Perry, Jay L.; Sargusingh, Miriam J.; Toomarian, Nikzad
As notional life support system (LSS) architectures are developed and evaluated, myriad options must be considered pertaining to process technologies, components, and equipment assemblies. Each option must be evaluated relative to its impact on key functional interfaces within the LSS architecture. A leading notional architecture has been developed to guide the path toward realizing future crewed space exploration goals. This architecture includes atmosphere revitalization, water recovery and management, and environmental monitoring subsystems. Guiding requirements for developing this architecture are summarized and important interfaces within the architecture are discussed. The role of environmental monitoring within the architecture is described.
Qi, Bin; Guo, Linli; Zhang, Zhixian
Space life science and life support engineering are prominent problems in manned deep space exploration mission. Some typical problems are discussed in this paper, including long-term life support problem, physiological effect and defense of varying extraterrestrial environment. The causes of these problems are developed for these problems. To solve these problems, research on space life science and space medical-engineering should be conducted. In the aspect of space life science, the study of space gravity biology should focus on character of physiological effect in long term zero gravity, co-regulation of physiological systems, impact on stem cells in space, etc. The study of space radiation biology should focus on target effect and non-target effect of radiation, carcinogenicity of radiation, spread of radiation damage in life system, etc. The study of basic biology of space life support system should focus on theoretical basis and simulating mode of constructing the life support system, filtration and combination of species, regulation and optimization method of life support system, etc. In the aspect of space medical-engineering, the study of bio-regenerative life support technology should focus on plants cultivation technology, animal-protein production technology, waste treatment technology, etc. The study of varying gravity defense technology should focus on biological and medical measures to defend varying gravity effect, generation and evaluation of artificial gravity, etc. The study of extraterrestrial environment defense technology should focus on risk evaluation of radiation, monitoring and defending of radiation, compound prevention and removal technology of dust, etc. At last, a case of manned lunar base is analyzed, in which the effective schemes of life support system, defense of varying gravity, defense of extraterrestrial environment are advanced respectively. The points in this paper can be used as references for intensive study on key
Anderson, Molly S.; Stambaugh, Imelda C.
Life support system architectures for long duration space missions are often explored analytically in the human spaceflight community to find optimum solutions for mass, performance, and reliability. But in reality, many other constraints can guide the design when the life support system is examined within the context of an overall vehicle, as well as specific programmatic goals and needs. Between the end of the Constellation program and the development of the "Evolvable Mars Campaign", NASA explored a broad range of mission possibilities. Most of these missions will never be implemented but the lessons learned during these concept development phases may color and guide future analytical studies and eventual life support system architectures. This paper discusses several iterations of design studies from the life support system perspective to examine which requirements and assumptions, programmatic needs, or interfaces drive design. When doing early concept studies, many assumptions have to be made about technology and operations. Data can be pulled from a variety of sources depending on the study needs, including parametric models, historical data, new technologies, and even predictive analysis. In the end, assumptions must be made in the face of uncertainty. Some of these may introduce more risk as to whether the solution for the conceptual design study will still work when designs mature and data becomes available.
Wheeler, Raymond M.
The concept of using plants and algae for human life support in space goes back to testing in the 1950s and 1960. The basis for this is harnessing photosynthesis to generate oxygen, remove and fix carbon dioxide, and produce food. For several decades, NASA conducted studies with crops in controlled environments to assess their requirements for optimum growth. This includes tests with wheat, soybeans, potatoes, lettuce, tomatoes, and other crops. In many ways, these studies have paralleled growing interests in controlled environment agriculture on Earth. For example, NASA operated perhaps the first working example of a vertical agriculture facility in the late 1980s. The facility used recirculating hydroponic systems to conserve water and nutrients, with multiple growing shelves and light banks. NASA also pioneered the use LED lighting for growing plants. Findings from these tests suggest that an area of 20-25 sq m of crops could provide all the O2 for one human, and about 40-50 sq m could provide all the O2 and food. But this is dependent on the amount of light provided. Most of these studies targeted surface settings like habitats on Mars or the Moon. Growing plants in weightless settings, like the International Space Station (ISS) requires different approaches to contain and deliver water to plants, but lettuce, mizuna, pea, and other crops have been grown in small chambers aboard the ISS to provide supplemental fresh food for the astronauts.
Brown, I. I.; Allen, C. C.; Garrison, D. H.; Sarkisova, S. A.; Galindo, C.; Mckay, David S.
Main findings: 1) supplementing very dilute media for cultivation of CB with analogs of lunar or Martian regolith effectively supported the proliferation of CB; 2) O2 evolution by siderophilic cyanobacteria cultivated in diluted media but supplemented with iron-rich rocks was higher than O2 evolution by same strain in undiluted medium; 3) preliminary data suggest that organic acids produced by CB are involved in iron-rich mineral dissolution; 4) the CB studied can accumulate iron on and in their cells; 4) sequencing of the cyanobacterium JSC-1 genome revealed that this strain possesses molecular features which make it applicable for the cultivation in special photoreactors on Moon and Mars. Conclusion: As a result of pilot studies, we propose, to develop a concept for semi-closed integrated system that uses CB to extract useful elements to revitalize air and produce valuable biomolecules. Such a system could be the foundation of a self-sustaining extraterrestrial outpost (Hendrickx, De Wever et al., 2005; Handford, 2006). A potential advantage of a cyanobacterial photoreactor placed between LSS and ISRU loops is the possibility of supplying these systems with extracted elements and compounds from the regolith. In addition, waste regolith may be transformed into additional products such as methane, biomass, and organic and inorganic soil enrichment for the cultivation of higher plants.
Barta, Daniel J.
Next Generation Life Support (NGLS) is one of several technology development projects sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s Game Changing Development Program. NGLS is developing life support technologies (including water recovery, and space suit life support technologies) needed for humans to live and work productively in space. NGLS has three project tasks: Variable Oxygen Regulator (VOR), Rapid Cycle Amine (RCA) swing bed, and Alternative Water Processing. The selected technologies within each of these areas are focused on increasing affordability, reliability, and vehicle self sufficiency while decreasing mass and enabling long duration exploration. The RCA and VOR tasks are directed at key technology needs for the Portable Life Support System (PLSS) for an Exploration Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU), with focus on prototyping and integrated testing. The focus of the Rapid Cycle Amine (RCA) swing-bed ventilation task is to provide integrated carbon dioxide removal and humidity control that can be regenerated in real time during an EVA. The Variable Oxygen Regulator technology will significantly increase the number of pressure settings available to the space suit. Current spacesuit pressure regulators are limited to only two settings while the adjustability of the advanced regulator will be nearly continuous. The Alternative Water Processor efforts will result in the development of a system capable of recycling wastewater from sources expected in future exploration missions, including hygiene and laundry water, based on natural biological processes and membrane-based post treatment. The technologies will support a capability-driven architecture for extending human presence beyond low Earth orbit to potential destinations such as the Moon, near Earth asteroids and Mars.
Wolff, Silje Aase; Coelho, Liz Helena; Karoliussen, Irene; Kittang Jost, Ann-Iren
Due to logistical challenges, long-term human space exploration missions require a life support system capable of regenerating all the essentials for survival. Higher plants can be utilized to provide a continuous supply of fresh food, fresh air, and clean water for humans. The extensive work performed have shown that higher plants are able to adapt to space conditions in low Earth orbit, at least from one generation from seed to seed. Since the hardware has turned out to be of great importance for the results in microgravity research, full environmental monitoring and control must be the standard for future experiments. Selecting a few model plants, including crop plants for life support, would further increase the comparability between studies. The European Space Agency (ESA) has developed the Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative (MELiSSA) program to develop a closed regenerative life support system, based on micro-organisms and higher plants, with continuous recycling of resources. In the present study, recommended standardization of the experimental design for future scientific work assessing the effects of graded gravity on plant metabolism will be presented. This includes the environmental conditions required for cultivation of the selected MEliSSA species (wheat, bread wheat, soybean and potato), as well as guidelines for sowing, plant handling and analysis. Keywords: microgravity; magnetic field; radiation; MELiSSA; Moon; Mars.
Barta, Daniel J.; McQuillan, Jeffrey
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has recently expanded its mission set for possible future human exploration missions. With multiple options there is interest in identifying technology needs across these missions to focus technology investments. In addition to the Moon and other destinations in cis-lunar space, other destinations including Near Earth Objects and Mars have been added for consideration. Recently, technology programs and projects have been re-organizing to better meet the Agency s strategic goals and address needs across these potential future missions. Life Support and Habitation Systems (LSHS) is one of 10 Foundational Domains as part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s Exploration Technology Development Program. The chief goal of LSHS is to develop and mature advanced technologies to sustain human life on missions beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO) to increase reliability, reduce dependency on resupply and increase vehicle self-sufficiency. For long duration exploration missions, further closure of life support systems is of interest. Focus includes key technologies for atmosphere revitalization, water recovery, waste management, thermal control and crew accommodations. Other areas of focus include technologies for radiation protection, environmental monitoring and fire protection. The aim is to recover additional consumable mass, reduce requirements for power, volume, heat rejection, crew involvement, and meet exploration vehicle requirements. This paper provides a brief description of the LSHS Foundational Domain as defined for fiscal year 2011.
Swickrath, Michael J.; Anderson, Molly S.; Bagdigian, Bob M.
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration is in a process of evaluating future targets for space exploration. In order to maintain the welfare of a crew during future missions, a suite of life support technology is responsible for oxygen and water generation, carbon dioxide control, the removal of trace concentrations of organic contaminants, processing and recovery of water, and the storage and reclamation of solid waste. For each particular life support subsystem, a variety competing technologies either exist or are under aggressive development efforts. Each individual technology has strengths and weaknesses with regard to launch mass, power and cooling requirements, volume of hardware and consumables, and crew time requirements for operation. However, from a system level perspective, the favorability of each life support architecture is better assessed when the sub-system technologies are analyzed in aggregate. In order to evaluate each specific life support system architecture, the measure of equivalent system mass (ESM) was employed to benchmark system favorability. Moreover, the results discussed herein will be from the context of loop-closure with respect to the air, water, and waste sub-systems. Specifically, closure relates to the amount of consumables mass that crosses the boundary of the vehicle over the lifetime of a mission. As will be demonstrated in this manuscript, the optimal level of loop closure is heavily dependent upon mission requirements such as duration and the level of extra-vehicular activity (EVA) performed. Sub-system level trades were also considered as a function of mission duration to assess when increased loop closure is practical. Although many additional factors will likely merit consideration in designing life support systems for future missions, the ESM results described herein provide a context for future architecture design decisions toward a flexible path program.
Stambaugh, Imelda C.; Rodriguez, Branelle; Vonau, Walt, Jr.; Borrego, Melissa
Engineers at Johnson Space Center (JSC) are developing an Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) design for the Space Exploration Vehicle (SEV). The SEV will aid to expand the human exploration envelope for Geostationary Transfer Orbit (GEO), Near Earth Object (NEO), or planetary missions by using pressurized surface exploration vehicles. The SEV, formerly known as the Lunar Electric Rover (LER), will be an evolutionary design starting as a ground test prototype where technologies for various systems will be tested and evolve into a flight vehicle. This paper will discuss the current SEV ECLSS design, any work contributed toward the development of the ECLSS design, and the plan to advance the ECLSS design based on the SEV vehicle and system needs.
Evetts, S. N.
The human exploration of space is pushing the boundaries of what is technically feasible. The space industry is preparing for the New Space era, the momentum for which will emanate from the commercial human spaceflight sector, and will be buttressed by international solar system exploration endeavours. With many distinctive technical challenges to be overcome, human spaceflight requires that numerous biological and physical systems be examined under exceptional circumstances for progress to be made. To effectively tackle such an undertaking significant intra- and international coordination and collaboration is required. Space life and biomedical science research and development (R & D) will support the Global Exploration Roadmap (GER) by enabling humans to 'endure' the extreme activity that is long duration human spaceflight. In so doing the field will discover solutions to some of our most difficult human health issues, and as a consequence benefit society as a whole. This space-specific R&D will drive a significant amount of terrestrial biomedical research and as a result the international community will not only gain benefits in the form of improved healthcare in space and on Earth, but also through the growth of its science base and industry.
Lasseur, Christophe; Paille, Christel
Since 1987, the European Space Agency has been active in the field of Life Support development. When compare to its international colleagues, it is clear that ESA started activities in the field with a "delay of around 25 years. Due to this situation and to avoid duplication, ESA decided to focus more on long term manned missions and to consider more intensively regenerative technologies as well as the associated risks management ( e.g. physical, chemical and contaminants). Fortunately or not, during the same period, no clear plan of exploration and consequently not specific requirements materialized. This force ESA to keep a broader and generic approach of all technologies. Today with this important catalogue of technologies and know-how, ESA is contemplating the different scenario of manned exploration beyond LEO. In this presentation we review the key scenario of future exploration, and identify the key technologies who loo the more relevant. An more detailed status is presented on the key technologies and their development plan for the future.
Callahan, Michael R.; Patel, Vipul; Pickering, Karen D.
In 2009, the Cascade Distillation Subsystem (CDS) wastewater processor (Honeywell International, Torrance, California) was assessed in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Exploration Life Support (ELS) distillation comparison test. The purpose of the test was to collect data to support down-selection and development of a primary distillation technology for application in a lunar outpost water recovery system. The CDS portion of the comparison test was conducted between May 6 and August 19, 2009. The system was challenged with two pretreated test solutions, each intended to represent a feasible wastewater generated in a surface habitat. The 30-day equivalent wastewater loading volume for a crew of four was intended to be processed for each wastewater solution. Test Solution 1 consisted of a mixed stream containing human-generated urine and humidity condensate. Test Solution 2 contained the addition of human-generated hygiene wastewater to the solution 1 waste stream components. Approximately 1500 kg of total wastewater was processed through the CDS during testing. Respective recoveries per solution were 93.4 +/- 0.7 and 90.3 +/- 0.5 percent. The average specific energy of the system during testing was calculated to be less than 120 W-hr/kg. The following paper provides detailed information and data on the performance of the CDS as challenged per the ELS distillation comparison test.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An important aspect of the ISS air revitalization system for life support is the removal of carbon dioxide from cabin air and retrieves oxygen from CO2. The current...
Dietrich, Daniel L.; Paul, Heather L.; Conger, Bruce C.
This paper presents the findings of the trade study to evaluate carbon dioxide (CO2) sensing technologies for the Constellation (Cx) space suit life support system for surface exploration. The trade study found that nondispersive infrared absorption (NDIR) is the most appropriate high Technology Readiness Level (TRL) technology for the CO2 sensor for the Cx space suit. The maturity of the technology is high, as it is the basis for the CO2 sensor in the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU). The study further determined that while there is a range of commercial sensors available, the Cx CO2 sensor should be a new design. Specifically, there are light sources (e.g., infrared light emitting diodes) and detectors (e.g., cooled detectors) that are not in typical commercial sensors due to cost. These advanced technology components offer significant advantages in performance (weight, volume, power, accuracy) to be implemented in the new sensor. The exact sensor design (light source, transmitting optics, path length, receiving optics and detector) will be specific for the Cx space suit and will be determined by the performance requirements of the Cx space suit. The paper further identifies specifications for some of the critical performance parameters as well as discussing the engineering aspects of implementing the sensor into the Portable Life Support System (PLSS). The paper then presents testing results from three CO2 sensors with respect to issues important to Extravehicular Activity (EVA) applications; stability, humidity dependence and low pressure compatibility. The three sensors include two NDIR sensors, one commercial and one custom-developed by NASA (for a different purpose), and one commercial electrochemical sensor. The results show that both NDIR sensors have excellent stability, no dependence on ambient humidity (when the ambient temperature is above the dew point) and operate in low pressure conditions and after being exposed to a full vacuum. The commercial
Watson, Debbie; Bayliss, Phil; Pratchett, Glynis
Teaching and learning support assistants (TLSAs) are notoriously underpaid and undervalued as members of school workforces in England and elsewhere in the world, where the discourse of "support" has worked to legitimize their poor status. This article reports and explores empirical findings through the lens of positioning theory. This…
Perry, Jay L.; Sargusingh, Miriam J.; Toomarian, Nikzad
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) technology development roadmaps provide guidance to focus technological development in areas that enable crewed exploration missions beyond low-Earth orbit. Specifically, the technology area roadmap on human health, life support and habitation systems describes the need for life support system (LSS) technologies that can improve reliability and in-flight maintainability within a minimally-sized package while enabling a high degree of mission autonomy. To address the needs outlined by the guiding technology area roadmap, NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Program has commissioned the Life Support Systems (LSS) Project to lead technology development in the areas of water recovery and management, atmosphere revitalization, and environmental monitoring. A notional exploration LSS architecture derived from the International Space has been developed and serves as the developmental basis for these efforts. Functional requirements and key performance parameters that guide the exploration LSS technology development efforts are presented and discussed. Areas where LSS flight operations aboard the ISS afford lessons learned that are relevant to exploration missions are highlighted.
Slenzka, Klaus; Duenne, Matthias
Solar system exploration with extended stays in totally closed habitats far away from Earth as well as longer stays in LEO requires intensive preparatory activities. Activities supporting life in a more or less close meaning are essential in this context -on a scientific as well as on a technical level. These needed activities are supporting life by e.g.: i) increasing knowledge about the impact of single and combined effects of different exploration related environmental conditions (e. g. microgravity, radiation, reduced pressure and temperature, lunar soil etc.) on biological systems. This is needed to enable safe life of humans itself as well as safe operating of required bioregenerative life support systems. Thus, different human cell types as well as representatives of bioregenerative life support system protagonists (algae, bacteria as well as higher organisms) needs to be addressed. ii) provision of required consumables (oxygen, food, energy equivalents etc.) on site, mainly via bioregenerative life support systems, Bio-ISRU-units etc. Preparation is needed on a scientific as well as technological level. iii) ensuring reduced negative effects on humans (and partially also equipment), which could be caused by living in a closed habitat in general (and thus being not space related per se): E. g. detection systems for the quality of water and air, antimicrobial and selfhealing as well as anti-icing materials without dangerous hazard substances, psychological health enhancing components etc. Referring payloads for above mentioned investigations (scientific evaluation and technology demonstration) must be developed. Extended stays and extended closure in habitats without the possibility of material transport into and out of the system are leading to the necessity of more autonomous technologies and sustainable processes. Latter one will rely mainly on biological processes and structures, which increases additionally the necessity of an intensive scientific and
Schneider, Walter F.; Gatens, Robyn L.; Anderson, Molly S.; Broyan, James L.; MaCatangay, Ariel V.; Shull, Sarah A.; Perry, Jay L.; Toomarian, Nikzad
Over the last year, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has continued to refine the understanding and prioritization of technology gaps that must be closed in order to achieve Evolvable Mars Campaign objectives and near term objectives in the cislunar proving ground. These efforts are reflected in updates to the technical area roadmaps released by NASA in 2015 and have guided technology development and maturation tasks that have been sponsored by various programs. This paper provides an overview of the refined Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) strategic planning, as well as a synopsis of key technology and maturation project tasks that occurred in 2014 and early 2015 to support the strategic needs. Plans for the remainder of 2015 and subsequent years are also described.
Sanders, C; Rogers, A; Gardner, C; Kennedy, A
Previous research has demonstrated how the Internet can foster emotional support and provide a 'private' space for discussing sensitive issues. Whilst the family has been located as a primary source of support, empirical research on the dynamics of close personal relationships in chronic illness experience remains a challenge. To explore the role of family relationships in supporting self-care and the nature of social support exchanged within an online self-management training course. Qualitative thematic and narrative analysis of online discussion boards. Postings for 218 participants, divided between 11 groups were included for a course section that focused on 'difficult emotions'. Participants exchanged a high degree of emotional support and revealed much about their 'real life' relationships. The latter highlighted the complexities of managing illness within family contexts alongside additional pressures of daily life such as caring commitments and work roles. The private interactive space created within the course allowed insights into the dynamics of family life associated with illness management that are challenging to research. Simultaneously, collective support was developed amongst this group of predominantly working women. The article points to the implications for such interventions and associated evaluative research beyond this selective group.
Kanstrup, Anne Marie; Bjerge, Kim; Enevold Kristensen, Jens
method was practiced over two iterations-one in 2008 and one in 2009. 17 diabetes families, 9 service providers, researchers and ICT-consultants has participated in the activities. The results present how the living lab method provides an open platform for exploring technology in naturalistic settings...
Lewis, John F.; Barido, Richard; Tuan, George C.
As part of preparing for the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) worked on developing the requirements to manage the fire risk. The new CEV poses unique challenges to current fire protection systems. The size and configuration of the vehicle resembles the Apollo capsule instead of the current Space Shuttle or the International Space Station. The smaller free air volume and fully cold plated avionic bays of the CEV requires a different approach in fire protection than the ones currently utilized. The fire protection approach discussed in this paper incorporates historical lessons learned and fire detection and suppression system design philosophy spanning from Apollo to the International Space Station. Working with NASA fire and materials experts, this approach outlines the best requirements for both the closed out area of the vehicle, such as the avionics bay, and the crew cabin area to address the unique challenges due to the size and configuration of the CEV.
Bagdigian, Robert M.; Carrasquillo, Robyn L.; Metcalf, Jordan; Peterson, Laurie
NASA is considering a number of future human space exploration mission concepts. Although detailed requirements and vehicle architectures remain mostly undefined, near-term technology investment decisions need to be guided by the anticipated capabilities needed to enable or enhance the mission concepts. This paper describes a roadmap that NASA has formulated to guide the development of Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) capabilities required to enhance the long-term operation of the International Space Station (ISS) and enable beyond-Low Earth Orbit (LEO) human exploration missions. Three generic mission types were defined to serve as a basis for developing a prioritized list of needed capabilities and technologies. Those are 1) a short duration micro gravity mission; 2) a long duration transit microgravity mission; and 3) a long duration surface exploration mission. To organize the effort, ECLSS was categorized into three major functional groups (atmosphere, water, and solid waste management) with each broken down into sub-functions. The ability of existing, flight-proven state-of-the-art (SOA) technologies to meet the functional needs of each of the three mission types was then assessed. When SOA capabilities fell short of meeting the needs, those "gaps" were prioritized in terms of whether or not the corresponding capabilities enable or enhance each of the mission types. The resulting list of enabling and enhancing capability gaps can be used to guide future ECLSS development. A strategy to fulfill those needs over time was then developed in the form of a roadmap. Through execution of this roadmap, the hardware and technologies needed to enable and enhance exploration may be developed in a manner that synergistically benefits the ISS operational capability, supports Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) development, and sustains long-term technology investments for longer duration missions. This paper summarizes NASA s ECLSS capability roadmap
Blickem, Christian; Kennedy, Anne; Jariwala, Praksha; Morris, Rebecca; Bowen, Robert; Vassilev, Ivaylo; Brooks, Helen; Blakeman, Tom; Rogers, Anne
Recent initiatives to target the personal, social and clinical needs of people with long-term health conditions have had limited impact within primary care. Evidence of the importance of social networks to support people with long-term conditions points to the need for self-management approaches which align personal circumstances with valued activities. The Patient-Led Assessment for Network Support (PLANS) intervention is a needs-led assessment for patients to prioritise their health and social needs and provide access to local community services and activities. Exploring the work and practices of patients and telephone workers are important for understanding and evaluating the workability and implementation of new interventions. Qualitative methods (interviews, focus group, observations) were used to explore the experience of PLANS from the perspectives of participants and the telephone support workers who delivered it (as part of an RCT) and the reasons why the intervention worked or not. Normalisation Process Theory (NPT) was used as a sensitising tool to evaluate: the relevance of PLANS to patients (coherence); the processes of engagement (cognitive participation); the work done for PLANS to happen (collective action); the perceived benefits and costs of PLANS (reflexive monitoring). 20 patients in the intervention arm of a clinical trial were interviewed and their telephone support calls were recorded and a focus group with 3 telephone support workers was conducted. Analysis of the interviews, support calls and focus group identified three themes in relation to the delivery and experience of PLANS. These are: formulation of 'health' in the context of everyday life; trajectories and tipping points: disrupting everyday routines; precarious trust in networks. The relevance of these themes are considered using NPT constructs in terms of the work that is entailed in engaging with PLANS, taking action, and who is implicated this process. PLANS gives scope to align
Zhang, Hailing; Zhao, Qinghua; Cao, Peiye; Ren, Guosheng
BACKGROUND The diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer can provoke a series of negative emotional changes in patients, further affecting their quality of life. It has been shown that patients with higher resilience have better quality of life. Social support systems are important protective factors that are necessary for the process of resilience to occur. Hence, this study aimed to investigate the role of social support in the relationship between resilience and quality of life among Chinese patients with breast cancer. MATERIAL AND METHODS A demographic-disease survey, the Chinese version of the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale 25, Medical Outcomes Study Social Support Survey, and Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy Breast Cancer Version 3 were used to interview 98 patients with breast cancer from a teaching hospital in Chongqing, China. Data analysis was performed by descriptive statistics, independent-sample t test, one-way ANOVA, and regression analyses. RESULTS The mean scores of resilience, social support, and quality of life were 54.68, 61.73, and 80.74 respectively, which were in the moderate range. Participants with stronger social support had higher resilience and better quality of life. Social support played a partial mediator role in the relationship between resilience and quality of life. The mediation effect ratio was 28.0%. CONCLUSIONS Social support is essential for the development of resilience and the improvement of quality of life in Chinese patients with breast cancer. Health professionals should provide appropriate guidelines to help patients seek effective support and enhance their resilience to improve their quality of life after breast cancer.
Jones, Harry W.
The design and mass cost of a starship and its life support system are investigated. The mission plan for a multi generational interstellar voyage to colonize a new planet is used to describe the starship design, including the crew habitat, accommodations, and life support. Only current technology is assumed. Highly reliable life support systems can be provided with reasonably small additional mass, suggesting that they can support long duration missions. Bioregenerative life support, growing crop plants that provide food, water, and oxygen, has been thought to need less mass than providing stored food for long duration missions. The large initial mass of hydroponics systems is paid for over time by saving the mass of stored food. However, the yearly logistics mass required to support a bioregenerative system exceeds the mass of food solids it produces, so that supplying stored dehydrated food always requires less mass than bioregenerative food production. A mixed system that grows about half the food and supplies the other half dehydrated has advantages that allow it to breakeven with stored dehydrated food in about 66 years. However, moderate increases in the hydroponics system mass to achieve high reliability, such as adding spares that double the system mass and replacing the initial system every 100 years, increase the mass cost of bioregenerative life support. In this case, the high reliability half food growing, half food supplying system does not breakeven for 389 years. An even higher reliability half and half system, with three times original system mass and replacing the system every 50 years, never breaks even. Growing food for starship life support requires more mass than providing dehydrated food, even for multigeneration voyages of hundreds of years. The benefits of growing some food may justify the added mass cost. Much more efficient recycling food production is wanted but may not be possible. A single multigenerational interstellar voyage to
Marques Ribeiro Da Silva Cas, M.; Mugge, R.; Desmet, P.M.A.
Because products are often discarded while still fully functioning, it may be possible to support durability with design that stimulates a more enduring product-owner relationship. This paper is based on the proposition that one promising approach to support such prolonged relevance is by developing
Oude Lansink-Hartgring, Annemieke; van den Hengel, Berber; van der Bij, Wim; Erasmus, Michiel E; Mariani, Massimo A; Rienstra, Michiel; Cernak, Vladimir; Vermeulen, Karin M; van den Bergh, Walter M; van Dijk, D; Donker, DW
OBJECTIVES: To conduct an exploration of the hospital costs of extracorporeal life support therapy. Extracorporeal life support seems an efficient therapy for acute, potentially reversible cardiac or respiratory failure, when conventional therapy has been inadequate, or as bridge to transplant, but
Oude Lansink-Hartgring, Annemieke; van den Hengel, Berber; van der Bij, Wim; Erasmus, Michiel E.; Mariani, Massimo A.; Rienstra, Michiel; Cernak, Vladimir; Vermeulen, Karin M.; van den Bergh, Walter M.
Objectives: To conduct an exploration of the hospital costs of extracorporeal life support therapy. Extracorporeal life support seems an efficient therapy for acute, potentially reversible cardiac or respiratory failure, when conventional therapy has been inadequate, or as bridge to transplant, but
Lirio, Pamela; Lituchy, Terri R.; Monserrat, Silvia Ines; Olivas-Lujan, Miguel R.; Duffy, Jo Ann; Fox, Suzy; Gregory, Ann; Punnett, B. J.; Santos, Neusa
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine career-life issues of successful women in the Americas. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 30 interviews were conducted with successful women in Canada, Argentina and Mexico. Themes were pulled from the interview transcripts for each country, analyzed and then compared across countries, looking…
Quattrone, P. D.
Extended manned space missions which include interplanetary missions require regenerative life support systems. Manned mission life support considerations are placed in perspective and previous manned space life support system technology, activities and accomplishments in current supporting research and technology (SR&T) programs are reviewed. The life support subsystem/system technologies required for an enhanced duration orbiter (EDO) and a space operations center (SOC), regenerative life support functions and technology required for manned interplanetary flight vehicles, and future development requirements are outlined. The Space Shuttle Orbiters (space transportation system) is space cabin atmosphere is maintained at Earth ambient pressure of 14.7 psia (20% O2 and 80% N2). The early Shuttle flights will be seven-day flights, and the life support system flight hardware will still utilize expendables.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this project IntAct Labs proposes to develop a novel system to increase loop closure for water treatment in regenerative life support using bio-electrochemical...
Richards, Jeffrey T; Corey, Kenneth A; Paul, Anna-Lisa; Ferl, Robert J; Wheeler, Raymond M; Schuerger, Andrew C
Understanding how hypobaria can affect net photosynthetic (P (net)) and net evapotranspiration rates of plants is important for the Mars Exploration Program because low-pressured environments may be used to reduce the equivalent system mass of near-term plant biology experiments on landers or future bioregenerative advanced life support systems. Furthermore, introductions of plants to the surface of a partially terraformed Mars will be constrained by the limits of sustainable growth and reproduction of plants to hypobaric conditions. To explore the effects of hypobaria on plant physiology, a low-pressure growth chamber (LPGC) was constructed that maintained hypobaric environments capable of supporting short-term plant physiological studies. Experiments were conducted on Arabidopsis thaliana maintained in the LPGC with total atmospheric pressures set at 101 (Earth sea-level control), 75, 50, 25 or 10 kPa. Plants were grown in a separate incubator at 101 kPa for 6 weeks, transferred to the LPGC, and acclimated to low-pressure atmospheres for either 1 or 16 h. After 1 or 16 h of acclimation, CO(2) levels were allowed to drawdown from 0.1 kPa to CO(2) compensation points to assess P (net) rates under different hypobaric conditions. Results showed that P (net) increased as the pressures decreased from 101 to 10 kPa when CO(2) partial pressure (pp) values were below 0.04 kPa (i.e., when ppCO2 was considered limiting). In contrast, when ppCO(2) was in the nonlimiting range from 0.10 to 0.07 kPa, the P (net) rates were insensitive to decreasing pressures. Thus, if CO(2 )concentrations can be kept elevated in hypobaric plant growth modules or on the surface of a partially terraformed Mars, P (net) rates may be relatively unaffected by hypobaria. Results support the conclusions that (i) hypobaric plant growth modules might be operated around 10 kPa without undue inhibition of photosynthesis and (ii) terraforming efforts on Mars might require a surface pressure of at least 10
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To examine the association of life events and social support in the broadly defined category of depression in late life. INTRODUCTION: Negative life events and lack of social support are associated with depression in the elderly. Currently, there are limited studies examining the association between life events, social support and late-life depression in Brazil. METHODS: We estimated the frequency of late-life depression within a household community sample of 367 subjects aged 60 years or greater with associated factors. ''Old age symptomatic depression'' was defined using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview 1.1 tool. This diagnostic category included only late-life symptoms and consisted of the diagnoses of depression and dysthymia as well as a subsyndromal definition of depression, termed ''late subthreshold depression''. Social support and life events were assessed using the Comprehensive Assessment and Referral Evaluation (SHORT-CARE inventory. RESULTS: ''Old age symptomatic depression'' occurred in 18.8% of the patients in the tested sample. In univariate analyses, this condition was associated with female gender, lifetime anxiety disorder and living alone. In multivariate models, ''old age symptomatic depression'' was associated with a perceived lack of social support in men and life events in women. DISCUSSION: Social support and life events were determined to be associated with late-life depression, but it is important to keep in mind the differences between genders. Also, further exploration of the role of lifetime anxiety disorder in late-life depression may be of future importance. CONCLUSIONS: We believe that this study helps to provide insight into the role of psychosocial factors in late-life depression.
The acquisition and retention of both basic life support (BLS) theoretical knowledge and practical skills are regarded as essential for all healthcare professionals; including student nurses. Whilst there appears to be an abundance of literature regarding the practical and theoretical BLS competency of registered nurses, this appears to be less well documented amongst the student nurse population. The purpose of this study was to therefore, add to the existing body of knowledge regarding the ...
Advanced life support systems have many interacting processes and limited resources. Controlling and optimizing advanced life support systems presents unique challenges. In particular, advanced life support systems are nonlinear coupled dynamical systems and it is difficult for humans to take all interactions into account to design an effective control strategy. In this project. we developed several reinforcement learning controllers that actively explore the space of possible control strategies, guided by rewards from a user specified long term objective function. We evaluated these controllers using a discrete event simulation of an advanced life support system. This simulation, called BioSim, designed by Nasa scientists David Kortenkamp and Scott Bell has multiple, interacting life support modules including crew, food production, air revitalization, water recovery, solid waste incineration and power. They are implemented in a consumer/producer relationship in which certain modules produce resources that are consumed by other modules. Stores hold resources between modules. Control of this simulation is via adjusting flows of resources between modules and into/out of stores. We developed adaptive algorithms that control the flow of resources in BioSim. Our learning algorithms discovered several ingenious strategies for maximizing mission length by controlling the air and water recycling systems as well as crop planting schedules. By exploiting non-linearities in the overall system dynamics, the learned controllers easily out- performed controllers written by human experts. In sum, we accomplished three goals. We (1) developed foundations for learning models of coupled dynamical systems by active exploration of the state space, (2) developed and tested algorithms that learn to efficiently control air and water recycling processes as well as crop scheduling in Biosim, and (3) developed an understanding of the role machine learning in designing control systems for
Exploring Pathways Between HIV+ Status and Excellent Overall Health Among Kenyan Women: Family Functioning, Meaningfulness of Life, Seroconcordance, Social Support and Considering the Need for Integrated Care.
Goodman, Michael L; Serag, Hani; Gitari, Stanley; Keiser, Philip H; Dacso, Matthew; Raimer, Ben G
As people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) live longer, and HIV incidence declines, health systems are transitioning from vertical-only care delivery to horizontal integration with social and other services. This is essential to responding to the chronic nature of the disease, and health systems must respond to full-breadth of socio-economic conditions facing PLWHA. We use excellent self-rated health as a referent, and assess the role of non-biomedical conditions in mediating HIV+ status and excellent overall health among a large community sample of Kenyan women. After controlling for age and wealth, we found significant mediation by social support, partner HIV status, meaningfulness of life, family functioning, food sufficiency, and monthly income. If the goal of health systems is to help all people attain the highest level of health, integrating vertical HIV services with socio-economic support and empowerment may be required. Further investigation of the relative contribution of social support, family functioning, food and financial sufficiency should be conducted longitudinally, ideally in collaboration with HIV clinical services.
Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.
The purpose of the teacher's guide is to acquaint junior high school students with occupations in the life sciences. By identifying life science and exploring the areas of biology (ecology and zoology) and medicine, students may become aware of the functions of the people involved in these areas and the value of their work. The material in the…
Sections on modeling, experimental activities during the grant period, and topics under consideration for the future are contained. The sessions contain discussions of: four concurrent modeling approaches that were being integrated near the end of the period (knowledge-based modeling support infrastructure and data base management, object-oriented steady state simulations for three concepts, steady state mass-balance engineering tradeoff studies, and object-oriented time-step, quasidynamic simulations of generic concepts); interdisciplinary research activities, beginning with a discussion of RECON lab development and use, and followed with discussions of waste processing research, algae studies and subsystem modeling, low pressure growth testing of plants, subsystem modeling of plants, control of plant growth using lighting and CO2 supply as variables, search for and development of lunar soil simulants, preliminary design parameters for a lunar base life support system, and research considerations for food processing in space; and appendix materials, including a discussion of the CELSS Conference, detailed analytical equations for mass-balance modeling, plant modeling equations, and parametric data on existing life support systems for use in modeling.
Flynn, Michael T. (Inventor); Gormly, Sherwin J. (Inventor); Hammoudeh, Mona (Inventor); Richardson, Tra-My Justine (Inventor)
A method and associated system for processing waste gases, liquids and solids, produced by human activity, to separate (i) liquids suitable for processing to produce potable water, (ii) solids and liquids suitable for construction of walls suitable for enclosing a habitat volume and for radiation shielding, and (iii) other fluids and solids that are not suitable for processing. A forward osmosis process and a reverse osmosis process are sequentially combined to reduce fouling and to permit accumulation of different processable substances. The invention may be used for long term life support of human activity.
Next Generation Life Support (NGLS) is one of over twenty technology development projects sponsored by NASA's Game Changing Development Program. The NGLS Project develops selected life support technologies needed for humans to live and work productively in space, with focus on technologies for future use in spacecraft cabin and space suit applications. Over the last three years, NGLS had five main project elements: Variable Oxygen Regulator (VOR), Rapid Cycle Amine (RCA) swing bed, High Performance (HP) Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Glove, Alternative Water Processor (AWP) and Series-Bosch Carbon Dioxide Reduction. The RCA swing bed, VOR and HP EVA Glove tasks are directed at key technology needs for the Portable Life Support System (PLSS) and pressure garment for an Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU). Focus is on prototyping and integrated testing in cooperation with the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Advanced EVA Project. The HP EVA Glove Element, new this fiscal year, includes the generation of requirements and standards to guide development and evaluation of new glove designs. The AWP and Bosch efforts focus on regenerative technologies to further close spacecraft cabin atmosphere revitalization and water recovery loops and to meet technology maturation milestones defined in NASA's Space Technology Roadmaps. These activities are aimed at increasing affordability, reliability, and vehicle self-sufficiency while decreasing mass and mission cost, supporting a capability-driven architecture for extending human presence beyond low-Earth orbit, along a human path toward Mars. This paper provides a status of current technology development activities with a brief overview of future plans.
Macelroy, R. D. (Editor); Smernoff, D. T. (Editor); Klein, H. P. (Editor)
Life support systems in space travel, in closed ecological systems were studied. Topics discussed include: (1) problems of life support and the fundamental concepts of bioregeneration; (2) technology associated with physical/chemical regenerative life support; (3) projection of the break even points for various life support techniques; (4) problems of controlling a bioregenerative life support system; (5) data on the operation of an experimental algal/mouse life support system; (6) industrial concepts of bioregenerative life support; and (7) Japanese concepts of bioregenerative life support and associated biological experiments to be conducted in the space station.
Support in different modes, expressions and actions is at the core of the public welfare culture. In this paper, support is examined as an everyday interpersonal phenomenon with a variety of expressions in language and ways of relating, and its essential meaning is explored. The fulcrum for reflection is the lived experience ...
MacElroy, R D; Kliss, M; Straight, C
has an operating life support system on Mir that can apparently evolve, and the United States is currently planning the one for Space Station Freedom that will use partial regeneration. It is essential to develop concepts now for life support systems on an advanced Space Station, the lunar outpost (to be launched in about 2004) and the lunar base. Such concepts will build on current technology and capabilities. But because of the variety of different technologies that can be developed, and the potential for coordinating the functions of very diverse sub-systems within the same life support system, the possibility of developing an efficient, reliable mixed process system is high. It is likely that a life support system for Mars transit and base will use a composite of physical, chemical, and biological processes. The purpose of this paper is to explore the potentially useful structural elements of a life support system for use on a Mars trip, and to identify the features that, at this time, appear to be most appropriate for inclusion in the system.
Louis, Karen Seashore; And Others
Explores entrepreneurship in the research university. Uses a survey of life science faculty members to distinguish five types of academic entrepreneurship: engaging in externally funded research, earning supplemental income, gaining industry support for university research, obtaining patents or generating trade secrets, and…
Mitchell, C. A.
Long-duration future habitation of space involving great distances from Earth and/or large crew sizes (eg, lunar outpost, Mars base) will require a controlled ecological life-support system (CELSS) to simultaneously revitalize atmosphere (liberate oxygen and fix carbon dioxide), purify water (via transpiration), and generate human food (for a vegetarian diet). Photosynthetic higher plants and algae will provide the essential functions of biomass productivity in a CELSS, and a combination of physicochemical and bioregenerative processes will be used to regenerate renewable resources from waste materials. Crop selection criteria for a CELSS include nutritional use characteristics as well as horticultural characteristics. Cereals, legumes, and oilseed crops are used to provide the major macronutrients for the CELSS diet. A National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Specialized Center of Research and Training (NSCORT) was established at Purdue University to establish proof of the concept of the sustainability of a CELSS. The Biosphere 2 project in Arizona is providing a model for predicted and unpredicted situations that arise as a result of closure in a complex natural ecosystem.
Mitchell, C A
Long-duration future habitation of space involving great distances from Earth and/or large crew sizes (eg, lunar outpost, Mars base) will require a controlled ecological life-support system (CELSS) to simultaneously revitalize atmosphere (liberate oxygen and fix carbon dioxide), purify water (via transpiration), and generate human food (for a vegetarian diet). Photosynthetic higher plants and algae will provide the essential functions of biomass productivity in a CELSS, and a combination of physicochemical and bioregenerative processes will be used to regenerate renewable resources from waste materials. Crop selection criteria for a CELSS include nutritional use characteristics as well as horticultural characteristics. Cereals, legumes, and oilseed crops are used to provide the major macronutrients for the CELSS diet. A National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Specialized Center of Research and Training (NSCORT) was established at Purdue University to establish proof of the concept of the sustainability of a CELSS. The Biosphere 2 project in Arizona is providing a model for predicted and unpredicted situations that arise as a result of closure in a complex natural ecosystem.
Brummelhuis, L.L. ten; Lippe, T. van der
Today’s workforce encompasses a wide variety of employees with specifi c needs and resources when it comes to balancing work and life roles. Our study explores whether various types of work-life balance support measures improve employee helping behavior and performance among single employees,
Barta, D.; Henninger, D.; Edeen, M.; Lewis, J.; Smith, F.; Verostko, C.
Future long duration human exploration missions away from Earth will require closed-loop regenerative life support systems to reduce launch mass reduce dependency on resupply and increase the level of mission self sufficiency Such systems may be based on the integration of biological and physiocochemical processes to produce potable water breathable atmosphere and nutritious food from metabolic and other mission wastes Over the period 1995 to 1998 a series of ground-based tests were conducted at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Johnson Space Center to evaluate the performance of advanced closed-loop life support technologies with real human metabolic and hygiene loads Named the Lunar-Mars Life Support Test Project LMLSTP four integrated human tests were conducted with increasing duration complexity and closure The first test LMLSTP Phase I was designed to demonstrate the ability of higher plants to revitalize cabin atmosphere A single crew member spent 15 days within an atmospherically closed chamber containing 11 2 square meters of actively growing wheat Atmospheric carbon dioxide and oxygen levels were maintained by control of the rate of photosynthesis through manipulation of light intensity or the availability of carbon dioxide and included integrated physicochemical systems During the second and third tests LMLSTP Phases II IIa four crew members spent 30 days and 60 days respectively in a larger sealed chamber Advanced physicochemical life support hardware was used to regenerate the atmosphere and produce potable water
Sheean, Patricia; Kabir, Christopher; Rao, Ruta; Hoskins, Kent; Stolley, Melinda
Historically, women with metastatic breast cancer are excluded from lifestyle interventions under the assumptions that diet and physical activity will have little impact on their disease trajectory. However, recent treatment advances have led to significant increases in survivorship that pose challenges to this assumption. The objectives of this study were to measure dietary intake, physical functioning, and quality of life in a subset of women with metastatic breast cancer, and to inform future interventions in this growing population. Demographics, clinical characteristics, dietary intake, physical functioning, and quality of life were examined cross-sectionally using validated methodologies. Twenty-five women with metastatic breast cancer were recruited during a 4-month period (June 2014 to September 2014) from two university hospitals in the Midwest that serve an ethnically diverse patient population. Women completed questionnaires and 24-hour dietary recalls (1 weekday, 1 weekend). Lifestyle habits were analyzed. Means (±standard deviations) and frequencies were tallied and t tests were conducted. On average, participants were 58.8 (±12.8) years of age, predominantly minority, had been living with metastatic breast cancer for a mean of 36.9 (±29.3) months, and exhibited significant nutrition-impact symptomology (eg, pain, dry mouth, fatigue). Bone and lung were the most common sites of metastases. Compared to a larger, normative sample of women with metastatic breast cancer, study participants displayed similar physical (P=0.61) and functional well-being scores (P=0.76), but higher social (P=0.10) and emotional well-being scores (Pcancer are in need of carefully tailored, evidence-based lifestyle strategies that address symptom burden, including weight management. The implications of diet and physical activity on quality of life in this population remain unexplored. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights
Thomas, Evan A.
Sustainable spacecraft life support concepts may allow the development of more reliable technologies for long duration space missions. Currently, life support technologies at different levels of development are not well evaluated against each other, and evaluation methods do not account for long term reliability and sustainability of the hardware. This paper presents point-of-departure sustainability evaluation criteria for life support systems, that may allow more robust technology development, testing and comparison. An example sustainable water recovery system concept is presented.
Eckhard, F.; Brunink, J.A.J.; Tuinstra, B.; Assink, J.W.; Ten Asbroek, N.; Backx, V.; Klaassen, A.; Waters, G.; Stasiak, M.A.; Dixon, M.; Ordoñez-Inda, L.
For a planetary base, a reliable life support system including food and water supply, gas generation and waste management is a condition sine qua non. While for a short-term period the life support system may be an open loop, i.e. water, gases and food provided from the Earth, for long-term missions
Anderson, Molly S.; Ewert, Michael K.; Keener, John F.
The Baseline Values and Assumptions Document (BVAD) provides analysts, modelers, and other life support researchers with a common set of values and assumptions which can be used as a baseline in their studies. This baseline, in turn, provides a common point of origin from which many studies in the community may depart, making research results easier to compare and providing researchers with reasonable values to assume for areas outside their experience. This document identifies many specific physical quantities that define life support systems, serving as a general reference for spacecraft life support system technology developers.
Henderson, Edward M.; Holderman, Mark L.
Several enabling technologies have been identified that would provide significant benefits for future space exploration. In-Space demonstrations should be chosen so that these technologies will have a timely opportunity to improve efficiencies and reduce risks for future spaceflight. An early window exists to conduct ground and flight demonstrations that make use of existing assets that were developed for the Space Shuttle and the Constellation programs. The work could be mostly performed using residual program civil servants, existing facilities and current commercial launch capabilities. Partnering these abilities with the emerging commercial sector, along with other government agencies, academia and with international partners would provide an affordable and timely approach to get the launch costs down for these payloads, while increasing the derived benefits to a larger community. There is a wide scope of varied technologies that are being considered to help future space exploration. However, the cost and schedule would be prohibitive to demonstrate all these in the near term. Determining which technologies would yield the best return in meeting our future space needs is critical to building an achievable Space Architecture that allows exploration beyond Low Earth Orbit. The best mix of technologies is clearly to be based on our future needs, but also must take into account the availability of existing assets and supporting partners. Selecting those technologies that have complimentary applications will provide the most knowledge, with reasonable cost, for future use The plan is to develop those applications that not only mature the technology but actually perform a useful task or mission. These might include such functions as satellite servicing, a propulsion stage, processing lunar regolith, generating and transmitting solar power, cryogenic fluid transfer and storage and artificial gravity. Applications have been selected for assessment for future
Jones, Harry W.; Hodgson, Edward W.; Kliss, Mark H.
How should life support for deep space be developed? The International Space Station (ISS) life support system is the operational result of many decades of research and development. Long duration deep space missions such as Mars have been expected to use matured and upgraded versions of ISS life support. Deep space life support must use the knowledge base incorporated in ISS but it must also meet much more difficult requirements. The primary new requirement is that life support in deep space must be considerably more reliable than on ISS or anywhere in the Earth-Moon system, where emergency resupply and a quick return are possible. Due to the great distance from Earth and the long duration of deep space missions, if life support systems fail, the traditional approaches for emergency supply of oxygen and water, emergency supply of parts, and crew return to Earth or escape to a safe haven are likely infeasible. The Orbital Replacement Unit (ORU) maintenance approach used by ISS is unsuitable for deep space with ORU's as large and complex as those originally provided in ISS designs because it minimizes opportunities for commonality of spares, requires replacement of many functional parts with each failure, and results in substantial launch mass and volume penalties. It has become impractical even for ISS after the shuttle era, resulting in the need for ad hoc repair activity at lower assembly levels with consequent crew time penalties and extended repair timelines. Less complex, more robust technical approaches may be needed to meet the difficult deep space requirements for reliability, maintainability, and reparability. Developing an entirely new life support system would neglect what has been achieved. The suggested approach is use the ISS life support technologies as a platform to build on and to continue to improve ISS subsystems while also developing new subsystems where needed to meet deep space requirements.
Park, Jisung; Roh, Soonhee; Yeo, Younsook
Purpose: The present study tested Smith's (2003. Theorizing religious effects among American adolescents. "Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 42", 17-30. doi:10.1111/1468-5906.t01-1-00158) theory of religious effects to explore the relationship of religiosity, social support, and life satisfaction among elderly Korean…
Seshan, Panchalam K.; Ganapathi, Balasubramanian; Jan, Darrell L.; Ferrall, Joseph F.; Rohatgi, Naresh K.
Generic hierarchical model of life-support system developed to facilitate comparisons of options in design of system. Model represents combinations of interdependent subsystems supporting microbes, plants, fish, and land animals (including humans). Generic model enables rapid configuration of variety of specific life support component models for tradeoff studies culminating in single system design. Enables rapid evaluation of effects of substituting alternate technologies and even entire groups of technologies and subsystems. Used to synthesize and analyze life-support systems ranging from relatively simple, nonregenerative units like aquariums to complex closed-loop systems aboard submarines or spacecraft. Model, called Generic Modular Flow Schematic (GMFS), coded in such chemical-process-simulation languages as Aspen Plus and expressed as three-dimensional spreadsheet.
