WorldWideScience

Sample records for exploiting coupled dynamics

  1. Exploiting iris dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Charles; Szu, Harold

    2010-04-01

    The human iris is a circular curtain over the light entrance pupil which is controlled directly by the intensity of blue light from photosensitive ganglions in the retina within the eye. The human iris dynamic is remarkable in that it is capable of shrinking concentrically along the radial direction by a factor 4 from 8mm to 2mm, and constantly oscillates in 1/2 second periodicity. Pupil dilation and contraction causes the iris texture to undergo nonlinear deformation with discrete components and minutia features. Thus, iris recognition must be scale invariant due to the pupil dynamics. We propose the Mandelbrot fractal dimension count of minutia iris details, at different intensity thresholds, in dilation-invariant wedge-boxes, formed at specific angular sizes, but spatially varying over 4 90° quadrants due to the cellular growth under the gravity. Despite the concentric dynamic, we have sought an invariant fractal dimensionality in the circular direction and discovered the non-isotropic effect, departed from the simple Richardson fractal law. Furthermore, we choose an optimum Rayleigh criterion λ/D matching the robust fine resolution scale for the given lens aperture D and the illumination wavelength λ for a potential application from a distant, with the help of comprehensive biometric including iris.

  2. Exploiting dynamic reaction cell inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (DRC-ICP-MS) for sequential determination of trace elements in blood using a dilute-and-shoot procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemos Batista, Bruno; Lisboa Rodrigues, Jairo; Andrade Nunes, Juliana; Oliveira Souza, Vanessa Cristina de [Departamento de Analises Clinicas, Toxicologicas e Bromatologicas, Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas de Ribeirao Preto - FCFRP - USP - Avenida do Cafe, s/n, Monte Alegre, 14040-903 Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil); Barbosa, Fernando, E-mail: fbarbosa@fcfrp.usp.br [Departamento de Analises Clinicas, Toxicologicas e Bromatologicas, Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas de Ribeirao Preto - FCFRP - USP - Avenida do Cafe, s/n, Monte Alegre, 14040-903 Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2009-04-20

    Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry with quadrupole (q-ICP-MS) and dynamic reaction cell (DRC-ICP-MS) were evaluated for sequential determination of As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Pb, Se, Tl, V and Zn in blood. The method requires as little as 100 {mu}L of blood. Prior to analysis, samples (100 {mu}L) were diluted 1:50 in a solution containing 0.01% (v/v) Triton X-100 and 0.5% (v/v) nitric acid. The use of the DRC was only mandatory for Cr, Cu, V and Zn. For the other elements the equipment may be operated in a standard mode (q-ICP-MS). Ammonia was used as reaction gas. Selection of best flow rate of ammonium gas and optimization of the quadrupole dynamic band-pass tuning parameter (RPq) were carried out, using a ovine base blood for Cr and V and a synthetic matrix solution (SMS) for Zn and Cu diluted 1:50 and spiked to contain 1 {mu}g L{sup -1} of each element. Method detection limits (3 s) for {sup 75}As, {sup 114}Cd, {sup 59}Co, {sup 51}Cr, {sup 63}Cu {sup 55}Mn, {sup 208}Pb, {sup 82}Se, {sup 205}Tl, {sup 51}V, and {sup 64}Zn were 14.0, 3.0, 11.0, 7.0, 280, 9.0, 3.0, 264, 0.7, 6.0 and 800 ng L{sup -1}, respectively. Method validation was accomplished by the analysis of blood Reference Materials produced by the L'Institut National de Sante Publique du Quebec (Canada).

  3. On the dynamics of exploited fish populations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Beverton, R. J. H; Holt, Sidney J

    1993-01-01

    ...-brooding cichlids, and viviparity in many sharks and toothcarps. Moreover, fish are of considerable importance to the survival of the human species in the form of nutritious, delicious and diverse food. Rational exploitation and management of our global stocks of fishes must rely upon a detailed and precise insight of their biology. The...

  4. Schistosoma mansoni cercariae exploit an elastohydrodynamic coupling to swim efficiently

    CERN Document Server

    Krishnamurthy, Deepak; Bhargava, Arjun; Prakash, Manu

    2016-01-01

    The motility of many parasites is critical for the infection process of their host, as exemplified by the transmission cycle of the blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni. In their human infectious stage, immature, submillimetre-scale forms of the parasite known as cercariae swim in freshwater and infect humans by penetrating through the skin. This infection causes Schistosomiasis, a parasitic disease that is comparable to malaria in its global socio-economic impact. Given that cercariae do not feed and hence have a finite lifetime of around 12 hours, efficient motility is crucial for the parasite's survival and transmission of Schistosomiasis. However, a first-principles understanding of how cercariae swim is lacking. Via a combined experimental, theoretical and robotics based approach, we demonstrate that cercariae propel themselves against gravity by exploiting a unique elastohydrodynamic coupling. We show that cercariae beat their tail in a periodic fashion while maintaining a fixed flexibility near their poster...

  5. Risk assessment by dynamic representation of vulnerability, exploitation, and impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cam, Hasan

    2015-05-01

    Assessing and quantifying cyber risk accurately in real-time is essential to providing security and mission assurance in any system and network. This paper presents a modeling and dynamic analysis approach to assessing cyber risk of a network in real-time by representing dynamically its vulnerabilities, exploitations, and impact using integrated Bayesian network and Markov models. Given the set of vulnerabilities detected by a vulnerability scanner in a network, this paper addresses how its risk can be assessed by estimating in real-time the exploit likelihood and impact of vulnerability exploitation on the network, based on real-time observations and measurements over the network. The dynamic representation of the network in terms of its vulnerabilities, sensor measurements, and observations is constructed dynamically using the integrated Bayesian network and Markov models. The transition rates of outgoing and incoming links of states in hidden Markov models are used in determining exploit likelihood and impact of attacks, whereas emission rates help quantify the attack states of vulnerabilities. Simulation results show the quantification and evolving risk scores over time for individual and aggregated vulnerabilities of a network.

  6. Heterogeneous Dynamics of Coupled Vibrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cringus, Dan; Jansen, Thomas I. C.; Pshenichnikov, Maxim S.; Schoenlein, RW; Corkum, P; DeSilvestri, S; Nelson, KA; Riedle, E

    2009-01-01

    Frequency-dependent dynamics of coupled stretch vibrations of a water molecule are revealed by 2D IR correlation spectroscopy. These are caused by non-Gaussian fluctuations of the environment around the individual OH stretch vibrations.

  7. Schistosoma mansoni cercariae swim efficiently by exploiting an elastohydrodynamic coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurthy, Deepak; Katsikis, Georgios; Bhargava, Arjun; Prakash, Manu

    2017-03-01

    The motility of many parasites is critical for infecting their host, as exemplified in the transmission cycle of the parasite Schistosoma mansoni. In its human infectious stage, submillimetre-scale forms of the parasite known as cercariae swim in freshwater and infect humans by penetrating the skin. This infection causes schistosomiasis, a disease comparable to malaria in global socio-economic impact. Given that cercariae do not feed and hence have a lifetime of around 12 hours, efficient motility is crucial for schistosomiasis transmission. Despite this, a first-principles understanding of how cercariae swim is lacking. Combining biological experiments, a novel theoretical model and its robotic realization, we show that cercariae use their forked tail to swim against gravity using a novel swimming gait, described here as a `T-swimmer gait'. During this gait, cercariae beat their tail periodically while maintaining an increased flexibility near their posterior and anterior ends. This flexibility allows an interaction between fluid drag and bending resistance--an elastohydrodynamic coupling, to naturally break time-reversal symmetry and enable locomotion at small length scales. Finally, we find that cercariae maintain this flexibility at an optimal regime for efficient swimming. We anticipate that our work sets the ground for linking the swimming of cercariae to disease transmission, and could potentially enable explorations of novel strategies for schistosomiasis control and prevention.

  8. Exploitation dynamics of small fish stocks like Arctic cisco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Jennifer L.

    2004-01-01

    Potential impacts to the Arctic cisco population fall into both demographic and behavioral categories. Possible demographic impacts include stock recruitment effects, limited escapement into marine habitats, and variable age-class reproductive success. Potential behavioral impacts involve migratory patterns, variable life histories, and strategies for seasonal feeding. Arctic cisco stocks are highly susceptible to over-exploitation due to our limited basic knowledge of the highly variable Arctic environment and the role they play in this dynamic ecosystem.Our knowledge of potential demographic changes is very limited, and it is necessary to determine the abundance and recruitment of the hypothesized Mackenzie River source population, the extent of the coastal migratory corridor, growth patterns, and coastal upwelling and mixing effects on population dynamics for this species. Information needed to answer some of the demographic questions includes basic evolutionary history and molecular genetics of Arctic cisco (for instance, are there contributions to the Arctic cisco stock from the Yukon?), what is the effective population size (i.e., breeding population size), and potential links to changes in climate. The basic behavioral questions include migratory and variable life history questions. For instance, the extent of movement back and forth between freshwater and the sea, age-specific differences in food web dynamics, and nearshore brackish and high salinity habitats are topics that should be studied. Life history data should be gathered to understand the variation in age at reproduction, salinity tolerance, scale and duration of the freshwater stage, survival, and adult migration. Both molecular and ecological tools should be integrated to manage the Arctic cisco stock(s), such as understanding global climate changes on patterns of harvest and recruitment, and the genetics of population structure and colonization. Perhaps other populations are contributing to the

  9. Coupling gamma-ray arrays to spectrometers: The way to better exploit radioactive ion beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    de France, G.

    2008-10-01

    The coupling of very efficient gamma-ray arrays with large acceptance (or highly selective) spectrometers in the context of radioactive beams, has pushed away the limits for the exploration of the nuclear chart and opened up new possibilities in nuclear physics studies. At GANIL the EXOGAM array (a large efficiency gamma-ray array) has been coupled to VAMOS (a large acceptance spectrometer) and to SPEG (a highly selective spectrometer) to study many different aspects of nuclear structure and reactions covering the whole nuclear chart. Indeed, this combination has been used to study neutron-rich nuclei toward 54Ca, neutron deficient tin isotopes around A = 103, heavy elements around Md and No, reaction mechanism using the borromean light He isotopes, the nuclear structure in the island of inversion around 32Mg, and many other examples in various mass regions and energy regimes. This is also the case for the very efficient large BaF2 array Chateau de Cristal which is frequently coupled to SPEG to study nuclear structure far from stability. In this paper, the various possibilities offered at GANIL with such couplings will be given. In the future, AGATA will be installed at GANIL to exploit the beams produced by the SPIRAL2 facility. Again, it is anticipated that this new generation array will be coupled to spectrometers to better exploit the future beams.

  10. The Challenges to Coupling Dynamic Geospatial Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldstein, N

    2006-06-23

    Many applications of modeling spatial dynamic systems focus on a single system and a single process, ignoring the geographic and systemic context of the processes being modeled. A solution to this problem is the coupled modeling of spatial dynamic systems. Coupled modeling is challenging for both technical reasons, as well as conceptual reasons. This paper explores the benefits and challenges to coupling or linking spatial dynamic models, from loose coupling, where information transfer between models is done by hand, to tight coupling, where two (or more) models are merged as one. To illustrate the challenges, a coupled model of Urbanization and Wildfire Risk is presented. This model, called Vesta, was applied to the Santa Barbara, California region (using real geospatial data), where Urbanization and Wildfires occur and recur, respectively. The preliminary results of the model coupling illustrate that coupled modeling can lead to insight into the consequences of processes acting on their own.

  11. Spatial dynamics of fuel wood exploitation in Delta State, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the spatial and temporal changes in fuel wood exploitation as a result of environmental degradation, between 2008 and 2013 in Delta State, Nigeria. It utilised data from both primary and secondary sources. Primary data were obtained from a survey of selected settlements using a questionnaire.

  12. Dynamics of coupled phantom and tachyon fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shahalam, M. [Zhejiang University of Technology, Institute for Advanced Physics and Mathematics, Hangzhou (China); Pathak, S.D.; Li, Shiyuan [Shandong University, School of Physics, Jinan (China); Myrzakulov, R. [Eurasian National University, Department of General and Theoretical Physics, Eurasian International Center for Theoretical Physics, Astana (Kazakhstan); Wang, Anzhong [Zhejiang University of Technology, Institute for Advanced Physics and Mathematics, Hangzhou (China); Baylor University, Department of Physics, GCAP-CASPER, Waco, TX (United States)

    2017-10-15

    In this paper, we apply the dynamical analysis to a coupled phantom field with scaling potential taking particular forms of the coupling (linear and combination of linear), and present phase space analysis. We investigate if there exists a late time accelerated scaling attractor that has the ratio of dark energy and dark matter densities of the order one. We observe that the scrutinized couplings cannot alleviate the coincidence problem, however, they acquire stable late time accelerated solutions. We also discuss a coupled tachyon field with inverse square potential assuming linear coupling. (orig.)

  13. Novel coupling scheme to control dynamics of coupled discrete systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekatkar, Snehal M.; Ambika, G.

    2015-08-01

    We present a new coupling scheme to control spatio-temporal patterns and chimeras on 1-d and 2-d lattices and random networks of discrete dynamical systems. The scheme involves coupling with an external lattice or network of damped systems. When the system network and external network are set in a feedback loop, the system network can be controlled to a homogeneous steady state or synchronized periodic state with suppression of the chaotic dynamics of the individual units. The control scheme has the advantage that its design does not require any prior information about the system dynamics or its parameters and works effectively for a range of parameters of the control network. We analyze the stability of the controlled steady state or amplitude death state of lattices using the theory of circulant matrices and Routh-Hurwitz criterion for discrete systems and this helps to isolate regions of effective control in the relevant parameter planes. The conditions thus obtained are found to agree well with those obtained from direct numerical simulations in the specific context of lattices with logistic map and Henon map as on-site system dynamics. We show how chimera states developed in an experimentally realizable 2-d lattice can be controlled using this scheme. We propose this mechanism can provide a phenomenological model for the control of spatio-temporal patterns in coupled neurons due to non-synaptic coupling with the extra cellular medium. We extend the control scheme to regulate dynamics on random networks and adapt the master stability function method to analyze the stability of the controlled state for various topologies and coupling strengths.

  14. Dynamics of vehicle-road coupled system

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Shaopu; Li, Shaohua

    2015-01-01

    Vehicle dynamics and road dynamics are usually considered to be two largely independent subjects. In vehicle dynamics, road surface roughness is generally regarded as random excitation of the vehicle, while in road dynamics, the vehicle is generally regarded as a moving load acting on the pavement. This book suggests a new research concept to integrate the vehicle and the road system with the help of a tire model, and establishes a cross-subject research framework dubbed vehicle-pavement coupled system dynamics. In this context, the dynamics of the vehicle, road and the vehicle-road coupled system are investigated by means of theoretical analysis, numerical simulations and field tests. This book will be a valuable resource for university professors, graduate students and engineers majoring in automotive design, mechanical engineering, highway engineering and other related areas. Shaopu Yang is a professor and deputy president of Shijiazhuang Tiedao University, China; Liqun Chen is a professor at Shanghai Univ...

  15. Current expertise location by exploiting the dynamics of knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Nozicka

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Systems for expertise location are either very expensive in terms of the costs of maintenance or they tend to become obsolete or incomplete during the time. This article presents a new approach to knowledge mapping/expertise location allowing reducing the costs of knowledge mapping by maintaining the accuracy of the knowledge map. The efficiency of the knowledge map is achieved by introducing the knowledge estimation measures analysing the dynamics of knowledge of company employees and their textual results of work. Finding an expert with most up-to date knowledge is supported by focusing publishing history analysis. The efficiency of proposed measures within various timeframes of publishing history is evaluated by evaluation method introduced within the article. The evaluation took place in the environment of a middle-sized software company allowing seeing directly a practical usability of the expertise location technique. The results form various implications deployment of knowledge map within the company.

  16. Magnetization dynamics in interlayer exchange coupled magnetic microstructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaiser, Alexander; Wiemann, Carsten; Cramm, Stefan; Schneider, Claus M. [Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institut fuer Festkoerperforschung IFF-9 und JARA-FIT, 52425 Juelich (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    Photoemission Electron Microscopy (PEEM) combined with soft x-rays with variable polarization and a pulsed time structure offered at modern storage rings is a powerful tool for investigating magnetization dynamics with high spatial and temporal resolution. Tuning the photon energy to the absorption edges of the appropriate elements and exploiting the XMCD effect offers the possibility to probe the micromagnetic structure of different layers in magnetic heterostructures independently. Thus the influence of coupling phenomena on the micromagnetic behavior can be studied in magnetic heterostructures. We have investigated the magnetization dynamics in interlayer exchange coupled CoFe/Cr/NiFe structures for different Cr thicknesses spanning parallel, antiparallel and 90 {sup circle} -coupling of the ferromagnetic layers. The films have been grown epitaxially by MBE on GaAs substrates with Ag buffer layers. We present time-resolved PEEM measurements of the magnetodynamic response on a short magnetic field pulse in both ferromagnetic films. The influence of the interlayer exchange coupling on the magnetodynamic behaviour is discussed.

  17. Dynamic Electromechanical Coupling of Piezoelectric Bending Actuators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa R. A. Nabawy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Electromechanical coupling defines the ratio of electrical and mechanical energy exchanged during a flexure cycle of a piezoelectric actuator. This paper presents an analysis of the dynamic electromechanical coupling factor (dynamic EMCF for cantilever based piezoelectric actuators and provides for the first time explicit expressions for calculation of dynamic EMCF based on arrangement of passive and active layers, layer geometry, and active and passive materials selection. Three main cantilever layer configurations are considered: unimorph, dual layer bimorph and triple layer bimorph. The actuator is modeled using standard constitutive dynamic equations that relate deflection and charge to force and voltage. A mode shape formulation is used for the cantilever dynamics that allows the generalized mass to be the actual mass at the first resonant frequency, removing the need for numerical integration in the design process. Results are presented in the form of physical insight from the model structure and also numerical evaluations of the model to provide trends in dynamic EMCF with actuator design parameters. For given material properties of the active and passive layers and given system overall damping ratio, the triple layer bimorph topology is the best in terms of theoretically achievable dynamic EMCF, followed by the dual layer bimorph. For a damping ratio of 0.035, the dynamic EMCF for an example dual layer bimorph configuration is 9% better than for a unimorph configuration. For configurations with a passive layer, the ratio of thicknesses for the passive and active layers is the primary geometric design variable. Choice of passive layer stiffness (Young’s modulus relative to the stiffness of the material in the active layer is an important materials related design choice. For unimorph configurations, it is beneficial to use the highest stiffness possible passive material, whereas for triple layer bimorph configurations, the passive

  18. Synchronization of coupled chaotic dynamics on networks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We review some recent work on the synchronization of coupled dynamical systems on a variety of networks. When nodes show synchronized behaviour, two inter- esting phenomena can be observed. First, there are some nodes of the floating type that show intermittent behaviour between getting attached to some ...

  19. Oscillators and crank turning: exploiting natural dynamics with a humanoid robot arm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Matthew M

    2003-10-15

    This paper presents an approach to robot-arm control that exploits the natural dynamics of the arm. This is in contrast to traditional approaches, which either ignore or cancel out arm dynamics. While the traditional approaches are more general, they often result in systems and robot designs that are not robust. The alternative approach gives systems that are computationally simple, robust to variation in system parameters, robust to changes in the dynamics themselves, and versatile. The approach is examined using the example of a compliant robot arm, controlled by independent neural oscillators, in a crank-turning task. A model is constructed, and the robot behaviour compared with the model. These data show that the arm-oscillator system is exploiting the natural dynamics by finding and exciting the resonant mode of the underlying mechanical system. Since this is a natural behaviour of the system, the robot behaviour is robust. The paper concludes by discussing the opportunities and limitations of this approach.

  20. Exploiting the dynamics of a robotic manipulator for control of UAVs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mersha, A.Y.; Stramigioli, Stefano; Carloni, Raffaella

    This paper presents a new free-flight controller for aerial manipulators, unmanned aerial vehicles endowed with a robotic manipulator. The control strategy exploits the dynamics of the manipulator to improve the tracking performance and maneuverability of the UAV by expanding its flight envelop. The

  1. Measuring Sandy Bottom Dynamics by Exploiting Depth from Stereo Video Sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Musumeci, Rosaria E.; Farinella, Giovanni M.; Foti, Enrico

    2013-01-01

    In this paper an imaging system for measuring sandy bottom dynamics is proposed. The system exploits stereo sequences and projected laser beams to build the 3D shape of the sandy bottom during time. The reconstruction is used by experts of the field to perform accurate measurements and analysis...

  2. Exploiting neurovascular coupling: a Bayesian sequential Monte Carlo approach applied to simulated EEG fNIRS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croce, Pierpaolo; Zappasodi, Filippo; Merla, Arcangelo; Chiarelli, Antonio Maria

    2017-08-01

    Objective. Electrical and hemodynamic brain activity are linked through the neurovascular coupling process and they can be simultaneously measured through integration of electroencephalography (EEG) and functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). Thanks to the lack of electro-optical interference, the two procedures can be easily combined and, whereas EEG provides electrophysiological information, fNIRS can provide measurements of two hemodynamic variables, such as oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin. A Bayesian sequential Monte Carlo approach (particle filter, PF) was applied to simulated recordings of electrical and neurovascular mediated hemodynamic activity, and the advantages of a unified framework were shown. Approach. Multiple neural activities and hemodynamic responses were simulated in the primary motor cortex of a subject brain. EEG and fNIRS recordings were obtained by means of forward models of volume conduction and light propagation through the head. A state space model of combined EEG and fNIRS data was built and its dynamic evolution was estimated through a Bayesian sequential Monte Carlo approach (PF). Main results. We showed the feasibility of the procedure and the improvements in both electrical and hemodynamic brain activity reconstruction when using the PF on combined EEG and fNIRS measurements. Significance. The investigated procedure allows one to combine the information provided by the two methodologies, and, by taking advantage of a physical model of the coupling between electrical and hemodynamic response, to obtain a better estimate of brain activity evolution. Despite the high computational demand, application of such an approach to in vivo recordings could fully exploit the advantages of this combined brain imaging technology.

  3. Coherent regimes of globally coupled dynamical systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Monte, Silvia; D'ovidio, Francesco; Mosekilde, Erik

    2003-01-01

    This Letter presents a method by which the mean field dynamics of a population of dynamical systems with parameter diversity and global coupling can be described in terms of a few macroscopic degrees of freedom. The method applies to populations of any size and functional form in the region...... of coherence. It requires linear variation or a narrow distribution for the dispersed parameter. Although an approximation, the method allows us to quantitatively study the transitions among the collective regimes as bifurcations of the effective macroscopic degrees of freedom. To illustrate, the phenomenon...

  4. Dynamics of three coupled long Josephson junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hattel, Søren A.; Grunnet-Jepsen, Anders; Samuelsen, Mogens Rugholm

    1996-01-01

    The dynamics of a system of three long Josephson transmission lines coupled at a common end point is investigated. We report several periodic fluxon states and trace out the corresponding zero field steps. The boundary conditions at the common point lead to a very different stability of steps...... for odd and even numbers of fluxons. In addition we find two ''normal state'' branches for the IV curve, where either two or three of the branches are in their normal state....

  5. Stiffness Control of Variable Serial Elastic Actuators: Energy Efficiency through Exploitation of Natural Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Beckerle

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Variable elastic actuators are very promising for applications in physical human–robot interaction. Besides enabling human safety, such actuators can support energy efficiency, especially if the natural behavior of the system is exploited. In this paper, the power and energy consumption of variable stiffness actuators with serial elasticity is investigated analytically and experimentally. Besides the fundamental mechanics, the influence of friction and electrical losses is discussed. A simple but effective stiffness control method is used to exploit the corresponding knowledge of natural dynamics by tuning the system to antiresonance operation. Despite nonlinear friction effects and additional electrical dynamics, the consideration of the ideal mechanical dynamics is completely sufficient for stiffness control. Simulations and experiments show that this yields a distinct reduction in power and energy consumption, which underlines the suitability of the control strategy.

  6. Coupling of protein dynamics with the solvent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caliskan, Gokhan; Sauzan, Azzam; Mehtani, Disha; Sokolov, Alexei

    2003-03-01

    Glycerol and trehalose are among the many viscous solvents that are widely used for biostabilization and controlling the dynamics of proteins. It is believed that the suppression of the structural relaxations by high viscosity of solvent is responsible for improved stability in proteins. However, results of [1] and [2] demonstrate stronger suppression of biochemical activity and dynamics of proteins by liquid glycerol than by solid trehalose in a wide temperature range. The authors tried to explain the counterintuitive observations by a possible decoupling of the dynamics of the protein from trehalose. In order to test the validity of this assumption and to investigate the influence of the fast dynamics in proteins, the low frequency Raman scattering spectroscopy technique is used. Both relaxational and vibrational dynamics of glycerol, trehalose, and lysozyme in glycerol and in trehalose are studied in a wide temperature range. Dynamics of lysozyme in glycerol follows the strong temperature dependence of relaxational and vibrational dynamics of the bulk glycerol. On the other hand, the weak temperature dependence of dynamics of lysozyme in trehalose follows exactly the behavior of pure trehalose. This proves that there is a strong dynamic coupling between the protein and the solvents used. Interestingly, stronger relaxations in solid trehalose as compared to liquid glycerol are observed in the GHz region at low temperatures. This could be the reason for the enhanced protein activity observed in trehalose, compared to that in glycerol in this temperature range. Suppression of these fast relaxations should be the key for providing long-term stability to proteins. 1. Sastry, G.M. and N. Agmon, Trehalose prevents myoglobin collapse and preserves its internal mobility. BIOCHEMISTRY, 1997, 36(23): p. 7097-108. 2. Caliskan, G., et al., Influence of solvent on dynamics and stability of a protein. Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids, 2002, 307-310: p. 887-893.

  7. Dynamic Coupling Between Respiratory and Cardiovascular System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Censi, Federica; Calcagnini, Giovanni; Cerutti, Sergio

    The analysis of non-linear dynamics of the coupling among interacting quantities can be very useful for understanding the cardiorespiratory and cardiovascular control mechanisms. In this chapter RP is used to detect and quantify the degree of non-linear coupling between respiration and spontaneous rhythms of both heart rate and blood pressure variability signals. RQA turned out to be suitable for a quantitative evaluation of the observed coupling patterns among rhythms, both in simulated and real data, providing different degrees of coupling. The results from the simulated data showed that the increased degree of coupling between the signals was marked by the increase of PR and PD, and by the decrease of ER. When the RQA was applied to experimental data, PD and ER turned out to be the most significant variables, compared to PR. A remarkable finding is the detection of transient 1:2 PL episodes between respiration and cardiovascular variability signals. This phenomenon can be associated to a sub-harmonic synchronization between the two main rhythms of HR and BP variability series.

  8. Evacuation dynamics of asymmetrically coupled pedestrian pairs

    CERN Document Server

    Müller, Frank

    2016-01-01

    We propose and analyze extended floor field cellular automaton models for evacuation dynamics of inhomogeneous pedestrian pairs which are coupled by asymmetric group interactions. Such pairs consist of a leader, who mainly determines the couple's motion and a follower, who has a defined tendency to follow the leader. Examples for such pairs are mother and child or two siblings of different age. We examine the system properties and compare them to the case of a homogeneous crowd. We find a strong impact on evacuation times for the regime of strong pair coupling due to the occurrence of a clogging phenomenon. In addition we obtain a non-trivial dependence of evacuation times on the followers' coupling to the static floor field, which carries the information of the shortest way to the exit location. In particular we find that systems with fully passive followers, who are solely coupled to their leaders, show lower evacuation times than homogeneous systems where all pedestrians have an equal tendency to move towa...

  9. Coupled dynamic analysis of subsea pipe laying operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Danilo Machado Lawinscky da; Jacob, Breno Pinheiro [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Civil. Lab. of Computational Methods and Offshore Systems

    2009-12-19

    It is recognized that deep water offshore oil exploitation activities requires the use of sophisticated computational tools to predict the behavior of floating offshore systems under the action of environmental loads. These computational tools should be able to perform coupled dynamic analyses, considering the non-linear interaction of the hydrodynamic behavior of the platform with the structural/hydrodynamic behavior of the mooring lines and risers, represented by Finite Element models. The use of such a sophisticated computational tool becomes mandatory not only for the design of production platforms, but also for the simulation of offshore installation operations. For instance, in the installation of submarine pipelines, the wall thickness design may not be governed by the pressure containment requirements of the pipeline during the operation, but by the installation process, specifically the combined action of bending, tension and hydrostatic pressure acting on the pipeline, that is also submitted to the motions of the lay barge. Therefore, the objective of this work is to present the results of numerical simulations of S-lay installation procedures using a computational tool that performs dynamic analysis coupling the structural behavior of the pipe with the hydrodynamic behavior of the vessel motions under environmental conditions. This tool rigorously considers the contact between the pipeline and its supports (lay barge, stinger, seabed). The results are compared to traditional pipe laying simulations based on RAO motions. (author)

  10. Ultrafast Polariton-Phonon Dynamics of Strongly Coupled Quantum Dot-Nanocavity Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Müller

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the influence of exciton-phonon coupling on the dynamics of a strongly coupled quantum dot-photonic crystal cavity system and explore the effects of this interaction on different schemes for nonclassical light generation. By performing time-resolved measurements, we map out the detuning-dependent polariton lifetime and extract the spectrum of the polariton-to-phonon coupling with unprecedented precision. Photon-blockade experiments for different pulse-length and detuning conditions (supported by quantum optical simulations reveal that achieving high-fidelity photon blockade requires an intricate understanding of the phonons’ influence on the system dynamics. Finally, we achieve direct coherent control of the polariton states of a strongly coupled system and demonstrate that their efficient coupling to phonons can be exploited for novel concepts in high-fidelity single-photon generation.

  11. Microtubule dynamics: Caps, catastrophes, and coupled hydrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyvbjerg, H.; Holy, T.E.; Leibler, S.

    1996-01-01

    and probability distributions relating to available experimental data are derived. Caps are found to be short and the total rate of hydrolysis at a microtubule end is found to be dynamically coupled to growth. The so-called catastrophe rate is a simple function of the microtubule growth rare and fits experimental...... data. A constant nonzero catastrophe rare, identical for both microtubule ends, is predicted at large growth rates. The delay time for dilution-induced catastrophes is stochastic with a simple distribution that fits the experimental one and, like the experimental one, does not depend on the rate...... description of several apparently contradictory experimental data. Experimental results for the catastrophe rate at different concentrations of magnesium ions and of microtubule associated proteins are discussed in terms of the model. Feasible experiments are suggested that can provide decisive tests...

  12. Dynamic nonlinear thermal optical effects in coupled ring resonators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenguang Huang

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the dynamic nonlinear thermal optical effects in a photonic system of two coupled ring resonators. A bus waveguide is used to couple light in and out of one of the coupled resonators. Based on the coupling from the bus to the resonator, the coupling between the resonators and the intrinsic loss of each individual resonator, the system transmission spectrum can be classified by three different categories: coupled-resonator-induced absorption, coupled-resonator-induced transparency and over coupled resonance splitting. Dynamic thermal optical effects due to linear absorption have been analyzed for each category as a function of the input power. The heat power in each resonator determines the thermal dynamics in this coupled resonator system. Multiple “shark fins” and power competition between resonators can be foreseen. Also, the nonlinear absorption induced thermal effects have been discussed.

  13. Interpreting Dynamically-Averaged Scalar Couplings in Proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindorff-Larsen, Kresten; Best, Robert B.; Vendruscolo, Michele

    2005-01-01

    The experimental determination of scalar three-bond coupling constants represents a powerful method to probe both the structure and dynamics of proteins. The detailed structural interpretation of such coupling constants is usually based on Karplus relationships, which allow the measured couplings...... present a method to derive such parameters that uses ensembles of conformations determined through dynamic-ensemble refinement - a method that provides structural ensembles that simultaneously represent both the structure and the associated dynamics of a protein....

  14. Sketch on dynamic gesture tracking and analysis exploiting vision-based 3D interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Woontack; Kim, Namgyu; Wong, Karen; Tadenuma, Makoto

    2000-12-01

    In this paper, we propose a vision-based 3D interface exploiting invisible 3D boxes, arranged in the personal space (i.e. reachable space by the body without traveling), which allows robust yet simple dynamic gesture tracking and analysis, without exploiting complicated sensor-based motion tracking systems. Vision-based gesture tracking and analysis is still a challenging problem, even though we have witnessed rapid advances in computer vision over the last few decades. The proposed framework consists of three main parts, i.e. (1) object segmentation without bluescreen and 3D box initialization with depth information, (2) movement tracking by observing how the body passes through the 3D boxes in the personal space and (3) movement feature extraction based on Laban's Effort theory and movement analysis by mapping features to meaningful symbols using time-delay neural networks. Obviously, exploiting depth information using multiview images improves the performance of gesture analysis by reducing the errors introduced by simple 2D interfaces In addition, the proposed box-based 3D interface lessens the difficulties in both tracking movement in 3D space and in extracting low-level features of the movement. Furthermore, the time-delay neural networks lessens the difficulties in movement analysis by training. Due to its simplicity and robustness, the framework will provide interactive systems, such as ATR I-cubed Tangible Music System or ATR Interactive Dance system, with improved quality of the 3D interface. The proposed simple framework also can be extended to other applications requiring dynamic gesture tracking and analysis on the fly.

  15. The Potential and Challenges of Exploiting the Vast But Dynamic Neoepitope Landscape for Immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Els M. E. Verdegaal

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Somatic non-synonymous mutations in the DNA of tumor cells may result in the presentation of tumor-specific peptides to T cells. The recognition of these so-called neoepitopes now has been firmly linked to the clinical success of checkpoint blockade and adoptive T cell therapy. Following proof-of-principle studies in preclinical models there was a surge of strategies to identify and exploit genetically defined clonally expressed neoepitopes. These approaches assume that neoepitope availability remains stable during tumor progression but tumor genetics has taught us otherwise. Under the pressure of the immune system, neoepitope expression dynamically evolves rendering neoepitope specific T cells ineffective. This implies that the immunotherapeutic strategy applied should be flexible in order to cope with these changes and/or aiming at a broad range of epitopes to prevent the development of escape variants. Here, we will address the heterogeneous and dynamic expression of neoepitopes and describe our perspective and demonstrate possibilities how to further exploit the clinical potential of the neoepitope repertoire.

