blood depends on blood donation rates and numbers of blood donors. To prepare adequate blood supplies, it is essential to investigate the barriers and factors that stop individuals from donating. This study aimed to identify the causes of lapsed donation at our center. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study of volunteer blood donors in Shiraz, Iran. METHODS: We selected 850 donors who had donated between January 1, 2005 and June 1, 2005, but had not donated again by June 2008. The participants were recruited by letter and telephone, and were interviewed using a specially designed questionnaire that contained items on demographic characteristics, donor motivations and reasons for not returning to donate. We used the chi-square test to identify associations between lapsed donor characteristics and reasons for declining to donate. RESULTS: The greatest motivation for donation was altruism. The most frequent reasons for lapsed donation were lack of time because of work and self-exclusion for medical reasons. Among first-time donors, the most frequent reasons were unsuitability for donation and lack of time. CONCLUSIONS: The reasons for not returning to donate are varied and may correlate with demographic characteristics. In this study, the main reason for not returning was lack of time. Changing donation hours so that donors can donate after work, providing mobile teams at workplaces, and shortening the duration of the donation process may help increase repeat donation rates.

  10. A cross-sectional study of factors related to gastrointestinal drug use in Korean adolescents.

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    Lee, Kyung Eun; Hwang, Se Jung; Gwak, Hye Sun; Lee, Byung Koo; Bae, Seung Jin; Rhie, Sandy

    2013-10-01

    Adolescence is critical in the habituation of diverse lifestyles and is a base for future physical well-being. Although gastrointestinal disorders are frequently reported in adolescents, studies related to GI drug use or related factors in Korean adolescents are rare. Thus, this study examined Korean adolescents for the use of GI drugs for abdominal symptoms and analyzed the associated factors. This cross-sectional study was done with a total of 2,416 students who completed a given questionnaire. The health-related questions included GI medication intake, smoking, alcohol, caffeine, regular exercise, self-cognitive health level, GI symptom, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) intake, and sleep problems. In questions about GI medication intake, drugs included digestives and antacids. And the intake of GI drugs more than once during the past 1 month was regarded as taking GI drugs. The sociodemographic questions included age, gender, grade, number of close friends, extracurricular activities, and school performance. The overall prevalence for taking GI drugs, including antacids and digestives, was 17.4 %. When students taking GI drugs were compared with those not taking GI drugs, the former group showed higher rates of girls (P caffeine, self-cognitive health levels, and GI symptoms showed statistical significance with the rate of GI drug intake. The rate of GI drug intake in NSAID users was 2.7 times higher than that in non-users (P academic performances and health status in adulthood.

  11. Investigation of fatigue by Australian general practice registrars: a cross-sectional study.

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    Morgan, Simon; Henderson, Kim M; Tapley, Amanda; Thomson, Allison; Wilson, Jessica; Scott, John; Spike, Neil A; McArthur, Lawrie; van Driel, Mieke L; Magin, Parker J

    2015-06-01

    Fatigue is the most common undifferentiated problem presenting in general practice. Previous studies have shown that this presentation leads to multiple investigations. There is no published literature describing the management of patients with fatigue by general practice (GP) registrars. To document the investigation-ordering behaviour of GP registrars in managing patients with a new diagnosis of unexplained fatigue. This was a cross-sectional analysis of data from Registrar Clinical Encounters in Training (ReCEnT), an ongoing cohort study of GP registrars' consultations. We established the prevalence of new diagnoses of unexplained fatigue and associations with that diagnosis, the rate of test ordering and the number and types of investigations ordered. 644 registrars contributed data from 68 986 encounters. In 0.78% of patient encounters, a new diagnosis of unexplained fatigue was made. Pathology was ordered in 78.4% of these problems (versus 18.1% in non-fatigue problems), at a rate of 488 tests per 100 new fatigue problems. Our study suggests that unexplained fatigue elicits a non-rational approach to test ordering by registrars. These findings contribute to the understanding of GP registrar management of fatigue, and undifferentiated presentations more broadly, and suggest educational approaches to improve practice, including dealing with uncertainty.

  12. A Cross-Sectional Study for Screening of Postural Deficits among University Students

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    Ahmed Abdelmoniem Ibrahim

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Postural deviations are frequent in university students and may cause pain and functional impairment. Few studies have examined the association between body posture and intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Objective: To assess the prevalence of postural changes in university students, and to determine whether factors such as age, gender, BMI, and physical activity might explain these deviations, this study helping in preventing aggravation of postural deviations and providing the young adolescent students with exercises and help tips for correcting these problems. Design: Cross sectional study. Subjects and Methods: The posture of 48 students in Hail University was assessed by DIER formetric 4D. Their mean age was 20.35 ± 2.678, height was 185.56 ± 7.128 and weight was 54.19 ± 7.085. Results: results revealed positive correlation between height and weight, height and self-image, weight and surface rotation, self-image and pelvic tilting, kyphotic angle and lordotic angle, pelvic tilt and trunk imbalance, lateral deviation and trunk imbalance. Conclusion: high prevalence of abnormalities among students, so it is recommended that all instructors place more emphasis on training and using corrective actions in course one of general physical education. Furthermore, teaching the correct sleeping, sitting and carrying ways will stop high expenses and devoting long times for clinical remedies.

  13. Students' readiness for and perception of inter-professional learning: a cross-sectional study.

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    Keshtkaran, Zahra; Sharif, Farkhondeh; Rambod, Masoume

    2014-06-01

    Inter-professional education is a critical pedagogical approach aiming at preparing healthcare students for providing patient care in a collaborative team atmosphere. To investigate the readiness for and perception of inter-professional learning and their relationship among healthcare students. It was a correlational, cross-sectional study. Two hundred and fifty undergraduate medical, B.Sc. nursing, and B.Sc. science in surgical technology students participated in this study. The samples were selected from the colleges affiliated to Shiraz University of Medical Sciences using stratified random sampling. The Readiness for Inter-Professional Learning Scale (RIPLS) and Interdisciplinary Education Perception Scale (IEPS) were used to measure the readiness for and perception of inter-professional leaning. The data were analyzed using One-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and independent sample T-test. The total mean scores of readiness for and perception of inter-professional learning were 82.40 (SD=23.16) and 74.04 (SD=14.26), respectively. Besides, the medical students' total mean score of readiness was significantly lower than that of the nursing and science in surgical technology students (F=76.73, Pstudents had the lowest RIPLS. In addition, the nursing students reported the lowest IEPS; therefore, this group's curriculum is suggested to be revised. For evidence based practice, other studies are recommended to improve inter-professional learning. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Quality of life among schoolchildren with acne: results of a cross-sectional study.

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    Jankovic, Slavenka; Vukicevic, Jelica; Djordjevic, Sanja; Jankovic, Janko; Marinkovic, Jelena

    2012-01-01

    Acne is a common problem in adolescent children and has a considerable impact on their quality of life. The purpose of this study was to assess health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among Serbian adolescents with acne, using 2 questionnaires: The Children's Dermatology Life Quality Index (CDLQI) and the Cardiff Acne Disability Index (CADI) and to provide a cross validation of 2 scales. This cross-sectional study was conducted among the pupils of the secondary railway-technical school in Belgrade, Serbia. 478 pupils (aged 15 - 18 years) completed 2 HRQoL questionnaires: CDLQI and CADI. We used t-test for differences between mean values of CDLQI and CADI and Spearman's rho coefficient for correlation between 2 questionnaires. Self-reported acne was present in 71.6% of pupils (64.3% boys and 35.7% girls). The overall mean CDLQI score (4.35 of max. 30) and the overall mean CADI score (3.57 of max. 15) were low, indicating a mild impairment of HRQoL among adolescants. There was good correlation between the 2 questionnaires (Spearman' rho = 0.66). The CADI and the CDLQI questionnaires represent simple and reliable instruments for the assesment of HRQoL among schoolchildren with acne. In this study, we identified 17% of boys and 18% of girls perceived their acne as a major problem. It is important to detect and treat such adolescents on time to reduce the psychosocial burden associated with acne.

  15. Associations between depression and unhealthy behaviours related to metabolic syndrome: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohmori, Yumi; Ito, Hiroto; Morita, Akemi; Deura, Kijo; Miyachi, Motohiko

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine whether depression was associated with metabolic syndrome and unhealthy behaviours in community residents. Using the 2009-2010 baseline data of the Saku Cohort Study, 1,225 men and women who participated in a community health screening were included in the cross-sectional analyses. Depression was assessed using the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale. Consistent with the Japanese Society of Internal Medicine's definition, we defined metabolic syndrome as abdominal obesity plus two or more of the following: high blood pressure, hyperglycaemia, and dyslipidaemia. We defined 'pre- and metabolic syndrome' as the presence of one or more of the three criteria in addition to abdominal obesity. There was no significant association between depression and metabolic syndrome. In women, the prevalence of pre- and metabolic syndrome was significantly higher in the depression group than that in the non-depression group (17.5% vs 9.5%, p=0.046), whereas no such significant association was observed in men. Logistic regression analysis showed that depression was associated with unhealthy behavioural factors differently in men and women. This study revealed that depression was associated with several unhealthy behavioural factors in both men and women, but depression was associated with pre- and metabolic syndrome only in women. These findings suggest that depression may be a warning sign of metabolic syndrome in women with unhealthy behavioural factors. Psychological factors should be considered in addition to the assessment of physical status.

  16. Perception of Preparedness for Clinical Work Among New Residents: A Cross-sectional Study from Oman

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    Hamed Al Sinawi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate new residents’ perceptions of their own preparedness for clinical practice and examine the associated factors. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study conducted on August 20−23, 2016. New residents accepted for postgraduate training by Oman Medical Specialty Board were asked to complete the Preparation for Hospital Practice Questionnaire (PHPQ. Data was analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 22. Results: A total of 160 residents were invited to participate in this study. Out of 160, 140 residents participated (87.5%, 70.7% were female and 59.3% were graduates from Sultan Qaboos University (SQU. Ninety-nine percent of the graduates were either ‘well prepared’ or ‘fairly well prepared’ for hospital practice. Male residents scored higher in the confidence scale, while residents who did a post-internship general practice placement scored higher in understanding science. Graduates from Oman Medical College felt more prepared compared to graduates from SQU. Conclusions: Most of the new residents were well prepared to clinical work. Factors such as place of undergraduate study, training, and duration of internship significantly influenced the residents’ perception of preparedness. Addressing these factors will enhance residents’ preparedness for clinical work.

  17. Causes of job stress in nurses: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najimi, Arash; Goudarzi, Ali Moazemi; Sharifirad, Gholamreza

    2012-05-01

    Nursing is naturally a stressful job. Stress in nurses can cause depression, isolation from patients, absence and decrease in their qualification. This study aimed to determine the causes of job stress in nurses of Kashan, Iran. In this cross-sectional study, 189 nurses from Kashan hospitals of different wards were studied. The information collection tool was Occupational Stress Inventory-Revised™ (OSI-R™). The most important job stress aspects in female nurses were range of roles (48.4%), role duality (40.9%) and job environment (39.6%). In men, range of roles (57.5%), job environment (50%) and responsibility (45%) were the most significant aspects. In addition, lack of balance between skill and education and job environment requirements in both genders was the least important aspect of job stress. The results showed that the level of stress in most of the nurses was in medium level. Job factors were more involved in job stress than demographic and other factors.

  18. Level of stress in final year MBBS students at Rural Medical College: a cross sectional study

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    Shelke Umesh S, Kunkulol Rahul R, Narwane Sandeep P

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Stress, defined as an imbalance between environmental conditions necessary for survival and the ability of individuals to adapt to those conditions, have a high prevalence in MBBS students. A variety of stressors play a significant role in developing stress. Objective:To study the level of stress and stressors responsible in Final MBBS students of Rural Medical College, Loni. Methods: A descriptive cross sectional study was carried out in 100 students (50 of either sex willing to participate in the study. They were subjected to fill the Medical Student Stressor Questionnaire, which consists of 40 questions for evaluating the stressors and severity of stress perceived by the subjects. Results: 71% subjects’ perceived moderate stress, while 13% and 16% perceived high and mild stress respectively. Academic stressor counted for moderate stress in 63% and high stress in 24 % of subjects, which was higher than other stressors. Conclusion: Academic stressors being the major stressor perceived, Strategies are required to decrease the burden of academic stress in the students.

  19. A Cross-Sectional Study of Pain Among U.S. College Music Students and Faculty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanek, Jeremy L; Komes, Kevin D; Murdock, Fred A

    2017-03-01

    Studies over recent decades have demonstrated significant performance-related pain among professional musicians. However, there have been no largescale studies to evaluate pain among college musicians. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and anatomical locations of performance-related pain among students and faculty at the college level and learn what musicians do when they have pain. Cross-sectional data were collected using an online survey distributed to colleges across the United States. Data were analyzed using REDCap electronic data capture tools and Microsoft Excel. We received 1,007 survey responses and found that 67% of musicians at colleges experienced performance-related pain. The highest prevalence of pain was in woodwind musicians, with 83% reporting performance-related pain. The most common locations of pain were upper back (27%), lower back (26%), and fingers of the right hand (25%). Many student musicians with pain seek help from their teacher, but almost as many do not seek help at all. Less than 25% see a medical professional. Most musicians at colleges experience performance-related pain in a variety of anatomical locations depending upon instrument/voice. Performing arts health organizations can increase awareness of treatment options for musicians suffering from performance-related pain, which may lead to improved quality of life and increased career longevity for college musicians.

  20. PSYCHIATRIC MORBIDITY PATTERN OF THE FIRST-DEGREE RELATIVES OF SCHIZOPHRENICS: CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY

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    Alexander Gnana Durai

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available : CONTEXT: Family, Twin and Adoption studies show the inheritance patterns of schizophrenia. The findings from these studies provide support to the claim that familial clustering of schizophrenia is a combined expression of genetic and environmental factors. AIMS: Following the line of previous research, this study attempts to find out any difference in the psychiatric morbidity pattern among the first-degree relatives of familial and sporadic schizophrenics. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: We conducted a cross-sectional survey among a convenience sample of 100 first-degree relatives (age between 18 to 55 years of familial (n=22 and sporadic (n=29 schizophrenics from psychiatric outpatient clinic, of a Government Hospital, India. The schizophrenics satisfied the DSM-IV criteria and all the first degree relatives interviewed never had any psychiatric consultation before or were abusing alcohol or other substances or having any organic pathology. METHODS AND MATERIAL: Informed consent from the patients and relatives was obtained. Survey questionnaires were administered and no personal identifying information was collected. Middle Sex Hospital Questionnaire (MHQ, Eysenck's Personality Questionnaire (EPQ, Multi-Phasic Personality Questionnaire (MPQ and Screening Test for Co-Morbid Personality Disorders (STCPD were administered to the participants.

  1. Predictors of sexual risk behaviour among adolescents from welfare institutions in Malaysia: a cross sectional study.

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    Farid, Nik Daliana Nik; Rus, Sulaiman Che'; Dahlui, Maznah; Al-Sadat, Nabilla; Aziz, Norlaili Abdul

    2014-01-01

    In welfare institutions, it is essential to address the health-related needs of adolescent populations who often engage in sexual activities. This study examines the association between individual and interpersonal factors concerning sexual risk behaviour (SRB) among adolescents in welfare institutions in Malaysia. Data were derived from a cross-sectional study of 1082 adolescents in 22 welfare institutions located across Peninsular Malaysia in 2009. Using supervised self-administered questionnaires, adolescents were asked to assess their self-esteem and to complete questions on pubertal onset, substance use, family structure, family connectedness, parental monitoring, and peer pressure. SRB was measured through scoring of five items: sexual initiation, age of sexual debut, number of sexual partners, condom use, and sex with high-risk partners. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to examine the various predictors of sexual risk behaviour. The study showed that 55.1% (95%CI = 52.0-58.2) of the total sample was observed to practice sexual risk behaviours. Smoking was the strongest predictor of SRB among male adolescents (OR = 10.3, 95%CI = 1.25-83.9). Among females, high family connectedness (OR = 3.13, 95%CI = 1.64-5.95) seemed to predict the behaviour. There were clear gender differences in predicting SRB. Thus, a gender-specific sexual and reproductive health intervention for institutionalised adolescents is recommended.

  2. The relationship between snoring and left ventricular hypertrophy of China: a cross-sectional study.

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    Zhang, Naijin; Ye, Ning; Chen, Yintao; Guo, Xiaofan; Sun, Guozhe; Sun, Yingxian

    2016-01-15

    Population-based investigations studying the association between snoring and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) are lacking. Therefore, our study aims to investigate whether snoring is significantly associated with LVH, and to make clear the effect of varying degrees of snoring intensity on LVH. A total of 10,139 participants were involved in this cross-sectional study. Snoring status and snoring intensity were evaluated by a structured questionnaire. LVH was defined as left ventricular mass index ≥ 51 g/m(2.7) for both men and women. The total prevalence of LVH was 10.0%. the prevalence increased significantly in snorers according to snoring intensity, including low (10.3%), normal (13.1%), strong (14.7%) and very strong (16.7%). After adjustment for age, race, gender, educational status, physical activity, annual income, current smoking status, current drinking status, sleep duration, hypertension, body mass index, waist circumference, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride, total cholesterol and fasting plasma glucose, snoring (OR, 1.371; 95% CI, 1.147-1.637, P snoring, normal (OR, 1.436; 95% CI, 1.126-1.832, P = 0.004), strong (OR, 1.462; 95% CI, 1.124-1.902, P Snoring is independently associated with LVH. What's more, with the rise in snoring intensity, snoring will exert an increasing effect on LVH.

  3. Epidemiology of gingivitis in schoolchildren in Bucharest, Romania: a cross-sectional study.

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    Funieru, C; Klinger, A; Băicuș, C; Funieru, E; Dumitriu, H T; Dumitriu, A

    2017-04-01

    Gingivitis is the most prevalent oral disease in children, being strongly associated to social gradients. Many studies have reported different results concerning the extent and intra-oral distribution of gingivitis in children. The aim of this study was to investigate the epidemiologic parameters and socio-related risk factors of gingivitis in the 10-17-year-old Bucharest schoolchildren population and to analyze its intra-oral distribution. Cross-sectional data were obtained from 1595 schoolchildren, social condition being assigned using a simple questionnaire. Classes of students were used as clusters in a single-stage cluster sampling method. An intra-oral exam was performed for all the children included in this study. Silness and Löe scores, prevalence and the extent of gingivitis were calculated. The gingival scores showed a mild inflammation and the prevalence of gingivitis was 91%. Boys had a higher gingival (0.19 vs. 0.18; p gingival conditions (p Gingivitis was more severe on the upper teeth, with the maximum score being reached at the right upper lateral incisor (0.63 on distal surface). Gingival condition in Bucharest schoolchildren population was associated to social gradients. School dental services are also another factor that seems to be related with gingivitis. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Internet addictive behavior in adolescence: a cross-sectional study in seven European countries.

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    Tsitsika, Artemis; Janikian, Mari; Schoenmakers, Tim M; Tzavela, Eleni C; Olafsson, Kjartan; Wójcik, Szymon; Macarie, George Florian; Tzavara, Chara; Richardson, Clive

    2014-08-01

    A cross-sectional school-based survey study (N=13,284; 53% females; mean age 15.8±0.7) of 14-17-year-old adolescents was conducted in seven European countries (Greece, Spain, Poland, Germany, Romania, the Netherlands, and Iceland). The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence of Internet addictive behavior (IAB) and related psychosocial characteristics among adolescents in the participating countries. In the study, we distinguish two problematic groups: adolescents with IAB, characterized by a loss of control over their Internet use, and adolescents "at risk for IAB," showing fewer or weaker symptoms of IAB. The two groups combined form a group of adolescents with dysfunctional Internet behavior (DIB). About 1% of adolescents exhibited IAB and an additional 12.7% were at risk for IAB; thus, in total, 13.9% displayed DIB. The prevalence of DIB was significantly higher among boys than among girls (15.2% vs. 12.7%, pInternet, and greater use of social networking sites and gaming sites. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that externalizing (i.e., behavioral) and internalizing (i.e., emotional) problems were associated with the presence of DIB.

  5. Paramedic student exposure to workplace violence during clinical placements - A cross-sectional study.

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    Boyle, Malcolm; McKenna, Lisa

    2017-01-01

    Paramedic students are hesitant to formally report exposure to acts of workplace violence as they feel it may jeopardise their chance of getting a job. The objective of this study was to identify the type and number of workplace violence acts experienced by undergraduate paramedic students whilst on an ambulance clinical placement. This was a cross-sectional study using the Paramedic Workplace Violence Exposure Questionnaire to obtain student exposure to acts of workplace violence which occurred whilst on ambulance clinical placements. The survey response rate was 29.8%. The students' average age was 24.1 years, median age of 23 years, range 18-47 years. There were 32.6% of students who were exposed to at least one act of workplace violence with 56% of these being females. Verbal abuse 18%, and intimidation 17% were the common acts of workplace violence students were exposed to. One female, a nursing/paramedic student, was exposed to sexual harassment on more than one occasion. The findings from this study suggest that paramedic students are exposed to similar rates of workplace violence as full time practising paramedics. Further research is required into workplace violence against students from all professions and what detrimental effect this may have on them. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Association between serum CA 19-9 and metabolic syndrome: A cross-sectional study.

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    Du, Rui; Cheng, Di; Lin, Lin; Sun, Jichao; Peng, Kui; Xu, Yu; Xu, Min; Chen, Yuhong; Bi, Yufang; Wang, Weiqing; Lu, Jieli; Ning, Guang

    2017-11-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that serum CA 19-9 is associated with abnormal glucose metabolism. However, data on the association between CA 19-9 and metabolic syndrome is limited. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between serum CA 19-9 and metabolic syndrome. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 3641 participants aged ≥40 years from the Songnan Community, Baoshan District in Shanghai, China. Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the association between serum CA 19-9 and metabolic syndrome. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that compared with participants in the first tertile of serum CA 19-9, those in the second and third tertiles had increased odds ratios (OR) for prevalent metabolic syndrome (multivariate adjusted OR 1.46 [95% confidence interval {CI} 1.11-1.92] and 1.51 [95% CI 1.14-1.98]; P trend  = 0.005). In addition, participants with elevated serum CA 19-9 (≥37 U/mL) had an increased risk of prevalent metabolic syndrome compared with those with serum CA 19-9 metabolic syndrome. In order to confirm this association and identify potential mechanisms, prospective cohort and mechanic studies should be performed. © 2017 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  7. Job satisfaction among public health professionals working in public sector: a cross sectional study from Pakistan.

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    Kumar, Ramesh; Ahmed, Jamil; Shaikh, Babar Tasneem; Hafeez, Rehan; Hafeez, Assad

    2013-01-09

    Job satisfaction largely determines the productivity and efficiency of human resource for health. It literally depicts the extent to which professionals like or dislike their jobs. Job satisfaction is said to be linked with the employee's work environment, job responsibilities and powers and time pressure; the determinants which affect employee's organizational commitment and consequently the quality of services. The objective of the study was to determine the level of and factors influencing job satisfaction among public health professionals in the public sector. This was a cross sectional study conducted in Islamabad, Pakistan. Sample size was universal including 73 public health professionals, with postgraduate qualifications and working in government departments of Islamabad. A validated structured questionnaire was used to collect data from April to October 2011. Overall satisfaction rate was 41% only, while 45% were somewhat satisfied and 14% of professionals highly dissatisfied with their jobs. For those who were not satisfied, working environment, job description and time pressure were the major causes. Other factors influencing the level of satisfaction were low salaries, lack of training opportunities, improper supervision and inadequate financial rewards. Our study documented a relatively low level of overall satisfaction among workers in public sector health care organizations. Considering the factors responsible for this state of affairs, urgent and concrete strategies must be developed to address the concerns of public health professionals as they represent a highly sensitive domain of health system of Pakistan. Improving the overall work environment, review of job descriptions and better remuneration might bring about a positive change.

  8. Determinants of maternal and umbilical blood lead levels: a cross-sectional study, Mosul, Iraq

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    Al-Jomard Raghad A

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The populations who are most sensitive to lead exposure from various sources are pregnant women and their newborns. Aiming to explore the presence of correlation between maternal and cord blood lead levels and to identify potential predictors that may influence both levels, the present study has been conducted. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted covering 350 full terms maternal-newborns pairs from Mosul maternity hospitals. Data were obtained directly from women just before delivery by the use of a detailed questionnaire form. Maternal and umbilical blood lead levels were estimated using LEADCARE® Blood Lead Testing System and Kits. Results A positive significant correlation was found between maternal and cord blood lead values (r = 0.856, p = 0.001. By backward stepwise logistic regression analysis the followings emerged as significant potential predictors of high maternal blood lead: low parity, smoking and Hb level Conclusion Study results have provided baseline data needed to be transformed to decision makers to implement measures to eliminate lead from the environment and protect future generation from its deleterious effects.

  9. A cross-sectional study on tobacco use and dependence among women: Does menthol matter?

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    Rosenbloom Judith

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The question of whether mentholation of cigarettes enhances tobacco dependence has generated conflicting findings. Potential mediating factors in a putative relationship between menthol use and tobacco dependence may include race and gender. While an association between menthol use and dependence is mixed, research on the role of race solely among women smokers is scarce. This study examined whether women menthol smokers have higher tobacco use and dependence than non-menthol smokers. Further, the study investigated differences between White and African American smokers. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 928 women seeking tobacco dependence treatment in Boston, Massachusetts. Measures obtained included preferred brand and menthol content, dependence markers (cigarettes per day (CPD; time to first cigarette in the morning; number of and longest previous quit attempts and smoking history (age of initiation; years smoking; menthol or non-menthol cigarette preference. Analysis of variance (ANOVA was used to detect interactions between menthol preference by race for continuous variables, and Pearson’s chi-squared test was used for analyses with dichotomous variables. Results A greater proportion of menthol smokers smoked their first cigarette within five minutes of waking (p Conclusions Women menthol smokers showed signs of greater tobacco dependence than non-menthol smokers. African Americans smoked fewer CPD but nevertheless had evidence of greater dependence.

  10. The Internet Use for Health Information Seeking among Ghanaian University Students: A Cross-Sectional Study

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    Benedict Osei Asibey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate university students’ use of the Internet for health purpose in the Ghanaian context. The study employed a quantitative cross-sectional design. A total of 650 out of 740 students selected from 3 different universities participated, giving a response rate of 87.7% (650/740. Data were obtained using questionnaires and frequency and percentages were used to analyze data. The results show that university students are active users of the Internet as 78.3% (509/650 used Internet daily and 67.7% (440/650 use Internet for health purposes, for reasons including availability and ease of accessing information, privacy, confidentiality, and affordability. Use of Internet was constrained by unreliable and slow connection, high cost of Internet, and unreliable power supply. Also, 72.4% (315/435 used the online health information obtained as a basis for lifestyle change and only 39.5% (170/430 consulted health professionals after obtaining online information. The study concludes that students use Internet to seek online health support. The use of Internet to communicate with young people in relation to their health must therefore be explored. There is the need to be aware of online safety issues for young adults, including the need to provide information on privacy options.

  11. Serum selenium concentration is associated with metabolic factors in the elderly: a cross-sectional study

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    Huang Hui-Ying

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Selenium is an essential micronutrient known for its antioxidant function. However, the association of serum selenium with lipid profiles and fasting glucose are inconsistent in populations with average intake of selenium. Furthermore, there were few studies conducted specifically for the elderly. This study examined the relationship of serum selenium concentration with serum lipids and fasting glucose in the Taiwanese elderly population. Methods This was a cross-sectional study of 200 males and females aged 65-85 years (mean 71.5 ± 4.6 years from Taipei, Taiwan. Serum selenium was measured by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer. The association between serum selenium and metabolic factors was examined using a multivariate linear regression analysis after controlling several confounders. Results The mean serum selenium concentration was 1.14 μmol/L, without significant difference between sexes. Total cholesterol, triglycerides, and LDL cholesterol increased significantly with serum selenium concentration (P P P P Conclusions Total cholesterol, triglycerides, and LDL cholesterol, and fasting serum glucose concentrations increased significantly with serum selenium concentration in the Taiwanese elderly. The underlying mechanism warrants further research.