Briassoulis, George; Briassoulis, Panagiotis; Briassouli, Efrossini
A systematic review of the pooled effect of articles presenting current basic life support (BLS) algorithms for the treatment of cardiac arrest has never been carried. We aimed to record and classify potential inherent factors influencing simplicity negatively in teaching, learning and retention of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) delivered by health care providers or lay persons. We performed a search of the relevant literature exploring MEDLINE, COCHRANE LIBRARY and SCOPUS databases. Potential inhibitory factors in the structure of available algorithms influencing simplicity in teaching, learning and retention of BLS were recorded and stratified accordingly. In a second phase of this study, we tested the hypothesis that different options of a BLS algorithm might influence CPR retention negatively, by asking 348 health care provider participants of our CPR seminars to describe their predicted response in an emergency to: (1) a real-time model implicating the various victims and rescuers; and (2) a hypothetical challenging 'all-in-one' BLS algorithm model. Fifteen articles presenting current BLS algorithms evidenced 163 suggestions that produced 23 different CPR options: five contrasting algorithms (21.8%); three two-option models (13%); six vague technical or scientific suggestions (26%); and nine multiple choices of action (39.1%). Identified references contributed differently in the development of educationally polymorphic BLS options in each of the four categories (P algorithm for adults (42.2%) or children (36%). Educational polymorphisms of BLS algorithms could build unpredictable barriers between rescuers and cardiac arrest victims and might seriously limit instructors' educational effectiveness. These findings might support an alternative trial hypothesis of a simple 'all-in-one algorithm' educational approach in future. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Full Text Available Background: Due to high prevalence of infertility, increasing demand for infertility treatment, and provision of high quality of fertility care, it is necessary for healthcare professionals to explore infertile couples’ expectations and needs. Identification of these needs can be a prerequisite to plan the effective supportive interventions. The current study was, therefore, conducted in an attempt to explore and to understand infertile couples’ experiences and needs. Materials and Methods: This is a qualitative study based on a content analysis approach. The participants included 26 infertile couples (17 men and 26 women and 7 members of medical personnel (3 gynecologists and 4 midwives as the key informants. The infertile couples were selected from patients attending public and private infertility treatment centers and private offices of infertility specialists in Isfahan and Rasht, Iran, during 2012-2013. They were selected through purposive sampling method with maximum variation. In-depth unstructured interviews and field notes were used for data gathering among infertile couples. The data from medical personnel was collected through semi-structured interviews. The interview data were analyzed using conventional content analysis method. Results: Data analysis revealed four main categories of infertile couples’ needs, including: i. Infertility and social support, ii. Infertility and financial support, iii. Infertility and spiritual support and iv. Infertility and informational support. The main theme of all these categories was assistance and support. Conclusion: The study showed that in addition to treatment and medical needs, infertile couples encounter various challenges in different emotional, psychosocial, communicative, cognitive, spiritual, and economic aspects that can affect various areas of their life and lead to new concerns, problems, and demands. Thus, addressing infertile couples’ needs and expectations alongside their
Jafarzadeh-Kenarsari, Fatemeh; Ghahiri, Ataollah; Habibi, Mojtaba; Zargham-Boroujeni, Ali
Background Due to high prevalence of infertility, increasing demand for infertility treatment, and provision of high quality of fertility care, it is necessary for healthcare professionals to explore infertile couples’ expectations and needs. Identification of these needs can be a prerequisite to plan the effective supportive interventions. The current study was, therefore, conducted in an attempt to explore and to understand infertile couples’ experiences and needs. Materials and Methods This is a qualitative study based on a content analysis ap- proach. The participants included 26 infertile couples (17 men and 26 women) and 7 members of medical personnel (3 gynecologists and 4 midwives) as the key informants. The infertile couples were selected from patients attending public and private infertility treatment centers and private offices of infertility specialists in Isfahan and Rasht, Iran, during 2012-2013. They were selected through purposive sampling method with maximum variation. In-depth unstructured interviews and field notes were used for data gathering among infertile couples. The data from medical personnel was collected through semi-structured interviews. The interview data were analyzed using conventional content analysis method. Results Data analysis revealed four main categories of infertile couples’ needs, including: i. Infertility and social support, ii. Infertility and financial support, iii. Infertility and spiritual support and iv. Infertility and informational support. The main theme of all these categories was assistance and support. Conclusion The study showed that in addition to treatment and medical needs, infertile couples encounter various challenges in different emotional, psychosocial, communicative, cognitive, spiritual, and economic aspects that can affect various areas of their life and lead to new concerns, problems, and demands. Thus, addressing infertile couples’ needs and expectations alongside their medical treatments as
Sargusingh, Miriam J.; Perry, Jay L.
Many advanced human space exploration missions being considered by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) include concepts in which in-space systems cycle between inhabited and uninhabited states. Managing the life support system (LSS) may be particularly challenged during these periods of intermittent dormancy. A study to identify LSS management challenges and considerations relating to dormancy is described. The study seeks to define concepts suitable for addressing intermittent dormancy states and to evaluate whether the reference LSS architectures being considered by the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Life Support Systems Project (LSSP) are sufficient to support this operational state. The primary focus of the study is the mission concept considered to be the most challenging-a crewed Mars mission with an extensive surface stay. Results from this study are presented and discussed.
Evanich, Peggy L.; Crabb, Thomas M.; Gartrell, Charles F.
The 1991 Life Support Systems Analysis Workshop was sponsored by NASA Headquarters' Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology (OAST) to foster communication among NASA, industrial, and academic specialists, and to integrate their inputs and disseminate information to them. The overall objective of systems analysis within the Life Support Technology Program of OAST is to identify, guide the development of, and verify designs which will increase the performance of the life support systems on component, subsystem, and system levels for future human space missions. The specific goals of this workshop were to report on the status of systems analysis capabilities, to integrate the chemical processing industry technologies, and to integrate recommendations for future technology developments related to systems analysis for life support systems. The workshop included technical presentations, discussions, and interactive planning, with time allocated for discussion of both technology status and time-phased technology development recommendations. Key personnel from NASA, industry, and academia delivered inputs and presentations on the status and priorities of current and future systems analysis methods and requirements.
Olden, G.D.J. van; Meeuwis, J.D.; Bolhuis, H.W.; Boxma, H.; Goris, R.J.A.
The Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) course sponsored by the American College of Surgeons Committee On Trauma (ACSCOT) presents a standardized method of initial trauma care. This study attempted to measure any changes in morbidity and mortality in trauma patients after the introduction of ATLS
The life support system for long duration missions will recycle oxygen and water to reduce the material resupply mass from Earth. The impact of life support failures was investigated by dynamic simulation of a lunar outpost habitat life support model. The model was modified to simulate resupply delays, power failures, recycling system failures, and storage failures. Many failures impact the lunar outpost water supply directly or indirectly, depending on the water balance and water storage. Failure effects on the water supply are reduced if Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) water use is low and the water supply is ample. Additional oxygen can be supplied by scavenging unused propellant or by production from regolith, but the amounts obtained can vary significantly. The requirements for oxygen and water can also vary significantly, especially for EVA. Providing storage buffers can improve efficiency and reliability, and minimize the chance of supply failing to meet demand. Life support failures and supply variations can be survivable if effective solutions are provided by the system design
Full Text Available In this paper we examine factors that influence support for terrorism, using the PEW 2010 Global Attitudes Survey. We assess aggregate results, drawing on items fielded to all Muslim respondents to identify broad factors that appear to indicate likely support for suicide terrorism. Results from a logistic regression model suggest that being female, having an educational degree, a commitment to certain Muslim beliefs and values, and being a member of the Shi’a minority might be probable indicators of support for terrorism. Some of the results were also counterintuitive. We consider the implications of our findings for understanding passive and active support for terrorism among Muslim communities.
Barta, Daniel J.; Ewert, Michael K.
With the Preliminary Design Review (PDR) for the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle planned to be completed in 2009, Exploration Life Support (ELS), a technology development project under the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s (NASA) Exploration Technology Development Program, is focusing its efforts on needs for human lunar missions. The ELS Project s goal is to develop and mature a suite of Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) technologies for potential use on human spacecraft under development in support of U.S. Space Exploration Policy. ELS technology development is directed at three major vehicle projects within NASA s Constellation Program (CxP): the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), the Altair Lunar Lander and Lunar Surface Systems, including habitats and pressurized rovers. The ELS Project includes four technical elements: Atmosphere Revitalization Systems, Water Recovery Systems, Waste Management Systems and Habitation Engineering, and two cross cutting elements, Systems Integration, Modeling and Analysis, and Validation and Testing. This paper will provide an overview of the ELS Project, connectivity with its customers and an update to content within its technology development portfolio with focus on human lunar missions.
Nogami, Kentaro; Taniguchi, Shogo; Ichiyama, Tomoko
The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between basic life support skills in dentists who had completed the American Heart Association's Basic Life Support (BLS) Healthcare Provider qualification and time since course completion. Thirty-six dentists who had completed the 2005 BLS Healthcare Provider course participated in the study. We asked participants to perform 2 cycles of cardiopulmonary resuscitation on a mannequin and evaluated basic life support skills. Dentists who had previously completed the BLS Healthcare Provider course displayed both prolonged reaction times, and the quality of their basic life support skills deteriorated rapidly. There were no correlations between basic life support skills and time since course completion. Our results suggest that basic life support skills deteriorate rapidly for dentists who have completed the BLS Healthcare Provider. Newer guidelines stressing chest compressions over ventilation may help improve performance over time, allowing better cardiopulmonary resuscitation in dental office emergencies. Moreover, it may be effective to provide a more specialized version of the life support course to train the dentists, stressing issues that may be more likely to occur in the dental office.
Jones, Harry W.
Systems engineering is an organized way to design and develop systems, but the initial system design concepts are usually seen as the products of unexplained but highly creative intuition. Axiomatic design is a mathematical approach to produce and compare system architectures. The two axioms are:- Maintain the independence of the functional requirements.- Minimize the information content (or complexity) of the design. The first axiom generates good system design structures and the second axiom ranks them. The closed system human life support architecture now implemented in the International Space Station has been essentially unchanged for fifty years. In contrast, brief missions such as Apollo and Shuttle have used open loop life support. As mission length increases, greater system closure and increased recycling become more cost-effective.Closure can be gradually increased, first recycling humidity condensate, then hygiene wastewater, urine, carbon dioxide, and water recovery brine. A long term space station or planetary base could implement nearly full closure, including food production. Dynamic systems theory supports the axioms by showing that fewer requirements, fewer subsystems, and fewer interconnections all increase system stability. If systems are too complex and interconnected, reliability is reduced and operations and maintenance become more difficult. Using axiomatic design shows how the mission duration and other requirements determine the best life support system design including the degree of closure.
Odijk, Daan; Garbacea, Cristina; Schoegje, Thomas; Hollink, Laura; de Boer, Victor; Ribbens, Kees; van Ossenbruggen, Jacco
The ever growing number of textual historical collections calls for methods that can meaningfully connect and explore these. Different collections offer different perspectives, expressing views at the time of writing or even a subjective view of the author. We propose to connect heterogeneous
Odijk, D.; Gârbacea, C.; Schoegje, T.; Hollink, L.; de Boer, V.; Ribbens, K.; van Ossenbruggen, J.; Kapidakis, S.; Mazurek, C.; Werla, M.
The ever growing number of textual historical collections calls for methods that can meaningfully connect and explore these. Different collections offer different perspectives, expressing views at the time of writing or even a subjective view of the author. We propose to connect heterogeneous
Kirkland, L.; Sykes, M.; Farr, T.; Adams, J.; Blaney, D.
Surface Visible infrared spectroscopy has a long history of providing fundamental compositional discoveries in the solar system. However, we are entering a new era of Mars exploration in which missions will take place nearly every 2 years.The visible infrared spectral community thus faces a more rapid influx in data volume and variety than it has previously handled.Visible- infrared instruments are on the 1996 Mars Global Surveyor, 2001 Mars Odyssey 2003 Mars Exploration Rovers, 2003 Mars Express, 2005 Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter; and likely on the 2007 and 2009 missions. Interpretations of those data sets provide a critical foundation for geologic and climatic interpretations as well as an opportunity to select landing sites.
Jones, Harry W.
A human mission to Mars will require highly reliable life support systems. Mars life support systems may recycle water and oxygen using systems similar to those on the International Space Station (ISS). However, achieving sufficient reliability is less difficult for ISS than it will be for Mars. If an ISS system has a serious failure, it is possible to provide spare parts, or directly supply water or oxygen, or if necessary bring the crew back to Earth. Life support for Mars must be designed, tested, and improved as needed to achieve high demonstrated reliability. A quantitative reliability goal should be established and used to guide development t. The designers should select reliable components and minimize interface and integration problems. In theory a system can achieve the component-limited reliability, but testing often reveal unexpected failures due to design mistakes or flawed components. Testing should extend long enough to detect any unexpected failure modes and to verify the expected reliability. Iterated redesign and retest may be required to achieve the reliability goal. If the reliability is less than required, it may be improved by providing spare components or redundant systems. The number of spares required to achieve a given reliability goal depends on the component failure rate. If the failure rate is under estimated, the number of spares will be insufficient and the system may fail. If the design is likely to have undiscovered design or component problems, it is advisable to use dissimilar redundancy, even though this multiplies the design and development cost. In the ideal case, a human tended closed system operational test should be conducted to gain confidence in operations, maintenance, and repair. The difficulty in achieving high reliability in unproven complex systems may require the use of simpler, more mature, intrinsically higher reliability systems. The limitations of budget, schedule, and technology may suggest accepting lower and
Cornwell, Erin York
Family relationships, social interactions, and exchanges of support often revolve around the household context, but scholars rarely consider the social relevance of this physical space. In this article the author considers social causes and consequences of household disorder in the dwellings of older adults. Drawing from research on neighborhood disorder and social connectedness in later life, she describes how network characteristics may contribute to household disorder and how household disorder may weaken relationships and reduce access to support. This is explored empirically by estimating cross-lagged panel models with data from 2 waves of the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project. The results reveal that household disorder reflects a lack of social support, and it leads to more kin-centered networks and more strain within family relationships. The author concludes by urging greater attention to how the household context shapes-and is shaped by-the social interactions and processes that occur within it.
Programs provided by the Korea Association of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation include Basic Life Support (BLS), Advanced Cardiac Life Support (ACLS), Pediatric Advanced Life Support (PALS), and Korean Advanced Life Support (KALS). However, programs pertinent to dental care are lacking. Since 2015, related organizations have been attempting to develop a Dental Advanced Life Support (DALS) program, which can meet the needs of the dental environment. Generally, for initial management of emergency ...
Barta, Daniel; Henninger, D.; Edeen, M.; Lewis, J.; Smth, F.; Verostko, C.
Future long duration human exploration missions away from Earth will require closed-loop regenerative life support systems to reduce launch mass, reduce dependency on resupply and increase the level of mission self sufficiency. Such systems may be based on the integration of biological and physiocochemical processes to produce potable water, breathable atmosphere and nutritious food from metabolic and other mission wastes. Over the period 1995 to 1998 a series of ground-based tests were conducted at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Johnson Space Center, to evaluate the performance of advanced closed-loop life support technologies with real human metabolic and hygiene loads. Named the Lunar-Mars Life Support Test Project (LMLSTP), four integrated human tests were conducted with increasing duration, complexity and closure. The first test, LMLSTP Phase I, was designed to demonstrate the ability of higher plants to revitalize cabin atmosphere. A single crew member spent 15 days within an atmospherically closed chamber containing 11.2 square meters of actively growing wheat. Atmospheric carbon dioxide and oxygen levels were maintained by control of the rate of photosynthesis through manipulation of light intensity or the availability of carbon dioxide and included integrated physicochemical systems. During the second and third tests, LMLSTP Phases II & IIa, four crew members spent 30 days and 60 days, respectively, in a larger sealed chamber. Advanced physicochemical life support hardware was used to regenerate the atmosphere and produce potable water from wastewater. Air revitalization was accomplished by using a molecular sieve and a Sabatier processor for carbon dioxide absorption and reduction, respectively, with oxygen generation performed by water hydrolysis. Production of potable water from wastewater included urine treatment (vapor compression distillation), primary treatment (ultrafiltration/reverse osmosis and multi-filtration) and post
José Luís Silva
Full Text Available Advances in usability and design techniques (e.g. user-centered design try to facilitate the use of interactive systems. However, users still have to adapt to interactive systems, i.e. they have to learn the steps required to accomplish a task either by trial and error or by obtaining help. While advanced users are usually able to adapt without much effort this is far from being the case with beginners. Some interactive systems offer different interaction styles in an attempt to meet the needs of all types of user but this is not the case with all interactive systems. In this sense, we present an approach to support the use of any interactive system making use of enriched models and picture-driven computing to achieve tasks automation. The USS tool (User Support System is the basis to the adaptation of interactive systems accordingly to the users' needs. The approach provides the foundation for the addition of help (based on demonstration to any graphical user interfaces (GUI facilitating learning and use. The work is illustrated by a case study and completed with a preliminary user evaluation which provides insights about the validity of the approach.
Anderson, Molly; Curley, Su; Rotter, Henry; Stambaugh, Imelda; Yagoda, Evan
Life support systems are a critical part of human exploration beyond low earth orbit. NASA s Altair Lunar Lander team is pursuing efficient solutions to the technical challenges of human spaceflight. Life support design efforts up through Design Analysis Cycle (DAC) 4 focused on finding lightweight and reliable solutions for the Sortie and Outpost missions within the Constellation Program. In DAC-4 and later follow on work, changes were made to add functionality for new requirements accepted by the Altair project, and to update the design as knowledge about certain issues or hardware matured. In DAC-5, the Altair project began to consider mission architectures outside the Constellation baseline. Selecting the optimal life support system design is very sensitive to mission duration. When the mission goals and architecture change several trade studies must be conducted to determine the appropriate design. Finally, several areas of work developed through the Altair project may be applicable to other vehicle concepts for microgravity missions. Maturing the Altair life support system related analysis, design, and requirements can provide important information for developers of a wide range of other human vehicles.
Life support systems that involve recycling of atmospheres, water, food and waste are so complex that models incorporating all the interactions and relationships are vital to design, development, simulations, and ultimately to control of space qualified systems. During early modeling studies, FORTRAN and BASIC programs were used to obtain numerical comparisons of the performance of different regenerative concepts. Recently, models were made by combining existing capabilities with expert systems to establish an Intelligent Design Support Environment for simpliflying user interfaces and to address the need for the engineering aspects. Progress was also made toward modeling and evaluating the operational aspects of closed loop life support systems using Time-step and Dynamic simulations over a period of time. Example models are presented which show the status and potential of developed modeling techniques. For instance, closed loop systems involving algae systeMs for atmospheric purification and food supply augmentation, plus models employing high plants and solid waste electrolysis are described and results of initial evaluations are presented.
Full Text Available The ability to transfer learning to new situations lies at the heart of lifelong learning and the employability of university graduates. Because students are often unaware of the importance of learning transfer and staff do not always explicitly articulate this expectation, this article explores the idea that metacognition (intentional awareness and the use of that awareness might enhance the development of learning transfer. Our exploratory study includes results from a survey of 74 staff and 118 students from five institutions in Australia, Belgium, UK, and USA. Our data indicate that many staff and a majority of students do not have a clear understanding of what learning transfer entails, and that there are many mismatches between staff and student perceptions, attitudes, and behaviors regarding learning transfer. This helps explain why learning transfer does not occur as often as it could. We found significant positive correlations between thinking about transfer and thinking about learning processes and the likelihood to use awareness of metacognition to guide practice. Our findings suggest a positive relationship between metacognition and learning transfer. Implications for the scholarship of teaching and learning are discussed.
Graf, John C.
Sensors and feedback systems are critical to life support flight systems and life support systems research. New sensor capabilities can allow for new system architectures to be considered, and can facilitate dramatic improvements in system performance. This paper will describe three opportunities for biosensor researchers to develop sensors that will enable life support system improvements. The first opportunity relates to measuring physical, chemical, and biological parameters in the Space Station Water Processing System. Measuring pH, iodine, total organic carbon, microbiological activity, total dissolved solids, or conductivity with a safe, effective, stable, reliable microsensor could benefit the water processing system considerably. Of special interest is a sensor which can monitor biological contamination rapidly. The second opportunity relates to sensing microbiological contamination and water condensation on the surface of large inflatable structures. It is the goal of large inflatable structures used for habitation to take advantage of the large surface area of the structure and reject waste heat passively through the walls of the structure. Too much heat rejection leads to a cold spot with water condensation, and eventually microbiological contamination. A distributed sensor system that can measure temperature, humidity, and microbiological contamination across a large surface would benefit designers of large inflatable habitable structures. The third opportunity relates to sensing microbial bioreactors used for waste water processing and reuse. Microbiological bioreactors offer considerable advantages in weight and power compared to adsorption bed based systems when used for long periods of time. Managing and controlling bioreactors is greatly helped if distributed microsensors measured the biological populations continuously in many locations within the bioreactor. Nitrifying bacteria are of special interest to bioreactor designers, and any sensors that
Barta, Daniel J.
As NASA looks beyond the International Space Station toward long-duration, deep space missions away from Earth, the current practice of supplying consumables and spares will not be practical nor affordable. New approaches are sought for life support and habitation systems that will reduce dependency on Earth and increase mission sustainability. To reduce launch mass, further closure of Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) beyond the current capability of the ISS will be required. Areas of particular interest include achieving higher degrees of recycling within Atmosphere Revitalization, Water Recovery and Waste Management Systems. NASA is currently investigating advanced carbon dioxide reduction processes that surpass the level of oxygen recovery available from the Sabatier Carbon Dioxide Reduction Assembly (CRA) on the ISS. Improving the efficiency of the recovery of water from spacecraft solid and liquid wastes is possible through use of emerging technologies such as the heat melt compactor and brine dewatering systems. Another significant consumable is that of food. Food production systems based on higher plants may not only contribute significantly to the diet, but also contribute to atmosphere revitalization, water purification and waste utilization. Bioreactors may be potentially utilized for wastewater and solid waste management. The level at which bioregenerative technologies are utilized will depend on their comparative requirements for spacecraft resources including mass, power, volume, heat rejection, crew time and reliability. Planetary protection requirements will need to be considered for missions to other solar system bodies.
Xia, Hao-Zhi; Gao, Lei; Yue, Hong; Shi, Bao-Xin
Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women worldwide, and spiritual fulfillment such as experiencing meaning in life plays an important role in coping with the disease. The objectives of this study were to explore and understand Chinese breast cancer survivors' perspective on meaning in life. This study used Grounded Theory; 23 participants were recruited using convenience sampling, purposive sampling, and theoretical sampling. Semistructured interviews were conducted, and the data were analyzed using open coding, axial coding, and selective coding. A core category emerged as "satisfaction with my life" to explain Chinese breast cancer survivors' perspective of meaning in life, and 4 subcategories described the core category including (1) living a healthy and peaceful life, (2) having a good relationship with others, (3) achieving purpose in life, and (4) fulfilling responsibility. Chinese breast cancer survivors value physical health as well as spiritual fulfillment. The experience of adapting to life with cancer, having a good relationship with others, pursuing life goals, and fulfilling responsibility consists of a satisfying life, which makes life more meaningful. Health providers should pay more attention to survivors' experience of meaning in life and help them enhance meaning in life and improve their quality of life through building good relationship with others, achieving purpose in life, and fulfilling responsibility for family and society.
Beadle-Brown, J.; Leigh, J.; Whelton, B.; Richardson, L.; Beecham, J.; Baumker, T.; Bradshaw, J.
Background: People with severe and profound intellectual disabilities often spend substantial time isolated and disengaged. The nature and quality of the support appears to be important in determining quality of life. Methods: Structured observations and staff questionnaires were used to explore the quality of life and quality of support for 110…
DesMarais, David J.
candidates. The Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Opportunity revealed that water once flowed to the surface across the vast Meridiani plains, creating saline lakes whose waters were roiled by ancient winds that also sculptured their salt deposits into sand dunes. Opportunity then drove more than 30 km to explore even older deposits on a crater rim. MER Spirit found evidence that thermal waters (heated by volcanism or by impacts?) altered rocks to create sulfate salts, and siliceous sinters. These discoveries indicate that an early hydrological cycle apparently sustained precipitation, streams and lakes. Liquid water participated in rock weathering reactions, such as iron and sulfur oxidation, that created distinctive weathering regimes. Volcanism, impacts, groundwater and ice interacted at least locally. Redox chemical energy from volcanism, hydrothermal activity and weathering of crustal materials would have been available for any life. Thus conditions might have supported life in the past, at least locally. The main objective of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Curiosity rover is to determine the extent to which Gale crater hosted environments capable of supporting microbial life. The rover has already found stream gravels as well as sediments that might have been deposited in an ancient lake. The rover is now traversing to Mt. Sharp, a 5 km-high mound that is located on the crater floor and that exhibits layered sedimentary rocks having diverse minerals (sulfates and clays) that apparently formed in the presence of liquid water. This rock sequence was deposited over an extended time period in diverse potentially habitable watery environments. Curiosity is poised to characterize a a well-preserved rock record of hundreds of millions of years of diverse environments and profound climate change.
Bioregenerative life support system is one of the key technologies for future human deep space exploration and long-term space missions. BLSS use biological system as its core unit in combination with other physical and chemical equipments, under the proper control and manipulation by crew to complete a specific task to support life. Food production, waste treatment, oxygen and water regeneration are all conducted by higher plants or microalgae in BLSS, which is the most import characteristic different from other kinds of life support systems. Microalgae is light autotrophic micro-organisms, light undoubtedly is the most import factor which limits its growth and reproduction. Increasing or decreasing the light intensity changes the growth rate of microalgae, and then regulates the concentration of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the system. In this paper, based on the mathematical model of microalgae which grew under the different light intensity, three-dimensional visualization model was built and realized through using 3ds max, Virtools and some other three dimensional software, in order to display its change and impacting on oxygen and carbon dioxide intuitively. We changed its model structure and parameters, such as establishing closed-loop control system, light intensity, temperature and Nutrient fluid’s velocity and so on, carried out computer virtual simulation, and observed dynamic change of system with the aim of providing visualization support for system research.
Miura, Y.; Kato, T.
The present result can be applied for compact water-CO2 gas exchange method from any primordial rocks at next 2050 space exploration to support any celestial bodies, astronauts, and human life activity on any extraterrestrial surfaces.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Future human space exploration missions will require advanced life support technology that can operate across a wide range of applications and environments. Thermal...
Matteo Di NARDO
Full Text Available Extracorporeal Life Support (ECLS is a valuable tool in the management of neonates and older children with severe cardiac or respiratory failure. In this review, we focus on ECLS when used for neonatal and pediatric cardiac disease. Strict selection of patients and timely deployment are necessary to optimize outcomes. Although every attempt should be made to deploy ECLS urgently rather than emergently, extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ECPR is being increasingly used and reasonable survival rates have been achieved after initiation of ECLS during active compressions of the chest following in-hospital cardiac arrest. Contraindications to ECLS are falling over time, although lethal chromosomal abnormalities, severe irreversible brain injury, and extremely low gestational age and weight (<32 weeks gestation or <1.5 kg remain firm contraindications.
Gaieski, David F; Nathan, Barnett R; O'Brien, Nicole F
Bacterial meningitis and viral encephalitis, particularly herpes simplex encephalitis, are severe neurological infections that, if not treated promptly and effectively, lead to poor neurological outcome or death. Because treatment is more effective if given early, the topic of meningitis and encephalitis was chosen as an Emergency Neurological Life Support protocol. This protocol provides a practical approach to recognition and urgent treatment of bacterial meningitis and encephalitis. Appropriate imaging, spinal fluid analysis, and early empiric treatment is discussed. Though uncommon in its full form, the typical clinical triad of headache, fever, and neck stiffness should alert the clinical practitioner to the possibility of a central nervous system infection. Early attention to the airway and maintaining normotension is crucial in treatment of these patients, as is rapid treatment with anti-infectives and, in some cases, corticosteroids.
Nevill, Gail E., Jr.; Hessel, Michael I., Jr.; Rodriguez, Jose; Morgan, Steve (Editor)
NASA's Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) project centers on growing plants and recycling wastes in space. The current version of the biomass production chamber (BPC) uses a hydroponic system for nutrient delivery. To optimize plant growth and conserve system resources, the content of the nutrient solution which feeds the plants must be constantly monitored. The macro-nutrients (greater than ten ppm) in the solution include nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium, calcium, magnesium, and sulphur; the micro-nutrients (less than ten ppm) include iron, copper, manganese, zinc, and boron. The goal of this project is to construct a computer-controlled system of ion detectors that will accurately measure the concentrations of several necessary ions in solution. The project focuses on the use of a sensor array to eliminate problems of interference and temperature dependence.
Kreibich, Maximilian; Czerny, Martin; Benk, Christoph; Beyersdorf, Friedhelm; Rylski, Bartosz; Trummer, Georg
The aim of this study was to report our experience with patients on the extracorporeal life support system (ECLS) who presented with thigh compartment syndrome, a yet unreported complication. A retrospective analysis was performed from April 2003 to April 2017 to identify patients who presented to our department for treatment of acute compartment syndrome of the thigh after cannulation of the ECLS through the femoral artery and vein. Five patients, aged 30 to 84 years, who developed thigh compartment syndrome during ECLS therapy were identified. In three patients, the cause was arterial malperfusion; in one patient, the cause was venous malfunction and arterial malperfusion due to malposition of the arterial distal leg perfusion cannula in the femoral vein. The fifth patient suffered impaired venous drainage. Patients were on ECLS for 4 ± 2 days, and decompressive fasciotomy was performed in all patients 1 ± 1 days after ECLS commencement. Thigh compartment syndrome was responsible for significant morbidity, including prolonged open wound therapy, hospitalization, and leg amputation in one patient. Compartment syndrome of the thigh is a limb- and life-threatening complication and may occur in patients on ECLS. Angiographic or duplex ultrasound control of adequate limb perfusion and correct placement of the perfusion cannulas is recommended. Also, awareness of and close clinical observation for thigh perfusion and compartment syndrome are essential in patients during ECLS therapy. Copyright © 2017 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
This study aims to explore the everyday talk of people who take part in an online support group on depression. Although the popularity of online support groups has increased over the years, illustrated by a growing number of people -both patients and family members-, who turn to the Internet to join these groups, little is known about their daily practices. This study aims to explore these conversational practices based on a detailed examination of participants' talk within such groups.The co...
Kumar, P N Suresh; George, Biju
Though deliberate self-harm encompasses a wide variety of medical and social disciplines some of the important psychosocial variable such as life events, social support, coping strategies, and quality of life have not yet been explored in depth in India. The aim was to analyze and compare the type and severity of life events, coping strategies, social support, and quality of life of suicide attempters versus matched normal controls, and to identify the risk factors leading to suicide. A total of 50 consecutive suicide attempters were compared with same number of age, sex, and martial status matched healthy controls using Presumptive Stressful Life Events Scale, Social Support Questionnaire, AECOM Coping Style Scale, and WHO QOL-Bref. Attempters experienced significantly more life events especially untoward events whereas the control group experienced more desirable and impersonal life events. Social support, positive coping, and of QOL were significantly lower in attempters. Among all risk factors desirable life events, good education, and good social support were protective against suicide. Suicide attempters were differentiated from healthy controls based on more stressful life events, lower social support, less healthy coping, and poor QOL. Positive life events, good education, and good social support were protective factors against suicide. However, it is difficult to pinpoint a single factor responsible for suicidal behavior. It is the complex interplay of various interrelated factors and the resultant buffering effect, which is protecting the individual against deliberate self-harm.
This study aims to explore the everyday talk of people who take part in an online support group on depression. Although the popularity of online support groups has increased over the years, illustrated by a growing number of people -both patients and family members-, who turn to the Internet to join
The life support systems on the International Space Station (ISS) are the culmination of an extensive effort encompassing development, design, and test to provide the highest possible confidence in their operation on ISS. Many years of development testing are initially performed to identify the optimum technology and the optimum operational approach. The success of this development program depends on the accuracy of the system interfaces. The critical interfaces include the specific operational environment, the composition of the waste stream to be processed and the quality of the product. Once the development program is complete, a detailed system schematic is built based on the specific design requirements, followed by component procurement, assembly, and acceptance testing. A successful acceptance test again depends on accurately simulating the anticipated environment on ISS. The ISS Water Recovery System (WRS) provides an excellent example of where this process worked, as well as lessons learned that can be applied to the success of future missions. More importantly, ISS has provided a test bed to identify these design issues. Mechanical design issues have included an unreliable harmonic drive train in the Urine Processor's fluids pump, and seals in the Water Processor's Catalytic Reactor with insufficient life at the operational temperature. Systems issues have included elevated calcium in crew urine (due to microgravity effect) that resulted in precipitation at the desired water recovery rate, and the presence of an organosilicon compound (dimethylsilanediol) in the condensate that is not well removed by the water treatment process. Modifications to the WRS to address these issues are either complete (and now being evaluated on ISS) or are currently in work to insure the WRS has the required reliability before embarking on a mission to Mars.
Full Text Available Deep drilling of marine sediments and igneous crust offers a unique opportunity to explore how life persists and evolves in the Earth’s deepest subsurface ecosystems. Resource availability deep beneath the seafloor may impose constraints on microbial growth and dispersal patterns that differ greatly from those in the surface world. Processes that mediate microbial evolution and diversity may also be very different in these habitats, which approach and probably passthe extreme limits of life. Communities in parts of the deep subsurface may resemble primordial microbial ecosystems, and may serve as analogues of life on other planetary bodies, such as Mars or Europa, that have or once had water.
Carlstrom, Aaron H.; Hughey, Kenneth F.
The current article builds on "Living the Good (Work) Life: Implications of General Values for Work Values" (Carlstrom, 2011) by presenting ways to address work values in career advising. The following questions are addressed in the current article: When should students explore work values in career advising? What career development and…
Tabatabaei, Seyed Zia; Ebrahimi, Fatemeh; Hamzah, Azimi Bin Hj; Rezaeian, Mohsen; Kamrani, Mahnaz Akbari
Evidence underscores that empowerment is central to improve the elderly residents' quality of life. In truth, empowerment is a process through which individuals gain better control over their life. The aim of this study was to explore how perceived empowerment influence on the quality of life among elderly Malay residents. A focus ethnographic approach was employed in a Malaysian residential home between May 2011 and January 2012. Data were gathered from participant observations, field notes, in-depth interviews, and exploring related documents. The analysis of the data gathered in the current study resulted in the development of three themes - social life and its requirements, caregivers' skills empowerment, and listening and supporting. Findings of the study provide new insights that are useful in charting new guideline for care providers and policy makers to improve the elderly residents' quality of life.
Entradas, Marta; Miller, Steve
Space agencies such as NASA and ESA have ambitious long-term programmes that mark the beginning of a new era in space exploration where humans will land on Mars; an era requiring public support and, therefore, more consideration for public opinion. Empirical research shows that there are substantial differences in the level of understanding of space exploration among the general public. Studying audiences appears to be crucial to inform public engagement and communication strategies as well as policy debate. This paper presents the results of a survey conducted in the UK in 2008 at two science outreach events, the Royal Society Exhibition in London and the National Space Centre in Leicester, to investigate the motivations, beliefs, political preferences and attitudes towards space exploration of this audience. A sample of 744 respondents was collected. The analysis shows that the British public who come to outreach and engagement activities support space exploration but have some reservations about considering the advancement of UK space activities to be of national interest. Yet, when asked about means of exploring space, the majority agrees that space should be explored using both mankind and machines, ranking "generating new scientific knowledge and advancing human culture" as the most important reason for continuing investment in space research. Although the greater number of supporters says that more than the current government funding should be allocated to civil space activities, concerns about risk and value appear to influence this view.
Smith, S; Cooper, C
The Aquarius underwater laboratory (or habitat) is the world's only operational saturation facility currently supporting scientific research and is operated by the University of North Carolina at Wilmington. The underwater laboratory accommodates and supports six aquanauts (scientists and habitat technicians) at habitat depth for 10-30-day missions. In the past, life support systems were provided by a manned support barge or Mobile Support Base (MSB) moored directly above Aquarius. The MSB was manned 24 h a day during saturation missions, which required 12 support staff in three separate shifts. A new unmanned Life Support Buoy (LSB) replaces the MSB and provides life support systems and is the voice, video, and data communications bridge from the habitat to the shore base. The LSB transmits status of all life support systems to the habitat and the shore base, thus minimizing the need for support staff to be present overtop of Aquarius during missions.
Creech, Stephen D.; Vane, Greg
Whether life exists on worlds other than Earth is one of the most compelling questions facing space science today. Given that, on Earth, life exists wherever water is found, worlds harboring large amounts of water are prime targets in the search for an answer to this question. Jovian moons Europa, Callisto, and Ganymede; Saturnian moons Enceladus and Titan; and possibly Neptune's Triton are all worlds in the outer solar system on which large quantities of water can be found in solid and liquid form. So compelling are these worlds as targets for scientific study that the United States Congress recently initiated a directive to NASA to create an "Ocean Worlds Exploration Program, comprised of frequent small, medium and large missions that poses the potential to revolutionize our understanding of the solar system and life within it, perhaps more profoundly event than the modern-day search for past or extant life on Mars. Any life detected at the remote "ocean worlds" in the outer solar system would likely have formed and evolved along an independent path from life on Earth itself, giving us a deeper understanding of the potential for broad variety amongst life in the universe. In NASA's robotic study of Mars, a key to the success of the "search for water" was the ability to conduct iterative exploration via a series of missions launched on a regular cadence based on 26-month cycles of prime planetary-alignment windows of reduced transit time. Through this cadence, NASA was able to send to Mars a series of orbiters and landers, using the knowledge gained from each mission to inform and refine the goals of the next. The ability to conduct iterative exploration in this manner could have a substantial impact on exploration of the "ocean worlds," allowing scientists to narrow their targets of interest in the search for life based on data sent back by successive missions. This ability is currently limited by the transit periods available from contemporary evolved expendable
Mastoras, Sarah M; Saklofske, Donald H; Schwean, Vicki L; Climie, Emma A
This study investigated the role of perceived social support in promoting emotional well-being among children with ADHD. Specifically, it examined how children with ADHD perceive support from key individuals in their lives and the relationships between this support and aspects of emotional well-being. Main versus buffering models of social support in the context of social preference status were also explored. Participants were 55 school-age children with ADHD-combined or hyperactive/impulsive (ADHD-C/HI). Parent and child ratings evaluated source-specific social support, social status, and aspects of self-concept, anxiety, and depression. Children with ADHD reported lower social support than normative samples. Social support had moderate positive associations with self-concept, with source-specific differences, but was not associated with internalizing symptoms. Regression models with social preference status supported a main effect model of perceived social support. Social support may provide a target for resilience-based interventions among children with ADHD in promoting their self-concept and well-being. © The Author(s) 2015.
Henninger, Donald L.; Marmolejo, Jose A.; Seaman, Calvin H.
Human exploration missions beyond low earth orbit will be long duration with abort scenarios of days to months. This necessitates provisioning the crew with all the things they will need to sustain themselves while carrying out mission objectives. Systems engineering and integration is critical to the point where extensive integrated testing of life support systems on the ground is required to identify and mitigate risks. Ground test facilities (human-rated altitude chambers) at the Johnson Space Center are being readied to integrate all the systems for a mission along with a human test crew. The relevant environment will include deep space habitat human accommodations, sealed atmosphere capable of 14.7 to 8 psi total pressure and 21 to 32% oxygen concentration, life support systems (food, air, and water), communications, crew accommodations, medical, EVA, tools, etc. Testing periods will approximate those of the expected missions (such as a near Earth asteroid, Earth-Moon L2 or L1, the moon, Mars). This type of integrated testing is needed for research and technology development as well as later during the mission design, development, test, and evaluation (DDT&E) phases of an approved program. Testing will evolve to be carried out at the mission level fly the mission on the ground . Mission testing will also serve to inform the public and provide the opportunity for active participation by international, industrial and academic partners.
Muhammad Alishahdani Ibrahim
Full Text Available Reputation is a key construct in organizational sciences since reputation signals its past behavior and its prospect in the future. The purpose of this paper is to explore the development and influence of both personal and organizational reputation and its impact to customer support. The organiza-tion life cycle theory is applied to the “SM” foundation, one of Indonesian largest Islamic social enterprise which experienced fast growth and decline due to the decline of its leader reputation. The case shows that personal reputation of leader is very important in the start-up and early development phase of the organization but it may threaten the organizational sustainability at a later stage when the leader’s personal reputation is conveyed into the organization reputation.
Beadle-Brown, J; Leigh, J; Whelton, B; Richardson, L; Beecham, J; Baumker, T; Bradshaw, J
People with severe and profound intellectual disabilities often spend substantial time isolated and disengaged. The nature and quality of the support appears to be important in determining quality of life. Structured observations and staff questionnaires were used to explore the quality of life and quality of support for 110 people with severe and profound disabilities and complex needs. On average, people spent approximately 40% of their time engaged in meaningful activities, received contact from staff 25% of the time (6% in the form of assistance to be engaged). Just over one-third received consistently good active support, which was associated with other measures of quality of support and emerged as the strongest predictor of outcomes. Quality of life and quality of support were relatively poor, although with about one-third of people receiving skilled support. Consistently good active support was the best predictor of outcome and proposed as a good indicator of skilled support. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Pilisuk, Marc; Minkler, Meredith
Summarizes data showing the detrimental effects to the health of the elderly that are associated with diminution of supportive interpersonal ties. Describes six programs that illustrate the range of diversity of tasks involved in the provision of supportive associations for the elderly. (Author/GC)
Ali, Arif; Deuri, S. P.; Deuri, S. K.; Jahan, Masroor; Singh, Amool R.; Verma, A. N.
Background: Life satisfaction and perceived social support been shown to improve the well-being of a person and also affect the outcome of treatment in somatization disorder. The phenomenon of somatization was explored in relation to the perceived social support and life satisfaction. Aim: This study aimed at investigating perceived social support and life satisfaction in people with somatization disorder. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on persons having somatization disorder attending the outpatient unit of LGB Regional Institute of Mental Health, Tezpur, Assam. Satisfaction with life scale and multidimensional scale of perceived social support were used to assess life satisfaction and perceived social support respectively. Results: Women reported more somatic symptoms than men. Family perceived social support was high in the patient in comparison to significant others’ perceived social support and friends’ perceived social support. Perceived social support showed that a significant positive correlation was found with life satisfaction. Conclusion: Poor social support and low life satisfaction might be a stress response with regard to increased distress severity and psychosocial stressors rather than a cultural response to express psychological problems in somatic terms. PMID:22174534
Full Text Available Background: Life satisfaction and perceived social support been shown to improve the well-being of a person and also affect the outcome of treatment in somatization disorder. The phenomenon of somatization was explored in relation to the perceived social support and life satisfaction. Aim: This study aimed at investigating perceived social support and life satisfaction in people with somatization disorder. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on persons having somatization disorder attending the outpatient unit of LGB Regional Institute of Mental Health, Tezpur, Assam. Satisfaction with life scale and multidimensional scale of perceived social support were used to assess life satisfaction and perceived social support respectively. Results: Women reported more somatic symptoms than men. Family perceived social support was high in the patient in comparison to significant others′ perceived social support and friends′ perceived social support. Perceived social support showed that a significant positive correlation was found with life satisfaction. Conclusion: Poor social support and low life satisfaction might be a stress response with regard to increased distress severity and psychosocial stressors rather than a cultural response to express psychological problems in somatic terms.
One such major concern pertains to the very general experiences of life of the elderly and associated factors. The purpose of this study was then to specifically assess the subjective quality of life and perceived adequacy of social support and the possible socio-demographic factors making differences in quality of life.
Lami M; Nair P; Gadhvi K
Mariam Lami, Pooja Nair, Karishma GadhviFaculty of Medicine, Imperial College, London, London, UKAbstract: Questions have been raised about basic life support (BLS) training in medical education. This article addresses the research evidence behind why BLS training is inadequate and suggests recommendations for improving BLS training for medical students.Keywords: medical education, basic life support
Macelroy, Robert D. (Editor); Thompson, Brad G. (Editor); Tibbitts, Theodore W. (Editor); Volk, Tyler (Editor)
The scientists supported by the NASA sponsored Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS) program have played a major role in creating a Committee on Space Research (COSPAR) section devoted to the development of bioregenerative life support for use in space. The series of 22 papers were sponsored by Subcommission F.4. The papers deal with many of the diverse aspects of life support, and with outgrowth technologies that may have commercial applications in fields such as biotechnology and bioengineering. Papers from researchers in France, Canada, Japan and the USSR are also presented.
North, Regina M.; Pellis, Neal R.
The rapid development of the productive processes after World War II extended human settlements into new ecological niches. Advances in Life Sciences played a decisive role supporting the establishment of human presence in areas of the planet where human life could have not existed otherwise. The evolution of life support systems, and the fabrication of new materials and technologies has enabled humans to inhabit Polar Regions, ocean surfaces and depths; and to leave Earth and occupy Low Earth Orbit. By the end of the 20 th Century, stations in the Antarctic and Arctic, off shore oil platforms, submarines, and space stations had become the ultimate demonstration of human ability to engineer habitats at Earth extreme environments and outer space. As we enter the 21st Century, the next development of human settlements will occur through the exploration of the Moon, Mars, and beyond. The major risks of space exploration derive from long exposure of humans and other life systems to radiation, microgravity, isolation and confinement, dependence on artificial life support systems, and unknown effects (e.g., altered magnetic fields, ultrahigh vacuum on bacteria, fungi, etc.). Countermeasures will require a complete characterization of human and other biological systems adaptation processes. To sustain life in transit and on the surface of the Moon and Mars will require a balance of spacecraft, cargo, astronaut crews, and the use of in situ resources. Limitations on the number of crewmembers, payloads, and the barrenness of the terrain require a novel design for the capabilities needed in transit and at exploration outpost sites. The planned destinations have resources that may be accessed to produce materials, food, shelter, power, and to provide an environment compatible with successful occupation of longterm exploration sites. Once more, the advancements of Life Sciences will be essential for the design of interplanetary voyages and planetary surface operations. This
Full Text Available Walkability Explorer is a software tool for the evaluation of urban walkability which, we argue, is an important aspect of the quality of life in cities. Many conventional approaches to the assessment of quality of life measure the distribution, density and distances of different opportunities in space. But distance is not all there is. To reason in terms of urban capabilities of people we should also take into account the quality of pedestrian accessibility and of urban opportunities offered by the city. The software tool we present in this paper is an user-friendly implementation of such an evaluation approach to walkability. It includes several GIS and analysis features, and is interoperable with other standard GIS and data-analysis tools.
Anderson, Molly; Gatens, Robyn; Ikeda, Toshitami; Ito, Tsuyoshi; Hovland, Scott; Witt, Johannes
Human exploration of the solar system is an ambitious goal. Future human missions to Mars or other planets will require the cooperation of many nations to be feasible. Exploration goals and concepts have been gathered by the International Space Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG) at a very high level, representing the overall goals and strategies of each participating space agency. The Global Exploration Roadmap published by ISECG states that international partnerships are part of what drives the mission scenarios. It states "Collaborations will be established at all levels (missions, capabilities, technologies), with various levels of interdependency among the partners." To make missions with interdependency successful, technologists and system experts need to share information early, before agencies have made concrete plans and binding agreements. This paper provides an overview of possible ways of integrating NASA, ESA, and JAXA work into a conceptual roadmap of life support and environmental monitoring capabilities for future exploration missions. Agencies may have immediate plans as well as long term goals or new ideas that are not part of official policy. But relationships between plans and capabilities may influence the strategies for the best ways to achieve partner goals. Without commitments and an organized program like the International Space Station, requirements for future missions are unclear. Experience from ISS has shown that standards and an early understanding of requirements are an important part of international partnerships. Attempting to integrate systems that were not designed together can create many problems. Several areas have been identified that could be important to discuss and understand early: units of measure, cabin CO2 levels, and the definition and description of fluids like high purity oxygen, potable water and residual biocide, and crew urine and urine pretreat. Each of the partners is exploring different kinds of technologies
CLASSIICATION OF TNIS PAGE (Men Data amso SECURITY CLASIFICATION OF THIS PAGE (11111M hem Ancession rfor NTI T,,&I J t’ ." t.ion . .. .. i)tmt l’ (#2o.).; OTIC...attachment has stimulated research into the supportive role of social relationships for both adults and children. There are theoretical and empirical
Life Support is a basic issue since manned space flight began. Not only to support astronauts and cosmonauts with the essential things to live, however, also animals which were carried for research to space etc together with men need support systems to survive under space conditions. Most of the animals transported to space participate at the life support system of the spacecraft. However, aquatic species live in water as environment and thus need special developments. Research with aquatic animals has a long tradition in manned space flight resulting in numerous life support systems for them starting with simple plastic bags up to complex support hardware. Most of the recent developments have to be identified as part of a technological oriented system and can be described as small technospheres. As the importance arose to study our Earth as the extraordinary Biosphere we live in, the modeling of small ecosystems began as part of ecophysiological research. In parallel the investigations of Bioregenerative Life Support Systems were launched and identified as necessity for long-term space missions or traveling to Moon and Mars and beyond. This paper focus on previous developments of Life Support Systems for aquatic animals and will show future potential developments towards Bioregenerative Life Support which additionally strongly benefits to our Earth's basic understanding.
Life Support is a basic issue since manned space flight began. Not only to support astronauts and cosmonauts with the essential things to live, however, also animals which were carried for research to space etc. together with men need support systems to survive under space conditions. Most of the animals transported to space participate at the life support system of the spacecraft. However, aquatic species live in water as environment and thus need special developments. Research with aquatic animals has a long tradition in manned space flight resulting in numerous life support systems for them starting with simple plastic bags up to complex support hardware. Most of the recent developments have to be identified as part of a technological oriented system and can be described as small technospheres. As the importance arose to study our Earth as the extraordinary Biosphere we live in, the modeling of small ecosystems began as part of ecophysiological research. In parallel the investigations of Bioregenerative Life Support Systems were launched and identified as necessity for long-term space missions or traveling to Moon and Mars and beyond. This paper focus on previous developments of Life Support Systems for aquatic animals and will show future potential developments towards Bioregenerative Life Support which additionally strongly benefits to our Earth's basic understanding. c2002 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
Oleson, Melvin; Olson, Richard L.
Results are given of a study to explore options for the development of a Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) for a future Space Station. In addition, study results will benefit the design of other facilities such as the Life Sciences Research Facility, a ground-based CELSS demonstrator, and will be useful in planning longer range missions such as a lunar base or manned Mars mission. The objectives were to develop weight and cost estimates for one CELSS module selected from a set of preliminary plant growth unit (PGU) design options. Eleven Space Station CELSS module conceptual PGU designs were reviewed, components and subsystems identified and a sensitivity analysis performed. Areas where insufficient data is available were identified and divided into the categories of biological research, engineering research, and technology development. Topics which receive significant attention are lighting systems for the PGU, the use of automation within the CELSS system, and electric power requirements. Other areas examined include plant harvesting and processing, crop mix analysis, air circulation and atmosphere contaminant flow subsystems, thermal control considerations, utility routing including accessibility and maintenance, and nutrient subsystem design.
Drysdale, Alan; Thomas, Mark; Fresa, Mark; Wheeler, Ray
Attention is given to CELSS, a critical technology for the Space Exploration Initiative. OCAM (object-oriented CELSS analysis and modeling) models carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen recycling. Multiple crops and plant types can be simulated. Resource recovery options from inedible biomass include leaching, enzyme treatment, aerobic digestion, and mushroom and fish growth. The benefit of using many small crops overlapping in time, instead of a single large crop, is demonstrated. Unanticipated results include startup transients which reduce the benefit of multiple small crops. The relative contributions of mass, energy, and manpower to system cost are analyzed in order to determine appropriate research directions.
Moore, B., III (Editor); Macelroy, R. D. (Editor)
The general processes and controls associated with two distinct experimental paradigms are examined. Specific areas for research related to biotic production (food production) and biotic decomposition (waste management) are explored. The workshop discussions were directed toward Elemental cycles and the biological factors that affect the transformations of nutrients into food, of food material into waste, and of waste into nutrients were discussed. To focus on biological issues, the discussion assumed that (1) food production would be by biological means (thus excluding chemical synthesis), (2) energy would not be a limiting factor, and (3) engineering capacity for composition and leak rate would be adequate.