  16. Distributed Resource Exploitation for Autonomous Mobile Sensor Agents in Dynamic Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doumit, Sarjoun; Minai, Ali

    This paper studies the distributed resource exploitation problem (DREP) where many resources are distributed across an unknown environment, and several agents move around in it with the goal to exploit/visit the resources. A resource may be anything that can be harvested/sensed/acted upon by an agent when the agent visits that resource's physical location. A sensory agent (SA) is a mobile and autonomous sensory entity that has the capability of sensing a resource's attribute and therefore determining the exploitatory gain factor or profitability when this resource is visited. This type of problem can be seen as a combination of two well-known problems: the Dynamic Traveling Salesman Problem (DTSP) [8] and the Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP) [1]. But the DREP differs significantly from these two. In the DTSP we have a single agent that needs to visit many fixed cities that have costs associated to their pairwise links, so it is an optimization of paths on a static graph with time-varying costs. In VRP on the other hand, we have a number of vehicles with uniform capacity, a common depot, and several stationary customers scattered around an environment, so the goal is to find the set of routes with overall minimum route cost to service all the customers. In our problem, we have multiple SAs deployed in an unknown environment with multiple dynamic resources each with a dynamically varying value. The goal of the SAs is to adapt their paths collaboratively to the dynamics of the resources in order to maximize the general profitability of the system.

  17. Coupled modeling of land hydrology–regional climate including human carbon emission and water exploitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng-Hui Xie

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Carbon emissions and water use are two major kinds of human activities. To reveal whether these two activities can modify the hydrological cycle and climate system in China, we conducted two sets of numerical experiments using regional climate model RegCM4. In the first experiment used to study the climatic responses to human carbon emissions, the model were configured over entire China because the impacts of carbon emissions can be detected across the whole country. Results from the first experiment revealed that near-surface air temperature may significantly increase from 2007 to 2059 at a rate exceeding 0.1 °C per decade in most areas across the country; southwestern and southeastern China also showed increasing trends in summer precipitation, with rates exceeding 10 mm per decade over the same period. In summer, only northern China showed an increasing trend of evapotranspiration, with increase rates ranging from 1 to 5 mm per decade; in winter, increase rates ranging from 1 to 5 mm per decade were observed in most regions. These effects are believed to be caused by global warming from human carbon emissions. In the second experiment used to study the effects of human water use, the model were configured over a limited region—Haihe River Basin in the northern China, because compared with the human carbon emissions, the effects of human water use are much more local and regional, and the Haihe River Basin is the most typical region in China that suffers from both intensive human groundwater exploitation and surface water diversion. We incorporated a scheme of human water regulation into RegCM4 and conducted the second experiment. Model outputs showed that the groundwater table severely declined by ∼10 m in 1971–2000 through human groundwater over-exploitation in the basin; in fact, current conditions are so extreme that even reducing the pumping rate by half cannot eliminate the groundwater depletion cones observed in the area

  18. Exploiting Flexibility in Coupled Electricity and Natural Gas Markets: A Price-Based Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ordoudis, Christos; Delikaraoglou, Stefanos; Pinson, Pierre

    2017-01-01

    Natural gas-fired power plants (NGFPPs) are considered a highly flexible component of the energy system and can facilitate the large-scale integration of intermittent renewable generation. Therefore, it is necessary to improve the coordination between electric power and natural gas systems....... Considering a market-based coupling of these systems, we introduce a decision support tool that increases market efficiency in the current setup where day-ahead and balancing markets are cleared sequentially. The proposed approach relies on the optimal adjustment of natural gas price to modify the scheduling...

  19. Evaluation of promising algal strains for sustainable exploitation coupled with CO2 fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shailendra Kumar; Rahman, Akhlaqur; Dixit, Kritika; Nath, Adi; Sundaram, Shanthy

    2016-01-01

    The photosynthetic activity of three microalgae, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Chlorella AU1, Scenedesmus AU1, and six cyanobacteria, Spirulina platensis, Anabaena cylindrica, Oscillatoria AU1, Nostoc muscurum, Synechococcus AU1, Synechocystis sp. PCC6803, was investigated. Strains S. platensis, Scenedesmus AU1 sp. and Chlorella AU1 sp. showed the highest fluorescence quenching than other strains tested. Thus, these were selected for CO2 mitigation analysis in a designed tubular photobioreactor system at 0.06%, 6%, 12%, 18% and 24% CO2 concentrations. Spirulina showed maximum biomass productivity of 1.03 g L(-1) d(-1) with the highest CO2 fixation rate of 0.678 g [Formula: see text] L(-1) d(-1) at 6% CO2 concentration. The maximum protein content (66.63%) was also achieved in Spirulina sp. at 6% CO2 concentration. Thus, Spirulina could be utilized as a source of protein supplement coupled with CO2 fixation. Maximum carbohydrate proportion (51.71%) was noted with Scenedesmus AU1 sp. at 12% CO2. Scenedesmus AU1 sp. also accumulated the maximum lipid content (25.07%) at 6% CO2 concentration, which was further analysed for biodiesel production. The extracted Scenedesmus oil was mainly rich in short chain fatty acids (C-16 : 0, C-18:1, C-18:2, C-18:3) which is an ideal combination for efficient biodiesel. Thus, this is vital in helping to choose Scenedesmus as a biodiesel feedstock, coupled with CO2 fixation.

  20. Exploiting the dynamic properties of covalent modification cycle for the design of synthetic analog biomolecular circuitry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo, Mathias; Sawlekar, Rucha; Bates, Declan G

    2016-01-01

    Cycles of covalent modification are ubiquitous motifs in cellular signalling. Although such signalling cycles are implemented via a highly concise set of chemical reactions, they have been shown to be capable of producing multiple distinct input-output mapping behaviours - ultrasensitive, hyperbolic, signal-transducing and threshold-hyperbolic. In this paper, we show how the set of chemical reactions underlying covalent modification cycles can be exploited for the design of synthetic analog biomolecular circuitry. We show that biomolecular circuits based on the dynamics of covalent modification cycles allow (a) the computation of nonlinear operators using far fewer chemical reactions than purely abstract designs based on chemical reaction network theory, and (b) the design of nonlinear feedback controllers with strong performance and robustness properties. Our designs provide a more efficient route for translation of complex circuits and systems from chemical reactions to DNA strand displacement-based chemistry, thus facilitating their experimental implementation in future Synthetic Biology applications.

  1. Average dynamics of a finite set of coupled phase oscillators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dima, Germán C., E-mail: gdima@df.uba.ar; Mindlin, Gabriel B. [Laboratorio de Sistemas Dinámicos, IFIBA y Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Pabellón 1, Ciudad Universitaria, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2014-06-15

    We study the solutions of a dynamical system describing the average activity of an infinitely large set of driven coupled excitable units. We compared their topological organization with that reconstructed from the numerical integration of finite sets. In this way, we present a strategy to establish the pertinence of approximating the dynamics of finite sets of coupled nonlinear units by the dynamics of its infinitely large surrogate.

  2. Dynamic control of laser driven proton beams by exploiting self-generated, ultrashort electromagnetic pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kar, S., E-mail: s.kar@qub.ac.uk; Ahmed, H.; Nersisyan, G.; Hanton, F.; Naughton, K.; Lewis, C. L. S.; Borghesi, M. [Centre for Plasma Physics, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Brauckmann, S.; Giesecke, A. L.; Willi, O. [Institut für Laser-und Plasmaphysik, Heinrich-Heine-Universität, Düsseldorf (Germany)

    2016-05-15

    As part of the ultrafast charge dynamics initiated by high intensity laser irradiations of solid targets, high amplitude EM pulses propagate away from the interaction point and are transported along any stalks and wires attached to the target. The propagation of these high amplitude pulses along a thin wire connected to a laser irradiated target was diagnosed via the proton radiography technique, measuring a pulse duration of ∼20 ps and a pulse velocity close to the speed of light. The strong electric field associated with the EM pulse can be exploited for controlling dynamically the proton beams produced from a laser-driven source. Chromatic divergence control of broadband laser driven protons (upto 75% reduction in divergence of >5 MeV protons) was obtained by winding the supporting wire around the proton beam axis to create a helical coil structure. In addition to providing focussing and energy selection, the technique has the potential to post-accelerate the transiting protons by the longitudinal component of the curved electric field lines produced by the helical coil lens.

  3. Exploiting the Adaptation Dynamics to Predict the Distribution of Beneficial Fitness Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Sona; Seetharaman, Sarada

    2016-01-01

    Adaptation of asexual populations is driven by beneficial mutations and therefore the dynamics of this process, besides other factors, depends on the distribution of beneficial fitness effects. It is known that on uncorrelated fitness landscapes, this distribution can only be of three types: truncated, exponential and power law. We performed extensive stochastic simulations to study the adaptation dynamics on rugged fitness landscapes, and identified two quantities that can be used to distinguish the underlying distribution of beneficial fitness effects. The first quantity studied here is the fitness difference between successive mutations that spread in the population, which is found to decrease in the case of truncated distributions, remains nearly a constant for exponentially decaying distributions and increases when the fitness distribution decays as a power law. The second quantity of interest, namely, the rate of change of fitness with time also shows quantitatively different behaviour for different beneficial fitness distributions. The patterns displayed by the two aforementioned quantities are found to hold good for both low and high mutation rates. We discuss how these patterns can be exploited to determine the distribution of beneficial fitness effects in microbial experiments.

  4. Exploiting the Adaptation Dynamics to Predict the Distribution of Beneficial Fitness Effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sona John

    Full Text Available Adaptation of asexual populations is driven by beneficial mutations and therefore the dynamics of this process, besides other factors, depends on the distribution of beneficial fitness effects. It is known that on uncorrelated fitness landscapes, this distribution can only be of three types: truncated, exponential and power law. We performed extensive stochastic simulations to study the adaptation dynamics on rugged fitness landscapes, and identified two quantities that can be used to distinguish the underlying distribution of beneficial fitness effects. The first quantity studied here is the fitness difference between successive mutations that spread in the population, which is found to decrease in the case of truncated distributions, remains nearly a constant for exponentially decaying distributions and increases when the fitness distribution decays as a power law. The second quantity of interest, namely, the rate of change of fitness with time also shows quantitatively different behaviour for different beneficial fitness distributions. The patterns displayed by the two aforementioned quantities are found to hold good for both low and high mutation rates. We discuss how these patterns can be exploited to determine the distribution of beneficial fitness effects in microbial experiments.

  5. Dynamical coupling between locomotion and respiration.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daffertshofer, A.; Huys, R.; Beek, P.J.

    2004-01-01

    In search of the formative principles underwriting locomotor-respiratory coupling, we reanalyzed and modeled the data collected by Siegmund and coworkers (1999) on the synchronization of respiration during rowing. Apart from the frequency doubling in respiration reported earlier, detailed

  6. Predictability and Coupled Dynamics of MJO During DYNAMO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-03

    3. DATES COVERED (From - To) Jan 2013-Dec 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Predictability and Coupled Dynamics of MJO During DYNAMO 5a. CONTRACT...release: distribution is unlimited. Predictability and Coupled Dynamics of MJO During DYNAMO Hyodae Seo Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution Woods...scientific goals of the proposed research are: 1. Examine the process by which the SST variability affects the MJO during the DYNAMO using a SCOAR2 regional

  7. Dynamical hysteresis and spatial synchronization in coupled non ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    behavior of complex biological systems, e.g. seizures in the epileptic brain can be viewed as transitions between different dynamical phases caused by time dependence in the brain's internal coupling. Keywords. ... arrays, electronic oscillator circuits, charge- density waves, coupled laser arrays, multimode lasers etc. [1].

  8. Inflationary dynamics of kinetically-coupled gauge fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferreira, Ricardo J. Z.; Ganc, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the inflationary dynamics of two kinetically-coupled massless U(1) gauge fields with time-varying kinetic-term coefficients. Ensuring that the system does not have strongly coupled regimes shrinks the parameter space. Also, we further restrict ourselves to systems that can be quant...

  9. Complex phase dynamics in coupled bursters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Postnov, D.E.; Sosnovtseva, Olga; Malova, S.Y.

    2003-01-01

    The phenomenon of phase multistability in the synchronization of two coupled oscillatory systems typically arises when the systems individually display complex wave forms associated, for instance, with the presence of subharmonic components. Alternatively, phase multistability can be caused...... by variations of the phase velocity along the orbit of the individual oscillator. Focusing on the mechanisms underlying the appearance of phase multistability, the paper examines a variety of phase-locked patterns in the bursting behavior of a model of coupled pancreatic cells. In particular, we show how...... the number of spikes per train and the proximity of a neighboring equilibrium point can influence the formation of coexisting regimes....

  10. Fractional dynamical model for neurovascular coupling

    KAUST Repository

    Belkhatir, Zehor

    2014-08-01

    The neurovascular coupling is a key mechanism linking the neural activity to the hemodynamic behavior. Modeling of this coupling is very important to understand the brain function but it is at the same time very complex due to the complexity of the involved phenomena. Many studies have reported a time delay between the neural activity and the cerebral blood flow, which has been described by adding a delay parameter in some of the existing models. An alternative approach is proposed in this paper, where a fractional system is used to model the neurovascular coupling. Thanks to its nonlocal property, a fractional derivative is suitable for modeling the phenomena with delay. The proposed model is coupled with the first version of the well-known balloon model, which relates the cerebral blood flow to the Blood Oxygen Level Dependent (BOLD) signal measured using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI). Through some numerical simulations, the properties of the fractional model are explained and some preliminary comparisons to a real BOLD data set are provided. © 2014 IEEE.

  11. Nanoparticles at fluid interfaces: exploiting capping ligands to control adsorption, stability and dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbin, Valeria; Crocker, John C; Stebe, Kathleen J

    2012-12-01

    Nanoparticle self-assembly at fluid-fluid interfaces has been traditionally exploited in emulsification, encapsulation and oil recovery, and more recently in emerging applications including functional nanomaterials and biphasic catalysis. We provide a review of the literature focusing on the open challenges that still hamper the broader applicability of this potentially transformative technology, and we outline strategies to achieve improved control over interfacial self-assembly of nanoparticles. First, we discuss means to promote spontaneous adsorption by tuning the interfacial energies of the nanoparticles with the fluids using capping ligands, and the occurrence of energy barriers. We then examine the interactions between interfacial nanoparticles and how they affect the formation of equilibrium interfacial suspensions versus non-equilibrium two-dimensional phases, such as weakly attractive glasses and gels. Important differences with colloidal interactions in a bulk suspension arise due to the discontinuity in solvent properties at the interface. For instance, ligand brushes rearrange in asymmetric configurations, and thus play a significant role in determining interparticle interactions. Finally, we briefly discuss the link between interfacial microstructure and the dynamic response of particle-laden interfaces, including interfacial rheology and the fate of nanoparticle monolayers upon out-of-plane deformation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Simulating electron wave dynamics in graphene superlattices exploiting parallel processing advantages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Manuel J.; Fernandes, David E.; Silveirinha, Mário G.; Falcão, Gabriel

    2018-01-01

    This work introduces a parallel computing framework to characterize the propagation of electron waves in graphene-based nanostructures. The electron wave dynamics is modeled using both "microscopic" and effective medium formalisms and the numerical solution of the two-dimensional massless Dirac equation is determined using a Finite-Difference Time-Domain scheme. The propagation of electron waves in graphene superlattices with localized scattering centers is studied, and the role of the symmetry of the microscopic potential in the electron velocity is discussed. The computational methodologies target the parallel capabilities of heterogeneous multi-core CPU and multi-GPU environments and are built with the OpenCL parallel programming framework which provides a portable, vendor agnostic and high throughput-performance solution. The proposed heterogeneous multi-GPU implementation achieves speedup ratios up to 75x when compared to multi-thread and multi-core CPU execution, reducing simulation times from several hours to a couple of minutes.

  13. Investigations Into Internal and External Aspects of Dynamic Agent-Environment Couplings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dautenhahn, Kerstin

    This paper originates from my work on `social agents'. An issue which I consider important to this kind of research is the dynamic coupling of an agent with its social and non-social environment. I hypothesize `internal dynamics' inside an agent as a basic step towards understanding. The paper therefore focuses on the internal and external dynamics which couple an agent to its environment. The issue of embodiment in animals and artifacts and its relation to `social dynamics' is discussed first. I argue that embodiment is linked to a concept of a body and is not necessarily given when running a control program on robot hardware. I stress the individual characteristics of an embodied cognitive system, as well as its social embeddedness. I outline the framework of a physical-psychological state space which changes dynamically in a self-modifying way as a holistic approach towards embodied human and artificial cognition. This framework is meant to discuss internal and external dynamics of an embodied, natural or artificial agent. In order to stress the importance of a dynamic memory I introduce the concept of an `autobiographical agent'. The second part of the paper gives an example of the implementation of a physical agent, a robot, which is dynamically coupled to its environment by balancing on a seesaw. For the control of the robot a behavior-oriented approach using the dynamical systems metaphor is used. The problem is studied through building a complete and co-adapted robot-environment system. A seesaw which varies its orientation with one or two degrees of freedom is used as the artificial `habitat'. The problem of stabilizing the body axis by active motion on a seesaw is solved by using two inclination sensors and a parallel, behavior-oriented control architecture. Some experiments are described which demonstrate the exploitation of the dynamics of the robot-environment system.

  14. Coupling functions: Universal insights into dynamical interaction mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stankovski, Tomislav; Pereira, Tiago; McClintock, Peter V. E.; Stefanovska, Aneta

    2017-10-01

    The dynamical systems found in nature are rarely isolated. Instead they interact and influence each other. The coupling functions that connect them contain detailed information about the functional mechanisms underlying the interactions and prescribe the physical rule specifying how an interaction occurs. A coherent and comprehensive review is presented encompassing the rapid progress made recently in the analysis, understanding, and applications of coupling functions. The basic concepts and characteristics of coupling functions are presented through demonstrative examples of different domains, revealing the mechanisms and emphasizing their multivariate nature. The theory of coupling functions is discussed through gradually increasing complexity from strong and weak interactions to globally coupled systems and networks. A variety of methods that have been developed for the detection and reconstruction of coupling functions from measured data is described. These methods are based on different statistical techniques for dynamical inference. Stemming from physics, such methods are being applied in diverse areas of science and technology, including chemistry, biology, physiology, neuroscience, social sciences, mechanics, and secure communications. This breadth of application illustrates the universality of coupling functions for studying the interaction mechanisms of coupled dynamical systems.

  15. Molecular dynamics study of naturally existing cavity couplings in proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbany, Montserrat; Meyer, Tim; Hospital, Adam; Faustino, Ignacio; D'Abramo, Marco; Morata, Jordi; Orozco, Modesto; de la Cruz, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    Couplings between protein sub-structures are a common property of protein dynamics. Some of these couplings are especially interesting since they relate to function and its regulation. In this article we have studied the case of cavity couplings because cavities can host functional sites, allosteric sites, and are the locus of interactions with the cell milieu. We have divided this problem into two parts. In the first part, we have explored the presence of cavity couplings in the natural dynamics of 75 proteins, using 20 ns molecular dynamics simulations. For each of these proteins, we have obtained two trajectories around their native state. After applying a stringent filtering procedure, we found significant cavity correlations in 60% of the proteins. We analyze and discuss the structure origins of these correlations, including neighbourhood, cavity distance, etc. In the second part of our study, we have used longer simulations (≥100 ns) from the MoDEL project, to obtain a broader view of cavity couplings, particularly about their dependence on time. Using moving window computations we explored the fluctuations of cavity couplings along time, finding that these couplings could fluctuate substantially during the trajectory, reaching in several cases correlations above 0.25/0.5. In summary, we describe the structural origin and the variations with time of cavity couplings. We complete our work with a brief discussion of the biological implications of these results.

  16. Dynamics of dissipative coupled spins: decoherence and relaxation

    OpenAIRE

    Nägele, P.; Campagnano, G.; Weiss, U.

    2008-01-01

    We study the reduced dynamics of interacting spins, each coupled to its own bath of bosons. We derive the solution in analytic form in the white-noise limit and analyze the rich behaviors in diverse limits ranging from weak coupling and/or low temperature to strong coupling and/or high temperature. We also view the one spin as being coupled to a spin-boson environment and consider the regimes in which it is effectively nonlinear, and in which it can be regarded as a resonant bosonic environment.

  17. Modeling the Network Dynamics of Pulse-Coupled Neurons

    OpenAIRE

    Chandra, Sarthak; Hathcock, David; Crain, Kimberly; Antonsen, Thomas M.; Girvan, Michelle; Ott, Edward

    2017-01-01

    We derive a mean-field approximation for the macroscopic dynamics of large networks of pulse-coupled theta neurons in order to study the effects of different network degree distributions, as well as degree correlations (assortativity). Using the ansatz of Ott and Antonsen (Chaos, 19 (2008) 037113), we obtain a reduced system of ordinary differential equations describing the mean-field dynamics, with significantly lower dimensionality compared with the complete set of dynamical equations for t...

  18. Seasonal dynamics of plankton communities coupled with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, we studied the influence of the physical-chemical and biological factors (bacterioplankton and phytoplankton abundances) for zooplankton dynamics in a Sidi Saâd reservoir in Centre of Tunisia. The samplings were carried out in spring, summer, autumn and winter (2005 to 2006) in the deepest station (surface ...

  19. Bistability in Coupled Oscillators Exhibiting Synchronized Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olusola, O. I.; Vincent, U. E.; Njah, A. N.; Olowofela, J. A.

    2010-05-01

    We report some new results associated with the synchronization behavior of two coupled double-well Duffing oscillators (DDOs). Some sufficient algebraic criteria for global chaos synchronization of the drive and response DDOs via linear state error feedback control are obtained by means of Lyapunov stability theory. The synchronization is achieved through a bistable state in which a periodic attractor co-exists with a chaotic attractor. Using the linear perturbation analysis, the prevalence of attractors in parameter space and the associated bifurcations are examined. Subcritical and supercritical Hopf bifurcations and abundance of Arnold tongues — a signature of mode locking phenomenon are found.

  20. Driven Nonlinear Dynamics of Two Coupled Exchange-Only Qubits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arijeet Pal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Inspired by the creation of a fast exchange-only qubit [Medford et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 050501 (2013], we develop a theory describing the nonlinear dynamics of two such qubits that are capacitively coupled, when one of them is driven resonantly at a frequency equal to its level splitting. We include conditions of strong driving, where the Rabi frequency is a significant fraction of the level splitting, and we consider situations where the splitting for the second qubit may be the same as or different than the first. We demonstrate that coupling between qubits can be detected by reading the response of the second qubit, even when the coupling between them is only of about 1% of their level splittings, and we calculate entanglement between qubits. Patterns of nonlinear dynamics of coupled qubits and their entanglement are strongly dependent on the geometry of the system, and the specific mechanism of interqubit coupling deeply influences dynamics of both qubits. In particular, we describe the development of irregular dynamics in a two-qubit system, explore approaches for inhibiting it, and demonstrate the existence of an optimal range of coupling strength maintaining stability during the operational time.

  1. Coupling between evolutionary and population dynamics in experimental microbial populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Alvaro; Gore, Jeff

    2012-02-01

    It has been often been assumed that population dynamics and evolutionary dynamics occur at such different timescales that they are effectively de-coupled. This view has been challenged recently, due to observations of evolutionary changes occurring in short timescales. This has led to a growing interest in understanding eco-evolutionary dynamics of populations. In this context, recent theoretical models have predicted that coupling between population dynamics and evolutionary dynamics can have important effects for the evolution and stability of cooperation, and lead to extremely rich and varied dynamics. Here, we report our investigation of the eco-evolutionary dynamics of a cooperative social behavior, sucrose metabolism, in experimental yeast populations. We have devised an experimental strategy to visualize trajectories in the phase space formed by the population size (N) and the fraction of cooperator cells in the population (f). Our measurements confirm a strong coupling between evolutionary and population dynamics, and allowed us to characterize the bifurcation plots. We used this approach to investigate how sudden environmental changes affect the stability and recovery of populations, and therefore the stability of cooperation.

  2. Thermal coupling within LTP dynamics control loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nofrarias, M; Garcia Marin, A F; Heinzel, G; Hewitson, M; Danzmann, K [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik, Albert Einstein Institut (AEI), Callinstrasse 38, 30167 Hannover (Germany); Lobo, A; Sanjuan, J [Institut de Ciencies de l' Espai (ICE-CSIC), Facultat de Ciencies, Torre C5, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Ramos-Castro, J, E-mail: miquel.nofrarias@aei.mpg.d [Departament d' Enginyeria Electronica, UPC, Campus Nord, Edifici C4, Jordi Girona 1-3, 08034 Barcelona (Spain)

    2009-03-01

    The Diagnostic Subsytem in the LISA Technology Package (LTP) on board the LISA Pathfinder mission (LPF) will characterise those external disturbances with a potential impact on the performance of the experiment coming from either thermal, magnetic or charged particles perturbations. A correct design of the experiments to measure these effects in flight requires a closed loop analysis that takes into account the dynamics of the test masses, the force applied by the controllers and those noisy terms (coming from sensing or force noise) that enters into the loop. We describe this analysis in the thermal case and we give a first numerical example of the instrument response to controlled thermal inputs.

  3. Flexible Dynamics of Two Quorum Sensing Coupled Repressilators

    CERN Document Server

    Hellen, Edward H

    2016-01-01

    Genetic oscillators play important roles in cell life regulation. The regulatory efficiency usually depends strongly on the emergence of stable collective dynamic modes, which requires designing the interactions between genetic networks. We investigate the dynamics of two identical synthetic genetic repressilators coupled by an additional plasmid which implements quorum sensing (QS) in each network thereby supporting global coupling. In a basic genetic ring oscillator network in which three genes inhibit each other in unidirectional manner, QS stimulates the transcriptional activity of chosen genes providing for competition between inhibitory and stimulatory activities localized in those genes. The "promoter strength", the Hill cooperativity coefficient of transcription repression, and the coupling strength, i.e., parameters controlling the basic rates of genetic reactions, were chosen for extensive bifurcation analysis. The results are presented as a map of dynamic regimes. We found that the remarkable multi...

  4. Use of dynamical coupling for improved quantum state transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyakhov, A. O.; Bruder, C.

    2006-12-01

    We propose a method to improve quantum state transfer in transmission lines. The idea is to localize the information on the last qubit of a transmission line by dynamically varying the coupling constants between the first and the last pair of qubits. The fidelity of state transfer is higher then in a chain with fixed coupling constants. The effect is stable against small fluctuations in the system parameters.

  5. Use of dynamical coupling for improved quantum state transfer

    OpenAIRE

    Lyakhov, A. O.; Bruder, C.

    2006-01-01

    We propose a method to improve quantum state transfer in transmission lines. The idea is to localize the information on the last qubit of a transmission line, by dynamically varying the coupling constants between the first and the last pair of qubits. The fidelity of state transfer is higher then in a chain with fixed coupling constants. The effect is stable against small fluctuations in the system parameters.

  6. Dynamics of order parameters for globally coupled oscillators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Monte, Silvia; D'ovidio, Francesco

    2002-01-01

    The equation of motion for the centroid of globally coupled oscillators with natural frequency mismatch is obtained through a series expansion in order parameters, valid for any population size. In the case of strong coupling and narrow-frequency distribution the first-order expansion (correspond......The equation of motion for the centroid of globally coupled oscillators with natural frequency mismatch is obtained through a series expansion in order parameters, valid for any population size. In the case of strong coupling and narrow-frequency distribution the first-order expansion...... (corresponding to a system where the centroid is coupled to a second macroscopic variable), predicts transient and asymptotic properties of the dynamics of the centroid. Phase transitions appear as macroscopic bifurcations. Collective properties arising in the transient, and particularly critical perturbations...

  7. Multimode dynamics in a network with resource mediated coupling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Postnov, D.E.; Sosnovtseva, Olga; Scherbakov, P.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study the special forms of multimode dynamics that one can observe in systems with resource- mediated coupling, i. e., systems of self- sustained oscillators in which the coupling takes place via the distribution of primary resources that controls the oscillatory...... connected to a common power supply. The two- oscillator system displays antiphase synchronization, and it is interesting to note that two- mode oscillations continue to exist outside of the parameter range in which oscillations occur for the individual unit. At low coupling strengths, the multioscillator...

  8. Tinamit: Making coupled system dynamics models accessible to stakeholders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malard, Julien; Inam Baig, Azhar; Rojas Díaz, Marcela; Hassanzadeh, Elmira; Adamowski, Jan; Tuy, Héctor; Melgar-Quiñonez, Hugo

    2017-04-01

    Model coupling is increasingly used as a method of combining the best of two models when representing socio-environmental systems, though barriers to successful model adoption by stakeholders are particularly present with the use of coupled models, due to their high complexity and typically low implementation flexibility. Coupled system dynamics - physically-based modelling is a promising method to improve stakeholder participation in environmental modelling while retaining a high level of complexity for physical process representation, as the system dynamics components are readily understandable and can be built by stakeholders themselves. However, this method is not without limitations in practice, including 1) inflexible and complicated coupling methods, 2) difficult model maintenance after the end of the project, and 3) a wide variety of end-user cultures and languages. We have developed the open-source Python-language software tool Tinamit to overcome some of these limitations to the adoption of stakeholder-based coupled system dynamics - physically-based modelling. The software is unique in 1) its inclusion of both a graphical user interface (GUI) and a library of available commands (API) that allow users with little or no coding abilities to rapidly, effectively, and flexibly couple models, 2) its multilingual support for the GUI, allowing users to couple models in their preferred language (and to add new languages as necessary for their community work), and 3) its modular structure allowing for very easy model coupling and modification without the direct use of code, and to which programming-savvy users can easily add support for new types of physically-based models. We discuss how the use of Tinamit for model coupling can greatly increase the accessibility of coupled models to stakeholders, using an example of a stakeholder-built system dynamics model of soil salinity issues in Pakistan coupled with the physically-based soil salinity and water flow model

  9. Nuclear Hybrid Energy System Modeling: RELAP5 Dynamic Coupling Capabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piyush Sabharwall; Nolan Anderson; Haihua Zhao; Shannon Bragg-Sitton; George Mesina

    2012-09-01

    The nuclear hybrid energy systems (NHES) research team is currently developing a dynamic simulation of an integrated hybrid energy system. A detailed simulation of proposed NHES architectures will allow initial computational demonstration of a tightly coupled NHES to identify key reactor subsystem requirements, identify candidate reactor technologies for a hybrid system, and identify key challenges to operation of the coupled system. This work will provide a baseline for later coupling of design-specific reactor models through industry collaboration. The modeling capability addressed in this report focuses on the reactor subsystem simulation.

  10. Dynamics of a quantum emitter resonantly coupled to both external field and localized surface plasmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerkararyan, Khachatur V.; Yezekyan, Torgom S.; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.

    2018-01-01

    We investigate excitation dynamics in the system of a quantum dipole emitter (QDE) coupled to a located nearby metal nanoparticle (MNP), which exhibits a dipolar localized surface plasmon (LSP) resonance at the frequency of the QDE radiative transition, in the presence of a strong external resonant electromagnetic field. Considering the QDE-field interactions in the regime of strong QDE-field coupling, we show that the feedback provided by the MNP on the QDE (due to the LSP excitation with the field generated by the dipole moment of the QDE transition) influences significantly the coherent process of Rabi oscillations, resulting in the occurrence of additional satellite frequencies in the radiation spectrum scattered by the QDE-MNP configuration. The relative ratio of high harmonics depends strongly on the QDE-MNP separation, an important characteristic feature that can be used for observing this effect and can be exploited, for example, for controlling distances at the nanoscale.

  11. Generalized synchronization in complex dynamical networks via adaptive couplings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Hui; Chen, Juan; Lu, Jun-an; Cao, Ming

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates generalized synchronization of three typical classes of complex dynamical networks: scale-free networks, small-world networks. and interpolating networks. The proposed synchronization strategy is to adjust adaptively a node's coupling strength based oil the node's local

  12. The dynamic characteristics of a torsionally flexible metal coupling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof FILIPOWICZ

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available At work a structure was presented to the new structural form of the metal coupling about the great torsion susceptibility and description of the research stands and methodology of determining its dynamic characteristics and also to get research findings determining exchanged characterizations which were presented.

  13. Coupled dynamics of voltage and calcium in paced cardiac cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiferaw, Yohannes; Sato, Daisuke; Karma, Alain

    2005-02-01

    We investigate numerically and analytically the coupled dynamics of transmembrane voltage and intracellular calcium cycling in paced cardiac cells using a detailed physiological model, and its reduction to a three-dimensional discrete map. The results provide a theoretical framework to interpret various experimentally observed modes of instability ranging from electromechanically concordant and discordant alternans to quasiperiodic oscillations of voltage and calcium.

  14. Multiscality in the Dynamics of Coupled Chaotic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pavlov, A.N.; Sosnovtseva, Olga; Ziganshin, A.R.

    2002-01-01

    We investigate the scaling features of complex motions in systems of two coupled chaotic oscillators by means of the wavelet-transform modulus maxima method and the detrended fluctuation analysis. We show that the transition from asynchronous to synchronous dynamics typically reduces the degree o...

  15. Electron spin dynamics due to hyperfine coupling in quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, L. M.; Reinecke, T. L.; Rajagopal, A. K.

    2008-02-01

    The dynamics of spins in semiconductor quantum dots often is controlled by their hyperfine coupling to nuclear spins. We develop a straightforward and efficient approach to describe the dynamics and the effective decoherence of the electron spins due to hyperfine coupling in realistic quantum dots. Systems with a large number of nuclei and an arbitrary initial nuclear polarization for which the number of nuclei initially flipped over is much less than the total number of nuclei are treated. This treatment employs a pole approximation within a Schrödinger equation of motion for the state of the coupled electron and nuclear spin system, and it allows us to treat systems with arbitrary initial conditions. We find that typical time scales for the effective spin decoherence are on the order of tens of microseconds.