  12. Metabolic syndrome among adults of surendranagar District of Saurashtra, Gujarat: A cross-sectional Study

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    Chaitanya Gopalrao Chinawale

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The metabolic syndrome (MetS is a complex disorder and a major health concern in developing countries. Data on MetS in Indian population show multiplicity. There are no published reports about the prevalence of MetS in population of Saurashtra region, Gujarat. The aim of this study is to assess the prevalence of MetS and its components in adult population of this region. Methods: This cross-sectional observational study was carried out among 473 participants who attended free health checkup camps. Demographics, personal details along with anthropometric, clinical, and biochemical data were recorded. The MetS was diagnosed as per the definition provided by Joint Interim Statement 2009. Results: The overall prevalence of MetS among studied population was found to be 41.01% (females 44.21% and males 37.91%. Abdominal obesity (66.38%, low high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (64.69%, and high blood pressure (40.59% appeared as the most prevalent components. MetS showed a significant association with age, body mass index, total cholesterol, habit of chewing tobacco, and history of hypertension and hyperglycemia. Conclusion: The high prevalence of MetS shows that population of Saurashtra is at an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD and diabetes. This highlights the need for extensive diabetes and CVD prevention and control program in this region.

  13. Attachment styles of nursing students: a cross-sectional and a longitudinal study.

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    Kaya, Nurten

    2010-10-01

    This research included two consecutive studies, the first of which aimed to examine university nursing students' attachment styles and to study a set of variables that affect their attachment styles, while the second study aimed to identify the effect of nursing education on nursing students' attachment styles. This research was conducted as a cross-sectional survey with nursing students from a school of nursing in Turkey. The research also included a longitudinal follow-up of first year students, to evaluate the effect of nursing education on attachment styles. Data were collected by using a "Personal Information Form" and "Relationship Scales Questionnaire". Nursing students' personal characteristics of age, longest place of residence, and economic status; family characteristics of number of siblings and families' longest place of residence; and romantic characteristics of any current romantic relationships and the number of past romantic relationships were found to be the factors that were influential in attachment styles. In addition, the nursing students had a statistically significant decrease in their insecure attachment style mean scores at the end of nursing education. Assessing attachment styles may be a potentially useful way to understand and counsel nursing students. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Selective mutism. A school-based cross-sectional study from Turkey.

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    Karakaya, I; Sişmanlar, S G; Oç, O Y; Memik, N C; Coşkun, A; Ağaoğlu, B; Yavuz, C I

    2008-03-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the prevalence of selective mutism (SM) in Kocaeli, Turkey. Kindergarten, first, second and third grade students of all public/private schools within the city were included in the study. "SM screening forms" prepared on basis of DSM-IV were submitted to classroom teachers in all these schools asking whether they had any students meeting such symptoms. About 84.51% of the schools returned forms covering 64,103 children. Five hundred and twenty six of these children were thought to have symptoms of SM by their teachers. After their DSM-IV based clinical evaluation by a child and adolescent psychiatrist, only 21 children were diagnosed as SM. Among the SM group, three were in the kindergarten, 15 were in the first grade and three were in the second grade. Twelve of the children were male and nine were female (male: female ratio is 1.3:1). In this cross-sectional study, 0.83% of children were reported to have SM symptoms by their teachers. After the clinical evaluation of these children, the prevalence rate of SM was found to be 0.033%.

  15. Psychological violence in the health care settings in iran: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallahi Khoshknab, Masoud; Oskouie, Fatemeh; Najafi, Fereshteh; Ghazanfari, Nahid; Tamizi, Zahra; Ahmadvand, Hatam

    2015-03-01

    Psychological violence is the most common form of workplace violence that can affect professional performance and job satisfaction of health care workers. Although several studies have been conducted in Iran, but there is no consensus regarding current status of such violence. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of psychological violence among healthcare workers employed at teaching hospitals in Iran. In this cross-sectional study, 5874 health professionals were selected using multistage random sampling. Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire developed by the International Labor Organization, International Council of Nurses, World Health Organization, and Public Services International. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data. It was found that 74.7% of the participants were subjected to psychological violence during the past 12 months. Totally, 64.5% of psychological violence was committed by patients' families, but 50.9% of participants had not reported the violence, and 69.9% of them believed that reporting was useless. The results are indicative of high prevalence of psychological violence against healthcare workers. Considering non-reporting of violence in more than half of participants, use of an appropriate reporting system and providing training programs for health professionals in order to prevent and manage workplace violence are essential.

  16. Psychological symptoms among hospital nurses in Taiwan: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mei-Ju; Weng, Shiue-Shan

    2017-11-07

    A considerable number of studies have identified the risk factors attributable to job-related stress among nurses. However, studies investigating psychological symptoms among hospital nurses is still lacking, especially in Taiwan, where the average patient to nurse ratio is among the highest in the world. This study aimed to investigate the potential role of self-rated health status, self-reported diseases, and utilization of occupational health checks in psychological symptoms among Taiwanese nurses. A cross-sectional design was conducted from September through December 2013. Data were collected through online self-administered questionnaire among 697 registered nurses in seven regional hospitals governed by the Taipei City Government. Nurses with fair or poor self-rated health, lower education, psychological symptoms. A trend toward significance was also noticed for those aged 30-39. Importantly, low back pain was the most common disease among nurses in self-reported diseases and half of the nurses reported not utilizing the occupational health examination for the last 5 years. To alleviate or prevent the psychological symptoms, psychosocial support, and awareness program on prevention of occupational injuries should be offered to nurses younger than 39 years old and having lower educational levels. Moreover, underutilization of occupational health examination among nurses deserves more attention.

  17. Practice of use of diapers in hospitalized adults and elderly: cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitencourt, Graziele Ribeiro; Alves, Luise de Almeida Ferreira; Santana, Rosimere Ferreira

    2018-01-01

    analyze the practice of use of diapers in adults and elderly in hospital. observational cross-sectional study, with a sample of 105 participants assigned according to the data collection period, from September 2013 to January 2014, in the surgical clinic wards in a University Hospital. it was observed that 38% of the 105 participants of the study did not need the use of diapers. 18% used it because they were disabled and 16% had their cognitive system damaged. As they were hospitalized, it was identified that 51.4% of patients were there ranging from 02 to 10 days, and 60% used diapers for the same period. It is also identified that long term urinary catheter (24.8%), as technology associated to diapers in the urinary control and to pressure ulcers (12.4%), being the main complication. the use of diapers did not have specific criteria to be selected. For this, it was proposed an "Evaluation Scale of Diapers Use in Adults", as for indication as for its monitoring to help the study transposal for the nursing practice.

  18. Practice of use of diapers in hospitalized adults and elderly: cross-sectional study

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    Graziele Ribeiro Bitencourt

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: analyze the practice of use of diapers in adults and elderly in hospital. Method: observational cross-sectional study, with a sample of 105 participants assigned according to the data collection period, from September 2013 to January 2014, in the surgical clinic wards in a University Hospital. Results: it was observed that 38% of the 105 participants of the study did not need the use of diapers. 18% used it because they were disabled and 16% had their cognitive system damaged. As they were hospitalized, it was identified that 51.4% of patients were there ranging from 02 to 10 days, and 60% used diapers for the same period. It is also identified that long term urinary catheter (24.8%, as technology associated to diapers in the urinary control and to pressure ulcers (12.4%, being the main complication. Conclusion: the use of diapers did not have specific criteria to be selected. For this, it was proposed an "Evaluation Scale of Diapers Use in Adults", as for indication as for its monitoring to help the study transposal for the nursing practice.

  19. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and cardiac comorbidities: A cross-sectional study

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    Mohit Kaushal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is a global health issue with cigarette smoking being an important risk factor. COPD affects pulmonary blood vessels, right ventricle, as well as left ventricle leading to the development of pulmonary hypertension (PH, cor-pulmonale (COR-P, right and left ventricular dysfunction. Echocardiography provides a rapid, noninvasive, portable, and accurate method to evaluate cardiac functions. Early diagnoses and intervention for cardiac comorbidities would reduce mortalities. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study. Total 50 patients of moderate to severe COPD according to GOLD guidelines were taken from Department of Respiratory Medicine, Smt. B. K. Shah Medical Institute and Research Centre, Vadodara. All patients underwent investigations such as chest X-ray PA view, ECG, and spirometry followed by two-dimensional echocardiography. Results: We investigated 49 males and 1 female patients ranging from 35 to 80 years of age. Twenty-nine individuals were of moderate COPD and twenty-one of severe COPD. Of these cases 29 had left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD changes, 24 were diagnosed with PH and 16 had changes of COR-P. The study showed the linear relation between the severity of LVDD, PH, and COR-P with the severity of COPD. Conclusion: Our study put emphasis on early cardiac screening of all COPD patients which will be helpful in the assessment of the prognosis and will further assist in identifying the individuals likely to suffer increase morbidity and mortality.

  20. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and cardiac comorbidities: A cross-sectional study

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    Kaushal, Mohit; Shah, Parth S; Shah, Arti D; Francis, Stani A; Patel, Nihar V; Kothari, Kavit K

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a global health issue with cigarette smoking being an important risk factor. COPD affects pulmonary blood vessels, right ventricle, as well as left ventricle leading to the development of pulmonary hypertension (PH), cor-pulmonale (COR-P), right and left ventricular dysfunction. Echocardiography provides a rapid, noninvasive, portable, and accurate method to evaluate cardiac functions. Early diagnoses and intervention for cardiac comorbidities would reduce mortalities. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study. Total 50 patients of moderate to severe COPD according to GOLD guidelines were taken from Department of Respiratory Medicine, Smt. B. K. Shah Medical Institute and Research Centre, Vadodara. All patients underwent investigations such as chest X-ray PA view, ECG, and spirometry followed by two-dimensional echocardiography. Results: We investigated 49 males and 1 female patients ranging from 35 to 80 years of age. Twenty-nine individuals were of moderate COPD and twenty-one of severe COPD. Of these cases 29 had left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD) changes, 24 were diagnosed with PH and 16 had changes of COR-P. The study showed the linear relation between the severity of LVDD, PH, and COR-P with the severity of COPD. Conclusion: Our study put emphasis on early cardiac screening of all COPD patients which will be helpful in the assessment of the prognosis and will further assist in identifying the individuals likely to suffer increase morbidity and mortality. PMID:27578933

  1. Burnout Among General Practice Trainees in Ibn Rushd University Hospital: a Cross-Sectional Study

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    A. El kettani,\tZ. Serhier,\tM. Bennani Othmani,\tM. Agoub,\tO. Battas

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Burnout syndrom is largely widespread among health professionals and It’s further more grave when it comes to young doctors. The aims of this study are to determine burnout prevalence and its associated factors among general practice trainees in Ibn Rushd university hospital. Material and method : A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out in Mai-June 2013. All the 110 CHU trainees were invited to fill in an anonymous questionnaire including the french language version of the Maslash Burnout Inventory. Results : The response rate was 57%. Responders average age was 24.8 (SD=1.2 (76.2% were female. sub-scales burnout average scores were : ( Emotinal Exaustion : 32.0±9.1, Depersonalisation :13.2±30.0, Personal Accomplishment :29.0±8.1. A total of 39.7% had severe burnout. It was associated with : time spent working (p<0.01, feeling insecurity during guards (p<0.05, having difficulties to communicate informations and to announce diagnosis to the patient and his family (p<0.01, anxiety and depression (p<0.05. Protector factors were feeling equality in the medical team (p<0.01 and having leisure activities (p<0.05. Conclusion : these results are globally similar to those found in previous studies. So, making individual, collective and organizational preventive measures seems to be necessary.

  2. Depression in the elderly: does family system play a role? A cross-sectional study.

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    Taqui, Ather M; Itrat, Ahmed; Qidwai, Waris; Qadri, Zeeshan

    2007-10-25

    The most common geriatric psychiatric disorder is depression. The role of family systems in depression among the elderly has not been studied extensively. It has been suggested that urbanization promotes nucleation of family systems and a decrease in care and support for the elderly. We conducted this study in Karachi, a large urban city of Pakistan, to determine the relationship between the type of family system and depression. We also determined the prevalence of depression in the elderly, as well as correlation of depression with other important socio-demographic variables. A cross-sectional study was carried out in the premises of a tertiary care hospital in Karachi, Pakistan. Questionnaire based interviews were conducted among the elderly people visiting the hospital. Depression was assessed using the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale. Four hundred subjects aged 65 and above were interviewed. The age of majority of the subjects ranged from 65 to 74 years. Seventy eight percent of the subjects were male. The prevalence of depression was found to be 19.8%. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that the following were significant (p physical and mental health of the elderly.

  3. Tobacco Smoking Habits Among First Year Medical Students, University of Prishtina, Kosovo: Cross-sectional Study.

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    Çuperjani, Frederik; Elezi, Shkëlzen; Lila, Albert; Daka, Qëndresë; Dakaj, Qëndrim; Gashi, Sanije

    2015-06-01

    Tobacco smoking remains the leading causes of preventable morbidity and mortality in the world, requiring intensified national and international public health response. World Health Organization (WHO) has urged health professional organizations to encourage and support their members to be models for not using tobacco products and promote tobacco-free culture. Healthcare students are the future authority of the health society, they are in a position to play a vital role and have impact on social norms related to smoking. To determine the prevalence of tobacco smoking among healthcare students of Medical Faculty, University of Prishtina in Kosovo, so that recommendations can be made for its cessation among healthcare providers and thereafter the community. Descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted using self-administrated questionnaire prepared for this purpose. A total of 284 first year healthcare students of Medical Faculty, University of Prishtina in Kosovo were enrolled in the study. The data were analyzed using SPSS 22. All respondents completed the questionnaire, giving a response rate of 100% (general medicine=180, dentistry = 104). The prevalence of students who have ever smoked was 53.2%. However, only 8.9% (9.1% M vs. 8.7% F) of the general medicine students and 5.8% (4.8% M vs. 6.5% F) of dentistry students declared that smoke tobacco every day. Overall, the research shows that the prevalence of occasional smokers among medical students in Kosova is quite high.

  4. Living with hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia: coping and psychological distress - a cross-sectional study.

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    Geirdal, Amy Østertun; Dheyauldeen, Sinan; Bachmann-Harildstad, Gregor; Heimdal, Ketil

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between coping strategies measured by Coping Orientation to Problems Experienced Scale (COPE) and psychological distress measured by Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and Becks Hopelessness Scale (BHS) in individuals living with Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) and to examine if coping strategies might have a mediating role between experienced illness and psychological distress. HHT is mainly caused by mutations in the ENG- or ALK1-genes and associated with a shorter life span. 90% of patients have recurrent nosebleeds. 66 individuals affected of HHT participated in this cross-sectional study, completing questions due to demographic variables, Experience of illness, COPE, BHS and HADS. X(2) test, bivariate correlations with Pearson r and hierarchical multiple regression were used using PASW 18. Experience of illness made the highest variance in anxiety, depression and hopelessness and the coping strategy "behavioral disengagement" seems to have a mediating role between nose bleedings, being afraid of complications, satisfied with life and psychological distress. Experience of illness is of big importance in psychological distress in individuals affected of HHT, and behavioral disengagement explained the actual relationship between experience of illness and psychological distress.

  5. The prevalence and associated factors of depression in policing: a cross sectional study in Sri Lanka.

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    Wickramasinghe, Nuwan D; Wijesinghe, Pushpa R; Dharmaratne, Samath D; Agampodi, Suneth B

    2016-01-01

    Policing is regarded as a high-risk profession for the development of mental health disturbances owing to various critical incidents and potential traumatic events they encounter. Exploration of mental health problems in policing in Sri Lanka, which recently concluded a civil war expanded over three decades, is a timely, yet, a neglected issue. Hence, the present study was conducted with the aim of determining the prevalence and associated factors of depression among police officers in the Kandy police division, Sri Lanka. A cross sectional study was conducted using a simple random sample of 750 police officers employed in the Kandy police division, Sri Lanka. A self administered questionnaire, including "Peradeniya Depression Scale" to assess depression, was used to collect data. The prevalence of depression was calculated as point prevalence with 95 % confidence intervals. Multivariable logistic regression was carried out using backward elimination method to quantify the association between depression and selected predictors identified at bivariate analysis at p Sri Lanka. Given the modifiable nature of the significant predictors, it is recommended to design a package of interventions and implement adaptive measures to rectify the problems related to depression among police officers.

  6. MALOCCLUSIONS AND QUALITY OF LIFE. Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimberg, Lillemor

    2015-01-01

    There are few longitudinal studies of the prevalence of malocclusions and possible self-correction of malocclusions during the development of the dentition. Early intervention might be unnecessary if self-correction of the malocclusion occurs during the transition from the primary to the permanent dentition. Most studies are cross-sectional and in those of longitudinal design, the results are inconsistent and difficult to interpret. Malocclusions may or may not influence the quality of life in children and adolescents. Thus, evaluations of the influence of different malocclusions on quality of life will certainly underpin a broader understanding and knowledge about how malocclusions affect the daily life of young patients. This information may also be important when it comes to assessing the most appropriate time for starting orthodontic treatment, not only from a professional point of view, but also, most importantly, from the patients' perspective. The overall aim of this thesis was therefore to evaluate the prevalence of malocclusions, and to document changes occurring during the development of the dentition, from the primary dentition stage at age 3, through the mixed dentition at age 7, to the early permanent dentition at age 11.5 years. Further aims were to review the current state of knowledge about the impact of malocclusions on oral health related quality of life (OHRQoL) and to investigate how malocclusions affect the quality of life in a cohort of children, aged 11.5 years, whose dental care is provided by the Swedish Public Dental Service.

  7. Depression, Anxiety and Symptoms of Stress among Hong Kong Nurses: A Cross-sectional Study

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    Teris Cheung

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent epidemiological data suggests 13.3% of Hong Kong residents suffered from Common Mental Disorders, most frequently mixed anxiety and depressive disorder. This study examines the weighted prevalence and associated risk factors of depression, anxiety and stress among Hong Kong nurses. A total of 850 nurses were invited to participate in this cross-sectional study. Participants completed the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale 21 and multiple logistic regression was used to determine significant relationships between variables. Chronic past-year illness and poor self-perceived mental health were significant correlates of past-week depression, anxiety and stress. It confirmed further positive correlations between depression and divorce, widowhood and separation, job dissatisfaction, disturbance with colleagues, low physical activity levels and sleep problems. Marital status; general medicine; sleep problems, and a lack of leisure significantly correlated with anxiety. Stress was significantly associated with younger age, clinical inexperience, past-year disturbance with colleagues, low physical activity, no leisure and drinking alcohol. Nurses were more depressed, anxious and stressed than the local general population, with over one-third of our respondents classified as subject to these disorders.

  8. Sleep patterns and insomnia among portuguese adolescents: a cross-sectional study.

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    Amaral, Odete; Garrido, António; Pereira, Carlos; Veiga, Nélio; Serpa, Carla; Sakellarides, Constantino

    2014-11-01

    Inadequate sleep patterns and insomnia are frequently linked and represent common sleep disorders among adolescents. The present study provides data on sleep patterns and insomnia among Portuguese adolescents. In a cross-sectional study we evaluated 6,919 students from the 7th to the 12th grade from twenty-six secondary schools. Data was collected using a self-administered questionnaire. Insomnia was defined based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV criteria and daytime sleepiness was assessed with the Epworth Sleepiness Scale. Sleep patterns evaluated both sleep duration ("insufficient" sleep was defined as sleep 29.3%. All prevalence were higher among girls (Psleep time, on weeknights, was 8:04±1:13 hours. On average adolescents went to bed at 22:18±1:47 hours, took 21 minutes to fall asleep and woke up at 7:15±0:35 hours. Only 6.4% of adolescents stated having a regular bedtime. The majority of adolescents (90.6%) reported having difficulty waking up, 64.7% experienced daytime sleepiness and 53.3% experienced sleep during classes. There are high prevalence of inadequate sleep patterns, insufficient sleep and insomnia among Portuguese adolescents. Insufficient sleep is associated with sleep patterns and social and behavioural factors. These results add to our knowledge of adolescent sleep worldwide. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. A cross-sectional study to assess the effect of dental fluorosis on periodontal status

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    Amandeep Chopra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The effect of fluoride in the reduction of dental caries is well established, its effect on periodontal tissues is enigmatic. Aim: The aim of this study is to investigate the association between dental fluorosis and the periodontal status. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 600 subjects suffering from fluorosis. Variables such as age, gender, and smoking, which could act as covariates for the periodontal disease were recorded. The oral examination included assessment of oral hygiene index-simplified (OHI-S, community periodontal index and treatment need, and assessment of dental fluorosis by Jackson's fluorosis index. Results: Periodontitis was more common in females than in males. As the age advances, the rate of periodontal disease increases steadily. Periodontitis was significantly associated with poor oral hygiene and tobacco usage. As the degree of fluorosis increased, the severity of gingivitis reduced and periodontitis increased. Conclusion: There is a strong association between the degree of dental fluorosis and periodontal disease along with other factors such as age, gender, OHI-S, and tobacco usage.

  10. Korean public opinion on alcohol control policy: a cross-sectional International Alcohol Control study.

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    Seo, Seonwha; Chun, Sungsoo; Newell, Maxine; Yun, Mieun

    2015-01-01

    To examine Korean public opinions toward alcohol control measures on availability, advertisement, drink-driving and pricing policy, and how the views on alcohol control policy vary by demographics, drinking patterns and attitude to drinking environments. The study used national-based, cross-sectional data collected in 2012 as part of the International Alcohol Control study. 2510 people (M: 1163, F: 1261) aged 15-65 and living in geographically diverse regions of Korea completed the questionnaire asking the support of 12 alcohol control measures. Generally, targeted measures (purchase age of 20 and drink-driving) were more popular than universal (availability, advertisement and price) among Koreans. Gender, age, marital status, drinking patterns and attitude to drinking environments related to alcohol use of young and heavy drinkers were strong predictors of the opinions on most of the alcohol control measures. It was daily/weekly drinkers who opposed most restrictions on alcohol availability and price and the support from individuals who are more aware of problems with drinking in public place was outstanding in every control measure. These findings should be taken into account by Korean policy-makers as they formulate an alcohol policy for the country. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Association between mobile phone use and depressed mood in Japanese adolescents: a cross-sectional study.

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    Ikeda, Kayoko; Nakamura, Kazutoshi

    2014-05-01

    Mobile phones are commonly used by adolescents. The aim of this study was to clarify associations between duration of mobile phone use and psychological mood in high school students. This cross-sectional study included 2,785 high school students in Niigata, Japan. A self-administered questionnaire was used to elicit information on sex, school year, hours of mobile phone use, psychological mood status, and possible confounders. Psychological mood outcomes were evaluated with the Mood Inventory, developed and validated in 1994, which includes five subcomponents with total scores ranging from 8 to 32 (higher score indicates stronger feeling): "Tension and excitement," "Refreshing mood," "Fatigue," "Depressed mood," and "Anxious mood." Analysis of covariance with Bonferroni's multiple comparison was used to compare mean values among quartiles of hours of mobile phone use. Among the respondents, mean mobile phone use per week was 24 (median 18) h. Long-duration mobile phone use was associated with female students, no participation in sports club activities, early mobile phone use, and fewer hours spent sleeping (all P mobile phone use and total scores were significant for "Depressed mood" (P for trend = 0.005), "Tension and excitement" (P for trend mobile phone use were significantly higher than for other quartiles (all P mobile phone use is associated with unfavorable psychological mood, in particular, a depressed mood. Decreasing mobile phone use may help maintain appropriate mental health in very long-duration users.

  12. Substance Use and Associated Factors among University Students in Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study

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    Gezahegn Tesfaye

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies indicate that substance use among Ethiopian adolescents is considerably rising; in particular college and university students are the most at risk of substance use. The aim of the study was to assess substance use and associated factors among university students. A cross-sectional survey was carried out among 1040 Haramaya University students using self-administered structured questionnaire. Multistage sampling technique was used to select students. Descriptive statistics, bivariate, and multivariate analysis were done. About two-thirds (62.4% of the participants used at least one substance. The most commonly used substance was alcohol (50.2%. Being male had strong association with substance use (AOR (95% CI, 3.11 (2.20, 4.40. The odds of substance use behaviour is higher among third year students (AOR (95% CI, 1.48 (1.01, 2.16. Being a follower of Muslim (AOR (95% CI, 0.62 (0.44, 0.87 and Protestant (AOR (95% CI, 0.25 (0.17, 0.36 religions was shown to be protective of substance use. Married (AOR (95% CI, 1.92 (1.12, 3.30 and depressed (AOR (95% CI, 3.30 (2.31, 4.72 students were more likely to use substances than others. The magnitude of substance use was high. This demands special attention, emergency preventive measures, and targeted information, education and communication activity.

  13. Internalized stigma among patients with schizophrenia in Ethiopia: a cross-sectional facility-based study

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    Assefa Dereje

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the potential impact on treatment adherence and recovery, there is a dearth of data on the extent and correlates of internalized stigma in patients with schizophrenia in low income countries. We conducted a study to determine the extent, domains and correlates of internalized stigma amongst outpatients with schizophrenia in Ethiopia. Methods The study was a cross-sectional facility-based survey conducted at a specialist psychiatric hospital in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Consecutive consenting individuals with a diagnosis of schizophrenia were recruited and assessed using an Amharic version of the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness (ISMI scale. Results Data were collected from 212 individuals, who were mostly single (71.2%, unemployed (70.3% and male (65.1%. Nearly all participants (97.4% expressed agreement to at least one stigma item contained in the ISMI; 46.7% had a moderate to high mean stigma score. Rural residence (OR = 5.67; 95% CI = 2.30, 13.00; p  Conclusion Internalized stigma is a major problem among persons with schizophrenia in this outpatient setting in Ethiopia. Internalized stigma has the potential to substantially affect adherence to medication and is likely to affect the recovery process.

  14. Heaviness, health and happiness: a cross-sectional study of 163066 UK Biobank participants.

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    Ul-Haq, Zia; Mackay, Daniel F; Martin, Daniel; Smith, Daniel J; Gill, Jason M R; Nicholl, Barbara I; Cullen, Breda; Evans, Jonathan; Roberts, Beverly; Deary, Ian J; Gallacher, John; Hotopf, Matthew; Craddock, Nick; Pell, Jill P

    2014-04-01

    Obesity is known to increase the risk of many diseases and reduce overall quality of life. This study examines the relationship with self-reported health (SRH) and happiness. We conducted a cross-sectional study of the 163 066 UK Biobank participants who completed the happiness rating. The association between adiposity and SRH and happiness was examined using logistic regression. SRH was defined as good (excellent, good), or poor (fair, poor). Self-reported happiness was defined as happy (extremely, very, moderately) or unhappy (moderately, very, extremely). Poor health was reported by 44 457 (27.3%) participants. The adjusted ORs for poor health were 3.86, 2.92, 2.60 and 6.41 for the highest, compared with lowest, deciles of Body Mass Index, waist circumference, waist to hip ratio and body fat percent, respectively. The associations were stronger in men (phappiness as well as health, but the association with unhappiness disappeared after adjustment for self-reported health, indicating this may be mediated by health. Compared with obese men, obese women are less likely to report poor health, but more likely to feel unhappy.