Srivilaithon, Winchana; Amnaumpatanapon, Kumpon; Limjindaporn, Chitlada; Imsuwan, Intanon; Daorattanachai, Kiattichai
To study about attitude and knowledge regarding basic-life-support among college students outside medical system. The cross-sectional study in the emergency department of Thammasat Hospital. The authors included college students at least aged 18 years old and volunteers to be study subjects. The authors collected data about attitudes and knowledge in performing basic-life-support by using set of questionnaires. 250 college students participated in the two hours trainingprogram. Most ofparticipants (42.4%) were second-year college students, of which 50 of 250 participants (20%) had trained in basic-life-support program. Twenty-seven of 250 participants (10.8%) had experience in basic-life-support outside the hospital. Most of participants had good attitude for doing basic-life-support. Participants had a significant improved score following training (mean score 8.66 and 12.34, respectively, pbasic-life-support to cardiac arrest patient. The training program in basic-life-support has significant impact on knowledge after training.
Full Text Available With this article I intend to contribute to the debate about how to study urban life. Firstly, I argue for the relevance of invisible and silent aspects of cities and inbetween sutures, which I understand to mean a third ’something’ beyond forms and flows. Secondly, I explore several examples and draw on arguments from Wittgenstein and Lefebvre to frame this hypothesis. Thirdly, I use the chess game as a metaphor to illustrate the multiplicity and unpredictability of engagements of urban life. Finnally, I propose to approach cities in an open-ended and ordinary way, paying attention to dialectically interconnected processes and the particular conditions of possibility for knowledge.
Jones, Harry W.
A hardware system's failure rate often increases over time due to wear and aging, but not always. Some systems instead show reliability growth, a decreasing failure rate with time, due to effective failure analysis and remedial hardware upgrades. Reliability grows when failure causes are removed by improved design. A mathematical reliability growth model allows the reliability growth rate to be computed from the failure data. The space shuttle was extensively maintained, refurbished, and upgraded after each flight and it experienced significant reliability growth during its operational life. In contrast, the International Space Station (ISS) is much more difficult to maintain and upgrade and its failure rate has been constant over time. The ISS Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly (CDRA) reliability has slightly decreased. Failures on ISS and with the ISS CDRA continue to be a challenge.
Lindsey, Tony; Shetye, Sandeep; Shaw, Tianna (Editor)
The Exploration Clinical Decision Support (ECDS) System project is intended to enhance the Exploration Medical Capability (ExMC) Element for extended duration, deep-space mission planning in HRP. A major development guideline is the Risk of "Adverse Health Outcomes & Decrements in Performance due to Limitations of In-flight Medical Conditions". ECDS attempts to mitigate that Risk by providing crew-specific health information, actionable insight, crew guidance and advice based on computational algorithmic analysis. The availability of inflight health diagnostic computational methods has been identified as an essential capability for human exploration missions. Inflight electronic health data sources are often heterogeneous, and thus may be isolated or not examined as an aggregate whole. The ECDS System objective provides both a data architecture that collects and manages disparate health data, and an active knowledge system that analyzes health evidence to deliver case-specific advice. A single, cohesive space-ready decision support capability that considers all exploration clinical measurements is not commercially available at present. Hence, this Task is a newly coordinated development effort by which ECDS and its supporting data infrastructure will demonstrate the feasibility of intelligent data mining and predictive modeling as a biomedical diagnostic support mechanism on manned exploration missions. The initial step towards ground and flight demonstrations has been the research and development of both image and clinical text-based computer-aided patient diagnosis. Human anatomical images displaying abnormal/pathological features have been annotated using controlled terminology templates, marked-up, and then stored in compliance with the AIM standard. These images have been filtered and disease characterized based on machine learning of semantic and quantitative feature vectors. The next phase will evaluate disease treatment response via quantitative linear
Dalgard, Odd Steffen; Dowrick, Christopher; Lehtinen, Ville; Vazquez-Barquero, Jose Luis; Casey, Patricia; Wilkinson, Greg; Ayuso-Mateos, Jose Luis; Page, Helen; Dunn, Graham
To explore if differences in negative life events, vulnerability and social support may explain the gender difference in depression. Cross-sectional, multinational, community survey from five European countries (n = 8,787). Depression is measured by Beck Depression Inventory, whereas negative life events and social support are measured by various questionnaires. Women report slightly more negative life events than men do, mainly related to the social network, but more social support in general and in connection with reported life events. This trend is the same in all participating countries except Spain, where there is no gender difference in the reported support. In general, women are not more vulnerable to negative life events than men are. However, women with no social support, who are exposed to life events, are more vulnerable than men without support. The higher rate of depression in women is not explained by gender differences in negative life events, social support or vulnerability.
Full Text Available Aim/Purpose: Enrollment in online doctoral programs has grown over the past decade. A sense of community, defined as feelings of closeness within a social group, is vital to retention, but few studies have explored how online doctoral students create community. Background: In this qualitative case study, I explore how students in one online doctoral program created a learning community. Methodology: Data for the study was drawn from 60 hours of video footage from six online courses, the message boards from the six courses, and twenty interviews with first and second-year students. Contribution: Findings from this study indicate that the structure of the social network in an online doctoral program is significantly different from the structure of learning communities in face-to-face programs. In the online program, the doctoral community was more insular, more peer-centered, and less reliant on faculty support than in in-person programs. Findings: Utilizing a nested communities theoretical framework, I identified four subgroups that informed online doctoral students’ sense of community: cohort, class groups, small peer groups, and study groups. Students interacted frequently with members of each of the aforementioned social groups and drew academic, social, and emotional support from their interactions. Recommendations for Practitioners: Data from this study suggests that online doctoral students are interested in making social and academic connections. Practitioners should leverage technology and on-campus supports to promote extracurricular interactions for online students. Recommendation for Researchers: Rather than focus on professional socialization, students in the online doctoral community were interested in providing social and academic support to peers. Researchers should consider how socialization in online doctoral programs differs from traditional, face-to-face programs. Impact on Society: As universities increase online offerings
Programs provided by the Korea Association of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation include Basic Life Support (BLS), Advanced Cardiac Life Support (ACLS), Pediatric Advanced Life Support (PALS), and Korean Advanced Life Support (KALS). However, programs pertinent to dental care are lacking. Since 2015, related organizations have been attempting to develop a Dental Advanced Life Support (DALS) program, which can meet the needs of the dental environment. Generally, for initial management of emergency situations, basic life support is most important. However, emergencies in young children mostly involve breathing. Therefore, physicians who treat pediatric dental patients should learn PALS. It is necessary for the physician to regularly renew training every two years to be able to immediately implement professional skills in emergency situations. In order to manage emergency situations in the pediatric dental clinic, respiratory support is most important. Therefore, mastering professional PALS, which includes respiratory care and core cases, particularly upper airway obstruction and respiratory depression caused by a respiratory control problem, would be highly desirable for a physician who treats pediatric dental patients. Regular training and renewal training every two years is absolutely necessary to be able to immediately implement professional skills in emergency situations.
Atkinson, C. F.; Sager, J. C.; Alazraki, M.; Loader, C.
Space missions of extended duration are currently hampered by the prohibitive costs of external resupply. To reduce the need for resupply, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is currently testing methods to recycle solid wastes, water, and air. Composting can be an integral part of a biologically based waste treatment/recycling system. Results indicate that leachate from composted plant wastes is not inhibitory to seed germination and contains sufficient inorganic minerals to support plant growth. Other solid wastes, for example kitchen (food) wastes and human solid wastes, can be composted with inedible plant residues to safely reduce the volume of the wastes and levels of microorganisms potentially pathogenic to humans. Finished compost could serve as a medium for plant growth or mushroom production.
Wang, Zhizhong; Koenig, Harold G; Ma, Hui; Al Shohaib, Saad
We examined the relationship between religious involvement and psychological distress and explored the mediating effects of social support and purpose in life in university students in western, mid-western, and eastern China. Cross-sectional survey of a representative sample of 1812 university students was conducted. The Purpose in Life scale, Duke Social Support Index, and Religious Commitment Inventory-10 were administered, along with Kessler's Psychological Distress Scale. Structural equation modeling was used to test two models of the mediation hypothesis, examining direct, indirect, and total effects. Model 1 (with direction of effect hypothesized from religiosity to psychological distress) indicated that religious involvement had a direct effect on increasing psychological distress (β = 0.23, p purpose in life and social support (β = -.40, p purpose in life and social support that then lead to lower psychological distress.
Dibble, K. P.; Riley, F. E.
Four problem areas were treated: (1) cargo module environmental control and life support systems; (2) space shuttle/space station interfaces; (3) thermal control considerations for payloads; and (4) feasibility of improving system reusability.
Supporting Information. Interesting cationic (Li+/Fe3+/Te6+) variations in new rocksalt ordered structures. AKANKSHA GUPTA VINOD KUMAR and S. UMA*. Materials Chemistry Group, Department of Chemistry, University of Delhi, Delhi 110 007. India ...
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Space life-supporting systems require effective removal of metabolic CO2 from the cabin atmosphere with minimal loss of O2. Conventional techniques, using either...
Christensen, Henrik Bærbak; Bardram, Jakob
In this paper we explore an activity-centered computing paradigm that is aimed at supporting work processes that are radically different from the ones known from office work. Our main inspiration is healthcare work that is characterized by an extreme degree of mobility, many interruptions, ad......-hoc collaboration based on shared material, and organized in terms of well-defined, recurring, work activities. We propose that this kind of work can be supported by a pervasive computing infrastructure together with domain-specific services, both designed from a perspective where work activities are first class...... objects. We also present an exploratory prototype design and first implementation and present some initial results from evaluations in a healthcare environment....
casualty in the air, particularly on a helicopter. It is extremely important to prepare the casualty properly prior to the flight. A few extra minutes on the ground preparing the casualty may ultimately save their life. However, the tactical situation or the condition of the casualty may dictate the scoop and scoot approach, rather than stay and play.
... life-sustaining devices. 860.93 Section 860.93 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES MEDICAL DEVICE CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES Classification § 860.93 Classification of implants, life-supporting or life-sustaining devices. (a) The...
Creech, Andrea; Hallam, Susan; Varvarigou, Maria; Gaunt, Helena; McQueen, Hilary; Pincas, Anita
There is now an accepted need for initiatives that support older people's well-being. There is increasing evidence that active engagement with music has the potential to contribute to this. This paper explores the relationship between musical possible selves and subjective well-being in later life. The research reported here formed part of a…
Jones, Harry W.; Anderson, Grant
As the nation plans manned missions that go far beyond Earth orbit to Mars, there is an urgent need for a robust, disciplined systems engineering methodology that can identify an optimized Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLSS) architecture for long duration deep space missions. But unlike the previously used Equivalent System Mass (ESM), the method must be inclusive of all driving parameters and emphasize the economic analysis of life support system design. The key parameter for this analysis is Life Cycle Cost (LCC). LCC takes into account the cost for development and qualification of the system, launch costs, operational costs, maintenance costs and all other relevant and associated costs. Additionally, an effective methodology must consider system technical performance, safety, reliability, maintainability, crew time, and other factors that could affect the overall merit of the life support system.
Herrmann, Ivan Tengbjerg; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Sohn, Michael D.
The aim of this article is to help confront uncertainty in life cycle assessments (LCAs) used for decision support. LCAs offer a quantitative approach to assess environmental effects of products, technologies, and services and are conducted by an LCA practitioner or analyst (AN) to support...
Zakirova, Venera G.; Gaysina, Guzel I.; Raykova, Elena
Relevance of the problem stated in the article is determined by the presence of a significant number of families in difficult life situations who need in professional support and socio-psychological assistance. The article aims to substantiate the effectiveness of the structural-functional model of professional supporting for families in difficult…
Ganapathi, Gani B.; Seshan, P. K.; Ferrall, Joseph; Rohatgi, Naresh
An extension is proposed for the NASA Space Exploration Initiative's Generic Modular Flow Schematics for physical/chemical life support systems which involves the addition of biological processes. The new system architecture includes plant, microbial, and animal habitat, as well as the human habitat subsystem. Major Feedstock Production and Food Preparation and Packaging components have also been incorporated. Inedible plant, aquaculture, microbial, and animal solids are processed for recycling.
Bates, Jason; Sharratt, Martin; King, John
This article examines the way that non-clinical support services are provided in healthcare settings through outsourcing partnerships. The integrated support services model and benefits to patient experience and safety as well as organizational efficiency and effectiveness are explored through an examination of services at a busy urban community hospital.
Biograph: Explore life histories Biograph is designed to facilitate the descriptive and statistical analysis of life histories. It follows a multistate perspective on the life course and conceptualizes the life course as a sequence of states and transitions between states (events). Transitions are
Schwartzkopf, Steven H.; Sleeper, Howard L.
Many of the problems now facing the human race on Earth are, in fact, life support issues. Decline of air Quality as a result of industrial and automotive emissions, pollution of ground water by organic pesticides or solvents, and the disposal of solid wastes are all examples of environmental problems that we must solve to sustain human life. The technologies currently under development to solve the problems of supporting human life for advanced space missions are extraordinarily synergistic with these environmental problems. The development of these technologies (including both physicochemical and bioregenerative types) is increasingly focused on closing the life support loop by removing and recycling contaminants and wastes to produce the materials necessary to sustain human life. By so doing, this technology development effort also focuses automatically on reducing resupply logistics requirements and increasing crew safety through increased self-sufficiency. This paper describes several technologies that have been developed to support human life in space and illustrates the applicability of the technologies to environmental problems including environmental remediation and pollution prevention.
McArdle, S; Meade, M M; Moore, P
To date, little is known about the beliefs, attitudes, and experiences of athlete support personnel (ASP) working in elite sport toward disordered eating (DE) and eating disorders (EDs). This study seeks to explore this area of mental health, employing an attribution model of stigma as a conceptual lens. Interviews were undertaken with 14 service providers (seven males and seven females) working in high-performance sport in Ireland. In contrast to previous research in the general population, findings revealed that sport-based personnel, in the main, did not hold the individual responsible for the development of their eating disorder. The predominant emotional response of those who had worked with an athlete with a known or suspected eating disorder was anxiety and worry. In line with the findings of previous studies with other health professionals, negative views on the prognosis of those with EDs were expressed by the ASP. Furthermore, confidentiality was found to be a significant barrier to bringing athletes' disclosure of problematic eating or exercise behavior to the fore. The findings of this study add to the limited research exploring attitudes toward EDs in sport and highlights the importance of greater education and openness toward this particular mental health problem. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Bula, R. J.; Wittenberg, L. J.; Tibbitts, T. W.; Kulcinski, G. L.
The lunar regolith contains small quantities of solar wind implanted volatile compounds that have vital, basic uses for maintaining life support systems of lunar or space settlements. Recent proposals to utilize the helium-3 isotope (He-3) derived from the lunar regolith as a fuel for fusion reactors would result in the availability of large quantities of other lunar volatile compounds. The quantities obtained would provide the annual life support replacement requirements of 1150 to 23,000 inhabitants per ton of He-3 recovered, depending on the volatile compound. Utilization of the lunar volatile compounds for life support depends on the costs, in terms of materials and energy, associated with their extraction from the lunar regolith as compared to the delivery costs of these compounds from Earth resources. Considering today's conservative estimated transportation costs ($10,000 dollars per kilogram) and regolith mining costs ($5 dollars per ton), the life support replacement requirements could be more economically supplied by recovering the lunar volatile compounds than transporting these materials from Earth resources, even before He-3 will be utilized as a fusion fuel. In addition, availability of lunar volatile compounds could have a significant cost impact on maintaining the life support systems of the space station and a Mars base.
Koff, Geoffrey; Vaid, Urvashi; Len, Edward; Crawford, Albert; Oxman, David A
To explore differences in the utilization of life support and end-of-life care between patients dying in the medical ICU with cancer compared with those without cancer. Retrospective review of 403 deaths or hospice transfers in the medical ICU from January 1, 2012, to June 30, 2013. Urban tertiary care university hospital. Consecutive medical ICU deaths or hospice transfers over an 18-month period. None. One hundred eighty-two patients (45%) had a diagnosis of active cancer and 221 (55%) did not. Despite similar severity of illness, there were significant differences in the use of life support and end-of-life care. Patients without cancer had longer medical ICU length of stay (median, 5 vs 4 d; p = 0.0495), used mechanical ventilation more often and for longer (83.7% vs 70.9%, p = 0.002; 4 vs 3 d, p = 0.017), and initiated dialysis more frequently (26.7% vs 14.8%; p = 0.0038). Patients without active cancer had family meetings later (median, 3 vs 2 d; p = 0.001), less frequent palliative care consultation (17.6% vs 32.4%; p = 0.0006), and took longer to transition to do not resuscitate or comfort care (median, 4 vs 3 d; p = 0.048). Among patients dying in the medical ICU, the diagnosis of active cancer influences the intensity of life support utilization and the quality of end-of-life care. Patients with active cancer use less life support and may receive better end-of-life care than similar patients without cancer. These differences are likely due to biases or misunderstandings about the trajectory of advanced nonmalignant disease among patients, families, and perhaps providers.
Schlagheck, Ronald A.; Sibille, Laurent; Sacksteder, Kurt; Owens, Chuck
The NASA Microgravity Science program has transitioned research required in support of NASA s Vision for Space Exploration. Research disciplines including the Materials Science, Fluid Physics and Combustion Science are now being applied toward projects with application in the planetary utilization and transformation of space resources. The scientific and engineering competencies and infrastructure in these traditional fields developed at multiple NASA Centers and by external research partners provide essential capabilities to support the agency s new exploration thrusts including In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU). Among the technologies essential to human space exploration, the production of life support consumables, especially oxygen and; radiation shielding; and the harvesting of potentially available water are realistically achieved for long-duration crewed missions only through the use of ISRU. Ongoing research in the physical sciences have produced a body of knowledge relevant to the extraction of oxygen from lunar and planetary regolith and associated reduction of metals and silicon for use meeting manufacturing and repair requirements. Activities being conducted and facilities used in support of various ISRU projects at the Glenn Research Center and Marshall Space Flight Center will be described. The presentation will inform the community of these new research capabilities, opportunities, and challenges to utilize their materials, fluids and combustion science expertise and capabilities to support the vision for space exploration.
Evanich, Peggy L.
A proposed NASA space research and technology development program will provide adequate data for designing closed loop life support systems for long-duration manned space missions. This program, referred to as the Pathfinder Physical-Chemical Closed Loop Life Support Program, is to identify and develop critical chemical engineering technologies for the closure of air and water loops within the spacecraft, surface habitats or mobility devices. Computerized simulation can be used both as a research and management tool. Validated models will guide the selection of the best known applicable processes and in the development of new processes. For the integration of the habitat system, a biological subsystem would be introduced to provide food production and to enhance the physical-chemical life support functions on an ever-increasing basis.
Lange Kevin E.; Anderson, Molly S.
Quantitative assessments of system reliability and equivalent system mass (ESM) were made for different life support architectures based primarily on International Space Station technologies. The analysis was applied to a one-year deep-space mission. System reliability was increased by adding redundancy and spares, which added to the ESM. Results were thus obtained allowing a comparison of the ESM for each architecture at equivalent levels of reliability. Although the analysis contains numerous simplifications and uncertainties, the results suggest that achieving necessary reliabilities for deep-space missions will add substantially to the life support ESM and could influence the optimal degree of life support closure. Approaches for reducing reliability impacts were investigated and are discussed.
Zabetian, Saba; Jacobson, Gordon; Lim, Henry W; Eide, Melody J; Huggins, Richard H
BACKGROUND: No study has examined the impact of vitiligo support group membership on vitiligo patient quality of life (QoL). OBJECTIVE: We sought to examine the QoL impact of vitiligo support groups by comparing QoL and associated patient characteristics between vitiligo patients who are and are not members of a vitiligo support group. METHODS: Members of a Henry Ford Hospital-sponsored, Southeast Michigan Vitiligo Support Group were compared to non-member vitiligo patients recruited from a previous study cohort.17 Eligible patients were asked to complete the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) and a study-specific questionnaire designed to collect relevant patient characteristics. RESULTS: The mean DLQI scores for the support group members and non-members were similar (7.1 ± 5.4 and 6.0 ± 6.5, respectively; P-value 0.2), despite the support group members reporting more severe overall disease and increased disease severity in exposed portions of the body. The African-American: Caucasian ratio and the prevalence of unemployment were both significantly higher among the support group participants. Small sample size may have limited the study's ability to demonstrate the differences between the support group participants and the controls. CONCLUSIONS: The similar QoL despite an increased prevalence of poorer QoL indicators among the support group participants suggests a protective effect of support group membership. J Drugs Dermatol. 2017;16(4):344-350..
Bamsey, M.; Graham, T.; Stasiak, M.; Berinstain, A.; Scott, A.; Vuk, T. Rondeau; Dixon, M.
Canada began research on space-relevant biological life support systems in the early 1990s. Since that time Canadian capabilities have grown tremendously, placing Canada among the emerging leaders in biological life support systems. The rapid growth of Canadian expertise has been the result of several factors including a large and technically sophisticated greenhouse sector which successfully operates under challenging climatic conditions, well planned technology transfer strategies between the academic and industrial sectors, and a strong emphasis on international research collaborations. Recent activities such as Canada's contribution of the Higher Plant Compartment of the European Space Agency's MELiSSA Pilot Plant and the remote operation of the Arthur Clarke Mars Greenhouse in the Canadian High Arctic continue to demonstrate Canadian capabilities with direct applicability to advanced life support systems. There is also a significant latent potential within Canadian institutions and organizations with respect to directly applicable advanced life support technologies. These directly applicable research interests include such areas as horticultural management strategies (for candidate crops), growth media, food processing, water management, atmosphere management, energy management, waste management, imaging, environment sensors, thermal control, lighting systems, robotics, command and data handling, communications systems, structures, in-situ resource utilization, space analogues and mission operations. With this background and in collaboration with the Canadian aerospace industry sector, a roadmap for future life support contributions is presented here. This roadmap targets an objective of at least 50% food closure by 2050 (providing greater closure in oxygen, water recycling and carbon dioxide uptake). The Canadian advanced life support community has chosen to focus on lunar surface infrastructure and not low Earth orbit or transit systems (i.e. microgravity
Wang, Jikun; Chen, Yuhao; Tan, Cuicui; Zhao, Xudong
Few studies have examined the relationship between family functioning, social support and quality of life in patients with anxiety disorder. There is a paucity of research on anxiety disorders and their predictors in China. This study aimed to explore family functioning, social support and quality of life for patients with anxiety disorder and examine the relationship between these elements. A total of 107 patients who met Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; DSM-IV) criteria for anxiety disorder and 80 healthy controls completed the McMaster Family Assessment Device, the Perceived Social Support Scale and the short form of the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire. The findings indicate that patients with anxiety disorder in China tend to have poor family functioning and quality of life, as well as a higher subjective perception of social support. There were strong correlations between family functioning, social support and quality of life. Affective involvement and not living with parents were identified as risk factors for anxiety disorders, while a high family income was a protective factor. Anxiety disorder is associated with reduced family functioning and poorer quality of life for Chinese patients. In addition, the Family Assessment Device is a suitable instrument for evaluating family functioning in Chinese patients with anxiety disorder. © The Author(s) 2015.
Full Text Available Computer-supported mindfulness (CSM is a burgeoning area filled with varied approaches such as mobile apps and EEG headbands. However, many of the approaches focus on providing meditation guidance. The ubiquity of mobile devices may provide new opportunities to support mindfulness practices that are more situated in everyday life. In this paper, a new situated mindfulness approach is explored through a specific mobile app design. Through an experimental design, the approach is compared to traditional audio-based mindfulness meditation, and a mind wandering control, over a one-week period. The study demonstrates the viability for a situated mobile mindfulness approach to induce mindfulness states. However, phenomenological aspects of the situated mobile approach suggest both promises and pitfalls for computer-supported mindfulness using a situated approach.
Choi, Namkee G; DiNitto, Diana M; Marti, C Nathan
Given increasing numbers of older-adult marijuana users, this study examined the association of marijuana use and marijuana use disorder with life stressors and perceived social support in the 50+ age group. Data came from the 2012-2013 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (N=14,715 respondents aged 50+). Life stressors were measured with 12 items related to interpersonal, legal, and financial problems and being a crime victim. Perceived social support was measured with the 12-item Interpersonal Support Evaluation List. Using principal component analysis (PCA), we identified four components of life stressors. Linear regression analyses was used to test associations of past-year marijuana use and use disorder with PCA scores of each component and perceived social support. Of the 50+ age group, 3.89% were past-year marijuana users and 0.68% had marijuana use disorder. Marijuana users, especially those with marijuana use disorder (17.54% of past-year users), had high rates of mental and other substance use disorders. Controlling for other potential risk factors for stress, including health status and mental and other substance use disorders, marijuana use and use disorder were still significantly associated with more life stressors and lower perceived social support, possibly from low levels of social integration. A substantial proportion of older-adult marijuana users need help with mental health and substance use problems. Further examination of older marijuana users' life stressors and social support networks may aid in developing more systematic intervention strategies to address needs and reduce marijuana use. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Izenson, Michael G.; Chen, Weibo; Anderson, Molly; Hodgson, Edward
Thermal and environmental control systems for future exploration spacecraft must meet challenging requirements for efficient operation and conservation of resources. Regenerative CO2 removal systems are attractive for these missions because they do not use consumable CO2 absorbers. However, these systems also absorb and vent water to space along with carbon dioxide. This paper describes an innovative device designed to minimize water lost from regenerative CO2 control systems. Design studies and proof-of-concept testing have shown the feasibility of a compact, efficient membrane water vapor exchanger (WVX) that will conserve water while meeting challenging requirements for operation on future spacecraft. Compared to conventional WVX designs, the innovative membrane WVX described here has the potential for high water recovery efficiency, compact size, and very low pressure losses. The key innovation is a method for maintaining highly uniform flow channels in a WVX core built from water-permeable membranes. The proof-of-concept WVX incorporates all the key design features of a prototypical unit, except that it is relatively small scale (1/23 relative to a unit sized for a crew of six) and some components were fabricated using non-prototypical methods. The proof-of-concept WVX achieved over 90% water recovery efficiency in a compact core in good agreement with analysis models. Furthermore the overall pressure drop is very small (less than 0.5 in. H2O, total for both flow streams) and meets requirements for service in environmental control and life support systems on future spacecraft. These results show that the WVX provides very uniform flow through flow channels for both the humid and dry streams. Measurements also show that CO2 diffusion through the water-permeable membranes will have negligible effect on the CO2 partial pressure in the spacecraft atmosphere.
Chunxiao, Xu; Hong, Liu
The use of plants for life support applications in space is appealing because of the multiple life support functions by the plants. Research on crops that were grown in the life support system to provide food and oxygen, remove carbon dioxide was begun from 1960. To select possible crops for research on the bioregenerative life support systems in China, criteria for the selection of potential crops were made, and selection of crops was carried out based on these criteria. The results showed that 14 crops including 4 food crops (wheat, rice, soybean and peanut) and 7 vegetables (Chinese cabbage, lettuce, radish, carrot, tomato, squash and pepper) won higher scores. Wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.), rice ( Oryza sativa L.), soybean ( Glycine max L.) and peanut ( Arachis hypogaea L.) are main food crops in China. Chinese cabbage ( Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis var. communis), lettuce ( Lactuca sativa L. var. longifolia Lam.), radish ( Raphanus sativus L.), carrot ( Daucus carota L. var. sativa DC.), tomato ( Lycopersicon escalentum L.), squash ( Cucurbita moschata Duch.) and pepper ( Capsicum frutescens L. var. longum Bailey) are 7 vegetables preferred by Chinese. Furthermore, coriander ( Coriandum sativum L.), welsh onion ( Allium fistulosum L. var. giganteum Makino) and garlic ( Allium sativum L.) were selected as condiments to improve the taste of space crew. To each crop species, several cultivars were selected for further research according to their agronomic characteristics.
Abstract: Training of Advanced Cardiac Life Support Skills to Nursing Staff in Critical Areas of Care. ... Ideally there needs to exist continued educational opportunities with ACLS recertification and continued resuscitation review to maintain the high quality standards initiated with this program. Conclusions: This intervention ...
Mcelroy, R. D.
In the mid 1990's, the space station will become a point from which inter-planetary vehicles can be launched. The practicalities of a manned Mars mission are now being studied, along with some newer concepts for human life support. Specifically, the use of organisms such as plants and algae as the basis for life support systems is now being actively considered. A Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) is composed of several facilities: (1) to grow photosynthetic plants or algae which will produce food, oxygen and potable water, and remove carbon dioxide exhaled by a crew; (2) to process biomass into food; (3) to oxidize organic wastes into CO2; and (4) to maintain system operation and stability. Such a system, when compared to using materials stored at launch, may have distinct weight and cost advantages, depending upon crew size and mission duration, as well as psychological benefits for the crew. The use of the system during transit, as well as in establishing a re-visitable surface camp, will increase the attractiveness of the CELSS concept for life support on interplanetary missions.
Clinton, R. G., Jr.; Szofran, Frank; Bassler, Julie A.; Schlagheck, Ronald A.; Cook, Mary Beth
The Microgravity Materials Science Program established a strong research capability through partnerships between NASA and the scientific research community. With the announcement of the vision for space exploration, additional emphasis in strategic materials science areas was necessary. The President's Commission recognized that achieving its exploration objectives would require significant technical innovation, research, and development in focal areas defined as "enabling technologies." Among the 17 enabling technologies identified for initial focus were: advanced structures, advanced power and propulsion; closed-loop life support and habitability; extravehicular activity systems; autonomous systems and robotics; scientific data collection and analysis, biomedical risk mitigation; and planetary in situ resource utilization. Mission success may depend upon use of local resources to fabricate a replacement part to repair a critical system. Future propulsion systems will require materials with a wide range of mechanical, thermophysical, and thermochemical properties, many of them well beyond capabilities of today's materials systems. Materials challenges have also been identified by experts working to develop advanced life support systems. In responding to the vision for space exploration, the Microgravity Materials Science Program aggressively transformed its research portfolio and focused materials science areas of emphasis to include space radiation shielding; in situ fabrication and repair for life support systems; in situ resource utilization for life support consumables; and advanced materials for exploration, including materials science for space propulsion systems and for life support systems. The purpose of this paper is to inform the scientific community of these new research directions and opportunities to utilize their materials science expertise and capabilities to support the vision for space exploration.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hourly measurements made by selected ship sensors on the R/V Seward Johnson during the "Life on the Edge 2003: Exploring Deep Ocean Habitats" expedition sponsored by...
Kim, Yeon Jung; Lee, Kwang Ja
This study was done to explore the relationship of social support and meaning of life to suicidal thoughts among patients with cancer. Data were collected by questionnaires from 138 patients who had been in cancer treatment at medical clinics and 8 patients who were members of an internet cancer association. The data were collected between August and November 2009 and analyzed using SPSS 12.0. Of the participants, 47.3% reported having had suicidal thoughts and 16.4% had attempted suicide since the diagnosis of cancer. The study participants received most support from family members, but 73.3% reported experiencing an existential vacuum. The suicide attempt group had significantly higher scores according to gender, age, level of education, diagnosis, treatment modality, level of activity, caregiver and social support compare to the suicide thought group. Suicidal thoughts were negatively related to social support and meaning of life was positively associated with social support. Support from family and friends and diagnosis explained 50.0% of variance for suicidal thoughts with 36.0% of variance being explained by family support. Nurses should be able to identify risk factors for suicide in cancer patients. Prevention and intervention efforts need to be directed toward improving social support, family support in particular, and assisting patients finding meaning in life after a diagnosis of cancer.
Clark, M. Diane; Daggett, Dorri J.
Cultural life scripts are defined as culturally shared expectations that focus on a series of events that are ordered in time. In these scripts, generalized expectations for what to expect through the life course are outlined. This study examined the possibility of a Deaf American Life Script developed in relationship to the use of a visual…
Howard, Ava R.
Use of real specimens brings the study of biology to life. This activity brings easily acquired plant specimens into the classroom to tackle common alternative conceptions regarding life, size, complexity, the nature of science, and plants as multicellular organisms. The activity occurs after a discussion of the characteristics of life and engages…
Chen, Pinhong; Luo, Qidong; Peng, Longkai
A growing body of published work suggests that the parent-child relationship can be inherently coercive, such that the expectation that a living parent will not hesitate to donate a kidney to their children, makes informed consent difficult if not impossible to ascertain. The present study was designed to explore whether the emotional response and social resources have a similar effect on health-related quality of life among parent and sibling living kidney donors. This was a cross-sectional study. A total of 98 living kidney donors (60 parent donors, 38 sibling donors) completed an assessment including emotional response, social support and quality of life. Depression, anxiety, subjective social support and quality of life scores were much poorer for parent than sibling donors. Parent donors also showed more anxiety and poorer physical functioning than their counterparts in the general population. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses suggested that anxiety and decreased social support in the parent group were negatively associated with physical and mental function. In the sibling group, the main indicator of improved physical state was higher education level. Current results raised new concerns for the quality of life of parent donors as emotional response and social support differentially affected parent versus sibling quality of life. Therefore, stricter standards for physical selection, as well as emotional and supportive intervention, are needed for parent donors. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Shaku, Fumio; Tsutsumi, Madoka
Decision making in terminal illness has recently received increased attention. In Japan, patients and their families typically make decisions without understanding either the severity of illness or the efficacy of life-supporting treatments at the end of life. Japanese culture traditionally directs the family to make decisions for the patient. This descriptive study examined the influence of the experiences of 391 Japanese nurses caring for dying patients and family members and how that experience changed their decision making for themselves and their family members. The results were mixed but generally supported the idea that the more experience nurses have in caring for the dying, the less likely they would choose to institute lifesupport measures for themselves and family members. The results have implications for discussions on end-of-life care. © The Author(s) 2016.
Kinnealey, Moya; Koenig, Kristie Patten; Smith, Sinclair
We explored the relationships between sensory modulation and health-related quality of life (HRQOL), social supports, and mental health symptoms of anxiety and depression. Twenty-eight adult volunteers ages 18-60 participated in the study. Fourteen adults were sensory overresponsive (SOR), and 14 adults in a matched comparative group were not sensory overresponsive (NSOR). All participants were tested using self-administered measures of sensory processing. Significant differences were found between SOR and NSOR groups on symptoms of anxiety, depression, and 4 of 8 indicators of HRQOL. Several analyses exploring the relationships among the variables tested suggest that sensory response style, whether comparing SOR and NSOR groups or exploring the correlation of the response quadrants of the Adolescent/Adult Sensory Profile, appears significantly and differentially related to symptoms of affective mental health and quality-of-life indicators, including social participation.
Williams, M J; Lockey, A S; Culshaw, M C
OBJECTIVE: To determine the value of advanced trauma life support (ATLS) training for medical staff in a major incident situation, based upon performance in a simulated exercise. METHODS: A major incident exercise was used to assess the management of trauma victims arriving in hospital suffering from multiple or life threatening injuries. The effect of ATLS training, or exposure to an abbreviated form of ATLS training, on the management of patients with simulated life threatening traumatic injuries was examined. The treatment offered by medical staff of different grades and varying exposure to ATLS training was compared. RESULTS: Medical staff who had undertaken ATLS training attained a higher number of ATLS key treatment objectives when treating the simulated trauma victims. CONCLUSION: Medical staff who have either undertaken the full ATLS course or an abbreviated form of the course were more effective in their management of the simulated trauma cases. PMID:9132197
Williams, M J; Lockey, A S; Culshaw, M C
To determine the value of advanced trauma life support (ATLS) training for medical staff in a major incident situation, based upon performance in a simulated exercise. A major incident exercise was used to assess the management of trauma victims arriving in hospital suffering from multiple or life threatening injuries. The effect of ATLS training, or exposure to an abbreviated form of ATLS training, on the management of patients with simulated life threatening traumatic injuries was examined. The treatment offered by medical staff of different grades and varying exposure to ATLS training was compared. Medical staff who had undertaken ATLS training attained a higher number of ATLS key treatment objectives when treating the simulated trauma victims. Medical staff who have either undertaken the full ATLS course or an abbreviated form of the course were more effective in their management of the simulated trauma cases.
Johansson, Karl R.
The development of a controlled ecological life support system (CELSS) is necessary to enable the extended presence of humans in space, as on the Moon or on another planetary body. Over a long period, the provision of oxygen, water, and food, and protection from such inimical agents as radiation and temperature extremes, while maintaining the psychological health of the subjects, becomes prohibitively expensive if all supplies must be brought from Earth. Thus, some kind of a regenerative life support system within an enclosure or habitat must be established, thereby cutting the umbilicus to Mother Earth, but not irreversibly. This protective enclosure will enable the survival and growth of an assemblage of terrestrial species of microorganisms, plants, and animals. It is envisioned that the nonterrestrial ecosystem will evolve through the sequential introduction of terrestrial and local materials, together with the appropriate living forms.
Higashioka, Hiroaki; Yonemori, Terutake; Maeda, Daigen
The American Heart Association (AHA) and other member councils of International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation (ILCOR) complete review of resuscitation science every 5 years. And ILCOR publishes Consensus on Science with Treatment Recommendations(CoSTR). The AHA published "American Heart Association (AHA) Guidelines for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation(CPR) and Emergency Cardiovascular Care (ECC)" (G2010), that basis on CoSTR 2010 on Oct. 18th, 2010. The switchover to new curriculum based on G2010 on and after Mar. 1st, 2011 is the policy of AHA in their all training courses. The AHA maintains the quality of their training courses by some systems. AHA instructors are trained by some steps of instructor courses and monitoring systems and update their scientific knowledge on resuscitation by e-learning. The authors introduce an outline of basic life support for healthcare providers, the instructor training systems of AHA and summary of basic life support basis on G2010.
Rudolph, Søren Steemann; Isbye, Dan Lou; Pfeiffer, Peter
circulation fails in most cases, but in some circumstances the patient may benefit from additional interventional approaches, in which case transport to hospital with ongoing cardiopulmonary resuscitation is indicated. This paper has summarized treatments outside the ALS algorithm, which may be beneficial......In an advanced emergency medical service all parts of the advanced life support (ALS) algorithm can be provided. This evidence-based algorithm outlines resuscitative efforts for the first 10-15 minutes after cardiac arrest, whereafter the algorithm repeats itself. Restoration of spontaneous......, but are not supported by firm scientific evidence....
DesMarais, D. J.
The search for evidence of the early martian environment and a martian biosphere is benefitted by diverse studies of life on Earth. Most fundamentally, origin-of-life research highlights the challenge in formulating a rigorous definition of life. Because such definitions typically list several of life's most basic properties, they also help to define those observable features that distinguish life and thus might be sought through telescopes, spacecraft, and analyses of extraterrestrial samples. Studies of prebiotic chemistry also help by defining the range of environments and processes that sustain prebiotic organic synthesis. These studies might indicate if and where prebiotic processes occur today on Earth and elsewhere. Such studies should also help to identify which localities are good candidates for the origin of life. A better understanding of the most fundamental principles by which molecules are assembled into living systems will help us to appreciate possible alternatives to the path followed by life on Earth. These perspectives will sharpen our ability to recognize exotic life and/or those environments that can sustain it.
Wijngaards, A.; Sent, E.-M.
Full Article Figures & data References Citations Metrics Reprints & Permissions PDF Abstract This paper starts from the perspective that giving meaning to life is a key function of religion: through its narratives, rituals, creeds, and practices, religion clothes life in a meaningful
Eighty-one per cent of people say they would prefer to die at home. Several elements contribute to improving end-of-life care at home: an evolving society, ethical questioning, legislative changes, new methods of organisation, specialised and interdisciplinary training. However, this remains difficult. The private practice nurse provides clinical support and plays a major role in this care. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Stein, Erica J; Elsenraat, Abram; Sirak, John H; Mast, David; Gerhardt, Mark
This case report describes the intraoperative use of extracorporeal life support (ECLS) for an elective thoracoscopic maze procedure in which the patient could not tolerate one-lung ventilation because of hypoxia. Potential pitfalls associated with the anesthetic management of elective intraoperative ECLS include managing native cardiac ejection and ECLS flows to provide optimal oxygenation and cardiac output. Particular attention must be paid to cardiac and respiratory physiology when ECLS is used in a patient with normal cardiac function.
Velayudhan, A.; Kohlmann, K. L.; Westgate, P. J.; Ladisch, M. R.; Mitchell, C. A. (Principal Investigator)
Harvest indices, which are measures of the ratio of edible to total plant weight, are redefined to include edible sugars derived from enzymatic hydrolysis of the cellulose content of inedible plant components. Compositional analysis and carbohydrate contents of rapeseed, rice, soybeans, cowpea, wheat, sweet potato, white potato, and lettuce were analyzed to develop such generalized harvest indices. Cellulose conversion is shown to extend considerably the food available from plants otherwise grown for their oil and protein content in a bioregenerative life support system.
Shen, Yuying; Yeatts, Dale E
Family-based support has been the traditional care arrangement for the elderly in China. With the maturing of its "one child per couple" policy and the changing scenarios of family structure and cultural norms, these traditional care arrangements for the Chinese elderly are becoming dismantled. Centers and associations within the community have gradually become the major infrastructures to provide old age service and support in China. This study examined the effects of family-based and community-based support on life satisfaction among older Chinese adults, using data from the pilot survey of China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS) in 2008. A series of multilevel models were assessed with statistical package SAS 9.2 among 1,398 Chinese adults aged 45 or older. The results suggest that even with the inclusion of community-based support, family-based support variable, the perceived future help from family members, still significantly predicted the life satisfaction among older Chinese adults.
For long-duration space missions outside of Earth orbit, reliability considerations will drive higher levels of redundancy and/or on-board spares for life support equipment. Component scaling will be a critical element in minimizing overall launch mass while maintaining an acceptable level of system reliability. Building on an earlier reliability study (AIAA 2012-3491), this paper considers the impact of alternative scaling approaches, including the design of technology assemblies and their individual components to maximum, nominal, survival, or other fractional requirements. The optimal level of life support system closure is evaluated for deep-space missions of varying duration using equivalent system mass (ESM) as the comparative basis. Reliability impacts are included in ESM by estimating the number of component spares required to meet a target system reliability. Common cause failures are included in the analysis. ISS and ISS-derived life support technologies are considered along with selected alternatives. This study focusses on minimizing launch mass, which may be enabling for deep-space missions.
Wheeler, Raymond M.
Through photosynthesis, plants can be used to generate oxygen and food for life support in human exploration of space. Initial contributions of plants to life support would likely occur through the production of supplemental, fresh foods. For plants to provide significant contributions to oxygen production, larger areas and significant lighting would be needed. An area of 10 m2 of plants with moderate lighting could provide about 13 of a human's oxygen needs. As mission distances and durations increase, plant growing areas could be expanded to assume more of the human life support needs.
Cheng, K K F; Cheng, H L; Wong, W H; Koh, C
Needs assessment is the essence of quality cancer survivorship care. The aim of this study was to explore the supportive care needs of breast cancer survivors (BCS) in the first 5 years post treatment. A mixed-methods approach was employed. A quantitative study included a Supportive Care Needs Survey, which was completed by 250 BCS to identify the level of their needs for help. The quantitative data informed semistructured qualitative interviews undertaken with 60 BCS to explore in detail their posttreatment needs and experiences. 32.4% and 16.8% reported 1 to 5 and greater than or equal to 6 needs for help, respectively. The regression analyses revealed that women within 2 years posttreatment and with higher educational level had higher levels of Psychological and Health Care System/Information needs. The qualitative data revealed "continuity of care" and "lifestyle advice and self-management" as prominent survivorship concerns. It was shown that determination to continue normal life, social support, and feeling overwhelmed by information were all experienced as important influences on survivors' need for help. Posttreatment needs vary with BCS characteristics and to the domains concerned. The approach to posttreatment care needs to be personalized and viable. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Health visitors lead the Healthy Child Programme (HCP), a universal public health service designed to give children the best start in life. Running through the HCP are responsibilities to safeguard and protect children. Supporting the role of the health visitor is essential to ensure quality interventions and improved outcomes for children. This article describes an empirical study. It explores the experiences and views of health visitors on the mechanisms of support they use for working in child protection and safeguarding. A qualitative approach was used to collect data from two focus groups. The data produced was transcribed and a thematic analysis used to produce the results. The results demonstrate that health visitors gain the majority of their support from their colleagues and from supervision processes. Also identified from the data analysis were three factors which health visitors felt supported their role. These were support for managing the emotions associated with child protection work, feeling safe and effective in practice and having time to reflect and evaluate casework.
Fu, Chia-Yun; Yang, Mei-Sang; Leung, Wan; Liu, Yea-Ying; Huang, Hui-Wen; Wang, Ruey-Hsia
To explore the associations of the professional quality of life and social support with health in nurses. Physical and mental health may be associated with absence from work among nurses. Few studies have explored the associations of professional quality of life and social support on the physical and mental health of nurses. This was a cross-sectional study. In total, 294 nurses were recruited from a hospital in Southern Taiwan. A self-report questionnaire was used to collect data. Burnout, secondary traumatic stress and social support from relatives or friends were important factors of physical and mental health. Interactions between support from relatives or friends and secondary traumatic stress are important factors in physical health. Reducing burnout and secondary traumatic stress is important for physical and mental health of nurses. Increasing social support from relatives or friends may be useful to reduce the negative effects of secondary traumatic stress on the physical health of nurses. Nurse managers could design interventions to reduce and prevent nurses from being influenced by burnout and secondary traumatic stress. Educating nurses to build effective social networks with relatives or friends and to seek support when experiencing secondary traumatic stress may also be needed. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Cohen, Barbara A.; Eppler, Dean; Gruener, John; Horz, Fred; Ming, Doug; Yingst, R. Aileen
NASA's Desert Research and Technology Studies (Desert RATS) is a multi-year series of tests designed to exercise planetary surface hardware and operations in conditions where long-distance, multi-day roving is achievable. In recent years, a D-RATS science backroom has conducted science operations and tested specific operational approaches. Approaches from the Apollo, Mars Exploration Rovers and Phoenix missions were merged to become the baseline for these tests. In 2010, six days of lunar-analog traverse operations were conducted during each week of the 2-week test, with three traverse days each week conducted with voice and data communications continuously available, and three traverse days conducted with only two 1-hour communications periods per day. In 2011, a variety of exploration science scenarios that tested operations for a near-earth asteroid using several small exploration vehicles and a single habitat. Communications between the ground and the crew in the field used a 50-second one-way delay, while communications between crewmembers in the exploration vehicles and the habitat were instantaneous. Within these frameworks, the team evaluated integrated science operations management using real-time science operations to oversee daily crew activities, and strategic level evaluations of science data and daily traverse results. Exploration scenarios for Mars may include architectural similarities such as crew in a habitat communicating with crew in a vehicle, but significantly more autonomy will have to be given to the crew rather than step-by-step interaction with a science backroom on Earth.
Ehrenfreund, P.; Peter, N.; Schrogl, K. U.; Logsdon, J. M.
A new era of space exploration has begun that may soon expand into a global endeavor mainly driven by socio-economic motives. Currently the main space powers, namely the United States, Russia, Europe, Japan, Canada as well as new rising space powers China and India, are pursuing national exploration programs to explore robotically and later with humans the Earth-Moon-Mars space. New axes of partnerships and cooperation mechanisms have emerged in the last decades. However, in order to achieve highly ambitious goals such as establishing human bases on the Moon, journeys to Mars and the construction of new infrastructures in space, international space cooperation has to be optimized to reduce costs and reap the benefits of worldwide expertise. Future ambitious space exploration endeavors are a long-term undertaking that could influence countries to look beyond their own interests and see the advantages that a larger program can bring. This paper provides new concepts for managing global space exploration in the framework of cross-cultural management, an element often neglected in the planning of future partnerships.
Algee, Lisa M.
Abstract Exploring English Language Learners (ELL) Experiences with Scientific Language and Inquiry within a Real Life Context Lisa M. Algee English Language Learners (ELL) are often at a distinct disadvantage from receiving authentic science learning opportunites. This study explored English Language Learners (ELL) learning experiences with scientific language and inquiry within a real life context. This research was theoretically informed by socioc...
Gitelson, Josef I.
The advent of man-made closed ecosystems (CES) is a solution of the fundamental problem-egress of humans beyond the Earth's biosphere, providing biological basis for exploitation of Space and celestial bodies. Yet, before proceeding to these ambitious project elements of closed life-support biotechnologies, there can be found diverse applications on Earth in human settlements providing for high quality of life under extreme environment conditions: high latitudes, deserts, mountains and industrially polluted areas. This presentation considers these variations of terrestrial applications of CELSS technologies. The version of CES under development is based on making direct use of the light energy in plant photosynthesis. In this case life support of one man on the Earth orbit requires solar light collected from 5-10m2. Among terrestrial applications of prime importance is the development of an ecohome designed to provide people with a high quality of life in Arctic and Antarctic territories. The developed technology of cascade employment of energy makes possible (expending 10-15 kw of installed power per a house-3-5 member family) to provide for: permanent supply of fresh vitamin-full vegetables, absorption and processing oaf excreta, purification of water and air in the living quarters, habitual colour and light conditions in the premises in winter making up to sensorial deprivation and, finally, psychological comfort of close contact with the plants during the long polar night. Ecohabitat based on the technology described in realistic today and depends only on the energy available and the resolution and readiness (sagacity) of the decision-makers to be committed with ecohome assigning. The ecological and economical significance of construction of ecohabitats for the northern territories of Canada, Alaska and Russia is apparent. This principle can be used (with considerable economy of energy and construction costs) to maintain normal partial pressure of oxygen inside
Pitkänen, Anneli; Hätönen, Heli; Kollanen, Marjo; Kuosmanen, Lauri; Välimäki, Maritta
This study aimed to examine nurses' (N=29) perceptions of nursing interventions in supporting patients' quality of life (QoL) in acute psychiatric inpatient settings. An explorative descriptive study design was applied. The data were generated through seven focus group interviews and analyzed with qualitative content analysis. Five main categories of nursing interventions to support patients' QoL were identified. Interventions were related to care planning, empowering interventions, social interventions, activating interventions, and security interventions. Emphasis should be placed on nurses' opportunities to improve patients' QoL according to patients' individual needs. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Volk, Tyler; Cullingford, Hatice
Supporting human life on a lunar base will require growing many different food crops. This paper investigates the growth dynamics of four crops (wheat, soybeans, potatoes, and lettuce) for general similarities and differences, along with associated material flows of the gases, liquids, and solids in a lunar farm. The human dietary requirements are compared with the protein, carbohydrate, and lipid contents of these hydroponically grown, high-productivity crops to derive a lunar farm diet. A simple and general analytical model is used to calculate the mass fluxes of CO2, H2O, HNO3, and O2 during the life cycle of each of the four crops. The resulting farm crop areas and corresponding biomass production rates are given. One significant conclusion of this study is that there is a 'lipid problem' associated with the incorporation of these four crops into a viable diet.