  16. Pack Light on the Move: Exploitation and Exploration in a Dynamic Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    LiCalzi, Marco; Marchiori, Davide

    2014-01-01

    This paper revisits a recent study by Posen and Levinthal (Manag Sci 58:587–601, 2012) on the exploration/exploitation tradeoff for a multi-armed bandit problem, where the reward probabilities undergo random shocks. We show that their analysis suffers two shortcomings: it assumes that learning is...

  17. Quench dynamics of two coupled zig-zag ion chains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klumpp, Andrea, E-mail: andrea.klumpp@physnet.uni-hamburg.de [Zentrum für Optische Quantentechnologien, Universität Hamburg, Luruper Chaussee 149, 22761 Hamburg (Germany); Liebchen, Benno [SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3FD (United Kingdom); Schmelcher, Peter [Zentrum für Optische Quantentechnologien, Universität Hamburg, Luruper Chaussee 149, 22761 Hamburg (Germany); The Hamburg Centre for Ultrafast Imaging, Luruper Chaussee 149, 22761 Hamburg (Germany)

    2016-08-06

    We explore the non-equilibrium dynamics of two coupled zig-zag chains of trapped ions in a double well potential. Following a quench of the potential barrier between both wells, the induced coupling between both chains due to the long-range interaction of the ions leads to the complete loss of order in the radial direction. The resulting dynamics is however not exclusively irregular but leads to phases of motion during which various ordered structures appear with ions arranged in arcs, lines and crosses. We quantify the emerging order by introducing a suitable measure and complement our analysis of the ion dynamics using a normal mode analysis showing a decisive population transfer between only a few distinguished modes. - Highlights: • Novel dynamical phenomenology of two coupled zig-zag ion chains following a trap quench is explored. • Transient ordered ion configurations are unraveled in non-equilibrium dynamics dominated by irregular behavior. • A measure for the diagnosis of this transient order is introduced and applied. • Energy transfer between a few eigen modes is identified as the key mechanism for the occurrence of the ordered configurations.

  18. Quantum emitters dynamically coupled to a quantum field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acevedo, O. L.; Quiroga, L.; Rodríguez, F. J. [Departamento de Física, Universidad de los Andes, A.A. 4976, Bogotá (Colombia); Johnson, N. F. [Department of Physics, University of Miami, Coral Gables, Miami, FL 33124 (United States)

    2013-12-04

    We study theoretically the dynamical response of a set of solid-state quantum emitters arbitrarily coupled to a single-mode microcavity system. Ramping the matter-field coupling strength in round trips, we quantify the hysteresis or irreversible quantum dynamics. The matter-field system is modeled as a finite-size Dicke model which has previously been used to describe equilibrium (including quantum phase transition) properties of systems such as quantum dots in a microcavity. Here we extend this model to address non-equilibrium situations. Analyzing the system’s quantum fidelity, we find that the near-adiabatic regime exhibits the richest phenomena, with a strong asymmetry in the internal collective dynamics depending on which phase is chosen as the starting point. We also explore signatures of the crossing of the critical points on the radiation subsystem by monitoring its Wigner function; then, the subsystem can exhibit the emergence of non-classicality and complexity.

  19. Distribution of resonance widths and dynamics of continuum coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celardo, G L; Auerbach, N; Izrailev, F M; Zelevinsky, V G

    2011-01-28

    We analyze the statistics of resonance widths in a many-body Fermi system with open decay channels. Depending on the strength of continuum coupling, such a system reveals growing deviations from the standard chi-square (Porter-Thomas) width distribution. The deviations emerge from the process of increasing interaction of intrinsic states through common decay channels; in the limit of perfect coupling this process leads to the superradiance phase transition. The width distribution depends also on the intrinsic dynamics (chaotic versus regular). The results presented here are important for understanding the recent experimental data concerning the width distribution for neutron resonances in nuclei.

  20. A Coupling Tool for Parallel Molecular Dynamics-Continuum Simulations

    KAUST Repository

    Neumann, Philipp

    2012-06-01

    We present a tool for coupling Molecular Dynamics and continuum solvers. It is written in C++ and is meant to support the developers of hybrid molecular - continuum simulations in terms of both realisation of the respective coupling algorithm as well as parallel execution of the hybrid simulation. We describe the implementational concept of the tool and its parallel extensions. We particularly focus on the parallel execution of particle insertions into dense molecular systems and propose a respective parallel algorithm. Our implementations are validated for serial and parallel setups in two and three dimensions. © 2012 IEEE.

  1. Coupled disease-behavior dynamics on complex networks: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhen; Andrews, Michael A; Wu, Zhi-Xi; Wang, Lin; Bauch, Chris T

    2015-12-01

    It is increasingly recognized that a key component of successful infection control efforts is understanding the complex, two-way interaction between disease dynamics and human behavioral and social dynamics. Human behavior such as contact precautions and social distancing clearly influence disease prevalence, but disease prevalence can in turn alter human behavior, forming a coupled, nonlinear system. Moreover, in many cases, the spatial structure of the population cannot be ignored, such that social and behavioral processes and/or transmission of infection must be represented with complex networks. Research on studying coupled disease-behavior dynamics in complex networks in particular is growing rapidly, and frequently makes use of analysis methods and concepts from statistical physics. Here, we review some of the growing literature in this area. We contrast network-based approaches to homogeneous-mixing approaches, point out how their predictions differ, and describe the rich and often surprising behavior of disease-behavior dynamics on complex networks, and compare them to processes in statistical physics. We discuss how these models can capture the dynamics that characterize many real-world scenarios, thereby suggesting ways that policy makers can better design effective prevention strategies. We also describe the growing sources of digital data that are facilitating research in this area. Finally, we suggest pitfalls which might be faced by researchers in the field, and we suggest several ways in which the field could move forward in the coming years. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Coupled disease-behavior dynamics on complex networks: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhen; Andrews, Michael A.; Wu, Zhi-Xi; Wang, Lin; Bauch, Chris T.

    2015-12-01

    It is increasingly recognized that a key component of successful infection control efforts is understanding the complex, two-way interaction between disease dynamics and human behavioral and social dynamics. Human behavior such as contact precautions and social distancing clearly influence disease prevalence, but disease prevalence can in turn alter human behavior, forming a coupled, nonlinear system. Moreover, in many cases, the spatial structure of the population cannot be ignored, such that social and behavioral processes and/or transmission of infection must be represented with complex networks. Research on studying coupled disease-behavior dynamics in complex networks in particular is growing rapidly, and frequently makes use of analysis methods and concepts from statistical physics. Here, we review some of the growing literature in this area. We contrast network-based approaches to homogeneous-mixing approaches, point out how their predictions differ, and describe the rich and often surprising behavior of disease-behavior dynamics on complex networks, and compare them to processes in statistical physics. We discuss how these models can capture the dynamics that characterize many real-world scenarios, thereby suggesting ways that policy makers can better design effective prevention strategies. We also describe the growing sources of digital data that are facilitating research in this area. Finally, we suggest pitfalls which might be faced by researchers in the field, and we suggest several ways in which the field could move forward in the coming years.

  3. Collective Rabi dynamics of electromagnetically coupled quantum-dot ensembles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glosser, Connor; Shanker, B.; Piermarocchi, Carlo

    2017-09-01

    Rabi oscillations typify the inherent nonlinearity of optical excitations in quantum dots. Using an integral kernel formulation to solve the three-dimensional Maxwell-Bloch equations in ensembles of up to 104 quantum dots, we observe features in Rabi oscillations due to the interplay of nonlinearity, nonequilibrium excitation, and electromagnetic coupling between the dots. This approach allows us to observe the dynamics of each dot in the ensemble without resorting to spatial averages. Our simulations predict synchronized multiplets of dots that exchange energy, dots that dynamically couple to screen the effect of incident external radiation, localization of the polarization due to randomness and interactions, as well as wavelength-scale regions of enhanced and suppressed polarization.

  4. Dynamic positive feedback source-coupled logic (D-PFSCL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Kirti; Pandey, Neeta; Gupta, Maneesha

    2016-10-01

    This paper presents dynamic positive feedback source-coupled logic (D-PFSCL) style which is derived from positive feedback source-coupled logic (PFSCL). The proposed logic style uses dynamic current source in contrast to constant current source of PFSCL to attain lower power consumption. Two techniques for D-PFSCL style-based multistage applications are suggested. Several D-PFSCL gates are simulated and compared with the respective PFSCL counterparts through SPICE simulations by using Taiwan semiconductor manufacturing company 0.18 µm CMOS technology parameters. A maximum power reduction of 84% is achieved for D-PFSCL gates. The effect of process variation on the power consumption of the D-PFSCL gates shows a maximum variation factor of 1.5 between the best and the worst cases.

  5. Vertex coloring of graphs via phase dynamics of coupled oscillatory networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parihar, Abhinav; Shukla, Nikhil; Jerry, Matthew; Datta, Suman; Raychowdhury, Arijit

    2017-04-19

    While Boolean logic has been the backbone of digital information processing, there exist classes of computationally hard problems wherein this paradigm is fundamentally inefficient. Vertex coloring of graphs, belonging to the class of combinatorial optimization, represents one such problem. It is well studied for its applications in data sciences, life sciences, social sciences and technology, and hence, motivates alternate, more efficient non-Boolean pathways towards its solution. Here we demonstrate a coupled relaxation oscillator based dynamical system that exploits insulator-metal transition in Vanadium Dioxide (VO2) to efficiently solve vertex coloring of graphs. Pairwise coupled VO2 oscillator circuits have been analyzed before for basic computing operations, but using complex networks of VO2 oscillators, or any other oscillators, for more complex tasks have been challenging in theory as well as in experiments. The proposed VO2 oscillator network harnesses the natural analogue between optimization problems and energy minimization processes in highly parallel, interconnected dynamical systems to approximate optimal coloring of graphs. We further indicate a fundamental connection between spectral properties of linear dynamical systems and spectral algorithms for graph coloring. Our work not only elucidates a physics-based computing approach but also presents tantalizing opportunities for building customized analog co-processors for solving hard problems efficiently.

  6. Robust low-dose dynamic cerebral perfusion CT image restoration via coupled dictionary learning scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xiumei; Zeng, Dong; Zhang, Shanli; Huang, Jing; Zhang, Hua; He, Ji; Lu, Lijun; Xi, Weiwen; Ma, Jianhua; Bian, Zhaoying

    2016-11-22

    Dynamic cerebral perfusion x-ray computed tomography (PCT) imaging has been advocated to quantitatively and qualitatively assess hemodynamic parameters in the diagnosis of acute stroke or chronic cerebrovascular diseases. However, the associated radiation dose is a significant concern to patients due to its dynamic scan protocol. To address this issue, in this paper we propose an image restoration method by utilizing coupled dictionary learning (CDL) scheme to yield clinically acceptable PCT images with low-dose data acquisition. Specifically, in the present CDL scheme, the 2D background information from the average of the baseline time frames of low-dose unenhanced CT images and the 3D enhancement information from normal-dose sequential cerebral PCT images are exploited to train the dictionary atoms respectively. After getting the two trained dictionaries, we couple them to represent the desired PCT images as spatio-temporal prior in objective function construction. Finally, the low-dose dynamic cerebral PCT images are restored by using a general DL image processing. To get a robust solution, the objective function is solved by using a modified dictionary learning based image restoration algorithm. The experimental results on clinical data show that the present method can yield more accurate kinetic enhanced details and diagnostic hemodynamic parameter maps than the state-of-the-art methods.

  7. Coupled jump rotational dynamics in aqueous nitrate solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Puja; Yashonath, Subramanian; Bagchi, Biman

    2016-12-21

    A nitrate ion (NO3-) with its trigonal planar geometry and charges distributed among nitrogen and oxygen atoms can couple to the extensive hydrogen bond network of water to give rise to unique dynamical characteristics. We carry out detailed atomistic simulations and theoretical analyses to investigate these aspects and report certain interesting findings. We find that the nitrate ions in aqueous potassium nitrate solution exhibit large amplitude rotational jump motions that are coupled to the hydrogen bond rearrangement dynamics of the surrounding water molecules. The jump motion of nitrate ions bears certain similarities to the Laage-Hynes mechanism of rotational jump motions of tagged water molecules in neat liquid water. We perform a detailed atomic-level investigation of hydrogen bond rearrangement dynamics of water in aqueous KNO3 solution to unearth two distinct mechanisms of hydrogen bond exchange that are instrumental to promote these jump motions of nitrate ions. As observed in an earlier study by Xie et al., in the first mechanism, after breaking a hydrogen bond with nitrate ion, water forms a new hydrogen bond with a water molecule, whereas the second mechanism involves just a switching of hydrogen bond between the two oxygen atoms of the same nitrate ion (W. J. Xie et al., J. Chem. Phys. 143, 224504 (2015)). The magnitude as well as nature of the reorientational jump of nitrate ion for the two mechanisms is different. In the first mechanism, nitrate ion predominantly undergoes out-of-plane rotation, while in the second mechanism, in-plane reorientation of NO3- is favourable. These have been deduced by computing the torque on the nitrate ion during the hydrogen bond switching event. We have defined and computed the time correlation function for coupled reorientational jump of nitrate and water and obtained the associated relaxation time which is also different for the two mechanisms. These results provide insight into the relation between the coupled

  8. On dynamical multi-team Cournot game in exploitation of a renewable resource

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asker, S.S. [Mathematics Department, Faculty of Science, Mansoura University, Mansoura 35516 (Egypt)]. E-mail: Sameh_asker@mans.edu.eg

    2007-04-15

    A dynamical multi-team Cournot game is formulated for a renewable resource (harvest fish and sell it in a market). Puu's imperfect information to dynamic standard game is generalized to multi-team Cournot game. The asymptotic stability of the equilibrium solution of the resulting game is studied.

  9. Fully-Coupled Dynamical Jitter Modeling of Momentum Exchange Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcorn, John

    A primary source of spacecraft jitter is due to mass imbalances within momentum exchange devices (MEDs) used for fine pointing, such as reaction wheels (RWs) and variable-speed control moment gyroscopes (VSCMGs). Although these effects are often characterized through experimentation in order to validate pointing stability requirements, it is of interest to include jitter in a computer simulation of the spacecraft in the early stages of spacecraft development. An estimate of jitter amplitude may be found by modeling MED imbalance torques as external disturbance forces and torques on the spacecraft. In this case, MED mass imbalances are lumped into static and dynamic imbalance parameters, allowing jitter force and torque to be simply proportional to wheel speed squared. A physically realistic dynamic model may be obtained by defining mass imbalances in terms of a wheel center of mass location and inertia tensor. The fully-coupled dynamic model allows for momentum and energy validation of the system. This is often critical when modeling additional complex dynamical behavior such as flexible dynamics and fuel slosh. Furthermore, it is necessary to use the fully-coupled model in instances where the relative mass properties of the spacecraft with respect to the RWs cause the simplified jitter model to be inaccurate. This thesis presents a generalized approach to MED imbalance modeling of a rigid spacecraft hub with N RWs or VSCMGs. A discussion is included to convert from manufacturer specifications of RW imbalances to the parameters introduced within each model. Implementations of the fully-coupled RW and VSCMG models derived within this thesis are released open-source as part of the Basilisk astrodynamics software.

  10. Integrable Problems of the Dynamics of Coupled Rigid Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogoyavlenskiĭ, O. I.

    1993-06-01

    Several classical problems of dynamics are shown to be integrable for the special systems of coupled rigid bodies introduced in this paper and called Ck-central configurations. It is proved that the dynamics of an arbitrary Ck-central configuration in the Newtonian gravitational field with an arbitrary quadratic potential is integrable in the Liouville sense and in theta-functions of Riemann surfaces. A hidden symmetry of the inertial dynamics of these configurations is found, and reductions of the corresponding Lagrange equations to the Euler equations on the direct sums of Lie coalgebras SO(3) are obtained. Reductions and integrable cases of the equations for the rotation of a heavy Ck-central configuration about a fixed point are indicated. Separation of rotations of a space station type orbiting system, which is a Ck-central configuration of rigid bodies, is proved. This result leads to the possibility of independent stabilization of rotations of the rigid bodies in such orbiting configurations. Integrability of the inertial dynamics of CRn-central configurations of coupled gyrostats is proved.

  11. Comparison of Engine Power Exploitation between Normal and Dynamic Driving in Real Traffic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miran Zgonik

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The increase of cars engine power has reached critical limits,so that further increase would make no sense, since alreadythe real traffic conditions now do not enable its reasonable exploitation.Experiments have confirmed that there is no essentialdifference between the more or less powerful cars in combinedtraffic in and near towns, particularly when fully complyingwith traffic regulations. For the evaluation of the car "adequacy"a non-dimensional criterion number Nv was proposed.This number 1ises with the rising weight (safety, speed, lowerfuel consumption and faster acceleration. The usual Nv valuesat JOOkm!h are between 1 and 3 for the majority of ordinarycars. Statistics comprising a great number of cars in the past decadesshowed that the said criterion number turned out to be anadequate parameter for the assessment of development trends.Experiments showed that a higher criterion number value inreal traffic does not represent much advantage even in dynamicdriving.

  12. Human seizures couple across spatial scales through travelling wave dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinet, L.-E.; Fiddyment, G.; Madsen, J. R.; Eskandar, E. N.; Truccolo, W.; Eden, U. T.; Cash, S. S.; Kramer, M. A.

    2017-04-01

    Epilepsy--the propensity toward recurrent, unprovoked seizures--is a devastating disease affecting 65 million people worldwide. Understanding and treating this disease remains a challenge, as seizures manifest through mechanisms and features that span spatial and temporal scales. Here we address this challenge through the analysis and modelling of human brain voltage activity recorded simultaneously across microscopic and macroscopic spatial scales. We show that during seizure large-scale neural populations spanning centimetres of cortex coordinate with small neural groups spanning cortical columns, and provide evidence that rapidly propagating waves of activity underlie this increased inter-scale coupling. We develop a corresponding computational model to propose specific mechanisms--namely, the effects of an increased extracellular potassium concentration diffusing in space--that support the observed spatiotemporal dynamics. Understanding the multi-scale, spatiotemporal dynamics of human seizures--and connecting these dynamics to specific biological mechanisms--promises new insights to treat this devastating disease.

  13. Measurement of the excited-state transverse hyperfine coupling in NV centers via dynamic nuclear polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poggiali, F.; Cappellaro, P.; Fabbri, N.

    2017-05-01

    Precise knowledge of a quantum system's Hamiltonian is a critical pre-requisite for its use in many quantum information technologies. Here, we report a method for the precise characterization of the nonsecular part of the excited-state Hamiltonian of an electronic-nuclear spin system in diamond. The method relies on the investigation of the dynamic nuclear polarization mediated by the electronic spin, which is currently exploited as a primary tool for initializing nuclear qubits and performing enhanced nuclear magnetic resonance. By measuring the temporal evolution of the population of the ground-state hyperfine levels of a nitrogen-vacancy center, we obtain the first direct estimation of the excited-state transverse hyperfine coupling between its electronic and nitrogen nuclear spin. Our method could also be applied to other electron-nuclear spin systems, such as those related to defects in silicon carbide.

  14. General dynamical properties of cosmological models with nonminimal kinetic coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Jiro; Sushkov, Sergey V.

    2018-01-01

    We consider cosmological dynamics in the theory of gravity with the scalar field possessing the nonminimal kinetic coupling to curvature given as η Gμνphi,μphi,ν, where η is an arbitrary coupling parameter, and the scalar potential V(phi) which assumed to be as general as possible. With an appropriate dimensionless parametrization we represent the field equations as an autonomous dynamical system which contains ultimately only one arbitrary function χ (x)= 8 π | η | V(x/√8 π) with x=√8 πphi. Then, assuming the rather general properties of χ(x), we analyze stationary points and their stability, as well as all possible asymptotical regimes of the dynamical system. It has been shown that for a broad class of χ(x) there exist attractors representing three accelerated regimes of the Universe evolution, including de Sitter expansion (or late-time inflation), the Little Rip scenario, and the Big Rip scenario. As the specific examples, we consider a power-law potential V(phi)=M4(phi/phi0)σ, Higgs-like potential V(phi)=λ/4(phi2‑phi02)2, and exponential potential V(phi)=M4 e‑phi/phi0.

  15. Piezoelectric vibration-driven locomotion systems - Exploiting resonance and bistable dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Hongbin; Wang, K. W.

    2017-03-01

    While a piezoelectric-based vibration-driven system is an excellent candidate for actuating small-size crawling-type locomotion robots, it has the major drawback of limited stroke output that would severely constraint the system's locomotion performance. In this paper, to advance the state of the art, we propose two novel designs of piezoelectric vibration-driven locomotion systems. The first utilizes the resonant amplification concept, and the second explores the design of a bistable device. While these two ideas have been explored for piezoelectric actuation amplification in general, they have never been exploited for crawling-type robotic locomotion. Numerical analyses on both systems reveal that resonance and bistability can substantially increase the systems' average locomotion speed. Moreover, this research shows that with bistability, the system is able to output high average locomotion speed in a wider frequency band, possess multiple locomotion modes, and achieve fast switches among them. Through proof-of-concept prototypes, the predicted locomotion performance improvements brought by resonance and bistability are verified. Finally, the basin stability is evaluated to systematically describe the occurring probability of certain locomotion behavior of the bistable system, which would provide useful guideline to the design and control of bistable vibration-driven locomotion systems.

  16. Social strain, couple dynamics and gender differences in gambling problems: evidence from Chinese married couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Nicole W T

    2015-02-01

    Knowledge of the influence of couple dynamics on gender differences in gambling behavior remains meager. Building on general strain theory from the sociology of deviance and stress crossover theory from social psychology, we argue that the strain encountered by one partner in a social setting may affect his or her spouse. For instance, the wife of a man under more social strain may experience more strain in turn and thus be at a higher risk of developing disordered gambling than the wife of a man under less social strain. Using community survey data of 1620 Chinese married couples, we performed multilevel dyad analyses to address social strain and couple dynamics, in addition to their roles as predictors of gambling behavior in both spouses. This was a community survey of Hong Kong and therefore was not representative of China. Based on the DSM-IV screen, the rates of probable problem gambling and pathological gambling among male partners (12.8% vs. 2.5%) were twice those among female partners (5.2% vs. 0.3%). We also found that the social strain experienced by a male partner significantly predicted both his and his wife's likelihood of developing gambling problems. Although a female partner's exposure to social strain was a significant correlate of her gambling problem, it had no significant association with her husband's gambling behavior. These results suggest that the cross-spouse transference of social strain may be a gendered process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Fractional dynamics of coupled oscillators with long-range interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasov, Vasily E; Zaslavsky, George M

    2006-06-01

    We consider a one-dimensional chain of coupled linear and nonlinear oscillators with long-range powerwise interaction. The corresponding term in dynamical equations is proportional to 1//n-m/alpha+1. It is shown that the equation of motion in the infrared limit can be transformed into the medium equation with the Riesz fractional derivative of order alpha, when 0coupled oscillators and show how their synchronization can appear as a result of bifurcation, and how the corresponding solutions depend on alpha. The presence of a fractional derivative also leads to the occurrence of localized structures. Particular solutions for fractional time-dependent complex Ginzburg-Landau (or nonlinear Schrodinger) equation are derived. These solutions are interpreted as synchronized states and localized structures of the oscillatory medium.

  18. A Thorough Dynamic Interpretation of Residual Dipolar Couplings in Ubiquitin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakomek, Nils A.; Carlomagno, Teresa; Becker, Stefan; Griesinger, Christian [Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry, NMR based structural biology (Germany)], E-mail: cigr@nmr.mpibpc.mpg.de; Meiler, Jens [Vanderbilt University, Center of Structural Biology, Department of Chemistry (United States)

    2006-02-15

    The presence of slow motions with large amplitudes, as detected by measurements based on residual dipolar couplings [Peti, W., Meiler, J., Brueschweiler, R. and Griesinger, C. (2002) J. Am. Chem. Soc., 124, 5822-5833], has stirred up much discussion in recent years. Based on ubiquitin NH residual dipolar couplings (rdcs) measured in 31 different alignment conditions, a model-free analysis of structure and dynamics [Meiler, J., Peti, W., Prompers, J., Griesinger, C. and Brueschweiler, R. (2001) J. Am. Chem. Soc., 123, 6098-6107] is presented. Starting from this broad experimental basis, rdc-based order parameters with so far unattained accuracy were determined. These rdc-based order parameters underpin the presence of new modes of motion slower than the inverse overall tumbling correlation time. Amplitudes and anisotropies of the motion were derived. The effect of structural noise on the results was proven to be negligible.

  19. Exploiting level anti-crossings for efficient and selective transfer of hyperpolarization in coupled nuclear spin systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pravdivtsev, A.N.; Yurkovskaya, A.V.; Kaptein, R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074334603; Miesel, K.; Vieth, H.-M.; Ivanov, K.L.

    2013-01-01

    Spin hyperpolarization can be coherently transferred to other nuclei in field-cycling NMR experiments. At low magnetic fields spin polarization is redistributed in a strongly coupled network of spins. Polarization transfer is most efficient at fields where level anti-crossings (LACs) occur for the

  20. Coupled Dynamic Modeling of Floating Wind Turbine Systems: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wayman, E. N.; Sclavounos, P. D.; Butterfield, S.; Jonkman, J.; Musial, W.

    2006-03-01

    This article presents a collaborative research program that the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) have undertaken to develop innovative and cost-effective floating and mooring systems for offshore wind turbines in water depths of 10-200 m. Methods for the coupled structural, hydrodynamic, and aerodynamic analysis of floating wind turbine systems are presented in the frequency domain. This analysis was conducted by coupling the aerodynamics and structural dynamics code FAST [4] developed at NREL with the wave load and response simulation code WAMIT (Wave Analysis at MIT) [15] developed at MIT. Analysis tools were developed to consider coupled interactions between the wind turbine and the floating system. These include the gyroscopic loads of the wind turbine rotor on the tower and floater, the aerodynamic damping introduced by the wind turbine rotor, the hydrodynamic damping introduced by wave-body interactions, and the hydrodynamic forces caused by wave excitation. Analyses were conducted for two floater concepts coupled with the NREL 5-MW Offshore Baseline wind turbine in water depths of 10-200 m: the MIT/NREL Shallow Drafted Barge (SDB) and the MIT/NREL Tension Leg Platform (TLP). These concepts were chosen to represent two different methods of achieving stability to identify differences in performance and cost of the different stability methods. The static and dynamic analyses of these structures evaluate the systems' responses to wave excitation at a range of frequencies, the systems' natural frequencies, and the standard deviations of the systems' motions in each degree of freedom in various wind and wave environments. This article in various wind and wave environments. This article explores the effects of coupling the wind turbine with the floating platform, the effects of water depth, and the effects of wind speed on the systems' performance. An economic feasibility analysis of

  1. Discrimination of nuclear spin isomers exploiting the excited state dynamics of a quinodimethane derivative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obaid, Rana [Institut für Theoretische Chemie, Universität Wien, Währinger Str. 17, 1090 Wien (Austria); Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Quds University, Abu Dis, Palestine (Country Unknown); Kinzel, Daniel; Oppel, Markus, E-mail: markus.oppel@univie.ac.at; González, Leticia [Institut für Theoretische Chemie, Universität Wien, Währinger Str. 17, 1090 Wien (Austria)

    2014-10-28

    Despite the concept of nuclear spin isomers (NSIs) exists since the early days of quantum mechanics, only few approaches have been suggested to separate different NSIs. Here, a method is proposed to discriminate different NSIs of a quinodimethane derivative using its electronic excited state dynamics. After electronic excitation by a laser field with femtosecond time duration, a difference in the behavior of several quantum mechanical operators can be observed. A pump-probe experimental approach for separating these different NSIs is then proposed.

  2. Dynamical Coupling between Gradients and Transport in Fusion Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, C.; Silva, C.; Carreras, B. A.; van Milligen, B.; Figueiredo, H.; García, L.; Pedrosa, M. A.; Gonçalves, B.; Alonso, A.

    2012-02-01

    The dynamical coupling between density gradients and particle transport has been investigated using similar experimental tools in the plasma boundary of different tokamak (JET, ISTTOK) and stellarator (TJ-II) devices, showing that the size of turbulent events is minimum in the proximity of the most probable density gradient. Experimental results were found to be consistent with results from two very different models of plasma turbulence and transport. The present findings, common to several plasma devices, suggest the importance of self-regulation mechanisms between plasma transport and gradients in fusion devices.

  3. Spin-coupled charge dynamics in layered manganite crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Tokura, Y; Ishikawa, T

    1998-01-01

    Anisotropic charge dynamics has been investigated for single crystals of layered manganites, La sub 2 sub - sub 2 sub x Sr sub 1 sub + sub 2 sub x Mn sub 2 O sub 7 (0.3<=X<=0.5). Remarkable variations in the magnetic structure and in the charge-transport properties are observed by changing the doping level x . A crystal with x = 0.3 behaves like a 2-dimensional ferromagnetic metal in the temperature region between approx 90 K and approx 270 K and shows an interplane tunneling magnetoresistance at lower temperatures which is sensitive to the interplane magnetic coupling between the adjacent MnO sub 2 bilayers. Optical probing of these layered manganites has also clarified the highly anisotropic and incoherent charge dynamics.

  4. Probing and exploiting the chaotic dynamics of a hydrodynamic photochemical oscillator to implement all the basic binary logic functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, Kenta [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Ritsumeikan University, 1-1-1 Nojihigashi, Kusatsu-shi, Shiga 525-8577 (Japan); Department of Chemistry, Biology, and Biotechnology, University of Perugia, 06123 Perugia (Italy); Gotoda, Hiroshi [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tokyo University of Science, 6-3-1 Niijuku, Katsushika-ku, Tokyo 125-8585 (Japan); Gentili, Pier Luigi, E-mail: pierluigi.gentili@unipg.it [Department of Chemistry, Biology, and Biotechnology, University of Perugia, 06123 Perugia (Italy)

    2016-05-15

    The convective motions within a solution of a photochromic spiro-oxazine being irradiated by UV only on the bottom part of its volume, give rise to aperiodic spectrophotometric dynamics. In this paper, we study three nonlinear properties of the aperiodic time series: permutation entropy, short-term predictability and long-term unpredictability, and degree distribution of the visibility graph networks. After ascertaining the extracted chaotic features, we show how the aperiodic time series can be exploited to implement all the fundamental two-inputs binary logic functions (AND, OR, NAND, NOR, XOR, and XNOR) and some basic arithmetic operations (half-adder, full-adder, half-subtractor). This is possible due to the wide range of states a nonlinear system accesses in the course of its evolution. Therefore, the solution of the convective photochemical oscillator results in hardware for chaos-computing alternative to conventional complementary metal-oxide semiconductor-based integrated circuits.

  5. Population dynamics and angler exploitation of the unique muskellunge population in Shoepack Lake, Voyageurs National Park, Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frohnauer, N.K.; Pierce, C.L.; Kallemeyn, L.W.

    2007-01-01

    A unique population of muskellunge Esox masquinongy inhabits Shoepack Lake in Voyageurs National Park, Minnesota. Little is known about its status, dynamics, and angler exploitation, and there is concern for the long-term viability of this population. We used intensive sampling and mark-recapture methods to quantify abundance, survival, growth, condition, age at maturity and fecundity and angler surveys to quantify angler pressure, catch rates, and exploitation. During our study, heavy rain washed out a dam constructed by beavers Castor canadensis which regulates the water level at the lake outlet, resulting in a nearly 50% reduction in surface area. We estimated a population size of 1,120 adult fish at the beginning of the study. No immediate reduction in population size was detected in response to the loss of lake area, although there was a gradual, but significant, decline in population size over the 2-year study. Adults grew less than 50 mm per year, and relative weight (W r) averaged roughly 80. Anglers were successful in catching, on average, two fish during a full day of angling, but harvest was negligible. Shoepack Lake muskellunge exhibit much slower growth rates and lower condition, but much higher densities and angler catch per unit effort (CPUE), than other muskellunge populations. The unique nature, limited distribution, and location of this population in a national park require special consideration for management. The results of this study provide the basis for assessing the long-term viability of the Shoepack Lake muskellunge population through simulations of long-term population dynamics and genetically effective population size. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2007.

  6. The coupling of optimal economic growth and climate dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahn, O. [GERAD and MQG, HEC, Montreal, Montreal, Quebec, H3T 2A7 (Canada); Drouet, L.; Haurie, A.; Vial, J.P. [LOGILAB-HEC, University of Geneva, 1211 Geneva (Switzerland); Edwards, N.R. [Earth Sciences, CEPSAR, Open University, Milton Keynes, MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Knutti, R. [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO 80305 (United States); Kypreos, S. [Paul Scherrer Institute, 5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Stocker, T.F. [Climate and Environmental Physics, Physics Institute, University of Bern, 3012 Bern (Switzerland)

    2006-11-15

    In this paper, we study optimal economic growth programs coupled with climate change dynamics. The study is based on models derived from MERGE, a well established integrated assessment model (IAM). We discuss first the introduction in MERGE of a set of 'tolerable window' constraints which limit both the temperature change and the rate of temperature change. These constraints, obtained from ensemble simulations performed with the Bern 2.5-D climate model, allow us to identity a domain intended to preserve the Atlantic thermohaline circulation. Next, we report on experiments where a two-way coupling is realized between the economic module of MERGE and an intermediate complexity '3-D-' climate model (C-GOLDSTEIN) which computes the changes in climate and mean temperature. The coupling is achieved through the implementation of an advanced 'oracle based optimization technique' which permits the integration of information coming from the climate model during the search for the optimal economic growth path. Both cost-effectiveness and cost-benefit analysis modes are explored with this combined 'meta-model' which we refer to as GOLDMERGE. Some perspectives on future implementations of these approaches in the context of 'collaborative' or 'community' integrated assessment modules are derived from the comparison of the different approaches.

  7. Kinetic approach to the dynamics of strongly coupled inhomogeneous plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kählert, Hanno; Kalman, Gabor J.; Bonitz, Michael

    2013-10-01

    Based on the BBGKY hierarchy and an extended STLS ansatz for the two-particle distribution function, we derive kinetic and fluid equations for strongly coupled inhomogeneous plasmas that take both strong coupling and thermal effects into account. The kinetic equation is employed to study the collective modes in a uniform plasma. The fluid equations are used to study the temperature dependence of the breathing mode of confined dusty plasmas, where excellent agreement with molecular dynamics simulations is observed. In the limit of weak density inhomogeneities, they can be reduced to the equations of linearized elasticity theory. The bulk and shear moduli emerge directly from the theory as integrals over the pair correlation function, and previous results in the literature are recovered. The theory should be useful to study the collective modes of confined strongly coupled plasmas, where large density variations make the application of methods that were developed for uniform systems impractical. Supported by the DAAD via a postdoctoral scholarship and the DFG via SFB-TR24.