  15. Inconsistent Reporting Between Meta-analysis Protocol and Publication - A Cross-Sectional Study.

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    Delgado, Alberto Falk; Delgado, Anna Falk

    2017-09-01

    Inconsistent reporting in published meta-analyses compared to registered protocol are poorly understood. The aim of the study was to assess inconsistencies between registered protocols and published reports among oncology drug meta-analyses. A cross-sectional study was performed including oncology drug meta-analyses published between January 1st and November 14th 2016 with a published protocol. Two investigators extracted data on: selection criteria, outcome(s) and statistical plan in protocol and manuscript, plus self-acknowledgement of inconsistent reporting between protocol and publication. Protocol registration was present in 19% (23/119) of all oncology drug meta-analyses. In meta-analyses with protocol (n=23), 70% (16/23) had issues with inconsistent reporting between protocol and published report concerning; inclusion criteria, comparator group, intervention, outcome (PICO) or statistical analysis. Self-acknowledgement of changes between protocol and publication was found in 50% (8/16). In meta-analyses with protocol, discrepancies between registered protocols and publications are frequent. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  16. Photoeducation and photoprotection among liver transplant candidates: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Karina Dal Sasso; Rossin, Fabiana Murad; Ziviani, Luciana da Costa; Ribeiro, Kátia Prado; Zago, Márcia Maria Fontão; Ohler, Linda; de Castro-e-Silva, Orlando; Galvão, Cristina Maria

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of skin cancer after liver transplant ranges from 3% to 16%, considerably higher than that observed in the general population. Skin cancer causes 25% of deaths in patients who have survived more than 3 years after liver transplant. The objective of this study was to identify differences regarding the level of sun exposure, knowledge of potential risk factors, and photoprotection measures among liver transplant candidates and recipients. We carried out a prospective cross-sectional study with 100 patients enrolled at a liver transplant program in a Brazilian center. The patients were interviewed and received oral information regarding skin care and sun exposure. Results reveal that measures of photoprotection and photoeducation are more prevalent among recipients than among candidates. High degrees of solar exposure were observed more frequently among candidates, although recipients showed better knowledge about the risks of sun exposure. Educational actions concerning skin cancer prevention should be part of the guidelines given by the multidisciplinary team to the liver transplant patients, in particular, by the nursing team.

  17. Is serum zinc level associated with prediabetes and diabetes?: a cross-sectional study from Bangladesh.

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    Md Rafiqul Islam

    Full Text Available To determine serum zinc level and other relevant biological markers in normal, prediabetic and diabetic individuals and their association with Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA parameters.This cross-sectional study was conducted between March and December 2009. Any patient aged ≥ 30 years attending the medicine outpatient department of a medical university hospital in Dhaka, Bangladesh and who had a blood glucose level ordered by a physician was eligible to participate.A total of 280 participants were analysed. On fasting blood sugar results, 51% were normal, 13% had prediabetes and 36% had diabetes. Mean serum zinc level was lowest in prediabetic compared to normal and diabetic participants (mean differences were approximately 65 ppb/L and 33 ppb/L, respectively. In multiple linear regression, serum zinc level was found to be significantly lower in prediabetes than in those with normoglycemia. Beta cell function was significantly lower in prediabetes than normal participants. Adjusted linear regression for HOMA parameters did not show a statistically significant association between serum zinc level, beta cell function (P = 0.07 and insulin resistance (P = 0.08. Low serum zinc accentuated the increase in insulin resistance seen with increasing BMI.Participants with prediabetes have lower zinc levels than controls and zinc is significantly associated with beta cell function and insulin resistance. Further longitudinal population based studies are warranted and controlled trials would be valuable for establishing whether zinc supplementation in prediabetes could be a useful strategy in preventing progression to Type 2 diabetes.

  18. Exposure to hepatitis C virus in homeless men in Central Brazil: a cross-sectional study

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    Priscilla Martins Ferreira

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Homeless men are highly vulnerable to acquisition of the hepatitis C virus (HCV compared to the general population. In Brazil, a country of continental dimensions, the extent of HCV infection in this population remains unknown. The objective of this study is to investigate the epidemiological profile of exposure to HCV in homeless men in Central Brazil. Methods A Cross-sectional study was conducted in 481 men aged over 18 years attending therapeutic communities specialized in the recovery and reintegration of homeless people. Participants were tested for anti-HCV markers using rapid tests. Poisson regression analysis was used to verify the risk factors associated with exposure to HCV. Results The prevalence of HCV exposure was 2.5% (95.0% CI: 1.4 to 4.3% and was associated with age, absence of family life, injection drug use, number of sexual partners, and history of sexually transmitted infections (STI. Participants reported multiple risk behaviors, such as alcohol (78.9%, cocaine (37.1% and/or crack use (53.1%, and inconsistent condom use (82.6%. Injection drug use was reported by 8.7% of participants. Conclusions The prevalence of HCV infection among homeless men was relatively high. Several risk behaviors were commonly reported, which shows the high vulnerability of this population. These findings emphasize the need for the development of specific strategies to reduce the risk of HCV among homeless men.

  19. Impact of Patellar Tendinopathy on Knee Proprioception: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Rui; Ferreira, João; Silva, Diogo; Rodrigues, Elisa; Bessa, Isabel M; Ribeiro, Fernando

    2017-01-01

    To determine whether high-level athletes with patellar tendinopathy have diminished knee proprioceptive acuity. Cross-sectional study. University research laboratory (institutional). Twenty-one basketball and volleyball players with patellar tendinopathy (13 men and 8 women; mean age 24.5 ± 3.6; body mass index = 22.5 ± 2.0 kg/m) and an equal number of athletes without symptoms of patellar tendinopathy injury were included in this study. Participants underwent knee proprioception assessments on a single day. Furthermore, age, sex, height, weight, VISA-P (Victorian Institute of Sport Assessment) questionnaire sports participation, medical history, knee injuries, previous treatment, and medication were obtained. Knee proprioception was evaluated by assessing sense of resistance, using a weight discrimination protocol, and joint position sense (JPS). No significant differences were observed in JPS at 30 and 60 degrees of knee flexion between groups (P = 0.165 and 0.481, respectively). In regard to the ability to discriminate weight, significant differences between the 2 groups were found with the tendinopathy group showing a higher percentage of error (P = 0.009), namely when the set of incremental weights varied by 10% from the standard weight. Athletes with patellar tendinopathy have a diminished perception of force signals required for weight discrimination, whereas JPS remains unaffected in these athletes.

  20. Iodine deficiency and associated factors among school children: a cross-sectional study in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hailu, Sintayehu; Wubshet, Mamo; Woldie, Haile; Tariku, Amare

    2016-01-01

    Iodine deficiency remains a public health problem in the world. It is the leading cause of preventable mental retardation and brain damage worldwide. Though 12 million school age children are at risk of developing iodine deficiency, there is a scarcity of literature showing the magnitude of iodine deficiency in Ethiopia. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the prevalence and associated factors of iodine deficiency among school children in Robe District, southeast Ethiopia. A school based cross-sectional study was conducted from February to June, 2015. A structured interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to collect data. A systematic random sampling technique was employed to select 422 children. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was carried out to identify factors associated with iodine deficiency. In the multivariate analysis, variables with a P -value of deficiency were higher among female [AOR = 2.23; 95 % CI: 1.54, 3.55] and older (10-12 years) [AOR = 2.21; 95 % CI: 1.44, 3.42] children. In this community, the prevalence of goiter and low urine iodine level is high. Thus, iodine deficiency exists as severe public health problem. In addition, there is a low utilization of iodized salt in the setting. Therefore, it is crucial to intensify efforts in the implementation of iodized salt. Moreover, attention should be given to school children to address ID.

  1. Burnout and Work Engagement Among Dental Practitioners in Bangalore City: A Cross-Sectional Study.

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    Jugale, Pallavi V; Mallaiah, Pramila; Krishnamurthy, Archana; Sangha, Ranganath

    2016-02-01

    Burnout is a job-related stress reaction; a potential hazard for personal, professional lives of dentists. Work Engagement (WE) is the antithesis of Burnout and they can co-exist. This study was taken up to know the prevalence of Burnout and WE among dentists in Bangalore, India. In a cross-sectional study, all (n=116) dentists practicing in Bangalore East Zone were randomly selected. A structured, self-administered questionnaire revealing dentists' demographics, practice characteristics, Burnout level [6-item from Maslach Burnout Inventory] and WE [4-item from Utrecht Work Engagement Scale] was used. Ethical clearance and informed consent was obtained. The data was analyzed using SPSS version 15.0. With a response rate of 58.6%, high burnout was seen in 5.15% dentists. Personal Accomplishment was significantly associated with dentists in older age-group (p=0.002), married (p=0.014), MDS qualified (p=0.038), having long working hours (p=0.009) with assistants (p=0.024), more years into practice (0.007), travelling more distance from residence (p=0.021). Significance was also seen for dedication among dentists with assistants (p=0.006), emotional exhaustion among dentist with long working hours (p=0.009), and driving own vehicle (p=0.028). Finally absorption was found significant in dentists practicing solo. Higher WE were found but still burnout persisted. Thus, burnout and WE were found to co-exist.

  2. Phenotypic comparison of Caucasian and Asian women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a cross-sectional study.

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    Wang, Erica T; Kao, Chia-Ning; Shinkai, Kanade; Pasch, Lauri; Cedars, Marcelle I; Huddleston, Heather G

    2013-07-01

    To determine whether manifestations of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), particularly androgen excess, differ between Caucasian and Asian women in the San Francisco Bay Area. Cross-sectional study. Multidisciplinary PCOS clinic at a tertiary academic center. 121 Caucasian and 28 Asian women, aged 18-44, examined between 2006 and 2011 with PCOS verified by a reproductive endocrinologist and dermatologist according to the Rotterdam criteria. Transvaginal ultrasounds, comprehensive dermatologic exams, and serum testing. Hirsutism defined as a modified Ferriman-Gallwey (mFG) score ≥ 8, acne, androgenic alopecia, and biochemical hyperandrogenism. Caucasian and Asian women had a similar prevalence of all measures of androgen excess. Both groups had similar total mFG scores and site-specific mFG scores, except Asian women had a lower site-specific mFG score for the chest. Although Asian women were more likely to use laser hair removal, the results were unchanged when the women with a history of laser hair removal were excluded. Caucasian and Asian women with PCOS living in the same geographic region had a similar prevalence of hirsutism as well as other markers for androgen excess. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the need for ethnic-specific mFG scores in women with PCOS. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Caring characters and professional identity among graduate nursing students in China-A cross sectional study.

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    Guo, Yu-Jie; Yang, Lei; Ji, Hai-Xia; Zhao, Qiao

    2018-03-03

    Caring is recognized as the essence of nursing and the core of nursing practice while a positive professional identity can lead to personal, social and professional fulfillment. Analyzing caring characters and professional identity yields important indications for the improvement of teaching methods. This study aims to explore the graduate nursing students' professional identity and caring characters in China, and analyze their correlation. A descriptive cross-sectional study was used to collect data from 216 graduate nursing students between January and February 2017 in China. Graduate nursing students perceived they possessed positive caring characters while their professional identity was at a low level. A significant positive correlation was found between the Nursing Caring Characters Assessment Tool and Professional Identity Scale for Nursing Students. Graduate nursing students' professional identity was not satisfactory and one strategy to improve this is to internalize caring into the education process. Nursing educators should focus more on the formation of the students' professional identity and caring as a contributing factor to it. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Risk Factors for Developing Scoliosis in Cerebral Palsy: A Cross-Sectional Descriptive Study.

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    Bertoncelli, Carlo M; Solla, Federico; Loughenbury, Peter R; Tsirikos, Athanasios I; Bertoncelli, Domenico; Rampal, Virginie

    2017-06-01

    This study aims to identify the risk factors leading to the development of severe scoliosis among children with cerebral palsy. A cross-sectional descriptive study of 70 children (aged 12-18 years) with severe spastic and/or dystonic cerebral palsy treated in a single specialist unit is described. Statistical analysis included Fisher exact test and logistic regression analysis to identify risk factors. Severe scoliosis is more likely to occur in patients with intractable epilepsy ( P = .008), poor gross motor functional assessment scores ( P = .018), limb spasticity ( P = .045), a history of previous hip surgery ( P = .048), and nonambulatory patients ( P = .013). Logistic regression model confirms the major risk factors are previous hip surgery ( P = .001), moderate to severe epilepsy ( P = .007), and female gender ( P = .03). History of previous hip surgery, intractable epilepsy, and female gender are predictors of developing severe scoliosis in children with cerebral palsy. This knowledge should aid in the early diagnosis of scoliosis and timely referral to specialist services.

  5. Psychiatric comorbidity in diabetes type 1: a cross-sectional observational study

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    Ana Claudia C. de Ornelas Maia

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study aims to investigate the prevalence of psychiatric disorders, i.e., the presence of signs and symptoms of anxiety and depression in type 1 diabetic patients, as well as to investigate the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in insulin dependent patients. Methods A cross-sectional observational study of 110 diabetic outpatients (mean = 58.3, SD = 14.5; 50 male and 60 female was conducted in a public health clinic with patients diagnosed with diabetes mellitus who were under the medical supervision of an endocrinologist. The patients were evaluated through the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale(HADS. Results With respect to anxiety symptoms, we found a prevalence of 60% (n = 66 among patients, while in depression symptoms we found a prevalence of 53.6% (n = 59 concerning the 110 patients evaluated. More specifically, we found 28.2% (n = 31 of patients without depression or anxiety, 13.6% (n = 15 of patients with depression, 16.4% (n = 18 of patients with anxiety and 41.8% (n = 46 of patients with depression combined with anxiety. The most remarkable data were generalized anxiety disorder (22.7%, dysthymia (18.2%, panic disorder (8.2% and social phobia (5.5%. Conclusion The need for accurate assessments about the presence of symptoms related to psychopathology in patients with type 1 diabetes is evident.

  6. Young Children's Ritualistic Compulsive-Like Behavior and Executive Function: A Cross Sectional Study.

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    Zohar, Ada H; Dahan, Dana

    2016-02-01

    The goal of this study was to test whether the development of executive function in young children could add to the explained variance in child ritualistic behavior beyond child and maternal traits previously found to have explanatory power. Routinized, ritualistic behavior is common and normative in young children between the ages of 2 and 5, after which it subsides. In this cross-sectional study, maternal reports on 1345 children between the ages of 2 and 6 included child variables such as temperament, fears, and behavioral problems. Mother's characteristics included perfectionism, her attachment style, and trait anxiety. The sample included ultra-orthodox families, an understudied minority, and thus it was possible to compare their ritualistic behavior with that of children from other rearing environments. Ultraorthodox children had more ritualistic behavior than age-matched children. This finding offers support for an environmental influence on level of ritualistic behavior in children. For the entire sample, we found that young children's ritualistic behavior was associated with shy and emotional temperament, fears, pervasive developmental behavioral problems, and that executive function delays in shifting and emotion regulation had an additional contribution. Ritualistic child behavior was only weakly related to maternal variables. The results were consistent with a maturational process for the trajectory of ritualistic behavior, rather than with an environmentally induced behavior. The development of executive function may be the process mediating the decline of ritualistic behavior over development.

  7. Are Nutritional Care Adequate for Elderly Hospitalized Patients? A Cross-Sectional Study

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    Helene Kjøllesdal Eide

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article assesses nutritional care in identifying and treating nutritional risk in elderly hospitalized patients. A cross-sectional study was conducted at a large Norwegian University hospital in the period 2011 to 2013. Data on nutritional risk and care for elderly patients (≥70 years without dementia were collected at 20 wards by 173 second-year nursing students in acute-care clinical studies. A stratified sampling technique was utilized to improve the representativeness of the sample. In total, 508 patients (48.8% women with a mean age of 79.6 years participated. The internationally and nationally recommended nutritional care was not implemented at the hospital, suggesting that nutritional care for elderly hospitalized patients was not adequate. This implies that the majority of the elderly patients nutritionally at risk are neither identified nor treated according to their needs. The article highlights the importance of having systematic nutritional care practices to make it possible for the hospital ward staff to routinely identify nutritional risk and initiate appropriate nutritional treatment measures.

  8. Health-seeking behaviour of elderly individuals: A community-based cross-sectional study.

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    Patle, Rupali A; Khakse, Gautam M

    2015-01-01

    The health-seeking behaviour of elderly individuals can help in ascertaining the determinants and in developing appropriate policies for their healthcare. In this community-based cross-sectional study, we included 250 elderly persons above 60 years of age living in the urban field practice area of Shri Vasantrao Naik Government Medical College, Yavatmal, Maharashtra. We used a structured proforma to collect information about their health-seeking behaviour. Overall, 48% of the study subjects chose an allopathic practitioner. The difference in the health-seeking behaviour for self-treatment, treatment from traditional healers and paraprofessionals as one group and allopathic treatment as another group was significant for the determinants of age (phealth was significantly more among those who were above 75 years of age, employed, educated and above the poverty line, irrespective of gender. Elderly persons who prefer allopathic treatment are likely to be above 75 years of age, those having some education and those above poverty line. Copyright 2015, NMJI.

  9. Mental health status and its predictors among call center employees: A cross-sectional study.

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    Oh, Hyunjin; Park, Heyeon; Boo, Sunjoo

    2017-06-01

    In this study, we assessed the mental health of Korean call center employees and investigated the potential predictors of their mental health status. A cross-sectional study using self-completing questionnaire was conducted for employees working for a credit card call center. A total of 306 call center employees completed the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale, the Emotion Labor Scale, and the Korean Occupational Stress Scale. The results showed that more than half of the participants reported high levels of depression, anxiety, and stress. A multiple regression analysis indicated that the total scores on the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale were predicted by perceived health, job satisfaction, job demands, organizational injustice, and emotional dissonance suggesting that, in the interest of improving the mental health of call center employees, their job demands and emotional dissonance should be reduced and the work environment be improved. Consideration should be given to providing routine assessments of mental health, including depression, anxiety, and stress, and the corresponding need for the development of an intervention program and other work-related policies that would protect employees from the risk of poor mental health outcomes. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  10. Essential Professional Nursing Practices in mental health: A cross-sectional study of hospital inpatient care.

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    Frechette, Julie; Pugnaire Gros, Catherine; B Brewer, Barbara; Kramer, Marlene; Lavigne, Geneviève; Lavoie-Tremblay, Mélanie

    2018-02-27

    Quality organizational structures and nursing practices are key to positive patient outcomes. Whereas structures have been largely studied over the past few decades, less is known of the nursing practices that account for patient outcomes, such as patient satisfaction. This is especially true in psychiatric, mental health care settings. The aim of the present study is to determine the relative importance of eight Essential Professional Nursing Practices (EPNPs) on the satisfaction of hospitalized patients on mental health care units. A cross-sectional design was selected; 226 point-of-care mental health nurses completed the online EPNP questionnaire in Spring 2015. Statistical analyses included MANOVAs and a 2-step linear regression. A significant relationship was found between university preparation and scores on two EPNP subscales: autonomous decision-making and practicing with competent nurses. Scores on patient advocacy and control over practice subscales were significantly related to nurse-rated patient satisfaction. The findings reinforce the positive link between university education and the work of nurses and highlight the power dynamics that are salient in mental health care. The pertinence of EPNPs in psychiatric settings is brought to the fore, with practices of patient advocacy and nurse control over care examined in relation to empowerment. Implications for clinical and administrative leaders are addressed, with a focus on strategies for empowering patients and nurses. © 2018 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  11. Placebo prescription and empathy of the physician: A cross-sectional study.

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    Braga-Simões, João; Costa, Patrício Soares; Yaphe, John

    2017-12-01

    Empathy in the patient-physician relationship is a major component in an effective placebo treatment, as in every medical treatment. Understanding the role of empathy of the physician in the placebo effect may help dissect some of the context variables responsible for the effectiveness of the placebo. To determine the frequency of placebo prescription, doctors' beliefs, motivation, and attitudes to placebos in general practice in northern Portugal and to test the association between placebo prescription and physician empathy. A cross-sectional study was conducted between November 2014 and January 2015 among general practice specialists and interns from 14 health centres in a northern Portuguese health region. The self-report questionnaire included the Portuguese version of the Jefferson scale of physician empathy (JSPE) and a questionnaire about placebo prescription. Associations between demographic variables, JSPE score, prescription of placebo, and the attitudes to placebo score were tested with the chi-squared statistic, student t-tests for independent samples, and Pearson correlation. The study included 93 general practitioners (GP) (response rate: 74%). Placebos were prescribed by 73% (n = 68) of the respondents. GPs who prescribe placebo are significantly younger (mean age = 38.4 years; SD = 11.1; t (90) = 2.98, P empathy scores (R = 0.310, P empathy from the prescriber, especially among younger GPs.

  12. Empathy in health professional students: A comparative cross-sectional study.

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    Petrucci, Cristina; La Cerra, Carmen; Aloisio, Federica; Montanari, Paola; Lancia, Loreto

    2016-06-01

    It has been shown that empathy strengthens the relationship between patients and health professionals and also improves patient and health professional satisfaction, which helps promote the best clinical outcomes. Empathy is considered an essential prerequisite for a nurse to effectively care for a patient and for a holistic understanding of a patient's perspective in a student population. The main aim was to compare empathy levels between health professional students attending different university courses. A comparative study with a cross-sectional approach was conducted in two successive academic year cohorts of 1st year health professional students at a public Italian university. A sample of 1st year health professional students at a public Italian university was investigated using the Jefferson Scale of Empathy Health Professional Students version (JSE-HPS). Overall, 502 health professional students were included in the study. The students in nursing showed significantly higher empathy levels than the students in other health professions. Furthermore, the female students were found to exhibit significantly more overall empathy than the male students were. The undergraduate nursing students showed a significantly higher mean score of empathy measured by the Jefferson Scale of Empathy Health Professional Students version (JSE-HPS) than the students attending other health undergraduate courses. This could mean that a particular aptitude in establishing a help-relationship with other people exists among the students that choose to become a nurse. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Understanding Youth Violence in Kumasi: Does Community Socialization Matter? A Cross-Sectional Study

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    Asamani Jonas Barnie

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Violence by young people is one of the most visible forms of social disorder in urban settlements. This study assesses the causes and consequences of youth violence in the Kumasi metropolis. The study design was a nonexperimental cross-sectional survey. A mixed method approach facilitated the random sampling of 71 young people in the Kumasi metropolis through a stratified procedure between December 2014 and November 2015. Ten (10 participants were purposively selected and enrolled in a focus group discussion. Descriptive statistics formed the basis for the analysis. This was supported with a matched discourse analysis of the emerging themes. More than half of the youth (39, 54.9% demonstrated history of ever engaging in violence in the past one year of whom 24 (61.5% were without formal education. The frequency of the violence perpetuation ranged from daily engagement (3, 4% to weekly engagement in violence (12, 17%. Principally, the categories of youth violence were manifested in noise making, rape, murder, stealing, drug addiction, obscene gestures, robbery, sexual abuse, and embarrassment. Peer pressure and street survival coping approaches emerged as the pivotal factors that induced youth violence. Addressing youth violence requires an integrative framework that incorporates youth perspectives, government, chiefs, and nongovernmental organizations in Ghana, and religious bodies.

  14. Vaccination Coverage for Infants: Cross-Sectional Studies in Two Regions of Belgium

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    Emmanuelle Robert

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Methods and Objectives. To estimate infant vaccination coverage in the French-speaking region of Belgium (Wallonia and in the Brussels-Capital Region, two cross-sectional studies were performed in 2012. A face-to-face questionnaire was administered by trained investigators. The objective was to evaluate infant vaccination coverage retrospectively in 18- to 24-month-old children. These studies offered the opportunity to assess some factors influencing vaccine uptake in infants. Results and Discussion. Approximately 99% of the children had received the first dose of IPV-DTaP, 90% the fourth dose, 94% the MMR vaccine, 97% the first dose of pneumococcal vaccine, and 90% the third dose. In both regions, when fitting a logistic model, the most associated factor was attendance at maternal and child clinics (MCH. No association was observed between vaccination coverage and the mother’s level of education. For the last immunization session, where the mother was a Belgian native and when she worked more hours, child was better immunized, but only in Brussels. Conclusion. Coverage for the fourth dose of hexavalent vaccine (DTaP-IPV-HBV/Hib needs to be increased. Indeed, additional effort is needed to increase HIB and pertussis coverage rates because the herd immunity threshold for these two diseases has not been reached.

  15. Risk factors associated with back pain: a cross-sectional study of 963 college students.

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    Gilkey, David P; Keefe, Thomas J; Peel, Jennifer L; Kassab, Osama M; Kennedy, Catherine A

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate standard measures of health behavior for association with back pain among college students using data from the standardized National College Health Assessment survey. This investigation evaluated potential risk factors among a population of students at a Colorado university. This cross-sectional study included 963 survey results that were assessed using backward selection logistic regression techniques to evaluate the associations between common college-life health behaviors and back pain occurrence within the past school year. Thirty-eight percent of college students surveyed reported having back pain within the past school year. Investigators found that univariate associations included multiple domains, but only psychosocial factors remained statistically significant in a final regression model and were associated with back pain. Feeling chronically fatigued (odds ratio, 3.89; 95% confidence interval, 1.09-13.86) and being in an emotionally abusive relationship (odds ratio, 2.78; 95% confidence interval, 1.69-4.57) were the factors most strongly associated with back pain in the final model. Psychosocial factors were identified to be associated with back pain. The prevalence of back pain among this younger population is of significant concern and warrants further investigation to identify contributing factors that may help in the development of interventions to reduce the epidemic of back pain within college students and lessen the burden upon college health providers. (c) 2010 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A Cross-Sectional Study of the Psychological Needs of Adults Living with Cystic Fibrosis.

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    Smita Pakhale

    Full Text Available Depression and anxiety are prevalent in people with cystic fibrosis (CF, yet psychological services are rarely accessible in CF clinics. This cross-sectional single center study reports on a psychological needs assessment of people with CF.We asked adults attending a CF clinic, without integrated psychological services, to complete a psychological needs assessment survey that included items on: a past access to psychological services (via a CF referral service, b concerns relevant to discuss with a psychologist, and c their likelihood of accessing psychological services if available at the CF clinic, and standardized measures of depression (CES-D and anxiety (GAD-7.We enrolled 49 participants and 45 (91.8% completed the survey. Forty percent reported elevated symptoms of depression and 13% had elevated anxiety. A majority of individuals (72.2% and 83.3%, respectively indicated they would be likely to use psychological services, if available at the clinic. Concerns considered most relevant to discuss with a psychologist were: 1 worries (51.1%, 2 mood (44.4%, 3 life stress (46.6%, 4 adjustment to CF (42.2%, 5 life transitions (42.2% and 6 quality of life (42.2%.This study highlights the rationale for screening adults with CF for depression and anxiety, and to facilitate provision of psychological services and preventative mental health interventions as an integral component of multi-disciplinary CF care.

  17. Accuracy of spirometry for detection of asthma: a cross-sectional study.

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    Meneghini, Andréa Cristina; Paulino, Ana Carolina Botto; Pereira, Luciano Penha; Vianna, Elcio Oliveira

    2017-01-01

    Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease with airway hyperresponsiveness. Spirometry is the most commonly used test among asthmatic patients. Another functional test used for diagnosing asthma is the bronchial challenge test. The aim of this study was to analyze the accuracy of spirometry for detecting asthma in the general population. Cross-sectional study with data analysis to evaluate the accuracy of spirometry through calculating sensitivity, specificity and predictive values and through the kappa agreement test. Subjects who constituted a birth cohort were enrolled at the age of 23 to 25 years. Spirometric abnormality was defined as reduced forced expiratory volume in one second, i.e. lower than 80% of the predicted value. Measurement of bronchial responsiveness was performed by means of the bronchial challenge test with methacholine. The gold-standard diagnosis of asthma was defined as the presence of bronchial hyperresponsiveness in association with respiratory symptoms. Asthma was detected in 200 subjects (10.4%) out of the sample of 1922 individuals. Spirometric abnormality was detected in 208 subjects (10.9%) of the sample. The specificity of spirometric abnormality for detecting asthma was 90%, sensitivity was 23%, positive predictive value was 22%, and negative predictive value was 91%. The kappa test revealed weak agreement of 0.13 (95% confidence interval, CI: 0.07-0.19) between spirometry and the diagnosis of asthma. Spirometry, as a single test, has limitations for detecting asthma in the general population.