This paper explores the perception of quality of life (QOL) of four men following traumatic brain injury (TBI) and the effects of their injury on family, social and working life. It also highlights their on-going difficulties 6, 8, 10 and 11 years post injury and that long term support is not available from rehabilitation services often due to the NHS financial restraints. Participants in this study have highlighted: (a) the need for long term support over an unspecified continuum; (b) the value of peer support; (c) the value of an understanding environment prepared to address individual needs which encourages independence; (d) the need for a social outlet; (e) the benefit of structure and boundaries after rehabilitation; and (f) the need for ongoing information for the survivor and family. Headway, the brain injury association, has provided a continuum of care revealing a lengthy process of adjustment towards a new self, a new role and a new life.
Adopting a humanistic perspective to the study of leadership, I discuss and describe how school principals adapt to their new roles, owing to the new education policies and educational restructuring within the South African Department of Education. The Life History approach was used to collect data from six selected school principals in…
Jones, Harry W.; Ewert, Michael K.
Spacecraft human life support systems can achieve ultra reliability by providing sufficient spares to replace all failed components. The additional mass of spares for ultra reliability is approximately equal to the original system mass, provided that the original system reliability is not too low. Acceptable reliability can be achieved for the Space Shuttle and Space Station by preventive maintenance and by replacing failed units. However, on-demand maintenance and repair requires a logistics supply chain in place to provide the needed spares. In contrast, a Mars or other long space mission must take along all the needed spares, since resupply is not possible. Long missions must achieve ultra reliability, a very low failure rate per hour, since they will take years rather than weeks and cannot be cut short if a failure occurs. Also, distant missions have a much higher mass launch cost per kilogram than near-Earth missions. Achieving ultra reliable spacecraft life support systems with acceptable mass will require a well-planned and extensive development effort. Analysis must determine the reliability requirement and allocate it to subsystems and components. Ultra reliability requires reducing the intrinsic failure causes, providing spares to replace failed components and having "graceful" failure modes. Technologies, components, and materials must be selected and designed for high reliability. Long duration testing is needed to confirm very low failure rates. Systems design should segregate the failure causes in the smallest, most easily replaceable parts. The system must be designed, developed, integrated, and tested with system reliability in mind. Maintenance and reparability of failed units must not add to the probability of failure. The overall system must be tested sufficiently to identify any design errors. A program to develop ultra reliable space life support systems with acceptable mass should start soon since it must be a long term effort.
Jones, Harry W.
Recycling life support systems can achieve ultra reliability by using spares to replace failed components. The added mass for spares is approximately equal to the original system mass, provided the original system reliability is not very low. Acceptable reliability can be achieved for the space shuttle and space station by preventive maintenance and by replacing failed units, However, this maintenance and repair depends on a logistics supply chain that provides the needed spares. The Mars mission must take all the needed spares at launch. The Mars mission also must achieve ultra reliability, a very low failure rate per hour, since it requires years rather than weeks and cannot be cut short if a failure occurs. Also, the Mars mission has a much higher mass launch cost per kilogram than shuttle or station. Achieving ultra reliable space life support with acceptable mass will require a well-planned and extensive development effort. Analysis must define the reliability requirement and allocate it to subsystems and components. Technologies, components, and materials must be designed and selected for high reliability. Extensive testing is needed to ascertain very low failure rates. Systems design should segregate the failure causes in the smallest, most easily replaceable parts. The systems must be designed, produced, integrated, and tested without impairing system reliability. Maintenance and failed unit replacement should not introduce any additional probability of failure. The overall system must be tested sufficiently to identify any design errors. A program to develop ultra reliable space life support systems with acceptable mass must start soon if it is to produce timely results for the moon and Mars.
Liu, H.; Wang, J.; Manukovsky, N. S.; Kovalev, V. S.; Gurevich, Yu. L.
We have studied a modular approach to construction of bioregenerative life support system BLSS for a lunar base using soil-like substrate SLS for plant cultivation Calculations of massflow rates in BLSS were based mostly on a vegetarian diet and biological conversion of plant residues in SLS Plant candidate list for lunar BLSS includes the following basic species rice Oryza sativa soy Glycine max sweet potato Ipomoea batatas and wheat Triticum aestivum To reduce the time necessary for transition of the system to steady state we suggest that the first seeding and sprouting could be made on Earth
Macelroy, Robert D. (Editor)
Topics discussed at NASA's Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS) workshop concerned the production of edible biomass. Specific areas of interest ranged from the efficiency of plant growth, to the conversion of inedible plant material to edible food, to the use of plant culture techniques. Models of plant growth and whole CELSS systems are included. The use of algae to supplement and improve dietary requirements is addressed. Flight experimentation is covered in topics ranging from a Salad Machine for use on the Space Station Freedom to conceptual designs for a lunar base CELSS.
Wistow, Gerald; Perkins, Margaret; Knapp, Martin; Bauer, Annette; Bonin, Eva-Maria
Circles of Support aim to enable people with learning disabilities (and others) to live full lives as part of their communities. As part of a wider study of the economic case for community capacity building conducted from 2012 to 2014, we conducted a mixed methods study of five Circles in North West England. Members of these Circles were supporting adults with moderate to profound learning disabilities and provided accounts of success in enabling the core member to live more independent lives with improved social care outcomes within cost envelopes that appeared to be less than more traditional types of support. The Circles also reported success in harnessing community resources to promote social inclusion and improve well-being. This very small-scale study can only offer tentative evidence but does appear to justify more rigorous research into the potential of Circles to secure cost-effective means of providing support to people with learning disabilities than the alternative, which in most cases would have been a long-term residential care placement. © The Author(s) 2016.
Lesbians may face unique challenges when building friendships. The intersection of culturally sanctioned discrimination and familial rejection may intensify the role friendships play for lesbians and the development of social support networks. The author discusses existing research and qualitative findings and provides suggestions for counselors…
The South African education system is continuously changing and adapting to address the challenges to provide access, equal and quality education in a new democratic dispensation. One such challenge is the way in which learning support is provided to learners who struggle in mainstream classrooms. The department ...
Life Support Systems are critical to sustain human habitation of space over long time periods. As orbiting space habitats become operational in the future, support systems such as atmo-sphere, food, water etc. will play a very pivotal role in sustaining life. To design a long-duration space habitat, it's important to consider the full gamut of human experience of the environment. Long-term viability depends on much more than just the structural or life support efficiency. A space habitat isn't just a machine; it's a life experience. To be viable, it needs to keep the inhabitants satisfied with their condition. This paper provides conceptual research on several key factors that influence the growth and sustainability of humans in a space habitat. Apart from the main life support system parameters, the architecture (both interior and exterior) of the habitat will play a crucial role in influencing the liveability in the space habitat. In order to ensure the best possible liveability for the inhabitants, a truncated (half cut) torus is proposed as the shape of the habitat. This structure rotating at an optimum rpm will en-sure 1g pseudo gravity to the inhabitants. The truncated torus design has several advantages over other proposed shapes such as a cylinder or a sphere. The design provides minimal grav-ity variation (delta g) in the living area, since its flat outer pole ensures a constant gravity. The design is superior in economy of structural and atmospheric mass. Interior architecture of the habitat addresses the total built environment, drawing from diverse disciplines includ-ing physiology, psychology, and sociology. Furthermore, factors such as line of sight, natural sunlight and overhead clearance have been discussed in the interior architecture. Substantial radiation shielding is also required in order to prevent harmful cosmic radiations and solar flares from causing damage to inhabitants. Regolith shielding of 10 tons per meter square is proposed for the
After decades of Solar System exploration, NASA has almost completed the initial reconnaissance, and has been planning for landing and sample return missions on many planets, satellites, comets, and asteroids. The next logical step of space exploration is to expand the frontier into other missions within and outside the solar system. These missions can easily last for more than 30 to 50 years. Most of the current technologies and spacecraft design techniques are not adequate to support such long life missions. Many breakthrough technologies and non-conventional system architecture have to develop in order to sustain such long life missions.Some of these technologies are being developed by the NASA Exploration Team (neXt). Based on the projected requirements for ultra long life missions, the costs and benefits of the required technologies can be quantified. The ultra long-life space system should have four attributes: long-term survivability, administration of consumable resources, evolvability and adaptability, and low-cost long-term operations of the spacecraft. The discussion of survivability is the focus of this paper. Conventional fault tolerant system design has to tolerate only random failures, which can be handled effectively by dual or triple redundancy for a relatively short time. In contrast, the predominant failure mode in an ultra long-life system is the wear-out of components. All active components in the system are destined to fail before the end of the mission. Therefore, an ultra long-life system would require a large number of redundant components. This would be impractical in conventional fault tolerant systems because their fault tolerance techniques are very inefficient. For instance, a conventional dual-string avionics system duplicates the all the components including the processor, memory, and I/O controllers on a spacecraft. However, when the same component in both strings fail (e.g., the processor), the system will fail although all other
Carmichael, Gordon A
The project Thai Health-Risk Transition: A National Cohort Study seeks to better understand the health implications of modernisation and globalisation forces impacting on Thailand. As part of its "look-back" component this paper seeks, using available life tables, to document the country's post-war mortality transition. The onset of transition through mass campaigns of the late 1940s and 1950s is first discussed before attention turns to the life tables. They are predictably far from flawless, but careful analysis does permit trends that have seen around 30 years added to life expectancy to be traced, and age patterns of improved survivorship and their relation to initiatives to improve health to be examined. The broad benefits generated by mass campaigns, ongoing improvements in infant and early childhood mortality, and a phased impact of the expansion of primary health care in rural areas on adult survival prospects after the mid-1970s are demonstrated. The paper also investigates the consequences for mortality of a motorcycle-focused rapid increase in road fatalities in the late 1980s and early 1990s and the HIV/AIDS epidemic that developed after 1984.
Pitkänen, Anneli; Hätönen, Heli; Kuosmanen, Lauri; Välimäki, Maritta
People with mental disorders suffer from impaired quality of life (QoL). In psychiatric hospital wards nurses are in a close relationship with patients and have good opportunities to support patients' QoL. Still, relatively little is known about patients' perceptions related to nursing interventions by which nurses can support the QoL of patients with severe mental illness. To explore patients' perceptions of nursing interventions in supporting patients' QoL in acute psychiatric inpatient settings. Explorative descriptive study design. The study was conducted in seven acute 24-h psychiatric wards of general hospitals in Southern Finland. Thirty-five inpatients diagnosed with schizophrenia, schizotypal disorder or delusional disorder. The data were generated through semi-structured interviews and processed by means of qualitative content analysis. Five main categories of patients' perceptions of nursing interventions were identified to support QoL from patients' descriptions: empowering interventions, social interventions, activating interventions, security interventions and interventions to support physical health. Impaired QoL of patients with severe mental illness can be supported in acute psychiatric wards through nursing interventions. However, we are not sure how effective these interventions are. Thus, research on the effectiveness of nursing interventions to support patients' QoL is needed.
Cheng, Adam; Rodgers, David L; van der Jagt, Élise; Eppich, Walter; O'Donnell, John
To describe the history of the Pediatric Advanced Life Support course and outline the new developments in instructor training that will impact the way debriefing is conducted during Pediatric Advanced Life Support courses. The Pediatric Advanced Life Support course, first released by the American Heart Association in 1988, has seen substantial growth and change over the past few decades. Over that time, Pediatric Advanced Life Support has become the standard for resuscitation training for pediatric healthcare providers in North America. The incorporation of high-fidelity simulation-based learning into the most recent version of Pediatric Advanced Life Support has helped to enhance the realism of scenarios and cases, but has also placed more emphasis on the importance of post scenario debriefing. We developed two new resources: an online debriefing module designed to introduce a new model of debriefing and a debriefing tool for real-time use during Pediatric Advanced Life Support courses, to enhance and standardize the quality of debriefing by Pediatric Advanced Life Support instructors. In this article, we review the history of Pediatric Advanced Life Support and Pediatric Advanced Life Support instructor training and discuss the development and implementation of the new debriefing module and debriefing tool for Pediatric Advanced Life Support instructors. The incorporation of the debriefing module and debriefing tool into the 2011 Pediatric Advanced Life Support instructor materials will help both new and existing Pediatric Advanced Life Support instructors develop and enhance their debriefing skills with the intention of improving the acquisition of knowledge and skills for Pediatric Advanced Life Support students.
The decision to develop a particular life support technology or to select it for flight usually depends on the cost to develop and fly it. Other criteria such as performance, safety, reliability, crew time, and technical and schedule risk are considered, but cost is always an important factor. Because launch cost would account for much of the cost of a future planetary mission, and because launch cost is directly proportional to the mass launched, equivalent mass has been used instead of cost to select advanced life support technology. The equivalent mass of a life support system includes the estimated mass of the hardware and of the spacecraft pressurized volume, power supply, and cooling system that the hardware requires. The equivalent mass of a system is defined as the total payload launch mass needed to provide and support the system. An extension of equivalent mass, Equivalent System Mass (ESM), has been established for use in the Advanced Life Support project. ESM adds a mass-equivalent of crew time and possibly other cost factors to equivalent mass. Traditional equivalent mass is strictly based on flown mass and reflects only the launch cost. ESM includes other important cost factors, but it complicates the simple flown mass definition of equivalent mass by adding a non-physical mass penalty for crew time that may exceed the actual flown mass. Equivalent mass is used only in life support analysis. Life Cycle Cost (LCC) is much more commonly used. LCC includes DDT&E, launch, and operations costs. For Earth orbit rather than planetary missions, the launch cost is less than the cost of Design, Development, Test, and Evaluation (DDTBE). LCC is a more inclusive cost estimator than equivalent mass. The relative costs of development, launch, and operations vary depending on the mission destination and duration. Since DDTBE or operations may cost more than launch, LCC gives a more accurate relative cost ranking than equivalent mass. To select the lowest cost
de Boer, Jacoba; van Rikxoort, Simone; Bakker, Arnold B; Smit, Bert J
This article aims (a) to get insight into intensive care nurses' most critical work-related incidents, (b) their reactions and coping and (c) perceived support, in a Dutch intensive care unit. Research about the impact of critical incidents has largely been aimed at ambulance and emergency nurses; knowledge about intensive care nurses in this respect is scarce. Persistent stress reactions after critical incidents may cause symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder, depression and anxiety. Unresolved problems may also cause poor behaviour towards patients. In response, nurses reduce work hours or even resign. Social support alleviates emotional problems, but little is known about actual support perceived. This study is a qualitative explorative study. Thematic analysis of semi-structured interviews was performed among a purposive sample of 12 intensive care nurses in a university hospital in The Netherlands. Four main themes have been identified in critical incidents: high emotional involvement in patient-related incidents (in contrast to major life-threatening events as such), avoidable incidents, sub-standard patient care and intimidation. Themes discerned in nurses' reactions after critical incidents were physical reactions, emotional reactions and cognitive/behavioural reactions. After critical incidents, nurses talked with colleagues, friends or relatives, but would have appreciated additional support. Incidents under emotionally demanding circumstances are among the most difficult situations, but may not be recognized as critical incidents by colleagues. Both adequate and inadequate coping strategies, with long-lasting problems after critical incidents, were reported. Feelings of anger, shame and powerlessness, may have hindered recovery. Talking to colleagues was perceived to be helpful, but intensive care nurses' need for support was insufficiently met. Managers should acknowledge the effects of critical incidents on intensive care nurses and take
Busch, Jacob; Rodogno, Raffaele
It has recently been suggested by Shaw (2007) that the distinction between voluntary active euthanasia, such as giving a patient a lethal overdose with the intention of ending that patient's life, and voluntary passive euthanasia, such as removing a patient from a ventilator, is much less obvious than is commonly acknowledged in the literature. This is argued by suggesting a new perspective that more accurately reflects the moral features of end-of-life situations. The argument is simply that if we consider the body of a mentally competent patient who wants to die, a kind of 'unwarranted' life support, then the distinction collapses. We argue that all Shaw has provided is a perspective that makes the conclusion that there is little distinction between voluntary active euthanasia and voluntary passive euthanasia only seemingly more palatable. In doing so he has yet to convince us that this perspective is superior to other perspectives and thus more accurately reflects the moral features of the situations pertaining to this issue.
Agui, Juan H.; Perry, Jay L.
The National Aeronautics and Space Administrations (NASA) technical developments for highly reliable life support systems aim to maximize the viability of long duration deep space missions. Among the life support system functions, airborne particulate matter filtration is a significant driver of launch mass because of the large geometry required to provide adequate filtration performance and because of the number of replacement filters needed to a sustain a mission. A trade analysis incorporating various launch, operational and maintenance parameters was conducted to investigate the trade-offs between the various particulate matter filtration configurations. In addition to typical launch parameters such as mass, volume and power, the amount of crew time dedicated to system maintenance becomes an increasingly crucial factor for long duration missions. The trade analysis evaluated these parameters for conventional particulate matter filtration technologies and a new multi-stage particulate matter filtration system under development by NASAs Glenn Research Center. The multi-stage filtration system features modular components that allow for physical configuration flexibility. Specifically, the filtration system components can be configured in distributed, centralized, and hybrid physical layouts that can result in considerable mass savings compared to conventional particulate matter filtration technologies. The trade analysis results are presented and implications for future transit and surface missions are discussed.
Barta, Daniel J.
As NASA looks beyond the International Space Station toward long-duration, deep space missions away from Earth, the current practice of supplying consumables and spares will not be practical nor affordable. New approaches are sought for life support and habitation systems that will reduce dependency on Earth and increase mission sustainability. To reduce launch mass, further closure of Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) beyond the current capability of the ISS will be required. Areas of particular interest include achieving higher degrees of recycling within Atmosphere Revitalization, Water Recovery and Waste Management Systems. NASA is currently investigating advanced carbon dioxide reduction processes that surpass the level of oxygen recovery available from the Sabatier Carbon Dioxide Reduction Assembly (CRA) on the ISS. Candidate technologies will potentially improve the recovery of oxygen from about 50% (for the CRA) to as much as 100% for technologies who's end product is solid carbon. Improving the efficiency of water recycling and recovery can be achieved by the addition of advanced technologies to recover water from brines and solid wastes. Bioregenerative technologies may be utilized for water reclaimation and also for the production of food. Use of higher plants will simultaneously benefit atmosphere revitalization and water recovery through photosynthesis and transpiration. The level at which bioregenerative technologies are utilized will depend on their comparative requirements for spacecraft resources including mass, power, volume, heat rejection, crew time and reliability. Planetary protection requirements will need to be considered for missions to other solar system bodies.
Bilardo, Vincent J., Jr.
The various elements of the Physical/Chemical Closed-Loop Life Support Research Project (P/C CLLS) are described including both those currently funded and those planned for implementation at ARC and other participating NASA field centers. The plan addresses the entire range of regenerative life support for Space Exploration Initiative mission needs, and focuses initially on achieving technology readiness for the Initial Lunar Outpost by 1995-97. Project elements include water reclamation, air revitalization, solid waste management, thermal and systems control, and systems integration. Current analysis estimates that each occupant of a space habitat will require a total of 32 kg/day of supplies to live and operate comfortably, while an ideal P/C CLLS system capable of 100 percent reclamation of air and water, but excluding recycling of solid wastes or foods, will reduce this requirement to 3.4 kg/day.
Thrasher, Chard W.
NASA is currently developing the Ares I launch vehicle as a key component of the Constellation program which will provide safe and reliable transportation to the International Space Station, back to the moon, and later to Mars. The risks and costs of the Ares I must be significantly lowered, as compared to other manned launch vehicles, to enable the continuation of space exploration. It is essential that safety be significantly improved, and cost-effectively incorporated into the design process. This paper justifies early and effective safety analysis of complex space systems. Interactions and dependences between design, logistics, modeling, reliability, and safety engineers will be discussed to illustrate methods to lower cost, reduce design cycles and lessen the likelihood of catastrophic events.
Lou, Jiunn-Horng; Chen, Sheng-Hwang; Yu, Hsing-Yi; Li, Ren-Hau; Yang, Cheng-I; Eng, Cheng-Joo
Understanding how male nursing students alleviate life stress during their academic career is conducive to their development as successful nursing professionals. This study was designed to understand the personality traits, social support, and life stresses of male nursing students. The respective influences of personality traits and social support on life stress were also explored. The study used a cross-sectional research design. A college in central Taiwan was targeted as the site for data collection. A total of 158 questionnaires were dispatched, with 145 valid copies returned (valid response rate = 91.7%). Structured questionnaires were designed to collect data on participant demographics, personality traits, social support, and life stress. Statistical methods such as descriptive statistics, one-way analysis of variance, and multiple regression analysis were applied to data analysis. Major findings of this study revealed that (a) in general, the personality traits, social support, and life stress of male nursing students scored in the medium to high range. Participants reported encountering more stress from learning and life goals than from interpersonal stress. (b) Male nursing student demographic variables (e.g., parent [father and mother considered separately] education level) and the personality traits of conscientiousness and family support, respectively, were found to impact significantly on participant life stress perceptions. And (c) the only significant predictors of life stress were support from family and education level of participant fathers and mothers, accounting for about 23.7% of variability. It is suggested that nursing students in each year of their academic career should be exposed to courses geared to reduce the life stress perceptions (especially in the areas of learning and career development) of male nursing students. Increased family support is an effective way to decrease male nursing student life stress. This study could be a
... Special Issues Subscribe June 2016 Print this issue Can You Lengthen Your Life? Researchers Explore How To ... bad habits. People born in the U.S. today can expect to live to an average age of ...
Full Text Available Wicked problems are hyper-complex problems that are not solvable via traditional methods. Some common examples of these include issues such as poverty, climate change, business strategy, and general policy development, which all have high stakes and no straightforward solution. The ambiguity of these problems can be particularly frustrating for the individuals and organizations that encounter them, as the very essence of these problems is elastic and unstable. Additionally, attempts to tame wicked problems tend to be irrevocable — for better or for worse — as the problem itself shifts in unpredictable ways in response. Decision support systems (DSSs have long been considered a panacea for a number of highly complex problems in light of their potential to store, retrieve, and manipulate information to aid decision making. However, classical DSSs, being originally intended for semi-structured types of problems, are rendered practically impotent in the presence of wicked problems and their associated complexities. Thus, this article investigates the possibility of DSSs that rely on procedural rationality as an alternative strategy for resolving wicked problems. An empirical literature review is utilized to build and present an integrated, descriptive model for the design, development, and use of such DSSs for resolving wicked problems.
Pejtersen, A. M.; Sonnenwald, D.H.; Buur, J.
It is widely recognized that the increasingly dynamic and competitive business environment requires the exploration and integration of specialized knowledge from different domains in order to create innovative and competitive artefacts and reduce design and development costs. This paper presents...... the 'Design Explorer' research project whose goal is to specify requirements for an information system that will effectively help design team members from different domains and organizational cultures to locate and utilize diverse information sources and interact more effectively throughout the design process......, or categories, of domain information which need to be available for a system or product designer/design team in order to determine the characteristics of the artefact, or object of design. These dimensions include information about the different work domains in which the product plays a role during its lifetime...
Full Text Available Economic development has always been a moving target. Both the national and local governments have been facing the challenge of implementing the effective and efficient economic policy and program in order to best utilize their limited resources. One of the recent approaches in this area is called cluster-based economic analysis and strategy development. This study reviews key literature and some of the cluster based economic policies adopted by different governments. Based on this review, it proposes “the cluster life cycle” as a determining factor to identify the support requirements of clusters. A survey, designed based on literature review of International Cluster support programs, was conducted with 30 participants from 3 clusters with different maturity stage. This paper discusses the results of this study conducted among the cluster members in Eskişehir- Bilecik-Kütahya Region in Turkey on the requirement of the support to foster the development of related clusters.
Persad, Elizabeth A; Raman, Lakshmi; Thompson, Marita T; Sheeran, Paul W
Calcium channel blocker (CCB) toxicity is associated with refractory hypotension and can be fatal. A 13 year old young woman presented to the emergency department(ED) six hours after an intentional overdose of amlodipine, barbiturates, and alcohol. She remained extremely hypotensive despite the administration of normal saline and calcium chloride and despite infusions of norepinephrine, epinephrine, insulin, and dextrose. Due to increasing evidence of end organ dysfunction, Extracorporeal Life Support (ECLS) was initiated 9 hours after presentation to the ED. The patient's blood pressure and end organ function immediately improved after cannulation. She was successfully decannulated after 57 hours of ECLS and was neurologically intact. Patients with calcium channel blocker overdose who are resistant to medical interventions may respond favorably to early ECLS.
Persad, Elizabeth A.; Raman, Lakshmi; Thompson, Marita T.; Sheeran, Paul W.
Calcium channel blocker (CCB) toxicity is associated with refractory hypotension and can be fatal. A 13 year old young woman presented to the emergency department(ED) six hours after an intentional overdose of amlodipine, barbiturates, and alcohol. She remained extremely hypotensive despite the administration of normal saline and calcium chloride and despite infusions of norepinephrine, epinephrine, insulin, and dextrose. Due to increasing evidence of end organ dysfunction, Extracorporeal Life Support (ECLS) was initiated 9 hours after presentation to the ED. The patient's blood pressure and end organ function immediately improved after cannulation. She was successfully decannulated after 57 hours of ECLS and was neurologically intact. Patients with calcium channel blocker overdose who are resistant to medical interventions may respond favorably to early ECLS. PMID:23559727
Petersen, Gene R.
The use of yeasts in controlled ecological life support systems (CELSS) for microbial food regeneration in space required the accurate and reproducible analysis of intracellular carbohydrate and protein levels. The reproducible analysis of glycogen was a key element in estimating overall content of edibles in candidate yeast strains. Typical analytical methods for estimating glycogen in Saccharomyces were not found to be entirely aplicable to other candidate strains. Rigorous cell lysis coupled with acid/base fractionation followed by specific enzymatic glycogen analyses were required to obtain accurate results in two strains of Candida. A profile of edible fractions of these strains was then determined. The suitability of yeasts as food sources in CELSS food production processes is discussed.
Scharplatz, D; Sutter, P M
Five years ATLS (Advanced Trauma Life Support) in Switzerland are analysed, the problems are discussed and the changes during this period are demonstrated. ATLS Switzerland is a part of the Swiss surgical Society, introduced by the ATLS International Faculty in 1998. Switzerland with 4 official languages needs a special structure. For this reason a decentralisation of the courses was necessary with the need of five regional universities where ATLS courses are offered. Statistics of the rising amount of courses demonstrate the enormous rush for ATLS courses in our country. Three courses in 1998 where followed by six courses in 1999, up to 18 courses in 2002. 2001 was the first year with ATLS in the Swiss Army. Since 1.1.2003 Paul Martin Sutter, Biel ist the new National Director, successor of Domenic Scharplatz, Thusis.
Hansen, Camilla; Rasmussen, Stinne E; Kristensen, Mette Amalie
Introduction: High-quality cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) improves survival from cardiac arrest. During basic life support (BLS) training, instructors assess CPR skills to enhance learning outcome. Emergency department staff and senior residents have been shown to assess chest compression...... out of 3 CPR cycles with 30±2 chest compressions at a depth of 50-60mm and rate of 100-120 min-1. Correct rescue breathing was defined as ≥50% efficient breaths in 3 CPR cycles with visible, but not excessive, manikin’s chest raise (for instructors) or a volume of 500-600 mL (manikin data).Results: We...... of CPR skills may be beneficial to ensure high-quality learning outcome.Author Disclosures: C. Hansen: None. S.E. Rasmussen: None. M.A. Nebsbjerg: None. M. Stærk: None. B. Løfgren: None....
The Software Support Environment (SSE) is a software factory for the production of Space Station Freedom Program operational software. The SSE is to be centrally developed and maintained and used to configure software production facilities in the field. The PRC product TTCQF provides for an automated qualification process and analysis of existing code that can be used for software reuse. The interrogation subsystem permits user queries of the reusable data and components which have been identified by an analyzer and qualified with associated metrics. The concept includes reuse of non-code life-cycle components such as requirements and designs. Possible types of reusable life-cycle components include templates, generics, and as-is items. Qualification of reusable elements requires analysis (separation of candidate components into primitives), qualification (evaluation of primitives for reusability according to reusability criteria) and loading (placing qualified elements into appropriate libraries). There can be different qualifications for different installations, methodologies, applications and components. Identifying reusable software and related components is labor-intensive and is best carried out as an integrated function of an SSE.
Curzer, Howard J
... In this paper I shall consider the following four beliefs which often cluster together: A) Passive euthanasia is justifiable, but "pulling the plug" and active euthanasia are wrong; B) There is no right to health care. We have no duty to provide free riders with health care; C) Abortion is immoral because it violates the right to life of the fetus; D) Justice sometimes requires us to increase a patient's risk of death by shifting a scarce resource to someone who needs it more. For the sake of concreteness I shall attribute these beliefs along with certain, often invoked rationales to a purely imaginary person named Ron. I shall not show that the individual beliefs are right or wrong or that the individual rationales are strong or weak. Instead, I shall show that Ron cannot consistently use these four rationales to justify these four beliefs. More precisely, I shall show that beliefs (A) through (D) together with certain common, general background beliefs involve incompatible views about the withdrawal of life-support. My objective is to make the incompatibility explicit and thus to persuade people like Ron to abandon some of their beliefs.
Czupalla, M; Aponte, V; Chappell, S; Klaus, D
This report summarizes a trade study conducted as part of the Fall 2002 semester Spacecraft Life Support System Design course (ASEN 5116) in the Aerospace Engineering Sciences Department at the University of Colorado. It presents an analysis of current life support system technologies and a preliminary design of an integrated system for supporting humans during transit to and on the surface of the planet Mars. This effort was based on the NASA Design Reference Mission (DRM) for the human exploration of Mars [NASA Design Reference Mission (DRM) for Mars, Addendum 3.0, from the world wide web: http://exploration.jsc.nasa.gov/marsref/contents.html.]. The integrated design was broken into four subsystems: Water Management, Atmosphere Management, Waste Processing, and Food Supply. The process started with the derivation of top-level requirements from the DRM. Additional system and subsystem level assumptions were added where clarification was needed. Candidate technologies were identified and characterized based on performance factors. Trade studies were then conducted for each subsystem. The resulting technologies were integrated into an overall design solution using mass flow relationships. The system level trade study yielded two different configurations--one for the transit to Mars and another for the surface habitat, which included in situ resource utilization. Equivalent System Mass analyses were used to compare each design against an open-loop (non-regenerable) baseline system. c2003 International Astronautical Federation. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Karakose, Turgut; Kocabas, Ibrahim; Yirci, Ramazan; Esen, Coskun; Celik, Mustafa
The purpose of this study is to explore school administrations' burnout situation and life satisfaction levels and the relationship between burnout and life satisfaction. The study was designed with the screening model. The research sample consists of 92 school principals and vice principals. Research data was collected with "Maslach Burnout…
Au, Wee Chan
Work-life balance is an issue of increasing importance to organizations in their attempt to build sustainable competitive advantage through effective management and leverage of human capital. As Malaysia progresses along its path of economic transformation, the issue of work-life balance is becoming highly critical in its aim of becoming a developed economy. This study aims to explore the antecedents and consequences of work-life balance among the Malaysian workforce. Two opposing theori...
BOYES, CLAIRE MARIE
While an agreed definition of quality of life rennains elusive, research into the quality of life of people with learning disabilities has developed significantly. Following a discussion of this work, the author argues that these assessment processes should be refocused towards the views of people with learning disabilities themselves, particularly given the idiosyncratic nature of the quality of life issue. This study explores the use of the Personal Construct Psychology...
Dobríková, Patricia; Pčolková, Dušana; AlTurabi, Layla Khalil; West, Daniel J
This study examines the effect of 2 indicators on quality of life (QOL): social support and meaning of life for terminally ill patients. These 2 indicators are very important from a psychological and spiritual point of view. The findings suggest that there is a statistically significant correlation between meaning of life and QOL (r = .610, P life fulfillment for dying patients. A significant relationship exists in survival of life meaningfulness and satisfaction with social support. In conclusion, experiencing one's life as meaningful is positively related to the well-being for dying patients. Social support provided by a close relative had a positive influence on the patient's meaning of life and overall life satisfaction. © The Author(s) 2014.
Full Text Available Research and technology developments surrounding Advanced Life-Support (ALS began at the University of Guelph in 1992 as the Space and Advanced Life Support Agriculture (SALSA program, which now represents Canada’s primary contribution to ALS research. The early focus was on recycling hydroponic nutrient solutions, atmospheric gas analysis and carbon balance, sensor research and development, inner/intra-canopy lighting and biological filtration of air in closed systems. With funding from federal, provincial and industry partners, a new generation of technology emerged to address the challenges of deploying biological systems as fundamental components of life-support infrastructure for long-duration human space exploration. Accompanying these advances were a wide range of technology transfer opportunities in the agri-food and health sectors, including air and water remediation, plant and environment sensors, disinfection technologies, recyclable growth substrates and advanced light emitting diode (LED lighting systems. This report traces the evolution of the SALSA program and catalogues the benefits of ALS research for terrestrial and non-terrestrial applications.
Moser, Sarah; Luxenberger, Wolfgang; Freidl, Wolfgang
The consequences of hearing loss hinder the everyday life of older adults and are associated with reduced well-being. The research aim was to explore the influence of hearing problems, various coping strategies, and perceived social support on quality of life. Sixty-five older adults with age-related hearing loss (≥55 years) in Austria participated and completed a paper-pencil survey with standardized questionnaires: Hearing Handicap Inventory for the Elderly (Ventry and Weinstein, 1982), Assessment for Coping and Stress (Laireiter, 1997), short form of the Social Support Questionnaire (Fydrich, Sommer, Tydecks, & Brähler, 2009), and World Health Organization Quality of Life Scale-Brief Version (World Health Organization, 1996). Quality of life was predicted by perceived social support and the number of comorbid diseases (i.e., the physical, psychological, environmental, and social quality of life was better the greater the extent of perceived social support and poorer the more diseases from which the participants suffered). Perceived social support may be a relevant factor to focus on in auditory rehabilitation programs, in particular, for participants who communicate little support in hearing-related situations and are, hence, at a relative disadvantage. The involvement of significant others in counseling could facilitate the everyday life for older adults with age-related hearing loss and their significant others.
Jones, Harry W.
Goodhart's law states that metrics do not work. Metrics become distorted when used and they deflect effort away from more important goals. These well-known and unavoidable problems occurred when the closure and system mass metrics were used to manage life support research. The intent of life support research should be to develop flyable, operable, reliable systems, not merely to increase life support system closure or to reduce its total mass. It would be better to design life support systems to meet the anticipated mission requirements and user needs. Substituting the metrics of closure and total mass for these goals seems to have led life support research to solve the wrong problems.
So, Kenneth T.; Hall, John B., Jr.; Thompson, Clifford D.
NASA's Langley and Goddard facilities have evaluated the effects of animal science experiments on the Space Station's Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) by means of computer-aided analysis, assuming an animal colony consisting of 96 rodents and eight squirrel monkeys. Thirteen ECLSS options were established for the reclamation of metabolic oxygen and waste water. Minimum cost and weight impacts on the ECLSS are found to accrue to the system's operation in off-nominal mode, using electrochemical CO2 removal and a static feed electrolyzer for O2 generation.
Mo, Phoenix K H; Coulson, Neil S
Human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is one of the leading concerns in healthcare. Individuals living with HIV/AIDS are often confronted with tremendous physical and psychosocial challenges. Online support groups can provide a valuable source of information, advice and support, and a medium through which individuals living with HIV/AIDS can interact with each other and share their experiences. However, very little is known about how online support group might promote empowerment and the potential disadvantages associated with online support group use among individuals living with HIV/AIDS. The present study explored the potential empowering and disempowering processes, and empowering outcomes of online support group use among individuals with HIV/AIDS. A total of 115 HIV-positive online support group members were recruited from HIV-related online support groups. They completed an online survey exploring their experiences of online support group use. Thematic analysis revealed six empowering processes arising from use of online support groups: exchanging information, sharing experiences, connecting to others, encountering emotional support, finding recognition and understanding, and helping others. Six empowering outcomes were identified: increased optimism, emotional well-being, social well-being, being better informed, improved disease management, and feeling confident in the relationship with physicians. Potentially disempowering processes were also identified which included: being unable to connect physically, inappropriate behaviour online, declining real life relationships, and information overload and misinformation. Findings suggest ways through which individuals with HIV/AIDS may be empowered although some problematic features specific to the online context may also be present. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The paper will be based on an ongoing Ph.D. project using a critical ethnographic approach following families with children who experience difficulties in school in their everyday life. The project purpose is to explore parents perspectiv and everyday life. The paper will highlight a number of ex...... of examples of parents experience with school-home relations and discuss methodological challenges in researching everyday life practices and discuss how emotionwork – and management are connected to social differentierings processes in education......The paper will be based on an ongoing Ph.D. project using a critical ethnographic approach following families with children who experience difficulties in school in their everyday life. The project purpose is to explore parents perspectiv and everyday life. The paper will highlight a number...
Des Marais, D. J.; Walter, M. R.
The search for the origins of life and its presence beyond Earth is strengthened by new technology and by evidence that life tolerates extreme conditions and that planets are widespread. Astrobiologists learn how planets develop and maintain habitable conditions. They combine biological and information sciences to decipher the origins of life. They examine how biota, particularly microorganisms, evolve, at scales from the molecular to the biosphere level, including interactions with long-term planetary changes. Astrobiologists learn how to recognize the morphological, chemical, and spectroscopic signatures of life in order to explore both extraterrestrial samples and electromagnetic spectra reflected from extrasolar planets.
Marmolejo, Jose; Ewert, Michael
The Engineering Directorate at the NASA - Johnson Space Center is outfitting a 20-Foot diameter hypobaric chamber in Building 7 to support future deep-space Environmental Control & Life Support System (ECLSS) research as part of the Human Exploration System Test-bed for Integration and Advancement (HESTIA) Project. This human-rated chamber is the only NASA facility that has the unique experience, chamber geometry, infrastructure, and support systems capable of conducting this research. The chamber was used to support Gemini, Apollo, and SkyLab Missions. More recently, it was used to conduct 30-, 60-, and 90-day human ECLSS closed-loop testing in the 1990s to support the International Space Station and life support technology development. NASA studies show that both planetary surface and deep-space transit crew habitats will be 3-4 story cylindrical structures driven by human occupancy volumetric needs and launch vehicle constraints. The HESTIA facility offers a 3-story, 20-foot diameter habitat consistent with the studies' recommendations. HESTIA operations follow stringent processes by a certified test team that including human testing. Project management, analysis, design, acquisition, fabrication, assembly and certification of facility build-ups are available to support this research. HESTIA offers close proximity to key stakeholders including astronauts, Human Research Program (who direct space human research for the agency), Mission Operations, Safety & Mission Assurance, and Engineering Directorate. The HESTIA chamber can operate at reduced pressure and elevated oxygen environments including those proposed for deep-space exploration. Data acquisition, power, fluids and other facility resources are available to support a wide range of research. Recently completed HESTIA research consisted of unmanned testing of ECLSS technologies. Eventually, the HESTIA research will include humans for extended durations at reduced pressure and elevated oxygen to demonstrate
Jones, Harry W.
Brief human space missions supply all the crew's water and oxygen from Earth. The multiyear International Space Station (ISS) program instead uses physicochemical life support systems to recycle water and oxygen. This paper compares the Life Cycle Cost (LCC) of recycling to the LCC of resupply for potential future long duration human space missions. Recycling systems have high initial development costs but relatively low durationdependent support costs. This means that recycling is more cost effective for longer missions. Resupplying all the water and oxygen requires little initial development cost but has a much higher launch mass and launch cost. The cost of resupply increases as the mission duration increases. Resupply is therefore more cost effective than recycling for shorter missions. A recycling system pays for itself when the resupply LCC grows greater over time than the recycling LCC. The time when this occurs is called the recycling breakeven date. Recycling will cost very much less than resupply for long duration missions within the Earth-Moon system, such as a future space station or Moon base. But recycling would cost about the same as resupply for long duration deep space missions, such as a Mars trip. Because it is not possible to provide emergency supplies or quick return options on the way to Mars, more expensive redundant recycling systems will be needed.
dissatisfaction and a lowered sense of emotional wellbeing . Petrich and Holmes (1977) have suggested that patients should be advised to pace the...his or her developmental state. Life changes are important milestones in life span development (Brim & Ryff , 1980). An inspection of both the SRE and...0. G., Jr., & Ryff , C. D. On the properties of life events. In P. B. Baltes & 0. G. Brim, Jr. (Eds.), Life-span development and behavior, Vol. 3. New
Abu-Zidan, Fikri M
We have tried in a recently published systematic review (World J of Surg 2014; 38: 322-329) to study the educational value of advanced trauma life support (ATLS) courses and whether they improve survival of multiple trauma patients. This Frontier article summarizes what we have learned and reflects on future perspectives in this important area. Our recently published systematic review has shown that ATLS training is very useful from an educational point view. It significantly increased knowledge, and improved practical skills and the critical decision making process in managing multiple trauma patients. These positive changes were evident in a wide range of learners including undergraduate medical students and postgraduate residents from different subspecialties. In contrast, clear evidence that ATLS training reduces trauma death is lacking. It is obvious that it is almost impossible to perform randomized controlled trials to study the effect of ATLS courses on trauma mortality. Studying factors predicting trauma mortality is a very complex issue. Accordingly, trauma mortality does not depend solely on ATLS training but on other important factors, like presence of well-developed trauma systems including advanced pre-hospital care. We think that the way to answer whether ATLS training improves survival is to perform large prospective cohort studies of high quality data and use advanced statistical modelling. PMID:26855889
Campbell, B; Heal, J; Evans, S; Marriott, S
Advanced trauma life support (ATLS) has become a desirable or even essential part of training for many surgeons and anaesthetists, but aspects of the ATLS course have attracted criticism. In the absence of published data on the views of trainees, this study sought their opinions in a structured questionnaire, which was completed by trainees in accident and emergency (A & E) (26), anaesthetic (82), general surgical (26), orthopaedic (42) and other (5) posts in different hospitals (response rate 66%). Of the trainees, 78% had done an ATLS course and, of these, 83% considered ATLS a 'major advantage' or 'essential' for practising their proposed specialty--100% for A & E, 94% for orthopaedics, 92% for general surgery, and 75% for anaesthetics. ATLS was considered a major curriculum vitae (CV) advantage by 94%, 85%, 50%, and 45%, respectively. Over 90% had positive attitudes towards ATLS, and 74% selected 'genuine improvement of management of trauma patients' as the most important reason for doing the course: 93% thought ATLS saved lives. Of the respondents, 83% thought that all existing consultants dealing with trauma patients should have done the course, and 41% thought it offered major advantages to doctors not involved in trauma. Funding problems for ATLS courses had been experienced by 14% trainees. This survey has shown that most trainees view ATLS positively. They believe that it provides genuine practical benefit for patients, and very few regard ATLS primarily as a career advantage or mandate.
Hentges, Dawn L.
Soybeans (cv. Hoyt) is one of the crops planned for food production within the Advanced Life Support System Integration Testbed (ALSSIT), a proposed habitat simulation for long duration lunar/Mars missions. Soybeans may be processed into a variety of food products, including soymilk, tofu, and tempeh. Due to the closed environmental system and importance of crew health maintenance, food safety is a primary concern on long duration space missions. Identification of the food safety hazards and critical control points associated with the closed ALSSIT system is essential for the development of safe food processing techniques and equipment. A Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) model was developed to reflect proposed production and processing protocols for ALSSIT soybeans. Soybean processing was placed in the type III risk category. During the processing of ALSSIT-grown soybeans, critical control points were identified to control microbiological hazards, particularly mycotoxins, and chemical hazards from antinutrients. Critical limits were suggested at each CCP. Food safety recommendations regarding the hazards and risks associated with growing, harvesting, and processing soybeans; biomass management; and use of multifunctional equipment were made in consideration of the limitations and restraints of the closed ALSSIT.
Cognata, Thomas; Leimkuehler, Thomas; Ramaswamy, Balasubramaniam; Nayagam, Vedha; Hasan, Mohammad; Stephan, Ryan
Water affords manifold benefits for human space exploration. Its properties make it useful for the storage of thermal energy as a Phase Change Material (PCM) in thermal control systems, in radiation shielding against Solar Particle Events (SPE) for the protection of crew members, and it is indisputably necessary for human life support. This paper envisions a single application for water which addresses these benefits for future exploration support vehicles and it describes recent experimental and modeling work that has been performed in order to arrive at a description of the thermal behavior of such a system. Experimental units have been developed and tested which permit the evaluation of the many parameters of design for such a system with emphasis on the latent energy content, temperature rise, mass, and interstitial material geometry. The experimental results are used to develop a robust and well correlated model which is intended to guide future design efforts toward the multi-purposed water PCM heat exchanger envisioned.
Eckelman, Matthew J.
In our rapidly urbanizing world, sustainable transportation presents a major challenge. Transportation decisions have considerable direct impacts on urban society, both positive and negative, for example through changes in transit times and economic productivity, urban connectivity, tailpipe emissions and attendant air quality concerns, traffic accidents, and noise pollution. Much research has been dedicated to quantifying these direct impacts for various transportation modes. Transportation planning decisions also result in a variety of indirect environmental and human health impacts, a portion of which can accrue outside of the transit service area and so outside of the local decision-making process. Integrated modeling of direct and indirect impacts over the life cycle of different transportation modes provides decision support that is more comprehensive and less prone to triggering unintended consequences than a sole focus on direct tailpipe emissions. The recent work of Chester et al (2013) in this journal makes important contributions to this research by examining the environmental implications of introducing bus rapid transit and light rail in Los Angeles using life cycle assessment (LCA). Transport in the LA region is dominated by automobile trips, and the authors show that potential shifts to either bus or train modes would reduce energy use and emissions of criteria air pollutants, on an average passenger mile travelled basis. This work compares not just the use of each vehicle, but also upstream impacts from its manufacturing and maintenance, as well as the construction and maintenance of the entire infrastructure required for each mode. Previous work by the lead author (Chester and Horvath 2009), has shown that these non-operational sources and largely non-local can dominate life cycle impacts from transportation, again on an average (or attributional) basis, for example increasing rail-related GHG emissions by >150% over just operational emissions
N. McHugh (Neil); van Exel, J. (Job); H. Mason (Helen); Godwin, J. (Jon); M. Collins (Marissa); Donaldson, C. (Cam); R.M. Baker (Rachel)
textabstractCriteria used by the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) to assess life-extending, end-of-life (EoL) treatments imply that health gains from such treatments are valued more than other health gains. Despite claims that the policy is supported by societal values,
Suzuki, Tomoko; Kitaike, Tadashi; Ikezaki, Sumie
The purpose of this cross-sectional survey was to explore relationships between life-space mobility and the related factors in elderly Japanese people who attend orthopaedic clinics. The study measures included surveys of life-space mobility (Life-space Assessment (LSA) score), social support (social network diversity and social ties), physical ability (instrumental self-maintenance, intellectual activity, social role), orthopaedic factors (diseases and symptoms) and demographic information. The questionnaire was distributed to 156 subjects; 152 persons responded, yielding 140 valid responses. Mean age of the sample was 76.0 ± 6.4 (range, 65-96 years), with 57.9% women (n = 81). In a multiple regression analysis, the six factors were significantly associated with LSA. Standardized partial regression coefficients (β) were gender (0.342), instrumental self-maintenance (0.297), social network diversity (0.217), age (-0.170), difficulty of motion (-0.156) and intellectual activity (0.150), with an adjusted R(2) = 0.488. These results suggest that outpatient health-care providers need to intervene in not only addressing orthopaedic factors but also promoting social support among elderly Japanese. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Results: The level of family support was significantly associated with quality of life at p-value less than 0.001. Majority [n = 104 (59.8%)] of the respondents who reported having strong family support had fair quality of life. Also, a significant percentage (85.7%) of all respondents who had good quality of life were found to have ...
Carranza, Susana; Makel, Darby B.; Blizman, Brandon
With the new direction of NASA to emphasize the exploration of the Moon, Mars and beyond, quick development and demonstration of efficient systems for In Situ Resources Utilization (ISRU) is more critical and timely than ever before. Beyond the production of life support consumables or propellants, long term missions will require much greater levels of utilization of indigenous resources, including fabrication of habitats, radiation shielding, and replacement parts and tools. This paper reports the development of a reactor system for the synthesis of polyethylene from carbon dioxide and water. One technology commonly found in most NASA In Situ Resources Utilization scenarios is the use of the Sabatier reaction and water electrolysis to produce methane and oxygen. The system presented uses methane and oxygen to produce ethylene, and subsequently ethylene is polymerized to produce polyethylene. The process selected enables the synthesis of high-density polyethylene suitable for the fabrication of many products for space exploration, including sheets, films, channels, etc, which can be used to construct extraterrestrial habitats, tools, replacement parts, etc. Conventional fabrication processes, such as extrusion and injection molding, which are used in the fabrication of polyethylene parts, can be adapted for space operation, making polyethylene a versatile feedstock for future in-situ manufacturing plants. Studies show that polyethylene is a very good radiation shield material, making it very suitable for construction of habitats, as well as incorporation in space suits. For the fabrication of massive structures, polyethylene can be combined with indigenous soil to maximize the use of unprocessed resources, either enclosed in channels, bags, etc., or compounded in varying proportions. The focus of this paper is to present current progress in the development of manufacturing systems and processes for the production of plastics and composites utilizing indigenous
Başar, Koray; Öz, Gökhan; Karakaya, Jale
Transgender individuals experience discrimination in all domains of their personal and social life. Discrimination is believed to be associated with worse quality of life (QoL). To investigate the relation between QoL and perceived levels of discrimination and social support in individuals with gender dysphoria (GD). Individuals with GD who attended a psychiatry clinic from January 2012 through December 2014 were recruited. Demographic, social, and medical transition features were collected with standardized forms. Self-report measurements of QoL (Turkish version of the World Health Organization's Quality of Life-BREF) that included physical, psychological, social, and environmental domains, perceived discrimination with personal and group subscales (Perceived Discrimination Scale [PDS]), and social support (Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support) were completed. Ninety-four participants (76.6% trans men) adequately completed the study measurements. Regression models with each QoL domain score as a dependent variable indicated a significant predictor value of personal PDS in social and environmental QoL. Social support from family was associated with better QoL in psychological QoL, whereas perceived support from friends significantly predicted all other domains of QoL. There was a tendency for group PDS to be rated higher than personal PDS, suggesting personal vs group discrimination discrepancy. However, group PDS was not found to be a predictor of QoL in the multivariate model. Perceived personal discrimination and social support from different sources predicted domains of QoL with a non-uniform pattern in individuals with GD. Social support and discrimination were found to have opposing contributions to QoL in GD. The present findings emphasize the necessity of addressing discrimination and social support in clinical work with GD. Moreover, strategies to improve and strengthen friend and family support for individuals with GD should be explored by
Grigoriev, A. I.; Potapov, A. N.
Many aspects of the biomedical systems developed and realized aboard orbital stations, the International space station in the first place, deserve to be regarded as predecessors of the systems for health monitoring and maintenance of future exploration crews. At the same time, there are issues and tasks which have not been yet fully resolved. Specifically, these are prevention of the adverse changes in body systems and organs due to microgravity, reliable protection from the spectrum of space radiation, and elucidation of possible effects of hypomagnetic environment. We should not walk away from search and development of key biomedical technologies such as a system of automated fitness evaluation and a psychodiagnostic complex for testing and optimization of operator‧s efficiency, and others. We have to address a large number of issues related to designing the composite life support systems of the utmost autonomy, closure and ecological safety of the human environment that will provide transformation of all kinds of waste. Another crucial task is to define a concept of the onboard medical center and dataware including the telemedicine technology. All the above developments should assimilate the most recent achievements in physiology, molecular biology, genetics, and advanced medical technologies. Biomedical researches on biosatellites also do not lose topicality.