  8. Convectively coupled Kelvin waves in aquachannel simulations: 2. Life cycle and dynamical-convective coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Joaquín. E.; Nolan, David S.; Mapes, Brian E.

    2016-10-01

    This second part of a two-part study uses Weather Research and Forecasting simulations with aquachannel and aquapatch domains to investigate the time evolution of convectively coupled Kelvin waves (CCKWs). Power spectra, filtering, and compositing are combined with object-tracking methods to assess the structure and phase speed propagation of CCKWs during their strengthening, mature, and decaying phases. In this regard, we introduce an innovative approach to more closely investigate the wave (Kelvin) versus entity (super cloud cluster or "SCC") dualism. In general, the composite CCKW structures represent a dynamical response to the organized convective activity. However, pressure and thermodynamic fields in the boundary layer behave differently. Further analysis of the time evolution of pressure and low-level moist static energy finds that these fields propagate eastward as a "moist" Kelvin wave (MKW), faster than the envelope of organized convection or SCC. When the separation is sufficiently large the SCC dissipates, and a new SCC generates to the east, in the region of strongest negative pressure perturbations. We revisit the concept itself of the "coupling" between convection and dynamics, and we also propose a conceptual model for CCKWs, with a clear distinction between the SCC and the MKW components.

  9. Large mass hierarchies from strongly-coupled dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Athenodorou, Andreas [Department of Physics, University of Cyprus,B.O. Box 20537, 1678 Nicosia (Cyprus); Bennett, Ed [Department of Physics, College of Science, Swansea University,Singleton Park, Swansea SA2 8PP (United Kingdom); Kobayashi-Maskawa Institute for the Origin of Particles and the Universe (KMI),Nagoya University,Furo, Chikusa, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Bergner, Georg [Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics, Institute for Theoretical Physics,University of Bern,Sidlerstrasse 5, CH-3012 Bern (Switzerland); Elander, Daniel [National Institute for Theoretical Physics, School of Physics andMandelstam Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of the Witwatersrand,1 Jan Smuts Avenue, Johannesburg, Wits 2050 (South Africa); Lin, C.-J. David [Institute of Physics, National Chiao-Tung University,1001 Ta-Hsueh Road, Hsinchu 30010, Taiwan (China); CNRS, Aix Marseille Université, Université de Toulon, Centre de Physique Théorique,UMR 7332, F-13288 Marseille (France); Lucini, Biagio; Piai, Maurizio [Department of Physics, College of Science, Swansea University,Singleton Park, Swansea SA2 8PP (United Kingdom)

    2016-06-20

    Besides the Higgs particle discovered in 2012, with mass 125 GeV, recent LHC data show tentative signals for new resonances in diboson as well as diphoton searches at high center-of-mass energies (2 TeV and 750 GeV, respectively). If these signals are confirmed (or other new resonances are discovered at the TeV scale), the large hierarchies between masses of new bosons require a dynamical explanation. Motivated by these tentative signals of new physics, we investigate the theoretical possibility that large hierarchies in the masses of glueballs could arise dynamically in new strongly-coupled gauge theories extending the standard model of particle physics. We study lattice data on non-Abelian gauge theories in the (near-)conformal regime as well as a simple toy model in the context of gauge/gravity dualities. We focus our attention on the ratio R between the mass of the lightest spin-2 and spin-0 resonances, that for technical reasons is a particularly convenient and clean observable to study. For models in which (non-perturbative) large anomalous dimensions arise dynamically, we show indications that this mass ratio can be large, with R>5. Moreover, our results suggest that R might be related to universal properties of the IR fixed point. Our findings provide an interesting step towards understanding large mass ratios in the non-perturbative regime of quantum field theories with (near) IR conformal behaviour.

  10. Probing cell membrane dynamics using plasmon coupling microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Guoxin

    The plasma membrane of mammalian cells is depicted as a two-dimensional hybrid material which is compartmentalized into submicron-sized domains. These membrane domains play a pivotal role in cellular signaling processes due to selective recruitment of specific cell surface receptors. The structural dynamics of the membrane domains and their exact biological functions are, however, still unclear, partially due to the wave nature of light, which limits the optical resolution in the visible light to approximately 400 nm in conventional optical microscopy. Here, we provide a non-fluorescence based approach for monitoring distance changes on subdiffraction limit length scales in a conventional far-field optical microscope. This approach, which is referred to as plasmon coupling microscopy (PCM), utilizes the distance dependent near-field coupling between noble metal nanoparticle (NP) labels to resolve close contacts on the length scale of approximately one NP diameter. We firstly utilize this PCM strategy to resolve interparticle separations during individual encounters of gold NP labeled fibronectin-integrin complexes in living HeLa cells. We then further refine this ratiometric detection methodology by augmenting it with a polarization-sensitive detection, which enables simultaneous monitoring of the distance and conformation changes in NP dimers and clusters. We apply this polarization resolved PCM approach to characterize the structural lateral heterogeneity of cell membranes on sub-micron length scales. Finally, we demonstrate that PCM can provide quantitative information about the structural dynamics of individual epidermal growth factor receptor (ErbB1)-enriched membrane domains in living cells.

  11. Dynamic of Friction Coupling Independently Rotating Wheels for High Speed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Shi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A new lateral coupling structure with independently rotating wheels (IRW is proposed, and longitudinal creepage is obtained by replacing the gear pair with the friction pair to synchronize the rotation speed of left and right wheels. The auxiliary wheelset made up of two friction wheels can be placed either under the primary suspension or on the frame. Vehicles dynamics models with three different kinds of bogies are developed, including friction coupling bogie with independently rotating wheels (FCIRW-bogie, bogie with independently rotating wheels (IRW-bogie, and bogie with rigid wheelsets, and their guiding and resetting capability when negotiating large-radius curves are compared and analyzed. Results show that FCIRW has the advantages of both IRW and rigid wheelset. On the straight track, FCIRW has sufficient wheel-rail longitudinal creep force to assist the reset; its critical speed is much higher than that of the rigid wheelset. On the curved track, the whole vehicle wear power of FCIRW-bogie vehicle is about 2/3 of the rigid axle level.

  12. Static and Dynamic Amplification Using Strong Mechanical Coupling

    KAUST Repository

    Ilyas, Saad

    2016-07-28

    Amplifying the signal-to-noise ratio of resonant sensors is vital toward the effort to miniaturize devices into the sub-micro and nano regimes. In this paper, we demonstrate theoretically and experimentally, amplification through mechanically coupled microbeams. The device is composed of two identical clamped-clamped beams, made of polyimide, connected at their middle through a third beam, which acts as a mechanical coupler. Each of the clamped-clamped microbeams and the coupler are designed to be actuated separately, hence providing various possibilities of actuation and sensing. The coupled resonator is driven into resonance near its first resonance mode and its dynamic behavior is explored via frequency sweeps. The results show significant amplification in the resonator amplitude when the signal is measured at the midpoint of the coupler compared with the response of the individual uncoupled beams. The static pull-in characteristics of the resonator are also studied. It is shown that the compliant mechanical coupler can serve as a low-power radio frequency switch actuated at low voltage loads. [2016-0100

  13. Coupled rotational dynamics of Jupiter's thermosphere and magnetosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. G. A. Smith

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe an axisymmetric model of the coupled rotational dynamics of the thermosphere and magnetosphere of Jupiter that incorporates self-consistent physical descriptions of angular momentum transfer in both systems. The thermospheric component of the model is a numerical general circulation model. The middle magnetosphere is described by a simple physical model of angular momentum transfer that incorporates self-consistently the effects of variations in the ionospheric conductivity. The outer magnetosphere is described by a model that assumes the existence of a Dungey cycle type interaction with the solar wind, producing at the planet a largely stagnant plasma flow poleward of the main auroral oval. We neglect any decoupling between the plasma flows in the magnetosphere and ionosphere due to the formation of parallel electric fields in the magnetosphere. The model shows that the principle mechanism by which angular momentum is supplied to the polar thermosphere is meridional advection and that mean-field Joule heating and ion drag at high latitudes are not responsible for the high thermospheric temperatures at low latitudes on Jupiter. The rotational dynamics of the magnetosphere at radial distances beyond ~30 RJ in the equatorial plane are qualitatively unaffected by including the detailed dynamics of the thermosphere, but within this radial distance the rotation of the magnetosphere is very sensitive to the rotation velocity of the thermosphere and the value of the Pedersen conductivity. In particular, the thermosphere connected to the inner magnetosphere is found to super-corotate, such that true Pedersen conductivities smaller than previously predicted are required to enforce the observed rotation of the magnetosphere within ~30 RJ. We find that increasing the Joule heating at high latitudes by adding a component due to rapidly fluctuating electric fields is unable to explain the high equatorial temperatures. Adding a component of Joule

  14. Effect of Magnetohydrodynamic Couple Stresses on Dynamic Characteristics of Exponential Slider Bearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.B. Naduvinamani

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of couple stresses on static and dynamic characteristics of exponential slider bearing in the presence of magnetic field considering squeeze action is theoretically analyzed in this paper. The modified magnetohydrodynamic couple stress Reynolds type equation is derived on the basis of Stokes couple stress model and closed form expressions are obtained for static and dynamic character coefficients. Comparing with bearing lubricated with non-conducting Newtonian lubricants, the magnetohydrodynamic couple stress lubrication provides the higher steady load carrying capacity, dynamic stiffness and damping coefficient. The exponential bearing shows higher efficiency for small film thickness at higher value of couple stress parameter and Hartmann number.

  15. Quasiclassical methods for spin-charge coupled dynamics in low-dimensional systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corini, Cosimo

    2009-06-12

    Spintronics is a new field of study whose broad aim is the manipulation of the spin degrees of freedom in solid state systems. One of its main goals is the realization of devices capable of exploiting, besides the charge, the carriers' - and possibly the nuclei's - spin. The presence of spin-orbit coupling in a system enables the spin and charge degrees of freedom to ''communicate'', a favorable situation if one is to realize such devices. More importantly, it offers the opportunity of doing so by relying solely on electric fields, whereas magnetic fields are otherwise required. Eminent examples of versatile systems with built-in and variously tunable spin-orbit interaction are two-dimensional electron - or hole - gases. The study of spin-charge coupled dynamics in such a context faces a large number of open questions, both of the fundamental and of the more practical type. To tackle the problem we rely on the quasiclassical formalism. This is an approximate quantum-field theoretical formulation with a solid microscopic foundation, perfectly suited for describing phenomena at the mesoscopic scale, and bearing a resemblance to standard Boltzmann theory which makes for physical transparency. Originally born to deal with transport in electron-phonon systems, we first generalize it to the case in which spin-orbit coupling is present, and then move on to apply it to specific situations and phenomena. Among these, to the description of the spin Hall effect and of voltage induced spin polarizations in two-dimensional electron gases under a variety of conditions - stationary or time-dependent, in the presence of magnetic and non-magnetic disorder, in the bulk or in confined geometries -, and to the problem of spin relaxation in narrow wires. (orig.)

  16. Coupled Human-Ecological Dynamics and Land Degradation in Global Drylands-A modelling approach (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helldén, U.

    2009-12-01

    importance of economic units, production costs, investments and profitability in natural resources exploitation. This paper presents a recently developed coupled H-E system dynamic model to simulate and analyse desertification syndromes. The model integrates socio-economic drivers with bio-physical drivers of biomass production and land degradation. It is based on the UN and GEF definitions of desertification. It analyses and simulates dryland dynamics and desertification through differential equations and numeric simulation. The model relates population pressure and dynamics over time to the growth and availability of biomass resources. The human population stock is described as a function of growth rate, death rate and resources dependent migration of people. The relative growth rate of the stock of resources is modelled as a function of climate and human exploitation pressure affecting the removal of resources, soil erosion and water availability over time. The model is applied, demonstrated and discussed for combinations of time series of simulated and observed data referring to “desertification” cases in the Sahel, the Mediterranean and Inner Mongolia, China. The results are compared to existing land and population related statistics and remotely sensed observations opening for land system “carrying capacity” analysis and discussions.

  17. Dynamic Analysis of a Pyroprocessing Coupled SFR Fuel Recycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanxing Gao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have attempted to solve the problems constraining the sustainable utilization of nuclear power, for example, the already accumulated HLWs, the worsening environment due to greenhouse emissions, the questionable reliability of natural uranium resources, and the argument over nuclear safety, which are certainly top issues to be addressed. A well-organized nuclear fuel cycle system is the basis for nuclear power sustainability. Therefore, which type of reactor to be employed and whether or not to adopt a reprocessing technique for spent fuel are two key issues to be addressed. A Sodium Fast Reactor (SFR, a Generation IV reactor, has gained considerable attention worldwide. SFR recycling coupled to pyroprocessing, a so-called Pyro-SFR Recycling, shows promising advantages, and therefore, this paper focuses on exploring a strategy of how to realize it, which can offer informative procedures for a better use of nuclear power. A dynamic model has been developed to quantitatively analyze a country-specific case employing two scenarios, a once-through and Pyro-SFR, for a comprehensive comparison, especially focusing on the uranium utilization, the HLW reduction, and the electricity generation cost.

  18. On the Dynamics of Edge-core Coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahm,T.S.; Diamond, P.H.; Lin, Z.; Rewoldt, G.; Gurcan, O.; Ethier, S.

    2005-08-26

    One of the nagging, unresolved questions in fusion theory is concerned with the extent of the edge. Gyrokinetic particle simulations of toroidal ion temperature gradient (ITG) turbulence spreading using the Gyrokinetic Toroidal Code (GTC) [Z. Lin et al., Science 281, 1835 (1998)] and its related dynamical model have been extended to a system with radially varying ion temperature gradient, in order to study the inward spreading of edge turbulence toward the core plasma. Due to such spreading, the turbulence intensity in the core region is significantly enhanced over the value obtained from simulations of the core region only, and the precise boundary of the edge region is blurred. Even when the core gradient is within the Dimits shift regime (i.e., dominated by self-generated zonal flows which reduce the transport to a negligible value), a significant level of turbulence can penetrate to the core due to spreading from the edge. The scaling of the turbulent front propagation speed is closer to the prediction from a nonlinear diffusion model than from one based on linear toroidal coupling.

  19. The effect of finite response–time in coupled dynamical systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The paper investigates synchronization in unidirectionally coupled dynamical systems wherein the influence of drive on response is cumulative: coupling signals are integrated over a time interval τ. A major consequence of integrative coupling is that the onset of the generalized and phase synchronization occurs ...

  20. Effect of orbital and ionic dynamics coupling in barrier crossing rates for Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanam, L. N.; Ong, S. W.; Tok, E. S.; Kang, H. C.

    2015-02-01

    Even though the Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics (CPMD) method provides excellent sampling for thermal equilibrium, coupling between ionic motion and the fictitious orbital dynamics leads to an underestimation of ionic vibration frequencies In this letter we examine how this coupling affects calculated rates of energy-barrier crossing. Simulating double-well potentials in 'toy' models based on H3O2- and H5O2+ complexes, we demonstrate that barrier crossing rates can be dramatically affected depending upon how orbitals evolve at the top of the reaction barrier. Thus, it is important that calculated dynamical quantities such as chemical reaction rates be assessed for this coupling effect.

  1. Pinning dynamic systems of networks with Markovian switching couplings and controller-node set

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Yujuan; Lu, Wenlian; Li, Zhe; Chen, Tianping

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we study pinning control problem of coupled dynamical systems with stochastically switching couplings and stochastically selected controller-node set. Here, the coupling matrices and the controller-node sets change with time, induced by a continuous-time Markovian chain. By constructing Lyapunov functions, we establish tractable sufficient conditions for exponentially stability of the coupled system. Two scenarios are considered here. First, we prove that if each subsystem in t...

  2. Coupling a geodynamic seismic cycle to a dynamic rupture model with an application to splay fault propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zelst, Iris; van Dinther, Ylona; Gabriel, Alice-Agnes; Wollherr, Stephanie; Madden, Elizabeth

    2017-04-01

    Numerical methods that span a large range of spatial and temporal scales are required to accurately study the seismicity in subduction zones. Whereas the stresses on the fault need hundreds to thousands of years to build up on a tectonic scale, the consequent earthquake rupture propagation is determined by both these initial fault conditions and the feedback of seismic waves over time scales up to minutes. Spatial scales are also challenging, because the stress state of the fault can be affected by the subducting slab on scales of tens to hundreds of kilometers, while reflecting waves can influence (splay fault) rupture propagation in the hundred-meter-scale close to the tip of the wedge. To accurately model the physics involved over al temporal and spatial scales, we couple a geodynamic seismic cycle (SC) model to a dynamic rupture (DR) model. The SC models have the advantage of solving earthquake cycles in a self-consistent manner concerning stress, strength and fault geometry, but lack a high enough spatial and temporal resolution to resolve wave propagation. In contrast, dynamic rupture models solve for dynamic fault rupture and seismic wave propagation, but their initial conditions cannot be constrained in a self-consistent manner. By coupling these two codes, the advantages of both can be exploited. The initial stresses and geometry from a reference megathrust rupture from the SC model are used as input in the DR model, resulting in the spontaneous nucleation of dynamic rupture. This fully resolved earthquake is qualitatively similar to its unresolved SC equivalent in terms of stress drop and upward rupture propagation. To explore the effects of the differences between the two models on the subsequent rupture behaviour in the DR model, a comparison of models with different initial stress conditions and off-fault plasticity is presented. We exploit the advantages of our coupled model by studying when and how often a rupture favours propagation on the splay

  3. Control of dynamical instability in semiconductor quantum nanostructures diode lasers: role of phase-amplitude coupling

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Pramod

    2013-01-01

    We numerically investigate the complex nonlinear dynamics for two independent coupled lasers systems consisting of (i) mutually delay-coupled edge emitting diode lasers and (ii) injection-locked quantum nano-structures lasers. A comparative study in dependence on the dynamical role of alpha parameter, that determines phase-amplitude coupling of the optical field, in both the cases is probed. The variation of alpha leads to conspicuous changes of the dynamics of both the systems, which are characterized and investigated as a function of optical injection strength for the fixed coupled-cavity delay time. Our analysis is based on the observation that the cross-correlation and bifurcation measures unveil the signature of enhancement of amplitude-death islands in which the coupled lasers mutually stay in stable phase-locked states. In addition, we provide a qualitative understanding of the physical mechanisms underlying the observed dynamical behavior and its dependence on alpha. The amplitude death and existence ...

  4. Redefining Exploitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agarwala, Rina

    2016-01-01

    -employed workers are organizing as workers. They are fighting labor exploitation by redefining the concept to include additional exploitation axes (from the state and middle class) and forms (including sexual). In doing so, they are redefining potential solutions, including identities and material benefits, to fit...... their unique needs. By expanding the category of “workers” beyond those defined by a narrow focus on a standard employer-employee relationship, these movements are also fighting exclusion from earlier labor protections by increasing the number of entitled beneficiaries. These struggles provide an important...

  5. Collective dynamics of delay-coupled limit cycle oscillators

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Coupled limit cycle oscillators with instantaneous mutual coupling offer a useful but idealized mathematical paradigm for the study of collective behavior in a wide variety of biological, physical and chemical systems. In most real-life systems however the interaction is not instantaneous but is delayed due to finite propagation ...

  6. Dynamics of coupled field solitons: A collective coordinate approach

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    adiabatic process. Therefore, the soliton speed changes very slowly. Moreover, we have considered solitons with a small and slowly varying velocity. 3. Collective coordinate for the coupled fields. The Lagrangian density of the solitons is described by (1) for the coupled field system. The internal structure of the solitons can ...

  7. Effect of Static-Dynamic Coupling Loading on Fracture Toughness and Failure Characteristics in Marble

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Q. Yin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Fracture experiments in a notched semi-circular bend configuration were conducted to test the dynamic fracture toughness of a marble under static-dynamic coupling load using a modified split Hopkinson pressure bar. The fracture process of the specimen was monitored using a high speed (HS camera. Based on digital image correlation (DIC and strain gauges, the full-field strain fields and time-to-fracture of the marble were measured under static-dynamic coupling load. Experimental results show that dynamic fracture toughness was well determined, and the HS-DIC technique provides reliable full-field strain fields in the specimens under static-dynamic coupling loads. The failure characteristics of the marble under external impact were affected obviously by pre-compression stress. Increase of axial pre-compression stress was helpful to improve the crack propagation velocity, and dynamic crack initiation toughness was decreased.

  8. Kinks dynamics in one-dimensional coupled map lattices

    CERN Document Server

    Fernández, B

    1994-01-01

    We examine the problem of the dynamics of interfaces in a one-dimensional space-time discrete dynamical system. Two different regimes are studied : the non-propagating and the propagating one. In the first case, after proving the existence of such solutions, we show how they can be described using Taylor expansions. The second situation deals with the assumption of a travelling wave to follow the kink propagation. Then a comparison with the corresponding continuous model is proposed. We find that these methods are useful in simple dynamical situations but their application to complex dynamical behaviour is not yet understood.

  9. Development and application of coupled system dynamics and game theory: A dynamic water conflict resolution method.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Zomorodian

    Full Text Available Conflicts over water resources can be highly dynamic and complex due to the various factors which can affect such systems, including economic, engineering, social, hydrologic, environmental and even political, as well as the inherent uncertainty involved in many of these factors. Furthermore, the conflicting behavior, preferences and goals of stakeholders can often make such conflicts even more challenging. While many game models, both cooperative and non-cooperative, have been suggested to deal with problems over utilizing and sharing water resources, most of these are based on a static viewpoint of demand points during optimization procedures. Moreover, such models are usually developed for a single reservoir system, and so are not really suitable for application to an integrated decision support system involving more than one reservoir. This paper outlines a coupled simulation-optimization modeling method based on a combination of system dynamics (SD and game theory (GT. The method harnesses SD to capture the dynamic behavior of the water system, utilizing feedback loops between the system components in the course of the simulation. In addition, it uses GT concepts, including pure-strategy and mixed-strategy games as well as the Nash Bargaining Solution (NBS method, to find the optimum allocation decisions over available water in the system. To test the capability of the proposed method to resolve multi-reservoir and multi-objective conflicts, two different deterministic simulation-optimization models with increasing levels of complexity were developed for the Langat River basin in Malaysia. The later is a strategic water catchment that has a range of different stakeholders and managerial bodies, which are however willing to cooperate in order to avoid unmet demand. In our first model, all water users play a dynamic pure-strategy game. The second model then adds in dynamic behaviors to reservoirs to factor in inflow uncertainty and adjust the

  10. Development and application of coupled system dynamics and game theory: A dynamic water conflict resolution method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zomorodian, Mehdi; Lai, Sai Hin; Homayounfar, Mehran; Ibrahim, Shaliza; Pender, Gareth

    2017-01-01

    Conflicts over water resources can be highly dynamic and complex due to the various factors which can affect such systems, including economic, engineering, social, hydrologic, environmental and even political, as well as the inherent uncertainty involved in many of these factors. Furthermore, the conflicting behavior, preferences and goals of stakeholders can often make such conflicts even more challenging. While many game models, both cooperative and non-cooperative, have been suggested to deal with problems over utilizing and sharing water resources, most of these are based on a static viewpoint of demand points during optimization procedures. Moreover, such models are usually developed for a single reservoir system, and so are not really suitable for application to an integrated decision support system involving more than one reservoir. This paper outlines a coupled simulation-optimization modeling method based on a combination of system dynamics (SD) and game theory (GT). The method harnesses SD to capture the dynamic behavior of the water system, utilizing feedback loops between the system components in the course of the simulation. In addition, it uses GT concepts, including pure-strategy and mixed-strategy games as well as the Nash Bargaining Solution (NBS) method, to find the optimum allocation decisions over available water in the system. To test the capability of the proposed method to resolve multi-reservoir and multi-objective conflicts, two different deterministic simulation-optimization models with increasing levels of complexity were developed for the Langat River basin in Malaysia. The later is a strategic water catchment that has a range of different stakeholders and managerial bodies, which are however willing to cooperate in order to avoid unmet demand. In our first model, all water users play a dynamic pure-strategy game. The second model then adds in dynamic behaviors to reservoirs to factor in inflow uncertainty and adjust the strategies for

  11. Dynamic Characteristics of Vertically Coupled Structures and the Design of a Decoupled Micro Gyroscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Bumkyoo; Lee, Seung-Yop; Kim, Taekhyun; Baek, Seog Soon

    2008-01-01

    In a vertical type, vibratory gyroscope, the coupled motion between reference (driving) and sensing vibrations causes the zero-point output, which is the unwanted sensing vibration without angular velocity. This structural coupling leads to an inherent discrepancy between the natural frequencies of the reference and the sensing oscillations, causing curve veering in frequency loci. The coupled motion deteriorates sensing performance and dynamic stability. In this paper, the dynamic characteristics associated with the coupling phenomenon are theoretically analyzed. The effects of reference frequency and coupling factor on the rotational direction and amplitude of elliptic oscillation are determined. Based on the analytical studies on the coupling effects, we propose and fabricate a vertically decoupled vibratory gyroscope with the frequency matching. PMID:27879903

  12. Study on the Vehicle Dynamic Load Considering the Vehicle-Pavement Coupled Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, H. L.; He, L.; An, D.

    2017-11-01

    The vibration of vehicle-pavement interaction system is sophisticated random vibration process and the vehicle-pavement coupled effect was not considered in the previous study. A new linear elastic model of the vehicle-pavement coupled system was established in the paper. The new model was verified with field measurement which could reflect the real vibration between vehicle and pavement. Using the new model, the study on the vehicle dynamic load considering the vehicle-pavement coupled effect showed that random forces (centralization) between vehicle and pavement were influenced largely by vehicle-pavement coupled effect. Numerical calculation indicated that the maximum of random forces in coupled model was 2.4 times than that in uncoupled model. Inquiring the reason, it was found that the main vibration frequency of the vehicle non-suspension system was similar with that of the vehicle suspension system in the coupled model and the resonance vibration lead to vehicle dynamic load increase significantly.

  13. Dynamical hysteresis and spatial synchronization in coupled non ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... via mutual synchronization indices reveals that one attractor corresponds to spatially synchronized oscillators, while the other corresponds to desynchronized oscillators. Dynamical hysteresis may thus help to understand critical aspects of the dynamical behavior of complex biological systems, e.g. seizures in the epileptic ...

  14. Coupled spin, elastic and charge dynamics in magnetic nanostructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamra, A.

    2015-01-01

    In this Thesis, I address the interaction of magnetic degrees of freedom with charge current and elastic dynamics in hybrid systems composed of magnetic and non-magnetic materials. The objective, invariably, is to control and study spin dynamics using charge and elastic degrees of freedom. In

  15. Roll- and pitch-plane-coupled hydro-pneumatic suspension. Part 2 dynamic response analyses

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Dongpu; Rakheja, Subhash; Su, Chun-Yi

    2010-01-01

    In the first part of this study, the potential performance benefits of fluidically coupled passive suspensions were demonstrated through analyses of suspension properties, design flexibility and feasibility. In this second part of the study, the dynamic responses of a vehicle equipped with different configurations of fluidically coupled hydro-pneumatic suspension systems are investigated for more comprehensive assessments of the coupled suspension concepts. A generalised 14 degree-of-freedom ...

  16. Real-time Dynamic Coupling of GPC-enhanced Diffraction-limited Focal Spots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villangca, Mark Jayson; Bañas, Andrew Rafael; Kopylov, Oleksii

    2015-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated on-demand dynamic coupling of an optically manipulated wave-guided optical waveguide (WOW) using diffractive techniques on a “point and shoot” approach. In this work, the generation of the coupling focal spots is done in real-time following the position of the WOW....

  17. Decay of Rabi Oscillations by Dipolar-Coupled Dynamical Spin Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dobrovitski, V.V.; Feiguin, A.E.; Hanson, R.; Awschalom, D.D.

    2009-01-01

    We study the Rabi oscillations decay of a spin decohered by a spin bath whose internal dynamics is caused by dipolar coupling between the bath spins. The form and rate of decay as a function of the intrabath coupling is obtained analytically, and confirmed numerically. The complex form of decay

  18. Towards Ultrafast Communications: Nonlinear Coupling Dynamics and Light-Semiconductor Interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, W.

    2007-01-01

    This thesis deals with some specific problems concerning the processing of ultrashort optical pulses and their interaction with semiconductors. It includes the investigation of the ultrashort optical pulse propagation and coupling dynamics in the nonlinear coupled waveguide, and the coherent and

  19. Dynamics of coupled field solitons: A collective coordinate approach

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper we consider a class of systems of two coupled real scalar fields in bidimensional space-time, with the main motivation of studying classical stability of soliton solutions using collective coordinate approach. First, we present the class of systems of the collective coordinate equations which are derived using the ...

  20. Dynamics of delayed-coupled chaotic logistic maps: Influence of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tion of finite communication times, is a key issue that has received considerable attention. The first systematic investigation of time-delayed coupling was done by Schuster and ... In the latter case we introduce a disorder parameter, c, that quantifies the strength of heterogeneity and allows varying the delays from a delta.

  1. Reproduction, food dynamics and exploitation level of Oreochromis niloticus (Perciformes: Cichlidae from artisanal fisheries in Barra Bonita Reservoir, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Costa Novaes

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, which is exotic to South America, is the most common species caught in artisanal fisheries at the Barra Bonita Reservoir, Southeastern Brazil. This species is of great socioeconomic importance for the region and keeps active a population of about 500 fishers. In the present study we assess reproduction, food dynamics and level of exploitation of O. niloticus, caught by artisanal fisheries in the Barra Bonita Reservoir. Specimens were collected monthly, from July 2004-June 2005, and a total of 1 715 specimens were analyzed. Each specimen was examined to obtain biological and biometric data: standard length (cm, total weight (g, reproductive data (sex and stage of maturation, and stomach contents (empty, partly full, and full. We also estimated the sex ratio (by macroscopic observation of gonads, reproductive period (by ovarian development and seasonal average of gonadosomatic index in females, and feeding habits (by stomach contents. The possible relationship between abiotic factors and the reproductive period was statistically verified using Spearman’s Rank Correlation. The FiSAT (ELEFAN I package was used to assess growth parameters, mortality rates and to infer exploitation rate from standard length frequencies. The O. niloticus population had a sex ratio of 1.3:1 (M:F. Results indicated that ripe females were captured throughout the year, with a higher frequency during the winter-2004 (with a frequency of 59%, at a mean temperature of 20.5°C, and in spring-2004 (with a frequency of 60.5% at a mean temperature of 21.18°C. The GSI mean values obtained by season were: winter-2004: 1.71; spring-2004: 1.72; summer-2005: 0.80, and autumn-2005: 1.19. The Spearman correlation indicated positive values with respect to pH, dissolved oxygen, electric conductivity, transparency and chlorophyll a, and negative values with respect to temperature, accumulated rainfall and altimetric benchmark. The main food items

  2. Spatio-temporal patterns with hyperchaotic dynamics in diffusively coupled biochemical oscillators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerold Baier

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available We present three examples how complex spatio-temporal patterns can be linked to hyperchaotic attractors in dynamical systems consisting of nonlinear biochemical oscillators coupled linearly with diffusion terms. The systems involved are: (a a two-variable oscillator with two consecutive autocatalytic reactions derived from the Lotka–Volterra scheme; (b a minimal two-variable oscillator with one first-order autocatalytic reaction; (c a three-variable oscillator with first-order feedback lacking autocatalysis. The dynamics of a finite number of coupled biochemical oscillators may account for complex patterns in compartmentalized living systems like cells or tissue, and may be tested experimentally in coupled microreactors.

  3. Adaptive synchronization of the complex dynamical network with non-derivative and derivative coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Yuhua, E-mail: yuhuaxu2004@163.co [College of Information Science and Technology, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China) and Department of Maths, Yunyang Teachers' College, Hubei 442000 (China); Zhou Wuneng, E-mail: wnzhou@163.co [College of Information Science and Technology, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Fang Jian' an [College of Information Science and Technology, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Sun Wen [School of Mathematics and Information, Yangtze University, Hubei Jingzhou 434023 (China)

    2010-04-05

    This Letter investigates the synchronization of a general complex dynamical network with non-derivative and derivative coupling. Based on LaSalle's invariance principle, adaptive synchronization criteria are obtained. Analytical result shows that under the designed adaptive controllers, a general complex dynamical network with non-derivative and derivative coupling can asymptotically synchronize to a given trajectory, and several useful criteria for synchronization are given. What is more, the coupling matrix is not assumed to be symmetric or irreducible. Finally, simulations results show the method is effective.

  4. Effective relational dynamics of the closed FRW model universe minimally coupled to a massive scalar field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Höhn, P.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/330827952; Kubalová, E.; Tsobanjan, A.

    2011-01-01

    We apply the effective approach to evaluating semiclassical relational dynamics to the closed Friedman–Robertson–Walker cosmological model filled with a minimally coupled massive scalar field. This model is interesting for studying relational dynamics in a more general setting because (i) it

  5. Dynamic coupling design for nonlinear output agreement and time-varying flow control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buerger, Mathias; De Persis, Claudio

    This paper studies the problem of output agreement in networks of nonlinear dynamical systems under time-varying disturbances, using dynamic diffusive couplings. Necessary conditions are derived for general networks of nonlinear systems, and these conditions are explicitly interpreted as conditions

  6. Vortex dynamics in coherently coupled Bose-Einstein condensates

    CERN Document Server

    Calderaro, Luca; Massignan, Pietro; Wittek, Peter

    2016-01-01

    In classical hydrodynamics with uniform density, vortices move with the local fluid velocity. This description is rewritten in terms of forces arising from the interaction with other vortices. Two such positive straight vortices experience a repulsive interaction and precess in a positive (anticlockwise) sense around their common centroid. A similar picture applies to vortices in a two-component two-dimensional uniform Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) coherently coupled through rf Rabi fields. Unlike the classical case, however, the rf Rabi coupling induces an attractive interaction and two such vortices with positive signs now rotate in the negative (clockwise) sense. Pairs of counter-rotating vortices are instead found to translate with uniform velocity perpendicular to the line joining their cores. This picture is extended to a single vortex in a two-component trapped BEC. Although two uniform vortex-free components experience familiar Rabi oscillations of particle-number difference, such behavior is absent ...