  18. Weight-related concerns and diet behaviors among urban young females: A cross-sectional study

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    Shabnam Omidvar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Females are more likely than males to perceive themselves as too heavy, this has been explained in terms of the equation of “female beauty with extreme thinness.” Therefore, females are in general prone to develop unhealthy behaviors for weight management. Wrong weight control behaviors have significant health consequences. Objectives: To investigate the body weight concerns, body satisfaction, and weight control behaviors among young females and their association with age and socioeconomic status (SES. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study conducted in urban areas from a major city in South India. About 650 healthy unmarried females aged 15–25 years formed the study population. Self-reporting questionnaires were used to obtain relevant data. The categorical data were analyzed using Chi-square, correlation, and regression analyses by SPSS version 16. Results: Most overweight and obese subjects perceived themselves as overweight. Adolescents were more likely to report themselves as overweight. The perceived weight, body satisfaction, and weight control behaviors are influenced by weight status and age of the subjects. However, SES of the participants did not exhibit effect of others' opinion about their weight and body satisfaction as well as weight management behaviors. Conclusion: The high prevalence of weight-related concerns suggests that all females should be reached with appropriate information and interventions. Healthy weight control practices need to be explicitly promoted and unhealthy practices discouraged. Young females need special attention toward weight management.

  19. Quality of life in the Iranian Blind War Survivors in 2007: a cross-sectional study

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    Amini Reza

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quality of Life measurements are necessary tools for effectively evaluating health services. In the population of patients afflicted with war-related blindness in Iran, such measurements have yet to be documented and utilized. "The design and implementation of this study involved the determination of a baseline score for QOL in a population of Iranian blinded in the Iraq-Iran war in order to facilitate the design of interventions intended to improve the population's QOL." Methods This was a cross-sectional study of a representative population of 250 war victims blind in both eyes at a 14-day recreational conference. Results Participants had a mean age of 43.20(SD8.34 and their composition was 96.5% male and 3.5% female with a mean SF-36 QOL score of 59.20(SD22.80. An increasing level of education among the participants correlated with a higher QOL score (p = 0.006. The QOL also has a significant correlation to number of injuries (p Conclusions As blind war survivors' age, they will present with a greater set of burdens despite their relatively better QOL in the physical component scale when compared with lower limb amputees. Risk factors of cardiovascular attack such as high blood pressure and hypercholesterolemia were present and need future interventions. Key words Quality of life, blindness, SF36, health

  20. Prevalence and determinants of obesity - a cross-sectional study of an adult Northern Nigerian population

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    Wahab Kolawole W

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is assuming an epidemic dimension globally. It is important to appreciate factors associated with the disease so that a holistic approach can be taken in tackling the rising burden. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity and the factors independently associated with obesity in an urban Nigerian population. Methods A cross-sectional study of 300 healthy adult subjects was conducted in the urban city of Katsina, northern Nigeria. Relevant sociodemographic and clinical information were obtained. Screening for obesity was done using the Body Mass Index while relevant laboratory investigations were conducted. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to determine the predictors of obesity. Results Overweight and obesity was found in 53.3% and 21.0% respectively with a significantly higher prevalence in females compared to males (overweight: 62.0% vs 41.9%, p Conclusion There is a high prevalence of obesity in northern Nigeria and women are significantly more affected. The high prevalence is independently associated with female sex, hypercholesterolaemia and hyperuricaemia. Public health education is urgently needed in order to reduce this burden and prevent other non-communicable cardiovascular disorders.

  1. Prevalence of Raynaud phenomenon and nailfold capillaroscopic abnormalities in Fabry disease: a cross-sectional study.

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    Deshayes, Samuel; Auboire, Laurent; Jaussaud, Roland; Lidove, Olivier; Parienti, Jean-Jacques; Triclin, Nathalie; Imbert, Bernard; Bienvenu, Boris; Aouba, Achille

    2015-05-01

    Fabry disease (FD) is a lysosomal disorder leading to progressive systemic involvement, including microvascular damage that leads to neurological and cardiovascular disorders. We hypothesize that the latter could be documented at an early stage by performing a microcirculation study with nailfold capillaroscopy and evaluation of Raynaud phenomenon.The objective was to measure the prevalence of Raynaud phenomenon and nailfold capillaroscopic abnormalities in FD.This cross-sectional study included a standardized questionnaire and a nailfold capillaroscopy that assessed previously reported patterns in FD (dystrophic and giant capillaries, avascular fields, irregular architecture, dilatation and density of capillaries, hemorrhage), and was conducted on 32 Fabry patients and 39 controls. Capillaroscopic photographs were reviewed by 2 independent blinded investigators.Twelve Fabry patients (38%) suffered from Raynaud phenomenon, 5 were males (ie, 50% of male Fabry patients), compared with 2 controls (13%) (P Raynaud phenomenon was concomitant or before the occurrence of pain in the extremities in 42% of Fabry patients.More ramified capillaries were significantly observed in Fabry patients (12/32, 38%) than in controls (5/39, 13%, P = 0.016).Secondary Raynaud phenomenon should lead to screening for FD, especially in men. By extension, in high-risk populations for FD, the presence of Raynaud phenomenon and ramified capillaries should be assessed.

  2. Noise Annoyance in Urban Children: A Cross-Sectional Population-Based Study

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    Natacha Grelat

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Acoustical and non-acoustical factors influencing noise annoyance in adults have been well-documented in recent years; however, similar knowledge is lacking in children. The aim of this study was to quantify the annoyance caused by chronic ambient noise at home in children and to assess the relationship between these children′s noise annoyance level and individual and contextual factors in the surrounding urban area. A cross sectional population-based study was conducted including 517 children attending primary school in a European city. Noise annoyance was measured using a self-report questionnaire adapted for children. Six noise exposure level indicators were built at different locations at increasing distances from the child′s bedroom window using a validated strategic noise map. Multilevel logistic models were constructed to investigate factors associated with noise annoyance in children. Noise indicators in front of the child′s bedroom (p ≤ 0.01, family residential satisfaction (p ≤ 0.03 and socioeconomic characteristics of the individuals and their neighbourhood (p ≤ 0.05 remained associated with child annoyance. These findings illustrate the complex relationships between our environment, how we may perceive it, social factors and health. Better understanding of these relationships will undoubtedly allow us to more effectively quantify the actual effect of noise on human health.

  3. Knowledge, attitude, and practices about biomedical waste management among healthcare personnel: A cross-sectional study

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    Vanesh Mathur

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The waste produced in the course of healthcare activities carries a higher potential for infection and injury than any other type of waste. Inadequate and inappropriate knowledge of handling of healthcare waste may have serious health consequences and a significant impact on the environment as well. Objective: The objective was to assess knowledge, attitude, and practices of doctors, nurses, laboratory technicians, and sanitary staff regarding biomedical waste management. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. Setting: The study was conducted among hospitals (bed capacity >100 of Allahabad city. Participants: Medical personnel included were doctors (75, nurses (60, laboratory technicians (78, and sanitary staff (70. Results: Doctors, nurses, and laboratory technicians have better knowledge than sanitary staff regarding biomedical waste management. Knowledge regarding the color coding and waste segregation at source was found to be better among nurses and laboratory staff as compared to doctors. Regarding practices related to biomedical waste management, sanitary staff were ignorant on all the counts. However, injury reporting was low across all the groups of health professionals. Conclusion: The importance of training regarding biomedical waste management needs emphasis; lack of proper and complete knowledge about biomedical waste management impacts practices of appropriate waste disposal.

  4. Factors associated with Internet addiction: Cross-sectional study of Turkish adolescents.

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    Seyrek, Sezen; Cop, Esra; Sinir, Hayati; Ugurlu, Mehmet; Şenel, Saliha

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Internet addiction (IA), and the relationship between sociodemographic characteristics, depression, anxiety, attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and IA in adolescents. This was a cross-sectional school-based study with a representative sample of 468 students aged 12-17 years at the first trimester of the 2013-2014 academic year. The students were assessed using Young's Internet Addiction Scale, Children's Depression Inventory, Beck Anxiety Inventory, Conners' Parent Rating Scale, Conners' Teacher Rating Scale, Hollingshead-Redlich Scale, and the information form including characteristics of Internet use and socioeconomic status (SES). The relationship between these factors and Internet use was examined. Approximately 1.6% of students were identified as having IA, whereas 16.2% had possible IA. There were significant correlations between IA and depression, anxiety, attention disorder and hyperactivity symptoms in adolescents. Smoking was also related to IA. There was no significant relationship between IA and age, sex, body mass index, school type, and SES. Depression, anxiety, ADHD and smoking addiction are associated with PIU in adolescent students. Preventive public health policies targeting the psychological wellbeing of young people are needed. © 2016 Japan Pediatric Society.

  5. Tobacco use and oral leukoplakia: cross-sectional study among the Gond tribe in Madhya Pradesh.

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    Kumar, Surendra; Muniyandi, Malaisamy

    2015-01-01

    Leukoplakia is an asymptomatic and potentially malignant change in the oral mucosa and high frequencies have been reported among smokers. The present study concerned the prevalence of tobacco use and leukoplakia and also associations between the two. This cross sectional survey was conducted amongst the Gond tribal population of Kundam Block, Jabalpur district, Madhya Pradesh state, Central India during 2007 to 2009. Screening for leukoplakia was conducted by a medical officer with two mouth mirrors. It is only based on visual inspection and oral pathology was not performed. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect information on socio-demographic and smoking habits. Prevalence of leukoplakia among users and non-users of tobacco was calculated in terms of percentages. Of 1,552 individuals aged more than 12 years of age who were screened, 144 (9.3%) were found to have oral leukoplakia. The prevalence of leukoplakia was significantly elevated among tobacco users as compared to non-users (11% vs 2.5%; pleukoplakia was almost similar in both tobacco smokers and chewers (9% vs 11%; p=0.304). However, the percentage of leukoplakia was especially high among those chewers who also smoked tobacco (21.9%). The findings of the present study showed a positive effect of tobacco use and prevalence of leukoplakia. Also the prevalence was very high among Gond tribe, a marginalized population living in central India. There is a need for effective screening and treatment of leukoplakia in this area.

  6. Thyroid Diseases in Omani Type 2 Diabetics: A Retrospective Cross-Sectional Study

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    Sanaa Al-Sumry

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Diabetes mellitus and thyroid diseases are common endocrine disorders in the general population and found to exist simultaneously. This study aimed to establish the prevalence of thyroid dysfunction among Omani type 2 diabetics and its association with glycemic control. Methodology. A retrospective cross-sectional randomized primary and secondary care based study of 285 Omani type 2 diabetics, ≥ 30 years of age with known thyroid function. The following parameters were examined: age, sex, duration of diabetes, duration of thyroid disease, thyroid morphology, thyroid function, thyroid antibodies, and the mean glycated hemoglobin (mean HbA1C. The prevalence of thyroid dysfunction was compared to an independent control group of randomly selected healthy individuals with known thyroid function. Results. Thyroid dysfunction was found in 12.6% of the diabetic patients compared to 4.9% in the control group. The prevalence was higher among the diabetic females (86% compared to diabetic males (14%. The commonest thyroid dysfunction among diabetics was overt hypothyroidism (4.6%. Subclinical hypothyroidism was the commonest thyroid dysfunction seen in less controlled diabetics at a mean HbA1c of 7.8 (± 0.7. Conclusion. Screening for thyroid dysfunction in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus should be routinely performed considering the higher prevalence of thyroid diseases in this group compared to the general population.

  7. Reliability of INTERMED Spanish version and applicability in liver transplant patients: a cross-sectional study

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    Bellido MªLuisa

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Integrated delivery methods in healthcare systems have been proposed to confront the increasing complexity in general health care. INTERMED is an empirically derived, observer-rated instrument to measure case complexity. It was intended as a visualized, action-oriented decision-support tool for the early assessment of bio-psychosocial health risks and health needs. This study aims to document the reliability and applicability of the Spanish version of INTERMED in liver transplant patients. Methods Cross-sectional study of patients who had been included in the liver transplant waiting list. Two nurses interviewed the patients with INTERMED, and scored the instrument blind to each other. Kappa and w-kappa, Spearman, Kendall and intraclass correlation coefficients, and Cronbach's alfa were calculated. Results No patient refused the interview. Satisfactory coefficients were documented in most INTERMED items. Kappa was = 0.858 for the categorization of patients as "complex", and 21 of them (48.8% were classified in this category, and were considered to need integrated treatment. Conclusions The Spanish version of INTERMED is reliable. Its applicability in liver transplant patients adds to its generalizability.

  8. [Drug using risks screening in primary care patients using the ASSIST test: Cross sectional study].

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    López-Rodríguez, Juan A; Rigabert, Alina; Gómez Llano, M Nieves; Rubio, Gabriel

    2018-03-15

    The aim of this study is to estimate risky-drug use patterns of consumption of primary care patients. Multicentric descriptive cross-sectional study. five primary health care centers of the South of Madrid. all patients between 16-100 year-old consulting with their family physician. Spanish-validated World Health Organization ASSIST test was use to screen risky drug use in primary care. Total points scored at the test were obtained. A sum of 441 screening test were collected. Mean age was 51,3 years and 51.6% of patients presented a moderate-severe risky drug use out of the nine drugs tested. The more frequent drug use screened were tobacco (41.7%) followed by alcohol (15.4%), hypnotics (13.7%) and cannabis (5.7%). Differences were found between genders in the patterns: men had higher risky drug uses compared to women regarding alcohol and cannabis. Women had higher sedatives/hypnotics consumption prevalence. A 16% of patients presented with polyconsumption drug use patterns. There is risk derived from drug misuse in primary care for tobacco, alcohol, hypnotics and cannabis as detected by the ASSIST test. There is a higher rate of hypnotics than expected. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Minimum effective dosages of anti-TNF in rheumatoid arthritis: a cross-sectional study.

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    de la Torre, Inmaculada; Valor, Lara; Nieto, Juan Carlos; Montoro, María; Carreño, Luis

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the modified dosages of anti-TNF in controlling disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) measured by DAS28-ESR. Cross-sectional study: RA patients treated with etanercept (ETN), adalimumab (ADA) or infliximab (IFX), at standard or modified doses. dosage, concomitant disease modifying drugs (DMARDs), DAS28-ESR. 195 RA patients included (79% women, mean age 58.1 years): ETN=81, ADA=56, IFX=58. Mean disease duration and time to first biological treatment was higher in IFX group (P=.01). Patients distribution by dosage: standard: ETN (72.8%), ADA (69.6%), IFX (27.6%); escalated: IFX (69%), ADA (5.4%), ETN (0%); reduced: ETN (27.1%), ADA (25%), IFX (3.4%). Concomitant DMARDs use was lower in ETN (58.2%) than ADA (66.07%) and IFX (79.31%). Higher proportion of responders (DAS28 ≤3.2) in ADA (65.3%) and ETN (61.7%) than IFX (48.3%). RA clinical control can be preserved with modified anti-TNF dosages. Controlled prospective studies should be performed to define when therapy can be tailored and for which patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  10. Peri-implantitis and late implant failures in postmenopausal women: a cross-sectional study.

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    Dvorak, Gabriella; Arnhart, Christoph; Heuberer, Simone; Huber, Christian D; Watzek, Georg; Gruber, Reinhard

    2011-10-01

    Systemic bone loss is a major cause of fractures in postmenopausal women and may also affect the jawbone; however, its consequences on the success of dental implants remain poorly understood. In this cross-sectional study, the relation between self-reported osteoporosis and the success rate of dental implants in an adult female population was evaluated. The primary outcome parameters were the occurrence of peri-implantitis and late implant failures. Women with unknown bone status were excluded from the study. The potential confounders age, recipient site, smoking, periodontal disease and time of loading were recorded. Data from 203 women with a mean age of 63 ± 9 years and 967 dental implants were investigated. The patients were classified according to their medical history into one of three groups: osteoporosis (47 women), osteopenia (16 women) and healthy controls (140 women). Patients with unknown bone status (n=26) were excluded. The multi-level statistical analysis showed no association between peri-implantitis [odds ratio (OR) 2.1; p=0.6] or implant failure [hazards ratio (HR) 2.5; p=0.2] and systemic bone loss. No relation was found between osteoporosis and peri-implantitis in an adult female population. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  11. Patients’ Dignity and Its Relationship with Contextual Variables: A Cross-Sectional Study

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    Mohammad Zirak

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Dignity is considered as fundamental human needs and recognized as one of the central concepts in nursing science. The aim of this study was to assess the extent to which patients’ dignity is respected and to evalutae its relationship with contextual variables. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 256 hospitalized patients in the two teaching hospitals affiliated to Zanjan University of medical sciences, Iran. Data were collected by a questionnaire consist of two sections: (a demographic characteristics, and (b patient dignity including 32 questions. Data were analyzed by SPSS (ver.13 software using independent t-test, ANOVA and Pearson correlation. Results: The result showed that the mean (standard deviation of total score of patient’s dignity was 108.17 (25.28. According to the result, the majority of the respondents (76.2% were not aware of patient’s rights. There was a significant difference in mean scores of total dignity between single and married persons, living in city or village, and hospitalization in Moosavi and Valiasr hospital. Conclusion: Health care systems should take the provision of the patients' dignity into account through using a comprehensive educational program for informing of patient, family members, and health professionals about patients’ dignity.

  12. Smartphones and professionalism: A cross-sectional study on interns and final-year medical students

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    Saleh Alqaryan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The smartphone is a powerful tool that can be used to improve the health care system as long as certain checks and balances are implemented. It is commonly used by health care providers and medical students. A cross-sectional study conducted at Qassim University, Saudi Arabia. Final-year medical students and interns were included. A survey was distributed and divided into three sections: personal technology, experiences of using smartphones during clinical rotations, and attitudes about the usage of smartphones for clinical work. A total of 156 interns and students participated in the study. All of them owned a smartphone. Three-quarters of the respondents used their mobile for personal purposes, while 71.2% used them to look up medical references and resources. Respondents also used personal mobiles to keep in contact with team members regarding patient- (29.5% and non-patientrelated issues (26.3%. Some 16% of participants did not have any security features on their smartphones. Over half the participants did not get proper instructions about using their smartphones from either their medical college or senior residents or consultants. There is a lot to be done in this area, as certain regulations need to be carried out to lead toward a world that is pro-technology, health centered, and safe.

  13. Assessment of Nutrition Competency of Graduating Agriculture Students in Ethiopia: A Cross-sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abebe, Mesfin G; Tariku, Mebit K; Yitaferu, Tadele B; Shiferaw, Ephrem D; Desta, Firew A; Yimer, Endris M; Akassa, Kefyalew M; Thompson, Elizabeth C

    2017-04-01

    To assess the level of nutrition-sensitive agriculture competencies of graduating midlevel animal and plant sciences students in Ethiopia and identify factors associated with the attainment of competencies. A cross-sectional study design using structured skills observation checklists, objective written questions, and structured questionnaires was employed. Two agriculture technical vocational education and training colleges in the 2 regions of Ethiopia. A total of 145 students were selected using stratified random sampling techniques from a population of 808 students with the response rate of 93%. Nutrition-sensitive agriculture competency (knowledge and skills attributes) of graduating students. Bivariate and multivariable statistical analyses were used to examine the association between the variables of students' gender, age, department, institutional ownership, and perception of learning environment and their performance in nutrition competency. Combined scores showed that 49% of students demonstrated mastery of nutrition competencies. Gender and institutional ownership were associated with the performance of students (P < .001); male students and students at a federal institution performed better. The study showed low performance of students in nutrition competency and suggested the need for strengthening the curriculum, building tutors' capacity, and providing additional support to female students and regional colleges. Copyright © 2016 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Restless Legs Syndrome in shift workers: A cross sectional study on male assembly workers

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    Rahimi Mohsen

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS is a common neurological movement disorder characterized by symptoms that follow a circadian pattern. Night and rotating shift work schedules exert adverse effects on functions of the human body by disturbing circadian rhythms, and they are known to cause sleep disturbances and insomnia. In this paper, we investigate the possible association between shift work and RLS. Methods This cross sectional study was conducted in an automobile manufacturing factory in Tehran, Iran. A total of 780 male assembly workers were recruited in three groups, each with 260 workers: workers on a permanent morning shift (A and two different rotating shift schedules (B and C with morning, afternoon and night shifts. We used the international RLS study group criteria for diagnosis of RLS, and the severity scale for severity assessment in subjects with RLS. Self administered questionnaires were used to gather information on age, smoking, work history, medical condition, and existence and severity of RLS symptoms. Results The prevalence of RLS was significantly higher in rotational shift workers (15% than workers with permanent morning work schedule (8.5%. In workers suffering from RLS, we found greater mean values of age and work experience, higher percentages of drug consumption, smoking, and co-morbid illnesses compared with subjects who did not have RLS, although these differences were statistically significant only for age, work experience and drug consumption. Conclusion Rotational shift work acts as a risk or exacerbating factor for Restless Legs Syndrome.

  15. The Relationship between Metabolic Syndrome, Its Components, and Dry Eye: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdur, Sevil Karaman; Aydin, Rukiye; Ozsutcu, Mustafa; Olmuscelik, Oktay; Eliacik, Mustafa; Demirci, Goktug; Kocabora, Mehmet Selim

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate tear osmolarity and tear film function and ocular surface changes in patients with metabolic syndrome. 108 eyes of 64 patients with metabolic syndrome (group 1) and 110 eyes of 55 healthy individuals (group 2) were included in this cross-sectional study. All participants were evaluated using the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) questionnaire, Schirmer I test, tear film break-up time (TBUT), and tear osmolarity. Main outcome measures were Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) questionnaire, Schirmer I test, tear film break-up time (TBUT), and tear osmolarity values. Tear osmolarity values and OSDI scores were significantly higher in group 1 (314.4 ± 19.1 mOsm and 38.9 ± 1.1, respectively) compared with group 2 (295 ± 14.3 mOsm and 18.69 ± 17.2, respectively) (p = 0.01 for both). The Schirmer test values and TBUT in group 1 (10 ± 3.7 mm and 14.8 ± 3.6 sec, respectively) were significantly lower compared with group 2 (16.8 ± 2.6 mm and 18.1 ± 0.5 sec, respectively) (p metabolic syndrome can influence tear osmolarity and tear film function. Patients with metabolic syndrome showed tear hyperosmolarity and tear film dysfunction.

  16. SATISFACTION LEVEL OF MEDICAL EDUCATORS WORKING IN TEACHING INSTITUTIONS : A QUESTIONNAIRE BASED CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY

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    Sudeshna Chatterjee

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In a resource-limited and high-burden disease setting, satisfied health professional is an asset in terms of maximized productivity, efficiency and quality health care. Job Satisfaction Index is a validated measure to identify the components that influence those issues. A multi-faceted structured questionnaire study was conducted upon a cross-section of medical educators (n=160 serving two tertiary care teaching institutions under different management set-up. Multiple demographic features were independent variables whereas three (3 critical areas of satisfaction index (SI were outcome variables. All participants were interviewed using 15 item Likert response-based, modified job satisfaction scale. It was observed that total SI scores among doctors representing the private group remained marginally higher (P<0.05 while compared to the other group. The comparative analysis of SI scores in critical areas like availability of academic supports and job security remained higher among the private doctors than that of the government ones though not significant. However the private doctors remained marginally satisfied in terms of working environment. The study outcome necessitates appropriate intervention measures at the organizational levels.

  17. Job satisfaction of nurses in a Saudi Arabian university teaching hospital: a cross-sectional study.

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    Al-Dossary, R; Vail, J; Macfarlane, F

    2012-09-01

    Saudi Arabia is developing very fast in all disciplines, especially in nursing and health. Only about five studies between 1990 and 2010 have been undertaken in Saudi Arabia concerning factors influencing job satisfaction of nurses, although a body of knowledge exists globally. The purpose of this research was to measure nurses' job satisfaction in Saudi Arabia in a university teaching hospital and to determine the influencing factors. A quantitative, cross sectional method, self-administered questionnaire was used for this study. A systematic sample of N=189 nurses was used to collect data. The SPSS version 16.0. was used to analyze the data. An independent t-test and one-way analysis of variance were used to test hypotheses concerning different groups, and correlation tests (the Pearson's and Spearman's rank tests) were used to examine relationships between variables. Overall, nurses were neither satisfied nor dissatisfied with their jobs. However, nurses indicated satisfaction with supervision, co-workers and nature of work. The sources of dissatisfaction were with subscales such as pay, fringe benefits, contingent rewards and operating conditions. These findings indicate that there is a need to increase nurses' salaries and bonuses for extra duties. More training programmes and further education also should be encouraged for all nurses. Therefore, it is imperative that nursing managers and policy makers in Saudi Arabia consider these findings to improve nurses' job satisfaction. © 2012 The Authors. International Nursing Review © 2012 International Council of Nurses.

  18. Factors influencing the satisfaction of rural physician assistants: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipova, Anna A

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine factors that attract physician assistants (PAs) to rural settings, and what they found satisfying about their practice and community. A cross-sectional survey design was used. All PAs who were practicing in both nonmetropolitan counties and rural communities in metropolitan counties, in a single midwestern US state, served as the population for the study. A total of 414 usable questionnaires were returned of the 1,072 distributed, a 39% response rate. Factor analysis, descriptive statistics, Pearson's correlation analysis, and robust regression analyses were used. Statistical models were tested to identify antecedents of four job satisfaction factors (satisfaction with professional respect, satisfaction with supervising physician, satisfaction with authority/ autonomy, and satisfaction with workload/salary). The strongest predictor of all four job satisfaction factors was community satisfaction, followed by importance of job practice. Additionally, the four job satisfaction factors had some significant associations with importance of socialization, community importance, practice attributes (years of practice, years in current location, specialty, and facility type), job responsibilities (percentage of patient load not discussed with physician, weekly hours as PA, inpatient visits), and demographics (marital status, race, age, education).