Golding, Natalie S.; Rose, John
Background: The aim of this study is to explore support workers' attitudes and knowledge towards individuals with intellectual disabilities (IDs) to see whether a new attitude scale needs to be developed. Method: Support workers from a charitable organization located in the West Midlands in the United Kingdom participated in one of four focus…
Full Text Available Abstract Objective The quality of external chest compressions (ECC is of primary importance within basic life support (BLS. Recent guidelines delineate the so-called 4“-step approach” for teaching practical skills within resuscitation training guided by a certified instructor. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether a “media-supported 4-step approach” for BLS training leads to equal practical performance compared to the standard 4-step approach. Materials and methods After baseline testing, 220 laypersons were either trained using the widely accepted method for resuscitation training (4-step approach or using a newly created “media-supported 4-step approach”, both of equal duration. In this approach, steps 1 and 2 were ensured via a standardised self-produced podcast, which included all of the information regarding the BLS algorithm and resuscitation skills. Participants were tested on manikins in the same mock cardiac arrest single-rescuer scenario prior to intervention, after one week and after six months with respect to ECC-performance, and participants were surveyed about the approach. Results Participants (age 23 ± 11, 69% female reached comparable practical ECC performances in both groups, with no statistical difference. Even after six months, there was no difference detected in the quality of the initial assessment algorithm or delay concerning initiation of CPR. Overall, at least 99% of the intervention group (n = 99; mean 1.5 ± 0.8; 6-point Likert scale: 1 = completely agree, 6 = completely disagree agreed that the video provided an adequate introduction to BLS skills. Conclusions The “media-supported 4-step approach” leads to comparable practical ECC-performance compared to standard teaching, even with respect to retention of skills. Therefore, this approach could be useful in special educational settings where, for example, instructors’ resources are sparse or large-group sessions
Miles, Gaines E.; Krom, Kimberly J.
Controlled, Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS) that utilize plants to provide food, water and oxygen could consume considerable amounts of labor unless crop production, recovery and processing are automated. Robotic manipulators equipped with special end-effectors and programmed to perform the sensing and materials handling tasks would minimize the amount of astronaut labor required. The Human Rated Test Facility (HRTF) planned for Johnson Space Center could discover and demonstrate techniques of crop production which can be reliably integrated with machinery to minimize labor requirements. Before the physical components (shelves, lighting fixtures, etc.) can be selected, a systems analysis must be performed to determine which alternative processes should be followed and how the materials handling tasks should be automated. Given that the current procedures used to grow crops in a CELSS may not be the best methods to automate, then what are the alternatives? How may plants be grown, harvested, processed for food, and the inedible components recycled? What commercial technologies current exist? What research efforts are underway to develop new technologies which might satisfy the need for automation in a CELSS? The answers to these questions should prove enlightening and provide some of the information necessary to perform the systems analysis. The planting, culturing, gathering, threshing and separation, food processing, and recovery of inedible portions of wheat were studied. The basic biological and materials handling processes of each task are defined and discussed. Current practices at Johnson Space Center and other NASA centers are described and compared to common production practices in the plant production industry. Technologies currently being researched which might be applicable are identified and illustrated. Finally, based on this knowledge, several scenarios are proposed for automating the tasks for wheat.
Richards, J R; Panacek, E A; Brofeldt, B T
A survey was conducted to determine differences in perspective towards Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) between emergency medicine (EM) physicians and other specialties (OS), assess its value in the management of acute trauma, and identify areas in the course which could be revised or updated. The survey was devised and completed by physicians after ATLS. Of 26 course participants, there were 11 EM physicians (42%), four family practitioners (15%), four surgeons (15%), four internists (15%), two paediatricians (8%), and one anaesthesiologist (4%). Both groups found ATLS useful and relevant, and reported little deviation from their prior management of acute trauma. Unclear topics identified were airway, spine trauma, and burns/cold injury for EM, and head, abdominal, and paediatric trauma for OS. Significant differences were noted for the following: 91% EM vs. 13% OS felt ATLS could be shortened into a one-day course (p = 0.002), 64% EM vs. 7% OS thought the laboratory could be omitted (p = 0.003), and all (100%) EM vs. 60% OS believed the course could be taught by EM physicians as effectively as surgeons (p = 0.02). EM disagreed with OS over the proposed requirement that all EM physicians be required to take ATLS (2.0 +/- 0.2 vs. 3.5 +/- 0.4, p = 0.03). The EM group reported doing > 20 per year of airway, vascular, and thoracostomy procedures in their own practice, whereas OS did significantly fewer. ATLS may not be useful for EM practitioners actively involved in trauma care. Proposed changes from the EM perspective include shortening ATLS to one day, increased use of EM instructors, clarifying certain portions of the manual, and omitting the laboratory section or making it optional.
Leon, V. Jorge
Planning in Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS) requires special look ahead capabilities due to the complex and long-term dynamic behavior of biological systems. This project characterizes the behavior of CELSS, identifies the requirements of intelligent planning systems for CELSS, proposes the decomposition of the planning task into short-term and long-term planning, and studies the crop scheduling problem as an initial approach to long-term planning. CELSS is studied in the realm of Chaos. The amount of biomass in the system is modeled using a bounded quadratic iterator. The results suggests that closed ecological systems can exhibit periodic behavior when imposed external or artificial control. The main characteristics of CELSS from the planning and scheduling perspective are discussed and requirements for planning systems are given. Crop scheduling problem is identified as an important component of the required long-term lookahead capabilities of a CELSS planner. The main characteristics of crop scheduling are described and a model is proposed to represent the problem. A surrogate measure of the probability of survival is developed. The measure reflects the absolute deviation of the vital reservoir levels from their nominal values. The solution space is generated using a probability distribution which captures both knowledge about the system and the current state of affairs at each decision epoch. This probability distribution is used in the context of an evolution paradigm. The concepts developed serve as the basis for the development of a simple crop scheduling tool which is used to demonstrate its usefulness in the design and operation of CELSS.
Stassen, Willem; Van Nugteren, Benjamin; Stein, Christopher
To establish the prevalence of burnout among advanced life support (ALS) paramedics in Johannesburg, South Africa and assess the relationship between burnout and a number of demographic characteristics of the sampled ALS paramedics. Cross-sectional internet-based survey. Survey invitations were sent via email to 98 registered ALS paramedics in the Johannesburg area. The survey questionnaire was created by combining the Copenhagen Burnout Inventory (CBI) with numerous distractor questions. Burnout was defined as a CBI score >50. Descriptive analysis was performed and results subjected to Chi-square testing in order to establish dependencies between burnout scores and demographic factors. A 46% (n=45) response rate was obtained. Forty responses were eligible for analysis. 30% of these respondents had total burnout according to their CBI score, while 63% exhibited some degree of burnout in one of the CBI subcategories. The results of the subcategory analyses showed that 23% of respondents experienced burnout in the patient care-related category, 38% experienced burnout in the work-related category and 53% experienced burnout in the personal burnout category. There were no statistical differences in the burnout scores according to gender (p=0.292), position held (p=0.193), employment sector (p=0.414), years of experience (p=0.228) or qualification (p=0.846). Distractor questions showed that paramedics feel overworked, undervalued, poorly remunerated and unsupported by their superiors. This sample of Johannesburg-based paramedics had a greater prevalence of burnout compared with their international counterparts. Further research is needed to identify the true extent of this problem.
Boisramé-Helms, Julie; Rahmani, Hassène; Stiel, Laure; Tournoud, Christine; Sauder, Philippe
Ingestions of Colchicum autumnale may lead to severe poisoning. It begins with gastrointestinal symptoms and leukocytosis, followed by multi-organ failure with shock and a possible late recovery phase. Mortality is highly dependent on the ingested dose. We report a case of accidental C. autumnale poisoning with refractory cardiogenic shock and eventual survival after extracorporeal life support (ECLS). A 68-year-old woman was admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) on day 3 after ingestion of C. autumnale in a meal. She first suffered from nausea and vomiting leading to severe dehydration. She then developed multi-organ failure and refractory cardiogenic shock, with a mean arterial pressure nadir of 50 mmHg despite high doses of catecholamines and a left ventricular ejection fraction at 5-10%. Venous-arterial ECLS was therefore started at an initial rate of 3.5 L/min and 3,800 rev/min. Her symptoms also included pancytopenia on day 4 with diffuse bleeding requiring iterative blood product transfusion. Platelet and leukocyte count nadirs were 13 × 10(9)/L (normal range: 150-400 × 10(9)/L) and 0.77 × 10(9)/L (normal range: 4.2-10.7 × 10(9)/L), respectively. ECLS allowed good cardiac contractility recovery within a few days, with complications including bleeding made controllable. Indeed, because of hemostasis disorders, the patient presented hemoptysis and hematuria. She was treated with tranexamic acid and transfused with blood products. She received 15 erythrocyte concentrates, 13 platelet concentrates, and 7 fresh frozen plasma. ECLS was removed by day 10, with subsequent weaning from mechanical ventilation as well as from hemodialysis in the following days. This patient survives after the use of ECLS in Colchicum poisoning, with controllable complications. Thus, ECLS might be indicated to overcome the potentially refractory cardiogenic shock phase.
Jones, Harry; Luna, Bernadette (Technical Monitor)
According to the Advanced Life Support (ALS) Program Plan, the Systems Modeling and Analysis Project (SMAP) has two important tasks: 1) prioritizing investments in ALS Research and Technology Development (R&TD), and 2) guiding the evolution of ALS systems. Investments could be prioritized simply by independently ranking different technologies, but we should also consider a technology's impact on system design. Guiding future ALS systems will require SMAP to consider many aspects of systems engineering. R&TD investments can be prioritized using familiar methods for ranking technology. The first step is gathering data on technology performance, safety, readiness level, and cost. Then the technologies are ranked using metrics or by decision analysis using net present economic value. The R&TD portfolio can be optimized to provide the maximum expected payoff in the face of uncertain future events. But more is needed. The optimum ALS system can not be designed simply by selecting the best technology for each predefined subsystem. Incorporating a new technology, such as food plants, can change the specifications of other subsystems, such as air regeneration. Systems must be designed top-down starting from system objectives, not bottom-up from selected technologies. The familiar top-down systems engineering process includes defining mission objectives, mission design, system specification, technology analysis, preliminary design, and detail design. Technology selection is only one part of systems analysis and engineering, and it is strongly related to the subsystem definitions. ALS systems should be designed using top-down systems engineering. R&TD technology selection should consider how the technology affects ALS system design. Technology ranking is useful but it is only a small part of systems engineering.
This research explores the work-life balance of female accountants in Malaysia by understanding their motivation to strive in the corporate world, their perception on their employment and domestic role, and consequently discover how these affect the work-life balance issues that they face. Chapter one offers the introduction to this research, its significance, the research objectives, research questions and a brief description of the perceived role of women in Malaysia. The literature review ...
Albrecht, Terrance L.; Adelman, Mara B.
Reviews social support literature and specific findings on the role of communication in the support process. Argues that uncertainty reduction theory may explain how communication affects an individual's perception that he or she is supported. Includes hypotheses for future research and some central dilemmas of supportive relationships. (PD)
Valentine, Althea Z; Knibb, Rebecca C
This study aimed to explore the impact of food allergy on quality of life in children with food allergy and their primary caregivers, compared to a healthy non-food allergy comparison group. Food allergy children (n=34) and control children (n=15), aged 8-12, and their respective primary caregivers (n=30/n=13), completed generic quality of life scales (PedsQL™ and WHOQOLBREF) and were asked to take photographs and keep a diary about factors that they believed enhanced and/or limited their quality of life, over a one-week period. Questionnaire analysis showed that parents of children with food allergy had significantly lower quality of life in the social relationships domain and lower overall quality of life than the comparison parents. In contrast, children with food allergy had similar or higher quality of life scores compared to comparison children. Content analysis of photograph and diary data identified ten themes that influenced both child and parental quality of life. It was concluded that although food allergy influenced quality of life for some children, their parent's quality of life was hindered to a greater extent. The variability in findings highlights the importance of assessing quality of life in individual families, considering both children with allergies and their primary caregivers. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Nemeroff, Robin; Midlarsky, Elizabeth; Meyer, Joseph F.
Social support has been shown to buffer the relationship between life stress and psychological distress in late life. However, little attention has been paid to personality variables that are associated with the capacity to effectively utilize social support. Although the buffering effects of social support were replicated in our sample of 134…
Kresak, Karen E.; Gallagher, Peggy A.; Kelley, Susan J.
Sources of support and quality of life of 50 grandmother-headed families raising grandchildren with and without disabilities were examined. Comparative analyses revealed significant differences between grandmothers raising grandchildren with and without disabilities in regard to sources of support and family quality of life. Informal support was…
Valcour, Monique; Ollier-Malaterre, Ariane; Matz-Costa, Christina; Pitt-Catsouphes, Marcie; Brown, Melissa
This study examined predictors of employee perceptions of organizational work-life support. Using organizational support theory and conservation of resources theory, we reasoned that workplace demands and resources shape employees' perceptions of work-life support through two mechanisms: signaling that the organization cares about their work-life…
Borland, Tracey; Babayan, Alexey; Irfan, Saeeda; Schwartz, Robert
Background Smoking in pregnancy exemplifies the relationship between tobacco use and health inequalities. While difficulty reaching and engaging this population in cessation support is often highlighted in the literature, there is limited research that explores the factors that shape the provision and use of support by this subpopulation. Using Ontario, Canada, as a case study, this study examines how the use of cessation support by women is encouraged or discouraged by cessation policy, prog...
Jantzer, Amanda M; Anderson, Jenn; Kuehl, Rebecca A
Women are increasingly faced with decisions about how to combine breastfeeding with work, but few researchers have directly measured how breastfeeding relates to the work-life interface. Research aim: The authors examined how perceptions of work enhancement of personal life and work interference with personal life were influenced by workplace breastfeeding support, including organizational, manager, and coworker support, as well as adequate time to express human milk. Then, we examined how workplace breastfeeding support predicted work-life variables and job satisfaction. Using a self-report, survey design, the authors analyzed online surveys from 87 women in a rural, community sample who indicated that they had pumped at work or anticipated needing to pump in the future. According to regression results, provision of workplace breastfeeding support, particularly providing adequate time for human milk expression, predicted work enhancement of personal life. Conversely, we found that as workplace support diminished, employees perceived greater work interference with personal life. Results of path analysis further suggested that providing time for expressing milk improved job satisfaction via a partially mediated relationship where work enhancement of personal life acted as a mediator. These results suggest that employers can enhance the lives of their breastfeeding employees both at work and at home by providing workplace breastfeeding support, especially through providing time for expressing human milk in the workplace.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Thermal and environmental control systems for future exploration spacecraft must meet challenging requirements for efficient operation and conservation of resources....
Yennadiou, Haris; Wolverson, Emma
The objective of this study was to explore how older people living with epilepsy appraise their condition through their lived-experience. The common-sense model of illness representations (CSMIR) provides a framework to explain how individuals make sense of and manage health threats. Semi-structured in-depth interviews based on the CSMIR were conducted with ten people with epilepsy who were above the age of 65. The results were analyzed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. Three overarching themes emerged from the analysis: 'the power of epilepsy', 'they say you can live a normal life but you can't' and 'attempts to adjust and cope'. Epilepsy was described as a threatening, persistent, and unpredictable condition associated with distressing experiences. Participants described a process of balancing negative psychosocial consequences including stigma, loss of control, and reliance on other people and medication with parallel co-existing coping strategies. These attempts to manage the condition were characterized by a desire for acceptance and increased awareness of epilepsy, strategies to restore loss of control, and strength derived from supportive relationships. We conclude that there is large scope for psychosocial interventions in healthcare provision for this patient group. The roles of specialist nursing, relationship-centered models, psychotherapy, educational, and self-management programs are highlighted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Students' satisfaction with life in higher institutions globally is essential to their academic performance and total wellbeing. However, Tumkaya (2008) noted that students usually feel unsatisfied with their expectations about the university life or new environment where they find themselves. To understand the influence of ...
Fu, Yuming; Li, Leyuan; Xie, Beizhen; Dong, Chen; Wang, Mingjuan; Jia, Boyang; Shao, Lingzhi; Dong, Yingying; Deng, Shengda; Liu, Hui; Liu, Guanghui; Liu, Bojie; Hu, Dawei; Liu, Hong
To conduct crewed simulation experiments of bioregenerative life support systems on the ground is a critical step for human life support in deep-space exploration. An artificial closed ecosystem named Lunar Palace 1 was built through integrating efficient higher plant cultivation, animal protein production, urine nitrogen recycling, and bioconversion of solid waste. Subsequently, a 105-day, multicrew, closed integrative bioregenerative life support systems experiment in Lunar Palace 1 was carried out from February through May 2014. The results show that environmental conditions as well as the gas balance between O2 and CO2 in the system were well maintained during the 105-day experiment. A total of 21 plant species in this system kept a harmonious coexistent relationship, and 20.5% nitrogen recovery from urine, 41% solid waste degradation, and a small amount of insect in situ production were achieved. During the 105-day experiment, oxygen and water were recycled, and 55% of the food was regenerated. Key Words: Bioregenerative life support systems (BLSS)-Space agriculture-Space life support-Waste recycle-Water recycle. Astrobiology 16, 925-936.
Kang, Bong-Hee; Kang, Jae-Heon; Park, Hyun-Ah; Cho, Young-Gyu; Hur, Yang-Im; Sim, Won Yong; Byeon, Gyeong-Ran; Kim, Kyoungwoo
Youth suicide is increasingly being recognized as a major social problem in South Korea. In this study, we aimed to explore the effects of parental support on the relationship between life stress and suicidal ideation among middle-school students. This study analyzed data from a cross-sectional study on mental health conducted by the South Korea National Youth Policy Institute between May and July of 2013. Questionnaire responses from 3,007 middle-school students regarding stress factors, thoughts of suicide during the past year, and parental support were analyzed in terms of 3 subscale elements: emotional, academic, and financial support. Among the participants, 234 male students (7.8%) and 476 female students (15.8%) reported experiencing suicidal ideation in the past year. Life stress significantly influenced suicidal ideation (Psuicidal ideation. As shown in model 1, life stress increased suicidal ideation (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.318; Psuicidal ideation decreased with parental support (aOR, 1.238; Psuicidal ideation, and life stress was independently related to an increase in suicidal ideation. Parental support buffered the relationship between life stress and suicidal ideation.
Partiprajak, Suphamas; Thongpo, Pichaya
This study explored the retention of basic life support knowledge, self-efficacy, and chest compression performance among Thai nursing students at a university in Thailand. A one-group, pre-test and post-test design time series was used. Participants were 30 nursing students undertaking basic life support training as a care provider. Repeated measure analysis of variance was used to test the retention of knowledge and self-efficacy between pre-test, immediate post-test, and re-test after 3 months. A Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to compare the difference in chest compression performance two times. Basic life support knowledge was measured using the Basic Life Support Standard Test for Cognitive Knowledge. Self-efficacy was measured using the Basic Life Support Self-Efficacy Questionnaire. Chest compression performance was evaluated using a data printout from Resusci Anne and Laerdal skillmeter within two cycles. The training had an immediate significant effect on the knowledge, self-efficacy, and skill of chest compression; however, the knowledge and self-efficacy significantly declined after post-training for 3 months. Chest compression performance after training for 3 months was positively retaining compared to the first post-test but was not significant. Therefore, a retraining program to maintain knowledge and self-efficacy for a longer period of time should be established after post-training for 3 months. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sychev, V. N.; Levinskikh, M. A.; Grigorie, A. I.
One of the most important problems in space exploration is the biomedical support of humans in a hostile environment that cannot sustain their life and development. An integral part of biomedical support is an adequate life support systems (LSS). In the visible future a manned flight to Mars can become a reality. When designing a LSS for a Martian Expedition, we assume that over the next 15-20 years we will be able to support the Martian crew using systems and hardware that have been in operation on the International Space Station (ISS). Their extended use on MIR and ISS has demonstrated their high reliability and provided detailed information about their operation in space. Today it is recognized that integration of a biological subsystem (at least, a greenhouse) in a LSS will enrich the Martian spacecraft environment and mitigate potential adverse effects of a long-term exposure to a man-made (abiogenic) environment. Our estimates show that an adequate amount of wet biomass of lettuce cultures can be produced in a greenhouse with a planting area of 10 m2. This means that a greenhouse of a sufficient size can be housed in 5 standard Space Shuttle racks. A greenhouse made of modules can be installed as a single unit in one area or as several subunits in different areas of the Martian vehicle. According to our calculations, a greenhouse of this capacity can provide a 6-member crew with adequate amounts of vitamins and minerals, as well as regenerate about 5% of oxygen, 3.6% of water and over 1% of food components. Incorporation of a greenhouse will make it necessary to redesign current LSSs by changing material flows and upgrading their components. Prior to this, we have to investigate operational characteristics of greenhouses on space vehicles, design systems capable of supporting continuous and prolonged operation of greenhouses, and select plants that can provide crews with required vitamins and minerals.
Wheeler, R. M.; Wehkamp, C. A.; Stasiak, M. A.; Dixon, M. A.; Rygalov, V. Y.
Radish (Raphanus sativus), lettuce (Latuca sativa), and wheat (Triticum aestivum) plants were grown at either 98 kPa (ambient) or 33 kPa atmospheric pressure with constant 21 kPa oxygen and 0.12 kPa carbon dioxide in atmospherically closed pressure chambers. All plants were grown rockwool using recirculating hydroponics with a complete nutrient solution. At 20 days after planting, chamber pressures were pumped down as rapidly as possible, reaching 5 kPa after about 5 min and ˜1.5 kPa after about 10 min. The plants were held at 1.5 kPa for 30 min and then pressures were restored to their original settings. Temperature (22 °C) and humidity (65% RH) controls were engaged throughout the depressurization, although temperatures dropped to near 16 °C for a brief period. CO2 and O2 were not detectable at the low pressure, suggesting that most of the 1.5 kPa atmosphere consisted of water vapor. Following re-pressurization, plants were grown for another 7 days at the original pressures and then harvested. The lettuce, radish, and wheat plants showed no visible effects from the rapid decompression, and there were no differences in fresh or dry mass when compared to control plants maintained continuously at 33 or 98 kPa. But radish storage root fresh mass and lettuce head fresh and dry masses were less at 33 kPa compared to 98 kPa for both the controls and decompression treatment. The results suggest that plants are extremely resilient to rapid decompression, provided they do not freeze (from evaporative cooling) or desiccate. The water of the hydroponic system was below the boiling pressure during these tests and this may have protected the plants by preventing pressures from dropping below 1.5 kPa and maintaining humidity near 1.5 kPa. Further testing is needed to determine how long plants can withstand such low pressure, but the results suggest there are at least 30 min to respond to catastrophic pressure losses in a plant production chamber that might be used for life
Polonskiy, Vadim; Polonskaya, Janna
The perspective crops for the bioregenerative human life support systems V.I. Polonskiy, J.E. Polonskaya aKrasnoyarsk State Agrarian University, 660049, Krasnoyarsk, Russia In the nearest future the space missions will be too long. In this case it is necessary to provide the crew by vitamins, antioxidants, and water-soluble dietary fibers. These compounds will be produced by higher plants. There was not enough attention at present to increasing content of micronutrients in edible parts of crops candidates for CELSS. We suggested to add the new crops to this list. 1. Barley -is the best crop for including to food crops (wheat, rice, soybean). Many of the health effects of barley are connected to dietary fibers beta-glucan of barley grains. Bar-ley is the only seed from cereals including wheat with content of all eight tocopherols (vitamin E, important antioxidant). Barley grains contain much greater amounts of phenolic compounds (potential antioxidant activities) than other cereal grains. Considerable focus is on supplement-ing wheat-based breads with barley to introduce the inherent nutritional advantages of barley flour, currently only 20We have selected and tested during 5 generations two high productive barley lines -1-K-O and 25-K-O. Our investigations (special breeding program for improving grain quality of barley) are in progress. 2. Volatile crops. Young leaves and shoots of these crops are edible and have a piquant taste. A lot of organic volatile compounds, oils, vitamins, antioxidants are in their biomass. These micronutrients are useful for good appetite and health of the crew. We have investigated 11 species: basil (Ocimum basilicum), hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis), marjoram (Origanum majorana), sweet-Mary (Melissa officinalis), common thyme (Thymus vulgaris), creeping thyme (Thymus serpyllum), summer savory (Satureja hortensis), catnip (Nepeta cataria), rue (Ruta graveolens), coriander (Coriandrum Ativum), sulfurwort (Levisticum officinale). These
Jayaraman, Sudha; Sethi, Dinesh; Chinnock, Paul; Wong, Roger
Injury is responsible for an increasing global burden of death and disability. As a result, new models of trauma care have been developed. Many of these, though initially developed in high-income countries (HICs), are now being adopted in low and middle-income countries (LMICs). One such trauma care model is advanced trauma life support (ATLS) training in hospitals, which is being promoted in LMICs as a strategy for improving outcomes for victims of trauma. The impact of this health service intervention, however, has not been rigorously tested by means of a systematic review in either HIC or LMIC settings. To quantify the impact of ATLS training for hospital staff on injury mortality and morbidity in hospitals with and without such a training program. The search for studies was run on the 16th May 2014. We searched the Cochrane Injuries Group's Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library), Ovid MEDLINE(R), Ovid MEDLINE(R) In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE(R) Daily and Ovid OLDMEDLINE(R), Embase Classic+Embase (Ovid), ISI WOS (SCI-EXPANDED, SSCI, CPCI-S & CPSI-SSH), CINAHL Plus (EBSCO), PubMed and screened reference lists. Randomised controlled trials, controlled trials and controlled before-and-after studies comparing the impact of ATLS-trained hospital staff versus non-ATLS trained hospital staff on injury mortality and morbidity. Three authors applied the eligibility criteria to trial reports for inclusion, and extracted data. None of the studies identified by the search met the inclusion criteria for this review. There is no evidence from controlled trials that ATLS or similar programs impact the outcome for victims of injury, although there is some evidence that educational initiatives improve knowledge of hospital staff of available emergency interventions. Furthermore, there is no evidence that trauma management systems that incorporate ATLS training impact positively on outcome
Froes, Isabel Cristina G.; Laaksolahti, Jarmo Matti; Witzner Hansen, Dan
development. Our ongoing investigation of Interaction Design for a Good Life (http://itu.dk/IxDLab/) has uncovered a broad diversity of perspectives on how to unpack ‘a good life’ through research and design, and indeed what constitutes a good life to begin with. Through our investigations, time has surfaced...... as pivotal to our budding understanding of elements of a good life and a useful framing for future investigations. Time is also an important topic for interaction design, because it is at the core of interaction, the practice of design, and, in many ways, our use and relationships with technological...
Dewberry, Brandon S.
The Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) is a Freedom Station distributed system with inherent applicability to extensive automation primarily due to its comparatively long control system latencies. These allow longer contemplation times in which to form a more intelligent control strategy and to prevent and diagnose faults. The regenerative nature of the Space Station Freedom ECLSS will contribute closed loop complexities never before encountered in life support systems. A study to determine ECLSS automation approaches has been completed. The ECLSS baseline software and system processes could be augmented with more advanced fault management and regenerative control systems for a more autonomous evolutionary system, as well as serving as a firm foundation for future regenerative life support systems. Emerging advanced software technology and tools can be successfully applied to fault management, but a fully automated life support system will require research and development of regenerative control systems and models. The baseline Environmental Control and Life Support System utilizes ground tests in development of batch chemical and microbial control processes. Long duration regenerative life support systems will require more active chemical and microbial feedback control systems which, in turn, will require advancements in regenerative life support models and tools. These models can be verified using ground and on orbit life support test and operational data, and used in the engineering analysis of proposed intelligent instrumentation feedback and flexible process control technologies for future autonomous regenerative life support systems, including the evolutionary Space Station Freedom ECLSS.
Gatumu, Jane Ciumwari; Kathuri, Wilfred Njeru
The Life Skills Programme, which is one of the newest programmes in the Kenya Preschool educational system was explored to establish the impact it had on the lives of preschool children in Embu West, Kenya. A primary school that is perceived as having well-disciplined children was purposively selected. The sample consisted of 39 students, 43…
Nash, Steve; Bangert, Art
The primary objective of this research study was to explore the relationships between principals' life experiences and their transformational leadership behaviours. Over 212 public school principals completed both the lifetime leadership inventory (LLI) and the multifactor leadership questionnaire (MLQ). Exploratory and confirmatory factor…
Kullmann, Lajos; Toth, Katalin
The aim of the study is to investigate the applicability of structured interviews for exploration of quality-of-life goals using an established instrument. Structured interviews were performed using WHOQOL-BREF and Disabilities Module as guideline with 35 clients admitted for first rehabilitation intervention after spinal cord injury. Although…
Howes, Loene M.; Goodman-Delahunty, Jane
Once associated with lifetime employment, policing and teaching have become increasingly associated with employee attrition. We used a life course research design to explore career turning points and transitions, in the context of preceding and following careers. Former police officers ("n" = 9) and former teachers ("n" = 15)…
The Lilly Endowment's Programs for the Theological Exploration of Vocation offered a range of educational activities and opportunities for students, faculty, and staff to reflect on and discern their values, beliefs, and goals across a wide spectrum of collegiate life. Tim Clydesdale has found that these opportunities were of much value to those…
Kasler, Jon; Goldfarb-Rivlin, Sima; Levi, Jossef; Elias, Maurice J.
While high IQ is likely to be an advantage in moral reasoning, it does not guarantee students' putting those morals into practice. A clearly defined sense of purpose grounded in values of social responsibility, exploration of values, and the search for ultimate truths, both personal and collective, is paramount. The Meaning in Life program in…
Hu, Enzhu; Bartsev, Sergey I.; Liu, Hong
This article summarizes a conceptual design of a bioregenerative life support system for permanent lunar base or planetary exploration. The system consists of seven compartments - higher plants cultivation, animal rearing, human habitation, water recovery, waste treatment, atmosphere management, and storages. Fifteen kinds of crops, such as wheat, rice, soybean, lettuce, and mulberry, were selected as main life support contributors to provide the crew with air, water, and vegetable food. Silkworms fed by crop leaves were designated to produce partial animal nutrition for the crew. Various physical-chemical and biological methods were combined to reclaim wastewater and solid waste. Condensate collected from atmosphere was recycled into potable water through granular activated carbon adsorption, iodine sterilization, and trace element supplementation. All grey water was also purified though multifiltration and ultraviolet sterilization. Plant residue, human excrement, silkworm feces, etc. were decomposed into inorganic substances which were finally absorbed by higher plants. Some meat, ingredients, as well as nitrogen fertilizer were prestored and resupplied periodically. Meanwhile, the same amount and chemical composition of organic waste was dumped to maintain the steady state of the system. A nutritional balanced diet was developed by means of the linear programming method. It could provide 2721 kcal of energy, 375.5 g of carbohydrate, 99.47 g of protein, and 91.19 g of fat per capita per day. Silkworm powder covered 12.54% of total animal protein intakes. The balance of material flows between compartments was described by the system of stoichiometric equations. Basic life support requirements for crews including oxygen, food, potable and hygiene water summed up to 29.68 kg per capita per day. The coefficient of system material closure reached 99.40%.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Humidity is a critical variable for monitoring and control on extended duration missions because it can affect the operation and efficiency of closed loop life...
Hughes, Peter; Dennehy, Cornelius; Mosier, Gary; Smith, Dan; Rykowski, Lisa
The Vision for Space Exploration will guide NASA's future human and robotic space activities. The broad range of human and robotic missions now being planned will require the development of new system-level capabilities enabled by emerging new technologies. Goddard Space Flight Center is actively supporting the Vision for Space Exploration in a number of program management, engineering and technology areas. This paper provides a brief background on the Vision for Space Exploration and a general overview of potential key Goddard contributions. In particular, this paper focuses on describing relevant GSFC information systems capabilities in architecture development; interoperable command, control and communications; and other applied information systems technology/research activities that are applicable to support the Vision for Space Exploration goals. Current GSFC development efforts and task activities are presented together with future plans.
Devincenzi, D. L.
The impact of solar system exploration on theories regarding chemical evolution and the origin of life is examined in detail. Major findings from missions to Mercury, Venus, the moon, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, and Titan are reviewed and implications for prebiotic chemistry are discussed. Among the major conclusions are: prebiotic chemistry is widespread throughout the solar system and universe; chemical evolution and the origin of life are intimately associated with the origin and evolution of the solar system; the rate, direction, and extent of prebiotic chemistry is highly dependent upon planetary characteristics; and continued exploration will increase understanding of how life originated on earth and allow better estimates of the likelihood of similar processes occurring elsewhere.
Benjamin, Caroline; Flynn, Maria; Hallett, Christine; Ellis, Ian; Booth, Katie
Life course research methodologies are used extensively in historical and social science research. In 1998 the life course paradigm was introduced to provide a way of tracing the interplay of person and setting. The method has had a very limited use in nursing research, but in this study it was utilized as a way of capturing dynamic change by placing the individual within a context of four domains; location in time and place, linked lives, human agency and timing of lives. To describe the paradigm, review its use in healthcare research and provide a specific example of its use in healthcare. This paper discusses a novel method of creating life course charts for a qualitative study exploring the differing experiences of women referred from primary care to specialist services due to a family history of breast cancer. A nurse-led breast cancer family history clinic in the UK. Twenty-two women. Life charts were used in conjunction with a grounded theory approach to analyse data collected from semi-structured interviews. Twenty-two life charts were created and the ability to layer the charts of multiple women to visualise similarities and differences aided the analysis. The life charts were a useful tool in the development of theoretical understandings and the psychosocial process of realisation of risk emerged as central to the initiation of referral. This was often apparent when approaching the age of an affected relative (anticipated onset) or when current circumstances emulate past experience (generational transference). This approach to charting complex psychological, social and contextual factors throughout the life course was methodologically beneficial and could have a wider utility in nursing and healthcare research. As a research tool it enhanced a holistic approach to patient care issues and was helpful as an aid to understanding health behaviours linked to familial risk.
Zhang, Tie-Ling; Hu, Ai-Ling; Xu, Hong-Lian; Zheng, Mei-Chun; Liang, Ming-Juan
The aim of this research was to explore quality of life (QOL) and acceptance of disability and social support of colostomy patients as well as the relationship between these factors. A descriptive, correlational study was conducted using four scales: the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30) and European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Colorectal Cancer-Specific Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-CR38) scales, the Acceptance of Disability Scale (ADS), and the Social Relational Quality Scale (SRQS). A convenience sample of 111 colostomy patients from four hospitals in Guangzhou who underwent colostomy operation at least one month prior to the study and who visited the stoma clinic or association from August 2011 to February 2012 was evaluated for inclusion in the study. All statistical analyses were performed using SPSS 17.0 software (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). The patients' general health status was better than the reference level recommended by European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer, and the overall ADS score was average. The SRQS score was similar to that found in a Hong Kong study. The general health status and dimensions of QOL were significantly correlated with ADS and all of its dimensions (P colostomy patients were closely related. Our results emphasize that patients should work to form rational values and close bonds with families and friends to achieve a better QOL.
The presentation describes an avionics and software architecture that has been developed through NASAs Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) division. The architecture is open-source, highly reliable with fault tolerance, and utilizes standard capabilities and interfaces, which are scalable and customizable to support future exploration missions. Specific focus areas of discussion will include command and data handling, software, human interfaces, communication and wireless systems, and systems engineering and integration.
McCoy, LaShelle E.
The next step in human exploration of space is beyond low Earth orbit and possibly to sites such as the Moon and Mars. Resupply of critical life support components for missions such as these are difficult or impossible. Life support processes for closing the loop of water, oxygen and carbon have to be identified .. Currently, there are many technologies proposed for terrestrial missions for waste, water, air processing and the creation of consumables. There are a variety of different approaches, but few address all of these issues simultaneously. One candidate is pyrolysis; a method where waste streams can be heated in the absence of oxygen to undergo a thermochemical conversion producing a series of bioproducts. Bioproducts like biochar made from non-edible biomass and human solid waste can possibly provide valuable benefits such as waste reduction, regolith fertilization for increased food production, and become a consumable for water processing and air revitalization systems. Syngas containing hydrogen, carbon monoxide and cbon dioxide, can be converted to methane and dimethyl ether to create propellants. Bio-oils can be utilized as a heating fuel or fed to bioreactors that utilize oil-eating microbes. Issues such as carbon sequestration and subsequent carbon balance of the closed system and identifying ideal process methods to achieve the highest quality products, whilst being energy friendly, will also be addressed.
Full Text Available Life quality of diabetic patients is always affected by psychosocial problems, physical disorders, and life style changes. It seems that the perceived social support could intervene in improving the life quality of these patients. The present study was carried out aiming to examine the relation between family social support and life quality of female patients with diabetes. This was a cross-sectional study. The statistical population included 173 diabetic females who were randomly selected from patients referred to Kermanshah diabetes research center. Data were collected using life quality questionnaire (Short Form-36 as well as perceived social support scale. The data analysis indicated that there is a significant correlation between family support and life quality of patients. Furthermore, concerning the components of life quality, there is a significant correlation between family social support and physical performance, physical limitation, tiredness, emotional health, social performance, pain, and general health of patients. However, no significant relation was found between family support and limitation of patients. Results showed that there is a direct relation between family support and the life quality in females with diabetes. Hence, it can be concluded that giving the family support to the female diabetic patients can increase their quality of life.
Full Text Available The growth of plants in Space is a fundamental issue for Space exploration. Plants play an important role in the Bioregenerative Life Support Systems (BLSS to sustain human permanence in extraterrestrial environments. Under this perspective, plants are basic elements for oxygen and fresh food production as well as air regeneration and psychological support to the crew. The potentiality of plant survival and reproduction in space is limited by the same factors that act on the earth (e.g. light, temperature and relative humidity and by additional factors such as altered gravity and ionizing radiation. This paper analyzes plant responses to space radiation which is recognized as a powerful mutagen for photosynthetic organisms thus being responsible for morpho-structural, physiological and genetic alterations. Until now, many studies have evidenced how the response to ionizing radiation is influenced by several factors associated both to plant characteristics (e.g. cultivar, species, developmental stage, tissue structure and/or radiation features (e.g. dose, quality and exposure time. The photosynthetic machinery is particularly sensitive to ionizing radiation. The severity of the damages induced by ionizing radiation on plant cell and tissues may depend on the capability of plants to adopt protection mechanisms and/or repair strategies. In this paper a selection of results from studies on the effect of ionizing radiations on plants at anatomical and eco-physiological level is reported and some aspects related to radioresistance are explored.
Richardson, M A; Post-White, J; Grimm, E A; Moye, L A; Singletary, S E; Justice, B
The pilot study used clinical trial methodology to differentiate the effects of imagery and support on coping, life attitudes, immune function, quality of life, and emotional well-being after breast cancer. Women (N = 47) who completed treatment for primary breast cancer, excluding stage IV, were randomly assigned to standard care (n = 15) or six weekly support (n = 16) or imagery (n = 16) sessions. Self-report measures included Ways of Coping-Cancer, Life Attitude Profile, Quality of Life (FACT-B), Profile of Mood States, and Functional Support. Immune measures included natural killer cell activity, plasma neopterin, interferon-gamma, interleukins 1 alpha, 1 beta, and 2, and beta-endorphin levels. Differences between groups over time were tested using general linear models, adjusted for pretest score and covariates (age, stage, and months posttreatment). For all women, interferon-gamma increased, neopterin decreased, quality of life improved, and natural killer activity remained unchanged. Compared with standard care, both interventions improved coping skills (seeking support) and perceived social support, and tended to enhance meaning in life. Support boosted overall coping and death acceptance. When comparing imagery with support, imagery participants tended to have less stress, increased vigor, and improved functional and social quality of life. Although imagery reduced stress and improved quality of life, both imagery and support improved coping, attitudes, and perception of support. The clinical implications of these changes warrant further testing.
van Vliet, Deliane; Persoon, Anke; Bakker, Christian; Koopmans, Raymond T C M; de Vugt, Marjolein E; Bielderman, Annemiek; Gerritsen, Debby L
To explore the aspects of daily life that give people with young-onset dementia (YOD) a sense of usefulness. Eighteen people with YOD and 21 informal caregivers participated in this qualitative study. Participants were recruited from specialized day-care centers for people with YOD in the Netherlands. Four focus groups were conducted with people with YOD, and four with informal caregivers. Focus groups were audio-recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using inductive content analysis. Four themes emerged from the analysis: (1) staying engaged, (2) loss in daily life, (3) coping and adaptation, and (4) external support. Staying engaged in activities that provide a sense of usefulness or participating in leisure and recreational activities as much as possible in daily life emerged as the key theme. Retaining a sense of usefulness was considered both important and possible by having social roles or participating in functional activities. The importance of activities providing a sense of usefulness seemed to decrease over time, while the need for pleasant activities seemed to increase. Experienced loss, coping, adaptation, and available external support are important parts of the context in which the person with YOD tries to engage in daily life as much as possible. Active coping styles and external support appear to play a facilitating role in staying engaged. It is important for people with YOD to have the opportunity to feel useful; especially in the early stages of the condition. Caregivers should be educated in ways to enhance a sense of usefulness and engagement in daily life for people with YOD.
Wang, Sasa; Yang, Xueyan; Attané, Isabelle
A significant number of rural Chinese men are facing difficulties in finding a spouse and may fail to ever marry due to a relative scarcity of women in the adult population. Research has indicated that marriage squeeze is a stressful event which is harmful to men's quality of life, and also weakens their social support networks. Using data collected in rural Chaohu city, Anhui, China, this study explores the effects of social support networks on quality of life of rural men who experience a marriage squeeze. The results indicate that the size of social contact networks is directly and positively associated with the quality of life of marriage-squeezed men, and moderate the negative effect of age on quality of life. Having no or limited instrumental support network and social contact network are double-edged swords, which have direct negative associations with the quality of life of marriage-squeezed men, and have moderate effects on the relationship between marriage squeeze and quality of life.
Barta, Daniel J.; Anderson, Molly S.; Lange, Kevin
Planetary protection represents an additional set of requirements that generally have not been considered by developers of technologies for Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS). Planetary protection guidelines will affect the kind of operations, processes, and functions that can take place during future human planetary exploration missions. Ultimately, there will be an effect on mission costs, including the mission trade space when planetary protection requirements begin to drive vehicle deisgn in a concrete way. Planetary protection requirements need to be considered early in technology development and mission programs in order to estimate these impacts and push back on requirements or find efficient ways to perform necessary functions. It is expected that planetary protection will be a significant factor during technology selection and system architecture design for future missions.
Lewis, John F.; Barido, Richard A.; Cross, Cynthia D.; Rains, George Edward
The Orion Multi Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) is the first crew transport vehicle to be developed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in the last thirty years. Orion is currently being developed to transport the crew safely beyond Earth orbit. This year, the vehicle focused on building the Exploration Flight Test 1 (EFT1) vehicle to be launched in 2014. The development of the Orion Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) System, focused on the completing the components which are on EFT1. Additional development work has been done to keep the remaining component progressing towards implementation for a flight tests in of EM1 in 2017 and in and EM2 in 2020. This paper covers the Orion ECLS development from April 2012 to April 2013.
Lewis, John F.; Barido, Richard A.; Boehm, Paul; Cross, Cynthia D.; Rains, George Edward
The Orion Multi Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) is the first crew transport vehicle to be developed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in the last thirty years. Orion is currently being developed to transport the crew safely beyond Earth orbit. This year, the vehicle focused on building the Exploration Flight Test 1 (EFT1) vehicle to be launched in September of 2014. The development of the Orion Active Thermal Control (ATCS) and Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) System, focused on the integrating the components into the EFT1 vehicle and preparing them for launch. Work also has started on preliminary design reviews for the manned vehicle. Additional development work is underway to keep the remaining component progressing towards implementation on the flight tests of EM1 in 2017 and of EM2 in 2020. This paper covers the Orion ECLS development from April 2013 to April 2014
Lewis, John F.; Barido, Richard A.; Cross, Cynthia D.; Carrasquillo, Robyn; Rains, George Edward
The Orion Multi Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) is the first crew transport vehicle to be developed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in the last thirty years. Orion is currently being developed to transport the crew safely from the Earth beyond Earth orbit. This year, the vehicle focused on building the Exploration Flight Test 1 (EFT1) vehicle to be launched in 2014. The development of the Orion Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) System, focused on the components which are on EFT1 which includes pressure control and active thermal control systems, is progressing through the design stage into manufacturing. Additional development work was done to keep the remaining component progressing towards implementation for a flight tests in 2017 and in 2020. This paper covers the Orion ECLS development from April 2011 to April 2012.
Cabrol, N. A.a; Wettergreen, D. S.; Whittaker, R.; Grin, E. A.; Moersch, J.; Diaz, G. Chong; Cockell, C.; Coppin, P.; Dohm, J. M.; Fisher, G.
The Life In The Atacama (LITA) project develops and field tests a long-range, solarpowered, automated rover platform (Zo ) and a science payload assembled to search for microbial life in the Atacama desert. Life is barely detectable over most of the driest desert on Earth. Its unique geological, climatic, and biological evolution have created a unique training site for designing and testing exploration strategies and life detection methods for the robotic search for life on Mars.
De Pascale, Stefania; De Micco, Veronica; Aronne, Giovanna; Paradiso, Roberta
For long time our research group has been involved in experiments aiming to evaluate the possibility to cultivate plants in Space to regenerate resources and produce food. Apart from investigating the response of specific growth processes (at morpho-functional levels) to space factors (namely microgravity and ionising radiation), wide attention has been dedicated to agro-technologies applied to ecologically closed systems. Based on technical and human dietary requirements, soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is studied as one of the candidate species for hydroponic (soilless) cultivation in the research program MELiSSA (Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative) of the European Space Agency (ESA). Soybean seeds show high nutritional value, due to the relevant content of protein, lipids, dietary fiber and biologically active substances such as isoflavones. They can produce fresh sprouts or be transformed in several edible products (soymilk and okara or soy pulp). Soybean is traditionally grown in open field where specific interactions with soil microrganisms occur. Most available information on plant growth, seed productivity and nutrient composition relate to cultivated varieties (cultivars) selected for soil cultivation. However, in a space outpost, plant cultivation would rely on soilless systems. Given that plant growth, seed yield and quality strictly depend on the environmental conditions, to make successful the cultivation of soybean in space, it was necessary to screen all agronomic information according to space constraints. Indeed, selected cultivars have to comply with the space growth environment while providing a suitable nutritional quality to fulfill the astronauts needs. We proposed an objective criterion for the preliminary theoretical selection of the most suitable cultivars for seed production, which were subsequently evaluated in bench tests in hydroponics. Several Space-oriented experiments were carried out in a closed growth chamber to
Conrick-Martin, Ian; O'Gorman, Joanne; Lenehan, Deirdre; Oshodi, Daniel; Scanlon, Nuala; O'Brien, Serena; Hannan, Margaret; Lynch, Maureen; Carton, Edmund
To examine nosocomial infections in a cohort of patients receiving extracorporeal life support (ECLS) at our institution and to identify the types of infections, impact of prophylaxis, and any apparent risk factors for infection. In a retrospective cohort study, we examined the records of all patients who received ECLS at our institution between August 2009 and March 2011. A prospective, daily, multidisciplinary assessment of all microbiological issues in these patients was carried out, including assessment of microbiological culture positivity and clinical evidence of infection. The results of these assessments were analysed in relation to HELICS (Hospital in Europe Link for Infection Control through Surveillance) and CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) diagnostic criteria. The use of antimicrobials in these patients was also assessed, as well as the overall bloodstream infection rate in ICU patients. Seventeen patients received ECLS during the study period, with a total of 445 ECLS days. Of these patients, 13 received respiratory (venovenous) ECLS and four received cardiac (venoarterial) ECLS. There were 17 infections in the cohort: 11 ventilator-associated pneumonias; four bloodstream infections (likely all catheter related, yielding a rate of 9.0 infections/1000 ECLS days); one skin and soft tissue infection; and one urinary tract infection. The bloodstream infection rate in the ICU population as a whole was 9.30/1000 bed-days in 2009 and 7.21/1000 bed-days in 2010. Resistant organisms were identified in 3/17 infections: one methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, one multidrug-resistant strain of Pseudomonas and one extended-spectrum Β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli. The median time to acquiring nosocomial infection was 25 days (interquartile range, 13-33 days). The first four ECLS patients received antibacterial (vancomycin) and antifungal (caspofungin) prophylaxis for the duration of ECLS, whereas the later cohort of 13 did not. In
Kovalev, Vladimir; Tikhomirov, Alexander A.; Nickolay Manukovsky, D..
It is known that snail meat is a high quality food that is rich in protein. Hence, heliciculture or land snail farming spreads worldwide because it is a profitable business. The possibility to use the snails of Helix pomatia in Biological Life Support System (BLSS) was studied by Japanese Researches. In that study land snails were considered to be producers of animal protein. Also, snail breeding was an important part of waste processing, because snails were capable to eat the inedible plant biomass. As opposed to the agricultural snail farming, heliciculture in BLSS should be more carefully planned. The purpose of our work was to develop a model for snail breeding in BLSS that can predict mass flow rates in and out of snail facility. There are three linked parts in the model called “Stoichiometry”, “Population” and “Mass balance”, which are used in turn. Snail population is divided into 12 age groups from oviposition to one year. In the submodel “Stoichiometry” the individual snail growth and metabolism in each of 12 age groups are described with stoichiometry equations. Reactants are written on the left side of the equations, while products are written on the right side. Stoichiometry formulas of reactants and products consist of four chemical elements: C, H, O, N. The reactants are feed and oxygen, products are carbon dioxide, metabolic water, snail meat, shell, feces, slime and eggs. If formulas of substances in the stoichiometry equations are substituted with their molar masses, then stoichiometry equations are transformed to the equations of molar mass balance. To get the real mass balance of individual snail growth and metabolism one should multiply the value of each molar mass in the equations on the scale parameter, which is the ratio between mass of monthly consumed feed and molar mass of feed. Mass of monthly consumed feed and stoichiometry coefficients of formulas of meat, shell, feces, slime and eggs should be determined experimentally
Leah M. Omilion-Hodges
Full Text Available After establishing a baseline understanding of some of the factors that influence and shape family end of life communication, empirical research centered on the communication tendencies of nationally-recognized palliative care clinicians is presented. Because death is no longer confined to the bedroom and individuals are increasingly turning to hospitals and health care institutes to assist with end of life, the role of palliative care practitioners is vital. To that end, common communication-rooted issues that may transpire among various medical personnel are explored. Focus on a shared underlying tension—care vs. cure—links the findings between family and palliative care clinician communication regarding end of life. Practical communication solutions and suggestions are offered to facilitate productive and mindful end of life communication between and among family members and health care practitioners.