  7. Hydrodynamic Instability and Thermal Coupling in a Dynamic Model of Liquid-Propellant Combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolis, S. B.

    1999-01-01

    For liquid-propellant combustion, the Landau/Levich hydrodynamic models have been combined and extended to account for a dynamic dependence of the burning rate on the local pressure and temperature fields. Analysis of these extended models is greatly facilitated by exploiting the realistic smallness of the gas-to-liquid density ratio rho. Neglecting thermal coupling effects, an asymptotic expression was then derived for the cellular stability boundary A(sub p)(k) where A(sub p) is the pressure sensitivity of the burning rate and k is the disturbance wavenumber. The results explicitly indicate the stabilizing effects of gravity on long-wave disturbances, and those of viscosity and surface tension on short-wave perturbations, and the instability associated with intermediate wavenumbers for critical negative values of A(sub p). In the limit of weak gravity, hydrodynamic instability in liquid-propellant combustion becomes a long-wave, instability phenomenon, whereas at normal gravity, this instability is first manifested through O(1) wavenumbers. In addition, surface tension and viscosity (both liquid and gas) each produce comparable effects in the large-wavenumber regime, thereby providing important modifications to the previous analyses in which one or more of these effects was neglected. For A(sub p)= O, the Landau/Levich results are recovered in appropriate limiting cases, although this typically corresponds to a hydrodynamically unstable parameter regime for p combustion have been observed at low pressures in hydroxylammonium nitrate (HAN)-based liquid propellants, which often exhibit negative pressure sensitivities. While nonsteady combustion may correspond to secondary and higher-order bifurcations above the cellular boundary, it may also be a manifestation of this pulsating type of hydrodynamic instability. In the present work, a nonzero temperature sensitivity is incorporated into our previous asymptotic analyses. This entails a coupling of the energy equation

  8. Influence of coupling on thermal forces and dynamic friction in plasmas with multiple ion species

    CERN Document Server

    Kagan, Grigory; Daligault, Jerome

    2016-01-01

    The recently proposed effective potential theory [Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 235001 (2013)] is used to investigate the influence of coupling on inter-ion-species diffusion and momentum exchange in multi-component plasmas. Thermo-diffusion and the thermal force are found to diminish rapidly as strong coupling onsets. For the same coupling parameters, the dynamic friction coefficient is found to tend to unity. These results provide an impetus for addressing the role of coupling on diffusive processes in inertial confinement fusion experiments.

  9. Influence of coupling on thermal forces and dynamic friction in plasmas with multiple ion species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan, Grigory; Baalrud, Scott D.; Daligault, Jérôme

    2017-07-01

    The recently proposed effective potential theory [Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 235001 (2013)] is used to investigate the influence of coupling on inter-ion-species diffusion and momentum exchange in multi-component plasmas. Thermo-diffusion and the thermal force are found to diminish rapidly as strong coupling onsets. For the same coupling parameters, the dynamic friction coefficient is found to tend to unity. These results provide an impetus for addressing the role of coupling on diffusive processes in inertial confinement fusion experiments.

  10. Dynamics of dissipative coupled spins: decoherence, relaxation and effects of a spin-boson bath

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naegele, P; Campagnano, G; Weiss, U [II Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Stuttgart, D-70550 Stuttgart (Germany)], E-mail: naegele@theo2.physik.uni-stuttgart.de, E-mail: campagnano@theo2.physik.uni-stuttgart.de, E-mail: weiss@theo2.physik.uni-stuttgart.de

    2008-11-15

    We study the reduced dynamics of interacting spins, each coupled to its own bath of bosons. We derive the solution in analytic form in the white-noise limit and analyze the rich behaviors in diverse limits ranging from weak coupling and/or low temperature to strong coupling and/or high temperature. We also view the single spin as being coupled to a spin-boson environment and consider the regimes in which it is effectively nonlinear and in which it can be regarded as a resonant bosonic environment.

  11. Dynamic Control of Plasmon-Exciton Coupling in Au Nanodisk–J-Aggregate Hybrid Nanostructure Arrays

    KAUST Repository

    Zheng, Yue Bing

    2009-01-01

    We report the dynamic control of plasmon-exciton coupling in Au nanodisk arrays adsorbed with J-aggregate molecules by incident angle of light. The angle-resolved spectra of an array of bare Au nanodisks exhibit continuous shifting of localized surface plasmon resonances. This characteristic enables the production of real-time, controllable spectral overlaps between molecular and plasmonic resonances, and the efficient measurement of plasmon-exciton coupling as a function of wavelength with one or fewer nanodisk arrays. Experimental observations of varying plasmon-exciton coupling match with coupled dipole approximation calculations.

  12. Sediment dynamics in the Adriatic Sea investigated with coupled models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, Christopher R.; Book, Jeffrey W.; Carniel, Sandro; Cavaleri, Luigi; Chiggiato, Jacopo; Das, Himangshu; Doyle, James D.; Harris, Courtney K.; Niedoroda, Alan W.; Perkins, Henry; Poulain, Pierre-Marie; Pullen, Julie; Reed, Christopher W.; Russo, Aniello; Sclavo, Mauro; Signell, Richard P.; Traykovski, Peter A.; Warner, John C.

    2004-01-01

    Several large research programs focused on the Adriatic Sea in winter 2002-2003, making it an exciting place for sediment dynamics modelers (Figure 1). Investigations of atmospheric forcing and oceanic response (including wave generation and propagation, water-mass formation, stratification, and circulation), suspended material, bottom boundary layer dynamics, bottom sediment, and small-scale stratigraphy were performed by European and North American researchers participating in several projects. The goal of EuroSTRATAFORM researchers is to improve our ability to understand and simulate the physical processes that deliver sediment to the marine environment and generate stratigraphic signatures. Scientists involved in the Po and Apennine Sediment Transport and Accumulation (PASTA) experiment benefited from other major research programs including ACE (Adriatic Circulation Experiment), DOLCE VITA (Dynamics of Localized Currents and Eddy Variability in the Adriatic), EACE (the Croatian East Adriatic Circulation Experiment project), WISE (West Istria Experiment), and ADRICOSM (Italian nowcasting and forecasting) studies.

  13. Dynamics for a two-atom two-mode intensity-dependent Raman coupled model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, S., E-mail: vasudha-rnc1@rediffmail.com, E-mail: sudhhasingh@gmail.com; Gilhare, K. [Ranchi University, Department of Physics (India)

    2016-06-15

    We study the quantum dynamics of a two-atom Raman coupled model interacting with a quantized bimodal field with intensity-dependent coupling terms in a lossless cavity. The unitary transformation method used to solve the time-dependent problem also gives the eigensolutions of the interaction Hamiltonian. We study the atomic-population dynamics and dynamics of the photon statistics in the two cavity modes, and present evidence of cooperative effects in the production of antibunching and anticorrelations between the modes. We also investigate the effect of detuning on the evolution of second-order correlation functions and observe that the oscillations become more rapid for large detuning.

  14. Cluster dynamics modelling of materials: A new hybrid deterministic/stochastic coupling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrier, Pierre; Athènes, Manuel; Jourdan, Thomas; Adjanor, Gilles; Stoltz, Gabriel

    2017-12-01

    Deterministic simulations of the rate equations governing cluster dynamics in materials are limited by the number of equations to integrate. Stochastic simulations are limited by the high frequency of certain events. We propose a coupling method combining deterministic and stochastic approaches. It allows handling different time scale phenomena for cluster dynamics. This method, based on a splitting of the dynamics, is generic and we highlight two different hybrid deterministic/stochastic methods. These coupling schemes are highly parallelizable and specifically designed to treat large size cluster problems. The proof of concept is made on a simple model of vacancy clustering under thermal ageing.

  15. Quantum fluctuation of electronic wave-packet dynamics coupled with classical nuclear motions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, Michiko; Takatsuka, Kazuo

    2005-02-22

    An ab initio electronic wave-packet dynamics coupled with the simultaneous classical dynamics of nuclear motions in a molecule is studied. We first survey the dynamical equations of motion for the individual components. Reflecting the nonadiabatic dynamics that electrons can respond to nuclear motions only with a finite speed, the equations of motion for nuclei include a force arising from the kinematic (nuclear momentum) coupling from electron cloud. To materialize these quantum effects in the actual ab initio calculations, we study practical implementation of relevant electronic matrix elements that are related to the derivatives with respect to the nuclear coordinates. Applications of the present scheme are performed in terms of the configuration state functions (CSF) using the canonical molecular orbitals as basis functions without transformation to particular diabatic basis. In the CSF representation, the nonadiabatic interaction due to the kinematic coupling is anticipated to be rather small, and instead it should be well taken into account through the off-diagonal elements of the electronic Hamiltonian matrix. Therefore it is expected that the nonadiabatic dynamics based on this CSF basis neglecting the kinematic coupling may work. To verify this anticipation and to quantify the actual effects of the kinematic coupling, we compare the dynamics with and without the kinematic-coupling terms using the same CSF set. Applications up to the fifth electronically excited states in a nonadiabatic collision between H(2) and B(+) shows that the overall behaviors of these two calculations are surprisingly similar to each other in an average sense except for a fast fluctuation reflecting the electronic time scale. However, at the same time, qualitative differences in the collision events are sometimes observed. Therefore it turns out after all that the kinematic-coupling terms cannot be neglected in the CSF-basis representation. The present applications also demonstrate

  16. Effect of strong coupling on interfacial electron transfer dynamics in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Transient absorption studies on TPP-cat/TiO2 system exciting both the Soret band at 400 nm and the Q-band at 800 nm have been carried out to determine excitation wavelength-dependence on ET dynamics. The reaction channel for the electron-injection process has been found to be different for both the excitation ...

  17. Dynamics of nonlinear oscillators with time-varying conjugate coupling

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    reverse Hopf bifurcation at k = 0.2 [4]. Therefore, we observed three dynamical regimes, no-synchronization state (NS), complete synchronization state .... (5) where x and y represent the prey and predator popula- tions respectively. The growth rate of the prey is repre- sented by a logistic growth function, with the maximum.

  18. Roll- and pitch-plane-coupled hydro-pneumatic suspension. Part 2: dynamic response analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Dongpu; Rakheja, Subhash; Su, Chun-Yi

    2010-04-01

    In the first part of this study, the potential performance benefits of fluidically coupled passive suspensions were demonstrated through analyses of suspension properties, design flexibility and feasibility. In this second part of the study, the dynamic responses of a vehicle equipped with different configurations of fluidically coupled hydro-pneumatic suspension systems are investigated for more comprehensive assessments of the coupled suspension concepts. A generalised 14 degree-of-freedom nonlinear vehicle model is developed and validated to evaluate vehicle ride and handling dynamic responses and suspension anti-roll and anti-pitch characteristics under various road excitations and steering/braking manoeuvres. The dynamic responses of the vehicle model with the coupled suspension are compared with those of the unconnected suspensions to demonstrate the performance potential of the fluidic couplings. The dynamic responses together with the suspension properties suggest that the full-vehicle-coupled hydro-pneumatic suspension could offer considerable potential in realising enhanced ride and handling performance, as well as improved anti-roll and anti-pitch properties in a very flexible and energy-saving manner.

  19. Frequency Splitting Elimination and Cross-Coupling Rejection of Wireless Power Transfer to Multiple Dynamic Receivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayanamoorthi R.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Simultaneous power transfer to multiple receiver (Rx system is one of the key advantages of wireless power transfer (WPT system using magnetic resonance. However, determining the optimal condition to uniformly transfer the power to a selected Rx at high efficiency is the challenging task under the dynamic environment. The cross-coupling and frequency splitting are the dominant issues present in the multiple Rx dynamic WPT system. The existing analysis is performed by considering any one issue present in the system; on the other hand, the cross coupling and frequency splitting issues are interrelated in dynamic Rx’s, which requires a comprehensive design strategy by considering both the problems. This paper proposes an optimal design of multiple Rx WPT system, which can eliminate cross coupling, frequency splitting issues and increase the power transfer efficiency (PTE of selected Rx. The cross-coupling rejection, uniform power transfer is performed by adding an additional relay coil and independent resonance frequency tuning with capacitive compensation to each Rx unit. The frequency splitting phenomena are eliminated using non-identical transmitter (Tx and Rx coil structure which can maintain the coupling between the coil under the critical coupling limit. The mathematical analysis of the compensation capacitance calculation and optimal Tx coil size identification is performed for the four Rx WPT system. Finite element analysis and experimental investigation are carried out for the proposed design in static and dynamic conditions.

  20. Dynamics-dependent synchronization in on-chip coupled semiconductor lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohara, Shoma; Dal Bosco, Andreas Karsaklian; Ugajin, Kazusa; Uchida, Atsushi; Harayama, Takahisa; Inubushi, Masanobu

    2017-09-01

    Synchronization properties of chaotic dynamics in two mutually coupled semiconductor lasers with optical feedback embedded in a photonic integrated circuit are investigated from the point of view of their dynamical content. A phenomenon in which the two lasers can show qualitatively different synchronization properties according to the frequency range of investigation and their nonlinear dynamics is identified and termed dynamics-dependent synchronization. In-phase synchronization is observed for original signals and antiphase synchronization is observed for low-pass filtered signals in the case where one of the lasers shows chaotic oscillations while the other laser exhibits low-frequency fluctuations dynamics. The experimental conditions causing the synchronization states to vary according to the considered frequency interval are studied and the key roles of asymmetric coupling strength and injection currents are clarified.

  1. Controllable coupling and quantum correlation dynamics of two double quantum dots coupled via a transmission line resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Q. Q.; Tan, Q. S.; Kuang, L. M.

    2011-10-01

    We propose a theoretical scheme to generate a controllable and switchable coupling between two double-quantum-dot (DQD) spin qubits by using a transmission line resonator (TLR) as a bus system. We study dynamical behaviors of quantum correlations described by entanglement correlation (EC) and discord correlation (DC) between two DQD spin qubits when the two spin qubits and the TLR are initially prepared in X-type quantum states and a coherent state, respectively. We demonstrate that in the EC death regions there exist DC stationary states in which the stable DC amplification or degradation can be generated during the dynamical evolution. It is shown that these DC stationary states can be controlled by initial-state parameters, the coupling, and detuning between qubits and the TLR. We reveal the full synchronization and anti-synchronization phenomena in the EC and DC time evolution, and show that the EC and DC synchronization and anti-synchronization depends on the initial-state parameters of the two DQD spin qubits. It is shown that the initial quantum correlation may be suppressed completely when the evolution time approaches to the infinity in the presence of dissipation. These results shed new light on dynamics of quantum correlations.

  2. Coupling dynamics and chemistry in the air pollution modelling of street canyons: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Jian; Cai, Xiao-Ming; Bloss, William James

    2016-07-01

    Air pollutants emitted from vehicles in street canyons may be reactive, undergoing mixing and chemical processing before escaping into the overlying atmosphere. The deterioration of air quality in street canyons occurs due to combined effects of proximate emission sources, dynamical processes (reduced dispersion) and chemical processes (evolution of reactive primary and formation of secondary pollutants). The coupling between dynamics and chemistry plays a major role in determining street canyon air quality, and numerical model approaches to represent this coupling are reviewed in this article. Dynamical processes can be represented by Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) techniques. The choice of CFD approach (mainly the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) and Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) models) depends on the computational cost, the accuracy required and hence the application. Simplified parameterisations of the overall integrated effect of dynamics in street canyons provide capability to handle relatively complex chemistry in practical applications. Chemical processes are represented by a chemical mechanism, which describes mathematically the chemical removal and formation of primary and secondary species. Coupling between these aspects needs to accommodate transport, dispersion and chemical reactions for reactive pollutants, especially fast chemical reactions with time scales comparable to or shorter than those of typical turbulent eddies inside the street canyon. Different approaches to dynamical and chemical coupling have varying strengths, costs and levels of accuracy, which must be considered in their use for provision of reference information concerning urban canopy air pollution to stakeholders considering traffic and urban planning policies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Childbearing dynamics of couples in a universalistic welfare state

    OpenAIRE

    Gunnar Andersson; Kirk Scott

    2007-01-01

    This article studies childbearing dynamics by labor-market status of co-residing parents in Sweden. We apply event-history techniques to longitudinal register data on the life histories of foreign-born mothers from ten different countries and the partners to these women, as well as to a sample of Swedish-born mothers and their partners. The context is a universalistic welfare state geared towards gender and social equality where formal social rights are largely independent of a person’s civ...

  4. Ab initio description of nonlinear dynamics of coupled microdisk resonators with application to self-trapping dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Ramezani, Hamidreza; Kottos, Tsampikos; Shuvayev, Vladimir; Deych, Lev

    2011-01-01

    Ab initio approach is used to describe the time evolution of the amplitudes of whispering gallery modes in a system of coupled microdisk resonators with Kerr nonlinearity. It is shown that this system demonstrates a transition between Josephson-like nonlinear oscillations and self-trapping behavior. Manifestation of this transition in the dynamics of radiative losses is studied.

  5. On non-linear dynamics of a coupled electro-mechanical system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darula, Radoslav; Sorokin, Sergey

    2012-01-01

    , for mechanical system, is of the second order. The governing equations are coupled via linear and weakly non-linear terms. A classical perturbation method, a method of multiple scales, is used to find a steadystate response of the electro-mechanical system exposed to a harmonic close-resonance mechanical......Electro-mechanical devices are an example of coupled multi-disciplinary weakly non-linear systems. Dynamics of such systems is described in this paper by means of two mutually coupled differential equations. The first one, describing an electrical system, is of the first order and the second one...... excitation. The results are verified using a numerical model created in MATLAB Simulink environment. Effect of non-linear terms on dynamical response of the coupled system is investigated; the backbone and envelope curves are analyzed. The two phenomena, which exist in the electro-mechanical system: (a...

  6. Study of turning takeoff maneuver in free-flying dragonflies: effect of dynamic coupling

    CERN Document Server

    Zeyghami, Samane

    2015-01-01

    Turning takeoff flights of several dragonflies were recorded during which a dragonfly takes off while changing the flight direction at the same time. Center of mass was elevated about 1-2 body lengths. Five of these maneuvers were selected for 3D body surface reconstruction and the body orientation measurement. In oppose to conventional banked turn model, which neglects interactions between the rotational motions, in this study we investigated the strength of the dynamic coupling by dividing pitch, roll and yaw angular accelerations into two contributions: one from aerodynamic torque and one from dynamic coupling effect. The latter term is referred to as Dynamic Coupling Acceleration (DCA). The DCA term can be measured directly from instantaneous rotational velocities of the insect. We found a strong correlation between pitch and yaw velocities at the end of each wingbeat and the time integral of the corresponding DCA term. Generation of pitch, roll and yaw torques requires different aerodynamic mechanisms an...

  7. Dynamic investigation of twist-bend coupling in a wind turbine blade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luczak, M.; Manzato, S.; Peeters, B.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents some results and aspects of the multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary research oriented for the experimental and numerical study in static and dynamic domains on the bend-twist coupling in the full scale section of a wind turbine blade structure. The main goal of the conducted...... research is to confirm experimentally the numerical prediction of modification of the dynamic and static properties of a wind turbine blade. The bend-twist coupling was implemented by adding angled UD (UniDirectional) layers on the suction and pressure side of the blade. Static and dynamic tests were...... performed on a section of the full scale wind turbine blade provided by VestasWind Systems A/S. The results are presented and compared with the measurements of the original and modified blade. Comparison analysis confirmed that UD layers introduce measurable bend-twist couplings, which was not present...

  8. Dynamically tunable implementation of electromagnetically induced transparency with two coupling graphene-nanostrips in terahertz region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Chang; Chen, Qing-Guo; Mei, Jin-Shuo; Yin, Jing-Hua

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, we numerically demonstrated a dynamically tunable implementation of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) response with two coupling graphene-nanostrips in terahertz region. Compared to the metal-based structures or separated graphene structures, the Fermi energies of proposed two coupling graphene-nanostrips can be independently tuned by changing bias voltage between the metallic pads and substrate, the EIT window which appears from the near-field coupling between two resonators can be dynamically tuned without reoptimizing and refabricating the structures. As a result, the EIT window has a significant tunable capacity which can realize a higher frequency modulation depth and control the amplitude of transmission peak at a fixed frequency; moreover, the group delay of transmission peak at a fixed frequency with the amplitude of over 0.95 could be dynamically tuned. These results would exhibit potential applications in modulators and tunable slow light devices.

  9. The VENUS/NWChem Software Package. Tight Coupling Between Chemical Dynamics Simulations and Electronic Structure Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lourderaj, Upakarasamy; Sun, Rui; De Jong, Wibe A.; Windus, Theresa L.; Hase, William L.

    2014-03-01

    The interface for VENUS and NWChem, and the resulting software package for direct dynamics simulations are described. The coupling of the two codes is considered to be a tight coupling. The two codes are compiled and linked together and act as one executable with data being passed between the two codes through routine calls. The advantages of this type of coupling are discussed. The interface has been designed to have as little interference as possible with the core codes of both VENUS and NWChem. VENUS is the code that propagates the direct dynamics trajectories and, therefore, is the program that drives the overall execution of VENUS/NWChem. VENUS has remained an essentially sequential code, which uses the highly parallel structure of NWChem. Subroutines of the interface which accomplish the data transmission and communication between the two computer programs are described. Recent examples of the use of VENUS/NWChem for direct dynamics simulations are summarized.

  10. Dynamics of Great Basin Crust-Mantle Coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouch, M. J.; Holt, W. E.; Wernicke, B. P.; Davis, J. L.; West, J. D.; Klein, E. C.; Flesch, L. M.; Chong, E.

    2009-12-01

    Initial discoveries enabled by the EarthScope program and prototype studies in the Great Basin region of the western United States have led to two new and potentially related hypotheses that echo prominent research themes in observational and theoretical dynamics of the continents: (1) the stability of the lower lithosphere against convective loss, and (2) the nature and extent of subhorizontal decoupling horizons within the lithosphere. We are embarking on a collaborative research effort employing geodynamic modeling that integrates seismological, geodetic, and geological information from EarthScope to investigate hypotheses regarding the present-day structure and evolution of the Great Basin and surrounding regions. The primary motivation for this work is the need to reconcile three recent findings related to these hypotheses. Beneath the central Great Basin, seismic imaging of mantle wavespeeds and fabric reveal a northeast-dipping cylindrical mass of higher than average wavespeeds and weak azimuthal anisotropy, suggesting active mantle downwelling, or a “mantle drip”. Recent geodetic data reveal transient changes in geodetic velocities, which when considered with other local geologic patterns, suggest the presence of an active “megadetachment” localized along the Moho or some other deep decoupling horizon beneath most of central and western Nevada in the general vicinity of the downwelling. Further, relative to a dynamic model that matches Quaternary rates and orientations of deformation, a time-averaged strain rate solution obtained from campaign and continuous GPS shows a contractional dilatation anomaly above the eastern two thirds of the downwelling region. The collocation of the dilatation anomaly, megadetachment, and mantle drip beneath the broadly extending Great Basin is certainly not coincidental, yet it currently defies conventional understanding of this classic extensional tectonic regime. In this study, we will present the preliminary

  11. Dynamically Active Compartments Coupled by a Stochastically Gated Gap Junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressloff, Paul C.; Lawley, Sean D.

    2017-10-01

    We analyze a one-dimensional PDE-ODE system representing the diffusion of signaling molecules between two cells coupled by a stochastically gated gap junction. We assume that signaling molecules diffuse within the cytoplasm of each cell and then either bind to some active region of the cell's membrane (treated as a well-mixed compartment) or pass through the gap junction to the interior of the other cell. We treat the gap junction as a randomly fluctuating gate that switches between an open and a closed state according to a two-state Markov process. This means that the resulting PDE-ODE is stochastic due to the presence of a randomly switching boundary in the interior of the domain. It is assumed that each membrane compartment acts as a conditional oscillator, that is, it sits below a supercritical Hopf bifurcation. In the ungated case (gap junction always open), the system supports diffusion-induced oscillations, in which the concentration of signaling molecules within the two compartments is either in-phase or anti-phase. The presence of a reflection symmetry (for identical cells) means that the stochastic gate only affects the existence of anti-phase oscillations. In particular, there exist parameter choices where the gated system supports oscillations, but the ungated system does not, and vice versa. The existence of oscillations is investigated by solving a spectral problem obtained by averaging over realizations of the stochastic gate.

  12. Numerical and Experimental Dynamic Analysis of IC Engine Test Beds Equipped with Highly Flexible Couplings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cocconcelli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Driveline components connected to internal combustion engines can be critically loaded by dynamic forces due to motion irregularity. In particular, flexible couplings used in engine test rig are usually subjected to high levels of torsional oscillations and time-varying torque. This could lead to premature failure of the test rig. In this work an effective methodology for the estimation of the dynamic behavior of highly flexible couplings in real operational conditions is presented in order to prevent unwanted halts. The methodology addresses a combination of numerical models and experimental measurements. In particular, two mathematical models of the engine test rig were developed: a torsional lumped-parameter model for the estimation of the torsional dynamic behavior in operative conditions and a finite element model for the estimation of the natural frequencies of the coupling. The experimental campaign addressed torsional vibration measurements in order to characterize the driveline dynamic behavior as well as validate the models. The measurements were achieved by a coder-based technique using optical sensors and zebra tapes. Eventually, the validated models were used to evaluate the effect of design modifications of the coupling elements in terms of natural frequencies (torsional and bending, torsional vibration amplitude, and power loss in the couplings.

  13. Control of dynamical instability in semiconductor quantum nanostructures diode lasers: Role of phase-amplitude coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, P.; Grillot, F.

    2013-07-01

    We numerically investigate the complex nonlinear dynamics for two independently coupled laser systems consisting of (i) mutually delay-coupled edge emitting diode lasers and (ii) injection-locked quantum nanostructures lasers. A comparative study in dependence on the dynamical role of α parameter, which determine the phase-amplitude coupling of the optical field, in both the cases is probed. The variation of α lead to conspicuous changes in the dynamics of both the systems, which are characterized and investigated as a function of optical injection strength η for the fixed coupled-cavity delay time τ. Our analysis is based on the observation that the cross-correlation and bifurcation measures unveil the signature of enhancement of amplitude-death islands in which the coupled lasers mutually stay in stable phase-locked states. In addition, we provide a qualitative understanding of the physical mechanisms underlying the observed dynamical behavior and its dependence on α. The amplitude death and the existence of multiple amplitude death islands could be implemented for applications including diode lasers stabilization.

  14. Modeling dynamically coupled fluid-duct systems with finite line elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxon, J. B.

    1994-01-01

    Structural analysis of piping systems, especially dynamic analysis, typically considers the duct structure and the contained fluid column separately. Coupling of these two systems, however, forms a new dynamic system with characteristics not necessarily described by the superposition of the two component system's characteristics. Methods for modeling the two coupled components simultaneously using finite line elements are presented. Techniques for general duct intersections, area or direction changes, long radius bends, hydraulic losses, and hydraulic impedances are discussed. An example problem and results involving time transients are presented. Additionally, a program to enhance post-processing of line element models is discussed.

  15. Dynamical Performances of a Vibration Absorber for Continuous Structure considering Time-Delay Coupling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuting Sun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The nonlinear effect incurred by time delay in vibration control is investigated in this study via a vibration absorber coupled with a continuous beam structure. The stability of the vibration absorber coupled structure system with time-delay coupling is firstly studied, which provides a general guideline for the potential time delay to be introduced to the system. Then it is shown that there is a specific region for the time delay which can bring bifurcation modes to the dynamic response of the coupling system, and the vibration energy at low frequencies can be transferred or absorbed due to the bifurcation mode and the vibration in the corresponding frequency range is thus suppressed. The nonlinear mechanism of this vibration suppression incurred by the coupling time delay is discussed in detail, which provides a novel and alternative approach to the analysis, design, and control of vibration absorbers in engineering practice.

  16. Coupling-induced cooperative behaviour in dynamic ferromagnetic cores in the presence of a noise floor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulsara, Adi R. [Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center San Diego, Code 2363, 53560 Hull Street, San Diego, CA 92152-5001 (United States)]. E-mail: bulsara@spawar.navy.mil; Lindner, John F. [Physics Department, College of Wooster, Wooster, OH 44691 (United States); In, Visarath [Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center San Diego, Code 2363, 53560 Hull Street, San Diego, CA 92152-5001 (United States); Kho, Andy [Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center San Diego, Code 2363, 53560 Hull Street, San Diego, CA 92152-5001 (United States); Baglio, Salvatore [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Elettrica Elettronica e dei Sistemi, Universita degli Studi di Catania, Viale A. Doria 6, 95125 Catania (Italy); Sacco, Vincenzo [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Elettrica Elettronica e dei Sistemi, Universita degli Studi di Catania, Viale A. Doria 6, 95125 Catania (Italy); Ando, Bruno [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Elettrica Elettronica e dei Sistemi, Universita degli Studi di Catania, Viale A. Doria 6, 95125 Catania (Italy); Longhini, Patrick [Nonlinear Dynamics Group, Department of Mathematics, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA 92182 (United States); Palacios, Antonio [Nonlinear Dynamics Group, Department of Mathematics, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA 92182 (United States); Rappel, Wouter-Jan [Physics Department, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA 929093 (United States)

    2006-04-17

    Recently, we have shown the emergence of oscillations in overdamped undriven nonlinear dynamic systems subject to carefully crafted coupling schemes and operating conditions. Here, we summarize experimental results obtained on a system of N=3 coupled ferromagnetic cores, the underpinning of a 'coupled-core fluxgate magnetometer' (CCFM); the oscillatory behaviour is triggered when the coupling constant exceeds a threshold value (bifurcation point), and the oscillation frequency exhibits a characteristic scaling behaviour with the 'separation' of the coupling constant from its threshold value, as well as with an external target DC magnetic flux signal. The oscillations, which can be induced at frequencies ranging from a few Hz to high-kHz, afford a new detection scheme for weak target magnetic signals. We also present the first (numerical) results on the effects of a (Gaussian, exponentially correlated) noise floor on the spectral properties of the system response.

  17. Establishment and analysis of coupled dynamic model for dual-mass silicon micro-gyroscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhanghui; Qiu, Anping; Shi, Qin; Zhang, Taoyuan

    2017-12-01

    This paper presents a coupled dynamic model for a dual-mass silicon micro-gyroscope (DMSG). It can quantitatively analyze the influence of left-right stiffness difference on the natural frequencies, modal matrix and modal coupling coefficient of the DMSG. The analytic results are verified by using the finite element method (FEM) simulation. The model shows that with the left-right stiffness difference of 1%, the modal coupling coefficient is 12% in the driving direction and 31% in the sensing direction. It also shows that in order to achieve good separation, the stiffness of base beam should be small enough in both the driving and sensing direction.

  18. Dynamic Tuning of Plasmon-Exciton Coupling in Arrays of Nanodisk-J-aggregate Complexes

    KAUST Repository

    Zheng, Yue Bing

    2010-07-21

    Figure Presented Dynamic tuning of plasmon-exclton resonant coupling in arrays of nanodisk-J-aggregate complexes is demonstrated. The angle-resolved spectra of an array of bare gold nanodisks exhibit continuous shifting of localized surface plasmon resonance. This characteristic enables the production of real-time, controllable spectral overlap between molecular resonance and plasmóme resonance. The resonant interaction strength as a function of spectral overlap is explored and the coupling strength changes with the incident angle of a probe light, in accord with simulations based on coupled dipóle approximation method. © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Recent progress and review of Physics Dynamics Coupling in geophysical models

    CERN Document Server

    Gross, Markus; Rasch, Philip J; Caldwell, Peter M; Williamson, David L; Klocke, Daniel; Jablonowski, Christiane; Thatcher, Diana R; Wood, Nigel; Cullen, Mike; Beare, Bob; Willett, Martin; Lemarié, Florian; Blayo, Eric; Malardel, Sylvie; Termonia, Piet; Gassmann, Almut; Lauritzen, Peter H; Johansen, Hans; Zarzycki, Colin M; Sakaguchi, Koichi; Leung, Ruby

    2016-01-01

    Geophysical models of the atmosphere and ocean invariably involve parameterizations. These represent two distinct areas: a) Subgrid processes which the model cannot (yet) resolve, due to its discrete resolution, and b) sources in the equation, due to radiation for example. Hence coupling between these physics parameterizations and the resolved fluid dynamics and also between the dynamics of the different fluids in the system (air and water) is necessary. This coupling is an important aspect of geophysical models. However, often model development is strictly segregated into either physics or dynamics. Hence, this area has many more unanswered questions than in-depth understanding. Furthermore, recent developments in the design of dynamical cores (e.g. significant increase of resolution, move to non-hydrostatic equation sets etc), extended process physics (e.g. prognostic micro physics, 3D turbulence, non-vertical radiation etc) and predicted future changes of the computational infrastructure (e.g. Exascale wit...