  19. Heart rate variability in patients with essential tremor: A cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salsone, Maria; Nistico', Rita; Vescio, Basilio; Novellino, Fabiana; Morelli, Maurizio; Lupo, Angela; Arabia, Gennarina; Quattrone, Aldo

    2016-12-01

    To investigate heart rate variability (HRV) in patients with Essential Tremor (ET) in comparison with patients with Parkinson's Disease (PD). This is a cross sectional control study including 10 patients with ET, 10 patients with PD and 10 age-sex-matched controls. In patients and controls, we measured the components of HRV analysis in the frequency domain during a daytime period of 12-h. Selected HRV variables were low-frequency (LF) and high-frequency (HF), conventionally considered to be influenced by the sympathetic system and the parasympathetic system respectively. HRV variables, in patients with ET, were significantly different from those detected in PD patients and similar to those of controls while in PD patients, they were significantly different from those of controls. At cut off level of 654 ms 2 , LF component correctly distinguished ET patients versus PD with sensitivity, specificity, PPV and accuracy of 100%. By contrast, at cut off level of 737 ms 2 , HF component showed sensitivity, specificity, PPV and accuracy of 80%, 100%, 100%, and 86.67% respectively. DAT-SPECT and cardiac MIBG uptake were both normal in ET patients whereas they were markedly decreased in those with PD. In our study, the LF component of HRV analysis distinguishes ET patients from those with PD on an individual basis, thus representing a valid help in everyday clinical practice for differentiation between these patients in absence of scintigraphic investigations. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Factors that influence in vitro fertilization treatment outcomes of Chinese men: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dan; Zhang, Jing Ping; Jiang, Ling; Liu, Huayan; Shu, Ling; Zhang, Qiong; Jiang, LiPing

    2016-11-01

    The thought of producing offspring has rooted in Chinese culture after thousands of years of feudal society. Infertility in men would bear significant psychological distress in this social environment. In this study, we explored the association between the outcomes of IVF treatment and anxiety, depression, marital satisfaction, communication, sexual relationship and social support. A cross-sectional study was conducted. A total of 202 Chinese men who received IVF treatment for the first time were investigated using socio-demographic questionnaire, Self-Rating Anxiety Scale, Self-Rating Depression Scale, ENRICH Marital Inventory and Social Support Rating Scale on the first day of IVF treatment. The overall prevalence of depression and anxiety was 49.1% and 27.2%, respectively. Subjects with IVF failure had higher levels of depression and anxiety, lower levels of "Marital satisfaction", "communication" and "Sexual relationship" and social support. Logistic regression analysis indicated that depression, anxiety, marital satisfaction and sexual relationship were independent predictors of IVF failure. The prevalence of depression and anxiety in Chinese men undergoing IVF was higher than that in other countries. These findings suggest that anxiety, depression, marital satisfaction, and sexual relationship are important factors leading to IVF failure. Therefore, it is important to provide psychological aid to male patients undergoing IVF treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Evidence-based cardiovascular care in the community: A population-based cross-sectional study

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    Sketris Ingrid

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ischaemic heart disease and congestive heart failure are common and important conditions in family practice. Effective treatments may be underutilized, particularly in women and the elderly. The objective of the study was to determine the rate of prescribing of evidence-based cardiovascular medications and determine if these differed by patient age or sex. Methods We conducted a two-year cross-sectional study involving all hospitals in the province of Nova Scotia, Canada. Subjects were all patients admitted with ischaemic heart disease with or without congestive heart failure between 15 October 1997 and 14 October 1999. The main measure was the previous outpatient use of recommended medications. Chi-square analyses followed by multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to examine age-sex differences. Results Usage of recommended medications varied from approximately 60% for beta-blockers and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE inhibitors to 90% for antihypertensive agents. Patients aged 75 and over were significantly less likely than younger patients to be taking any of the medication classes. Following adjustment for age, there were no significant differences in medication use by sex except among women aged 75 and older who were more likely to be taking beta-blockers than men in the same age group. Conclusions The use of evidence-based cardiovascular medications is rising and perhaps approaching reasonable levels for some drug classes. Family physicians should ensure that all eligible patients (prior myocardial infarction, congestive failure are offered beta-blockers or ACE inhibitors.

  2. Patients’ Dignity and Its Relationship with Contextual Variables: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirak, Mohammad; Ghafourifard, Mansour; Aliafsari Mamaghani, Ebrahim

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Dignity is considered as fundamental human needs and recognized as one of the central concepts in nursing science. The aim of this study was to assess the extent to which patients’ dignity is respected and to evalutae its relationship with contextual variables. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 256 hospitalized patients in the two teaching hospitals affiliated to Zanjan University of medical sciences, Iran. Data were collected by a questionnaire consist of two sections: (a) demographic characteristics, and (b) patient dignity including 32 questions. Data were analyzed by SPSS (ver.13) software using independent t-test, ANOVA and Pearson correlation. Results: The result showed that the mean (standard deviation) of total score of patient’s dignity was 108.17 (25.28). According to the result, the majority of the respondents (76.2%) were not aware of patient’s rights. There was a significant difference in mean scores of total dignity between single and married persons, living in city or village, and hospitalization in Moosavi and Valiasr hospital. Conclusion: Health care systems should take the provision of the patients' dignity into account through using a comprehensive educational program for informing of patient, family members, and health professionals about patients’ dignity. PMID:28299297

  3. Patients' Dignity and Its Relationship with Contextual Variables: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirak, Mohammad; Ghafourifard, Mansour; Aliafsari Mamaghani, Ebrahim

    2017-03-01

    Introduction: Dignity is considered as fundamental human needs and recognized as one of the central concepts in nursing science. The aim of this study was to assess the extent to which patients' dignity is respected and to evalutae its relationship with contextual variables. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 256 hospitalized patients in the two teaching hospitals affiliated to Zanjan University of medical sciences, Iran. Data were collected by a questionnaire consist of two sections: (a) demographic characteristics, and (b) patient dignity including 32 questions. Data were analyzed by SPSS (ver.13) software using independent t-test, ANOVA and Pearson correlation. Results: The result showed that the mean (standard deviation) of total score of patient's dignity was 108.17 (25.28). According to the result, the majority of the respondents (76.2%) were not aware of patient's rights. There was a significant difference in mean scores of total dignity between single and married persons, living in city or village, and hospitalization in Moosavi and Valiasr hospital. Conclusion: Health care systems should take the provision of the patients' dignity into account through using a comprehensive educational program for informing of patient, family members, and health professionals about patients' dignity.

  4. Periictal and interictal headache including migraine in Dutch patients with epilepsy: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstra, W A; Hageman, G; de Weerd, A W

    2015-03-01

    As early as in 1898, it was noted that there was a need to find "a plausible explanation of the long recognized affinities of migraine and epilepsy". However, results of recent studies are clearly conflicting on this matter. In this cross-sectional study, we aimed to define the prevalence and characteristics of both seizure-related and interictal headaches in patients with epilepsy (5-75years) seeking help in the tertiary epilepsy clinic SEIN in Zwolle. Using a questionnaire, subjects were surveyed on the existence of headaches including characteristics, duration, severity, and accompanying symptoms. Furthermore, details on epilepsy were retrieved from medical records (e.g., syndrome, seizure frequency, and use of drugs). Diagnoses of migraine, tension-type headache, or unclassifiable headache were made based on criteria of the International Classification of Headache Disorders. Between March and December 2013, 29 children and 226 adults were evaluated, 73% of whom indicated having current headaches, which is significantly more often when compared with the general population (pheadache, while 29% had solely seizure-related headaches and 22% had both. Migraine occurs significantly more often in people with epilepsy in comparison with the general population (pheadaches conforms to results in the general population. These results show that current headaches are a significantly more frequent problem amongst people with epilepsy than in people without epilepsy. When comparing migraine prevalence, this is significantly higher in the population of patients with epilepsy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Pesticide exposure, risk factors and health problems among cutflower farmers: a cross sectional study

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    Del Prado-Lu Jinky

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This was a cross-sectional study which aimed to determine associations between hematologic indices such as red blood cell cholinesterase (RBC and mean corpuscular volume (MCV, with illnesses related to pesticide exposure among cutflower farmers in La Trinidad, Benguet. One hundred two (102 randomly selected cutflower farmers underwent comprehensive, personal physical health and laboratory examinations and answered a questionnaire on work practices and illness. Majority were males (52% and most belonged to the 20–35 age group (45%. Majority of exposed farmers were symptomatic, with most common complaints being headache (48%, easy fatigability (46.1% and cough (40.2%. Analysis showed that RBC cholinesterase levels were positively associated with age (p = 0.02, and selling pesticide containers (p = 0.008. number of years of using pesticides (p = 0.022, use of contaminated cloth (p = 0.033, incorrect mixing of pesticides (p = 0.041, sex (p = 0.002 and illness due to pesticides (p = 0.005 were correlated with abnormal MCV. Significant associations were also found for hemoglobin, hematocrit, RBC, white blood cell (WBC and platelet count. Predictors of RBC cholinesterase were years of pesticide use (p = 0.037 and abnormalities on health (p = 0.029. The findings of the study can be used for information dissemination and pesticide reduction programs for the cutflower farmers.

  6. Childhood tuberculosis: management and treatment outcomes among children in Northwest Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kebede, Zemene Tigabu; Taye, Belaynew Wasie; Matebe, Yohannes Hailu

    2017-01-01

    Childhood tuberculosis (TB) treatment is becoming a major challenge in the TB control efforts of the Ethiopian health system. This study assessed childhood tuberculosis management, and treatment outcomes among children who completed anti-TB treatment in Northwest Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was conducted among children who completed their anti-TB treatment in Gondar University Referral Hospital and 6 satellite health centers. Data from each child with tuberculosis were obtained from review of medical records. P-values tuberculosis. Treatment success rate was 78.9%. In the bivariate regression, factors associated with TB treatment outcomes were permanent residence (OR=8.3, 95%CI: 4.1, 16.7), antiretroviral therapy (OR=4.5, 95%CI: 1.2, 16), and adherence to treatment (p tuberculosis treatment success rate was still low among children in Northwest Ethiopia. The health centers and hospital shall enhance strong follow-up of children on anti-tuberculosis treatment to improve treatment success with focus on rural children.

  7. Epidemiologic Features and Outcomes of Caustic Ingestions; a 10-Year Cross-Sectional Study

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    Athena Alipour Faz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Caustic ingestions are among the most prevalent causes of toxic exposure. The present 10-year survey aimed to evaluate the epidemiologic features and outcomes of caustic ingestion cases presenting to emergency department.Methods: This is a retrospective cross-sectional study on patients who were admitted to a referral toxicology center during 2004 to 2014, following caustic ingestion. Baseline characteristics, presenting chief complaint, severity of mucosal injury, complications, imaging and laboratory findings as well as outcomes (need for ICU admission, need for surgery, mortality were recorded, reviewing patients’ medical profile, and analyzed using SPSS 22.Results: 348 patients with mean age of 37.76 ± 17.62 years were studied (55.6% male. The mean amount of ingested caustic agent was 106.69 ± 100.24 mL (59.2 % intentional. Intentional ingestions (p < 0.0001, acidic substance (p = 0.054, and higher volume of ingestion (p = 0.021 were significantly associated with higher severity of mucosal damage. 28 (8% cases had died, 53 (15.2% were admitted to ICU, and 115 (33% cases underwent surgery.Conclusion: It seems that, suicidal intention, higher grade of mucosal injury, higher volume of ingestion, lower level of consciousness, lower serum pH, and higher respiratory rate are among the most important predictors of need for ICU admission, need for surgery, and mortality.

  8. Restless Legs Syndrome in shift workers: A cross sectional study on male assembly workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifian, Akbar; Firoozeh, Marjan; Pouryaghoub, Gholamreza; Shahryari, Mehran; Rahimi, Mohsen; Hesamian, Mohammad; Fardi, Ali

    2009-09-14

    Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS) is a common neurological movement disorder characterized by symptoms that follow a circadian pattern. Night and rotating shift work schedules exert adverse effects on functions of the human body by disturbing circadian rhythms, and they are known to cause sleep disturbances and insomnia. In this paper, we investigate the possible association between shift work and RLS. This cross sectional study was conducted in an automobile manufacturing factory in Tehran, Iran. A total of 780 male assembly workers were recruited in three groups, each with 260 workers: workers on a permanent morning shift (A) and two different rotating shift schedules (B and C) with morning, afternoon and night shifts. We used the international RLS study group criteria for diagnosis of RLS, and the severity scale for severity assessment in subjects with RLS. Self administered questionnaires were used to gather information on age, smoking, work history, medical condition, and existence and severity of RLS symptoms. The prevalence of RLS was significantly higher in rotational shift workers (15%) than workers with permanent morning work schedule (8.5%). In workers suffering from RLS, we found greater mean values of age and work experience, higher percentages of drug consumption, smoking, and co-morbid illnesses compared with subjects who did not have RLS, although these differences were statistically significant only for age, work experience and drug consumption. Rotational shift work acts as a risk or exacerbating factor for Restless Legs Syndrome.

  9. Maternal intention to exclusively breast feed among mainland Chinese mothers: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiao; Ip, Wan-Yim; Gao, Ling-Ling

    2018-02-01

    to examine postpartum maternal recall of their intentions to exclusively breast feed among breastfeeding women and identify its predictors. a cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted in a regional teaching hospital at Guangzhou, China between April 1 and July 14, 2014. 571 mothers who were within four days after delivery were recruited to the study. data were collected by four research assistants with maternal intention to breast feed data sheet, the Network Support for Breastfeeding Scale (NSBS), and a socio-demographic data sheet. greater than half of the mothers (69.5%) intended to exclusively breast feed. The logistic regression analysis revealed six variables which predicted postpartum maternal recall of their intentions to exclusively breast feed. They were support from husband, being breast-fed as an infant, previous breast feeding experience, attending antenatal breast feeding class, time of decision to breast feed, and the rating of the importance of my baby's health. health care professionals could develop strategies to enhance mothers' intention to exclusively breast feed, such as providing antenatal breast feeding class on internet, a strong focus on the benefits of exclusive breast feeding on the baby's health in the education programme, and more efforts directed toward educating school-aged children and adolescents to modify societal perceptions of what are considered normal infant feeding. Mothers' husband could be encouraged in supporting exclusive breast feeding. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Cat scratches, not bites, are associated with unipolar depression--cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flegr, Jaroslav; Hodný, Zdeněk

    2016-01-05

    A recent study performed on 1.3 million patients showed a strong association between being bitten by a cat and probability of being diagnosed with depression. Authors suggested that infection with cat parasite Toxoplasma could be the reason for this association. A cross sectional internet study on a non-clinical population of 5,535 subjects was undertaken. The subjects that reported having been bitten by a dog and a cat or scratched by a cat have higher Beck depression score. They were more likely to have visited psychiatrists, psychotherapists and neurologists in past two years, to have been previously diagnosed with depression (but not with bipolar disorder). Multivariate analysis of models with cat biting, cat scratching, toxoplasmosis, the number of cats at home, and the age of subjects as independent variables showed that only cat scratching had positive effect on depression (p = 0.004). Cat biting and toxoplasmosis had no effect on the depression, and the number of cats at home had a negative effect on depression (p = 0.021). Absence of association between toxoplasmosis and depression and five times stronger association of depression with cat scratching than with cat biting suggests that the pathogen responsible for mood disorders in animals-injured subjects is probably not the protozoon Toxoplasma gondii but another organism; possibly the agent of cat-scratched disease - the bacteria Bartonella henselae.

  11. Social acceptability of treatments for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrini, Stefano; Carabalona, Roberta

    2006-08-24

    There are no data on social acceptability of scoliosis. Aim. To elicit evidence-based opinions on therapeutic strategies for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis in a sample of families with not affected children, so to understand the social perception of this issue. Design. Cross-sectional study. Setting. Secondary schools in 4 northern Italian regions. Participants. Parents of children in the age group at risk of and not affected by scoliosis (Pre-test group = 100, Study group = 3,162). Interventions. Questionnaire: five specific and evidence-based questions regarding scoliosis treatment options and a socio-demographic section. Methodology. "Role-playing" in which it was required to normal people to answer what they would have chosen if they had been in the situation proposed. Main outcome measures. Perception of acceptability of treatments for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis in the general population (social acceptability). The families support the use of screening (94.8%) at school, immediate bracing (76.4%) for scoliosis with a 60% risk of progression, but also therapeutic exercises (86.9%) in cases with a 25% risk of progression. There is a growing tendency to consider not only the efficacy, effectiveness and efficiency of treatments, but also their acceptability. This patient-centred aspect is especially more important in areas (like adolescent idiopathic scoliosis) in which there is some evidence on the efficacy of treatments, but not strong and definitive (RCTs). Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis treatments should thus be carefully considered also in the light of their social acceptability.

  12. Alcohol consumption among students - a cross-sectional study at three largest universities in Serbia

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    Višnjić Aleksandar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The prevalence of unhealthy alcohol use among university students is increasing in many countries. Objective. The aim of the study was to investigate alcohol consumption and alcohol-related knowledge, attitudes and risky behaviors among Serbian university students. Methods. The cross-sectional study was carried out at the three state universities from January to June in the academic year 2009/2010 and included 2,285 students of both genders. The students filled out a questionnaire consisting of 70 questions with respect to demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, their lifestyle habits, styles and attitudes, health assessment, as well as exposure to different risk factors. Results. It was found that 77.7% of students drank alcohol occasionally, 4.6% of them consumed it on a daily basis. Friedman’s test (p<0.001 showed that students prefer drinking beer to all other alcoholic beverages. Students in Belgrade and students of Technical faculties are undisputed champions when it comes to how often they drink six or more drinks on a single occasion. Older students in Serbia drink more and get drunk more frequently. Conclusion. A high percentage of Serbian students consume alcohol, and even though they have their first drink at an early age, they generally drink less than students in many other countries.

  13. Schizophrenia and periodontal disease: An oro-neural connection? A cross-sectional epidemiological study

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    Shreya Shetty

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Schizophrenia is a psychosis characterized by delusions and hallucinations occurring in clear consciousness. Studies have shown that the cytokines may modulate dopaminergic metabolism and schizophrenic symptomatology in schizophrenia. Cytokine involvement in periodontal disease is also well documented. To date, however, there has been relatively little research assessing periodontal status of patients with schizophrenia. The present study was therefore mainly intended to understand the exact link, if any, between periodontal disease and schizophrenia. Materials and Methods: A total of 250 schizophrenic patients (140 males and 110 females, between 25 and 55 years of age, were selected from the out patient department of National Institute of Mental Health and Neural Sciences, Bangalore and their periodontal status was assessed as part of this cross-sectional epidemiological survey. Results: ANOVA showed that there was increased evidence of poor periodontal condition, as evidenced by gingival index and plaque index in patients who had been schizophrenic for a longer duration of time (P < 0.001. So also, higher probing pocket depths were found in schizophrenics suffering from a longer period of time than others (P < 0.001. Conclusions: Although oral neglect might be a cause of poor periodontal health in schizophrenics, the possible link between periodontal diseases giving rise to schizophrenia cannot be overlooked due to the presence of cytokine activity which is present both in schizophrenia and periodontal disease.

  14. 61: EVIDENCE BASE NURSING PRACTICE: A CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY IN SOUTH OF IRAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khammarnia, Mohammad; Mohammadi, Mahsa Haj; Amani, Zahra; Rezaeian, Shahab; Setoodehzadeh, Fatemeh

    2017-01-01

    Background and aims This study aimed to determine the barriers to implementation of EBP among nurses. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in Zahedan City, South East of Iran, in 2014. The questionnaire of barriers to implementation of EBP consists of 27 statements which were distributed among 280 nurses. Results More than half of the participants agreed that 56% and 57% of barriers to implementation of evidence based practice are related to organizational and individual aspects, respectively. Participants identified barriers at organizational level included the lack of human resources (78.3%), lack of internet access at work (72.2%), and heavy workload (70.0%). Barrier at individual level included lack of time to read literature (83.7%), lack of ability to work with computer (68.8%), and insufficient proficiency in English language (62.0%). Age, educational level, job experience, and employment status were associated with organizational barriers to implementation of EBP. At the individual level only education was associated with barriers to implementation of EBP. Conclusion Barriers to implementation of EBP occur at both individual and organizational levels. The indicator of quality in nursing practice is EBP. Hence, familiarity with EBP is recommended for Iranian nurses. In addition, knowledge of barriers will help health care system and policy makers to provide a culture of EBP.

  15. Attitudes of midwives and maternal child health nurses towards suicide: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Rosalind; McCauley, Kay; Barnfield, Jakqui; Moss, Cheryle; Cross, Wendy

    2015-12-01

    Perinatal women are at risk of depression and/or suicidality. Suicide is the highest cause of indirect maternal deaths in the perinatal period. Midwives and maternal child health nurses (MCHN), as key clinicians, need to be able to detect these mental health issues. Little is known about these clinicians' attitudes to suicide. In this paper, we report on the results of a cross-sectional study of midwives' and MCHN attitudes to suicide. A convenience sample of midwives (n = 95) and MCHN (n = 86) from south-eastern Victoria, Australia, was recruited into the study. Participants completed the Attitudes to Suicide Prevention Scale. The results showed that MCHN have more positive attitudes towards suicide prevention than midwives, and younger participants have more positive attitudes to suicide prevention compared to older participants. Midwives and MCHN could benefit from continuing professional education to build their knowledge and skills in assessing suicide risk for childbearing women and their families, increasing positive attitudes, improving detection, and mental health referrals. © 2015 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  16. Smart phone usage and addiction among dental students in Saudi Arabia: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesh, Elluru; Jemal, Mohammad Yousef Al; Samani, Abdullah Saleh Al

    2017-04-06

    Purpose The main aim of this research is to explore measures of smart phone usage, smart phone addiction, and their associations with demographic and health behavior-related variables among dental students in Saudi Arabia. Methods A Cross sectional study involving sample of 205 dental students from Qaseem Private College were surveyed for smart phone use and addiction using the short version of the Smartphone Addiction Scale for Adolescents (SAS-SV). Results Smart phone addiction was seen in 136 (71.9%) of the 189 students. The findings from our study revealed that high stress levels, low physical activity, higher body mass index (BMI), longer duration of smart phone usage, higher frequency of usage, shorter time period until first smart phone use in the morning and social networking sites (SNS) were associated significantly with the smart phone addiction. Conclusion The current research gives the information about the extent of smart phone over usage and addiction among the dental students in Saudi Arabia with indication of the predictors of addiction and the need for further research in the area with comprehensible interpretation to spread the awareness of the smart phone addiction.

  17. Eating disorders in adolescent females with and without type 1 diabetes: cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J M; Lawson, M L; Daneman, D; Olmsted, M P; Rodin, G

    2000-06-10

    To determine the prevalence of eating disorders in adolescent females with type 1 diabetes mellitus compared with that in their non-diabetic peers. Cross sectional case-control led study. Diabetes clinics and schools in three Canadian cities. 356 females aged 12-19 with type 1 diabetes and 1098 age matched non-diabetic controls. Eating disorders meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) criteria. Eating disorders that met DSM-IV criteria were more prevalent in diabetic subjects (36, 10%) than in non-diabetic controls (49, 4%) (odds ratio 2.4, 95% confidence interval 1.5 to 3.7; Peating disorders were also more common in those with diabetes (49, 14%) than in controls (84, 8%) (odds ratio 1.9, 95% confidence interval 1.3 to 2.8; Peating disorder (9.4% (1.8)) than in those without (8.6% (1.6)), P=0.04). DSM-IV and subthreshold eating disorders are almost twice as common in adolescent females with type 1 diabetes as in their non-diabetic peers. In diabetic subjects, eating disorders are associated with insulin omission for weight loss and impaired metabolic control.

  18. Parameter study of high-β tokamak reactors with circular and strongly elongated cross section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herold, H.

    1977-05-01

    A simplified reactor model is used to study the influence of critical β-values on economy parameters and dimensions of possible long time pulsed tokamak reactors. Various betas deduced from stability and equilibrium MHD theory are introduced and put into the scaling in context with technological constraints, as maximum B-field, core constraint, maximum wall loading a.o. The plasma physical concepts treated comprise circular and strongly elongated cross section and approximated FCT equilibria. The computational results are presented as plots of possible economy parameter ranges (magnet energy, wall loading, volumina, investment costs per unit power) dependent on β for suitably chosen hierarchies of the constraints. - A burn time reduction by the build ups of α-pressure may be possible for the pressure profile sensitive high-β equilibria (FCT). Burn times in the 1O sec range, resulting from simple estimates, would about cancel the economic advantages of reactors with high-β equilibria compared to a β = 5% standardreactor (UWMAK I). (orig.) [de

  19. Is Nurses' Professional Competence Related to Their Personality and Emotional Intelligence? A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Heydari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nurses' professional competence is a crucial factor in clinical practice. Systematic evaluation of nurses’ competence and its related factors are essential for enhancing the quality of nursing care. This study aimed to assess the nurses’ competence level and its possible relationship with their personality and emotional intelligence. Methods: Using a cross-sectional survey design, three instruments including Nurse Competence Scale, short form of Schutte Self Report Emotional Intelligence Test, and the short 10-item version of Big Five Factor Inventory, were administered simultaneously to a randomized stratified sample of 220 nurses working in hospitals affiliated to Mashhad University of Medical Sciences. Data analysis was performed using SPSS 11.5. Results: Majority of nurses rated themselves as "good" and "very good", with the highest scores in "managing situations" and "work role" dimensions of nurse competence. A relatively similar pattern of scores was seen in competence dimensions, personality and emotional intelligence, among male and female nurses. Emotional intelligence and personality scores showed a significant relationship with nurses’ competence, explaining almost 20% of variations in nurse competence scores. Conclusion: Iranian nurses evaluated their overall professional competence at similar level of the nurses in other countries. Knowledge about the nurses’ competence level and its related factors, including personality and emotional intelligence, may help nurse managers in enhancing nurses' professional competence through appropriate task assignments and conducting in-service educational programs, thus improving the health status of patients.

  20. Reporting of conflicts of interest from drug trials in Cochrane reviews: cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roseman, Michelle; Turner, Erick H; Lexchin, Joel; Coyne, James C; Bero, Lisa A; Thombs, Brett D

    2012-08-16

    To investigate the degree to which Cochrane reviews of drug interventions published in 2010 reported conflicts of interest from included trials and, among reviews that reported this information, where it was located in the review documents. Cross sectional study. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Systematic reviews of drug interventions published in 2010 in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, with review content classified as up to date in 2008 or later and with results from one or more randomised controlled trials. Of 151 included Cochrane reviews, 46 (30%, 95% confidence interval 24% to 38%) reported information on the funding sources of included trials, including 30 (20%, 14% to 27%) that reported information on trial funding for all included trials and 16 (11%, 7% to 17%) that reported for some, but not all, trials. Only 16 of the 151 Cochrane reviews (11%, 7% to 17%) provided any information on trial author-industry financial ties or trial author-industry employment. Information on trial funding and trial author-industry ties was reported in one to seven locations within each review, with no consistent reporting location observed. Most Cochrane reviews of drug trials published in 2010 did not provide information on trial funding sources or trial author-industry financial ties or employment. When this information was reported, location of reporting was inconsistent across reviews.

  1. Bullying among school children in postwar bosnia and herzegovina: cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerni Obrdalj, Edita; Rumboldt, Mirjana

    2008-08-01

    To compare the prevalence and characteristics of bullying between two towns in Bosnia and Herzegovina-Stolac, which was exposed to firearm conflict during the 1992-1995 war in Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Posusje, which was outside of the active combat zone. In this cross-sectional study, we included 484 primary school pupils attending 4th-8th grade of elementary school, 217 (44.8%) of them from Stolac and 267 (55.2%) from Posusje. The pupils were interviewed using a standardized questionnaire on the experience of bullying. Every sixth pupil (16.4%) experienced at least one form of bullying almost every day, while 34 (7.0%) pupils constantly bullied other children. Sixth-eighth graders were more often bullies than 4th-5th graders (P=0.044). Girls were most often victims was of bullying, while boys were most often bullies (P=0.036). The expected difference in bullying between the two towns was not observed, except for older pupils in Posusje, who were more violent than their peers in Stolac (P=0.044). Among the analyzed variables of sex, age, town, and school achievement, only male sex was significant predictor of bullying (P=0.010), increasing the relative risk by 3.005 times. Bullying among primary school pupils did not differ between areas that experienced war activities in 1992-1995. Our results could be useful in the introduction of specific prevention measures against bullying in postwar situation.