Jennings, Valerie; Nicholl, Honor
Children's palliative care is a rapidly developing specialism internationally. Bereavement support is an integral component of children's palliative care but to date little research has investigated the bereavement support that mothers in Ireland use following the death of their child. The aim of this study was to explore mothers' experiences of bereavement support in Ireland following the death of their child from a life-limiting condition. A descriptive qualitative design was used. The study sample was ten mothers who had been bereaved in the previous 5 years. All mothers were recruited to the study by a gatekeeper from a voluntary organisation. Data were obtained through unstructured single interviews and analysed using conventional content analysis. The findings indicate that the mothers relied on a combination of informal and formal bereavement support. In addition to depending on others to provide support, the mothers described their ability to self-support. The findings show that mothers in Ireland use a variety of sources of support following the death of their child from a life-limiting condition. Health professionals involved in caring for families and children with a life-limiting condition should have an understanding of these sources.
Lambert, K. R.
Full Text Available The business environment is constantly changing. For organisations to gain competitive advantage, they require innovative methods to achieve future business goals. The capital assets of an organisation, such as its high-technology, complex systems, typically have long life-cycles, and are susceptible to obsolescence, requiring multifaceted support. Implementing integrated logistic support principles in supporting such systems improves the organisation’s bottom line and reduces the total ownership and life-cycle costs. The research consists of a literature review, a case study analysis, and a questionnaire.
Walczak, Adam; Butow, Phyllis N; Tattersall, Martin H N; Davidson, Patricia M; Young, Jane; Epstein, Ronald M; Costa, Daniel S J; Clayton, Josephine M
Patients are often not given the information needed to understand their prognosis and make informed treatment choices, with many consequently experiencing less than optimal care and quality-of-life at end-of-life. To evaluate the efficacy of a nurse-facilitated communication support program for patients with advanced, incurable cancer to assist them in discussing prognosis and end-of-life care. A parallel-group randomised controlled trial design was used. This trial was conducted at six cancer treatment centres affiliated with major hospitals in Sydney, Australia. 110 patients with advanced, incurable cancer participated. The communication support program included guided exploration of a question prompt list, communication challenges, patient values and concerns and the value of discussing end-of-life care early, with oncologists cued to endorse question-asking and question prompt list use. Patients were randomised after baseline measure completion, a regular oncology consultation was audio-recorded and a follow-up questionnaire was completed one month later. Communication, health-related quality-of-life and satisfaction measures and a manualised consultation-coding scheme were used. Descriptive, Mixed Modelling and Generalised Linear Mixed Modelling analyses were conducted using SPSS version 22. Communication support program recipients gave significantly more cues for discussion of prognosis, end-of-life care, future care options and general issues not targeted by the intervention during recorded consultations, but did not ask more questions about these issues or overall. Oncologists' question prompt list and question asking endorsement was inconsistent. Communication support program recipients' self-efficacy in knowing what questions to ask their doctor significantly improved at follow-up while control arm patients' self-efficacy declined. The communication support program did not impact patients' health-related quality-of-life or the likelihood that their health
Subjects with extrovert personality perceived significantly more lifestyle changes, reported a higher fear of rejection and a lower degree of adjustment to the disease than subjects with introvert personality. Subjects with late-stage HIV infection reported a lower social adjustment to the disease, a lower quality of life and more ...
Severien, I.; Tan, E.C.T.H.; Metz, J.C.; Biert, J.; Berden, H.J.J.M.
According to Dutch medical-education guidelines junior doctors are expected to be able to carry out first aid and basic life support. We determined the level of first aid and basic life support of junior doctors at the Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, The Netherlands. Of the 300 junior
Tan, E.C.T.H.; Severien, I.; Metz, J.C.; Berden, H.J.J.M.; Biert, J.
According to the Dutch medical education guidelines junior doctors are expected to be able to perform first aid and basic life support. A prospective study was undertaken to assess the level of first aid and basic life support (BLS) competence of junior doctors at the Radboud University Nijmegen
Akin, Ahmet; Arslan, Serhat; Çelik, Eyüp; Kaya, Çinar; Arslan, Nihan
The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between Academic Support and Life Satisfaction. Participants were 458 university students who voluntarily filled out a package of self-report instruments. Student Academic Support Scale and Satisfaction with Life Scale were used as measures. The relationships between student academic support…
Paterson, Ashley D.; Hakim-Larson, Julie
Results from 98 Arab youth in Canada showed that having a positive Arab culture orientation was related to greater family life satisfaction with family social support as a mediator. A positive European Canadian orientation was related to greater school life satisfaction, but this relation was not mediated by friend social support. Implications for…
The purpose of this study was to investigate the predictive value of optimism, perceived support from family and perceived support from faculty in determining life satisfaction of college students in Turkey. One hundred and thirty three students completed the Satisfaction with Life Scale (Diener et al., Journal of Personality Assessment…
Jenkins, Sharon Rae; Belanger, Aimee; Connally, Melissa Londono; Boals, Adriel; Duron, Kelly M.
First-generation undergraduate students face challenging cross-socioeconomic cultural transitions into college life. The authors compared first- and non-first-generation undergraduate students' social support, posttraumatic stress, depression symptoms, and life satisfaction. First-generation participants reported less social support from family…
Claudia Josefina Arias
Full Text Available This paper aims to carry out an analysis of the importance of social support and participation in old age. Contributions are presented first that various international agencies concerned with old age and aging have been made to strengthen this support and increased participation of older people. Different sources of social support are described: formal and informal interventions that can be made with varied promotion and preventive-wellness-care objectives and action at various levels-individual, group, family, organizational and community-and is made an analysis of the impact on the well-being have the resources of social support available to older people. Finally we reflect on Certain negative assumptions about the availability of support and social participation of older people in relation to recent research findings on the subject. Problematize the importance of these negative stereotypes about aging in general and on the participation and the availability of social support in particular in order to achieve more supportive environments that promote the development of the potential of older persons is concluded.
Donnellan, Warren J; Bennett, Kate M; Soulsby, Laura K
Spousal dementia carers have unique support needs; they are likely to disengage from their existing social networks as they need to devote more time to caring as the disease progresses. Previously we showed that support resources can facilitate resilience in carers, but the relationship is complex and varies by relationship type. The current paper aims to explore social support as a key component of resilience to identify the availability, function and perceived functional aspects of support provided to older spousal dementia carers. We conducted 23 in-depth qualitative interviews with spousal carers from two carer support groups and a care home in North West England. Family and friends served a wide range of functions but were equally available to resilient and non-resilient participants. Family support was perceived as unhelpful if it created feelings of over-dependence. Participants were less likely to resist involvement of grandchildren due to their relatively narrow and low-level support functions. Friend support was perceived as most helpful when it derived from those in similar circumstances. Neighbours played a functionally unique role of crisis management. These perceptions may moderate the effect of support on resilience. Family and friend support is not always sufficient to facilitate resilience. Support functions facilitate resilience only if they are perceived to match need. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Fischer, Jessica; Schoppmann, Kathrin; Laforsch, Christian
Manned space missions, as for example to the planet Mars, are a current objective in space exploration. During such long-lasting missions, aquatic bioregenerative life support systems (BLSS) could facilitate independence of resupply from Earth by regenerating the atmosphere, purifying water, producing food and processing waste. In such BLSS, microcrustaceans could, according to their natural role in aquatic ecosystems, link oxygen liberating, autotrophic algae and higher trophic levels, such as fish. However, organisms employed in BLSS will be exposed to high acceleration (hyper- g) during launch of spacecrafts as well as to microgravity (μ g) during space travel. It is thus essential that these organisms survive, perform and reproduce under altered gravity conditions. In this study we present the first data in this regard for the microcrustaceas Daphnia magna and Heterocypris incongruens. We found that after hyper- g exposure (centrifugation) approximately one third of the D. magna population died within one week (generally indicating that possible belated effects have to be considered when conducting and interpreting experiments during which hyper- g occurs). However, suchlike and even higher losses could be countervailed by the surviving daphnids' unaltered high reproductive capacity. Furthermore, we can show that foraging and feeding behavior of D. magna (drop tower) and H. incongruens (parabolic flights) are rarely altered in μ g. Our results thus indicate that both species are suitable candidates for BLSS utilized in space.
, the development of relationships between local residents and newcomers and the integration of newcomers in rural communities. In this way the paper gives insight into the relation between migration processes and social life change and it also gives new insight in how rural communities can attract newcomers......The paper explores processes of social change in rural communities by examining migration processes and social changes in remote rural locations in Denmark. Through a survey among both in-migrants and long-term residents focus lays on three themes: changes in rural life due to in-migration...
loss of consciousness,’ ’slowing of the process of cerebration,’and ’activated functions of the brain .’ This effect was eventually attributed to...pressure nervous syndrome (HPNS). HPNS is characterized by tremors, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, and marked changes in brain waves. The appearance of...support pump. The ventilation support. b 0’ DIVER S RESPRIPATORY SYSTEM FLOWP REMOVAL V ENT I LAR ICON ES I STANCE HXYOENATL I. HEATER OXIGENATiON THE:RMOR
This article reports on an exploration of teaching and learning through creating rudimentary stop-motion animations set up to identify how learning opportunities involving stop-motion animations can support student learning and science teacher education. Participants were student teachers, volunteers representing both secondary and primary school…
Nedjat-Haiem, Frances R; Carrion, Iraida V; Gonzalez, Krystana; Ell, Kathleen; Thompson, Beti; Mishra, Shiraz I
Numerous factors impede effective and timely end-of-life (EOL) care communication. These factors include delays in communication until patients are seriously ill and/or close to death. Gaps in patient-provider communication negatively affect advance care planning and limit referrals to palliative and hospice care. Confusion about the roles of various health care providers also limits communication, especially when providers do not coordinate care with other health care providers in various disciplines. Although providers receive education regarding EOL communication and care coordination, little is known about the roles of all health care providers, including nonphysician support staff working with physicians to discuss the possibility of dying and help patients prepare for death. This study explores the perspectives of physicians, nurses, social workers, and chaplains on engaging seriously ill patients and families in EOL care communication. Qualitative data were from 79 (medical and nonmedical) providers practicing at 2 medical centers in Central Los Angeles. Three themes that describe providers' perceptions of their roles and responsibility in talking with seriously ill patients emerged: (1) providers' roles for engaging in EOL discussions, (2) responsibility of physicians for initiating and leading discussions, and (3) need for team co-management patient care. Providers highlighted the importance of beginning discussions early by having physicians lead them, specifically due to their medical training and need to clarify medical information regarding patients' prognosis. Although physicians are a vital part of leading EOL communication, and are at the center of communication of medical information, an interdisciplinary approach that involves nurses, social workers, and chaplains could significantly improve patient care.
Full Text Available Background: Health-related quality of life (HRQoL in cancer has been related to several protective and risk factors such as perceived social support (PSS and coping. However, their effects on HRQoL once patients are in survivorship have not been fully described in pediatric samples. Objective: To describe and explore the relationship between HRQoL in survivorship and some factors (PSS, coping present while active treatment. Methods: Cross-sectional study. Forty-one pediatric cancer survivors answered HRQoL measures referred to survivorship, as well as PSS and coping measures referred to treatment period. Results: The discriminant function obtained succeeds to correctly classify 78% of the sample. Survivors who showed high HRQoL were those who, in the hardest moment while hospitalization, perceived satisfactory emotional support (from nurses and did not deploy a wide range of active coping resources to cope with stressful events (only social action coping strategy showed a significant relationship with HRQoL. Conclusions and implications: Considering these outcomes, educational and counseling interventions to strengthen patients' social networks and supportive relationships are recommended, specially, among health providers (nurses. These results highlight the importance of not overlooking opportunities to address the emotional needs of patients while hospitalization, since a positive and endurable effect has been observed at survivorship.
Nelson, M; Alling, A; Dempster, W F; Van Thillo, M; Allen, J P
Subsurface-flow constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment and nutrient recycling have a number of advantages in planetary exploration scenarios: they are odorless, relatively low labor and low energy, assist in purification of water and recycling of atmospheric CO2, and can directly grow some food crops. This article presents calculations for integration of wetland wastewater treatment with a prototype ground-based experimental facility ("Mars on Earth") supporting four people showing that an area of 4-6 m2 may be sufficient to accomplish wastewater treatment and recycling. Discharge water from the wetland system can be used as irrigation water for the agricultural crop area, thus ensuring complete reclamation and utilization of nutrients within the bioregenerative life support system. Because the primary requirements for wetland treatment systems are warm temperatures and lighting, such bioregenerative systems can be integrated into space life support systems because heat from the lights may be used for temperature maintenance in the human living environment. Subsurface-flow wetlands can be modified for space habitats to lower space and mass requirements. Many of its construction requirements can eventually be met with use of in situ materials, such as gravel from the Mars surface. Because the technology does not depend on machinery and chemicals, and relies more on natural ecological mechanisms (microbial and plant metabolism), maintenance requirements (e.g., pumps, aerators, and chemicals) are minimized, and systems may have long operating lifetimes. Research needs include suitability of Martian soil and gravel for wetland systems, system sealing and liner options in a Mars base, and determination of wetland water quality efficiency under varying temperature and light regimes.
Hoberecht, Mark A.
NASA s Energy Storage Project is one of many technology development efforts being implemented as part of the Exploration Technology Development Program (ETDP), under the auspices of the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD). The Energy Storage Project is a focused technology development effort to advance lithium-ion battery and proton-exchange-membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) technologies to meet the specific power and energy storage needs of NASA Exploration missions. The fuel cell portion of the project has as its focus the development of both primary fuel cell power systems and regenerative fuel cell (RFC) energy storage systems, and is led by the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) in partnership with the Johnson Space Center (JSC), the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), the Kennedy Space Center (KSC), academia, and industrial partners. The development goals are to improve stack electrical performance, reduce system mass and parasitic power requirements, and increase system life and reliability.
van Beinum, Amanda; Hornby, Laura; Ramsay, Tim; Ward, Roxanne; Shemie, Sam D; Dhanani, Sonny
The process of controlled donation after circulatory death (cDCD) is strongly connected with the process of withdrawal of life-sustaining therapy. In addition to impacting cDCD success, actions comprising withdrawal of life-sustaining therapy have implications for quality of palliative care. We examined pilot study data from Canadian intensive care units to explore current practices of life-sustaining therapy withdrawal in nondonor patients and described variability in standard practice. Secondary analysis of observational data collected for Determination of Death Practices in Intensive Care pilot study. Four Canadian adult intensive care units. Patients ≥18 years in whom a decision to withdraw life-sustaining therapy was made and substitute decision makers consented to study participation. Organ donors were excluded. None. Prospective observational data on interventions withdrawn, drugs administered, and timing of life-sustaining therapy withdrawal was available for 36 patients who participated in the pilot study. Of the patients, 42% died in ≤1 hour; median length of time to death varied between intensive care units (39-390 minutes). Withdrawal of life-sustaining therapy processes appeared to follow a general pattern of vasoactive drug withdrawal followed by withdrawal of mechanical ventilation and extubation in most sites but specific steps varied. Approaches to extubation and weaning of vasoactive drugs were not consistent. Protocols detailing the process of life-sustaining therapy withdrawal were available for 3 of 4 sites and also exhibited differences across sites. Standard practice of life-sustaining therapy withdrawal appears to differ between selected Canadian sites. Variability in withdrawal of life-sustaining therapy may have a potential impact both on rates of cDCD success and quality of palliative care. © The Author(s) 2015.
Hoehler, Tori M; Westall, Frances
The Mars Exploration Program Analysis Group (MEPAG) maintains a standing document that articulates scientific community goals, objectives, and priorities for mission-enabled Mars science. Each of the goals articulated within the document is periodically revisited and updated. The astrobiology-related Goal One, "Determine if life ever arose on Mars," has recently undergone such revision. The finalized revision, which appears in the version of the MEPAG Goals Document posted on September 24, 2010, is presented here.
McIsaac, R Scott; Lewis, Kaitlyn N; Gibney, Patrick A; Buffenstein, Rochelle
Methionine restriction is a widely reported intervention for increasing life span in several model organisms. Low circulating levels of methionine are evident in the long-lived naked mole-rat, suggesting that it naturally presents with a life-extending phenotype akin to that observed in methionine-restricted animals. Similarly, long-lived dwarf mice also appear to have altered methionine metabolism. The mechanisms underlying methionine-restriction effects on life-span extension, however, remain unknown, as do their potential connections with caloric restriction, another well-established intervention for prolonging life span. Paradoxically, methionine is enriched in proteins expressed in mitochondria and may itself serve an important role in the detoxification of reactive oxygen species and may thereby contribute to delayed aging. Collectively, we highlight the evidence that modulation of the methionine metabolic network can extend life span-from yeast to humans-and explore the evidence that sulfur amino acids and the concomitant transsulfuration pathway play a privileged role in this regard. However, systematic studies in single organisms (particularly those that exhibit extreme longevity) are still required to distinguish the fundamental principles concerning the role of methionine and other amino acids in regulating life span. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.
This paper explores the emotional resources generated by working class mothers to support their children at school. Analysis of material from qualitative interview research with a range working class mothers will focus on specific accounts of children's school lives to reveal how situated meanings can clash with institutional expectations. By…
Orte, Carmen; March, Marti X.; Vives, Margarita
In addition to educating and extending knowledge, university programs for seniors, at least the university program for seniors at the University of the Balearic Islands during the period analyzed, also fulfil physical and psychological health-related functions specifically related to our analysis of social support. This article reaches several…
Duchesne, Stephanie M.
The International Space Station (ISS) crew compliment has increased in size from 3 to 6 crew members . In order to support this increase in crew on ISS, the United States on-orbit Segment (USOS) has been outfitted with a suite of regenerative Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) hardware including an Oxygen Generation System(OGS), Waste and Hygiene Compartment (WHC), and a Water Recovery System (WRS). The WRS includes the Urine Processor Assembly (UPA) and the Water Processor Assembly (WPA). With this additional life support hardware, the ISS has achieved full redundancy in its on-orbit life support system between the USOS and Russian Segment (RS). The additional redundancy created by the Regenerative ECLS hardware creates the opportunity for independent support capabilities between segments, and for the first time since the start of ISS, the necessity to revise Life Support strategy agreements. Independent operating strategies coupled with the loss of the Space Shuttle supply and return capabilities in 2010 offer new and unique challenges. This paper will discuss the evolution of the ISS Life Support hardware strategy in support of 6-Crew on ISS, as well as the continued work that is necessary to ensure the support of crew and ISS Program objectives through the life of station.
Duchesne, Stephanie M.; Tressler, Chad H.
The International Space Station (ISS) crew complement has increased in size from 3 to 6 crew members. In order to support this increase in crew on ISS, the United States on-orbit Segment (USOS) has been outfitted with a suite of regenerative Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) hardware including an Oxygen Generation System (OGS), Waste and Hygiene Compartment (WHC), and a Water Recovery System (WRS). The WRS includes the Urine Processor Assembly (UPA) and the Water Processor Assembly (WPA). With this additional life support hardware, the ISS has achieved full redundancy in its on-orbit life support system between the t OS and Russian Segment (RS). The additional redundancy created by the Regenerative ECLS hardware creates the opportunity for independent support capabilities between segments, and for the first time since the start of ISS, the necessity to revise Life Support strategy agreements. Independent operating strategies coupled with the loss of the Space Shuttle supply and return capabilities in 2010 offer new and unique challenges. This paper will discuss the evolution of the ISS Life Support hardware strategy in support of 6-Crew on ISS, as well as the continued work that is necessary to ensure the support of crew and ISS Program objectives through the life of station
van Ramele, Serena; Aoki, Haruhito; Kerkhoffs, Gino M. M. J.; Gouttebarge, Vincent
Objectives: The primary aim was to explore the incidence of symptoms of common mental disorders (CMD; distress, sleep disturbance, anxiety/depression, adverse alcohol use) in retired professional football players and to explore the association between adverse life events and the onset of symptoms of
Manning, Lydia K.
Research suggests that spirituality is important to a large percentage of the older adult population and serves as a promoter of healthy aging. In this qualitative research I conducted and analyzed multiple interviews with 6 women aged 80 and older. Using multiple in-depth interviews I explored the interplay between spirituality and resilience over the life course. A grounded theory analysis of the 30 interviews was performed. The major finding is that participants used their spirituality as a tool to promote and maintain resilience in later life. I present the results as an interpretation of the participants’ perceptions of their spirituality, and indicate their reliance on spirituality to overcome hardship over the life course. In addition, I discuss the connections between spirituality and resilience. The roles these two constructs play in the lives of older adults are considered. PMID:23282796
Part of an annual review of mines and mineral resources in the U.S. An overview of nonfuel-mineral exploration in 2000 is presented. Principal exploration target was gold exploration in Latin America, Australia, and the U.S. There was a decrease of 18 percent in the exploration budget for gold as compared with the budget for 1999. Statistical information on nonfuel-mineral exploration worldwide is presented, analyzed, and interpreted.
Full Text Available Social support plays an important role in quality of life. The social support given to adolescents is thought to positively affect identity development and life quality as well as physical and psychosocial health. In this context, this study aims to examine the relationship between adolescents’ quality of life and social support levels. Designed as a relational screening model, the study was conducted at 5 secondary schools with 436 voluntarily participating students in Dulkadiroğlu, Kahraman Maraş during the 2016-2017 academic year. Within the study, the “Life Quality Scale for Children” and the “Social Relationship Principles Scale for Adolescents” was implemented. In the data analysis process, descriptive statistics, multiple regression analysis and Pearson Product-Moment Correlation analysis tests were used. According to the study results, a positive relationship was found between friends and family support and physical health, psychosocial health and quality of life.
Henninger, Donald L.
ECLS systems for very long-duration human missions to Mars will be designed to operate reliably for many years and will never be returned to Earth. The need for high reliability is driven by unsympathetic abort scenarios. Abort from a Mars mission could be as long as 450 days to return to Earth. Simply put, the goal of an ECLSS is to duplicate the functions the Earth provides in terms of human living and working on our home planet but without the benefit of the Earth's large buffers - the atmospheres, the oceans and land masses. With small buffers a space-based ECLSS must operate as a true dynamic system rather than independent processors taking things from tanks, processing them, and then returning them to product tanks. Key is a development process that allows for a logical sequence of validating successful development (maturation) in a stepwise manner with key performance parameters (KPPs) at each step; especially KPPs for technologies evaluated in a full systems context with human crews on Earth and on space platforms such as the ISS. This paper will explore the implications of such an approach to ECLSS development and the roles of ground and space-based testing necessary to develop a highly reliable life support system for long duration human exploration missions. Historical development and testing of ECLS systems from Mercury to the International Space Station (ISS) will be reviewed. Current work as well as recommendations for future work will be described.
Walsh, Sarah K.
The objectives of the High Performance EVA Glove task are to develop advanced EVA gloves for future human space exploration missions and generate corresponding standards by which progress may be quantitatively assessed. New technologies and manufacturing techniques will be incorporated into the new gloves to address finger and hand mobility, injury reduction and durability in nonpristine environments. Three prototypes will be developed, each focusing on different technological advances. A robotic assist glove will integrate a powered grasping system into the current EVA glove design to reduce astronaut hand fatigue and hand injuries. A mechanical counter pressure (MCP) glove will be developed to further explore the potential of MCP technology and assess its capability for countering the effects of vacuum or low pressure environments on the body by using compression fabrics or materials to apply the necessary pressure. A gas pressurized glove, incorporating new technologies, will be the most flight-like of the three prototypes. Advancements include the development and integration of aerogel insulation, damage sensing components, dust-repellant coatings, and dust tolerant bearings.
Tschürtz, Hans; Schedl, Gabriele
System failures in safety-critical domains can lead to harmful consequences for humans, the environment and for the system itself. The field of 'system safety' provides relief and aims at identifying possible risks already during the project planning phase of the system development. This requires modern project management support. The realisation of innovative ideas in software often in-creases the complexity and increasingly leads to dangerous system states or even system failures that put the safety of the system at risk.
memory to be dumped to an unused serial port on the UART. Pushing Return goes back to Level 1. System Config PEEP DUMP Disabled Presur Figure 11 Level 3...CPU Central Processing Unit DARPA Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency DEPMED DEPloyable MEDical hospital DC Direct Current also the continuous...Inspiratory to Expiratory Ratio IEEE Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers IV Intra- venous JHSS Joint Health Services Support JHU/APL Johns Hopkins
This fall I was working on two different projects that culminated into a redesign of the spacesuit LLB (long life battery). I also did some work on the PLSS (personal life support system) battery with EC. My first project was redlining the work instruction for completing DPAs (destructive physical analysis) on battery cells in the department. The purpose of this document is to create a standard process and ensure that the data in the same way no matter who carries out the analysis. I observed three DPAs, conducted one with help, and conducted two on my own all while taking notes on the procedure. These notes were used to write the final work instruction that will become is the department standard. My second project continued the work of the summer co-op before me. I was testing aluminum heat sinks for their ability to provide good thermal conduction and structural support during a thermal runaway event. The heat sinks were designed by the summer intern but there was not much time for testing before he left. We ran tests with a heater on the bottom of a trigger cell to try to drive thermal runaway and ensure that it will not propagate to adjacent cells. We also ran heat-to-vent tests in an oven to see if the assembly provided structural support and prevented sidewall rupture during thermal runaway. These tests were carried out at ESTA (energy systems test area) and are providing very promising results that safe, high performing (greater than 180 Wh/kg) designs are possible. My main project was a redesign of the LLB battery. Another summer intern did some testing and concluded that there was no simple fix to mitigate thermal runaway propagation hazards in the current design. The only option was a clean sheet redesign of the battery. I was given a volume and ideal energy density and the rest of the design was up to me. First, I created new heat sink banks in Creo using the information gathered in the metal heat sink tests from the summer intern. After this, I made
Support Program Office. The cooperation of the Life Support Program Office personnel, especially my wife, Lt Karla Moyer, made working on this project...ground support needed for aircraft and thus increases the bare base capability. Aircrew helmets not only provide protection for the pilot’s head, but
A. S. Marchenko
Full Text Available Abstract. The article proposed the use of simulation methods for evaluating the effectiveness of a stepped fan engine speed control while maintaining the air flow volume in the set boundaries of the «fan-filter» system. A detailed algorithm of the program made on the basis of an Any Logic software package. Is analyzed the possibility of using the proposed method in the design of ventilation systems.The proposed method allows at the design stage to determine the maximum replacement intervals of the systems filter elements, as well as to predict the time to switch the fan motor speeds. Using of the technique allows to refuse the complex air flow systems and maximize the life of the filter elements set.Methods of logical processes modeling allows to reduce construction costs and improve energy efficiency of buildings.
Voecks, G. E.; Seshan, P. K.
The limitations of the state-of-the-art for in situ sensors are discussed and a program of adaptation and enhancement of off-the-shelf sensor technologies and of innovation and research to develop more appropriate sensor technologies for life support systems is offered. By critically assessing the state-of-the-art in multifunctional sensors and smart sensors, research and development requirements for life support systems can be defined. Consideration is given to the desirable characteristics of smart sensors for life support applications, and some preliminary concepts for hierarchical integration of in situ sensors and control elements are presented.
Mignon, George V.; Frye, Robert J.
The synergy and linkages between bioregenerative life support systems and the materials produced by in-situ materials processing systems was investigated. Such systems produce a broad spectrum of byproducts such as oxygen, hydrogen, processed soil material, ceramics, refractory, and other materials. Some of these materials may be utilized by bioregenerative systems either directly or with minor modifications. The main focus of this project was to investigate how these materials can be utilized to assist a bioregenerative life support system. Clearly the need to provide a sustainable bioregenerative life support system for long term human habitation of space is significant.
The aim of this study was to explore experiences of positive growth in long-term childhood cancer survivors, from their perspective. Fifteen long-term survivors of childhood cancer provided descriptions of their experiences. Data were collected through face-to-face interviews and the analysis was based on Giorgi's phenomenological research method. The analysis of positive growth experienced by long-term childhood cancer survivors revealed three themes: self-directed life, normalcy in life, and inner maturity. Long-term survivors defined positive growth as a successful transition to a self-satisfactory life based on motivation acquired through their cancer experience and on subjective goal-setting, as well as becoming cancer-free and living a normal life within society. They seemed to have acquired optimistic, flexible, active attitudes toward life while demonstrating profound gratefulness and consideration of people around them, as well as prudent approaches to health. The findings of this study verified that long-term survivors of childhood cancer have grown positively due to their negative past experience. We expect these findings to contribute to the development of programs that promote positive growth in long-term childhood cancer survivors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sridhar, K R; Finn, J E; Kliss, M H
The atmosphere of Mars has many of the ingredients that can be used to support human exploration missions. It can be "mined" and processed to produce oxygen, buffer gas, and water, resulting in significant savings on mission costs. The use of local materials, called ISRU (for in-situ resource utilization), is clearly an essential strategy for a long-term human presence on Mars from the standpoints of self-sufficiency, safety, and cost. Currently a substantial effort is underway by NASA to develop technologies and designs of chemical plants to make propellants from the Martian atmosphere. Consumables for life support, such as oxygen and water, will probably benefit greatly from this ISRU technology development for propellant production. However, the buffer gas needed to dilute oxygen for breathing is not a product of a propellant production plant. The buffer gas needs on each human Mars mission will probably be in the order of metric tons, primarily due to losses during airlock activity. Buffer gas can be separated, compressed, and purified from the Mars atmosphere. This paper discusses the buffer gas needs for a human mission to Mars and consider architectures for the generation of buffer gas including an option that integrates it to the propellant production plant.
Hu, Enzhu; Bartsev, Sergey I.; Zhao, Ming; Liu, Professor Hong
The conceptual scheme of an experimental bioregenerative life support system (BLSS) for planetary exploration was designed, which consisted of four elements - human metabolism, higher plants, silkworms and waste treatment. 15 kinds of higher plants, such as wheat, rice, soybean, lettuce, mulberry, et al., were selected as regenerative component of BLSS providing the crew with air, water, and vegetable food. Silkworms, which producing animal nutrition for crews, were fed by mulberry-leaves during the first three instars, and lettuce leaves last two instars. The inedible biomass of higher plants, human wastes and silkworm feces were composted into soil like substrate, which can be reused by higher plants cultivation. Salt, sugar and some household material such as soap, shampoo would be provided from outside. To support the steady state of BLSS the same amount and elementary composition of dehydrated wastes were removed periodically. The balance of matter flows between BLSS components was described by the system of algebraic equations. The mass flows between the components were optimized by EXCEL spreadsheets and using Solver. The numerical method used in this study was Newton's method.
Sridhar, K. R.; Finn, J. E.; Kliss, M. H.
The atmosphere of Mars has many of the ingredients that can be used to support human exploration missions. It can be ``mined'' and processed to produce oxygen, buffer gas, and water, resulting in significant savings on mission costs. The use of local materials, called ISRU (for in-situ resource utilization), is clearly an essential strategy for a long-term human presence on Mars from the standpoints of self-sufficiency, safety, and cost. Currently a substantial effort is underway by NASA to develop technologies and designs of chemical plants to make propellants from the Martian atmosphere. Consumables for life support, such as oxygen and water, will probably benefit greatly from this ISRU technology development for propellant production. However, the buffer gas needed to dilute oxygen for breathing is not a product of a propellant production plant. The buffer gas needs on each human Mars mission will probably be in the order of metric tons, primarily due to losses during airlock activity. Buffer gas can be separated, compressed, and purified from the Mars atmosphere. This paper discusses the buffer gas needs for a human mission to Mars and consider architectures for the generation of buffer gas including an option that integrates it to the propellant production plant
CASCADE-SEA stands for Computer Assisted Curriculum Analysis, Design and Evaluation for Science (and mathematics) Education in Africa; and is the name of a computer program that was developed during the course of the study described in this book. This research was initiated to explore the potential of the computer to support curriculum materials development within the context of secondary level science and mathematics education in southern Africa. By carefully documenting the iterative proces...
Given R.B. Moloto; Lizelle Brink; J. Alewyn Nel
Orientation: After the 1994 democratic elections, South African organisations had to replace discriminatory policies with new policies to integrate all people and to embrace diversity. As a consequence stereotypes may be more prevalent in diverse working environments.Research purpose: The objective of this study was to explore the experience of stereotypes amongst the support staff within a higher education institution.Motivation for this study: Changes within South African working environ...
Bagdigian, Robert M.
Visions of lunar outposts often depict a collection of fixed elements such as pressurized habitats, in and around which human inhabitants spend the large majority of their surface stay time. In such an outpost, an efficient deployment of environmental control and life support equipment can be achieved by centralizing certain functions within one or a minimum number of habitable elements and relying on the exchange of gases and liquids between elements via atmosphere ventilation and plumbed interfaces. However, a rigidly fixed outpost can constrain the degree to which the total lunar landscape can be explored. The capability to enable widespread access across the landscape makes a lunar architecture with a high degree of surface mobility attractive. Such mobility presents unique challenges to the efficient deployment of environmental control and life support functions in multiple elements that may for long periods of time be operated independently. This paper describes some of those anticipated challenges.
Recent studies have identified the need to understand what shapes public attitudes toward space policy. I address this gap in the literature by developing a multivariate regression model explaining why many Americans support government spending on space exploration. Using pooled data from the 2006 and 2008 General Social Surveys, the study reveals that spending preferences on space exploration are largely apolitical and associated instead with knowledge and opinions about science. In particular, the odds of wanting to increase funding for space exploration are significantly higher for white, male Babyboomers with a higher socio-economic status, a fondness for organized science, and a post-secondary science education. As such, I argue that public support for NASA's spending epitomizes what Launius termed "Apollo Nostalgia" in American culture. That is, Americans benefitting most from the old social order of the 1960s developed a greater fondness for science that makes them more likely to lament the glory days of space exploration. The article concludes with suggestions for how to elaborate on these findings in future studies.
F. R. M. Oliveira
Full Text Available This paper aims at advancing on the validation of indicators of building concrete frames' sustainability from an integrated, life cycle perspective. A case study approach investigates (i feasibility of comparing sustainability performance of different flooring systems; and (ii similarity between environmental indicators trends for a typical flooring system and corresponding whole superstructure. Three residential buildings are analyzed, using either prestressed concrete flat (PCF slabs or reinforced concrete waffle (RCW slabs and flat beams exposed to a marine environment. SimaPro 7.3 supports calculation of the environmental indicators. Service life estimation is used to ensure functional equivalence and to form a basis for life cycle costing. PCF slabs showed best functional/technical and economic results but were outperformed by RCW slabs' environmental results. Most environmental indicators showed the same trend for both typical floor and whole superstructure.
Xu, J; Ou, L
To examine the extent social support mediates resilience and quality of life in Wenchuan earthquake survivors. Originals. Self-report psychological questionnaires, the standard Chinese 12-item Short Form (SF-12v2), the Resilience Scale for Adults (RSA), and the Social Support Rating Scale (SSRS) were used to interview a total of 2080 survivors from 19 counties in the 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake area. A regression analysis was conducted to evaluate the mediating effect of social support on quality of life. Males and individuals with a higher level of education were found to have a better quality of life. The association between resilience and quality of life improved after social support was included, suggesting that at least a part of this association was mediated by the level of social support provided. This analysis highlighted that the level of resilience and quality of life after an earthquake was associated with the level of social support. This result has clear policy implications, and indicates that more focus needs to be placed on policies that aim for the provision of early mental health intervention and social support to improve the quality of life of earthquake survivors. Copyright © 2014 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bitter, Neis A; Roeg, Diana P K; van Nieuwenhuizen, Chijs; van Weeghel, Jaap
Housing services aim to support people with mental illness in their daily life and recovery. As the level of recovery differs between service users, the quality of life and care needs also might vary. However, the type and amount of care and support that service users receive do not always match their recovery. In order to improve the quality of care, this study aims to explore whether subgroups of service users exist based on three dimensions of recovery and to examine and compare the quality of life and care needs of the persons in these subgroups. Latent class analysis was performed with data from 263 service users of housing services in the Netherlands. Classes were based on three variables: personal recovery (Mental Health Recovery Measure), social recovery (Social Functioning Scale), and clinical recovery (Brief Symptom Inventory). Subsequently, the quality of life (MANSA) and care needs (CANSAS) of the different classes were analysed by the use of descriptive and inferential statistics. Three classes could be distinguished. Class 1 (45%) comprised of people who score the highest of the three classes in terms of personal and social recovery and who experience the least number of symptoms. People in class 2 (44%) and class 3 (11%) score significantly lower on personal and social recovery, and they experience significantly more symptoms compared to class 1. The distinction between class 2 and 3 can be made on the significantly higher number of symptoms in class 3. All three classes differ significantly on quality of life and unmet needs. The quality of life of service users of housing services needs improvement, as even persons in the best-recovered subgroup have a lower quality of life than the average population. Workers of housing services need to be aware of the recovery of a client and what his or her individual needs and goals are. Furthermore, better care (allocation) concerning mental and physical health and rehabilitation is needed. Care should be
Forster, Elizabeth; Hafiz, Alaa
Without question a child's death is a devastating event for parents and families. Health professionals working with the dying child and family draw upon their expertise and experience to engage with children, parents and families on this painful journey. This is a delicate and sensitive area of practice and has strong and penetrating effects on health professionals. They employ physical, emotional, spiritual and problem solving strategies to continue to perform this role effectively and to protect their continued sense of wellbeing. To explore health professionals' perceptions of bereavement support surrounding the loss of a child. The research was underpinned by social constructionism. Semi-structured interviews were held with 10 health professionals including doctors, nurses and social workers who were directly involved in the care of the dying child and family in 7 cases of paediatric death. Health professional narratives were analysed consistent with Charmarz's (2006) approach. For health professionals, constructions around coping emerged as peer support, personal coping strategies, family support, physical impact of support and spiritual beliefs. Analysis of the narratives also revealed health professionals' perceptions of their support provision. Health professionals involved in caring for dying children and their families use a variety of strategies to cope with the emotional and physical toll of providing support. They also engage in self-assessment to evaluate their support provision and this highlights the need for self-evaluation tools in paediatric palliative care.
Khusaifan, Shatha Jamil; El Keshky, Mogeda El Sayed
Caring for someone with Alzheimer's disease (AD) is very challenging. Social support may play a crucial role in helping caregivers to adapt better to their caregiving role. The aim of this study is to explore the role of social support as a moderator variable of the relationship between depression and life satisfaction in caregivers for patients with AD in Saudi Arabia. In this cross-sectional study, 122 caregivers for patients with AD completed questionnaires assessing informal social support, depressive symptoms, and general life satisfaction. The demographic characteristics showed that 79% (n = 96) of caregivers were females and between the ages of 20 and 50. Higher levels of social support positively correlated with reported higher levels of life satisfaction (r = 0.483, p networks may help in coping with caregiving burden and better quality of life.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Life support systems on human spacecraft are designed to provide a safe, habitable environment for the astronauts, and one of the most significant challenges is...
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Partnering with National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) to develop several cryogenically based life support technologies to be used in mine...
Madsen, Ida E H; Jorgensen, Anette F B; Borritz, Marianne
be modified by factors outside the working environment. This article examines the modifying role of private life social support in the relation between high strain work and the development of severe depressive symptoms. METHODS: Data were questionnaire-based, collected from a cross-occupational sample of 1......,074 Danish employees. At baseline, all participants were free of severe depressive symptoms, measured by the Mental Health Inventory. High strain work was defined by the combination of high psychological demands at work and low control, measured with multi-dimensional scales. Private life social support......, neither high strain work nor low private life social support statistically significantly predicted depressive symptoms. However, participants with joint exposure to high strain work and low private life social support had an Odds ratio (OR) for severe depressive symptoms of 3.41 (95% CI: 1...
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NASA objective of expanding the human experience into the far reaches of space requires the development of regenerable life support systems. This proposal...
Dirkzwager, A.J.E.; Bramsen, I.; Ploeg, H.M. van der
This study examined both cross-sectionally and longitudinally the relationship between social support, coping strategies, additional stressful life events, and symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among Dutch former peacekeeping soldiers. Two groups of peacekeepers were investigated: 311
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — WATER WALLS (WW) takes an approach to providing a life support system that is biologically and chemically passive, using mechanical systems only for plumbing to...
The purpose of this study is to see whether emotional support from fellow church members is associated with self-forgiveness in late life. The data come from a longitudinal nationwide survey of older adults. An effort is made to contribute to the literature by comparing and contrasting the effects of two church-based support measures: the amount of emotional support that is provided by fellow church members and satisfaction with emotional support from co-religionists. The findings suggest tha...
van Hooft, Susanne M; Dwarswaard, Jolanda; Bal, Roland; Strating, Mathilde M; van Staa, AnneLoes
A major challenge for nurses in hospital care is supporting chronically ill patients in self-managing their chronic condition. Self-management support requires a broad range of competencies and is often regarded as difficult to implement in daily practice. So far, we have no insight in nurses' behavior in daily practice with regard to self-management support and what factors may influence their behavior. The aim of this survey was to explore (i) the self-reported behavior on self-management support of nurses in a university hospital; and (ii) the factors influencing this behavior. Total sample approach with cross-sectional design. Nurses employed by a university hospital received an invitation for the research through e-mail containing a link to the survey. Of the 2054 nurses who had been invited to participate, 598 responded (29.11%). The entire questionnaire was completed by 379 nurses, 32 of whom indicated they did not work with patients on a daily basis. After excluding those 32, the final sample included 347 valid responses (16.9%). 90.5% of the respondents was female, mean age was 38.8 years. In a web-based questionnaire, the self-efficacy and performance in self-management support instrument (SEPSS-36) was used, with additional questions about attitude, subjective norms, and perceived barriers for self-management support. This study shows that nurses are self-confident of their capabilities to support self-management. They also feel that most of the time they acted accordingly. Still, a significant gap between self-efficacy and behavior of self-management support was found (pmanagement support, but this did not influence their behavior (p>0.05). Regression analysis showed that perceived lack of own knowledge, the presumed absence of a patients' need for self-management support, and nurses' self-efficacy in self-management support are factors that influence the behavior of self-management support. 41.1% of the variance of behavior is explained by these three
Metcalf, Jordan; Peterson, Laurie; Carrasquillo, Robyn; Bagdigian, Robert
Although NASA is currently considering a number of future human space exploration mission concepts, detailed mission requirements and vehicle architectures remain mostly undefined, making technology investment strategies difficult to develop and sustain without a top-level roadmap to serve as a guide. This paper documents the process and results of an effort to define a roadmap for Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) capabilities required to enhance the long-term operation of the International Space Station (ISS) as well as enable beyond-Low Earth Orbit (LEO) human exploration missions. Three generic mission types were defined to serve as a basis for developing a prioritized list of needed capabilities and technologies. Those are 1) a short duration micro-gravity mission; 2) a long duration microgravity mission; and 3) a long duration partial gravity (surface) exploration mission. To organize the effort, a functional decomposition of ECLSS was completed starting with the three primary functions: atmosphere, water, and solid waste management. Each was further decomposed into sub-functions to the point that current state-of-the-art (SOA) technologies could be tied to the sub-function. Each technology was then assessed by NASA subject matter experts as to its ability to meet the functional needs of each of the three mission types. When SOA capabilities were deemed to fall short of meeting the needs of one or more mission types, those gaps were prioritized in terms of whether or not the corresponding capabilities enable or enhance each of the mission types. The result was a list of enabling and enhancing capability needs that can be used to guide future ECLSS development, as well as a list of existing hardware that is ready to go for exploration-class missions. A strategy to fulfill those needs over time was then developed in the form of a roadmap. Through execution of this roadmap, the hardware and technologies intended to meet exploration needs
Mathieson, C. M.; Logan-Smith, L. L.; Phillips, J.; MacPhee, M.; Attia, E. L.
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether social support contributes to better quality of life and psychological state of head and neck oncology patients. DESIGN: A structured questionnaire, administered orally to patients face-to-face, with specific questions about demographic and medical information and social support and two standardized scales; a cancer-specific quality of life scale and a depression scale. SETTING: Head and Neck Oncology Clinic, an institutional referral centre providing ambulator...
Spurlock, Paul; Spurlock, Jack M.; Evanich, Peggy L.
An overview of recent developments in process-control technology which might have applications in future advanced life support systems for long-duration space operations is presented. Consideration is given to design criteria related to control system selection and optimization, and process-control interfacing methodology. Attention is also given to current life support system process control strategies, innovative sensors, instrumentation and control, and innovations in process supervision.
Dixon M; Stasiak M.; Rondeau T.; Graham T
Research and technology developments surrounding Advanced Life-Support (ALS) began at the University of Guelph in 1992 as the Space and Advanced Life Support Agriculture (SALSA) program, which now represents Canada’s primary contribution to ALS research. The early focus was on recycling hydroponic nutrient solutions, atmospheric gas analysis and carbon balance, sensor research and development, inner/intra-canopy lighting and biological filtration of air in closed systems. With funding from fe...
Full Text Available The relationship between emotional cognitive adjustment and perceived social support and determining the share of each one of these variable in quality of life for disabled athletes is an important factor to know. We selected 100 people among disabled athletes through convenience sampling and were asked to fill emotional cognitive adjustment strategies scale questionnaire, perceived social support questionnaire and quality of life scale. Results revealed that social support parameters have significant relation with parameters required for quality of life. Similarly, all the parameters regarding emotional cognitive adjustments (except perspective taking revealed positive and significant relation with all parameters of quality of life (including physical, psychological, interpersonal relation and environment. However, the perspective taking parameter has only positive and significant relation with psychological dimension of quality of life, and it has no significant relation with other dimensions. Meanwhile, negative parameters of emotional cognitive adjustment, self-blaming and catastrophic thinking has no significant relation with any parameters of quality of life. Rumination has only negative significant relation with interpersonal relation dimension of quality of life and blaming others parameter had negative and significant relation with the environment. Results of stepwise regression table show that among studies parameters, positive refocusing and important people are in the regression equation. In nutshell, positive refocusing and social support of influenced people impart to raise their quality of life.
Full Text Available Introduction. Epidermolysis bullosa (EB is a group of rare genetic skin disorders. Much is known about the disease from the medical perspective, but there are still only a few studies about the psychological condition of the patient or his family. The birth of a child with EB may become a trauma for the parents. Parents’ feelings also vary depending on the type of EB. Objective. The main aim of the study was to determine whether, and in what way, having a child suffering from EB influences parents’ life and psychological well-being. Due to this aim, life satisfaction, life attitudes and the need for social support were measured. Material and methods. Twenty-one parents of ill children were studied (13 mothers, 8 fathers; 16 parents had one child with EB and 5 parents two. Six children suffered from EB simplex, 1 child from junctional EB and 14 from dystrophic EB. The course of the disease was mild in 9 children and severe in 12. As the control group 22 parents of healthy children were chosen. Results. The parents of ill children have a greater need for social support from family, both general, and instrumental, appraisal and emotional. The need for support from medical institutions is at a low level. In life attitudes there are also significant differences. Parents of ill children have a higher level of existential vacuum, and a lower level of life control and life purpose. Also the life satisfaction is lower. Conclusions. The results of our study indicate that a child suffering from EB is a heavy burden for the parents.
Coulson, Neil S; Bullock, Emma; Rodham, Karen
A growing number of online communities have been established to support those who self-harm. However, little is known about the therapeutic affordances arising from engagement with these communities and resulting outcomes. The aim of this study was to explore the presence of therapeutic affordances as reported by members of self-harm online support communities. In total, 94 respondents (aged 13-63 years, mean=23.5 years; 94% female) completed an online survey exploring their experiences of engaging with a self-harm online support community. Respondents varied in terms of how long they had been accessing an online community, with 22% (21/94) accessing less than 1 year, 39% (37/94) 1 to 2 years, 14% (13/94) 2 to 3 years, and 24.5% (23/94) more than 3 years. Responses were analyzed using deductive thematic analysis. The results of our analysis describe each of the five therapeutic affordances that were present in the data, namely (1) connection, the ability to make contact with others who self-harm for the purposes of mutual support and in so doing reduce feelings of loneliness and isolation; (2) adaptation, that is, how use of online support varies in relation to the personal circumstances of the individual user; (3) exploration, that is, the ability to learn about self-harm and learn about strategies to reduce or stop self-harming behavior; (4) narration, that is, the ability to share experiences, as well as read about the experiences of others; and (5) self-presentation, that is, how and what users present about themselves to others in the online community. Our findings suggest that engagement with self-harm online support communities may confer a range of therapeutic benefits for some users, which may serve to minimize the psychosocial burden of self-harm and promote positive coping strategies. In addition, the online nature of the support available may be helpful to those who are unable to access face-to-face support.
McHugh, Neil; van Exel, Job; Mason, Helen; Godwin, Jon; Collins, Marissa; Donaldson, Cam; Baker, Rachel
Criteria used by the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) to assess life-extending, end-of-life (EoL) treatments imply that health gains from such treatments are valued more than other health gains. Despite claims that the policy is supported by societal values, evidence from preference elicitation studies is mixed and in-depth research has shown there are different societal viewpoints. Few studies elicit preferences for policies directly or combine different approaches to understand preferences. Survey questions were designed to investigate support for NICE EoL guidance at national and regional levels. These 'Decision Rule' and 'Treatment Choice' questions were administered to an online sample of 1496 UK respondents in May 2014. The same respondents answered questions designed to elicit their agreement with three viewpoints (previously identified and described) in relation to provision of EoL treatments for terminally ill patients. We report the findings of these choice questions and examine how they relate to each other and respondents' viewpoints. The Decision Rule questions described three policies: DA - a standard 'value for money' test, applied to all health technologies; DB - giving special consideration to all treatments for terminal illnesses; and DC - giving special consideration to specific categories of treatments for terminal illnesses e.g. life extension (as in NICE EoL guidance) or those that improve quality-of-life (QoL). Three Treatment Choices were presented: TA - improving QoL for patients with a non-terminal illness; TB - extending life for EoL patients; and TC - improving QoL at the EoL. DC received most support (45%) with most respondents giving special consideration to EoL only when treatments improved QoL. The most commonly preferred treatment choices were TA (51%) and TC (43%). Overall, this study challenges claims about public support for NICE's EoL guidance and the focus on life extension at EoL and substantiates
Sun, Ning; Lv, Dong-Mei; Man, Jing; Wang, Xiao-Yu; Cheng, Qin; Fang, Hong-Li; Fu, Zhen; Liu, Shuang; Wu, Qun-Hong
To investigate the relationship between quality of life and social support in female nurses. Nurses play an important role in providing care and managing patients' health in hospitals. However, limited studies have shown an association between quality of life and social support in female nurses in China. Questionnaire survey. To investigate 320 full-time female nurses in different departments at four comprehensive hospitals in Harbin with a cross-sectional correlational design using questionnaires. A demographic data questionnaire, menopause-specific quality of life questionnaire and social support scale were used. The scores on the physical (36·93 ± 17·65) and psychological (17·57 ± 9·45) subscales were higher than those of the vasomotor (4·88 ± 3·48) and sexual (4·53 ± 3·23) subscales of quality of life. The average score of objective support (25·12 ± 4·32) was higher than those of subjective support (9·80 ± 3·04) and utilisation of social support (7·80 ± 1·97). A significant association between quality of life and social support was found (p quality of life. Social support as a buffer for pressure can influence individual stress perception, help individuals cope with pressure and reduce the negative impact of stress on mental and physical health, thus improving different aspects of health. Enhancing social support in an active environment would allow female nurses to enjoy a better quality of life in their clinical practice. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Manning, Lydia K.