  20. The dynamics of coupled atom and field assisted by continuous external pumping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burlak, G.; Hernandez, J.A. [Centro de Investigacion en Ingenieria y Ciencias Aplicadas, Universidad Autonoma de Morelos, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Starostenko, O. [Departamento de Fisica, Electronica, Sistemas y Mecatronica, Universidad de las Americas, 72820 Puebla (Mexico)

    2006-07-01

    The dynamics of a coupled system comprising a two-level atom and cavity field assisted by a continuous external classical field (driving Jaynes-Cummings model) is studied. When the initial field is prepared in a coherent state, the dynamics strongly depends on the algebraic sum of both fields. If this sum is zero (the compensative case) in the system, only the vacuum Rabi oscillations occur. The results with dissipation and external field detuning from the cavity field are also discussed. (Author)

  1. Exploiting diverse crowd-sourced data as part of a mixed-methods approach to validating modelled flood extents and dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollason, Edward; Bracken, Louise; Hardy, Richard; Large, Andy

    2017-04-01

    The use of flood models for evaluating flood risk from rivers and the sea is now a standard practice across Europe since the introduction of the 2007 EU Floods Directive requiring the assessment and mapping of flood risk from all major rivers and the sea. The availability of high quality topographic data from LiDAR and other remotely sensed sources has led to the increasing adoption of 2 dimensional models for simulating the dynamics of flooding on the floodplain. However, the ability to effectively validate dynamic floodplain inundation has not kept pace with the increasing complexity and spatial resolution of flood models. Validation remains dependent upon in-channel validation using flood level gauges or post-event data collection of wrack-marks, sometimes supplemented by community-derived anecdotal data. This poster presents the findings of a 'mixed-methods approach' to flood model validation using the winter 2016 floods on the River Tyne, UK. Using flood inundation results from a simple LISFLOOD-FP model of the River Tyne at Corbridge, the research develops a novel mixed-methods approach to validating both the maximum flood depths and extents, and the dynamics of the flood through the event. A crowd-sourced dataset of anecdotal information on flood dynamics, supported by photographic and video evidence, as well as community-derived, high definition UAV footage captured 24 and 48 hours after the peak of the event, allows for the comprehensive reconstruction of the flood dynamics and a more complete validation of the effectiveness of the model in reconstructing not just the maximum flood extent but also the dynamics of the rising and falling stages of an event. The findings of the research indicate the potential for making use of a much greater variety of locally-sourced data, particularly exploiting new technologies which offer opportunities for the collection of high quality data in the immediate aftermath of flooding events when traditional agencies may still

  2. Analysis of longitudinal multivariate outcome data from couples cohort studies: application to HPV transmission dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xiangrong; Wang, Mei-Cheng; Gray, Ronald

    2015-06-01

    We consider a specific situation of correlated data where multiple outcomes are repeatedly measured on each member of a couple. Such multivariate longitudinal data from couples may exhibit multi-faceted correlations which can be further complicated if there are polygamous partnerships. An example is data from cohort studies on human papillomavirus (HPV) transmission dynamics in heterosexual couples. HPV is a common sexually transmitted disease with 14 known oncogenic types causing anogenital cancers. The binary outcomes on the multiple types measured in couples over time may introduce inter-type, intra-couple, and temporal correlations. Simple analysis using generalized estimating equations or random effects models lacks interpretability and cannot fully utilize the available information. We developed a hybrid modeling strategy using Markov transition models together with pairwise composite likelihood for analyzing such data. The method can be used to identify risk factors associated with HPV transmission and persistence, estimate difference in risks between male-to-female and female-to-male HPV transmission, compare type-specific transmission risks within couples, and characterize the inter-type and intra-couple associations. Applying the method to HPV couple data collected in a Ugandan male circumcision (MC) trial, we assessed the effect of MC and the role of gender on risks of HPV transmission and persistence.

  3. Frequency tuning and coherent dynamics of two nanostring resonators in the strong coupling regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huebl, Hans; Pernpeintner, Matthias; Schmidt, Philip; Schwienbacher, Daniel; Gross, Rudolf

    Coupled nanomechanical resonators are interesting model systems for studying synchronization effects and nonlinear dynamics. This, however, requires the possibility to tune the relevant mode frequencies independently and to operate the resonators in the strong coupling regime. Here, we present a possible realization consisting of two high-quality nanostring resonators, coupled mechanically by a shared support structure. First, we demonstrate that the fundamental mode frequencies of both nanostrings can be tuned independently by a strong drive tone resonant with one of the higher harmonic modes. This technique relies on an effective increase of the pre-stress in a highly excited nanobeam, known as geometric nonlinearity. Using this frequency tuning concept, we investigate the coherent dynamics of the two strongly coupled nanostring resonators. With the two nanobeams tuned in resonance, we observe oscillations corresponding to Rabi oscillations, which indicates coherent excitation transfer between the fundamental modes of the two nanostrings. In addition, experimental investigation of classical Landau-Zener dynamics demonstrates that this coupling and tuning concept paves the way for a selective phonon transfer between two spatially separated mechanical resonators. Nanosystems Initiative Munich.

  4. Bright soliton dynamics in spin orbit-Rabi coupled Bose-Einstein condensates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinayagam, P. S.; Radha, R.; Bhuvaneswari, S.; Ravisankar, R.; Muruganandam, P.

    2017-09-01

    We investigate the dynamics of a spin-orbit (SO) coupled BECs in a time dependent harmonic trap and show the dynamical system to be completely integrable by constructing the Lax pair. We then employ gauge transformation approach to witness the rapid oscillations of the condensates for a relatively smaller value of SO coupling in a time independent harmonic trap compared to their counterparts in a transient trap. Keeping track of the evolution of the condensates in a transient trap during its transition from confining to expulsive trap, we notice that they collapse in the expulsive trap. We further show that one can manipulate the scattering length through Feshbach resonance to stretch the lifetime of the confining trap and revive the condensate. Considering a SO coupled state as the initial state, the numerical simulation indicates that the reinforcement of Rabi coupling on SO coupled BECs generates the striped phase of the bright solitons and does not impact the stability of the condensates despite destroying the integrability of the dynamical system.

  5. The Coupled Orbit-Attitude Dynamics and Control of Electric Sail in Displaced Solar Orbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingying Huo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Displaced solar orbits for spacecraft propelled by electric sails are investigated. Since the propulsive thrust is induced by the sail attitude, the orbital and attitude dynamics of electric-sail-based spacecraft are coupled and required to be investigated together. However, the coupled dynamics and control of electric sails have not been discussed in most published literatures. In this paper, the equilibrium point of the coupled dynamical system in displaced orbit is obtained, and its stability is analyzed through a linearization. The results of stability analysis show that only some of the orbits are marginally stable. For unstable displaced orbits, linear quadratic regulator is employed to control the coupled attitude-orbit system. Numerical simulations show that the proposed strategy can control the coupled system and a small torque can stabilize both the attitude and orbit. In order to generate the control force and torque, the voltage distribution problem is studied in an optimal framework. The numerical results show that the control force and torque of electric sail can be realized by adjusting the voltage distribution of charged tethers.

  6. Family planning decisions, perceptions and gender dynamics among couples in Mwanza, Tanzania: A qualitative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mosha, I.H.; Ruben, R.; Kakoko, D.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Contraceptive use is low in developing countries which are still largely driven by male dominated culture and patriarchal values. This study explored family planning (FP) decisions, perceptions and gender dynamics among couples in Mwanza region of Tanzania. Methods: Twelve focus group

  7. Life cycle based dynamic assessment coupled with multiple criteria decision analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sohn, Joshua; Kalbar, Pradip; Birkved, Morten

    2017-01-01

    This work looks at coupling Life cycle assessment (LCA) with a dynamic inventory and multiple criteria decision analysis (MCDA) to improve the validity and reliability of single score results for complex systems. This is done using the case study of a representative Danish single family home over...

  8. New iterative method for fractional gas dynamics and coupled Burger's equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Luhaibi, Mohamed S

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the approximate analytical solutions to solve the nonlinear gas dynamics and coupled Burger's equations with fractional time derivative. By using initial values, the explicit solutions of the equations are solved by using a reliable algorithm. Numerical results show that the new iterative method is easy to implement and accurate when applied to time-fractional partial differential equations.

  9. New Iterative Method for Fractional Gas Dynamics and Coupled Burger's Equations

    OpenAIRE

    Al-luhaibi, Mohamed S.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the approximate analytical solutions to solve the nonlinear gas dynamics and coupled Burger’s equations with fractional time derivative. By using initial values, the explicit solutions of the equations are solved by using a reliable algorithm. Numerical results show that the new iterative method is easy to implement and accurate when applied to time-fractional partial differential equations.

  10. Spatiotemporal coupled-mode theory in dispersive media under a dynamic modulation

    CERN Document Server

    Dana, Brenda; Bahabad, Alon

    2014-01-01

    A simple and general formalism for mode coupling by a spatial, temporal or spatiotemporal perturbation in dispersive materials is developed. This formalism can be used for studying various linear and non-linear optical interactions involving a dynamic modulation of the interaction parameters such as non-reciprocal phenomena, time reversal of signals and spatiotemporal quasi phase matching

  11. Forced response of shrouded blades with a coupled static/dynamic approach

    OpenAIRE

    Zucca, Stefano; Gulisano, Andrea; Firrone, Christian Maria

    2011-01-01

    A coupled static-dynamic method is proposed and applied to bladed disks with shrouds, in order to calculate the nonlinear forced response in presence of friction damping in the frequency domain. The novel approach allows to improve the already existing methods, which require a preliminary static analysis

  12. Exploiting a single intramolecular conformational switching Ni-TPP molecule to probe charge transfer dynamics at the nanoscale on bare Si(100)-2 × 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labidi, Hatem; Pinto, Henry P; Leszczynski, Jerzy; Riedel, Damien

    2017-11-01

    Acquiring quantitative information on charge transfer (CT) dynamics at the nanoscale remains an important scientific challenge. In particular, CT processes in single molecules at surfaces need to be investigated to be properly controlled in various devices. To address this issue, the dynamics of switching molecules can be exploited. Here, nickel-tetraphenylporphyrin adsorbed on the Si(100) surface is used to study the CT process ruling the reversible activation of two chiral molecular conformations. Via the electrons of a scanning tunneling microscope (STM), a statistical study of molecular switching reveals two specific locations of the molecule for which their efficiency is optimized. The CT mechanism is shown to propagate from two lateral aryl groups towards the porphyrin macrocycle inducing an intramolecular movement of two symmetric pyrroles. The measured switching efficiencies can thus be related to a Markus-Jordner model to estimate relevant parameters that describe the dynamics of the CT process. Numerical simulations provide a precise description of the molecular conformations and unveil the molecular energy levels that are involved in the CT process. This quantitative method opens a completely original approach to study CT at the nanoscale.

  13. Space robots with flexible appendages: Dynamic modeling, coupling measurement, and vibration suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Deshan; Wang, Xueqian; Xu, Wenfu; Liang, Bin

    2017-05-01

    For a space robot with flexible appendages, vibrations of flexible structure can be easily excited during both orbit and/or attitude maneuvers of the base and the operation of the manipulators. Hence, the pose (position and attitude) of the manipulator's end-effector will greatly deviate from the desired values, and furthermore, the motion of the manipulator will trigger and exacerbate vibrations of flexible appendages. Given lack of the atmospheric damping in orbit, the vibrations will last for quite a while and cause the on-orbital tasks to fail. We derived the rigid-flexible coupling dynamics of a space robot system with flexible appendages and established a coupling model between the flexible base and the space manipulator. A specific index was defined to measure the coupling degree between the flexible motion of the appendages and the rigid motion of the end-effector. Then, we analyzed the dynamic coupling for different conditions, such as modal displacements, joint angles (manipulator configuration), and mass properties. Moreover, the coupling map was adopted and drawn to represent the coupling motion. Based on this map, a trajectory planning method was addressed to suppress structure vibration. Finally, simulation studies of typical cases were performed, which verified the proposed models and method. This work provides a theoretic basis for the system design, performance evaluation, trajectory planning, and control of such space robots.

  14. Forecasting the dynamics of a coastal fishery species using a coupled climate--population model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hare, Jonathan A; Alexander, Michael A; Fogarty, Michael J; Williams, Erik H; Scott, James D

    2010-03-01

    Marine fisheries management strives to maintain sustainable populations while allowing exploitation. However, well-intentioned management plans may not meet this balance as most do not include the effect of climate change. Ocean temperatures are expected to increase through the 21st century, which will have far-reaching and complex impacts on marine fisheries. To begin to quantify these impacts for one coastal fishery along the east coast of the United States, we develop a coupled climate-population model for Atlantic croaker (Micropogonias undulatus). The model is based on a mechanistic hypothesis: recruitment is determined by temperature-driven, overwinter mortality of juveniles in their estuarine habitats. Temperature forecasts were obtained from 14 general circulation models simulating three CO2 emission scenarios. An ensemble-based approach was used in which a multimodel average was calculated for a given CO2 emission scenario to forecast the response of the population. The coupled model indicates that both exploitation and climate change significantly affect abundance and distribution of Atlantic croaker. At current levels of fishing, the average (2010-2100) spawning biomass of the population is forecast to increase by 60-100%. Similarly, the center of the population is forecast to shift 50 100 km northward. A yield analysis, which is used to calculate benchmarks for fishery management, indicates that the maximum sustainable yield will increase by 30 100%. Our results demonstrate that climate effects on fisheries must be identified, understood, and incorporated into the scientific advice provided to managers if sustainable exploitation is to be achieved in a changing climate.

  15. Exact non-Markovian dynamics of qubits coupled to two interacting environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, H. Z.; Li, D. X.; Su, Shi-Lei; Zhou, Y. H.; Yi, X. X.

    2017-09-01

    As the memory effect may be helpful in quantum information processing, non-Markovian dynamics plays an important role in the description of many-body open systems. Among these topics, the system consisting of independent qubits interacting with several coupled environments is of particular interest. In this paper, we study the exact non-Markovian dynamics of two independent qubits. Each of the qubits interacts individually with its environment, and these two environments coupled with each other. We investigate the non-Markovianity measure of the system for the whole parameter regime without the rotating-wave approximation (RWA) and compare the results with that under the RWA. We find that the non-Markovianity measure for two qubits manifests a transition from a non-Markovian to Markovian regime regardless of the coupling strength between the environments. The physical origin of this transition is revealed, and a possible observation of the prediction in superconducting quantum interference devices is discussed.

  16. Spatio-Temporal Dynamics of Exploited Groundfish Species Assemblages Faced to Environmental and Fishing Forcings: Insights from the Mauritanian Exclusive Economic Zone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saïkou Oumar Kidé

    Full Text Available Environmental changes and human activities can have strong impacts on biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. This study investigates how, from a quantitative point of view, simultaneously both environmental and anthropogenic factors affect species composition and abundance of exploited groundfish assemblages (i.e. target and non-target species at large spatio-temporal scales. We aim to investigate (1 the spatial and annual stability of groundfish assemblages, (2 relationships between these assemblages and structuring factors in order to better explain the dynamic of the assemblages' structure. The Mauritanian Exclusive Economic Zone (MEEZ is of particular interest as it embeds a productive ecosystem due to upwelling, producing abundant and diverse resources which constitute an attractive socio-economic development. We applied the multi-variate and multi-table STATICO method on a data set consisting of 854 hauls collected during 14-years (1997-2010 from scientific trawl surveys (species abundance, logbooks of industrial fishery (fishing effort, sea surface temperature and chlorophyll a concentration as environmental variables. Our results showed that abiotic factors drove four main persistent fish assemblages. Overall, chlorophyll a concentration and sea surface temperature mainly influenced the structure of assemblages of coastal soft bottoms and those of the offshore near rocky bottoms where upwellings held. While highest levels of fishing effort were located in the northern permanent upwelling zone, effects of this variable on species composition and abundances of assemblages were relatively low, even if not negligible in some years and areas. The temporal trajectories between environmental and fishing conditions and assemblages did not match for all the entire time series analyzed in the MEEZ, but interestingly for some specific years and areas. The quantitative approach used in this work may provide to stakeholders, scientists and fishers a

  17. Molecular dynamics simulation with weak coupling to heat and material baths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslami, Hossein; Mojahedi, Fatemeh; Moghadasi, Jalil

    2010-08-28

    A method for performing molecular dynamics simulation in the grand canonical ensemble is developed. The molecular dynamics, with coupling to an external bath, simulation method of [Berendsen et al., J. Chem. Phys. 81, 3684 (1984)] is extended for this purpose. Here the physical system of interest consists of real indistinguishable particles plus one fractional particle, whose potential energy of interaction with the rest of particles is scaled by a coupling parameter, ranging dynamically between zero and one. This coupling changes the number of particles in the system gradually and dynamically, depending on the target values of the excess chemical potential, temperature, and volume. A nonlinear scaling scheme has been adopted to scale the potential energy of interaction of the fractional particle with the rest of the system. The method has been employed to predict the density of compressed Lennard-Jones fluid, compatible with the target values of temperature and the excess chemical potential, over a wide range of temperatures and densities. The method has further been applied to do molecular dynamics simulation in the grand canonical ensemble for water and to predict its vapor-liquid phase coexistence point. The results obtained using this method are in complete agreement with previously reported results in the literature.

  18. A HYBRID SYSTEM FOR DYNAMIC ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF COUPLED SHEAR WALLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A BERRAIS

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Non-linear dynamic analysis techniques are rapidly being developed and have been recognized as indispensable tools. However, their use in the design office requires special experience. Consequently they are not generally accepted as analysis/design tools. Additionally, uncertainties are associated with the determination of the earthquake forces, the stiffness and strength of the structure; the selection of the mathematical models; and the form of the earthquake. In this paper a hybrid system for the non-linear dynamic analysis/design of coupled shear walls is briefly described. The system combines expert system technology with finite element method to carry out the dynamic analysis of coupled walls under earthquake forces. The system has been implemented using Quintec-Prolog, Quintec-Flex and FORTRAN 77, and runs on a SUN SPARC station under Unix system.

  19. Microtubule dynamic instability: A new model with coupled GTP hydrolysis and multistep catastrophe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowne-Anderson, Hugo; Zanic, Marija; Kauer, Monika; Howard, Jonathon

    2013-01-01

    A key question in understanding microtubule dynamics is how GTP hydrolysis leads to catastrophe, the switch from slow growth to rapid shrinkage. We first provide a review of the experimental and modeling literature, and then present a new model of microtubule dynamics. We demonstrate that vectorial, random, and coupled hydrolysis mechanisms are not consistent with the dependence of catastrophe on tubulin concentration and show that, although single-protofilament models can explain many features of dynamics, they do not describe catastrophe as a multistep process. Finally, we present a new combined (coupled plus random hydrolysis) multiple-protofilament model that is a simple, analytically solvable generalization of a single-protofilament model. This model accounts for the observed lifetimes of growing microtubules, the delay to catastrophe following dilution and describes catastrophe as a multistep process. PMID:23532586

  20. Nonadiabatic dynamics of photoinduced proton-coupled electron transfer: comparison of explicit and implicit solvent simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auer, Benjamin; Soudackov, Alexander V; Hammes-Schiffer, Sharon

    2012-07-05

    Theoretical approaches for simulating the ultrafast dynamics of photoinduced proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) reactions in solution are developed and applied to a series of model systems. These processes are simulated by propagating nonadiabatic surface hopping trajectories on electron-proton vibronic surfaces that depend on the solute and solvent nuclear coordinates. The PCET system is represented by a four-state empirical valence bond model, and the solvent is treated either as explicit solvent molecules or as a dielectric continuum, in which case the solvent dynamics is described in terms of two collective solvent coordinates corresponding to the energy gaps associated with electron and proton transfer. The explicit solvent simulations reveal two distinct solvent relaxation time scales, where the faster time scale relaxation corresponds to librational motions of solvent molecules in the first solvation shell, and the slower time scale relaxation corresponds to the bulk solvent dielectric response. The charge transfer dynamics is strongly coupled to both the fast and slow time scale solvent dynamics. The dynamical multistate continuum theory is extended to include the effects of two solvent relaxation time scales, and the resulting coupled generalized Langevin equations depend on parameters that can be extracted from equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. The implicit and explicit solvent approaches lead to qualitatively similar charge transfer and solvent dynamics for model PCET systems, suggesting that the implicit solvent treatment captures the essential elements of the nonequilibrium solvent dynamics for many systems. A combination of implicit and explicit solvent approaches will enable the investigation of photoinduced PCET processes in a variety of condensed phase systems.

  1. Role of the Pair Correlation Function in the Dynamical Transition Predicted by Mode Coupling Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandi, Manoj Kumar; Banerjee, Atreyee; Dasgupta, Chandan; Bhattacharyya, Sarika Maitra

    2017-12-29

    In a recent study, we have found that for a large number of systems the configurational entropy at the pair level S_{c2}, which is primarily determined by the pair correlation function, vanishes at the dynamical transition temperature T_{c}. Thus, it appears that the information of the transition temperature is embedded in the structure of the liquid. In order to investigate this, we describe the dynamics of the system at the mean field level and, using the concepts of the dynamical density functional theory, show that the dynamical transition temperature depends only on the pair correlation function. Thus, this theory is similar in spirit to the microscopic mode coupling theory (MCT). However, unlike microscopic MCT, which predicts a very high transition temperature, the present theory predicts a transition temperature that is similar to T_{c}. This implies that the information of the dynamical transition temperature is embedded in the pair correlation function.

  2. Role of the Pair Correlation Function in the Dynamical Transition Predicted by Mode Coupling Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandi, Manoj Kumar; Banerjee, Atreyee; Dasgupta, Chandan; Bhattacharyya, Sarika Maitra

    2017-12-01

    In a recent study, we have found that for a large number of systems the configurational entropy at the pair level Sc 2, which is primarily determined by the pair correlation function, vanishes at the dynamical transition temperature Tc. Thus, it appears that the information of the transition temperature is embedded in the structure of the liquid. In order to investigate this, we describe the dynamics of the system at the mean field level and, using the concepts of the dynamical density functional theory, show that the dynamical transition temperature depends only on the pair correlation function. Thus, this theory is similar in spirit to the microscopic mode coupling theory (MCT). However, unlike microscopic MCT, which predicts a very high transition temperature, the present theory predicts a transition temperature that is similar to Tc. This implies that the information of the dynamical transition temperature is embedded in the pair correlation function.

  3. Coupled attitude-orbit dynamics and control for an electric sail in a heliocentric transfer mission.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingying Huo

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the coupled attitude-orbit dynamics and control of an electric-sail-based spacecraft in a heliocentric transfer mission. The mathematical model characterizing the propulsive thrust is first described as a function of the orbital radius and the sail angle. Since the solar wind dynamic pressure acceleration is induced by the sail attitude, the orbital and attitude dynamics of electric sails are coupled, and are discussed together. Based on the coupled equations, the flight control is investigated, wherein the orbital control is studied in an optimal framework via a hybrid optimization method and the attitude controller is designed based on feedback linearization control. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy, a transfer problem from Earth to Mars is considered. The numerical results show that the proposed strategy can control the coupled system very well, and a small control torque can control both the attitude and orbit. The study in this paper will contribute to the theory study and application of electric sail.

  4. Coupled attitude-orbit dynamics and control for an electric sail in a heliocentric transfer mission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Mingying; Zhao, Jun; Xie, Shaobiao; Qi, Naiming

    2015-01-01

    The paper discusses the coupled attitude-orbit dynamics and control of an electric-sail-based spacecraft in a heliocentric transfer mission. The mathematical model characterizing the propulsive thrust is first described as a function of the orbital radius and the sail angle. Since the solar wind dynamic pressure acceleration is induced by the sail attitude, the orbital and attitude dynamics of electric sails are coupled, and are discussed together. Based on the coupled equations, the flight control is investigated, wherein the orbital control is studied in an optimal framework via a hybrid optimization method and the attitude controller is designed based on feedback linearization control. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy, a transfer problem from Earth to Mars is considered. The numerical results show that the proposed strategy can control the coupled system very well, and a small control torque can control both the attitude and orbit. The study in this paper will contribute to the theory study and application of electric sail.

  5. Assessing the viability of successful reconstruction of the dynamics of dark energy using varying fundamental couplings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avelino, P.P., E-mail: ppavelin@fc.up.pt [Centro de Astrofisica da Universidade do Porto, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762 Porto (Portugal); Departamento de Fisica e Astronomia, Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Losano, L., E-mail: losano@fisica.ufpb.br [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal da Paraiba, 58051-970 Joao Pessoa, Paraiba (Brazil); Centro de Fisica do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Departamento de Fisica e Astronomia, Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Menezes, R., E-mail: rmenezes@dce.ufpb.br [Departamento de Ciencias Exatas, Universidade Federal da Paraiba, 58297-000 Rio Tinto, PB (Brazil); Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, 58109-970 Campina Grande, Paraiba (Brazil); Oliveira, J.C.R.E., E-mail: jespain@fe.up.pt [Centro de Fisica do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Departamento de Engenharia Fisica da Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, s/n, 4200-465 Porto (Portugal)

    2012-10-31

    We assess the viability of successful reconstruction of the evolution of the dark energy equation of state using varying fundamental couplings, such as the fine structure constant or the proton-to-electron mass ratio. We show that the same evolution of the dark energy equation of state parameter with cosmic time may be associated with arbitrary variations of the fundamental couplings. Various examples of models with the same (different) background evolution and different (the same) time variation of fundamental couplings are studied in the Letter. Although we demonstrate that, for a broad family of models, it is possible to redefine the scalar field in such a way that its dynamics is that of a standard quintessence scalar field, in general such redefinition leads to the breakdown of the linear relation between the scalar field and the variation of fundamental couplings. This implies that the assumption of a linear coupling is not sufficient to guarantee a successful reconstruction of the dark energy dynamics and consequently additional model dependent assumptions about the scalar field responsible for the dark energy need to be made.

  6. CFD modeling of particle dispersion and deposition coupled with particle dynamical models in a ventilated room

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guangping; Wang, Jiasong

    2017-10-01

    Two dynamical models, the traditional method of moments coupled model (MCM) and Taylor-series expansion method of moments coupled model (TECM) for particle dispersion distribution and gravitation deposition are developed in three-dimensional ventilated environments. The turbulent airflow field is modeled with the renormalization group (RNG) k-ε turbulence model. The particle number concentration distribution in a ventilated room is obtained by solving the population balance equation coupled with the airflow field. The coupled dynamical models are validated using experimental data. A good agreement between the numerical and experimental results can be achieved. Both models have a similar characteristic for the spatial distribution of particle concentration. Relative to the MCM model, the TECM model presents a more close result to the experimental data. The vortex structure existed in the air flow makes a relative large concentration difference at the center region and results in a spatial non-uniformity of concentration field. With larger inlet velocity, the mixing level of particles in the room is more uniform. In general, the new dynamical models coupled with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) in the current study provide a reasonable and accurate method for the temporal and spatial evolution of particles effected by the deposition and dispersion behaviors. In addition, two ventilation modes with different inlet velocities are proceeded to study the effect on the particle evolution. The results show that with the ceiling ventilation mode (CVM), the particles can be better mixed and the concentration level is also higher. On the contrast, with the side ceiling ventilation mode (SVM), the particle concentration has an obvious stratified distribution with a relative lower level and it makes a much better environment condition to the human exposure.

  7. Flight Behaviors of a Complex Projectile Using a Coupled Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD)-based Simulation Technique: Free Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Projectile Using a Coupled Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD)-based Simulation Technique: Free Motion 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...38 vi Preface The paper “Flight Behaviors of a Complex Projectile using a Coupled CFD-based Simulation Technique: Free Motion ” was...involves coupling of CFD and rigid body dynamics (RBD) codes for the simulation of projectile free flight motion in a time-accurate manner. This

  8. Dynamic Analysis of the High Speed Train and Slab Track Nonlinear Coupling System with the Cross Iteration Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoyan Lei; Shenhua Wu; Bin Zhang

    2016-01-01

    A model for dynamic analysis of the vehicle-track nonlinear coupling system is established by the finite element method. The whole system is divided into two subsystems: the vehicle subsystem and the track subsystem. Coupling of the two subsystems is achieved by equilibrium conditions for wheel-to-rail nonlinear contact forces and geometrical compatibility conditions. To solve the nonlinear dynamics equations for the vehicle-track coupling system, a cross iteration algorithm and a relaxation ...

  9. Synchronization dynamics of chemically coupled cells with activator–inhibitor pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guemkam Ghomsi, P. [Complex Systems and Theoretical Biology Group, Laboratory of Research on Advanced Materials and Nonlinear Science (LaRAMaNS), Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Buea, P.O. Box 63, Buea (Cameroon); Laboratoire de Mécanique, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Yaoundé I, P.O. Box 812, Yaoundé (Cameroon); Moukam Kakmeni, F.M., E-mail: moukam.kakmeni@ubuea.cm [Complex Systems and Theoretical Biology Group, Laboratory of Research on Advanced Materials and Nonlinear Science (LaRAMaNS), Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Buea, P.O. Box 63, Buea (Cameroon); Kofane, T.C.; Tchawoua, C. [Laboratoire de Mécanique, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Yaoundé I, P.O. Box 812, Yaoundé (Cameroon)

    2014-08-01

    Systems of interacting cells containing an activator–inhibitor pathway, regulating naturally in their inner parts their end-product concentrations through a sequence of biochemical reactions with feedback-loops: an end-product inhibition of the first substrate, and an autocatalytic activation of the end-product through an allosteric enzyme-mediated reaction are investigated. The individual cells are considered to be identical and are described by nonlinear differential equations recently proposed following the concerted transition model. The chemical and electrical coupling types, realized by exchange of metabolites across concentration of the cells are used in order to analyze the onset of phase and complete synchronization in the biochemical system. It is found that depending on the coupling nature and the range of coupling strength, cells enter into different synchronization regimes going from low-quality to high-quality synchronization. The synchronization manifold's stability is analyzed. The results are supported by numerical simulations using indicators such as the conditional Lyapunov exponents and the rate of change of the Lyapunov function. The results indicate that the system cannot completely synchronize under the single action of the chemical coupling. The combined effect of both chemical and electrical couplings is found to be of capital importance in the onset of complete synchronization and high quality synchronization. - Highlights: • We investigate the dynamics and synchronization of cells with activator–inhibitor pathways. • A complete study of fixed points' stability and bifurcations of the system is done. • It is found that chemically coupled cells only display phase synchronization. • Electrical coupling is important for complete synchronization in the coupled cells. • High quality synchronization is observed in the coupled cells.

  10. Real-Time G-Protein-Coupled Receptor Imaging to Understand and Quantify Receptor Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María S. Aymerich

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the trafficking of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs and their regulation by agonists and antagonists is fundamental to develop more effective drugs. Optical methods using fluorescent-tagged receptors and spinning disk confocal microscopy are useful tools to investigate membrane receptor dynamics in living cells. The aim of this study was to develop a method to characterize receptor dynamics using this system which offers the advantage of very fast image acquisition with minimal cell perturbation. However, in short-term assays photobleaching was still a problem. Thus, we developed a procedure to perform a photobleaching-corrected image analysis. A study of short-term dynamics of the long isoform of the dopamine type 2 receptor revealed an agonist-induced increase in the mobile fraction of receptors with a rate of movement of 0.08 μm/s For long-term assays, the ratio between the relative fluorescence intensity at the cell surface versus that in the intracellular compartment indicated that receptor internalization only occurred in cells co-expressing G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2. These results indicate that the lateral movement of receptors and receptor internalization are not directly coupled. Thus, we believe that live imaging of GPCRs using spinning disk confocal image analysis constitutes a powerful tool to study of receptor dynamics.

  11. Quantum Simulation of the Ultrastrong-Coupling Dynamics in Circuit Quantum Electrodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Ballester

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available We propose a method to get experimental access to the physics of the ultrastrong- and deep-strong-coupling regimes of light-matter interaction through the quantum simulation of their dynamics in standard circuit QED. The method makes use of a two-tone driving scheme, using state-of-the-art circuit-QED technology, and can be easily extended to general cavity-QED setups. We provide examples of ultrastrong- and deep-strong-coupling quantum effects that would be otherwise inaccessible.

  12. Chaos analysis and delayed-feedback control in a discrete dynamic coupled map traffic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yaling; Shi, Zhongke

    2015-03-01

    The presence of chaos in traffic flow is studied using a modified discrete dynamic coupled map model which is derived from both the flow-density-speed fundamental diagram and Del Castillo's speed-density model. The modified model employs occupancy as its new variable and introduces a coupling strength with the consideration of effect of the front adjacent vehicle. And we analyze its stability of the control system and provide a procedure to design the decentralized delayed-feedback controllers for the traffic control system. These theoretical results are illustrated by numerical simulations.

  13. Multiscale Modeling of Blood Flow: Coupling Finite Elements with Smoothed Dissipative Particle Dynamics

    KAUST Repository

    Moreno Chaparro, Nicolas

    2013-06-01

    A variational multi scale approach to model blood flow through arteries is proposed. A finite element discretization to represent the coarse scales (macro size), is coupled to smoothed dissipative particle dynamics that captures the fine scale features (micro scale). Blood is assumed to be incompressible, and flow is described through the Navier Stokes equation. The proposed cou- pling is tested with two benchmark problems, in fully coupled systems. Further refinements of the model can be incorporated in order to explicitly include blood constituents and non-Newtonian behavior. The suggested algorithm can be used with any particle-based method able to solve the Navier-Stokes equation.