  2. Reasons for using workplace wellness services: Cross-sectional study among 6000 employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Roger; Cleal, Bryan; Jakobsen, Mette Øllgaard; Villadsen, Ebbe; Andersen, Lars Louis

    2017-07-01

    While workplace wellness services are proactively established to improve well-being and reduce sickness absence, knowledge of reasons for using these services remains sparse. This study investigates which factors determine use of an in-house wellness service at a large organization (the Danish Police) with several departments in different geographical locations. All potential users of the Wellness service ( n = 15,284) were invited to respond to a cross-sectional questionnaire. Of 6060 eligible respondents, 58% had used the service at least once (any use) and 17% had used the service at least three times (frequent users). Two items assessed the frequency of statements of justifications for using or not using the Wellness service. Associations between 32 demographic and psychosocial variables and use of the Wellness service were evaluated with unadjusted bivariate logistic regression analyses. The two primary justifications for using the Wellness service were: to get a blood pressure assessment (37%) and to rehabilitate injury (26%). The two most common justifications for not using the Wellness service were: no perceived need (44%) and already physically active (34%). Of the 32 demographical and psychosocial variables included, 28 were associated with any use and 24 with frequent use. Use of the Wellness service appears to be driven by a complex configuration of factors that resist easy translation into practical advice. Non-participation was accounted for in terms of both positive and negative barriers. Use of the service for purposes of primary prevention and health promotion was, relatively speaking, lagging behind.

  3. Croatian medical students see academic dishonesty as an acceptable behaviour: a cross-sectional multicampus study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukolja Taradi, Suncana; Taradi, Milan; Dogas, Zoran

    2012-06-01

    To provide insights into the students' attitude towards academic integrity and their perspective of academic honesty at Croatian medical schools. A cross-sectional study using an anonymous questionnaire containing 29 questions on frequency of cheating, perceived seriousness of cheating, perceptions on integrity atmosphere, cheating behaviour of peers and on willingness to report misconduct. Participants were third-year (preclinical) and fifth-year (clinical) students from all four Croatian Schools of Medicine. Outcome measures were descriptive statistical correlates and differences in students' self-reported educational dishonesty, perceptions of cheating behaviour and medical school integrity atmosphere. Of the 1074 students enrolled in the third and fifth year, 662 (62%) completed the questionnaire. A large proportion of the students (97%) admitted using some method of cheating and 78% admitted engaging in at least one form of misconduct. About 50% had a lenient attitude towards six acts of academic dishonesty. Only 2% reported another student for cheating. Risk factors for cheating were strongly correlated with students' perceptions of peer cheating behaviour, peer approval of cheating, low perception of seriousness of cheating and inappropriate severity level of exams and teaching materials. Cheating is prevalent in Croatian medical schools and academic dishonesty is seen as acceptable behaviour among numerous future Croatian doctors.

  4. The association between submarine service and multimorbidity: a cross-sectional study of Korean naval personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jihun; Song, Yun-Mi

    2017-09-24

    We aimed to estimate the prevalence of multimorbidity (≥2 chronic health problems) among Korean submariners and to evaluate the association between submarine service and multimorbidity and disease burden. This cross-sectional study included 590 naval personnel who visited a Korean primary care clinic during 2014-2015. Data regarding general characteristics and morbidities were collected from medical records, and disease burden was assessed using the Cumulative Illness Rating Scale (CIRS). Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the association between submarine service and multimorbidity and disease burden. The prevalence of multimorbidity was 11.7% among 180 non-submariners and 32.2% among 410 submariners. The prevalence of multimorbidity and the CIRS scores gradually increased with age. Submarine service was associated with higher risk of multimorbidity and disease burden compared with non-submarine service even after adjusting for age, alcohol consumption, smoking status and naval rank. However, a dose-response relationship was not evident between the duration of submarine service and the risk of multimorbidity as well as high disease burden. Submarine service was significantly associated with a higher risk of multimorbidity and greater disease burden than non-submarine service. This finding suggests that multidimensional and holistic healthcare approaches are needed for submariners. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  5. Ethical principles in the work of nurse educator-A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salminen, Leena; Stolt, Minna; Metsämäki, Riikka; Rinne, Jenni; Kasen, Anne; Leino-Kilpi, Helena

    2016-01-01

    The application of ethical principles within the teaching profession and nursing practice forms the core of the nurse educator's professional ethics. However, research focusing on the professional ethics of nurse educators is scarce. To describe ethical principles and issues relating to the work of nurse educators from the perspectives of both nurse educators themselves and nursing students. A descriptive study using cross-sectional data and content analysis. Nursing education program involving students from nine polytechnics in Finland. Nursing students (n=202) and nurse educators (n=342). Data were derived from an online survey, with two open-ended questions: Nursing students and nurse educators were asked to name the three main ethical principles that guide the work of nurse educators and also to describe ethical issues involved in the work. Students most often named professionalism, justice, and equality as the main ethical principles for a nurse educator. Nurse educators considered justice, equality, and honesty as the main ethical principles. The content analysis showed that professionalism and the relationship between educator and student were the key categories for ethical issues as perceived by nursing students. Nursing students most often identified inequality between the nurse educator and nursing student as the ethical issue faced by the nurse educator. Nursing students and nurse educators differed somewhat both in their views of the ethical principles guiding an educator's work and in the ethical issues arising in the work. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Correlation of peri-implant health and myeloperoxidase levels: a cross-sectional clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liskmann, Stanislav; Zilmer, Mihkel; Vihalemm, Tiiu; Salum, Olev; Fischer, Krista

    2004-10-01

    At present, there are no diagnostic tools that permit early detection of peri-implantitis. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the correlation of myeloperoxidase (MPO) levels with traditional periodontal clinical parameters around dental implants including peri-implant pocket probing depth (PPD), gingival index (GI) and bleeding on probing (BOP), since MPO has been associated with destruction of periodontal tissues. Twenty-four healthy adult volunteers (9 men and 15 women) with 64 Ankylos Biofunctional implants (DentsplyFriadent, Mannheim, Germany) were recruited from Tallinn Dental Clinic. Biochemical and clinical parameters evaluated were the following ones: the level of MPO in the peri-implant sulcus fluid (PISF) (an analog for gingival crevicular fluid in natural teeth), PPD (mm), GI (0,1,2 or 3), and BOP (0 or 1). In comparison to the clinically healthy implants, total amounts of MPO were significantly higher in PISF collected around implants with inflammatory lesions. In addition, the levels of MPO were correlated with the clinical parameters. The results confirm the similarity of the inflammatory response of tissues surrounding implants and natural teeth, and suggest that MPO could be promising marker of inflammation around dental implants.

  7. A cross-sectional study of breath acetone based on diabetic metabolic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenwen; Liu, Yong; Lu, Xiaoyong; Huang, Yanping; Liu, Yu; Cheng, Shouquan; Duan, Yixiang

    2015-02-26

    Breath acetone is a known biomarker for diabetes mellitus in breath analysis. In this work, a cross-sectional study of breath acetone based on clinical metabolic disorders of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) was carried out. Breath acetone concentrations of 113 T2DM patients and 56 apparently healthy individuals were measured at a single time point. Concentrations varied from 0.22 to 9.41 ppmv (mean 1.75 ppmv) for T2DM, which were significantly higher than those for normal controls (ranged from 0.32 to 1.96 ppmv, mean 0.72 ppmv, p = 0.008). Observations in our work revealed that breath acetone concentrations elevated to different degrees, along with the abnormality of blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), triglyceride and cholesterol. Breath acetone showed obviously positive correlations with blood ketone and urine ketone. Possible metabolic relations between breath acetone and diabetic disorders were also discussed. This work aimed at giving an overall assessment of breath acetone from the perspective of clinical parameters for type 2 diabetes.

  8. Greater Cortical Thickness in Elderly Female Yoga Practitioners—A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui F. Afonso

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Yoga, a mind-body activity that requires attentional engagement, has been associated with positive changes in brain structure and function, especially in areas related to awareness, attention, executive functions and memory. Normal aging, on the other hand, has also been associated with structural and functional brain changes, but these generally involve decreased cognitive functions. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to compare brain cortical thickness (CT in elderly yoga practitioners and a group of age-matched healthy non-practitioners. We tested 21 older women who had practiced hatha yoga for at least 8 years and 21 women naive to yoga, meditation or any mind-body interventions who were matched to the first group in age, years of formal education and physical activity level. A T1-weighted MPRAGE sequence was acquired for each participant. Yoga practitioners showed significantly greater CT in a left prefrontal lobe cluster, which included portions of the lateral middle frontal gyrus, anterior superior frontal gyrus and dorsal superior frontal gyrus. We found greater CT in the left prefrontal cortex of healthy elderly women who trained yoga for a minimum of 8 years compared with women in the control group.

  9. Subgingival Microbiota in White Patients With Desquamative Gingivitis: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arduino, Paolo G; Romano, Federica; Sasia, Danilo; Broccoletti, Roberto; Ricceri, Fulvio; Barbui, Anna Maria; Brossa, Silvia; Cipriani, Raffaella; Cricenti, Luca; Cabras, Marco; Aimetti, Mario

    2017-07-01

    Presence of epithelial desquamation, erythema, and erosions on gingival tissue is usually described in the literature as desquamative gingivitis (DG). A wide range of autoimmune/dermatologic disorders can manifest as DG, although the two more common are oral lichen planus and mucous membrane pemphigoid. The aim of this study is to investigate prevalence of 11 periodontopathogenic microorganisms in patients with DG and to compare it with the microbiologic status of individuals affected by plaque-induced gingivitis (pGI). Cross-sectional clinical and microbiologic data were obtained from 66 patients (33 in each group). Subgingival plaque samples were analyzed using semiquantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis. Statistically significant difference, but with little clinical significance, was observed in gingival conditions between the two groups, probably due to the worse home control hygiene of patients with DG. Prevalence and levels of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Eikenella corrodens, and Fusobacterium nucleatum/periodonticum were statistically higher in samples from patients with DG than in those with pGI. In multivariate regression models, subgingival colonization of A. actinomycetemcomitans and F. nucleatum/periodonticum was not statistically associated with DG, whereas, high levels of E. corrodens were associated with 13-fold increased odds for DG. Microbiologic differences were found in subgingival plaque for patients with DG and pGI. This may suggest possible association between periodontal pathogens and DG.

  10. [Cross-sectional study of intestinal parasitosis in child populations in Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navone, Graciela Teresa; Zonta, María Lorena; Cociancic, Paola; Garraza, Mariela; Gamboa, María Inés; Giambelluca, Luis Alberto; Dahinten, Silvia; Oyhenart, Evelia Edith

    2017-06-08

    Determine the distribution of intestinal parasitosis in children in nine provinces representative of Argentina's mosaic of contrasting environments. Descriptive, observational, cross-sectional study of preschool children (5 years old or under) and school-age children (6-14 years) in the provinces of Buenos Aires (sample taken between 2005 and 2013), Chubut (2010-2013), Corrientes (2012), Entre Ríos (2010-2012), Formosa (2014), La Pampa (2006), Mendoza (2008-2011), Misiones (2005-2008 and 2013), and Salta (2012-2013). Serial samples, fecal samples, and anal swabs were processed using concentration techniques. The results were analyzed by sex, age interval, and province. Frequency of parasitosis (monoparasitosis and multiple parasitoses), wealth of species, and Sørensen similarity coefficient were calculated. Misiones presented the highest frequency of parasitized children and Chubut the lowest (82.0% vs 38.4%; p parasitosis in Formosa (69.2%). The most frequent species in the majority of provinces were Blastocystis sp. and Enterobius vermicularis. Misiones presented the highest frequency of soil-transmitted helminthes (23.3%) and Mendoza the lowest (0.6%); none were found in Chubut, La Pampa, or Salta. Buenos Aires, Formosa, and Misiones presented a similar species composition, as did Chubut and La Pampa. The frequency of parasitosis in Argentina corresponds to the country's complex mosaic of climatic and socioeconomic variability and shows a declining trend from north to south and from east to west.

  11. Basic Competence of Intensive Care Unit Nurses: Cross-Sectional Survey Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakanmaa, Riitta-Liisa; Suominen, Tarja; Ritmala-Castrén, Marita; Vahlberg, Tero; Leino-Kilpi, Helena

    2015-01-01

    Critical care patients benefit from the attention of nursing personnel with a high competence level. The aim of the study was to describe and evaluate the self-assessed basic competence of intensive care unit nurses and related factors. A cross-sectional survey design was used. A basic competence scale (Intensive and Critical Care Nursing Competence Scale version 1, Likert scale 1-5, 1 = poor and 5 = excellent) was employed among Finnish intensive care unit nurses (n = 431). Intensive care unit nurses' self-assessed basic competence was good (mean 4.19, SD 0.40). The attitude and value base of basic competence was excellent whereas experience base was the poorest compared to the knowledge base and skill base of intensive and critical care nursing. The strongest factor explaining nurses' basic competence was their experience of autonomy in nursing care (F value 60.85, β 0.11, SE 0.01, and P ≤ 0.0001). Clinical competence was self-rated as good. Nurses gave their highest competence self-ratings for ICU patient care according to the principles of nursing care. The ICU nurses also self-rated their professional competence as good. Collaboration was self-rated as the best competence. In basic and continuing education and professional self-development discussions it is meaningful to consider and find solutions for how to improve nurses' experienced autonomy in nursing.

  12. Is Nurses' Professional Competence Related to Their Personality and Emotional Intelligence? A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydari, Abbas; Kareshki, Hossein; Armat, Mohammad Reza

    2016-01-01

    Nurses' professional competence is a crucial factor in clinical practice. Systematic evaluation of nurses' competence and its related factors are essential for enhancing the quality of nursing care. This study aimed to assess the nurses' competence level and its possible relationship with their personality and emotional intelligence. Using a cross-sectional survey design, three instruments including Nurse Competence Scale, short form of Schutte Self Report Emotional Intelligence Test, and the short 10-item version of Big Five Factor Inventory, were administered simultaneously to a randomized stratified sample of 220 nurses working in hospitals affiliated to Mashhad University of Medical Sciences. Data analysis was performed using SPSS 11.5. Majority of nurses rated themselves as "good" and "very good", with the highest scores in "managing situations" and "work role" dimensions of nurse competence. A relatively similar pattern of scores was seen in competence dimensions, personality and emotional intelligence, among male and female nurses. Emotional intelligence and personality scores showed a significant relationship with nurses' competence, explaining almost 20% of variations in nurse competence scores. Iranian nurses evaluated their overall professional competence at similar level of the nurses in other countries. Knowledge about the nurses' competence level and its related factors, including personality and emotional intelligence, may help nurse managers in enhancing nurses' professional competence through appropriate task assignments and conducting in-service educational programs, thus improving the health status of patients.

  13. Depressive symptoms and the sexual orientation among adolescent students: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adalberto Campo-Arias

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Researches in otherpopulations report a strong association between sexual orientationand depressive symptoms, that is, bisexual, gay, lesbian and unsureabout sexual orientation adolescents refer more depressive symptomsthan heterosexual students. Objective: To determine the associationbetween the sexual orientation and depressive symptomsin adolescent students of a public school at the city of Cartagena, Colombia.Method: A cross-sectional study was designed. This surveyincluded students aged 13-17 year-olds. These students completedin the classroom a questionnaire about health behaviors and theZung´s self-rating depression. Logistic regression was computed forcontrolling confounding variables. Results: A total of 432 students,219 boys and 213 girls, completed successfully the survey. The meanage was 14,6 (SD=1,3, and the mean scholarship was 8,4 (1,5. Atotal of 21,1% of girls and 19,2% of boys considered themselvesbisexuals, gays, lesbians or insure about sexual orientation. Depressivesymptoms were related to sexual orientation exclusivally amonggirls (OR=1,10, 95%CI 1,01-1,18, after controlling confounding factors.Conclusions: Among these adolescent students, depressivesymptoms were associated with the sexual orientation only amonggirls. It is likely that this association could be explained better by the gender than the sexual orientation. Futher investigations are needed in Colombian adolescents students.

  14. Psychosocial problems of Pakistani parents of Thalassemic children: a cross sectional study done in Bahawalpur, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Kashif; Sadaf, Breera; Kanwal, Sadia

    2012-08-01

    Thalassemia is a blood disorder passed down through families (inherited) in which the body makes an abnormal form of hemoglobin. This disorder results in excessive destruction of red blood cells, and there is no effective treatment. Patients require lifelong blood transfusion, usually started within 6 to 12 months of birth of patient, which on other hand has its own complications. It is a chronic disease that manifests so early in life that it leads to psychological and social problems for parents . We focused on parents to assess the impact of their child's disease. To determine the psychosocial problems of parents of thalassemic children. This cross sectional study was conducted among the parents of thalassemic children attending THALASSEMIA CENTRE, BAHAVAL VICTORIA HOSPITAL (BVH), BAHAWALPUR, PAKISTAN during the year 2011. A self designed questionnaire was used that contained questions regarding psychological and social aspects. Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) was used to assess the depression of parents of thalassemic children. Of the 100 parents interviewed, the majority were mothers (71%) , with a mean age of 32 ± 8.07 years for both sexes. 29 percent of the parents had moderate to severe depression, 16 percent had sleep disturbances. 56 percent were downgraded by relatives. There was a significant relationship between respondent education and depression (p problems due to the disease of their child. Parent counseling is needed on regular basis.

  15. Psychosocial problems of Pakistani parents of Thalassemic children: a cross sectional study done in Bahawalpur, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziz Kashif

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thalassemia is a blood disorder passed down through families (inherited in which the body makes an abnormal form of hemoglobin. This disorder results in excessive destruction of red blood cells, and there is no effective treatment. Patients require lifelong blood transfusion, usually started within 6 to 12 months of birth of patient, which on other hand has its own complications. It is a chronic disease that manifests so early in life that it leads to psychological and social problems for parents . We focused on parents to assess the impact of their child’s disease. Objective To determine the psychosocial problems of parents of thalassemic children. Methods This cross sectional study was conducted among the parents of thalassemic children attending THALASSEMIA CENTRE, BAHAVAL VICTORIA HOSPITAL (BVH, BAHAWALPUR, PAKISTAN during the year 2011. A self designed questionnaire was used that contained questions regarding psychological and social aspects. Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9 was used to assess the depression of parents of thalassemic children. Results Of the 100 parents interviewed, the majority were mothers (71% , with a mean age of 32 ± 8.07 years for both sexes. 29 percent of the parents had moderate to severe depression, 16 percent had sleep disturbances. 56 percent were downgraded by relatives. There was a significant relationship between respondent education and depression (p Conclusion A substantial number of parents have psychosocial problems due to the disease of their child. Parent counseling is needed on regular basis.

  16. Urban Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children's exposure to stressful events: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askew, Deborah A; Schluter, Philip J; Spurling, Geoffrey K P; Bond, Chelsea J R; Brown, Alex D H

    2013-07-08

    To determine the frequency and types of stressful events experienced by urban Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children, and to explore the relationship between these experiences and the children's physical health and parental concerns about their behaviour and learning ability. Cross-sectional study of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children aged ≤ 14 2013s presenting to an urban Indigenous primary health care service in Brisbane for annual child health checks between March 2007 and March 2010. Parental or carer report of stressful events ever occurring in the family that may have affected the child. Of 344 participating children, 175 (51%) had experienced at least one stressful event. Reported events included the death of a family member or close friend (40; 23%), parental divorce or separation (28; 16%), witness to violence or abuse (20; 11%), or incarceration of a family member (7; 4%). These children were more likely to have parents or carers concerned about their behaviour (P Children who had experienced stressful events had poorer physical health and more parental concern about behavioural 1s than those who had not. Parental disclosure in the primary health care setting of stressful events that have affected the child necessitates appropriate medical, psychological or social interventions to ameliorate both the immediate and potential lifelong negative impact. However, treating the impact of stressful events is insufficient without dealing with the broader political and societal 1s that result in a clustering of stressful events in the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population.

  17. Tobacco use and friendship networks: a cross-sectional study among Brazilian adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Oliva Jorge

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To determine the prevalence of tobacco use and its association with types of friendship networks, socioeconomic status and gender among Brazilian adolescents.Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out with a representative sample of 905 students aged 15 to 19 years. Information on social networks and tobacco use was collected by the self-administered questionnaire 'Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test" and the question "What is your most important group of close friends?'. Socioeconomic status was assessed using an area-based social vulnerability index and type of school. Multinomial logistic regression analysis was employed to test associations between tobacco use and the independent variables.Results: The overall prevalence of tobacco use was 18.9%. Female adolescents had 3.80-fold greater odds of reporting weekly to daily tobacco use compared to male adolescents. Participants who reported that their most important groups of close friends were from church had a lower risk of reporting weekly to daily tobacco use in comparison to those who reported that their best friends were from school.Conclusions: The prevalence of tobacco use was high and was associated with school-based (as compared to church-based friendship networks, female gender and higher area-level socioeconomic status.

  18. Mahjong playing and eye-hand coordination in older adults-a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, William W N; Wong, Gloria C K; Gao, Kelly L

    2016-10-01

    [Purpose] Eye-hand coordination declines with age, but physical activity is known to slow down the degeneration. Playing mahjong involves lots of eye-hand coordination. The objective was to investigate the relationship between playing mahjong and eye-hand coordination in older adults using a fast finger-pointing paradigm. [Subjects and Methods] Forty-one community dwelling older adults aged sixty or above were recruited by convenience sampling in this cross-sectional study. They were tested on their ability to point quickly and accurately 1) toward a stationary visual target and 2) toward a moving visual target. [Results] The mahjong players demonstrated significantly better end-point accuracy when pointing with their non-dominant hand toward a stationary target. They also demonstrated significantly faster movement of their dominant hands; shorter reaction times and better end-point accuracy when pointing with their non-dominant hands toward a moving target. [Conclusion] Mahjong players have better eye-hand coordination than non-players. Playing mahjong could usefully be introduced to older adults as a leisure time activity.

  19. Plasma lipid levels in Alzheimer's disease patients treated by Donepezil hydrochloride: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adunsky, Abraham; Chesnin, Vladimir; Ravona, Ramit; Harats, Dror; Davidson, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Donepezil hydrochloride is a central acetylcholine esterase inhibitor that is widely used in Alzheimer disease (AD). We have recently observed some differences in lipid profile between occasional cases of Donepezil hydrochloride users (DU) and non-users (DNU). This prompted us to study the levels of plasma lipids in these two groups, cross-sectionally. The medical charts of patients with probable AD were screened for current use of Donepezil hydrochloride and lipids profile, along with other clinical and demographic data. A total number of 105 patients were identified and included in the final analysis. Patients were divided into two groups (DU and DNU). Plasma levels of lipids were recorded. Mann-Whitney or t-test for continuous variables and Fisher exact test for categorical variables were used to test for significant differences between the groups. Regression analysis was applied to identify independently the factors associated with lipid levels. Thirty-three patients were DU and 72 DNU. The two groups differed in terms of age, lipid levels and cognitive level. DU had statistically significant higher levels of triglycerides compared with those not using the drug (P=0.036), higher total cholesterol (Phydrochloride. Alternatively, this may indicate that the effect of the medication may involve lipid metabolism, rather than other proposed mechanisms.

  20. Cross-sectional study on risk factors of HIV among female commercial sex workers in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohshige, K; Morio, S; Mizushima, S; Kitamura, K; Tajima, K; Ito, A; Suyama, A; Usuku, S; Saphonn, V; Heng, S; Hor, L B; Tia, P; Soda, K

    2000-02-01

    To describe epidemiological features on HIV prevalence among female commercial sex workers (CSWs), a cross-sectional study on sexual behaviour and serological prevalence was carried out in Cambodia. The CSWs were interviewed on their demographic characters and behaviour and their blood samples were taken for testing on sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV, Chlamydia trachomatis, syphilis, and hepatitis B. Associations between risk factors and HIV seropositivity were analysed. High seroprevalence of HIV and Chlamydia trachomatis IgG antibody (CT-IgG-Ab) was shown among the CSWs (54 and 81.7%, respectively). Univariate logistic regression analyses showed an association between HIV seropositivity and age, duration of prostitution, the number of clients per day and CT-IgG-Ab. Especially, high-titre chlamydial seropositivity showed a strong significant association with HIV prevalence. In multiple logistic regression analyses, CT-IgG-Ab with higher titre was significantly independently related to HIV infection. These suggest that existence of Chlamydia trachomatis is highly related to HIV prevalence.

  1. Smoking dependence and common psychiatric disorders in medical students: Cross-sectional study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashor, A.W.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Exploring the variable effect of the degree of smoking dependence on the level of anxiety and depression symptoms among medical students. Methodology: This cross-section study, conducted in the Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, Al-Mustansiriya University, Baghdad-Iraq from December 2010 to May 2011, involving 300 medical students selected by cluster random sampling techniques. Those students completed the Hamilton rating scale for anxiety, Zung self-report depression scale and the Fagerstrom test for nicotine dependence with a value of six or more regarded as heavy smokers, and a value less than six considered as light smokers. Results: The response rate was 89%, heavy smokers were significantly older and start smoking at an earlier age than non- and light smokers (p=0.001). Heavy smokers associated with high chance of depressive symptoms in comparison with non-smokers (OR=4.8, C.I.=1.752-13.677) and light smokers (OR=4.2, C.I.=1.042-17.161). Regarding anxiety symptoms, heavy smokers demonstrate high chance of anxiety symptoms in comparison with non-smokers (OR=5.2, C.I.=1.826-15.176), and light smokers (OR=4.5, C.I.=1.318-15.526). Conclusions: Heavy smokers differ from non- and light smokers, associated with high risk of anxiety and depression, therefore heavy smoking tends to deteriorate rather than ameliorate these symptoms. (author)

  2. Low Back Pain among Medical Students in Belgrade (Serbia: A Cross-Sectional Study

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    Isidora Vujcic

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To examine the prevalence of low back pain, to identify self-perceived triggers of low back pain, and to investigate the impact of perceived pain on the daily activities and mood among medical students. Methods. This cross-sectional study enrolled 459 fourth year students at the Faculty of Medicine in Belgrade during December 2014. The anonymous questionnaire was used for data collection. In data analysis, the chi-square test and t-test were used. Results. The lifetime prevalence of low back pain was 75.8%, 12-month prevalence 59.5%, and point prevalence 17.2%. Chronic low back pain was experienced by 12.4% of the students. Both the lifetime (p=0.001 and the 12-month (p=0.001 low back pain prevalence rates were significantly higher among female medical students. Mental stress during an exam period (p=0.001, sitting at the university (p=0.002, fatigue (p=0.043, improper body posture (p=0.005, and lack of exercise (p=0.001 as self-perceived triggers of low back pain were significantly more often reported by female students, compared to males. Regarding daily functioning, the experience of low back pain mostly affects students sleeping (14.6% and walking (12.0%. Conclusions. The prevalence of LBP is high among Belgrade medical students and significantly affects their everyday functioning.

  3. Carotid intima-media thickness and osteoporosis in postmenopausal women: a cross-sectional study.

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    Sothornwit, J; Somboonporn, W; Soontrapa, S; Kaewrudee, S; Wongwiwatchai, J; Soontrapa, S

    2018-03-09

    To explore the difference in carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) between postmenopausal women with and without osteoporosis and the risk of elevated CIMT and plaque presentation. A cross-sectional study was conducted including 46 postmenopausal women with osteoporosis and 45 non-osteoporotic postmenopausal women. CIMT was measured using B-mode ultrasound. There was no statistically significant difference in mean CIMT between postmenopausal women with osteoporosis and those without osteoporosis (p > 0.05). Risk for elevated CIMT in the osteoporosis group was comparable to that of the non-osteoporosis group (adjusted odds ratio = 0.844; 95% confidence interval 0.11-6.45). The risk for the presence of plaque was three times higher in osteoporotic women than in normal individuals. However, after adjusting for age and underlying diseases that would predispose the women to cardiovascular disease, there was no significant difference in terms of presence of plaque between the two groups (adjusted odds ratio = 0.844; 95% confidence interval 0.11-6.45). There was no difference in mean CIMT between postmenopausal women with and without osteoporosis. Risk of elevated CIMT in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis was comparable to that of postmenopausal women without osteoporosis. There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of the presence of plaque.