Against the backdrop of a dramatic increase in the number of individuals living longer, particularly older women, it is vital that researchers explore the intersection of spirituality, gender, and aging. In this qualitative study of six women aged 80 and older, I explore, using, multiple, in-depth interviews, the experiences of spirituality over the life course. A hermeneutic phenomenological analysis of the interviews was performed and provided insights into the nature of their “lived experience” allowing for the understanding of the essence of their spirituality. The results are presented as an interpretation of the participants’ perceptions of their spirituality and spiritual experiences. For the women in this study, the essence of their spirituality lies in: being profoundly grateful; engaging in complete acceptance; and having a strong sense of assuredness, while stressing the linkages and importance of spirituality. Implications for understanding spirituality for older adults are considered. PMID:23185856
Foster, Larry W; McLellan, Linda J
A large number of Americans would rather rely on family and friends more than their physicians about end-of-life care and decisions. Moving beyond traditional clinical ethics and its dyadic focus on the physician-patient relationship, this article presents an approach to ethical decision-making at the end of life that is more inclusive of the patient's family and has the potential to advance social work practice in end-of-life care. Initial attention is given to how psychosocial and bioethical perspectives and practices interact to shape understanding of moral issues in end-of-life decisions. Morally relevant principles are then adapted from contextual therapy as being useful for including more of a family focus and viewing ethical decision-making at the end of life as a family process. Specifically, focus is on exploring the ethical dynamics of family systems that impact the decision-making process and translating psychosocial insight into ethical discussions that are supportive of families. The case of a patient with sudden and unexpected brain death and without advance directives demonstrates one family's unresolved grief and illustrates how its members were helped to reason morally about end-of-life choices. Contributions of a social worker and bioethicist are illustrated.
LaValley, Susan A
Caregivers of those with life-limiting illness face many complicated tasks, including providing direct patient care, communicating with professionals, and managing the logistical demands of daily activities. To assist with caregiving responsibilities, caregivers require social support from social network members at all points in the illness process. This study analyzes themes from interviews with 61 caregivers of patients enrolled in hospice services to identify the types of support caregivers mobilize from new social network members for social support during the end-of-life care process. Themes indicate that caregivers receive accessible, immediate, caregiver-centered emotional support from hospice health care professionals, and situationally tailored, understandable informational support from other types of professionals. In addition, caregivers received overlapping emotional and informational support from hospice health care professionals. Findings enhance the understanding of how caregivers receive tailored emotional and informational support.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Recent advances in ontology development support a rich description of entities that are modeled within a domain and how these entities relate to each other. However,...
Gerstel, Eric; Engelberg, Ruth A.; Koepsell, Thomas; Curtis, J. Randall
Rationale: Most deaths in the intensive care unit (ICU) involve withholding or withdrawing multiple life-sustaining therapies, but little is known about how to proceed practically and how this process affects family satisfaction. Objectives: To examine the duration of life-support withdrawal and its association with overall family satisfaction with care in the ICU. Methods: We studied family members of 584 patients who died in an ICU at 1 of 14 hospitals after withdrawal of life support and for whom complete medical chart and family questionnaires were available. Measurements and Main Results: Data concerning six life-sustaining interventions administered during the last 5 days of life were collected. Families were asked to rate their satisfaction with care using the Family Satisfaction in the ICU questionnaire. For nearly half of the patients (271/584), withdrawal of all life-sustaining interventions took more than 1 day. Patients with a prolonged (>1 d) life-support withdrawal were younger, stayed longer in the ICU, had more life-sustaining interventions, had less often a diagnosis of cancer, and had more decision makers involved. Among patients with longer ICU stays, a longer duration in life-support withdrawal was associated with an increase in family satisfaction with care (P = 0.037). Extubation before death was associated with higher family satisfaction with care (P = 0.009). Conclusions: Withdrawal of life support is a complex process that depends on patient and family characteristics. Stuttering withdrawal is a frequent phenomenon that seems to be associated with family satisfaction. Extubation before death should be encouraged if possible. PMID:18703787
The purpose of the study was two-fold: (1) to examine the relationships among self-care, social support, and quality of life in adult cancer patients receiving radiotherapy while the selected basic conditioning factors of age, marital and socio-economic status, living arrangement, stage and site of cancer were statistically controlled; and (2) to test a theoretical model which postulated that (a) quality of life was predicted jointly by the selected basic conditioning factors, social support and self-care, and (b) self-care was predicted jointly by the selected basic conditioning factors and social support. A convenience sample of 112 adult cervical and head/neck cancer patients receiving radiotherapy was obtained from radiotherapy outpatient clinic in three hospitals located in Bangkok, Thailand. Results of the study indicated positive relationships among self-care, social support, and quality of life. Socio-economic status, site of cancer, and self-care were significant predictors for reported quality of life. Social support appeared to be a significant predictor of quality of life indirectly through self-care. Socio-economic status and social support were also significant predictors of self-care, whereas, stage and site of cancer seemed to predict self-care indirectly through social support.
Givens, Jane L; Mitchell, Susan L
Popular support for euthanasia is known to vary according to sociodemographic characteristics. However, little is known about whether support is associated with concerns regarding the emotional, physical, and economic burdens of end-of-life care. This study used data from the 1998 General Social Survey, a national survey of community-dwelling adults. The outcome variable assessed the respondents' support for a doctor's right to end life in the setting of terminal illness. Independent variables assessed the following concerns: 1) concern about the emotional burden of end-of-life decision making for family members; 2) worry about the economic burden of terminal illness; 3) concern about pain at the end of life; 4) worry that lack of money or insurance will result in second-class end-of-life care; and 5) belief that their religious community will be helpful at the end of life. Multivariable logistic regression estimated the independent effect of these concerns on support for euthanasia, adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics. Of 786 respondents, 70.6% approved of euthanasia in the setting of terminal illness. In adjusted analyses, respondents with concerns about the emotional toll of decision making on family members, economic burden, and poor health care because of lack of insurance were significantly more likely to support euthanasia. Respondents with faith in the helpfulness of their religious community were less likely to support euthanasia. In conclusion, emotional and economic concerns about end-of-life care were associated with support for the right to euthanasia. Future work can evaluate whether alleviating these concerns may reduce the perceived desire for euthanasia by patients near the end of life.
Jones, Harry W.
Recycling space life support systems have been built and tested since the 1960s and have operated on the International Space Station (ISS) since the mid 2000s. The development of space life support has been guided by a general consensus focused on two important related goals, increasing system closure and reducing launch mass. High closure is achieved by recycling crew waste products such as carbon dioxide and condensed humidity. Recycling directly reduces the mass of oxygen and water for the crew that must be launched from Earth. The launch mass of life support can be further reduced by developing recycling systems with lower hardware mass and reduced power. The life support consensus has also favored using biological systems. The goal of increasing closure using biological systems suggests that food should be grown in space and that biological processors be used for air, water, and waste recycling. The goal of reducing launch mass led to use of Equivalent System Mass (ESM) in life support advocacy and technology selection. The recent consensus assumes that the recycling systems architecture developed in the 1960s and implemented on ISS will be used on all future long missions. NASA and other project organizations use the standard systems engineering process to guide hardware development. The systems process was used to develop ISS life support, but it has been less emphasized in planning future systems for the moon and Mars. Since such missions are far in the future, there has been less immediate need for systems engineering analysis to consider trade-offs, reliability, and Life Cycle Cost (LCC). Preliminary systems analysis suggests that the life support consensus concepts should be revised to reflect systems engineering requirements.
Vestergaard, L. D.; Løfgren, Bo; Jessen, C.
Pediatric Basic Life Support Self-training is comparable to Instructor-led Training: A randomized manikin study.......Pediatric Basic Life Support Self-training is comparable to Instructor-led Training: A randomized manikin study....
Bush, David R.
Cryogenic life support technology, used by NASA to protect crews working around hazardous gases soon could be called on for a number of life-saving applications as well as the agency's new human spaceflight endeavors. This technology under development in Kennedy Space Center's Biomedical Laboratory has the potential to store more than twice the amount of breathable air than traditional compressed gas systems. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) is contributing to the funding for this project in the hopes that the liquid air-based systems could change the way workers dependent on life support technologies accomplish their mission, improving their safety and efficiency.
Farmer Jennifer M
serious effect on family life and finances, while almost half perceived there to be an effect on the spouse, quality of life, and the relationship between home and work. However, these topics were reportedly not discussed within genetic counseling sessions 2728. Overall, there is limited information about the experiences of transitional life events in FRDA, as well as a lack of recommendations for genetic counselors and other health care providers to assist patients through these events. Our study investigated perceptions of patients with Friedreich ataxia to 1 identify key transitional events and specific needs associated with events; 2 describe perception of factors to facilitate progression through the identified events; and 3 explore the actual or potential role of the health care provider in facilitating adaptation to the identified events. Data were used to make suggestions for developmental genetic counseling approaches in the context of ongoing care of clients with hereditary, progressive, neurodegenerative conditions.
Monson, Eva; Brunet, Alain; Caron, Jean
To systematically compare specific domains of quality of life and social support as they pertain to the full trauma spectrum of (i) healthy individuals, (ii) those with ongoing post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), (iii) remitted PTSD, or (iv) those who failed to develop PTSD in spite of trauma exposure. Data were from the first wave of a psychiatric epidemiological catchment area study based in Montreal, Canada (N = 2 433). PTSD diagnosis, quality of life, and social support outcomes were established by face-to-face structured interviews using standardized instruments. Outcomes were compared across the four groups. Although the between-group contrasts suggested that those currently suffering from PTSD generally had a poorer quality of life across domains, the group in remission from PTSD did not. Exploratory analyses concerning subscales for quality of life showed particular impairments for specific domains dependent on PTSD diagnosis, with remitted and ongoing PTSD showing significantly different quality of life for subscales such as daily life/social relationships, spare time activities and autonomy, but similar scores for subscales of housing/neighborhood and personal relationships. Contrary to most previous findings, individuals suffering from PTSD did not report lower overall social support. For both outcomes of quality of life and social support, longitudinal research is required to fully understand these complex relationships as they evolve along the full trauma spectrum.
Murberg, Terje A.; Bru, Edvin
The present study prospectively explored the main and interactive effect of negative life events and social support from teachers and classroom peers on depressive symptoms in a sample of 198 (111 females, 87 males) students in a Norwegian senior high school. In the longitudinal multivariate analyses, self-reported depressive symptom levels at…
Lee, John Chi-Kin
Demand has risen for the introduction of career education in senior secondary schooling to enhance students' transition from study to work. Against such a background, this paper aims to discuss the curriculum reforms and supporting structures in schools and to explore the challenges of life skills planning for secondary school students in China…
Full Text Available Abstract OBJECTIVE Analyzing the relationship between social support, quality of life and depression in patients eligible for palliative care at Primary Health Care of a municipality in the interior of Minas Gerais, Brazil. METHOD A correlational cross-sectional study carried out with patients treated in six primary health care units. Data were submitted to descriptive statistical analysis, tests for differences between averages and medians, and correlation tests. The significance level was 0.05. RESULTS The sample consisted of 115 participants, and it was identified that the higher the social support, the better the global quality of life (p<0.001 and functional quality of life (p=0.035; the greater the presence of physical symptoms, the lower the level of social support (p=0.012 and the higher the level of depression (p<0.001; the higher the symptoms of depression, the worse the global quality of life (p<0.001, functional quality of life (p<0.001 and the lower the levels of social support (p<0.001. CONCLUSION Levels of quality of life, social support and depression of patients eligible for palliative care are influenced by socioeconomic factors such as marital status, gender, age, income, education and presence of a caregiver.
Hakimzadeh, Rezvan; Besharat, Mohammad-Ali; Khaleghinezhad, Seyed Ali; Ghorban Jahromi, Reza
This study investigates the relationships among peers' perceived support, life satisfaction, and student engagement in academic activities. Three hundred and fifteen Iranian students (172 boys and 143 girls) who were studying in one suburb of Tehran participated in this study. All participants were asked to complete Peers' Perceived Support scale…
Hiester, Marian; Sapp, Joan
This study examined the relationship between maternal stress, changes in stress, specific stressors, and social support and quality of mother-infant attachment. Life stress of 132 mothers was assessed prenatally and when the child was 13 months old. The mothers' social support and the quality of infant-mother attachment were also measured at the…
Sonnenberg, C.M.; Deeg, D.J.H.; van Tilburg, T.G.; Vink, D.; Stek, M.L.; Beekman, A.T.F.
ABSTRACT Background: Prevalence of depression is twice as high in women as in men, also in older adults. Lack of social support is a risk factor for late-life depression. The relation between depression and social support may be different for men and women. Methods: Data from the Longitudinal Aging
Cho, Yong-Beom; Haslam, Nick
Acculturative stress and social support play important roles in suicide-related phenomena among adolescent immigrants. To examine their contributions, measures of acculturative and general life stress and a measure of multiple sources of social support were used to predict psychological distress and suicidal ideation among Korean-born high school…
Bucx, Freek; van Wel, Frits; Knijn, Trudie
The authors investigated intergenerational support exchanges in relation to young adults' life course status. In a sample of 2,022 young adults (ages 18-34 years) in The Netherlands, single young adults reported receiving more advice from parents than married young adults, and those with children of their own received more practical support.…
Shin, Joo Yeon; Steger, Michael F.
We examined whether American college students who perceive their college environment as supportive for their meaning searching report higher levels of meaning in life. We also examined whether students' perception of college environmental support for meaning searching moderates the relation between the presence of and search for meaning. Students'…
McDonald, Regina M; Brown, Peter J
To explore the lived experience of older adults participating regularly in a social support network group in the community. Hermeneutic phenomenology was employed for this preliminary study as little was known about the lived experience of older adults engaged with peers. Six older adults, four females and two males, volunteered to participate in a focus group interview for the purpose of testing interview techniques and questions and to examine alternative lines of enquiry for subsequent interviews. The group interview was transcribed verbatim and analysed to gain meaning of the phenomena under study. Being a member of a group, where peer support was experienced, was extremely important and this support assisted in the maintenance of physical and psychological well-being of individual group members. As a result of this study a greater understanding of what is meaningful to older adults in terms of social support, and the importance of network systems and peer contact was made clearer. By appreciating the need for older adults to engage regularly in a support group with their peers, nurses, and other healthcare professionals can promote the health of older adults for whom they provide care. Interview techniques were perceived to be appropriate.
Rodriquez, Luis F.
Decision support systems have been implemented in many applications including strategic planning for battlefield scenarios, corporate decision making for business planning, production planning and control systems, and recommendation generators like those on Amazon.com(Registered TradeMark). Such tools are reviewed for developing a similar tool for NASA's ALS Program. DSS are considered concurrently with the development of the OPIS system, a database designed for chronicling of research and development in ALS. By utilizing the OPIS database, it is anticipated that decision support can be provided to increase the quality of decisions by ALS managers and researchers.
Quinn, Gregory; Carra, Michael; Converse, David; Chullen, Cinda
NASA is building a high-fidelity prototype of an advanced Portable Life Support System (PLSS) as part of the Advanced Exploration Systems Program. This new PLSS, designated as PLSS 2.5, will advance component technologies and systems knowledge to inform a future flight program. The oxygen ventilation loop of its predecessor, PLSS 2.0, was driven by a centrifugal fan developed using specifications from the Constellation Program. PLSS technology and system parameters have matured to the point where the existing fan will not perform adequately for the new prototype. In addition, areas of potential improvement were identified with the PLSS 2.0 fan that could be addressed in a new design. As a result, a new fan was designed and tested for the PLSS 2.5. The PLSS 2.5 fan is a derivative of the one used in PLSS 2.0, and it uses the same nonmetallic, canned motor, with a larger volute and impeller to meet the higher pressure drop requirements of the PLSS 2.5 ventilation loop. The larger impeller allows it to operate at rotational speeds that are matched to rolling element bearings, and which create reasonably low impeller tip speeds consistent with prior, oxygen-rated fans. Development of the fan also considered a shrouded impeller design that could allow larger clearances for greater oxygen safety, assembly tolerances and particle ingestion. This paper discusses the design, manufacturing and performance testing of the new fans.
Randolph, Richard O.; McKay, Christopher P.
The ongoing search for life on other worlds and the prospects of eventual human exploration of the Moon and Mars indicate the need for new ethical guidelines to direct our actions as we search and how we respond if we discover microbial life on other worlds. Here we review how life on other worlds presents a novel question in environmental ethics. We propose a principle of protecting and expanding the richness and diversity of life as the basis of an ethic for astrobiology research and space exploration. There are immediate implications for the operational policies governing how we conduct the search for life on Mars and how we plan for human exploration throughout the Solar System.
Jones, Harry W.; Hodgson, Edward W.; Gentry, Gregory J.; Kliss, Mark H.
How can our experience in developing and operating the International Space Station (ISS) guide the design, development, and operation of life support for the journey to Mars? The Mars deep space Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) must incorporate the knowledge and experience gained in developing ECLSS for low Earth orbit, but it must also meet the challenging new requirements of operation in deep space where there is no possibility of emergency resupply or quick crew return. The understanding gained by developing ISS flight hardware and successfully supporting a crew in orbit for many years is uniquely instructive. Different requirements for Mars life support suggest that different decisions may be made in design, testing, and operations planning, but the lessons learned developing the ECLSS for ISS provide valuable guidance.
Li, Hui-Ching; Richardson, Alison; Speck, Peter; Armes, Jo
To explore the conceptualization of patients' dignity in the context of end-of-life care in Taiwan. Dignity therapy - a novel nurse-delivered psychotherapeutic intervention - has been demonstrated to have potential to alleviate terminal patients' psycho-existential distress in western countries. In Taiwan, over half of end-of-life patients experience psychological-spiritual suffering and dignity therapy might be helpful in improving this situation. Hence, a preliminary study to clarify Taiwanese conceptualizations of 'dignity' was conducted prior to planning a feasibility study to gauge the potential cultural fit of an intervention of this type. Qualitative exploration. Nine people with terminal cancer and ten health professionals were recruited from palliative care services in 2008. In-depth interviews were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. A hermeneutic approach was employed to analyse and interpret data. Being a valuable person is the core meaning of patients' dignity and this comprised intrinsic characteristics and extrinsic factors. Intrinsic characteristics of dignity encompassed living a moral life, having peace of mind and a sense of existence involving the perception of resignation to God's will. Extrinsic factors that influenced patients' dignity included illness-related distress, care delivery and the perception of being loved. A dynamic relationship between these elements determined the state of patients' dignity. The concept of dignity is culturally bound and understood differently in the Chinese and Western context; such differences should be considered when planning and delivering care. Modifications should be made to dignity therapy to ensure it is culturally congruent with Taiwanese patients' beliefs. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Aho, Lynn; Ackerman, Joni; Bointy, Shelley; Cuch, Marilyn; Hindelang, Mary; Pinnow, Stephanie; Turnbull, Suzanne
From exploring knowledge from wise members of the community to investigating the science of homeostasis, students learn healthy ways of living through a new hands-on curriculum, Diabetes Education in Tribal Schools: Health Is Life in Balance. The curriculum integrates science and Native American traditions to educate students about science, diabetes and its risk factors, and the importance of nutrition and physical activity in maintaining health and balance in life. Applying an inquiry-based approach to learning, the curriculum builds skills in observation, measurement, prediction, experimentation, and communication, and provides healthy lifestyle messages and innovative science activities for all students. The curriculum is now available to teachers and health educators at no cost through a federal grant.Health Is life in Balance incorporates interdisciplinary standards as well as storytelling to help children understand important messages. Implementation evaluation of the curriculum indicated improved knowledge and attitudes about science and health, positive teacher and student comments, and culturally relevant content. The lessons highlighted in this article give a glimpse into this hands-on curriculum which integrates science and Native American traditions, looking to our past and listening to the wisdom of our Elders, to gain powerful information for healthy, holistic living. The circle of balance is a theme in many indigenous belief systems and is woven into the lessons, providing enduring understandings of health behaviours that can prevent type 2 diabetes in the context of Native American cultural themes.
Bratt, Anna S; Stenström, Ulf; Rennemark, Mikael
Losing a child or a spouse is described as the worst of experiences. However, it is not known whether older adults bereaved of a child, spouse, or both child and spouse experience these losses as among the most important negative events in their lifetime. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the 1,437 older adults bereaved of a child, spouse, or both included in the southern part of the Swedish National Study of Aging and Care mentioned these losses when asked about their three most important negative life events. Gender differences in their choices of important negative life events were also explored. About 70% of those bereaved of a child or a spouse mentioned these losses as among their three most important negative life experiences. In the child-and-spouse-bereaved group, 48% mentioned both the loss of their child and spouse, while 40% mentioned either the loss of a child or a spouse. Gender differences were only found in the child-and-spouse-bereaved group, with a few more women mentioning the loss of the child but not the spouse, and the men showing the opposite pattern.
Full Text Available The protective features that families and wider social relationships can have are required to meet the demands of life in contemporary Western societies. Choice and detraditionalization, however; impede this source of solidarity. Family Group Conferencing (FGC and other life-world led interventions have the potential to strengthen primary groups. This paper explores the need for such a social intervention, using insights from sociological and philosophical theories and empirical findings from a case study of the research project ‘FGC in mental health’. This need is understandable considering the weakening of kin ties, the poor qualities of state agencies to mobilise self-care and informal care, its capacity to produce a shift of power from public to private spheres and its capacity to mitigate the co-isolation of individuals, families and communities. A life-world led intervention like FGC with a specific and modest ambition contributes to small-scale solidarity. This ambition is not inclined to establish a broad social cohesion within society but to restore; in terms of the German philosopher Peter Sloterdijk; immunity (protection and solidarity in primary groups, and consequently, resolve issues with those (family, neighbours, colleagues who share a sphere (a situation, a process, a fate.
Schout, Gert; de Jong, Gideon
The protective features that families and wider social relationships can have are required to meet the demands of life in contemporary Western societies. Choice and detraditionalization, however; impede this source of solidarity. Family Group Conferencing (FGC) and other life-world led interventions have the potential to strengthen primary groups. This paper explores the need for such a social intervention, using insights from sociological and philosophical theories and empirical findings from a case study of the research project 'FGC in mental health'. This need is understandable considering the weakening of kin ties, the poor qualities of state agencies to mobilise self-care and informal care, its capacity to produce a shift of power from public to private spheres and its capacity to mitigate the co-isolation of individuals, families and communities. A life-world led intervention like FGC with a specific and modest ambition contributes to small-scale solidarity. This ambition is not inclined to establish a broad social cohesion within society but to restore; in terms of the German philosopher Peter Sloterdijk; immunity (protection) and solidarity in primary groups, and consequently, resolve issues with those (family, neighbours, colleagues) who share a sphere (a situation, a process, a fate).
Skiadas, Christos H.; Skiadas, Charilaos
In this paper we explore the life expectancy limits by based on the stochastic modeling of mortality and applying the first exit or hitting time theory of a stochastic process. The main assumption is that the health state or the "vitality", according to Strehler and Mildvan, of an individual is a stochastic variable and thus it was introduced and applied a first exit time density function to mortality data. The model is used to estimate the development of mortality rates in the late stages of the human life span, to make better fitting to population mortality data including the infant mortality, to compare it with the classical Gompertz curve, and to make comparisons between the Carey medfly data and the population mortality data estimating the health state or "vitality" functions. Furthermore, we apply the model to the life table data of Italy, France, USA, Canada, Sweden, Norway and Japan, and we analyze the characteristic parameters of the model and make forecasts. The case of female mortality in Sweden is extensively studied and forecasts to 2025 and 2050 are presented.
Full Text Available This paper explores peer communication in an online support forum for depression, through displays of Beck’s cognitive triad. Theoretical semantic thematic analysis of the textual conversations of forum users generated preliminary information on the internet as a platform for the manifestation of depressive symptoms. The study consisted of a two-phase approach. Phase one looked for demonstration of the cognitive triad in user conversations. Phase two analysed how users depicted and responded to peer cognitive distortions, and will form a separate publication. Findings suggest that the cognitive triad is evident in the online textual communication of peer support group members. The practical applications and limitations of the research are discussed in terms of recommendations for future work.
Tsai, Jack; Rosenheck, Robert A
This article described the criminal histories of a multisite sample of homeless veterans enrolled in the Housing and Urban Development-Veterans Affairs Supportive Housing (HUD-VASH) program, presented a method of categorizing them, and compared outcomes among veterans with different criminal histories. A national dataset on a total of 1,160 participants over a 1-year period was analyzed. Cluster analyses were conducted on the criminal histories of participants and groups of participants were compared on program entry characteristics and outcomes. Before entry into the HUD-VASH program, 79% of participants had been charged with at least one criminal charge. The most common criminal charges were disorderly conduct, vagrancy, and public intoxication. At program entry, participants with more extensive criminal histories showed poorer status in employment, housing, substance abuse, and quality of life compared with participants with minor or no criminal histories. However, once enrolled in supported housing, there were no group differences in outcomes and all groups showed substantial improvements in housing. These findings suggest that most homeless veterans have had involvement in the criminal justice system, albeit mostly to a small extent. Supported housing programs, like HUD-VASH, that serve homeless veterans regardless of their criminal history should be supported.
manageability and comprehensibility were more important to managers than meaningfulness. A significant difference was found between meaningfulness and gender. In terms of cultural groups, significant differences between the average African and Indian and White and Indian meaningfulness scale scores were found. With regard to job satisfaction, there was generally a highly satisfied response to co-workers and a moderate satisfaction with work and supervisors. However, respondents were dissatisfied with pay and promotion. Additionally, significant relationships were found between some of the life- and value-orientation scales; the value-orientation and job satisfaction scales; and life-values and job satisfaction scales. Originality and/or value of research: This paper is based on original research and contributes to a better understanding of the relationship between value- and life-orientation and job satisfaction in a South African organisational context, as well as contributing towards empirical evidence of such relationships. Even though there seems to be a theoretical relationship between value and life-orientation, no empirical evidence to support this assertion has been found, highlighting the importance of this exploratory research. It has also been found that value-orientation is related to job satisfaction, and that life-orientation is related to job satisfaction. However, the theoretical link between life-orientation and job satisfaction has received relatively little research attention in South Africa, and empirical evidence to support this within a South African perspective is required. The findings of this exploratory research will also be of value to the selected organisation, and will provide information that can be used to develop intervention strategies. Conclusion: Managers in this parastatal highly value socially orientated values, indicating a strong in-group, mutual support and a concern for society, reflecting the vision and nature of the organisation
Academics are beginning to explore the educational potential of Second LifeTM (SL) by setting up inworld educational activities and projects. Given the relative novelty of the use of virtual world environments in higher education many such projects are still at pilot stage. However the initial pilot and experimentation stage will have to be followed by a rigorous evaluation process as for more traditional teaching projects. The chapter addresses issues about SL research tools and research methods. It introduces a "researcher toolkit" that includes: the various stages in the evaluation of SL educational projects and the theoretical framework that can inform such projects; an outline of the inworld tools that can be utilised or customised for academic research purposes; a review of methods for collecting feedback from participants and of the main ethical issues involved in researching virtual world environments; a discussion on the technical skills required to operate a research project in SL. The chapter also offers an indication of the inworld opportunities for the dissemination of SL research findings.
Borland, Tracey; Babayan, Alexey; Irfan, Saeeda; Schwartz, Robert
Smoking in pregnancy exemplifies the relationship between tobacco use and health inequalities. While difficulty reaching and engaging this population in cessation support is often highlighted in the literature, there is limited research that explores the factors that shape the provision and use of support by this subpopulation. Using Ontario, Canada, as a case study, this study examines how the use of cessation support by women is encouraged or discouraged by cessation policy, programming and practice; how geographical and sociocultural factors influence provision and uptake of support; and how barriers and challenges can be addressed through a comprehensive approach. Semi-structured, in-depth interviews with key informants (31) and pregnant or postpartum women (29) were conducted to examine the cessation needs of this subpopulation, barriers to the provision and uptake of cessation support and directions for policy, service provision and programming. Key barriers included: the absence of a provincial cessation strategy and funding, capacity and engagement/accessibility issues. Geographical features presented additional challenges to provision/uptake, as did the absence of resources tailored to Aboriginal women and adolescents. Key informants recommended a comprehensive cessation strategy to facilitate coordination of cessation resources provincially and locally and elucidated the need for capacity building within tobacco control and within reproductive, child and maternal health. Participants also highlighted the need to further develop tobacco control policies and target the social determinants of health through poverty reduction, housing and education support. The provision of incentives, transportation, childcare and meals/snacks; adoption of woman-centred, harm-reduction and stigma reduction approaches; and promotion of programs through a variety of local venues were recommended by participants to address engagement and accessibility issues. The current
Steuber, Keli R; High, Andrew
Do the strategies women use to disclose information about their infertility to social network members impact the quality of the support they receive and their quality of life? The data showed that women who disclosed infertility-related information in direct ways, rather than in indirect ways (e.g. by incremental disclosures or through third parties), to social network members perceived higher quality support and reported greater quality of life related to their infertility experience. Social support has been shown to buffer stress associated with various health issues including infertility. The way people disclose information about stressors has been associated with the quality of the support they receive. Disclosing information in a way that most effectively elicits support is beneficial because women with infertility who have lower levels of stress are more likely to seek and remain in treatment. This cross-sectional study of 301 infertile women was conducted in the USA. To determine the variation in length of infertility and treatment decisions, we conducted an online survey of 301 American women coping with infertility. We investigated the strategies women used to disclose infertility-related information with social network members, their perceptions of support from friends and family, and their quality of life both in general (overall quality of life) and related to the experience of infertility (fertility quality of life). Direct disclosure of experiences related to infertility was positively and significantly associated with the perceived quality of social support received (P quality of life (P quality of life, while the use of humor was negatively associated with overall quality of life (P quality also mediated the influence of direct disclosures on women's fertility quality of life (95% CI: 0.18, 1.05) and overall quality of life (95% CI: 0.10, 0.30). This effect is particularly noteworthy for the model predicting fertility quality of life, which
Caixeta, Camila Roberto da Costa Borges; Nascimento, Lucila Castanheira; Pedro, Iara Cristina da Silva; Rocha, Semiramis Melani Melo
In this exploratory and descriptive research, we identified the meaning of religion and spirituality in the experience of patients at a public health service for treatment of HIV/AIDS in a Brazilian upcountry town. Eight participants were selected through theoretical sampling. Data were collected through semistructured interviews, and analyzed by means of qualitative content analysis. The emerging themes were religion: a path to support, and God is everything. Religion, as a path that leads patients to different sources of support, included exploration of different churches, acknowledgment of guilt, and finding strength to cope with the disease, rationalization of the disease process, meeting other churchgoers, and finding God and faith. God, an important source of support, was present in prayers, in the belief in healing through faith, and in the feeling of comfort and relief. Because spirituality and religion were seen as important sources of support, in this study we that health professionals include these aspects in care planning. © 2012 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Jones, Harry W.
The development of commercial launch vehicles by SpaceX has greatly reduced the cost of launching mass to Low Earth Orbit (LEO). Reusable launch vehicles may further reduce the launch cost per kilogram. The new low launch cost makes open loop life support much cheaper than before. Open loop systems resupply water and oxygen in tanks for crew use and provide disposable lithium hydroxide (LiOH) in canisters to remove carbon dioxide. Short human space missions such as Apollo and shuttle have used open loop life support, but the long duration International Space Station (ISS) recycles water and oxygen and removes carbon dioxide with a regenerative molecular sieve. These ISS regenerative and recycling life support systems have significantly reduced the total launch mass needed for life support. But, since the development cost of recycling systems is much higher than the cost of tanks and canisters, the relative cost savings have been much less than the launch mass savings. The Life Cycle Cost (LCC) includes development, launch, and operations. If another space station was built in LEO, resupply life support would be much cheaper than the current recycling systems. The mission most favorable to recycling would be a long term lunar base, since the resupply mass would be large, the proximity to Earth would reduce the need for recycling reliability and spares, and the launch cost would be much higher than for LEO due to the need for lunar transit and descent propulsion systems. For a ten-year lunar base, the new low launch costs make resupply cheaper than recycling systems similar to ISS life support.
de Graaf, M.M.A.; Ben Allouch, Soumaya; Klamer, T.
Social robots will become ubiquitous in our everyday environments. These robots could potentially extend life expectancy, and improve the health and quality of life of an aging population. A long-term explorative study has been conducted by installing a social robot for health promotion in elderly
Nakao, Hayato; Yoshikawa, Takahiro; Hara, Taketaka; Wang, Lixin; Suzuki, Takashi; Fujimoto, Shigeo
To decide the minimal levels (thresholds) of physical activities necessary for a self-supporting life using discriminate analysis between community-dwelling elderly individuals and daycare-service-receiving elderly individuals in Japan. A total of twenty-six elderly women, including twelve living a self-supporting life and fourteen using a daycare service, were recruited in this study. The parameters examined were physical performance, activities of daily living, exercise capacity. Discriminate analysis was used to determine the thresholds of physical activities needed to live a self-supporting life. Muscle masses, grip strength, lower-extremity muscle force, gait ability and balance function in elderly individuals living a self-supporting life were significant higher than those in elderly individuals using a daycare service. A threshold of physical ability over 75% classifies accurately using the methods of discriminate analysis indicate total body muscle mass, thigh muscle mass, knee extension force, 6 min walking distance (6MD), 10 m obstacle walking time, Activity of daily living (ADL) index and daily steps. The present study indicates that thresholds of physical activities including gait abilities, muscle force, and muscle mass are very important factors in maintaining a self-supporting life for elderly individuals. Thresholds of physical activities were more effective than standard values of physical activity for elderly individuals using a care service in meeting the goals of rehabilitation.
Chukwuorji, JohnBosco Chika; Nwoke, Mary Basil; Ebere, Magnus Okechukwu
Although the developing countries contribute substantially to the population of the elderly, little is known about ageing in populous countries like Nigeria, particularly the Biafran War generation (BWG). Some of those who witnessed the Biafran War (also known as Nigerian Civil War) as children are well into late adulthood, while the majority of this pre-war/wartime cohort who are in their golden years will enter into later life in less than a decade from now. The aim of the present research was to examine the role of stressful life events and family support in successful ageing of the BWG. Data were collected using a self-administered survey completed by 453 members of the BWG who were ≥45 years. The survey included measures such as the Successful Ageing Inventory, Life Events Inventory, and family support subscale of Family Dynamics Scale. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted to test the hypotheses of the study. The three dimensions of stressful life events (health events, interpersonal events and work-related/financial events) had moderate negative relationships with successful ageing. Family support was moderately and positively associated with successful ageing. For the moderation hypotheses, family support was a significant moderator of only the relationship between work-related stressful life events and successful ageing, especially for the Family support provides social protection for older people, in the face of difficult socio-economic circumstances.
Barilan, Yechiel M
.... Drawing on the history of mechanical ventilation and on a recent Israeli law containing a novel approach to disconnecting life-support at the end of life, it is argued that the design of machines...
Lexén, Annika; Bejerholm, Ulrika
Not all people with severe mental illness who attend Individual Placement and Support (IPS) gain and keep their jobs or work full time. Research has indicated a relationship between social disabilities and work performance in this group, and that support provided is often directed towards the social work environment. However, relationships between social skills performed in an authentic work setting and vocational outcomes have not been explored. To explore relationships between social communication and interaction skills and vocational outcomes among IPS service users in a Swedish context. Twenty-nine participants were appraised with the Assessment of Communication and Interaction Skills (ACIS-S) instrument, and their vocational data were registered. Correlations were estimated using Spearman's rho test with Bonferroni corrections at item level. Better communication and interaction skills were significantly correlated with increased working hours (rs = 0.64) and higher income (rs = 0.45). Increased working hours were related to assuming postures, asking questions, sharing information, and sustaining conversation in an appropriate manner. The results indicate that occupational therapists need to focus on social skills and accommodation of the social work environment in order to promote sustainable working careers among people with severe mental illness.
Balasubramaniam, R.; Wegeng, R. S.; Gokoglu, S. A.; Suzuki, N. H.; Sacksteder, K. R.
The realization of the renewed exploration of the Moon presents many technical challenges; among them is the survival of lunar surface assets during periods of darkness when the lunar environment is very cold. Thermal wadis are engineered sources of stored solar energy using modified lunar regolith as a thermal storage mass that can enable the operation of lightweight robotic rovers or other assets in cold, dark environments without incurring potential mass, cost, and risk penalties associated with various onboard sources of thermal energy. Thermal wadi-assisted lunar rovers can conduct a variety of long-duration missions including exploration site surveys; teleoperated, crew-directed, or autonomous scientific expeditions; and logistics support for crewed exploration. This paper describes a thermal analysis of thermal wadi performance based on the known solar illumination of the moon and estimates of producible thermal properties of modified lunar regolith. Analysis was performed for the lunar equatorial region and for a potential Outpost location near the lunar south pole. The results are presented in some detail in the paper and indicate that thermal wadis can provide the desired thermal energy reserve, with significant margin, for the survival of rovers or other equipment during periods of darkness.
Yu, Bowen; Doraiswamy, Harish; Chen, Xi; Miraldi, Emily; Arrieta-Ortiz, Mario Luis; Hafemeister, Christoph; Madar, Aviv; Bonneau, Richard; Silva, Cláudio T
Elucidation of transcriptional regulatory networks (TRNs) is a fundamental goal in biology, and one of the most important components of TRNs are transcription factors (TFs), proteins that specifically bind to gene promoter and enhancer regions to alter target gene expression patterns. Advances in genomic technologies as well as advances in computational biology have led to multiple large regulatory network models (directed networks) each with a large corpus of supporting data and gene-annotation. There are multiple possible biological motivations for exploring large regulatory network models, including: validating TF-target gene relationships, figuring out co-regulation patterns, and exploring the coordination of cell processes in response to changes in cell state or environment. Here we focus on queries aimed at validating regulatory network models, and on coordinating visualization of primary data and directed weighted gene regulatory networks. The large size of both the network models and the primary data can make such coordinated queries cumbersome with existing tools and, in particular, inhibits the sharing of results between collaborators. In this work, we develop and demonstrate a web-based framework for coordinating visualization and exploration of expression data (RNA-seq, microarray), network models and gene-binding data (ChIP-seq). Using specialized data structures and multiple coordinated views, we design an efficient querying model to support interactive analysis of the data. Finally, we show the effectiveness of our framework through case studies for the mouse immune system (a dataset focused on a subset of key cellular functions) and a model bacteria (a small genome with high data-completeness).
Full Text Available Seafarers have reported impaired health and health-related quality of life (HRQOL. Social support might increase HRQOL, but little is known about this association among Chinese seafarers. The aim of this study was to describe social support and explore its association with HRQOL among Chinese seafarers.A cross-sectional survey was conducted in the ports of Nantong and Rugao, China, from April to December 2013. A total of 917 Chinese seafarers were interviewed on social support, mental distress, perceived occupational stress, and HRQOL using the following self-administered questionnaires: The Social Support Rating Scale, Self-rating Depression Scale, Occupational Stress Questionnaire, and the World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF (WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire. Hierarchical linear regression modelling was used to analyze the association between seafarers' subjective level of social support and their HRQOL.Of the 917 male Chinese seafarers included in the study, 40.7% perceived high levels of social support, and 39.1% were highly satisfied with their overall quality of life (QOL. Hierarchical regression analysis showed significant associations between level of social support and all health dimensions in the WHOQOL-BREF, even after adjusting for depressive symptoms, occupational stress, occupational activities, sleep duration, and other relevant covariates. Compared with the medium or low level social support group, seafarers with a high level of social support had better QOL scores in the general facet health and QOL (β = 2.43, p<0.05, and the physical health (β = 3.23, p<0.001, psychological health (β = 5.56, p<0.001, social relation (β = 6.07, p<0.001, and environment domains (β = 4.27, p<0.001. In addition, depression, occupational stress, occupational activities, and sleep duration were found to be determinants of seafarers' HRQOL.Chinese seafarers have poorer HRQOL than the general population, but social support has a significant
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data and information collected by the submersible Johnson Sea-Link II at waypoints along its track during two of the seventeen dives of the 2003 "Life on the Edge -...
Davis, E; Reddihough, D; Murphy, N; Epstein, A; Reid, S M; Whitehouse, A; Williams, K; Leonard, H; Downs, J
Although it is estimated that half of all children with cerebral palsy also have comorbid intellectual disability, the domains of quality of life (QOL) important for these children are not well understood. The aim of this study was to identify important domains of QOL for these children and adolescents. Due to the children's communication impairments, qualitative semi-structured interviews were conducted with 18 parents. The children (9 males) had a median age of 12 (range 7 to 17) years at interview and nearly two thirds were classified as Gross Motor Function Classification System IV or V. A grounded theory approach was used to identify domains of QOL. The 11 domains identified as important to QOL were physical health, body comfort, behaviour and emotion, communication, predictability and routine, movement and physical activity, nature and outdoors, variety of activity, independence and autonomy, social connectedness, and access to services. The domains of QOL that emerged from this study will be useful for professionals who support children with cerebral palsy and their families. They will also be important for developing a QOL instrument essential for informing the development of interventions and their monitoring and evaluation. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available A new phenomenon of violence among pupils has been spreading over Europe in the last few years: Cyberbullying, the repeated and intended hurting of weaker schoolmates via modern communication technologies. This study shows (based on a sample of 1987 pupils, that cyberbullying exists in Germany, although the number of incidents is still rather small. It could also be shown, that the pupils who act as cyberbullies are the same as those who bully others in real life. The same overlap was found to be true for the victims. Cyberbullying can therefore be considered a subcategory of ordinary bullying instead of being considered a whole new phenomenon. The exploration of coping strategies showed, that a common factor structure underlies physical, verbal and cyberbullying. Considering the fact that the findings of the study are based on an online questionnaire with restricted representativeness, the results should however be interpreted carefully.
Mas-Albaigès, Joan L.; Duatis, Jordi; Podhajsky, Sandra; Guirado, Víctor; Poughon, Laurent
MELiSSA (Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative) is an European Space Agency (ESA) project focused on the development of a closed regenerative life support system to aid the development of technologies for future life support systems for long term manned planetary missions, e.g. a lunar base or missions to Mars. In order to understand the potential evolution of the MELiSSA concept towards its future use in the referred manned planetary mission context the MELiSSA Space Adaptation (MSA) activity has been undertaken. MSA's main objective is to model the different MELiSSA compartments using EcosimPro R , a specialized simulation tool for life support applications, in order to define a preliminary MELiSSA implementation for service in a man-tended lunar base scenario, with a four-member crew rotating in six-month increments, and performing the basic LSS functions of air revitalization, food production, and waste and water recycling. The MELiSSA EcosimPro R Model features a dedicated library for the different MELiSSA elements (bioreactors, greenhouse, crew, interconnecting elements, etc.). It is used to dimension the MELiSSA system in terms of major parameters like mass, volume and energy needs, evaluate the accuracy of the results and define the strategy for a progressive loop closure from the initial required performance (approx.100 The MELiSSA configuration(s) obtained through the EcosimPro R simulation are further analysed using the Advanced Life Support System Evaluation (ALISSE) metric, relying on mass, energy, efficiency, human risk, system reliability and crew time, for trade-off and optimization of results. The outcome of the MSA activity is, thus, a potential Life Support System architecture description, based on combined MELiSSA and other physico-chemical technologies, defining its expected performance, associated operational conditions and logistic needs.
Mazutti, Sandra Regina Gonzaga; Nascimento, Andréia de Fátima; Fumis, Renata Rego Lins
To estimate the incidence of limitations to Advanced Life Support in critically ill patients admitted to an intensive care unit with integrated palliative care. This retrospective cohort study included patients in the palliative care program of the intensive care unit of Hospital Paulistano over 18 years of age from May 1, 2011, to January 31, 2014. The limitations to Advanced Life Support that were analyzed included do-not-resuscitate orders, mechanical ventilation, dialysis and vasoactive drugs. Central tendency measures were calculated for quantitative variables. The chi-squared test was used to compare the characteristics of patients with or without limits to Advanced Life Support, and the Wilcoxon test was used to compare length of stay after Advanced Life Support. Confidence intervals reflecting p ≤ 0.05 were considered for statistical significance. A total of 3,487 patients were admitted to the intensive care unit, of whom 342 were included in the palliative care program. It was observed that after entering the palliative care program, it took a median of 2 (1 - 4) days for death to occur in the intensive care unit and 4 (2 - 11) days for hospital death to occur. Many of the limitations to Advanced Life Support (42.7%) took place on the first day of hospitalization. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (96.8%) and ventilatory support (73.6%) were the most adopted limitations. The contribution of palliative care integrated into the intensive care unit was important for the practice of orthothanasia, i.e., the non-extension of the life of a critically ill patient by artificial means.
Mazutti, Sandra Regina Gonzaga; Nascimento, Andréia de Fátima; Fumis, Renata Rego Lins
Objective To estimate the incidence of limitations to Advanced Life Support in critically ill patients admitted to an intensive care unit with integrated palliative care. Methods This retrospective cohort study included patients in the palliative care program of the intensive care unit of Hospital Paulistano over 18 years of age from May 1, 2011, to January 31, 2014. The limitations to Advanced Life Support that were analyzed included do-not-resuscitate orders, mechanical ventilation, dialysis and vasoactive drugs. Central tendency measures were calculated for quantitative variables. The chi-squared test was used to compare the characteristics of patients with or without limits to Advanced Life Support, and the Wilcoxon test was used to compare length of stay after Advanced Life Support. Confidence intervals reflecting p ≤ 0.05 were considered for statistical significance. Results A total of 3,487 patients were admitted to the intensive care unit, of whom 342 were included in the palliative care program. It was observed that after entering the palliative care program, it took a median of 2 (1 - 4) days for death to occur in the intensive care unit and 4 (2 - 11) days for hospital death to occur. Many of the limitations to Advanced Life Support (42.7%) took place on the first day of hospitalization. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (96.8%) and ventilatory support (73.6%) were the most adopted limitations. Conclusion The contribution of palliative care integrated into the intensive care unit was important for the practice of orthothanasia, i.e., the non-extension of the life of a critically ill patient by artificial means. PMID:27626949
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Information about non-dive activities were recorded into the Cruise Information Management System (CIMS) by the NOAA Office of Ocean Exploration's data manager...
Full Text Available E-cigarettes are the most popular method of quitting smoking in England and most are purchased in specialist vape shops. This qualitative study explores how the vape shop environment is experienced by quitters to support smoking abstinence. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted to elicit experiences of e-cigarette use, including experiences of vape shops, in 40 people who had used e-cigarettes in a quit attempt. Observations of six shops in a range of locations were also undertaken. Interview and observation data were analysed using inductive thematic analysis and triangulated. At an individual level, smoking abstinence was supported through shop assistants’ attempts to understand customers’ smoking preferences in order to: (i tailor advice about the most appropriate product; and (ii offer an ongoing point of contact for practical help. At an interpersonal level, shops offered opportunity to socialise and reinforce a vaping identity, although the environment was perceived as intimidating for some (e.g., new and female users. At a structural level, shops ensured easy access to products perceived to be good value by customers and had adapted to legislative changes. Vape shops can provide effective behavioural support to quitters to maintain smoking abstinence. Health professionals could capitalise on this through partnership working with shops, to ensure best outcomes for clients wanting to use e-cigarettes to quit smoking.
The purpose of this study is to see whether emotional support from fellow church members is associated with self-forgiveness in late life. The data come from a longitudinal nationwide survey of older adults. An effort is made to contribute to the literature by comparing and contrasting the effects of two church-based support measures: the amount of emotional support that is provided by fellow church members and satisfaction with emotional support from co-religionists. The findings suggest that older study participants who are more satisfied with the emotional support they have received from the members of their church are more likely to forgive themselves than older people who are not satisfied with the emotional support they have received in church. In contrast, significant effects failed to emerge with the measure of the amount of received emotional support.
Leicht-Deobald, Ulrich; Bruch, Heike; Bönke, Luisa; Stevense, Amie; Fan, Yan; Bajbouj, Malek; Grimm, Simone
Early life stress (ELS) affects stress- reactivity via limbic brain regions implicated such as hippocampus and amygdala. Social support is a major protective factor against ELS effects, while subjects with ELS experience reportedly perceive less of it in their daily life. The workplace, where most adults spend a substantial amount of time in their daily lives, might serve as a major resource for social support. Since previous data demonstrated that social support attenuates stress reactivity, we here used a psychosocial stress task to test the hypothesis that work-related social support modulates the effects of ELS. Results show decreased amygdala reactivity during stress in ELS subjects who report high levels of work- related social support, thereby indicating a signature for reduced stress reactivity. However, this effect was only observable on the neural, but not on the behavioral level, since social support had no buffering effect regarding the subjective experience of stress in daily life as well as regarding feelings of uncontrollability induced by the stress task. Accordingly, our data suggest that subjects with ELS experiences might benefit from interventions targeted at lowering their subjective stress levels by helping them to better perceive the availability of social support in their daily lives.
Meyer Sedej, M.
A supercritical water oxidation system (SCWOS) offers several advantages for a lunar base environmental control/life support system (ECLSS) compared to an ECLSS based on Space Station technology. In supercritically heated water (630 K, 250 atm) organic materials mix freely with oxygen and undergo complete combustion. Inorganic salts lose solubility and precipitate out. Implementation of SCWOS can make an ECLSS more efficient and reliable by elimination of several subsystems and by reduction in potential losses of life support consumables. More complete closure of the total system reduces resupply requirements from the earth, a crucial cost item in maintaining a lunar base.
Berger, Jeffrey T
A number of influential reports on influenza pandemic preparedness include recommendations for extra-autonomous decisions to withdraw mechanical ventilation from some patients, who might still benefit from this technology, when demand for ventilators exceeds supply. An unintended implication of recommendations for nonvoluntary and involuntary termination of life support is that it make pandemic preparedness plans vulnerable to patients' claims for assisted suicide and active euthanasia. Supporters of nonvoluntary passive euthanasia need to articulate why it is both morally different and morally superior to voluntary active euthanasia if they do not wish to invite expansion of end-of-life options during health system catastrophe.
Luszczynska, Aleksandra; Pawlowska, Izabela; Cieslak, Roman; Knoll, Nina; Scholz, Urte
This systematic review analyzed the relationships between social support and quality of life (QOL) indicators among lung cancer patients. In particular, the patterns of relationships between different social support facets and sources (received and perceived support from healthcare professionals, family, and friends) and QOL aspects (emotional, physical symptoms, functional, and social) as well as the global QOL index were investigated. The review yielded 14 original studies (57% applying cross-sectional designs) analyzing data from a total of 2759 patients. Regarding healthcare professionals as support source, corroborating evidence was found for associations between received support (as well as need for and satisfaction with received support) and all aspects of QOL, except for social ones. Overall, significant relations between support from healthcare personnel and QOL were observed more frequently (67% of analyzed associations), compared with support from families and friends (53% of analyzed associations). Corroborating evidence was found for the associations between perceived and received support from family and friends and emotional aspects of QOL. Research investigating perceived social support from unspecified sources indicated few significant relationships (25% of analyzed associations) and only for the global QOL index. Quantitative and qualitative differences in the associations between social support and QOL are observed, depending on the source and type of support. Psychosocial interventions may aim at enabling provision of social support from healthcare personnel in order to promote emotional, functional, and physical QOL among lung cancer patients. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
van der Schyff, Dylan
The enactive approach to cognition is developed in the context of music and music education. I discuss how this embodied point of view affords a relational and bio-cultural perspective on music that decentres the Western focus on language, symbol and representation as the fundamental arbiters of meaning. I then explore how this 'life-based' approach to cognition and meaning-making offers a welcome alternative to standard Western academic approaches to music education. More specifically, I consider how the enactive perspective may aid in developing deeper ecological understandings of the transformative, extended and interpenetrative nature of the embodied musical mind; and thus help (re)connect students and teachers to the lived experience of their own learning and teaching. Following this, I examine related concepts associated with Buddhist psychology in order to develop possibilities for a contemplative music pedagogy. To conclude, I consider how an enactive-contemplative perspective may help students and teachers awaken to the possibilities of music education as 'ontological education.' That is, through a deeper understanding of 'music as a manifestation of life' rediscover their primordial nature as autopoietic and world-making creatures and thus engage more deeply with musicality as a means of forming richer and more compassionate relationships with their peers, their communities and the 'natural' and cultural worlds they inhabit.