  14. The Situated HKB Model: how sensorimotor spatial coupling can alter oscillatory brain dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel eAguilera

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite the increase both of dynamic and embodied/situated approaches in cognitive science, there is still little research on how coordination dynamics under a closed sensorimotor loop might induce qualitatively different patterns of neural oscillations compared to those found in isolated systems. We take as a departure point the HKB model, a generic model for dynamic coordination between two oscillatory components, which has proven useful for a vast range of applications in cognitive science and whose dynamical properties are well understood. In order to explore the properties of this model under closed sensorimotor conditions we present what we call the situated HKB model: a robotic model that performs a gradient climbing task and whose "brain" is modelled by the HKB equation. We solve the differential equations that define the agent-environment coupling for increasing values of the agent's sensitivity (sensor gain, finding different behavioural strategies. These results are compared with two different models: a decoupled HKB with no sensory input and a passively-coupled HKB that is also decoupled but receives a structured input generated by a situated agent. We can precisely quantify and qualitatively describe how the properties of the system, when studied in coupled conditions, radically change in a manner that cannot be deduced from the decoupled HKB models alone. We also present the notion of neurodynamic signature as the dynamic pattern that correlates with a specific behaviour and we show how only a situated agent can display this signature compared to an agent that simply receives the exact same sensory input.To our knowledge, this is the first analytical solution of the HKB equation in a sensorimotor loop and qualitative and quantitative analytic comparison of spatially coupled vs. decoupled oscillatory controllers. Finally, we discuss the limitations and possible generalization of our model to contemporary neuroscience and philosophy

  15. The situated HKB model: how sensorimotor spatial coupling can alter oscillatory brain dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera, Miguel; Bedia, Manuel G.; Santos, Bruno A.; Barandiaran, Xabier E.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the increase of both dynamic and embodied/situated approaches in cognitive science, there is still little research on how coordination dynamics under a closed sensorimotor loop might induce qualitatively different patterns of neural oscillations compared to those found in isolated systems. We take as a departure point the Haken-Kelso-Bunz (HKB) model, a generic model for dynamic coordination between two oscillatory components, which has proven useful for a vast range of applications in cognitive science and whose dynamical properties are well understood. In order to explore the properties of this model under closed sensorimotor conditions we present what we call the situated HKB model: a robotic model that performs a gradient climbing task and whose “brain” is modeled by the HKB equation. We solve the differential equations that define the agent-environment coupling for increasing values of the agent's sensitivity (sensor gain), finding different behavioral strategies. These results are compared with two different models: a decoupled HKB with no sensory input and a passively-coupled HKB that is also decoupled but receives a structured input generated by a situated agent. We can precisely quantify and qualitatively describe how the properties of the system, when studied in coupled conditions, radically change in a manner that cannot be deduced from the decoupled HKB models alone. We also present the notion of neurodynamic signature as the dynamic pattern that correlates with a specific behavior and we show how only a situated agent can display this signature compared to an agent that simply receives the exact same sensory input. To our knowledge, this is the first analytical solution of the HKB equation in a sensorimotor loop and qualitative and quantitative analytic comparison of spatially coupled vs. decoupled oscillatory controllers. Finally, we discuss the limitations and possible generalization of our model to contemporary neuroscience and

  16. Coupled human and natural system dynamics as key to the sustainability of Lake Victoria's ecosystem services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea S. Downing

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available East Africa's Lake Victoria provides resources and services to millions of people on the lake's shores and abroad. In particular, the lake's fisheries are an important source of protein, employment, and international economic connections for the whole region. Nonetheless, stock dynamics are poorly understood and currently unpredictable. Furthermore, fishery dynamics are intricately connected to other supporting services of the lake as well as to lakeshore societies and economies. Much research has been carried out piecemeal on different aspects of Lake Victoria's system; e.g., societies, biodiversity, fisheries, and eutrophication. However, to disentangle drivers and dynamics of change in this complex system, we need to put these pieces together and analyze the system as a whole. We did so by first building a qualitative model of the lake's social-ecological system. We then investigated the model system through a qualitative loop analysis, and finally examined effects of changes on the system state and structure. The model and its contextual analysis allowed us to investigate system-wide chain reactions resulting from disturbances. Importantly, we built a tool that can be used to analyze the cascading effects of management options and establish the requirements for their success. We found that high connectedness of the system at the exploitation level, through fisheries having multiple target stocks, can increase the stocks' vulnerability to exploitation but reduce society's vulnerability to variability in individual stocks. We describe how there are multiple pathways to any change in the system, which makes it difficult to identify the root cause of changes but also broadens the management toolkit. Also, we illustrate how nutrient enrichment is not a self-regulating process, and that explicit management is necessary to halt or reverse eutrophication. This model is simple and usable to assess system-wide effects of management policies, and can

  17. Analysis and Design of Adaptive Synchronization of a Complex Dynamical Network with Time-Delayed Nodes and Coupling Delays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Miao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to the study of synchronization problems in uncertain dynamical networks with time-delayed nodes and coupling delays. First, a complex dynamical network model with time-delayed nodes and coupling delays is given. Second, for a complex dynamical network with known or unknown but bounded nonlinear couplings, an adaptive controller is designed, which can ensure that the state of a dynamical network asymptotically synchronizes at the individual node state locally or globally in an arbitrary specified network. Then, the Lyapunov-Krasovskii stability theory is employed to estimate the network coupling parameters. The main results provide sufficient conditions for synchronization under local or global circumstances, respectively. Finally, two typical examples are given, using the M-G system as the nodes of the ring dynamical network and second-order nodes in the dynamical network with time-varying communication delays and switching communication topologies, which illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed controller design methods.

  18. Global Phase Synchronization for a Class of Dynamical Complex Networks with Time-Varying Coupling Delays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li XinBin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Global phase synchronization for a class of dynamical complex networks composed of multiinput multioutput pendulum-like systems with time-varying coupling delays is investigated. The problem of the global phase synchronization for the complex networks is equivalent to the problem of the asymptotical stability for the corresponding error dynamical networks. For reducing the conservation, no linearization technique is involved, but by Kronecker product, the problem of the asymptotical stability of the high dimensional error dynamical networks is reduced to the same problem of a class of low dimensional error systems. The delay-dependent criteria guaranteeing global asymptotical stability for the error dynamical complex networks in terms of Liner Matrix Inequalities (LMIs are derived based on free-weighting matrices technique and Lyapunov function. According to the convex characterization, a simple criterion is proposed. A numerical example is provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed results.

  19. Dynamic matrix controller design for performance study of an interacting coupled tank MIMO process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, L. Thillai; Sivakumar, D.; Rathikarani, D.

    2017-07-01

    Model predictive control (MPC) is the class of advanced control techniques. A primary advantage to this approach is the explicit handling of constraints. MPC utilizes an internal model to predict system dynamic behaviour over a finite horizon. MPC is a discrete-time form of control, so inaccuracies in predicted behavior are corrected at the next control interval. This technique makes the control of processes to become more efficient and cost effective. Most of its applications are in the refining, petrochemical industries and in other chemical plants. Dynamic Matrix Control(DMC) is a kind of model predictive control technique based on step response model of the process. In this paper, the dynamic matrix control algorithm is implemented on coupled tank system and control quality has been analyzed using a simulation model with different setting parameters. From the simulation results it has been observed that dynamic matrix control algorithm can achieve good results with accuracy.

  20. Nonlinear Coupled Dynamics of a Rod Fastening Rotor under Rub-Impact and Initial Permanent Deflection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Hu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A nonlinear coupled dynamic model of a rod fastening rotor under rub-impact and initial permanent deflection was developed in this paper. The governing motion equation was derived by the D’Alembert principle considering the contact characteristic between disks, nonlinear oil-film force, rub-impact force, unbalance mass, etc. The contact effects between disks was modeled as a flexural spring with cubical nonlinear stiffness. The coupled nonlinear dynamic phenomena of the rub-impact rod fastening rotor bearing system with initial permanent deflection were investigated by the fourth-order Runge-Kutta method. Bifurcation diagram, vibration waveform, frequency spectrum, shaft orbit and Poincaré map are used to illustrate the rich diversity of the system response with complicated dynamics. The studies indicate that the coupled dynamic responses of the rod fastening rotor bearing system under rub-impact and initial permanent deflection exhibit a rich nonlinear dynamic diversity, synchronous periodic-1 motion, multiple periodic motion, quasi-periodic motion and chaotic motion can be observed under certain conditions. Larger radial stiffness of the stator will simplify the system motion and make the oil whirl weaker or even disappear at a certain rotating speed. With the increase of initial permanent deflection length, the instability speed of the system gradually rises, and the chaotic motion region gets smaller and smaller. The corresponding results can provide guidance for the fault diagnosis of a rub-impact rod fastening rotor with initial permanent deflection and contribute to the further understanding of the nonlinear dynamic characteristics of the rod fastening rotor bearing system.

  1. Ligand-induced dynamical change of G-protein-coupled receptor revealed by neutron scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Utsab R.; Bhowmik, Debsindhu; Mamontov, Eugene; Chu, Xiang-Qiang

    Light activation of the visual G-protein-coupled receptor rhodopsin leads to the significant change in protein conformation and structural fluctuations, which further activates the cognate G-protein (transducin) and initiates the biological signaling. In this work, we studied the rhodopsin activation dynamics using state-of-the-art neutron scattering technique. Our quasi-elastic neutron scattering (QENS) results revealed a broadly distributed relaxation rate of the hydrogen atom in rhodopsin on the picosecond to nanosecond timescale (beta-relaxation region), which is crucial for the protein function. Furthermore, the application of mode-coupling theory to the QENS analysis uncovers the subtle changes in rhodopsin dynamics due to the retinal cofactor. Comparing the dynamics of the ligand-free apoprotein, opsin versus the dark-state rhodopsin, removal of the retinal cofactor increases the relaxation time in the beta-relaxation region, which is due to the possible open conformation. Moreover, we utilized the concept of free-energy landscape to explain our results for the dark-state rhodopsin and opsin dynamics, which can be further applied to other GPCR systems to interpret various dynamic behaviors in ligand-bound and ligand-free protein.

  2. Atomistic simulations and network-based modeling of the Hsp90-Cdc37 chaperone binding with Cdk4 client protein: A mechanism of chaperoning kinase clients by exploiting weak spots of intrinsically dynamic kinase domains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josh Czemeres

    Full Text Available A fundamental role of the Hsp90 and Cdc37 chaperones in mediating conformational development and activation of diverse protein kinase clients is essential in signal transduction. There has been increasing evidence that the Hsp90-Cdc37 system executes its chaperoning duties by recognizing conformational instability of kinase clients and modulating their folding landscapes. The recent cryo-electron microscopy structure of the Hsp90-Cdc37-Cdk4 kinase complex has provided a framework for dissecting regulatory principles underlying differentiation and recruitment of protein kinase clients to the chaperone machinery. In this work, we have combined atomistic simulations with protein stability and network-based rigidity decomposition analyses to characterize dynamic factors underlying allosteric mechanism of the chaperone-kinase cycle and identify regulatory hotspots that control client recognition. Through comprehensive characterization of conformational dynamics and systematic identification of stabilization centers in the unbound and client- bound Hsp90 forms, we have simulated key stages of the allosteric mechanism, in which Hsp90 binding can induce instability and partial unfolding of Cdk4 client. Conformational landscapes of the Hsp90 and Cdk4 structures suggested that client binding can trigger coordinated dynamic changes and induce global rigidification of the Hsp90 inter-domain regions that is coupled with a concomitant increase in conformational flexibility of the kinase client. This process is allosteric in nature and can involve reciprocal dynamic exchanges that exert global effect on stability of the Hsp90 dimer, while promoting client instability. The network-based rigidity analysis and emulation of thermal unfolding of the Cdk4-cyclin D complex and Hsp90-Cdc37-Cdk4 complex revealed weak spots of kinase instability that are present in the native Cdk4 structure and are targeted by the chaperone during client recruitment. Our findings

  3. Atomistic simulations and network-based modeling of the Hsp90-Cdc37 chaperone binding with Cdk4 client protein: A mechanism of chaperoning kinase clients by exploiting weak spots of intrinsically dynamic kinase domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czemeres, Josh; Buse, Kurt; Verkhivker, Gennady M

    2017-01-01

    A fundamental role of the Hsp90 and Cdc37 chaperones in mediating conformational development and activation of diverse protein kinase clients is essential in signal transduction. There has been increasing evidence that the Hsp90-Cdc37 system executes its chaperoning duties by recognizing conformational instability of kinase clients and modulating their folding landscapes. The recent cryo-electron microscopy structure of the Hsp90-Cdc37-Cdk4 kinase complex has provided a framework for dissecting regulatory principles underlying differentiation and recruitment of protein kinase clients to the chaperone machinery. In this work, we have combined atomistic simulations with protein stability and network-based rigidity decomposition analyses to characterize dynamic factors underlying allosteric mechanism of the chaperone-kinase cycle and identify regulatory hotspots that control client recognition. Through comprehensive characterization of conformational dynamics and systematic identification of stabilization centers in the unbound and client- bound Hsp90 forms, we have simulated key stages of the allosteric mechanism, in which Hsp90 binding can induce instability and partial unfolding of Cdk4 client. Conformational landscapes of the Hsp90 and Cdk4 structures suggested that client binding can trigger coordinated dynamic changes and induce global rigidification of the Hsp90 inter-domain regions that is coupled with a concomitant increase in conformational flexibility of the kinase client. This process is allosteric in nature and can involve reciprocal dynamic exchanges that exert global effect on stability of the Hsp90 dimer, while promoting client instability. The network-based rigidity analysis and emulation of thermal unfolding of the Cdk4-cyclin D complex and Hsp90-Cdc37-Cdk4 complex revealed weak spots of kinase instability that are present in the native Cdk4 structure and are targeted by the chaperone during client recruitment. Our findings suggested that this

  4. Coupling between amino acid and water dynamics by broadband dielectric spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiz, Luciana; Cerveny, Silvina

    2014-05-01

    The dynamics of proline aqueous solution was investigated for water concentrations from 40 to 60 wt% by dielectric spectroscopy (106 - 109 Hz) in the temperature range from 230 to 300 K, where the solutions remain amorphous. We found two relaxation processes, related with the reorientation of proline and water as previously observed in a higher frequency range at room temperature [1]. We found that both dynamics are strongly coupled, as previously observed in hydrated proteins powders, in spite of the fact that a single amino acid is a molecule much simpler than a protein.

  5. Exploiting deterministic maintenance opportunity windows created by conservative engineering design rules that result in free time locked into large high-speed coupled production lines with finite buffers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durandt, Casper

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Conservative engineering design rules for large serial coupled production processes result in machines having locked-in free time (also called ‘critical downtime’ or ‘maintenance opportunity windows’, which cause idle time if not used. Operators are not able to assess a large production process holistically, and so may not be aware that they form the current bottleneck – or that they have free time available due to interruptions elsewhere. A real-time method is developed to accurately calculate and display free time in location and magnitude, and efficiency improvements are demonstrated in large-scale production runs.

  6. Wave-guided Optical Waveguides tracked and coupled using dynamic diffractive optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glückstad, Jesper; Villangca, Mark Jayson; Bañas, Andrew Rafael

    With light’s miniscule momentum, shrinking robotics down to the micro- and nano-scale regime creates opportunities for exploiting optical forces and near-field light delivery in advanced actuation and control atthe smallest physical dimensions. Advancing light-driven nano- or micro......-actuation requires the optimization of optical forces and optical torques that, in turn, requires the optimization of the underlying light-matter interaction [1]. We have previously proposed and demonstrated micro-targeted light-delivery and the opto-mechanical capabilities of so-called wave-guided optical...... waveguides (WOWs) [2]. As the WOWs are optically trapped and maneuvered in 3D-space, it is important to maintain efficient light-coupling through these free-standing waveguides within their operating volume [3]. We propose the use ofdynamic diffractive techniques to create focal spots that will track...

  7. Cosmological implications of Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model with a dynamical coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintanar, G. Leonardo; de La Macorra, Axel

    We study the cosmological implications of the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) model when the coupling constant is field dependent. The NJL model has a four-fermion interaction describing two different phases due to quantum interaction effects and determined by the strength of the coupling constant g. It describes massless fermions for weak coupling and a massive fermions and strong coupling, where a fermion condensate is formed. In the original NJL model, the coupling constant g is indeed constant, and in this work we consider a modified version of the NJL model by introducing a dynamical field dependent coupling motivated by string theory. The effective potential as a function of the varying coupling (aimed to implement a natural phase transition) is seen to develop a negative divergence, i.e. becomes a “bottomless well” in certain limit region. Although we explain how an lower unbounded potential is not necessarily unacceptable in a cosmological context, the divergence can be removed if we consider a mass term for the coupling like field. We found that for a proper set of parameters, the total potential obtained has two minima, one located at the origin (the trivial solution, in which the fluid associated with the fields behave like matter); and the other related to the nontrivial solution. This last solution has three possibilities: (1) if the minimum is positive Vmin > 0, the system behaves as a cosmological constant, thus leading eventually to an accelerated universe; (2) if the minimized potential vanishes Vmin = 0, then we have matter with no acceleration; (3) finally a negative minimum Vmin universe with a flat geometry. Therefore, a possible interpretation as dark matter (DM) or dark energy (DE) is allowed among the behaviors implicated in the model.

  8. Improved Regional Climate Model Simulation of Precipitation by a Dynamical Coupling to a Hydrology Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Morten Andreas Dahl; Drews, Martin; Hesselbjerg Christensen, Jens

    convective precipitation systems. As a result climate model simulations let alone future projections of precipitation often exhibit substantial biases. Here we show that the dynamical coupling of a regional climate model to a detailed fully distributed hydrological model - including groundwater-, overland...... of local precipitation dynamics are seen for time scales of app. Seasonal duration and longer. We show that these results can be attributed to a more complete treatment of land surface feedbacks. The local scale effect on the atmosphere suggests that coupled high-resolution climate-hydrology models...... including a detailed 3D redistribution of sub- and land surface water have a significant potential for improving climate projections even diminishing the need for bias correction in climate-hydrology studies....

  9. Generation of scenarios from calibrated ensemble forecasts with a dynamic ensemble copula coupling approach

    CERN Document Server

    Bouallegue, Zied Ben; Theis, Susanne E; Pinson, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Probabilistic forecasts in the form of ensemble of scenarios are required for complex decision making processes. Ensemble forecasting systems provide such products but the spatio-temporal structures of the forecast uncertainty is lost when statistical calibration of the ensemble forecasts is applied for each lead time and location independently. Non-parametric approaches allow the reconstruction of spatio-temporal joint probability distributions at a low computational cost.For example, the ensemble copula coupling (ECC) method consists in rebuilding the multivariate aspect of the forecast from the original ensemble forecasts. Based on the assumption of error stationarity, parametric methods aim to fully describe the forecast dependence structures. In this study, the concept of ECC is combined with past data statistics in order to account for the autocorrelation of the forecast error. The new approach which preserves the dynamical development of the ensemble members is called dynamic ensemble copula coupling (...

  10. Coupling Osmolarity Dynamics within Human Tear Film on an Eye-Shaped Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Longfei; Braun, R. J.; Driscoll, T. A.; Henshaw, W. D.; Banks, J. W.; King-Smith, P. E.

    2013-11-01

    The concentration of ions in the tear film (osmolarity) is a key variable in understanding dry eye symptoms and disease. We derived a mathematical model that couples osmolarity (treated as a single solute) and fluid dynamics within the tear film on a 2D eye-shaped domain. The model concerns the physical effects of evaporation, surface tension, viscosity, ocular surface wettability, osmolarity, osmosis and tear fluid supply and drainage. We solved the governing system of coupled nonlinear PDEs using the Overture computational framework developed at LLNL, together with a new hybrid time stepping scheme (using variable step BDF and RKC) that was added to the framework. Results of our numerical simulations show good agreement with existing 1D models (for both tear film and osmolarity dynamics) and provide new insight about the osmolarity distribution over the ocular surface during the interblink.

  11. Entanglement Dynamics in Heisenberg spin systems coupled to a dissipative environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadiek, Gehad; Almalki, Samaher

    Heisenberg Spin chains and lattices have been intensively used to represent many of the physical systems that are considered as promising candidates for quantum computing and quantum information processing. The main obstacle toward realizing the ultimate goals in these fields is decoherence caused by the surrounding dissipative and thermal environments. We are studying spin relaxation and entanglement dynamics in one and two-dimensional XYZ Heisenberg spin systems under coupling with a dissipative Lindblad environment at finite temperature. We investigate the effect of the anisotropy of the coupling between the spins on the asymptotic steady state of the system and the spin relaxation rates at different temperatures of the environment. We demonstrate the role played by the initial system setup on the entanglement and spin dynamics and steady state properties. Also we examine the effect of the long range interaction between the spins on the asymptotic behavior of the system.

  12. Dynamical Relation between Quantum Squeezing and Entanglement in Coupled Harmonic Oscillator System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lock Yue Chew

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate into the numerical and analytical relationship between the dynamically generated quadrature squeezing and entanglement within a coupled harmonic oscillator system. The dynamical relation between these two quantum features is observed to vary monotically, such that an enhancement in entanglement is attained at a fixed squeezing for a larger coupling constant. Surprisingly, the maximum attainable values of these two quantum entities are found to consistently equal to the squeezing and entanglement of the system ground state. In addition, we demonstrate that the inclusion of a small anharmonic perturbation has the effect of modifying the squeezing versus entanglement relation into a nonunique form and also extending the maximum squeezing to a value beyond the system ground state.

  13. Nature of Dynamic Magnetoelectric Coupling and Prediction of Room-Temperature Electromagnon Excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Panshuo; Li, Z. L.; Yang, J. H.; Jia, C. L.; Xiang, H. J.

    The dynamical magnetoelectric excitation i.e. electromagnon is essential not only for the intrinsic physical mechanism of magnetoelectric coupling but also to realize application in emerging fields such as magnonics. Here, on the basis of group theory and the general polarization model, we develop an approach to understand the electromagnon excitation in magnetoelectric systems. Both multiferroicity and electromagnon in delafossite CuFeO2 are revealed to originate from the general spin-current model, rather than the spin-dependent d-p hybridization model. Our model is general since it is independent on the specific spin Hamiltonian. Based on this dynamic magnetoelectric coupling model, we predict that the magnon in antiferromagnetic Cr2O3 (TN = 307 K) and ferrimagnetic yttrium iron garnet (Tc = 550 K) could be excited by the electric component of light at room temperature.

  14. Fibrils connect microtubule tips with kinetochores: a mechanism to couple tubulin dynamics to chromosome motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, J Richard; Grishchuk, Ekaterina L; Morphew, Mary K; Efremov, Artem K; Zhudenkov, Kirill; Volkov, Vladimir A; Cheeseman, Iain M; Desai, Arshad; Mastronarde, David N; Ataullakhanov, Fazly I

    2008-10-17

    Kinetochores of mitotic chromosomes are coupled to spindle microtubules in ways that allow the energy from tubulin dynamics to drive chromosome motion. Most kinetochore-associated microtubule ends display curving "protofilaments," strands of tubulin dimers that bend away from the microtubule axis. Both a kinetochore "plate" and an encircling, ring-shaped protein complex have been proposed to link protofilament bending to poleward chromosome motion. Here we show by electron tomography that slender fibrils connect curved protofilaments directly to the inner kinetochore. Fibril-protofilament associations correlate with a local straightening of the flared protofilaments. Theoretical analysis reveals that protofilament-fibril connections would be efficient couplers for chromosome motion, and experimental work on two very different kinetochore components suggests that filamentous proteins can couple shortening microtubules to cargo movements. These analyses define a ring-independent mechanism for harnessing microtubule dynamics directly to chromosome movement.

  15. Fixed-Time Synchronization for Hybrid Coupled Dynamical Networks with Multilinks and Time-Varying Delays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baolin Qiu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper concerns the problem of fixed/finite-time synchronization of hybrid coupled dynamical networks. The considered dynamical networks with multilinks contain only one transmittal time-varying delay for each subnetwork, which makes us get hold of more interesting and practical points. Two kinds of delay-dependent feedback controllers with multilinks as well as appropriate Lyapunov functions are defined to achieve the goal of fixed-time synchronization and finite-time synchronization for the networks. Some novel and effective criteria of hybrid coupled networks are derived based on fixed-time and finite-time stability analysis. Finally, two numerical simulation examples are given to show the effectiveness of the results proposed in our paper.

  16. Gauge Coupling Instability and Dynamical Mass Generation in N=1 Supersymmetric QED(3)

    CERN Document Server

    Campbell-Smith, A; Papavassiliou, J

    1999-01-01

    Using superfield Dyson-Schwinger equations, we compute the infrared dynamics of the semi-amputated full vertex, corresponding to the effective running gauge coupling, in N-flavour {\\mathcal N}=1 supersymmetric QED(3). It is shown that the presence of a supersymmetry-preserving mass for the matter multiplet stabilizes the infrared gauge coupling against oscillations present in the massless case, and we therefore infer that the massive vacuum is thus selected at the level of the (quantum) effective action. We further demonstrate that such a mass can indeed be generated dynamically in a self-consistent way by appealing to the superfield Dyson-Schwinger gap equation for the full matter propagator.

  17. Dynamic scaling in the two-dimensional Ising spin glass with normal-distributed couplings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Na; Wu, Kai-Hsin; Rubin, Shanon J.; Kao, Ying-Jer; Sandvik, Anders W.

    2017-11-01

    We carry out simulated annealing and employ a generalized Kibble-Zurek scaling hypothesis to study the two-dimensional Ising spin glass with normal-distributed couplings. The system has an equilibrium glass transition at temperature T =0 . From a scaling analysis when T →0 at different annealing velocities v , we find power-law scaling in the system size for the velocity required in order to relax toward the ground state, v ˜L-(z +1 /ν ) , the Kibble-Zurek ansatz where z is the dynamic critical exponent and ν the previously known correlation-length exponent, ν ≈3.6 . We find z ≈13.6 for both the Edwards-Anderson spin-glass order parameter and the excess energy. This is different from a previous study of the system with bimodal couplings [Rubin et al., Phys. Rev. E 95, 052133 (2017), 10.1103/PhysRevE.95.052133] where the dynamics is faster (z is smaller) and the above two quantities relax with different dynamic exponents (with that of the energy being larger). We argue that the different behaviors arise as a consequence of the different low-energy landscapes: for normal-distributed couplings the ground state is unique (up to a spin reflection), while the system with bimodal couplings is massively degenerate. Our results reinforce the conclusion of anomalous entropy-driven relaxation behavior in the bimodal Ising glass. In the case of a continuous coupling distribution, our results presented here also indicate that, although Kibble-Zurek scaling holds, the perturbative behavior normally applying in the slow limit breaks down, likely due to quasidegenerate states, and the scaling function takes a different form.

  18. Equilibrium dynamics of the Dean-Kawasaki equation: Mode-coupling theory and its extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bongsoo; Kawasaki, Kyozi; Jacquin, Hugo; van Wijland, Frédéric

    2014-01-01

    We extend a previously proposed field-theoretic self-consistent perturbation approach for the equilibrium dynamics of the Dean-Kawasaki equation presented in [Kim and Kawasaki, J. Stat. Mech. (2008) P02004, 10.1088/1742-5468/2008/02/P02004]. By taking terms missing in the latter analysis into account we arrive at a set of three new equations for correlation functions of the system. These correlations involve the density and its logarithm as local observables. Our new one-loop equations, which must carefully deal with the noninteracting Brownian gas theory, are more general than the historic mode-coupling one in that a further approximation corresponding to Gaussian density fluctuations leads back to the original mode-coupling equation for the density correlations alone. However, without performing any further approximation step, our set of three equations does not feature any ergodic-nonergodic transition, as opposed to the historical mode-coupling approach.

  19. Embedding complex hydrology in the regional climate system – Dynamic coupling across different modelling domains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butts, Michael; Drews, Martin; Larsen, Morten Andreas Dahl

    2014-01-01

    To improve our understanding of the impacts of feedback between the atmosphere and the terrestrial water cycle including groundwater and to improve the integration of water resource management modelling for climate adaption we have developed a dynamically coupled climate–hydrological modelling...... system. The OpenMI modelling interface is used to couple a comprehensive hydrological modelling system, MIKE SHE running on personal computers, and a regional climate modelling system, HIRHAM running on a high performance computing platform. The coupled model enables two-way interaction between...... the atmosphere and the groundwater via the land surface and can represent the lateral movement of water in both the surface and subsurface and their interactions, not normally accounted for in climate models. Meso-scale processes are important for climate in general and rainfall in particular. Hydrological...

  20. Limits on dynamically generated spin-orbit coupling: Absence of l =1 Pomeranchuk instabilities in metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiselev, Egor I.; Scheurer, Mathias S.; Wölfle, Peter; Schmalian, Jörg

    2017-03-01

    An ordered state in the spin sector that breaks parity without breaking time-reversal symmetry, i.e., that can be considered dynamically generated spin-orbit coupling, was proposed to explain puzzling observations in a range of different systems. Here, we derive severe restrictions for such a state that follow from a Ward identity related to spin conservation. It is shown that l =1 spin-Pomeranchuk instabilities are not possible in nonrelativistic systems since the response of spin-current fluctuations is entirely incoherent and nonsingular. This rules out relativistic spin-orbit coupling as an emergent low-energy phenomenon. We illustrate the exotic physical properties of the remaining higher-angular-momentum analogs of spin-orbit coupling and derive a geometric constraint for spin-orbit vectors in lattice systems.

  1. Arm motion coupling during locomotion-like actions: An experimental study and a dynamic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapkova, E.Yu; Terekhov, A.V.; Latash, M.L.

    2010-01-01

    We studied the coordination of arm movements in standing persons who performed an out-of-phase arm-swinging task while stepping in place or while standing. The subjects were instructed to stop one of the arms in response to an auditory signal while trying to keep the rest of the movement pattern unchanged. A significant increase was observed in the amplitude of the arm that continued swinging under both the stepping and standing conditions. This increase was similar between the right and left arms. A dynamic model was developed including two coupled non-linear van der Pol oscillators. We assumed that stopping an arm did not eliminate the coupling but introduced a new constraint. Within the model, superposition of two factors, a command to stop the ongoing movement of one arm and the coupling between the two oscillators, has been able to account for the observed effects. The model makes predictions for future experiments. PMID:21628725

  2. Biophysical approaches to G protein-coupled receptors: Structure, function and dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chollet, André; Turcatti, Gerardo

    1999-05-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) represent a large family of drug targets for which there is no high-resolution structural information. In order to understand the mechanisms of ligand recognition and receptor activation, there is a strong need for novel biophysical methods. In this Perspective we provide an overview of recent experimental approaches used to explore the molecular architecture and dynamics of GPCR and their interactions with ligands and G proteins using biophysical, non-crystallographic, methods.

  3. Dynamical Coupled-Channel Model of Meson Production Reactions in the Nucleon Resonance Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T.-S. H. Lee; A. Matsuyama; T. Sato

    2006-11-15

    A dynamical coupled-channel model is presented for investigating the nucleon resonances (N*) in the meson production reactions induced by pions and photons. Our objective is to extract the N* parameters and to investigate the meson production reaction mechanisms for mapping out the quark-gluon substructure of N* from the data. The model is based on an energy-independent Hamiltonian which is derived from a set of Lagrangians by using a unitary transformation method.

  4. Hopf bifurcation in love dynamical models with nonlinear couples and time delays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao Xiaofeng [School of Computer and Information, Chongqing Jiaotong University, Chonqing 400074 (China) and Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400030 (China)]. E-mail: xflao@cqu.edu.cn; Ran Jiouhong [Hospital of Chongqing University, Chonqing University, Chongqing 400030 (China)

    2007-02-15

    A love dynamical models with nonlinear couples and two delays is considered. Local stability of this model is studied by analyzing the associated characteristic transcendental equation. We find that the Hopf bifurcation occurs when the sum of the two delays varies and passes a sequence of critical values. The stability and direction of the Hopf bifurcation are determined by applying the normal form theory and the center manifold theorem. Numerical example is given to illustrate our results.

  5. New Iterative Method for Fractional Gas Dynamics and Coupled Burger’s Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed S. Al-luhaibi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the approximate analytical solutions to solve the nonlinear gas dynamics and coupled Burger’s equations with fractional time derivative. By using initial values, the explicit solutions of the equations are solved by using a reliable algorithm. Numerical results show that the new iterative method is easy to implement and accurate when applied to time-fractional partial differential equations.

  6. Position Control of a Manipulator with Passive Joints Using Dynamic Coupling

    OpenAIRE

    Arai, Hirohiko; Tachi, Susumu

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes a method ofcontrolling the position of a manipulator composed of active and passive joints. The active joints have actuators and position sensors. The passive joints have holding brakes instead of actuators. While the brakes are released, the passive joints are indirectly controlled by the motion of the active joints using the coupling characteristics of manipulator dynamics. While the brakes are engaged, the passive joints are fixed and the activejoints are controlled. T...

  7. Relaxation dynamics and coherent energy exchange in coupled vibration-cavity polaritons (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpkins, Blake S.; Fears, Kenan P.; Dressick, Walter J.; Dunkelberger, Adam D.; Spann, Bryan T.; Owrutsky, Jeffrey C.

    2016-09-01

    Coherent coupling between an optical transition and confined optical mode have been investigated for electronic-state transitions, however, only very recently have vibrational transitions been considered. Here, we demonstrate both static and dynamic results for vibrational bands strongly coupled to optical cavities. We experimentally and numerically describe strong coupling between a Fabry-Pérot cavity and carbonyl stretch ( 1730 cm 1) in poly-methylmethacrylate and provide evidence that the mixed-states are immune to inhomogeneous broadening. We investigate strong and weak coupling regimes through examination of cavities loaded with varying concentrations of a urethane monomer. Rabi splittings are in excellent agreement with an analytical description using no fitting parameters. Ultrafast pump-probe measurements reveal transient absorption signals over a frequency range well-separated from the vibrational band, as well as drastically modified relaxation rates. We speculate these modified kinetics are a consequence of the energy proximity between the vibration-cavity polariton modes and excited state transitions and that polaritons offer an alternative relaxation path for vibrational excitations. Varying the polariton energies by angle-tuning yields transient results consistent with this hypothesis. Furthermore, Rabi oscillations, or quantum beats, are observed at early times and we see evidence that these coherent vibration-cavity polariton excitations impact excited state population through cavity losses. Together, these results indicate that cavity coupling may be used to influence both excitation and relaxation rates of vibrations. Opening the field of polaritonic coupling to vibrational species promises to be a rich arena amenable to a wide variety of infrared-active bonds that can be studied in steady state and dynamically.

  8. Computation of three-dimensional multiphase flow dynamics by Fully-Coupled Immersed Flow (FCIF) solver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Sha; Hendrickson, Kelli; Liu, Yuming

    2017-12-01

    This work presents a Fully-Coupled Immersed Flow (FCIF) solver for the three-dimensional simulation of fluid-fluid interaction by coupling two distinct flow solvers using an Immersed Boundary (IB) method. The FCIF solver captures dynamic interactions between two fluids with disparate flow properties, while retaining the desirable simplicity of non-boundary-conforming grids. For illustration, we couple an IB-based unsteady Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes (uRANS) simulator with a depth-integrated (long-wave) solver for the application of slug development with turbulent gas and laminar liquid. We perform a series of validations including turbulent/laminar flows over prescribed wavy boundaries and freely-evolving viscous fluids. These confirm the effectiveness and accuracy of both one-way and two-way coupling in the FCIF solver. Finally, we present a simulation example of the evolution from a stratified turbulent/laminar flow through the initiation of a slug that nearly bridges the channel. The results show both the interfacial wave dynamics excited by the turbulent gas forcing and the influence of the liquid on the gas turbulence. These results demonstrate that the FCIF solver effectively captures the essential physics of gas-liquid interaction and can serve as a useful tool for the mechanistic study of slug generation in two-phase gas/liquid flows in channels and pipes.