  4. Quality of sleep and selective attention in university students: descriptive cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Alicia Fontana

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Sleep quality not only refers to sleeping well at night, but also includes appropriate daytime functioning. Poor quality of sleep can affect a variety of attention processes. PURPOSE The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the relationship between the perceived quality of sleep and selective focus in a group of college students. METHODS A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out in a group of 52 Argentinian college students of the Universidad Adventista del Plata. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, the Continuous Performance Test and the Trail Making Test were applied. RESULTS The main results indicate that students sleep an average of 6.48 hours. Generally half of the population tested had a good quality of sleep. However, the dispersion seen in some components demonstrates the heterogeneity of the sample in these variables. It was observed that the evaluated attention processes yielded different levels of alteration in the total sample: major variability in the process of process and in the divided-attention processes were detected. A lower percentage of alteration was observed in the process of attention support. CONCLUSION Poor quality of sleep has more impact in the sub processes with greater participation of corticocortical circuits (selective and divided attention and greater involvement of the prefrontal cortex. Fewer difficulties were found in the attention-support processes that rely on subcortical regions and have less frontal involvement.

  5. Empathy and burnout: an analytic cross-sectional study among nurses and nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, Paola; Guerra, Eleonora; Marcheselli, Luigi; Cunico, Laura; Di Lorenzo, Rosaria

    2015-09-09

    Empathy is an essential element of good nursing care associated with increased patient satisfaction. Burnout represents chronic occupational stress which diminishes interest in work and reduces patient safety and satisfaction. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the correlation between empathy and burnout in nursing students and nurses. This cross-sectional research was conducted in a sample of 298 nurses and 115 nursing students. Socio-demographic and career information was collected. Balanced Emotional Empathy Scale (BEES) and Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) were administered. Data were statistically analysed. 63% of our sample answered questionnaires (54% of nurses and 84% of students). The BEES global mean score was slightly inferior to empathy cut-off of 32. In the student group, two BEES dimension scores were statistically significantly higher than nurses (p=0.011 and p=0.007 respectively, t-test). Empathy was negatively related to age (p=0.001, ANOVA). Emotional exhaustion (EE) scores of MBI reported statistically significantly lower levels for students (pstudents (r=-0.307, pstudents (r=0.319, pstudents showed superior empathy capacity in comparison to male students in all 5 dimensions of BEES (pburnout development, which, when presents, reduces empathy.

  6. Upper gastrointestinal symptoms in autoimmune gastritis: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carabotti, Marilia; Lahner, Edith; Esposito, Gianluca; Sacchi, Maria Carlotta; Severi, Carola; Annibale, Bruno

    2017-01-01

    Autoimmune gastritis is often suspected for its hematologic findings, and rarely the diagnosis is made for the presence of gastrointestinal symptoms. Aims of this cross-sectional study were to assess in a large cohort of patients affected by autoimmune gastritis the occurrence and the pattern of gastrointestinal symptoms and to evaluate whether symptomatic patients are characterized by specific clinical features.Gastrointestinal symptoms of 379 consecutive autoimmune gastritis patients were systematically assessed and classified following Rome III Criteria. Association between symptoms and anemia pattern, positivity to gastric autoantibodies, Helicobacter pylori infection, and concomitant autoimmune disease were evaluated.In total, 70.2% of patients were female, median age 55 years (range 17-83). Pernicious anemia (53.6%), iron deficiency anemia (34.8%), gastric autoantibodies (68.8%), and autoimmune disorders (41.7%) were present. However, 56.7% of patients complained of gastrointestinal symptoms, 69.8% of them had exclusively upper symptoms, 15.8% only lower and 14.4% concomitant upper and lower symptoms. Dyspepsia, subtype postprandial distress syndrome was the most represented, being present in 60.2% of symptomatic patients. Univariate and multivariate analyses showed that age gastritis is associated in almost 60% of cases with gastrointestinal symptoms, in particular dyspepsia. Dyspepsia is strictly related to younger age, no smoking, and absence of anemia.

  7. Common mental disorders among medical students at Universidade Federal de Sergipe: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Edméa Fontes de Oliva; Andrade, Tarcísio Matos de; Silvany Neto, Annibal Muniz; Melo, Enaldo Vieira de; Rosa, Ana Carolina Aquino; Alencar, Mariana Amorim; Silva, Angela Maria da

    2010-03-01

    Estimate the prevalence of common mental disorder and its associated factors among medical students of the Universidade Federal de Sergipe. A cross-sectional study was carried out, applying Self Reporting Questionnaire-20 to 473 students from the 512 medical students enrolled in 2006 and compared with compared with a structured questionnaire by the authors containing information on the socio-demographic characteristics, the teaching-learning process and the psycho-emotional experiences of the students. Freshmen were excluded after initial comparison with the students already exposed to the medical course. Statistical analysis by multiple logistic regression after calculating simple and adjusted odds ratio (OR). The general prevalence of common mental disorder was 40% (n = 473); after exclusion of the freshmen it increased to 42.5% among students from the 2nd to the 12th semester. It was higher among those who did not have faith in their acquisition of the skills needed to become a good doctor (OR = 2.82), who felt less comfortable about course activities (OR = 3.75), who considered themselves emotionally stressed (OR = 2.14), among those who did not consider themselves happy (OR = 2.85), who believed that the course did not match their expectations (OR = 1.64) and those who had a prior diagnosis of mental disorder by a psychiatrist (OR = 3.78). The results suggest the necessity of changes to the teaching-learning process and the establishment of a preventive mental health program for medical students.

  8. Marked differences in GPs' diagnosis of pneumonia between Denmark and Spain: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Sarah Friis; Jørgensen, Lars Christian; Cordoba, Gloria; Llor, Carl; Siersma, Volkert; Bjerrum, Lars

    2013-12-01

    In patients with lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) it is a challenge to identify who should be treated with antibiotics. According to international guidelines, antibiotics should be prescribed to patients with suspected pneumonia while acute bronchitis is considered a viral infection and should, generally, not be treated with antibiotics. Overdiagnosis of pneumonia in patients with LRTIs may lead to antibiotic overprescribing. To investigate the prevalence of presumed pneumonia in patients with LRTI in two countries with different antibiotic prescribing rates (Denmark and Spain) and to compare which symptoms and clinical tests are of most importance for the GP when choosing a diagnosis of pneumonia rather than acute bronchitis. A cross-sectional study including GPs from Denmark and Spain was conducted as part of the EU-funded project HAPPY AUDIT. A total of 2,698 patients with LRTI were included. In Denmark, 47% of the patients with LRTI were classified with a diagnosis of pneumonia compared with 11% in Spain. In Spain, fever and a positive x-ray weighted significantly more in the diagnosis of pneumonia than in Denmark. Danish GPs, however, attached more importance to dyspnoea/polypnoea and C-reactive protein levels >50mg/L. None of the other typical symptoms of pneumonia had a significant influence. Our results indicate that GPs' diagnostic criteria for pneumonia differ substantially between Denmark and Spain. The high prevalence of pneumonia among Danish patients with LRTI may indicate overdiagnosis of pneumonia which, in turn, may lead to antibiotic overprescribing.

  9. Childhood caries in the state of Kentucky, USA: a cross-sectional study

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    Kandel Elizabeth A

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Untreated dental caries afflicts almost one third of school-aged children in the United States and many of them are from disadvantaged families. This cross-sectional study was undertaken to investigate the prevalence of untreated caries in north central Kentucky, USA and to examine the relationships between the available demographic variables and untreated childhood caries as reported on the forms from the Smile Kentucky! program. Methods During the fall of 2008, caries status was assessed during the visual oral screening examination component of “SmileKentucky!”– a model of the American Dental Association’s Give Kids A Smile program. Parents had completed brief surveys concerning 3,488 elementary school children aged 5 to 13 years who participated in the program. A secondary analysis was conducted using univariate, bivariate and multivariate statistical methods. Results Untreated caries was reported in 33% of children. Bivariate and logistic regression analyses found that the most significant risk factors for having untreated caries were living in the metropolitan Louisville, Kentucky area, not having had a dental visit in the previous 3 years and not having any form of dental insurance. Conclusions Untreated caries in elementary school children is prevalent in north-central Kentucky despite efforts to improve access to care. The results suggest that additional family and community preventive initiatives are needed to reduce the development of childhood caries in this area of the United States.

  10. Empowerment and use of antenatal care among women in Ghana: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipsma, Heather; Ofori-Atta, Angela; Canavan, Maureen; Udry, Christopher; Bradley, Elizabeth

    2014-11-01

    Empowerment among women in the context of a romantic relationship may affect the use of reproductive healthcare services; however, current literature examining this association is limited and inconsistent. We therefore aimed to examine the relationship between several measures of empowerment and use of inadequate antenatal care among women in Ghana. We conducted a cross-sectional study using data from a nationally representative cohort of women in Ghana. Our analytic sample was limited to non-pregnant women who had been pregnant and involved in a relationship within the last 12 months. We used multivariable logistic regression to assess the associations between empowerment and inadequate use of antenatal care and interaction terms to assess moderation by education. Approximately 26% of women received inadequate antenatal care. Multivariable analysis indicated that having experienced physical abuse in the past year was directly associated with inadequate use of antenatal care (OR = 5.12; 95% CI = 1.35, 19.43) after adjusting for socio-demographic characteristics. This effect was particularly pronounced among women with no formal education and was non-significant among women with at least some formal education (P-value for interaction empowerment among women in Ghana and other low-income countries, particularly among those with no formal education. Furthermore, the involvement of male partners will be critical for improving reproductive health outcomes, and increasing education among girls in these settings is likely a strong approach for improving reproductive health and buffering effects of low empowerment among women.

  11. Weight-related risk perception among healthy and overweight pregnant women: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jersey, S J; Callaway, L K; Daniels, L A; Nicholson, J M

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate weight-related risk perception in early pregnancy and to compare this perception between women commencing pregnancy healthy weight and overweight. Pregnant women (n=664) aged 29±5 (mean±s.d.) years were recruited from a metropolitan teaching hospital in Australia. A self-administered questionnaire was completed at around 16 weeks of gestation. Height measured at baseline and self-reported pre-pregnancy weight were used to calculate body mass index. Cross-sectional analysis was conducted.Differences between groups were assessed using chi-squared tests for categorical variables and t-tests or Mann-Whitney U tests for continuous variables depending on distribution. Excess gestational weight gain (GWG) during pregnancy was more important in leading to health problems for women or their child compared with pre-pregnancy weight. Personal risk perception for complications was low for all women, although overweight women had slightly higher scores than healthy-weight women (2.4±1.0 vs 2.9±1.0; Prisk for complications to be below that of an average pregnant woman. Women should be informed of the risk associated with their pre-pregnancy weight (in the case of maternal overweight) and excess GWG. If efforts to raise risk awareness are to result in preventative action, this information needs to be accompanied by advice and appropriate support on how to reduce risk.

  12. Screen time exposure and reporting of headaches in young adults: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagni, Ilaria; Guichard, Elie; Carpenet, Claire; Tzourio, Christophe; Kurth, Tobias

    2016-10-01

    Objective The objective of this article is to investigate whether excessive screen time exposure is associated with non-migraine headache and migraine in young adults. Background Increased levels of television time have been associated with increased risk of headache. However, time spent using newer electronic devices with a screen (smartphone, tablet) has not been examined yet. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study among 4927 participants of the French i-Share cohort. Demographic characteristics, screen time exposure (computers, tablets, smartphones and television) as well as headache/migraine symptoms were recorded in a standardized questionnaire. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to evaluate the association between screen time exposure and headache status. Results Participants had a mean age of 20.8 years and 75.5% were female. The multivariable model showed that students in the highest screen time exposure quintile had an increased risk for migraine. The odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval (CI)) was 1.37 (1.14 to 1.66) for migraine when compared with students without headache and with low screen time exposure. This association was somewhat stronger for migraine without aura (OR = 1.50, 95% CI 1.19 to 1.89). We found no significant association between screen time exposure and non-migraine headache. Conclusion High levels of screen time exposure are associated with migraine in young adults. No significant association was found with non-migraine headache.

  13. Affective Organizational Commitment in Swiss Nursing Homes: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Elisabeth; Cignacco, Eva; Zimmermann, Karin; Zúñiga, Franziska

    2016-12-01

    This substudy of the Swiss Nursing Homes Human Resources Project (SHURP) explored the relationships between affective organizational commitment (AOC) levels and organizational, situational, and care personnel characteristics, and between AOC and care personnel outcomes. SHURP was a representative national cross-sectional study in 163 Swiss nursing homes. Its data sources were: (a) a care personnel questionnaire, (b) a facility questionnaire, (c) a unit questionnaire, and (d) administrative resident data. Generalized estimating equations (GEEs) were applied to examine AOC's relationships with selected antecedents and care personnel outcomes. Data were collected from 5,323 care personnel in 163 nursing homes (return rate: 76%). On a scale from 1 to 5, the mean level of AOC was 3.86 (standard deviation = 0.81). Variations in AOC regarding care personnel characteristics (age, education, and experience in nursing home) and organizational characteristics (size, profit status) were statistically significant with minimal effect sizes. The main factors positively related to AOC were leadership, job satisfaction, quality of care, and collaboration with the nursing home director. Care personnel outcomes significantly related to higher AOC were reduced intention to leave, health complaints, presenteeism, and absenteeism. As leadership is a crucial factor of AOC, its development might improve care personnel outcomes such as intention to leave or absenteeism. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Cognitive performance of premature infants: association between bronchopulmonary dysplasia and cognitive skills. Cross-sectional study

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    Rosane Reis de Mello

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Children born prematurely often have worse cognitive performance than those born at term regarding skills such as memory, attention and processing speed. Bronchopulmonary dysplasia may compromise cognitive development. The aims here were: a To describe the cognitive performance of preterm infants with very low birth weight; b To investigate its association with bronchopul-monary dysplasia adjusted for sociodemographic, neonatal and post-neonatal factors. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study developed in a public tertiary-care hospital. METHODS: To evaluate cognition among 112 children, we applied an intelligence scale (Wechsler scale. The average scores for children with and without bronchopulmonary dysplasia were compared across the fve domains of the scale. Associations with bronchopulmonary dysplasia were investigated for domains that showed signifcant diferences between the two groups. Associations between exposure and outcome were estimated via multivariate logistic regression. RESULTS: There were no diferences in averages for the full-scale intelligence quotient, verbal intelligence quotient, performance intelligence quotient and general language composite domains. The processing speed quotient was the only domain that presented a signifcant diference between the two groups (P = 0.02. Among the children with bronchopulmonary dysplasia, low full-scale intelligence quotient was observed in 28.1%. In the multivariate analysis, bronchopulmonary dysplasia (odds ratio: 3.1; 95conf-dence interval: 1.1-8.7 remained associated with the outcome of processing speed quotient. CONCLUSION: Bronchopulmonary dysplasia was an independent risk factor for alteration of the processing speed quotient.

  15. Consumers' estimation of calorie content at fast food restaurants: cross sectional observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Jason P; Condon, Suzanne K; Kleinman, Ken; Mullen, Jewel; Linakis, Stephanie; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl; Gillman, Matthew W

    2013-05-23

    To investigate estimation of calorie (energy) content of meals from fast food restaurants in adults, adolescents, and school age children. Cross sectional study of repeated visits to fast food restaurant chains. 89 fast food restaurants in four cities in New England, United States: McDonald's, Burger King, Subway, Wendy's, KFC, Dunkin' Donuts. 1877 adults and 330 school age children visiting restaurants at dinnertime (evening meal) in 2010 and 2011; 1178 adolescents visiting restaurants after school or at lunchtime in 2010 and 2011. Estimated calorie content of purchased meals. Among adults, adolescents, and school age children, the mean actual calorie content of meals was 836 calories (SD 465), 756 calories (SD 455), and 733 calories (SD 359), respectively. A calorie is equivalent to 4.18 kJ. Compared with the actual figures, participants underestimated calorie content by means of 175 calories (95% confidence interval 145 to 205), 259 calories (227 to 291), and 175 calories (108 to 242), respectively. In multivariable linear regression models, underestimation of calorie content increased substantially as the actual meal calorie content increased. Adults and adolescents eating at Subway estimated 20% and 25% lower calorie content than McDonald's diners (relative change 0.80, 95% confidence interval 0.66 to 0.96; 0.75, 0.57 to 0.99). People eating at fast food restaurants underestimate the calorie content of meals, especially large meals. Education of consumers through calorie menu labeling and other outreach efforts might reduce the large degree of underestimation.

  16. Physicians reading and writing practices: a cross-sectional study from Civil Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaliq Muhammad

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine the behavior of physicians regarding medical literature reading and participation in research activities at one of the largest teaching hospitals in Pakistan. Method This descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted by interviewing the house officers, residents and fellows of six major specialties (Medicine, Surgery, Pediatrics, Psychology, Obstetrics & Gynecology and Anesthesia in Civil Hospital, Karachi between August and December, 2011. The questionnaire elicited responses regarding the reading habits of physicians, preferred sources of information, their participation in research activities (publication & supervision and views regarding journal club. SPSS 17.0 was used for data entry and analysis. Result A total of 259 completely filled questionnaires were returned with a response rate of 85.19%. Mean age of the participants was 29.67 ± 7.65 years. Books were selected by 71.4% doctors as their preferred source of information, regardless of their clinical specialties. (p  Conclusion Urgent intervention is required to promote healthcare literature reading and writing practice in our physicians. Easy access to workplace computers with internet and subscription of paid journals will facilitate physicians. Lack of supervisors and busy schedule were reported to be important contributors for not participating in research. Addressing these issues will encourage doctors to participate more in research activities.

  17. Hypoxia and oxidative stress markers in pediatric patients undergoing hemodialysis: cross section study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Enas A

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tissue injury due to hypoxia and/or free radicals is common in a variety of disease processes. This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate effect of chronic kidney diseases (CKD and hemodialysis (HD on hypoxia and oxidative stress biomarkers. Methods Forty pediatric patients with CKD on HD and 20 healthy children were recruited. Plasma hypoxia induced factor-1α (HIF-1α, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF were measured by specific ELISA kits while, total antioxidant capacity (TAC, total peroxide (TPX, pyruvate and lactate by enzymatic/chemical colorimetric methods. Oxidative stress index (OSI and lactate/pyruvate (L/P ratio were calculated. Results TAC was significantly lower while TPX, OSI and VEGF were higher in patients at before- and after-dialysis session than controls. Lactate and HIF-1α levels were significantly higher at before-dialysis session than controls. Before dialysis, TAC and L/P ratio were lower than after-dialysis. In before-dialysis session, VEGF correlated positively with pyruvate, HIF-1α and OSI correlated positively with TPX, but, negatively with TAC. In after-dialysis session, HIF-1α correlated negatively with TPX and OSI; while, OSI correlated positively with TPX. Conclusions CKD patients succumb considerable tissue hypoxia with oxidative stress. Hemodialysis ameliorated hypoxia but lowered antioxidants as evidenced by decreased levels of HIF-1α and TAC at before- compared to after-dialysis levels.

  18. [Quality of sleep and selective attention in university students: descriptive cross-sectional study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Silvia Alicia; Raimondi, Waldina; Rizzo, María Laura

    2014-09-05

    Sleep quality not only refers to sleeping well at night, but also includes appropriate daytime functioning. Poor quality of sleep can affect a variety of attention processes. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the relationship between the perceived quality of sleep and selective focus in a group of college students. A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out in a group of 52 Argentinian college students of the Universidad Adventista del Plata. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, the Continuous Performance Test and the Trail Making Test were applied. The main results indicate that students sleep an average of 6.48 hours. Generally half of the population tested had a good quality of sleep. However, the dispersion seen in some components demonstrates the heterogeneity of the sample in these variables. It was observed that the evaluated attention processes yielded different levels of alteration in the total sample: major variability in the process of process and in the divided-attention processes were detected. A lower percentage of alteration was observed in the process of attention support. Poor quality of sleep has more impact in the sub processes with greater participation of corticocortical circuits (selective and divided attention) and greater involvement of the prefrontal cortex. Fewer difficulties were found in the attention-support processes that rely on subcortical regions and have less frontal involvement.

  19. Abscess infections and malnutrition--a cross-sectional study of polydrug addicts in Oslo, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeland, Mone; Wandel, Margareta; Böhmer, Thomas; Haugen, Margaretha

    2014-06-01

    Injection drug use and malnutrition are widespread among polydrug addicts in Oslo, Norway, but little is known about the frequency of abscess infections and possible relations to malnutrition. To assess the prevalence of abscess infections, and differences in nutritional status between drug addicts with or without abscess infections. A cross-sectional study of 195 polydrug addicts encompassing interview of demographics, dietary recall, anthropometric measurements and biochemical analyses. All respondents were under the influence of illicit drugs and were not participating in any drug treatment or rehabilitation program at the time of investigation. Abscess infections were reported by 25% of the respondents, 19% of the men and 33% of the women (p = 0.025). Underweight (BMI 15 μmol/L) was 73% in the abscess-infected group and 41% in the non-abscess-infected group (p = 0.001). The concentrations of S-25-hydroxy-vitamin D3 was very low. The prevalence of abscess infections was 25% among the examined polydrug addicts. Dietary, anthropometric and biochemical assessment indicated a relation between abscess infections and malnutrition.

  20. High frequency of metabolic syndrome in adult Zoroastrians in Yazd, Iran: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afrand, Mohammadhosain; Khalilzadeh, Saeed Hossein; Shojaoddiny-Ardekani, Ahmad; Afkhami-Ardekani, Mohammad; Ariaeinejad, Azita

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a cluster of metabolic disturbances, and its prevalence is increasing worldwide. MS exhibits variations among ethnic groups. Zoroastrianism is an ethnic minority which has maintained its isolation and endogamy up to now. So, we evaluated the frequency of MS in Zoroastrians of Yazd, Iran. In this cross-sectional study, participants aged ≥30 years were selected using a systematic random sampling. Weight, height, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC), waistto- hip ratio (WHR) and blood pressure (BP) were measured using standard methods. Also, blood levels of glucose, triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), urea, creatinine and uric acid (UA) were measured. Both revised National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (ATPIII) and Joint Interim Statement (JIS) criteria were used to diagnose the MS. The mean±SD age of the participants (n=403) was 56.9±12.8 years. The frequency of MS was 69.7% and 74.9% based on JIS and ATPIII criteria, respectively; this was significantly different by age, marital status, job, educational level, and menopausal status (pZoroastrians of Yazd, Iran.

  1. Ultrasonic evaluation of the abductor hallucis muscle in hallux valgus: a cross-sectional observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stewart Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the study was to investigate the abductor hallucis muscle characteristics, defined as dorso-plantar (DP thickness, medio-lateral (ML width, and cross-sectional area (CSA in relation to the severity of hallux valgus using musculoskeletal ultrasound. One hundred and two feet, mean (SD age of 60.3 (20.54 years old, displaying varying severities of hallux valgus were stratified into four groups representing the four grades of the Manchester Scale (grade 0: no deformity, grade 1: mild deformity, grade 2: moderate deformity and grade 3: severe deformity. Methods The abductor hallucis muscle was imaged in each foot using a portable ultrasound system. The mean (SD DP thickness, ML width, and CSA measurements were compared across the four Manchester Scale grades using a one-way ANOVA. Results Significant differences in DP thickness were found between feet with no hallux valgus (grade 0 and feet with hallux valgus grade 2 (p = 0.001 and 3 (p  0.0125. Conclusions We speculate that morphological changes to the abductor hallucis muscle occur early in the development of the deformity.

  2. Quality of Life in Ecuadorian Patients With Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Cross-sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Castillo, Yessenia; Montero, Nadia; Salazar-Ponce, Rosa; Villacís-Tamayo, Rómulo

    2017-11-01

    To evaluate health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and associated clinical, demographic and socioeconomic factors in a cohort of Ecuadorian patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). A cross-sectional descriptive study evaluating (HRQoL) with the Spanish version of the Quality of Life Rheumatoid Arthritis (QoL-RA) instrument in patients diagnosed with RA according to the criteria of the American College of Rheumatology and the European League Against Rheumatism. In addition, the following data were obtained: age, sex, marital status, socioeconomic stratum, comorbidities, disease duration, medication, rheumatoid factor positivity, disease activity using the simplified disease activity index and physical functionality measured with the modified Health Assessment Questionnaire (MHAQ). A total of 163 patients were assessed, the mean score of the QoL-RA scale was 6.84±1.5 points. The highest measurements were obtained in the domains of interaction (8.04±1.9) and support (8.01±2). The factors that were associated with the overall quality of life assessment were: functionality measured with MHAQ (r=-0.70; Pde Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights reserved.

  3. Customer quality and type 2 diabetes from the patients' perspective: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabrizi, Jafar S; Wilson, Andrew J; O'Rourke, Peter K

    2010-12-18

    Quality in health care can be seen as having three principal dimensions: service, technical and customer quality. This study aimed to measure Customer Quality in relation to self-management of Type 2 diabetes. A cross-sectional survey of 577 Type 2 diabetes people was carried out in Australia. The 13-item Patient Activation Measure was used to evaluate Customer Quality based on self-reported knowledge, skills and confidence in four stages of self-management. All statistical analyses were conducted using SPSS 13.0. All participants achieved scores at the level of stage 1, but ten percent did not achieve score levels consistent with stage 2 and a further 16% did not reach the actual action stage. Seventy-four percent reported capacity for taking action for self-management and 38% reported the highest Customer Quality score and ability to change the action by changing health and environment. Participants with a higher education attainment, better diabetes control status and those who maintain continuity of care reported a higher Customer Quality score, reflecting higher capacity for self-management. Specific capacity building programs for health care providers and people with Type 2 diabetes are needed to increase their knowledge and skills; and improve their confidence to self-management, to achieve improved quality of delivered care and better health outcomes.

  4. Psychological distress amongst immigration detainees: a cross-sectional questionnaire study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robjant, Katy; Robbins, Ian; Senior, Victoria

    2009-09-01

    To compare levels of depression, anxiety, and post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) amongst immigration detainees with a comparison group of asylum seekers living within the community. A cross-sectional questionnaire study. Sixty-seven detained asylum seekers, 30 detainees who had previously been imprisoned within the UK for criminal offences, and 49 asylum seekers living in the community completed the hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS) and the impact of event scale-revised (IES-R). Demographic information was collected. High levels of anxiety, depression, and PTSD symptoms were reported by all three groups. Detained asylum seekers had higher scores than asylum seekers living within the community for depression, anxiety, and PTSD symptoms. There was an interaction between length of detention period and prior exposure to interpersonal trauma (IP trauma) on depression scores. Immigration detainees are highly vulnerable to psychological distress. A review of detention policies is recommended in light of this. Immigration detention may have an independent adverse effect on mental health. It is also possible that individuals with mental health problems may be more likely to be detained. Further research is required to investigate this.