Adediran Daniel Ikuomola
Full Text Available Research emphasising effects of migration on left behind families often focus on implications of absent fathers, particularly in Africa and areas with historic male migration. Yet, information on the experiences of left behind wives in a patriarchal and familial setting is scanty. This Study explore the socio-cultural challenges facing wives of migrants (Bini women, in Edo State, Nigeria. Specifically it examines the stigmatised experiences and the effect of cultural constrains on women adjustment to life in the absence of their husbands. Drawing on qualitative data collected from in-depth interviews with twenty-one (21 left-behind wives in Benin, Edo State. The study shows how women are confronted with traditions and the need to readjust their lives amidst cultural and familial cooperations and constrains. Narratives buttressed on the excessive surveillance through significant others and the renegotiation of living arrangements based on patriarchal values and expectations. Life adjustment was described as stigmatic, hectic and demanding in maintaining the home front.
Mulder, Sanne; de Rooy, Diederik
In the last 35 yr, 17 commercial aviation accidents and incidents, with 576 fatalities, could likely have been attributed to mental disease of a pilot. Screening tools for mental health risks in airline pilots are needed. There is growing interest in pilot peer-support programs and how to incorporate them in a just culture, meaning that pilots can report mental health complaints without a risk of job or income loss. We combined findings from aviation accidents and incidents with a search of scientific literature to provide data-based recommendations for screening, peer-support, and a just culture approach to mental health problems. Commercial aviation accidents and incidents in which a mental disorder of a pilot was thought to play a role were reviewed. Subsequently, PubMed and PsychInfo literature searches were performed on peer-support programs, just culture human resource management, and the risk of negative life events on developing suicidal ideation and behavior in comparable professional groups. Lethal accidents were mostly related to impaired coping with negative life events. Negative life events are clearly related to suicidal thoughts, attempts, and completed suicide. A protective effect of peer-support programs on mental health problems has not been established, although peer-support programs are generally appreciated by those involved. We did not find relevant literature on just culture. Negative life events are likely a useful screening tool for mental health risks. There is still a lack of evidence on how peer-support groups should be designed and how management of mental health risks can be implemented in a just culture.Mulder S, de Rooy D. Pilot mental health, negative life events, and improving safety with peer support and a just culture. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2018; 89(1):41-51.
Tsai, Min-Min; Yang, Fu-Chi; Lee, Shih-Min; Huang, Chiu-Mieh
Previous studies of women with dysmenorrhea have focused on menstrual attitudes, the characteristics of menstrual pain, and self-care behavior. Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) studies on dysmenorrhea, on the other hand, have focused on the efficacy and safety of TCM treatments. Few studies have investigated how women perceive their own TCM-treatment experience of dysmenorrhea. The objective of this study was to explore the experience of dysmenorrhea and life adjustments of women undergoing TCM treatment. A semi-structured interviewing guide was used to collect data. A total of 40 dysmenorrheal women participated in the study. Individual, in-depth interviews were conducted for about 60-90 minutes with each participant. Their speech tone, facial expressions, and gestures during the interview process were also observed and recorded. The findings were analyzed using content analysis via ATLAS. ti 5.2 software. The process that the participants used to adjust to dysmenorrhea were distinguished into four progressive stages: "tip of the iceberg", "ice-breaking", "tug-of-war", and "blending-in". Initially, the participants perceived the symptoms of dysmenorrhea as the "tip of the iceberg". They attempted to hide / ignore the initial pain until the problem gradually worsened to the point that the symptoms began to significantly affect various aspects of life. It was only then that the participants began to pay attention to the problem and to seek help from TCM practitioners, which we defined as the "ice-breaking" stage. If they encountered unexpected situations with regard to the treatment regimen, the participants entered the "tug-of-war" stage, during which they struggled over whether to continue with TCM treatments. Afterward, the participants gradually achieved a "blending-in" of new ideas, which allowed them to identify the strategies that best facilitated adjustment and rebalancing. Eventually, the participants achieved a new life balance. The outcomes of the
Wheeler, R. M.; Sager, J. C.; Prince, R. P.; Knott, W. M.; Mackowiak, C. L.; Stutte, G. W.; Yorio, N. C.; Ruffe, L. M.; Peterson, B. V.; Goins, G. D.
The use of plants for bioregenerative life support for space missions was first studied by the US Air Force in the 1950s and 1960s. Extensive testing was also conducted from the 1960s through the 1980s by Russian researchers located at the Institute of Biophysics in Krasnoyarsk, Siberia, and the Institute for Biomedical Problems in Moscow. NASA initiated bioregenerative research in the 1960s (e.g., Hydrogenomonas) but this research did not include testing with plants until about 1980, with the start of the Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) Program. The NASA CELSS research was carried out at universities, private corporations, and NASA field centers, including Kennedy Space Center (KSC). The project at KSC began in 1985 and was called the CELSS Breadboard Project to indicate the capability for plugging in and testing various life support technologies; this name has since been dropped but bioregenerative testing at KSC has continued to the present under the NASA s Advanced Life Support (ALS) Program. A primary objective of the KSC testing was to conduct pre-integration tests with plants (crops) in a large, atmospherically closed test chamber called the Biomass Production Chamber (BPC). Test protocols for the BPC were based on observations and growing procedures developed by university investigators, as well as procedures developed in plant growth chamber studies at KSC. Growth chamber studies to support BPC testing focused on plant responses to different carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations, different spectral qualities from various electric lamps, and nutrient film hydroponic culture techniques.
Baedeker, Carolin; Buhl, Johannes; Greiff, Kathrin; Hasselkuß, Marco; Liedtke, Christa; Lukas, Melanie
Societal transformation towards sustainable consumption and production, especially in urban areas, is a key challenge. The design and implementation of sustainable product service systems (PSS) might be the initial point, in which private households play a major role. The Sustainable LivingLab research infrastructure was developed as an experimental setting for investigating consumption and production patterns in private households, especially to explore socio-technical innovations which are helpful to guide sustainability transitions. The suggested presentation describes results of several real-life experiments conducted in German households, e.g. the project SusLabNRW (North-Rhine Westphalia as part of the European SusLabNWE-Project), the EnerTransRuhr project as well as the PATHWAYS project that explore patterns of action, time use, social practices and the related resource use in private households. The presentation gives an overview of the employed methods and analysed data (qualitative interviews, social network analysis, survey on household activities and inventories and a sustainability assessment (resource profiles - MIPS household analysis). Households' resource consumption was calculated in all fields of activity to analyse social practices' impact. The presentation illustrates how aggregated data can inform scenario analysis and concludes with an outlook onto transition pathways at household level and socio-technical innovations in the fields of housing, nutrition and mobility.
Vandrevala, T; Samsi, K; Rose, C; Adenrele, C; Barnes, C; Manthorpe, J
The aim of the current exploratory study was to investigate the impact on care home staff when working with people with dementia at the end of life and to explore how they cope with this aspect of their work. With UK policy encouraging death in the place of residence, rather than hospital, more people with dementia are dying in care homes. A qualitative approach was employed; 20 care home staff working in five English care homes were interviewed. Thematic Analysis was used to analyse the data. Care home staff found the external demands on them and difficulties associated with interacting with people with dementia sometimes challenging, stressful and anxiety-provoking, particularly as residents approached end of life. Emotional aspects of caring for dying residents were sometimes heightened by close attachments with residents and their families. Staff were able to recognise these unmet needs and identified a need for further training and emotional support to manage these stressors. This study revealed rich and complex understandings of the practice dimensions of caring for people with dementia at the end of life and the impact these have on staff. There is a need to develop effective psychosocial interventions that focus on emotional support for care home staff. There will be challenges in providing this in employment settings that are generally low paid, low status, have high turnover and are reliant on temporary or migrant staff, where training is not rewarded, mandatory or culturally valued. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Cordero Torres, Juan Antonio; Caballero Oliver, Antonio
The aim of this study is to assess the validity and use of a mixed method of training in life support. The use of Moodle to implement an online pre-sessional phase prior to a "classic" classroom phase of teaching in this type of course is the main novelty. Analysis of satisfaction questionnaires of students and instructors of a mixed course in the advanced life support program of SemFYC (ESVAP). Moodle platform. semFYC Virtual Classroom. Students and instructors participating in the semFYC advanced life support program, ESVAP. Qualitative analysis. The majority of students rate as very useful (50%) or useful (45.37%) the existence of an online pre-sessional phase, and consider that it has helped them very much (42.20%) or quite a lot (48.62%) to make the most of the face-to-face sessions. For instructors, they considered that the existence of an online pre-sessional phase was very useful (89%) or useful (11%) for the development of the face-to-face sessions. The analysis of the results concluded that: 1) the students considered a prior non-face to face phase as very useful, and it helped them much/very much in the face to face phase, and 2) the instructors believe that the non-face to face phase had helped them a lot in the presentations and efficiency of the workshops in the face-to-face phase. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
The Controls and Dynamics Branch (CDB) at National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Glenn Research Center (GRC) in Cleveland, Ohio, is leading and participating in various projects in partnership with other organizations within GRC and across NASA, the U.S. aerospace industry, and academia to develop advanced propulsion controls and diagnostics technologies that will help meet the challenging goals of NASA programs under the Aeronautics Research and Exploration Systems Missions. This paper provides a brief overview of the various CDB tasks in support of the NASA programs. The programmatic structure of the CDB activities is described along with a brief overview of each of the CDB tasks including research objectives, technical challenges, and recent accomplishments. These tasks include active control of propulsion system components, intelligent propulsion diagnostics and control for reliable fault identification and accommodation, distributed engine control, and investigations into unsteady propulsion systems.
Imhonde, Henry O; A. U., Olubuogu; Handayani, Lina
This study examined personality, social support, and quality of life as determinant of coping behaviour among the visually impaired individuals. Fifty (50) visually impaired individuals drawn from Benin City participated in the study. Four hypotheses were stated and tested using independent t. test and regression analysis. The results confirmed three out of the four hypotheses stated. High social support was found to significantly determine high coping behaviour (t = 3.261, df 48, P < 0.0...
Wang, Yongli; Huang, Zhaoming; Kong, Feng
In this study, we investigated the mediating effect of social support on the relationship between parenting stress and life satisfaction in Chinese mothers of children with cerebral palsy ( N = 369). The results showed that family support and friend support, but not significant-other support, had mediating effects on the relationship between parenting stress and life satisfaction. Moreover, the mediating effect of friend support was equal to family support. These results suggest that the focus should be on reducing parenting stress and increasing support from family and friends to help improve life satisfaction in mothers of children with cerebral palsy.
Cataldo, Robert L.; Colozza, Anthony J.; Schmitz, Paul C.
Radioisotope power systems (RPS) for space applications have powered over 27 U.S. space systems, starting with Transit 4A and 4B in 1961, and more recently with the successful landing of the Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity in August 2012. RPS enable missions with destinations far from the Sun with faint solar flux, on planetary surfaces with dense or dusty atmospheres, and at places with long eclipse periods where solar array sizes and energy storage mass become impractical. RPS could also provide an enabling capability in support of human exploration activities. It is envisioned that with the higher power needs of most human mission concepts, a high efficiency thermal-to-electric technology would be required such as the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope generator (ASRG). The ASRG should be capable of a four-fold improvement in efficiency over traditional thermoelectric RPS. While it may be impractical to use RPS as a main power source, many other applications could be considered, such as crewed pressurized rovers, in-situ resource production of propellants, back-up habitat power, drilling, any mobile or remote activity from the main base habitat, etc. This paper will identify potential applications and provide concepts that could be a practical extension of the current ASRG design in providing for robust and flexible use of RPS on human exploration missions.
Rosalyn A. V. Robison
Full Text Available Government policy aimed at curbing carbon emissions often focusses on encouraging individual action, however the effectiveness of this approach has been limited. Investigations of why this might be have included segmentation, to identify different groups who undertake more or less action, and analysis of various “barriers” to action. Those on lower incomes who are not home owners have previously been found to be less engaged in seeking out energy efficiency information. Working with low-income tenants living in supported social housing we conducted three group interviews, accompanied by a 7-item scale measuring general attitude towards the environment. The interviews were aimed at opening up discussion about environmental and energy issues, including exploring more deeply what, for these participants, underlies barriers to conservation behaviours. We found participants to be very willing to engage in conversation and knowledgeable about a range of relevant issues. Barriers explored include: lack of confidence in existing levels of knowledge, habit, self-interest and lack of agency, and in all cases several different perspectives were voiced by participants. Implications for policy, interventions and public engagement are given, including ways to increase dialogue and reflection on sustainability issues for all sectors of society.
David Castro Costa
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the predictive value of social support on health related quality of life (HRQoL in multiple sclerosis (MS patients. METHODS: The sample is composed by 150 MS consecutive patients. We used the Medical Outcomes Study Social Support Survey to assess social support and the Health Status Questionnaire to assess HRQoL. For inferential analysis, we used the Multiple Linear Regression with stepwise selection of variables. RESULTS: The age, basic education, psychological support and disability explains 41.6% of the variance in physical function, 29.4% in physical performance and 30.6% in emotional performance. Age and psychological support explains 23.1% of the variance in physical function and 29.4% in vitality. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that social support is a predictor with a significant effect on HRQoL in MS.
Costa, David Castro; Sá, Maria José; Calheiros, José M
To determine the predictive value of social support on health related quality of life (HRQoL) in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. The sample is composed by 150 MS consecutive patients. We used the Medical Outcomes Study Social Support Survey to assess social support and the Health Status Questionnaire to assess HRQoL. For inferential analysis, we used the Multiple Linear Regression with stepwise selection of variables. The age, basic education, psychological support and disability explains 41.6% of the variance in physical function, 29.4% in physical performance and 30.6% in emotional performance. Age and psychological support explains 23.1% of the variance in physical function and 29.4% in vitality. This study demonstrated that social support is a predictor with a significant effect on HRQoL in MS.
Thronson, Harley A.; Valinia, Azita; Bleacher, Jacob; Eigenbrode, Jennifer; Garvin, Jim; Petro, Noah
We summarize a proposed experiment to use the International Space Station to formally examine the application and validation of low-latency telepresence for surface exploration from space as an alternative, precursor, or potentially as an adjunct to astronaut "boots on the ground." The approach is to develop and propose controlled experiments, which build upon previous field studies and which will assess the effects of different latencies (0 to 500 msec), task complexity, and alternate forms of feedback to the operator. These experiments serve as an example of a pathfinder for NASA's roadmap of missions to Mars with low-latency telerobotic exploration as a precursor to astronaut's landing on the surface to conduct geological tasks.
Robertson, Jane M
Quality of life is an important focus of research on dementia, with interest in direct reports of people with dementia and proxy reports of their carers. By exploring the subjective perspectives of unpaid family carers and paid care workers, this study aims to understand how carers construct meaning in narratives about quality of life with dementia. A case-centred approach involved biographical narrative interviews with 10 carers to explore what was important for people with dementia to have a good quality of life. Detailed narrative analysis attended to the linguistic and structural features of accounts to consider how dementia is conceptualised by carers in the framing of quality of life. An individual's perception of how dementia impacts on awareness and behaviour was central to their understanding of quality of life. Carers who constructed dementia as a loss of skills and abilities were able to represent quality of life in positive terms despite the challenges of dementia. Carers who constructed dementia as eroding identity represented quality of life less positively and centred on their own means of coping with a challenging care situation. Findings highlight the importance of helping carers develop positive constructions of quality of life that are associated with understanding dementia as a loss of skills and abilities, rather than as a loss of self. Engaging with subjectivity in carers' biographical narrative accounts is important in the development of quality of life assessment to understand the meanings and emotions that underlie proxy perspectives.
Thumfart, Julia; Reindl, Tobias; Rheinlaender, Cornelia; Müller, Dominik
Paediatric palliative care is no longer restricted to patients with cancer and has been extended to patients with other chronic conditions, such as cystic fibrosis or neuromuscular disorders. This review focused on the current state of palliative care for children and adolescents with chronic kidney disease (CKD). We assessed the literature on CKD published up to August 2017. All the papers, except one from 1996, were published this century. This review discusses the role that palliative care plays in the process of decision-making and explores the possibilities of implementing palliative care into the routine therapy of affected patients and providing support for their families. Offering early palliative care as an integral part of the kidney, supportive care provided by the nephrology care team is both necessary and feasible for patients with CKD. As a minimum, a specialised palliative care team should be involved in patients with multiple comorbidities, in conservative treatment scenarios and in acute life-threatening complications. Further studies and guidelines are required to improve the care of patients with CKD and their families. Supportive palliative care should be implemented into the routine care of patients with life-limiting kidney disease. ©2017 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
de Araújo, Aurigena Antunes; Rebouças Barbosa, Rosa Angélica Silveira; de Menezes, Marília Stefani Souza; de Medeiros, Ingrid Iana Fernandes; de Araújo, Raimundo Fernandes; de Medeiros, Caroline Addison Carvalho Xavier
The institutionalization of elders can decrease the health status and quality of life in this population. The aim of this study was to analyze the socio-demographic, quality of life, family support, and comorbidities variables in institutionalized elders with and without symptoms of depression. This was a cross-sectional study in institutions for long permanence for the elderly in the State of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. Two institutionalized elderly groups were compared (138 elders: 69 with and 69 without depressive symptoms). The instruments used were: mini-mental state examination, geriatric depression scale in the reduced version, socio-demographic questionnaire, quality of life (World Health Organization Quality of Life abbreviated-WHOQOL-bref), and inventory of perception of family support. Elders with depressive symptoms had inferior quality of life than those without depressive symptoms. Other factors that negatively influenced the quality of life in this population include: low economic conditions, occurrence of comorbidities, and deficient family assistance. These results have important implications in the decision making process with regard to strategies for improving the health status of institutionalized elders.
Watson, Joanne; Wilson, Erin; Hagiliassis, Nick
The United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (UNCRPD) promotes the use of supported decision making in lieu of substitute decision making. To date, there has been a lack of focus on supported decision making for people with severe or profound intellectual disability, including for end of life decisions. Five people with severe or profound intellectual disability's experiences of supported decision making were examined. This article is particularly focused on one participant's experiences at the end of his life. All five case studies identified that supporters were most effective in providing decision-making support for participants when they were relationally close to the person and had knowledge of the person's life story, particularly in relation to events that demonstrated preference. Findings from this study provide new understandings of supported decision making for people with severe or profound intellectual disability and have particular relevance for supporting decision making at the end of life. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
in collaboration with resuscitation service, unit managers and clinical mentors. Prior to ACLS certification, classes of Basic Life Support (BLS) were held every week for the staff nurses at King Faisal Hospital. Objectives. The purpose of this innovation was threefold, to: 1.Improve outcomes of patients requiring resuscitation.
Tan, E.C.T.H.; Hekkert, K.D.; Vugt, A.B. van; Biert, J.
PURPOSE: Adequate education in first aid and basic life support (BLS) should be considered as an essential aspect of the medical curriculum. The objective of this study was to investigate the current medical training in first aid and BLS at all 8 medical schools in the Netherlands. SUMMARY: An
In nursing homes, the nursing assistant supports patients at the end of life, notably as they move into palliative care. This involves team work to relieve pain, limit treatments considered disproportionate and improve comfort. Relations with the residents and their families are particularly important in this context. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
However, when these treatment options are maximised and the patient's condition remains unchanged, a decision might be taken to withdraw treatment. Critical care nurses caring for these patients receiving withdrawal of life-support treatment are faced with diverse perceptions and emotions. The objectives of the study ...
Ruijter, P.A. de; Biersteker, H.A.; Biert, J.; Goor, H. van; Tan, E.C.T.H.
BACKGROUND: Undergraduate medical students follow a compulsory first aid (FA) and basic life support (BLS) course. Retention of BLS seems poor and only little information is provided on the retention of FA skills. This study aims at evaluating 1- and 2-year retention of FA and BLS training in
Astronaut Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., wearing an Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU), verifies fit of the Portable Life Support System (PLSS) strap length during lunar surface training at the Kennedy Space Center. Aldrin is the prime crew lunar module pilot of the Apollo 11 lunar landing mission. Aldrin's PLSS backpack is attached to a lunar weight simulator.
Marsack, Christina N.; Samuel, Preethy S.
The aim of this study was to examine the mediating effect of formal and informal social support on the relationship of caregiver burden and quality of life (QOL), using a sample of 320 parents (aged 50 or older) of adult children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Multiple linear regression and mediation analyses indicated that caregiver burden…
Hall, J. B., Jr.; Pickett, S. J.; Sage, K. H.
A computer program for assessing manned space station environmental control and life support systems technology is described. The methodology, mission model parameters, evaluation criteria, and data base for 17 candidate technologies for providing metabolic oxygen and water to the crew are discussed. Examples are presented which demonstrate the capability of the program to evaluate candidate technology options for evolving space station requirements.
Madsen, Karina; Poulsen, H S
. The relatives lacked information about how to provide day-to-day care and how to manage psychoses and neuropsychiatric problems at home. Likewise, they needed help from the professionals to talk with each other about potentially reduced life expectancy. Most relatives appeared to value specialist nurse support...
Balcells-Balcells, A.; Gine, C.; Guardia-Olmos, J.; Summers, J. A.
Background: The concept of family quality of life has emerged as a decisive construct in the last decades to improve the capabilities of families and to assess the outcomes of the services and supports they get. The goal of this research is to adapt three instruments to the Spanish population: the "Beach Center Family Quality of Life…
Kool, D.R.; Blickman, J.G.
Accidents are the primary cause of death in patients aged 45 years or younger. In many countries, Advanced Trauma Life Support(R) (ATLS) is the foundation on which trauma care is based. We will summarize the principles and the radiological aspects of the ATLS, and we will discuss discrepancies with
Kong, Feng; You, Xuqun
This study examined both the mediation effects of loneliness and self-esteem for the relationship between social support and life satisfaction. Three hundred and eighty nine Chinese college students, ranging in age from 17 to 25 (M = 20.39), completed the emotional and social loneliness scale, the self-esteem scale, the satisfaction with life…
The study investigated the role of social support and age in emotional life adaptation among widows. Two hundred and eighty two subjects comprising 137 widows and 145 non-widows (control group) all drawn from Nigerian Universities participated in the study. The widowed subjects consisted of younger widows (18 – 37 ...
Dimov, Alexander; Stefanov, Krassen
Dimov, A., & Stefanov, K. (2008). Web-service architecture for tools supporting life-long e-Learning platforms. In R. Koper, K. Stefanov & D. Dicheva (Eds.), Proceedings of the 5th International TENCompetence Open Workshop "Stimulating Personal Development and Knowledge Sharing" (pp. 67-71).
Jones, Harry W.
This report describes a flexible, reliable, deep space life support system design approach that uses either storage or recycling or both together. The design goal is to provide the needed life support performance with the required ultra reliability for the minimum Equivalent System Mass (ESM). Recycling life support systems used with multiple redundancy can have sufficient reliability for deep space missions but they usually do not save mass compared to mixed storage and recycling systems. The best deep space life support system design uses water recycling with sufficient water storage to prevent loss of crew if recycling fails. Since the amount of water needed for crew survival is a small part of the total water requirement, the required amount of stored water is significantly less than the total to be consumed. Water recycling with water, oxygen, and carbon dioxide removal material storage can achieve the high reliability of full storage systems with only half the mass of full storage and with less mass than the highly redundant recycling systems needed to achieve acceptable reliability. Improved recycling systems with lower mass and higher reliability could perform better than systems using storage.
Rasmussen, M.B.; Dieckmann, Peter; Issenberg, Berry
Highly structured simulation-based training (SBT) on managing emergency situations can have a significant effect on immediate satisfaction and learning. However, there are some indications of problems when applying learned skills to practice. The aim of this study was to identify long-term intend...... and unintended learner reactions, experiences and reflections after attending a simulation based Advanced Life Support (ALS) course....
Kyzar, Kathleen B.; Brady, Sara E.; Summers, Jean Ann; Haines, Shana J.; Turnbull, Ann P.
In this study, the authors examined the moderating effects of partnership on the relationship between services and supports adequacy and family quality of life (FQOL) for families of children with deaf-blindness ages birth to 21. A social-ecological approach enabled examining the impact of disability on the family system. A survey, consisting of…
van Tongeren, Sandra P.; Krooneman, Janneke; Raangs, Gerwin C.; Welling, Gjalt W.; Harmsen, Hermie J. M.
Potentially pathogenic microbes and so-called technophiles may form a serious threat in advanced life support systems, such as the International Space Station (ISS). They not only pose a threat to the health of the crew, but also to the technical equipment and materials of the space station. The
van Tongeren, Sandra P.; Krooneman, Janneke; Raangs, Gerwin C.; Welling, Gjalt W.; Harmsen, Hermie J. M.
Potentially pathogenic microbes and so-called technophiles may form a serious threat in advanced life support systems, such as the International Space Station (ISS). They not only pose a threat to the health of the crew, but also to the technical equipment and materials of the space station. The
Marchetti, Bruno; Araujo, Agnès; Mermet, Émilie
A follow-up and rehabilitation care team implemented concerted, cross-disciplinary support with a patient nearing the end of her life. Working closely with the patient and her family, caregivers provided personalised palliative care. This account by members of the team shows the importance of the technical and relational dimensions in this context. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Hulbert-Williams, Lee; Hastings, Richard P.; Crowe, Rachel; Pemberton, Jemma
Background: Several studies have reported relationships between life events and psychological problems in people with intellectual disabilities. In contrast to the general literature, data have consistently been collected via proxy informants and putative moderator variables such as social support have not been examined. Materials and Methods:…
Montgomery, Edward E.
The primary issues studied were how the transition from a physical/chemical (P/C) to hybrid to a Closed Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) could be achieved, what sensors and monitors are needed for a P/C -CELSS hybrid system, and how a CELSS could be automated and what controls would be needed to do so.
Babin, Emmanuel; Heutte, Natacha; Grandazzi, Guillaume; Prévost, Virginie; Robard, Laetitia
The quality of life of patients treated for head and neck cancers and their carers is part of the current concerns of health care teams. Assessment tools were created and helped to highlight the severe physical effects (pain, mucositis…) and chronic (mutilation, post-radiation complications…) related to the disease or to different treatments but also to consider the psychosocial impact of this disease. Improving the quality of life through a thoughtful and comprehensive support that must be associated with somatic care, mental health care, rehabilitation and inclusion of social difficulties and suffering relatives. Supportive care shall ensure a good quality of life for patients treated and their families but also reduce the physical effects associated with the disease and treatment. They rely on coordination of care including the cancer networks established in the cancer plan to ensure comprehensive and continuous care for these patients.
Elitsa G. Deliverska
Full Text Available Management of the multiply injured patient requires a co-ordinated multi-disciplinary approach in order to optimise patients’ outcome. A working knowledge of the sort of problems these patients encounter is therefore vital to ensure that life-threatening injuries are recognised and treated in a timely pattern and that more minor associated injuries are not omitted. This article outlines the management of polytraumatized patients using the Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS principles and highlights the areas of specific involvement of the engaged medical team. Advanced Trauma Life Support is generally regarded as the gold standard and is founded on a number of well known principles, but strict adherence to protocols may have its drawbacks when facial trauma co-exists. These can arise in the presence of either major or minor facial injuries, and oral and maxillofacial surgeons need to be aware of the potential problems.
Full Text Available Increasing volumes of spatial data about urban areas are captured and made available via volunteered geographic information (VGI sources, such as OpenStreetMap (OSM. Hence, new opportunities arise for regional exploration that can lead to improvements in the lives of citizens through spatial decision support. We believe that the VGI data of the urban environment could be used to present a constructive overview of the regional infrastructure with the advent of web technologies. Current location-based services provide general map-based information for the end users with conventional local search functionality, and hence, the presentation of the rich urban information is limited. In this work, we analyze the OSM data to classify the geo entities into consequential categories with facilities, landscape and land use distribution. We employ a visual overlay of heat map and interactive visualizations to present the regional characterization on OSM data classification. In the proposed interface, users are allowed to express a variety of spatial queries to exemplify their geographic interests. They can compare the characterization of urban areas with respect to multiple spatial dimensions of interest and can search for the most suitable region. The search experience is further enhanced via efficient optimization and interaction methods to support the decision making of end users. We report the end user acceptability and efficiency of the proposed system via usability studies and performance analysis comparison.
Li, Xing-Ming; Yuan, Xiao-Qing; Wang, Jun-Jie; Zhang, Wan-Ying; Zhou, Yang; Liu, Gu-Ning
Our study was conducted to further investigate the model of social support and care for People Living with HIV/AIDS(PLHA), to explore their role in People Living with AIDS's quality of life (QOL) as reference for improving nursing policies for AIDS. Social support and care are the most important factors impacting the QOL of People Living with HIV/AIDS, but most studies conducted upon the influence of social support and QOL of People Living with HIV/AIDS are mainly based on cross-sectional design. Our study was a nonrandomised controlled community intervention study. The participants diagnosed as People Living with HIV/AIDS at Beijing You An Hospital received a comprehensive social support care from December 2013 to December 2014. To evaluate the impact of social support and care model on People Living with HIV/AIDS, our study analysed the different dimension scores of social support scale and quality of life before and after the intervention. Correlation between the net benefit value of social support and that of QOL from various dimensions were analysed. There were significant differences in the score of objective support and usage of support (all p = 0·02) for social support. Net values of objective support score and usage of support were 0·25 and 0·19, respectively, after intervention. There were significant differences in physiological function, role physical, general health, vitality, social function, mental health, health transition and total score of quality of life (all p People Living with HIV/AIDS. And strategies to improve social support and care intervention programmes are strongly encouraged. The method is simple and cost-effective and could be a way to improve the quality of life condition for People Living with HIV/AIDS. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Kent, Bridie; Redley, Bernice; Wickramasinghe, Nilmini; Nguyen, Lemai; Taylor, Nyree J; Moghimi, Hoda; Botti, Mari
To explore nurses' reactions to new novel technology for acute health care. Past failures of technology developers to deliver products that meet nurses' needs have led to resistance and reluctance in the technology adoption process. Thus, involving nurses in a collaborative process from early conceptualisation serves to inform design reflective upon current clinical practice, facilitating the cementing of 'vision' and expectations of the technology. An exploratory descriptive design to capture nurses' immediate impressions. Four focus groups (52 nurses from medical and surgical wards at two hospitals in Australia; one private and one public). Nursing reactions towards the new technology illustrated a variance in barrier and enabler comments across multiple domains of the Theoretical Domains Framework. Most challenging for nurses were the perceived threat to their clinical skill, and the potential capability of the novel technology to capture their clinical workflow. Enabling reactions included visions that this could help integrate care between departments; help management and support of nursing processes; and coordinating their patients care between clinicians. Nurses' reactions differed across hospital sites, influenced by their experiences of using technology. For example, Site 1 nurses reported wide variability in their distribution of barrier and enabling comments and nurses at Site 2, where technology was prevalent, reported mostly positive responses. This early involvement offered nursing input and facilitated understanding of the potential capabilities of novel technology to support nursing work, particularly the characteristics seen as potentially beneficial (enabling technology) and those conflicting (barrier technology) with the delivery of both safe and effective patient care. Collaborative involvement of nurses from the early conceptualisation of technology development brings benefits that increase the likelihood of successful use of a tool intended to
Barta, Daniel J.; Edeen, Marybeth A.; Henninger, Donald L.
The Lunar-Mars Life Support Test Project (LMLSTP) was conducted from 1995 through 1997 at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s (NASA) Johnson Space Center (JSC) to demonstrate increasingly longer duration operation of integrated, closed-loop life support systems that employed biological and physicochemical techniques for water recycling, waste processing, air revitalization, thermal control, and food production. An analog environment for long-duration human space travel, the conditions of isolation and confinement also enabled studies of human factors, medical sciences (both physiology and psychology) and crew training. Four tests were conducted, Phases I, II, IIa and III, with durations of 15, 30, 60 and 91 days, respectively. The first phase focused on biological air regeneration, using wheat to generate enough oxygen for one experimental subject. The systems demonstrated in the later phases were increasingly complex and interdependent, and provided life support for four crew members. The tests were conducted using two human-rated, atmospherically-closed test chambers, the Variable Pressure Growth Chamber (VPGC) and the Integrated Life Support Systems Test Facility (ILSSTF). Systems included test articles (the life support hardware under evaluation), human accommodations (living quarters, kitchen, exercise equipment, etc.) and facility systems (emergency matrix system, power, cooling, etc.). The test team was managed by a lead engineer and a test director, and included test article engineers responsible for specific systems, subsystems or test articles, test conductors, facility engineers, chamber operators and engineering technicians, medical and safety officers, and science experimenters. A crew selection committee, comprised of psychologists, engineers and managers involved in the test, evaluated male and female volunteers who applied to be test subjects. Selection was based on the skills mix anticipated for each particular test, and utilized
Sharpe, Helen; Patalay, Praveetha; Fink, Elian; Vostanis, Panos; Deighton, Jessica; Wolpert, Miranda
Quality of life is typically reduced in children with mental health problems. Understanding the relationship between quality of life and mental health problems and the factors that moderate this association is a pressing priority. This was a cross-sectional study involving 45,398 children aged 8-13 years from 880 schools in England. Self-reported quality of life was assessed using nine items from the KIDSCREEN-10 and mental health was assessed using the Me and My School Questionnaire. Demographic information (gender, age, ethnicity, socio-economic status) was also recorded. Quality of life was highest in children with no problems and lowest in children with both internalising and externalising problems. There was indication that quality of life may be reduced in children with internalising problems compared with externalising problems. Approximately 12 % children with mental health problems reported high quality of life. The link between mental health and quality of life was moderated by gender and age but not by socio-economic status or ethnicity. This study supports previous work showing mental health and quality of life are related but not synonymous. The findings have implications for measuring quality of life in child mental health settings and the need for approaches to support children with mental health problems that are at particular risk of poor quality of life.
Full Text Available Introduction: The correct patient – doctor relationship is important in shaping the whole process of treatment. The scientific studies highlight the various irregularities in this relationship and its negative impact on the effectiveness of medical treatment. The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between levels of doctors’ support and attitude to certain aspects of the treatment process and quality of life among patients with psoriasis. Material and Methods: The study was conducted on 50 patients with psoriasis aged from 21 to 78 who are treated in dermatological clinics. The Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI was used to assess the severity of psoriatic skin changes. The patients completed a questionnaire for the assessment of receive doctors’ support, and its relationship with the attitude towards the disease. The research tool was developed based on literature review. Results: The level of doctors’ support had a direct impact on the patients’ attitude the disease, including attitudes towards the treatment and medical personnel, as well as adherence to medical recommendations; and indirectly on satisfaction with the treatment and the quality of life. Conclusions: Results of this study have shown clear evidence the importance of the level of doctors’ support in psoriasis which could help to improve the overall functioning of these patients. The level of doctors’ support indirectly affects the quality of life in patients with psoriasis.
Algee, Lisa M.
English Language Learners (ELL) are often at a distinct disadvantage from receiving authentic science learning opportunites. This study explored English Language Learners (ELL) learning experiences with scientific language and inquiry within a real life context. This research was theoretically informed by sociocultural theory and literature on student learning and science teaching for ELL. A qualitative, case study was used to explore students' learning experiences. Data from multiple sources was collected: student interviews, science letters, an assessment in another context, field-notes, student presentations, inquiry assessment, instructional group conversations, parent interviews, parent letters, parent homework, teacher-researcher evaluation, teacher-researcher reflective journal, and student ratings of learning activities. These data sources informed the following research questions: (1) Does participation in an out-of-school contextualized inquiry science project increase ELL use of scientific language? (2) Does participation in an out-of-school contextualized inquiry science project increase ELL understanding of scientific inquiry and their motivation to learn? (3) What are parents' funds of knowledge about the local ecology and does this inform students' experiences in the science project? All data sources concerning students were analyzed for similar patterns and trends and triangulation was sought through the use of these data sources. The remaining data sources concerning the teacher-researcher were used to inform and assess whether the pedagogical and research practices were in alignment with the proposed theoretical framework. Data sources concerning parental participation accessed funds of knowledge, which informed the curriculum in order to create continuity and connections between home and school. To ensure accuracy in the researchers' interpretations of student and parent responses during interviews, member checking was employed. The findings
Wong, Daniel Fu Keung; Chang, Yingli; He, Xuesong; Wu, Qiaobing
At present, China has approximately 20 million migrant school-aged children accompanying their parents in relocating to the cities. However, very little is known about them. Using a resilience framework, the present study attempted to examine the psychosocial factors affecting their life satisfaction in Shanghai, China. A total of 625 migrant children were recruited from 10 schools in Shanghai through a cross-sectional survey design using multi-stage cluster sampling method. The questionnaire included measures of life satisfaction, self-esteem, social support, relationships at school and the parent-child and peer relationships. Hierarchical regression analysis was performed to explore the relative effects of different relationship domains, self-esteem and social support on the life satisfaction of migrant children. The results suggested that parent-child and peer relationships significantly influenced the life satisfaction of children of migrant workers. Relationships in school did not exert such effect. Both social support and self-esteem had significant effects on the life satisfaction of migrant children. Relationship factors, social support and self-esteem are critical factors affecting the life satisfaction of migrant children. The findings and implications were discussed in relation to developmental and migration-related issues and the social contexts of the lives of children of migrant workers in Shanghai, China.
Gutierrez, Sherrill; Shaw, Susanna; Huseni, Shehlanoor; Sachdeva, Shagun; Costello, John P; Basu, Sonali; Nath, Dilip S; Klugman, Darren
Idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis is a rare disease defined by the triad of iron deficiency anemia, hemoptysis, and diffuse pulmonary infiltrates on chest radiograph. Idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis is known to cause dyspnea and, in some cases, acute onset of massive pulmonary hemorrhage which is traditionally treated with conventional mechanical ventilation or high-frequency oscillation in conjunction with immunosuppressive therapy. In this case report, we describe a 5-week-old infant presenting with hemoptysis, massive pulmonary hemorrhage, and significant hypercapnic respiratory failure. The patient failed conventional ventilation but responded well to extracorporeal life support that was initiated early in his course. Idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis was suspected in light of his response to high-dose steroids and was confirmed by subsequent lung biopsies. Patients with severe pulmonary hemorrhage secondary to idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis can be safely supported with extracorporeal life support when conventional therapies have been exhausted.
Ray, Charles D.; Carrasquillo, Robyn L.; Minton-Summers, Silvia
This paper provides a summary of current work accomplished under technical task agreement (TTA) by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) regarding the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) as well as future planning activities in support of the International Space Station (ISS). Current activities include ECLSS computer model development, component design and development, subsystem integrated system testing, life testing, and government furnished equipment delivered to the ISS program. A long range plan for the MSFC ECLSS test facility is described whereby the current facility would be upgraded to support integrated station ECLSS operations. ECLSS technology development efforts proposed to be performed under the Advanced Engineering Technology Development (AETD) program are also discussed.
Pan, Jingtong; Zaff, Jonathan F; Donlan, Alice E
Using motivational theories of engagement and adopting a multidimensional perspective of academic engagement, the authors investigate the associations among teacher and parent support, students' academic self-efficacy, and academic engagement among a sample of reconnected youth who have returned to academic pursuit after dropping out (N = 938, mean age = 16.50, SD = 1.78). In addition, they examine how youth's adverse life experiences moderate the pathways in this model, an analysis notably missing from much of the academic engagement literature. They find that students' academic self-efficacy mediates parent and teacher support and youth academic engagement. Moreover, participants' adverse life experiences moderate the connections among perceived support from parents, academic self-efficacy, and academic engagement. Implications for practice and future directions are discussed. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Research on Adolescence © 2017 Society for Research on Adolescence.
Meyhoff, T S; Krag, M; Hjortrup, P B
BACKGROUND: Use of life support in intensive care unit (ICU) patients has been associated with increased risk of poor outcome. The prognostic importance of the duration of support is less studied. We assessed the use of life support and the association between its duration and 90-day mortality...... the first 3 days in ICU and the crude and adjusted association between its duration and 90-day mortality using logistic regression analyses. RESULTS: We included 690 patients; their 90-day mortality was 23%. During the first 3 days in ICU mechanical ventilation was used in 65%, vasopressors/inotropes in 57......% and renal replacement therapy in 13%. Renal replacement therapy for 3 days or more was associated with a higher 90-day mortality as compared with 1 day of renal replacement therapy [odds ratio 6.5 (95% confidence interval 1.3 to 32.8)]. For mechanical ventilation and vasopressors/inotropes the odds ratios...
Xiao, Zhiwen; Li, Xiaoming; Qiao, Shan; Zhou, Yuejiao; Shen, Zhiyong
This study collected data from 2987 people living with HIV in China and employed structural equation modeling to examine the relationships among social support, depression, and quality of life (QOL). Depression was the strongest predictor of the psychological, energy, and mobility aspects of QOL with β = -.70 (p social support was a significant predictor of depression (β = -.12, p psychological aspect (β = .06, p social support was a significant predictor of mobility (β = -.08, p psychological aspect (β = -.07, p social support was only negatively associated with mobility (β = -.16, p psychological (positive/negative feelings, thinking, learning, memory, and concentration) aspects of QOL. Emotional social support had both direct and indirect effects (through its buffering effect on depression) on better QOL. However, the associations between informational social support and the three aspects of QOL were negative; and informational social support did not have a buffering effect on depression. Functional social support was negatively associated with mobility, which means provision of functional support to PLHIV may not necessarily be associated with better QOL. The findings confirm that HIV/AIDS care in China should consider the conceptual differences between emotional, informational, and functional support.
Kundrot, C.E.; Steinberg, S. L.; Charles, J. B.
In the course of defining the level of risks and mitigating the risks for exploration missions beyond low Earth orbit, NASA s Human Research Program (HRP) has identified the need for technology development in several areas. Long duration missions increase the risk of serious medical conditions due to limited options for return to Earth; no resupply; highly limited mass, power, volume; and communication delays. New space flight compatible medical capabilities required include: diagnostic imaging, oxygen concentrator, ventilator, laboratory analysis (saliva, blood, urine), kidney stone diagnosis & treatment, IV solution preparation and delivery. Maintenance of behavioral health in such an isolated, confined and extreme environment requires new sensory stimulation (e.g., virtual reality) technology. Unobtrusive monitoring of behavioral health and treatment methods are also required. Prolonged exposure to weightlessness deconditions bone, muscle, and the cardiovascular system. Novel exercise equipment or artificial gravity are necessary to prevent deconditioning. Monitoring of the degree of deconditioning is required to ensure that countermeasures are effective. New technologies are required in all the habitable volumes (e.g., suit, capsule, habitat, exploration vehicle, lander) to provide an adequate food system, and to meet human environmental standards for air, water, and surface contamination. Communication delays require the crew to be more autonomous. Onboard decision support tools that assist crew with real-time detection and diagnosis of vehicle and habitat operational anomalies will enable greater autonomy. Multi-use shield systems are required to provide shielding from solar particle events. The HRP is pursuing the development of these technologies in laboratories, flight analog environments and the ISS so that the human health and performance risks will be acceptable with the available resources.
Whitley, Rob; Wondimagegn, Dawit; Alem, Atalay; Prince, Martin
The high prevalence of antenatal common mental disorders in sub-Saharan Africa compared to high-income countries is poorly understood. This qualitative study explored the sociocultural context of antenatal mental distress in a rural Ethiopian community. Five focus group discussions and 25 in-depth interviews were conducted with purposively sampled community stakeholders. Inductive analysis was used to develop final themes. Worry about forthcoming delivery and fears for the woman’s survival were prominent concerns of all participants, but only rarely perceived to be pathological in intensity. Sociocultural practices such as continuing physical labour, dietary restriction, prayer and rituals to protect against supernatural attack were geared towards safe delivery and managing vulnerability. Despite strong cultural norms to celebrate pregnancy, participants emphasised that many pregnancies were unwanted and an additional burden on top of pre-existing economic and marital difficulties. Short birth interval and pregnancy out of wedlock were both seen as shameful and potent sources of mental distress. The notion that pregnancy in traditional societies is uniformly a time of joy and happiness is misplaced. Although antenatal mental distress may be self-limiting for many women, in those with enduring life difficulties, including poverty and abusive relationships, poor maternal mental health may persist. PMID:20148274
Hanlon, Charlotte; Whitley, Rob; Wondimagegn, Dawit; Alem, Atalay; Prince, Martin
The high prevalence of antenatal common mental disorders in sub-Saharan Africa compared to high-income countries is poorly understood. This qualitative study explored the sociocultural context of antenatal mental distress in a rural Ethiopian community. Five focus group discussions and 25 in-depth interviews were conducted with purposively sampled community stakeholders. Inductive analysis was used to develop final themes. Worry about forthcoming delivery and fears for the woman's survival were prominent concerns of all participants, but only rarely perceived to be pathological in intensity. Sociocultural practices such as continuing physical labour, dietary restriction, prayer and rituals to protect against supernatural attack were geared towards safe delivery and managing vulnerability. Despite strong cultural norms to celebrate pregnancy, participants emphasised that many pregnancies were unwanted and an additional burden on top of pre-existing economic and marital difficulties. Short birth interval and pregnancy out of wedlock were both seen as shameful and potent sources of mental distress. The notion that pregnancy in traditional societies is uniformly a time of joy and happiness is misplaced. Although antenatal mental distress may be self-limiting for many women, in those with enduring life difficulties, including poverty and abusive relationships, poor maternal mental health may persist.
Full Text Available The ever-growing number of women in the contemporary workforce is presenting numerous challenges to organisations, employees and their families. The aim of this study was therefore twofold, namely, to explore how 21st century career-oriented women attach meaning to their different life roles, as well as how they visualise integrating these over the next decade. A modernist qualitative methodology and grounded theory were applied. Rich, interesting data was obtained from which four themes were inferred implying career-oriented women still placing importance on the traditional mother role. The article concludes with indicating key implications of the findings and recommendations. Opsomming Die steeds groeiende aantal vroue in die kontemporêre arbeidsmag bring enorme uitdagings vir organisasies, werknemers en hul gesinne mee. Die doel van hierdie studie was derhalwe tweeledig: om te verken hoe 21eeuse beroepsgeoriënteerde vroue betekenis aan hul onderskeie lewensrolle gee, asook hoe hulle visualiseer om hierdie rolle gedurende die komende dekade te integreer. ’n Modernisties kwalitatiewe metodologie en begronde teorie is aangewend. Ryk en interessante data is verkry waaruit vier temas afgelei is wat impliseer dat beroepsgeoriënteerde vroue die tradisionele moederrol steeds belangrik ag. Die sleutelimplikasies van die bevindinge asook aanbevelings sluit die artikel af.
Ana Paula Quilici; Renato Sergio Pogetti; Belchor Fontes; Luis Fernando Correa Zantut; Eliana Torrea Chaves; Dario Birolini
...: To compare stress levels affecting surgical residents during the simulated initial assessment and management in the Advanced Trauma Life Support practical exam vs initial assessment and management of...
Quilici, Ana Paula; Pogetti, Renato Sergio; Fontes, Belchor; Zantut, Luis Fernando Correa; Chaves, Eliana Torrea; Birolini, Dario
...: To compare stress levels affecting surgical residents during the simulated initial assessment and management in the Advanced Trauma Life Support practical exam vs initial assessment and management...
Von Dras, D D; Williams, R B; Kaplan, B H; Siegler, I C
An investigation into the correlates of perceived social support and the equality of interpersonal relationships at mid-life was conducted using a sample of 3954 adults from the University of North Carolina Alumni Heart Study (UNCAHS). Participants ranged in age from forty to fifty years. Results suggested that while the number of family roles and social activities are the same for men and women, women perceive a greater availability of social support and report they give more than they take in relationships with family. There was no association found between the perceived availability of social support and global indices of equality of interpersonal relationships; suggesting an independence between these two psychological aspects of social support. Further, multiple regression correlational analyses indicated gender, level of social activity, and self-esteem as significant predictors of perceived social support; with self-esteem being the best single predictor. Relatedly, gender and number of children were found to be significant predictors of the perceived equality of relationships with family. These findings suggest differences in mid-life men and women's psychological perception of the availability of social support, and the give and take of relationships with family.
The drive for the journey to Mars is in a higher gear than ever before. We are developing new spacecraft and life support systems to take humans to the Red Planet. The journey that development hardware takes before its final incarnation in a fully integrated spacecraft can take years, as is the case for the Orion environmental control and life support system (ECLSS). Through the Pressure Integrated Suit Test (PIST) series, NASA personnel at Johnson Space Center have been characterizing the behavior of a closed loop ECLSS in the event of cabin depressurization. This kind of testing - one of the most hazardous activities performed at JSC - requires an iterative approach, increasing in complexity and hazards). The PIST series, conducted in the Crew and Thermal Systems Division (CTSD) 11-ft Chamber, started with unmanned test precursors before moving to a human-in-the-loop phase, and continues to evolve with the eventual goal of a qualification test for the final system that will be installed on Orion. Meanwhile, the Human Exploration Spacecraft Testbed for Integration and Advancement (HESTIA) program is an effort to research and develop technologies that will work in concert to support habitation on Mars. September 2015 marked the first unmanned HESTIA test, with the goal of characterizing how ECLSS technologies work together in a closed environment. HESTIA will culminate in crewed testing, but it can benefit from the lessons learned from another test that is farther ahead in its development and life cycle. Discussing PIST and HESTIA, this paper illustrates how we approach testing, the kind of information that facility teams need to ensure efficient collaborations and successful testing, and how we can apply what we learn to execute future tests.
Lee, A R; Wolf, R; Contento, I; Verdeli, H; Green, P H R
There is little information available on the use of social support systems for patients with coeliac disease (CD). We performed a cross-sectional study aiming to examine the association between participation in different types of social support networks and quality of life (QOL) in adults with CD. A survey including a validated CD specific QOL instrument was administered online and in-person to adults with CD who were following a gluten-free diet. Participation in social support networks (type, frequency and duration) were assessed. Among the 2138 participants, overall QOL scores were high, averaging 68.9 out of 100. Significant differences in QOL scores were found for age, length of time since diagnosis and level of education. Most (58%) reported using no social support networks. Of the 42% reporting use of social support networks (online 17.9%, face-to-face 10.8% or both 12.8%), QOL scores were higher for those individuals who used only face-to-face social support compared to only online support (72.6 versus 66.7; P networks is associated with greater QOL scores compared to online social support networks. These findings have potential implications for the management of individuals with CD. Emphasis on face-to-face support may improve long-term QOL and patient outcomes. © 2015 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.