  5. Assessing the quality of life of infertile Chinese women: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaoli, Su; Mei, Li; Junjun, Bao; Shu, Ding; Zhaolian, Wei; Jin, Wang; Ju, Quan; Wanli, Sun; Huali, Zhao; Li, Jin; Dong, Li; Li, Pan; Xiaojin, He

    2016-04-01

    To assess QoL of infertile Chinese women and determine the specific factors adversely affecting QoL for improving the care and treatment compliance of infertile women. We conducted a cross-sectional study on a randomized, demographically matched, controlled population of infertile married Chinese women to determine their demographic, menstrual, family stress, and infertility characteristics and then applied the World Health Organization QoL Instrument (WHOQOL-100) to determine which factors would be associated with significant QoL differences between infertile women and their demographically matched fertile controls. Infertile women showed lower QoL scores in the facets of spirituality/religion/personal beliefs, self-esteem, financial resources, and accessibility to and quality of health and social care, as well as increased pain and discomfort, while also experiencing positive QoL adjustments in terms of mobility, daily living activities, work capacity, sexual activity, freedom, physical safety, security, and transport. Married infertile Chinese women had significantly lower overall and comprehensive QoL scores, as well as higher anxiety scores, compared with fertile controls. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. A pilot cross-sectional study of patients presenting with cellulitis to emergency departments.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Quirke, M

    2014-11-01

    To characterise the Emergency Department (ED) prevalence of cellulitis, factors predicting oral antibiotic therapy and the utility of the Clinical Resource Efficiency Support Team (CREST) guideline in predicting patient management in the ED setting, a prospective, cross-sectional study of consecutive adult patients presenting to 3 Irish EDs was performed. The overall prevalence of cellulitis was 12 per 1,000 ED visits. Of 59 patients enrolled, 45.8% were discharged. Predictors of treatment with oral antibiotics were: CREST, Class 1 allocation (odds ratio (OR) 6.81, 95% Cl =1.5-30.1, p=0.012), patient self-referral (OR= 6.2, 95% Cl 1.9- 20.0, p=0.03) and symptom duration longer than 48 hours (OR 1.2, 95% Cl = 1.0-1.5,p=0.049). In conflict with guideline recommendation, 43% of patients in CREST Class 1 received IV therapy. Treatment with oral antibiotics was predicted by CREST Class 1 allocation, self-referral, symptom duration of more than 48 hours and absence of pre-EO antibiotic therapy.

  7. Mothers' beliefs about infant teething in Enugu, South-east Nigeria: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinawa Josephat M

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parents and Health Care Workers have traditionally attributed a variety of symptoms to teething in young children. Some of these symptoms may however connote underlying serious medical condition in a child. There is little evidence to support these beliefs despite their implications on management of a symptomatic teething child. This study therefore seeks determine the beliefs and problems mothers associate with teething in Enugu, South-east Nigeria. Findings A cross-sectional survey involving sixty mothers presenting at a Children's clinic in Enugu metropolis using questionnaire. More than 90% of the respondents thought that babies can experience medical problems as a result of teething. The commonest medical problems perceived to be associated with teething were fever (71.7%, loose stools (58.3% and vomiting (35%. Conclusion Mothers still associate a variety of symptoms of childhood illnesses to teething and this association is not evidence based and could lead to delayed interventions, increased morbidity and mortality of children. It is important therefore that mothers and health workers caring for young children are educated on the need to seek prompt medical attentions in a symptomatic child.

  8. Dual use of electronic and tobacco cigarettes among adolescents: a cross-sectional study in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goniewicz, Maciej L; Leigh, Noel J; Gawron, Michal; Nadolska, Justyna; Balwicki, Lukasz; McGuire, Connor; Sobczak, Andrzej

    2016-03-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are gaining in popularity among youth. While these products may be beneficial in adult smokers, the effect on young users of electronic and tobacco cigarettes (dual users) is unknown. The objective of this study was to assess the frequency of dual use among adolescents and to compare tobacco cigarette consumption among dual and exclusive tobacco cigarette users. A cross-sectional survey of a sample of 2213 Polish students aged 16-18 conducted between December 2013 and February 2014. Overall, 21.8 % of students were dual users. Dual users were more likely to smoke tobacco cigarettes on a daily basis [adjusted odds ratio, AOR 3.54 (95 % CI 2.34-5.36) and less likely to smoke fewer cigarettes per day (AOR 0.27 (95 % CI 0.12-0.57)] than exclusive tobacco cigarette users. The frequency of dual use was higher than exclusive use of a single product among Polish adolescents. Young dual users do not smoke a lower number of tobacco cigarettes per day than exclusive tobacco cigarette users.

  9. Changes in patient safety culture after restructuring of intensive care units: Two cross-sectional studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vifladt, Anne; Simonsen, Bjoerg O; Lydersen, Stian; Farup, Per G

    2016-02-01

    Compare changes in registered nurses' perception of the patient safety culture in restructured and not restructured intensive care units during a four-year period. Two cross-sectional surveys were performed, in 2008/2009 (time 1) and 2012/2013 (time 2). During a period of 0-3 years after time 1, three of six hospitals merged their general and medical intensive care units (restructured). The other hospitals maintained their structure of the intensive care units (not restructured). Intensive care units in hospitals at one Norwegian hospital trust. The safety culture was measured with Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture. At times 1 and 2, 217/302 (72%) and 145/289 (50%) registered nurses participated. Restructuring was negatively associated with change in the safety culture, in particular, the dimensions of the safety culture within the unit level. The dimensions most vulnerable for restructuring were manager expectations and actions promoting safety, teamwork within hospital units and staffing. In this study, the restructuring of intensive care units was associated with a negative impact on the safety culture. When restructuring, the management should be particularly aware of changes in the safety culture dimensions manager expectations and actions promoting safety, teamwork within hospital units and staffing. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Dietary Patterns and Risk for Metabolic Syndrome in Korean Women: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jeong-Hwa; Woo, Hae Dong; Lee, Jeong-Hee; Kim, Jeongseon

    2015-08-01

    Dietary patterns are a risk factor for metabolic syndrome (MetS). The prevalence of MetS has increased in Korea, and this condition has become a public health issue. Therefore, the present cross-sectional study aimed to identify the associations between dietary patterns and the risk of MetS among Korean women.The data of 5189 participants were analyzed to determine dietary intake and lifestyle. A principal components analysis was employed to determine participant dietary patterns with regard to 106 food items. MetS was diagnosed using the National Cholesterol Education Program, Adult Treatment Panel III. Logistic regression analyses were applied to evaluate the associations between dietary pattern quintiles and MetS and to generate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) after adjusting for potential confounders.Three dietary patterns were identified: "traditional," "western," and "prudent." The "prudent" dietary pattern consisted of a high intake of fruits and fruit products as well as nuts, dairy, and a low consumption of grains; this pattern was negatively associated with the risk of MetS. The highest quintile of the "prudent" dietary pattern was significantly less likely to develop MetS (OR: 0.5, 95% CI: 0.36-0.68, P for trend traditional" and "western" dietary patterns were not associated with the risk of MetS.The "prudent" dietary pattern was negatively associated with the risk of developing MetS among Korean women.

  11. Subclinical eating disorders in female medical students in Anhui, China: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wei-Wei; Nie, Miao; Kang, Yao-Wen; He, Lian-Ping; Jin, Yue-Long; Yao, Ying-Shui

    2015-04-01

    This cross-sectional study explored the prevalence of eating disorders (EDs) and possible associated factors (depressive symptoms, anxiety and BMI, etc) on EDs in female medical students in China. A total of 1,135 students in Wuhu, Anhui Province were sampled to participate in this survey. The survey collected sociodemographic data, depressive symptoms, anxiety and eating behaviors of students. The students at risk for eating disorders were 2.17%. Eating disorder risk was more frequent in students with poor parent's relationship, students with poor relationship with parents, students with high body mass index, students who were excessive focus on slimming propaganda, and students whose relatives have a diet. Also, the mean scores for the psychological factors of depression and anxiety were higher in students with eating disorder risk. A multiple linear regression model was produced depicting that depression, anxiety, high level of BMI, focusing on slimming propaganda, and dieting status among relatives were risk factors of having an eating disorder risk. A significant fraction of female medical students in Anhui are at high risk of development of eating disorders. A comprehensive intervention focusing on family environment and emotion management should be designed to prevent occurrence of such disorders among medical students that would undoubtedly hamper the availability of dependable medical services in future. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  12. Nomophobia: A Cross-sectional Study to Assess Mobile Phone Usage Among Dental Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Monika; Patthi, Basavaraj; Singla, Ashish; Gupta, Ritu; Saha, Sabyasachi; Kumar, Jishnu Krishna; Malhi, Ravneet; Pandita, Venisha

    2017-02-01

    Mobile phones were originally seen as a gadget for communication but currently, the internet enabled mobile phones have become an integral part of our daily life. Their benefits are incomparable but at the same time, they have some negative effects too. To assess the pattern of usage of mobile phones and its effects on the academic performance of students. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted amongst 554 students of D. J. College of Dental Sciences and Research through a self-administered questionnaire to collect the data regarding the usage and associated anxiety with mobile phone. About 39.5% students agreed that they score low marks in professional exams if they spend more time on phone. The number of students who frequently checked their cell phone during their classes or while doing clinical work were 24.7% . A total of 24.12% of the students were found to be nomophobic and at risk of being nomophobes were 40.97%. A statistically significant difference was found among preclinical, clinical, interns and postgraduates regarding the usage and effect of mobile phone on them. The pattern of usage of mobile phone among dental students showed alarming indication that students have been addicted to mobile phone which in turn affect their academic performance in a negative way. It would be useful to advise the students about the controlled as well as proper usage of mobile phone.

  13. HIV testing and tolerance to gender based violence: a cross-sectional study in Zambia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Gari

    Full Text Available This paper explores the effect of social relations and gender-based conflicts on the uptake of HIV testing in the South and Central provinces of Zambia. We conducted a community-based cross-sectional study of 1716 randomly selected individuals. Associations were examined using mixed-effect multivariable logistic regression. A total of 264 men (64% and 268 women (56% had never tested for HIV. The strongest determinants for not being tested were disruptive couple relationships (OR = 2.48 95% CI = 1.00-6.19; tolerance to gender-based violence (OR = 2.10 95% CI = 1.05-4.32 and fear of social rejection (OR = 1.48 95% CI = 1.23-1.80. In the Zambian context, unequal power relationships within the couple and the community seem to play a pivotal role in the decision to test which until now have been largely underestimated. Policies, programs and interventions to rapidly increase HIV testing need to urgently address gender-power inequity in relationships and prevent gender-based violence to reduce the negative impact on the lives of couples and families.

  14. Determinants of skilled birth attendant utilization in Afghanistan: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayhew, Maureen; Hansen, Peter M; Peters, David H; Edward, Anbrasi; Singh, Lakhwinder P; Dwivedi, Vikas; Mashkoor, Ashraf; Burnham, Gilbert

    2008-10-01

    We sought to identify characteristics associated with use of skilled birth attendants where health services exist in Afghanistan. We conducted a cross-sectional study in all 33 provinces in 2004, yielding data from 617 health facilities and 9917 women who lived near the facilities and had given birth in the past 2 years. Only 13% of respondents had used skilled birth attendants. Women from the wealthiest quintile (vs the poorest quintile) had higher odds of use (odds ratio [OR] = 6.3; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 4.4, 8.9). Literacy was strongly associated with use (OR = 2.5; 95% CI = 2.0, 3.2), as was living less than 60 minutes from the facility (OR = 1.5; 95% CI = 1.1, 2.0) and residing near a facility with a female midwife or doctor (OR = 1.4; 95% CI = 1.1, 1.8). Women living near facilities that charged user fees (OR = 0.8; 95% CI = 0.6, 1.0) and that had male community health workers (OR = 0.6; 95% CI = 0.5, 0.9) had lower odds of use. In Afghanistan, the rate of use of safe delivery care must be improved. The financial barriers of poor and uneducated women should be reduced and culturally acceptable alternatives must be considered.

  15. Prenatal care and pregnancy outcomes: A cross-sectional study in Luanda, Angola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimi, Tazi; Fraga, Sílvia; Costa, Diogo; Campos, Paulo; Barros, Henrique

    2016-11-01

    To describe prenatal care in Angolan women delivered at a large tertiary care unit, and to explore the association between prenatal care and selected perinatal outcomes. We conducted a cross-sectional study between December 2012 and February 2013, involving 995 women aged 13-46years, delivered at Lucrécia Paím Maternity, Luanda. Trained interviewers collected information on timing, frequency, place, and satisfaction with prenatal care; sociodemographic and clinical characteristics; birth weight; and gestational age. Logistic regression models were fitted, and odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals (OR, 95%CI) estimated. Quantitatively inadequate prenatal care (<4 visits) was more common in younger, less educated, poorer women, followed in public institutions, and those who felt more dissatisfied with care. More visits, both in primiparas and multiparas, were independently associated with more cesarean deliveries. After adjustment, having fewer than four visits was significantly associated with low birth weight (OR 2.00; 95% CI, 1.15-3.50) and preterm delivery (OR 2.74; 95% CI, 1.69-4.44 for 2-4 visits); similar associations were found regarding late entrance into care. Early entrance into prenatal care and the recommended number of visits are major determinants of mode of delivery and pregnancy outcomes, constituting targets to improve perinatal health. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Incidental findings of implant complications on postimplantation CBCTs: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Danielle; Barbu, Horia; Lorean, Adi; Mijiritsky, Eitan; Levin, Liran

    2017-10-01

    Survival rates of dental implants are reported to be very high and seem to indicate minimal complications related to dental implants. The aim of this report was to evaluate in a cross-sectional study the prevalence of implant positioning complications as appears in postimplantation Cone-Beam Computerized Tomography (CBCT) in two of the major imaging facilities in Bucharest, Romania. Demographic and implant data was collected from two of the three main CBCT facilities in Bucharest, Romania. All postimplantation CBCT imaging were assessed and evaluated for the presence of different implant positioning related complications. Data were entered into Excel spreadsheet and analyzed statistically. Of the 2323 CBCT's that were analyzed, a total of 160 (6.89%) presented with implant positioning related complications. Out of those, 62 cases revealed penetration of the implant to adjacent anatomic structure. More specifically, there were 21 instances of sinus penetration, 19 instances of nasal cavity penetration, 9 instances of inferior alveolar canal penetration, and 13 instances of lingual plate perforations. There were also 15 cases of adjacent tooth injury noted. Despite the popularity of dental implants, the surgical placement of these implants is not a riskless procedure. Implant mal-positioning might be life-threatening and can lead to serious bleeding, airway obstruction, and unnecessary postoperative surgeries. Complications of dental implants are not obsolete and dental implant associated problems may not be apparent immediately. Surgeons must have proper training and use evidenced-based treatment planning in order to prevent dental implant complications. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Dietary patterns and obesity in preschool children in Australia: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zumin; Makrides, Maria; Zhou, Shao Jia

    2018-01-01

    Dietary patterns have been linked to the risk of obesity in adults but little is known about such a link in young children. To examine the association between dietary patterns, nutrient intake and obesity in a representative population of preschool children in Australia. Dietary intake was assessed using a 3-day weighed food diary. Dietary patterns were identified by factor analysis. Children were classified as overweight or obesity if their BMI z-score was between the 85th-95th percentiles or was above the 95th percentile, respectively. Three dietary patterns were identified. The 'Traditional' pattern was characterised by grains, fruit, vegetables, and red meat. The 'Processed' pattern was characterised by processed meats, snack foods and confectionary. The 'Health conscious' pattern was characterised by eggs, fish, polyunsaturated margarines and low fat dairy products. The 'Traditional' pattern was positively associated with protein and zinc intake while the 'Processed' pattern was inversely associated. Both patterns were inversely associated with calcium intake. No associations were found between the 'Health conscious' pattern and macronutrients and key micronutrients intakes. The 'Traditional' pattern was positively associated with obesity but the association became non-significant after adjustment for energy and protein intake. No association was observed between the other two dietary patterns and weight status. In this cross-sectional study, dietary patterns were not associated with obesity. Longitudinal follow up will help to better understand the relationship between dietary patterns in early childhood and the risk of obesity later in life.

  18. Prevalence and patterns of multimorbidity among the elderly in Burkina Faso: cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hien, Hervé; Berthé, Abdramane; Drabo, Maxime Koiné; Meda, Nicolas; Konaté, Blahima; Tou, Fatoumata; Badini-Kinda, Fatoumata; Macq, Jean

    2014-11-01

    To assess the prevalence and distribution patterns of multimorbidity among urban older adults in Burkina Faso. Cross-sectional study among community-dwelling elderly people aged ≥60 in Bobo-Dioulasso. We performed interviews, clinical examination and medical record review. Multimorbidity was defined as co-occurrence of at least two chronic diseases in one person whether as a coincidence or not. The overall prevalence of multimorbidity among older adults was 65%. Age ≥70 was associated with multimorbidity in multivariate analysis: adjusted OR = 1.65, 95% CI (1.01-2.68, P = 0.04). The most common chronic diseases were hypertension (82%) 95% CI (78; 86), malnutrition (39%) 95% CI (34; 44), visual impairments (28%) 95% CI (24; 33) and diabetes mellitus (27%) 95% CI (22; 31). Those aged ≥70 had significantly more malnutrition (50% vs. 31%, P = 0.0003) and osteoarthritis (8% vs. 3%, P = 0.01) than those aged 60-69. The high prevalence of multimorbidity requires a reorganization of healthcare systems in sub-Saharan Africa, especially in Burkina Faso. Interventions and care guidelines usually focused on individual diseases should be improved to better reflect this reality. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Patient satisfaction with TB care clinical consultations in Kampala: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ssengooba, Willy; Kirenga, Bruce; Muwonge, Catherine; Kyaligonza, Steven; Kasozi, Samuel; Mugabe, Frank; Boeree, Martin; Joloba, Moses; Okwera, Alphonse

    2016-12-01

    Patient satisfaction towards care during encounter with clinicians is key for better treatment outcomes. We assessed patient satisfaction with TB clinical care consultations in Kampala, Uganda. This was a facility-based cross sectional study done between September 2012 and February 2013 using qualitative method of data collection. Participants consecutively completed a pre-tested structured satisfaction questionnaire. A criteria of the rating as good; >75% was considered acceptable, (50-75%) as more effort is needed and patient satisfaction, were: time spent with clinician (85.4%), explanation of what was done (87.6%), technical skills (91.6%), personal manner of the clinician seen (91.6%). Factors for low satisfaction were; waiting time before getting an appointment (61.8%), convenience of location of consultation office (53.4%), getting through to the office by phone (21.3%) and length of time waiting at the office (61.2%). Tuberculosis patients in Kampala are satisfied with TB clinical care consultations. Addressing factors with low patient satisfaction may significantly impact on treatment outcome.

  20. Occupational injuries and safety measures adopted by welding workers: a cross sectional study in South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhumika.T.V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Welders have been identified as a high risk group according to ranking of occupations based on cost related injuries. Employment of safety measures and practices among welders are potential ways of preventing occupational injuries. Adherence to these precautions is nearly universal in the developed world but there is scarcity of information about the situation in developing world including India. Objectives 1 To estimate the prevalence of occupational injuries among welding workers in Udupi district; 2 To assess the perception towards occupational hazards and the safety measures adopted by the welders Material and Methods A cross- sectional study was conducted among 160 non- industrial welding workers in Udupi district. A pre-structured interviewer-administered questionnaire was used. Results The prevalence of occupational injuries was found to be 80%. Only 24.4% of the welders had undergone professional training. Though 95% of them were aware of the importance of personal protective equipments (PPE, only 37.5% of them were regularly using PPE. Majority (75% of them reported that welding profession was dangerous. Around 79% of the workers reported carelessness being the major cause of injury during work. Working hours of less than 8 hours in a day, reading of safety manual and maintenance of equipments were significantly positively associated with occupational injuries among welding workers. Conclusion Occupational injuries during welding are preventable. The level of experience, training and attitude while working can reduce the injuries to large extent.

  1. Assessment of medical students' attitudes on social media use in medicine: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avcı, Kadriye; Çelikden, Sevda Gerek; Eren, Semih; Aydenizöz, Doğukan

    2015-02-15

    Social media has created a revolution in health services. Information available on the Internet and via social media is now being used as reference guides for sensitive health issues by nonprofessionals, physicians, and medical students. When used by physicians and medical students, social media has the potential to raise issues such as the blurring of the line between professional and private lives, patient relations, and medical ethics. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the use of social media and attitudes toward its use in medicine among medical students. Medical students from Afyon Kocatepe University, Faculty of Medicine (Afyonkarahisar, Turkey) were asked to participate in a survey consisting of two sections, the first containing questions assessing the frequency of social media use and the second regarding attitudes toward the use of social media in medicine. Survey responses indicated that 93.4% of medical students used social media and 89.3% used social media for professional purposes. Factor analysis showed that attitudes toward social media are based on five factors: professional usefulness, popularity, ethics, barriers, and innovativeness. A structural equation model revealed the highest positive correlation between usefulness and innovativeness; ethics had a low but positive correlation with other factors. Although social media is being used extensively by medical students, they appear unaware of possible ethical issues. Therefore, social media guidelines should be developed.

  2. Ice cream headache in students and family history of headache: a cross-sectional epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zierz, Antonia Maria; Mehl, Theresa; Kraya, Torsten; Wienke, Andreas; Zierz, Stephan

    2016-06-01

    Headache attributed to ingestion of a cold stimulus (ICHD-3 beta 4.5.1) is also known as ice cream headache (ICH). This cross-sectional epidemiological study included 283 students (10-14-year-olds) attending a grammar school in Germany, their parents (n = 401), and 41 teachers. A self-administered questionnaire was used to analyze the prevalence and characteristics of ICH based on the ICHD classification. Additionally, the association between ICH and other headaches was investigated in students and parents. Prevalence of ICH in students was 62 % without gender difference. In adults, only 36 % of females and 22 % of males reported ICH. There was an increased risk for ICH in students when mother (OR 10.7) or father (OR 8.4) had ICH. Other headaches in parents had no influence on the prevalence of ICH in students. However, in the groups of students and parents itself there was a highly significant association between ICH and other headaches (students: OR 2.4, mothers: OR 2.9, fathers: OR 6.8). There was a decreased risk for ICH when parents and students had no headache at all (OR < 0.4). ICH in students clearly shows a familial disposition by both father and mother. There was also an association between ICH and other headaches within the student and adult groups. The absence of headache history seems to be a protective factor for ICH.

  3. Hydrogen peroxide vapor cross sections: A flow cell study using laser absorption in the near infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, B. L.; Ronney, P. D.; DeSain, J. D.

    2018-01-01

    The absorption spectra of vapors of concentrated hydrogen peroxide/water mixtures (without a carrier gas) were characterized at wavelengths from 1390 to 1470 nm utilizing a near-infrared diode laser. Low pressures were employed to examine these spectral features near the Doppler-broadened limit. An advantageous portion of the spectra near 1420 nm containing several distinct H2O2 peaks and one well-known H2O peak (for calibration) was identified and the cross-sections of these peaks determined. These cross section values can be employed to measure vapor-phase concentrations of H2O2 in propulsion, atmospheric chemistry, and sterilization applications.

  4. Multimodal Emotion Recognition Is Resilient to Insufficient Sleep: Results From Cross-Sectional and Experimental Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holding, Benjamin C; Laukka, Petri; Fischer, Håkan; Bänziger, Tanja; Axelsson, John; Sundelin, Tina

    2017-11-01

    Insufficient sleep has been associated with impaired recognition of facial emotions. However, previous studies have found inconsistent results, potentially stemming from the type of static picture task used. We therefore examined whether insufficient sleep was associated with decreased emotion recognition ability in two separate studies using a dynamic multimodal task. Study 1 used a cross-sectional design consisting of 291 participants with questionnaire measures assessing sleep duration and self-reported sleep quality for the previous night. Study 2 used an experimental design involving 181 participants where individuals were quasi-randomized into either a sleep-deprivation (N = 90) or a sleep-control (N = 91) condition. All participants from both studies were tested on the same forced-choice multimodal test of emotion recognition to assess the accuracy of emotion categorization. Sleep duration, self-reported sleep quality (study 1), and sleep deprivation (study 2) did not predict overall emotion recognition accuracy or speed. Similarly, the responses to each of the twelve emotions tested showed no evidence of impaired recognition ability, apart from one positive association suggesting that greater self-reported sleep quality could predict more accurate recognition of disgust (study 1). The studies presented here involve considerably larger samples than previous studies and the results support the null hypotheses. Therefore, we suggest that the ability to accurately categorize the emotions of others is not associated with short-term sleep duration or sleep quality and is resilient to acute periods of insufficient sleep. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. A cross-sectional study on nurses' oral care practice for mechanically ventilated patients in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soh, Kim Lam; Soh, Kim Geok; Japar, Salimah; Raman, Rosna A; Davidson, Patricia M

    2011-03-01

    This study sought to determine the strategies, methods and frequency of oral care provided for mechanically ventilated patients in Malaysian intensive care units. The study also described nurses' attitudes to providing oral care and their knowledge of the mode of transmission of ventilator-associated pneumonia. Oral care is an important nursing intervention in the intensive care unit to reduce dental plaque. Dental plaque provides a repository for respiratory pathogens contributing to ventilator-associated pneumonia in the critically ill. Cross-sectional study. This study used both survey and observational methods. The observational study was conducted by a nurse, trained in the study protocol. The observation period a selected shift over three weeks in 2007. Intensive care unit nurses (n = 284) participated in the survey. Respondents had a positive attitude towards providing oral care. On a 10-point Likert scale, aspiration of contaminated secretions from the oropharynx was identified by nurses as the highest risk factor for ventilator-associated pneumonia (mean response 6.8, SD 2.0). The majority of nurses used cotton and forceps for oral care. Toothbrushes were not used in any of the study sites. Although nurses had a positive attitude to oral hygiene, this study found no intensive care units incorporated a soft toothbrush in oral care protocols which is recommended in best practice guidelines. A review of strategies to implement evidence-based practice in the intensive care unit is warranted. This study has identified a failure to adhere with evidence-based practice. Implementing and evaluating protocols for oral hygiene in the intensive care unit has the potential to improve patient outcomes. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Sampling pig farms at the abattoir in a cross-sectional study − Evaluation of a sampling method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkegård, Anna Camilla; Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq; Toft, Nils

    2017-01-01

    A cross-sectional study design is relatively inexpensive, fast and easy to conduct when compared to other study designs. Careful planning is essential to obtaining a representative sample of the population, and the recommended approach is to use simple random sampling from an exhaustive list......) conducting, and 3) evaluating the representativeness and reproducibility of a cross-sectional study when simple random sampling is not possible. We used an example of a cross-sectional study with the aim of quantifying the association of antimicrobial resistance and antimicrobial consumption in Danish...... of large farms. Furthermore, both under-sampled and over-sampled areas were found using scan statistics. In conclusion, sampling conducted at abattoirs can provide a spatially representative sample. Hence it is a possible cost-effective alternative to simple random sampling. However, it is important...

  7. Cardiotoxicity of Freon among refrigeration services workers: comparative cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Mahmoud M

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Freon includes a number of gaseous, colorless chlorofluorocarbons. Although freon is generally considered to be a fluorocarbon of relatively low toxicity; significantly detrimental effects may occur upon over exposure. The purpose of the present study is to investigate whether occupational exposure to fluorocarbons can induce arterial hypertension, myocardial ischemia, cardiac arrhythmias, elevated levels of plasma lipids and renal dysfunction. Methods This comparative cross-sectional study was conducted at the cardiology clinic of the Suez Canal Authority Hospital (Egypt. The study included 23 apparently healthy male workers at the refrigeration services workshop who were exposed to fluorocarbons (FC 12 and FC 22 and 23 likewise apparently healthy male workers (unexposed, the control group. All the participants were interviewed using a pre-composed questionnaire and were subjected to a clinical examination and relevant laboratory investigations. Results There were no significant statistical differences between the groups studied regarding symptoms suggesting arterial hypertension and renal affection, although a significantly higher percentage of the studied refrigeration services workers had symptoms of arrhythmias. None of the workers had symptoms suggesting coronary artery disease. Clinical examination revealed that the refrigeration services workers had a significantly higher mean pulse rate compared to the controls, though no significant statistical differences were found in arterial blood pressure measurements between the two study groups. Exercise stress testing of the workers studied revealed normal heart reaction to the increased need for oxygen, while sinus tachycardia was detected in all the participants. The results of Holter monitoring revealed significant differences within subject and group regarding the number of abnormal beats detected throughout the day of monitoring (p Conclusions Unprotected occupational