  9. Modeling of synchronization behavior of bursting neurons at nonlinearly coupled dynamical networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çakir, Yüksel

    2016-01-01

    Synchronization behaviors of bursting neurons coupled through electrical and dynamic chemical synapses are investigated. The Izhikevich model is used with random and small world network of bursting neurons. Various currents which consist of diffusive electrical and time-delayed dynamic chemical synapses are used in the simulations to investigate the influences of synaptic currents and couplings on synchronization behavior of bursting neurons. The effects of parameters, such as time delay, inhibitory synaptic strengths, and decay time on synchronization behavior are investigated. It is observed that in random networks with no delay, bursting synchrony is established with the electrical synapse alone, single spiking synchrony is observed with hybrid coupling. In small world network with no delay, periodic bursting behavior with multiple spikes is observed when only chemical and only electrical synapse exist. Single-spike and multiple-spike bursting are established with hybrid couplings. A decrease in the synchronization measure is observed with zero time delay, as the decay time is increased in random network. For synaptic delays which are above active phase period, synchronization measure increases with an increase in synaptic strength and time delay in small world network. However, in random network, it increases with only an increase in synaptic strength.

  10. A multiscale model on hospital infections coupling macro and micro dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xia; Tang, Sanyi

    2017-09-01

    A multiscale model of hospital infections coupling the micro model of the growth of bacteria and the macro model describing the transmission of the bacteria among patients and health care workers (HCWs) was established to investigate the effects of antibiotic treatment on the transmission of the bacteria among patients and HCWs. The model was formulated by viewing the transmission rate from infected patients to HCWs and the shedding rate of bacteria from infected patients to the environment as saturated functions of the within-host bacterial load. The equilibria and the basic reproduction number of the coupled system were studied, and the global dynamics of the disease free equilibrium and the endemic equilibrium were analyzed in detail by constructing two Lyapunov functions. Furthermore, effects of drug treatment in the within-host model on the basic reproduction number and the dynamics of the coupled model were studied by coupling a pharmacokinetics model with the within-host model. Sensitive analysis indicated that the growth rate of the bacteria, the maximum drug effect and the dosing interval are the three most sensitive parameters contributing to the basic reproduction number. Thus, adopting ;wonder; drugs to decrease the growth rate of the bacteria or to increase the drug's effect is the most effective measure but changing the dosage regime is also effective. A quantitative criterion of how to choose the best dosage regimen can also be obtained from numerical results.

  11. Consistent temperature coupling with thermal fluctuations of smooth particle hydrodynamics and molecular dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg C Ganzenmüller

    Full Text Available We propose a thermodynamically consistent and energy-conserving temperature coupling scheme between the atomistic and the continuum domain. The coupling scheme links the two domains using the DPDE (Dissipative Particle Dynamics at constant Energy thermostat and is designed to handle strong temperature gradients across the atomistic/continuum domain interface. The fundamentally different definitions of temperature in the continuum and atomistic domain - internal energy and heat capacity versus particle velocity - are accounted for in a straightforward and conceptually intuitive way by the DPDE thermostat. We verify the here-proposed scheme using a fluid, which is simultaneously represented as a continuum using Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics, and as an atomistically resolved liquid using Molecular Dynamics. In the case of equilibrium contact between both domains, we show that the correct microscopic equilibrium properties of the atomistic fluid are obtained. As an example of a strong non-equilibrium situation, we consider the propagation of a steady shock-wave from the continuum domain into the atomistic domain, and show that the coupling scheme conserves both energy and shock-wave dynamics. To demonstrate the applicability of our scheme to real systems, we consider shock loading of a phospholipid bilayer immersed in water in a multi-scale simulation, an interesting topic of biological relevance.

  12. Exploiting flow injection and sequential injection for trace metal determinations in conjunction with detection by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Elo Harald

    Despite their excellent analytical chemical capacities, Electrothermal Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (ETAAS) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICPMS), nevertheless, often require suitable pretreatment of the sample material in order to obtain the necessary sensitivity...... and selectivity. Either in order to separate/preconcentrate the analyte material, or because of the presence of potentially interfering matrix constituents. Such pretreatments are advantageously performed in flow injection (FI) or sequential injection (SI) manifolds, where all appropriate unit operations can......, such as liquid-liquid extraction, (co)precipitation with collection in knotted reactors, adsorption, hydride generation, or the use of ion-exchange columns. Apart from hydride generation, where the analyte is converted into a gaseous species, the common denominator for these approaches is that the analyte...

  13. Resilience-as-process: negative affect, stress, and coupled dynamical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montpetit, Mignon A; Bergeman, C S; Deboeck, Pascal R; Tiberio, Stacey S; Boker, Steven M

    2010-09-01

    Resilience is often considered both a trait and a process. The current study proposes a new way to conceptualize resilience-as-process based on dynamical systems modeling, which allows researchers to capture the process of stress management in real time. Coupled damped linear oscillator models succinctly describe daily stress and negative affect in terms of developmental forces (e.g., velocity, acceleration). Models were fit to 56-day daily response data from 42 aging adults (M(age) = 78.8 years; SD(age) = 6.6 years) to observe and understand linkages between daily stress and affect. It was speculated that individuals with greater resilience would experience stress as less coupled to changes in negative affect (less stress reactivity), and would recover their affective equilibrium more quickly following a given exogenous stressor (greater stress recovery). To identify resilience resources related to reliable interindividual differences in coupling and damping between stress and negative affect, we examined possible protective factors. Aspects of personality and social support predicted both the strength and nature of this coupling, such that higher levels of these resources resulted in greater protection from the cost to negative affect from stress, as observed in damping of negative affect and decreased coupling between systems. (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  14. A Statistical Approach for the Concurrent Coupling of Molecular Dynamics and Finite Element Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saether, E.; Yamakov, V.; Glaessgen, E.

    2007-01-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) methods are opening new opportunities for simulating the fundamental processes of material behavior at the atomistic level. However, increasing the size of the MD domain quickly presents intractable computational demands. A robust approach to surmount this computational limitation has been to unite continuum modeling procedures such as the finite element method (FEM) with MD analyses thereby reducing the region of atomic scale refinement. The challenging problem is to seamlessly connect the two inherently different simulation techniques at their interface. In the present work, a new approach to MD-FEM coupling is developed based on a restatement of the typical boundary value problem used to define a coupled domain. The method uses statistical averaging of the atomistic MD domain to provide displacement interface boundary conditions to the surrounding continuum FEM region, which, in return, generates interface reaction forces applied as piecewise constant traction boundary conditions to the MD domain. The two systems are computationally disconnected and communicate only through a continuous update of their boundary conditions. With the use of statistical averages of the atomistic quantities to couple the two computational schemes, the developed approach is referred to as an embedded statistical coupling method (ESCM) as opposed to a direct coupling method where interface atoms and FEM nodes are individually related. The methodology is inherently applicable to three-dimensional domains, avoids discretization of the continuum model down to atomic scales, and permits arbitrary temperatures to be applied.

  15. Spatio-temporal dynamics induced by competing instabilities in two asymmetrically coupled nonlinear evolution equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schüler, D.; Alonso, S.; Bär, M. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Abbestrasse 2-12, 10587 Berlin (Germany); Torcini, A. [CNR-Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto dei Sistemi Complessi - Via Madonna del Piano 10, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); INFN Sez. Firenze, via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy)

    2014-12-15

    Pattern formation often occurs in spatially extended physical, biological, and chemical systems due to an instability of the homogeneous steady state. The type of the instability usually prescribes the resulting spatio-temporal patterns and their characteristic length scales. However, patterns resulting from the simultaneous occurrence of instabilities cannot be expected to be simple superposition of the patterns associated with the considered instabilities. To address this issue, we design two simple models composed by two asymmetrically coupled equations of non-conserved (Swift-Hohenberg equations) or conserved (Cahn-Hilliard equations) order parameters with different characteristic wave lengths. The patterns arising in these systems range from coexisting static patterns of different wavelengths to traveling waves. A linear stability analysis allows to derive a two parameter phase diagram for the studied models, in particular, revealing for the Swift-Hohenberg equations, a co-dimension two bifurcation point of Turing and wave instability and a region of coexistence of stationary and traveling patterns. The nonlinear dynamics of the coupled evolution equations is investigated by performing accurate numerical simulations. These reveal more complex patterns, ranging from traveling waves with embedded Turing patterns domains to spatio-temporal chaos, and a wide hysteretic region, where waves or Turing patterns coexist. For the coupled Cahn-Hilliard equations the presence of a weak coupling is sufficient to arrest the coarsening process and to lead to the emergence of purely periodic patterns. The final states are characterized by domains with a characteristic length, which diverges logarithmically with the coupling amplitude.

  16. Ultrafast XUV spectroscopy: Unveiling the nature of electronic couplings in molecular dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmers, Henry Robert

    Molecules are traditionally treated quantum mechanically using the Born-Oppenheimer formalism. In this formalism, different electronic states of the molecule are treated independently. However, most photo-initiated phenomena occurring in nature are driven by the couplings between different electronic states in both isolated molecules and molecular aggregates, and therefore occur beyond the Born-Oppenheimer formalism. These couplings are relevant in reactions relating to the perception of vision in the human eye, the oxidative damage and repair of DNA, the harvesting of light in photosynthesis, and the transfer of charge across large chains of molecules. While these reaction dynamics have traditionally been studied with visible and ultraviolet spectroscopy, attosecond XUV pulses formed through the process of high harmonic generation form a perfect tool for probing coupled electronic dynamics in molecules. In this thesis, I will present our work in using ultrafast, XUV spectroscopy to study these dynamics in molecules of increasing complexity. We begin by probing the relaxation dynamics of superexcited states in diatomic O 2. These states can relax via two types of electronic couplings, either through autoionization or neutral dissociation. We find that our pump-probe scheme can disentangle the two relaxation mechanisms and independently measure their contributing lifetimes. Next, we present our work in observing a coherent electron hole wavepacket initiated by the ionization of polyatomic CO 2 near a conical intersection. The electron-nuclear couplings near the conical intersection drive the electron hole between different orbital configurations. We find that we can not only measure the lifetime of quantum coherence in the electron hole wavepacket, but also control its evolution with a strong, infrared probing field. Finally, we propose an experiment to observe the migration of an electron hole across iodobenzene on the few-femtosecond timescale. We present

  17. Bifurcation Analysis on Phase-Amplitude Cross-Frequency Coupling in Neural Networks with Dynamic Synapses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sase, Takumi; Katori, Yuichi; Komuro, Motomasa; Aihara, Kazuyuki

    2017-01-01

    We investigate a discrete-time network model composed of excitatory and inhibitory neurons and dynamic synapses with the aim at revealing dynamical properties behind oscillatory phenomena possibly related to brain functions. We use a stochastic neural network model to derive the corresponding macroscopic mean field dynamics, and subsequently analyze the dynamical properties of the network. In addition to slow and fast oscillations arising from excitatory and inhibitory networks, respectively, we show that the interaction between these two networks generates phase-amplitude cross-frequency coupling (CFC), in which multiple different frequency components coexist and the amplitude of the fast oscillation is modulated by the phase of the slow oscillation. Furthermore, we clarify the detailed properties of the oscillatory phenomena by applying the bifurcation analysis to the mean field model, and accordingly show that the intermittent and the continuous CFCs can be characterized by an aperiodic orbit on a closed curve and one on a torus, respectively. These two CFC modes switch depending on the coupling strength from the excitatory to inhibitory networks, via the saddle-node cycle bifurcation of a one-dimensional torus in map (MT1SNC), and may be associated with the function of multi-item representation. We believe that the present model might have potential for studying possible functional roles of phase-amplitude CFC in the cerebral cortex. PMID:28424606

  18. Coupled magnetic and elastic dynamics generated by a shear wave propagating in ferromagnetic heterostructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azovtsev, A. V.; Pertsev, N. A.

    2017-11-01

    Using advanced micromagnetic simulations, we describe the coupled elastic and magnetic dynamics induced in ferromagnet/normal metal bilayers by shear waves generated by the attached piezoelectric transducer. Our approach is based on the numerical solution of a system of differential equations, which comprises the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation and the elastodynamic equation of motion, both allowing for the magnetoelastic coupling between spins and lattice strains. The simulations have been performed for heterostructures involving a Fe81Ga19 layer with the thickness ranging from 100 to 892 nm and a few-micrometer-thick film of a normal metal (Au). We find that the traveling shear wave induces inhomogeneous magnetic dynamics in the ferromagnetic layer, which generally has an intermediate character between coherent magnetization precession and the pure spin wave. Owing to the magnetoelastic feedback, the magnetization precession generates two additional elastic waves (shear and longitudinal), which propagate into the normal metal. Despite such complex elastic dynamics and reflections of elastic waves at the Fe81Ga19|Au interface, periodic magnetization precession with the excitation frequency settles in the steady-state regime. The results obtained for the magnetization dynamics at the Fe81Ga19|Au interface are used to evaluate the spin current pumped into the Au layer and the accompanying charge current caused by the inverse spin Hall effect. The calculations show that the dc component of the charge current is high enough to be detected experimentally even at small strains ˜10-4 generated by the piezoelectric transducer.

  19. Dynamic linear response of the SK spin glass coupled microscopically to a bath

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plefka, T. [Theoretische Festkoerperphysik, TU Darmstadt, Darmstadt (Germany)]. E-mail: timm@arnold.fkp.physik.tu-darmstadt.de

    2002-10-18

    The dynamic linear response theory of a general Ising model weakly coupled to a heat bath is derived by employing the quantum statistical theory of Mori, treating the Hamiltonian of the spin bath coupling as a perturbation, and applying the Markovian approximation. Both the dynamic susceptibility and the relaxation function are expressed in terms of the static susceptibility and the static internal field distribution function. For the special case of the SK spin glass, this internal field distribution can be related to the solutions of the TAP equations in the entire temperature region. Application of this new relation and the use of numerical solutions of the modified TAP equations lead, for finite but large systems, to explicit results for the distribution function and for dynamic linear response functions. A detailed discussion is presented which includes finite-size effects. Due to the derived temperature dependence of the Onsager-Casimir coefficients, a frequency-dependent shift of the cusp temperature of the real part of the dynamic susceptibility is found. (author)

  20. Role of solvent dynamics in ultrafast photoinduced proton-coupled electron transfer reactions in solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazra, Anirban; Soudackov, Alexander V; Hammes-Schiffer, Sharon

    2010-09-30

    A theoretical formulation for modeling photoinduced nonequilibrium proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) reactions in solution is presented. In this formulation, the PCET system is described by donor and acceptor electron-proton vibronic free energy surfaces that depend on a single collective solvent coordinate. Dielectric continuum theory is used to obtain a generalized Langevin equation of motion for this collective solvent coordinate. The terms in this equation depend on the solvent properties, such as the dielectric constants, relaxation time, and molecular moment of inertia, as well as the solute properties characterizing the vibronic surfaces. The ultrafast dynamics following photoexcitation is simulated using a surface hopping method in conjunction with the Langevin equation of motion. This methodology is used to examine a series of model photoinduced PCET systems, where the initial nonequilibrium state is prepared by vertical photoexcitation from the ground electronic state to the donor electronic state. Analysis of the dynamical trajectories provides insight into the interplay between the solvent dynamics and the electron-proton transfer for these types of processes. In addition, these model studies illustrate how the coupling between the electron-proton transfer and the solvent dynamics can be tuned by altering the solute and solvent properties.

  1. Dark energy with a gradient coupling to the dark matter fluid: cosmological dynamics and structure formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Jibitesh; Khyllep, Wompherdeiki; Tamanini, Nicola

    2018-01-01

    We consider scalar field models of dark energy interacting with dark matter through a coupling proportional to the contraction of the four-derivative of the scalar field with the four-velocity of the dark matter fluid. The coupling is realized at the Lagrangian level employing the formalism of Scalar-Fluid theories, which use a consistent Lagrangian approach for relativistic fluid to describe dark matter. This framework produces fully covariant field equations, from which we can derive unequivocal cosmological equations at both background and linear perturbations levels. The background evolution is analyzed in detail applying dynamical systems techniques, which allow us to find the complete asymptotic behavior of the universe given any set of model parameters and initial conditions. Furthermore we study linear cosmological perturbations investigating the growth of cosmic structures within the quasi-static approximation. We find that these interacting dark energy models give rise to interesting phenomenological dynamics, including late-time transitions from dark matter to dark energy domination, matter and accelerated scaling solutions and dynamical crossing of the phantom barrier. Moreover we obtain possible deviations from standard ΛCDM behavior at the linear perturbations level, which have an impact on the dynamics of structure formation and might provide characteristic observational signatures.

  2. Physics and Dynamics Coupling Across Scales in the Next Generation CESM. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacmeister, Julio T. [University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR), Boulder, CO (United States)

    2015-06-12

    This project examines physics/dynamics coupling, that is, exchange of meteorological profiles and tendencies between an atmospheric model’s dynamical core and its various physics parameterizations. Most model physics parameterizations seek to represent processes that occur on scales smaller than the smallest scale resolved by the dynamical core. As a consequence a key conceptual aspect of parameterizations is an assumption about the subgrid variability of quantities such as temperature, humidity or vertical wind. Most existing parameterizations of processes such as turbulence, convection, cloud, and gravity wave drag make relatively ad hoc assumptions about this variability and are forced to introduce empirical parameters, i.e., “tuning knobs” to obtain realistic simulations. These knobs make systematic dependences on model grid size difficult to quantify.

  3. Dynamic Modeling and Control of Electromechanical Coupling for Mechanical Elastic Energy Storage System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The structural scheme of mechanical elastic energy storage (MEES system served by permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM and bidirectional converters is designed. The aim of the research is to model and control the complex electromechanical system. The mechanical device of the complex system is considered as a node in generalized coordinate system, the terse nonlinear dynamic model of electromechanical coupling for the electromechanical system is constructed through Lagrange-Maxwell energy method, and the detailed deduction of the mathematical model is presented in the paper. The theory of direct feedback linearization (DFL is applied to decouple the nonlinear dynamic model and convert the developed model from nonlinear to linear. The optimal control theory is utilized to accomplish speed tracking control for the linearized system. The simulation results in three different cases show that the proposed nonlinear dynamic model of MEES system is correct; the designed algorithm has a better control performance in contrast with the conventional PI control.

  4. Dynamic Coupling Analysis of Urbanization and Water Resource Utilization Systems in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hailiang Ma

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available While urbanization brings economic and social benefits, it also causes water pollution and other environmental ecological problems. This paper provides a theoretical framework to quantitatively analyze the dynamic relationship between water resource utilization and the process of urbanization. Using data from Jiangsu province, we first construct indices to evaluate urbanization and water resource utilization. We then adopt an entropy model to examine the correlation between urbanization and water resource utilization. In addition, we introduce a dynamic coupling model to analyze and predict the coupling degree between urbanization and water resource utilization. Our analyses show that pairing with rising urbanization during 2002–2014, the overall index of water resource utilization in Jiangsu province has experienced a “decline -rise-decline” trend. Specifically, after the index of water resource utilization reached its lowest point in 2004, it gradually began to rise. Water resource utilization reached its highest value in 2010. The coupling degree between urbanization and water resource utilization was relatively low in 2002 and 2003 varying between −90° and 0°. It has been rising since then. Out-of-sample forecasts indicate that the coupling degree will reach its highest value of 74.799° in 2016, then will start to gradually decline. Jiangsu province was chosen as our studied area because it is one of the selected pilot provinces for China’s economic reform and social development. The analysis of the relationship between provincial water resource utilization and urbanization is essential to the understanding of the dynamic relationship between these two systems. It also serves as an important input for developing national policies for sustainable urbanization and water resource management.

  5. Dynamics of the larch taiga-permafrost coupled system in Siberia under climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Ningning [Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8601 (Japan); Yasunari, Tetsuzo [Hydrospheric Atmospheric Research Center, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan); Ohta, Takeshi, E-mail: zhangningning@lasg.iap.ac.cn [Study Consortium for Earth-Life Interactive Systems (SELIS) of Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan)

    2011-04-15

    Larch taiga, also known as Siberian boreal forest, plays an important role in global and regional water-energy-carbon (WEC) cycles and in the climate system. Recent in situ observations have suggested that larch-dominated taiga and permafrost behave as a coupled eco-climate system across a broad boreal zone of Siberia. However, neither field-based observations nor modeling experiments have clarified the synthesized dynamics of this system. Here, using a new dynamic vegetation model coupled with a permafrost model, we reveal the processes of interaction between the taiga and permafrost. The model demonstrates that under the present climate conditions in eastern Siberia, larch trees maintain permafrost by controlling the seasonal thawing of permafrost, which in turn maintains the taiga by providing sufficient water to the larch trees. The experiment without permafrost processes showed that larch would decrease in biomass and be replaced by a dominance of pine and other species that suffer drier hydroclimatic conditions. In the coupled system, fire not only plays a destructive role in the forest, but also, in some cases, preserves larch domination in forests. Climate warming sensitivity experiments show that this coupled system cannot be maintained under warming of about 2 deg. C or more. Under such conditions, a forest with typical boreal tree species (dark conifer and deciduous species) would become dominant, decoupled from the permafrost processes. This study thus suggests that future global warming could drastically alter the larch-dominated taiga-permafrost coupled system in Siberia, with associated changes of WEC processes and feedback to climate.

  6. A two-dimensional global simulation study of inductive-dynamic magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Jiannan; Song, Paul

    2016-12-01

    We present the numerical methods and results of a global two-dimensional multifluid-collisional-Hall magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation model of the ionosphere-thermosphere system, an extension of our one-dimensional three-fluid MHD model. The model solves, self-consistently, Maxwell's equations, continuity, momentum, and energy equations for multiple ion and neutral species incorporating photochemistry, collisions among the electron, ion and neutral species, and various heating sources in the energy equations. The inductive-dynamic approach (solving self-consistently Faraday's law and retaining inertia terms in the plasma momentum equations) used in the model retains all possible MHD waves, thus providing faithful physical explanation (not merely description) of the magnetosphere-ionosphere/thermosphere (M-IT) coupling. In the present study, we simulate the dawn-dusk cross-polar cap dynamic responses of the ionosphere to imposed magnetospheric convection. It is shown that the convection velocity at the top boundary launches velocity, magnetic, and electric perturbations propagating with the Alfvén speed toward the bottom of the ionosphere. Within the system, the waves experience reflection, penetration, and rereflection because of the inhomogeneity of the plasma conditions. The reflection of the Alfvén waves may cause overshoot (stronger than the imposed magnetospheric convection) of the plasma velocity in some regions. The simulation demonstrates dynamic propagation of the field-aligned currents and ionospheric electric field carried by the Alfvén waves, as well as formation of closure horizontal currents (Pedersen currents in the E region), indicating that in the dynamic stage the M-I coupling is via the Alfvén waves instead of field-aligned currents or electric field mapping as described in convectional M-I coupling models.

  7. A two-dimensional global simulation study of inductive-dynamic magnetosphere-ionosphere/thermosphere coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, J.; Song, P.

    2016-12-01

    We have developed a new numerical simulation model of the ionosphere/thermosphere by using an inductive-dynamic approach (including self-consistent solutions of Faraday's law and retaining inertia terms in ion momentum equations), that is, based on magnetic field B and plasma velocity v (B, v paradigm), which is distinctive from the conventional modeling based on electric field E and current j. The model solves self-consistently time-dependent continuity, momentum, and energy equations for multiple species of ions and neutrals including photochemistry, and Maxwell's equations. The governing equations solved in the model are a set of multifluid-collisional-Hall MHD equations which are one of unique features of our ionosphere/thermosphere model. With such an inductive-dynamic approach, not only sound wave mode but also all possible MHD wave modes are retained in the solutions of the governing equations so that the dynamic coupling between the magnetosphere and ionosphere and among different regions of the ionosphere can be self-consistently investigated. In the present study, we demonstrate dynamic propagation of field-aligned currents and ionospheric electric field carried by Alfven waves, as well as formation of closure horizontal currents (Pedersen currents in the E-region), indicating that the M-I coupling is via the Alfven waves instead of the field-aligned currents or electric field mapping. The simulation results also show that the Poynting flux and strongest energy dissipation in the ionosphere/thermosphere is in the regions of the largest ion velocities and not necessarily in the auroral oval where the field-aligned currents reside. The frictional heating increases plasma temperature and thus drives ion upflows. The frictional heating also increase neutral temperature and produces neutral upflows but in a much longer time scale. Furthermore, the coupling of high-to-low latitude ionosphere is investigated in terms of propagation of fast MHD waves.

  8. Synchronization of hybrid-coupled delayed dynamical networks with noises by partial mixed impulsive control strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yi; Fu, Fangfang; Wang, Jingyi; Feng, Jianwen; Zhang, Haiyu

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, a new control method named partial mixed impulsive control strategy is proposed to investigate the problem of exponential synchronization in mean square for a class of general hybrid-coupled delayed dynamical networks with both internal delay and coupling delay. The partial mixed impulsive effects in this strategy can be taken as local and time-varying, which means that they are not only injected into a fraction of nodes in the whole networks but also contain synchronizing and desynchronizing impulses at the same time. In addition, to be more realistic, a delayed coupling term involving the transmission delay and self-feedback delay is taken into account. By means of the Lyapunov method and the comparison principle for impulsive systems, several sufficient criteria are obtained to guarantee the global exponential synchronization in mean square of the dynamical network. The obtained criteria are closely related to the proportion of the controlled nodes, the strengths of mixed impulses, the impulsive intervals, the time delays and the topology structure of the networks. Finally, a numerical example is given to demonstrate the effectiveness of our results.

  9. Intrinsic islet heterogeneity and gap junction coupling determine spatiotemporal Ca²⁺ wave dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benninger, Richard K P; Hutchens, Troy; Head, W Steven; McCaughey, Michael J; Zhang, Min; Le Marchand, Sylvain J; Satin, Leslie S; Piston, David W

    2014-12-02

    Insulin is released from the islets of Langerhans in discrete pulses that are linked to synchronized oscillations of intracellular free calcium ([Ca(2+)]i). Associated with each synchronized oscillation is a propagating calcium wave mediated by Connexin36 (Cx36) gap junctions. A computational islet model predicted that waves emerge due to heterogeneity in β-cell function throughout the islet. To test this, we applied defined patterns of glucose stimulation across the islet using a microfluidic device and measured how these perturbations affect calcium wave propagation. We further investigated how gap junction coupling regulates spatiotemporal [Ca(2+)]i dynamics in the face of heterogeneous glucose stimulation. Calcium waves were found to originate in regions of the islet having elevated excitability, and this heterogeneity is an intrinsic property of islet β-cells. The extent of [Ca(2+)]i elevation across the islet in the presence of heterogeneity is gap-junction dependent, which reveals a glucose dependence of gap junction coupling. To better describe these observations, we had to modify the computational islet model to consider the electrochemical gradient between neighboring β-cells. These results reveal how the spatiotemporal [Ca(2+)]i dynamics of the islet depend on β-cell heterogeneity and cell-cell coupling, and are important for understanding the regulation of coordinated insulin release across the islet. Copyright © 2014 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Intrinsic Islet Heterogeneity and Gap Junction Coupling Determine Spatiotemporal Ca2+ Wave Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benninger, Richard K.P.; Hutchens, Troy; Head, W. Steven; McCaughey, Michael J.; Zhang, Min; Le Marchand, Sylvain J.; Satin, Leslie S.; Piston, David W.

    2014-01-01

    Insulin is released from the islets of Langerhans in discrete pulses that are linked to synchronized oscillations of intracellular free calcium ([Ca2+]i). Associated with each synchronized oscillation is a propagating calcium wave mediated by Connexin36 (Cx36) gap junctions. A computational islet model predicted that waves emerge due to heterogeneity in β-cell function throughout the islet. To test this, we applied defined patterns of glucose stimulation across the islet using a microfluidic device and measured how these perturbations affect calcium wave propagation. We further investigated how gap junction coupling regulates spatiotemporal [Ca2+]i dynamics in the face of heterogeneous glucose stimulation. Calcium waves were found to originate in regions of the islet having elevated excitability, and this heterogeneity is an intrinsic property of islet β-cells. The extent of [Ca2+]i elevation across the islet in the presence of heterogeneity is gap-junction dependent, which reveals a glucose dependence of gap junction coupling. To better describe these observations, we had to modify the computational islet model to consider the electrochemical gradient between neighboring β-cells. These results reveal how the spatiotemporal [Ca2+]i dynamics of the islet depend on β-cell heterogeneity and cell-cell coupling, and are important for understanding the regulation of coordinated insulin release across the islet. PMID:25468351

  11. New coupling limits, dynamical symmetries and microscopic operators of IBM/TQM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paar, V.

    1985-01-01

    A new particle-core basis having approximate supersymmetric (SUSY) features associated with SU(3) dynamical symmetry is introduced. The SUSY and CO-SUSY limits of IBFM/PTQM appear for the characteristic intermediate coupling strengths Γ/δ=±(Γ/δ)SUSY. The CO-SUSY limit is a truncated analog of the Stephens rotation-aligned scheme. A paradox was found in the relation of the SUSY and truncated strong coupling (TSC) limits to the strong coupling limit of the Bohr-Mottelson model. Microscopic dyson and Holstein-Primakoff realizations of RPA collective quadrupole phonon operators are explicitly constructed. Employing this mapping procedure in conjunction with the leading RPA diagrams, various operators of IBM/TQM, IBFM/PTQM have been derived in the particle-hole channel: E2 operator, one-particle transfer operator, two-particle transfer operator etc. In addition to the standard terms, this derivation gives in the same diagrammatic order the additional terms also. A new model was introduced for the odd-odd nuclei in the framework of IBM/TQM. For the SU(3) core the truncated analog of Gallagher-Moszkowski bands appears as the approximate SUSY pattern, of the same intrinsic structure as in the odd-even system. The idea of boson-fermion dynamical symmetry and supersymmetry is extended to odd-odd nuclei and hypernuclei.

  12. Heterobimetallic porphyrin complexes displaying triple dynamics: coupled metal motions controlled by constitutional evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Gac, Stéphane; Fusaro, Luca; Roisnel, Thierry; Boitrel, Bernard

    2014-05-07

    A bis-strap porphyrin ligand (1), with an overhanging carboxylic acid group on each side of the macrocycle, has been investigated toward the formation of dynamic libraries of bimetallic complexes with Hg(II), Cd(II), and Pb(II). Highly heteroselective metalation processes occurred in the presence of Pb(II), with Hg(II) or Cd(II) bound out-of-plane to the N-core and "PbOAc" bound to a carboxylate group of a strap on the opposite side. The resulting complexes, 1(Hg)·PbOAc and 1(Cd)·PbOAc, display three levels of dynamics. The first is strap-level (interactional dynamics), where the PbOAc moiety swings between the left and right side of the strap owing to a second sphere of coordination with lateral amide functions. The second is ligand-level (motional dynamics), where 1(Hg)·PbOAc and 1(Cd)·PbOAc exist as two degenerate states in equilibrium controlled by a chemical effector (AcO(-)). The process corresponds to a double translocation of the metal ions according to an intramolecular migration of Hg(II) or Cd(II) through the N-core, oscillating between the two equivalent overhanging carbonyl groups, coupled to an intermolecular pathway for PbOAc exchanging between the two equivalent overhanging carboxylate groups (N-core(up) ⇆ N-core(down) coupled to strap(down) ⇆ strap(up), i.e., coupled motion #1 in the abstract graphic). The third is library-level (constitutional dynamics), where a dynamic constitutional evolution of the system was achieved by the successive addition of two chemical effectors (DMAP and then AcO(-)). It allowed shifting equilibrium forward and backward between 1(Hg)·PbOAc and the corresponding homobimetallic complexes 1(Hg2)·DMAP and 1(Pb)·PbOAc. The latter displays a different ligand-level dynamics, in the form of an intraligand coupled migration of the Pb(II) ions (N-core(up) ⇆ strap(up) coupled to strap(down) ⇆ N-core(down), i.e., coupled motion #2 in the abstract graphic). In addition, the neutral "bridged" complexes 1HgPb and 1Cd

  13. Kolmogorov flow in two dimensional strongly coupled Yukawa liquid: A molecular dynamics study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Akanksha; Ganesh, Rajaraman; Joy, Ashwin

    2015-10-01

    The transition from laminar to turbulent flows in liquids remains a problem of great interest despite decades of intensive research. Here, we report an atomistic study of this transition in a model Yukawa liquid using molecular dynamics simulations. Starting from an thermally equilibrated Yukawa liquid, for a given value of coupling parameter Γ (defined as ratio of potential energy to kinetic energy per particle) and screening length κ, a subsonic flow of magnitude U0 is superposed and transition to an unstable regime is observed eventually leading to turbulent flow at sufficiently high Reynolds numbers. We have performed a parametric study for a range of Reynolds number R and found that the flow is neutrally stable for R Rc(Γ) , where Rc is the critical value of Reynolds number. Strong molecular shear heating is observed in all cases studied here. It is found that the coupling parameter Γ decreases because of molecular shear heating on a time scale comparable to the instability time scale. Irrespective of the initial value of coupling parameter Γ, the average heating rate is found to be sensitive to the ratio of equilibrium flow speed to the thermal speed, say, α=U/0 vt h , where vt h=√{2/Γ } . Our results reported here are expected to be generic and should apply to a wide variety of strongly coupled systems such as laboratory dusty plasma, molten salts, and charged colloidal systems.

  14. Non-Markovian Dynamics and Self-Diffusion in Strongly Coupled Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickler, Trevor; Langin, Thomas; McQuillen, Patrick; Daligault, Jerome; Maksimovich, Nikola; Killian, Thomas

    2015-11-01

    In weakly coupled plasmas, collisions are dominated by long range, small angle scattering, and each collision is an uncorrelated binary event. In contrast, collisions in strongly coupled plasmas (coupling parameter Γ > 1) are dominated by short range, large angle scattering in which the collisions may be correlated and non-independent in time, i.e., non-Markovian. In this work, we present experimental results indicative of non-Markovian processes in a strongly coupled ultracold neutral plasma (UCNP) created by photoionizing strontium atoms in a magneto-optical trap. We use optical pumping to create spin ``tagged'' subpopulations of ions having non-zero average velocity , and use laser induced fluorescence (LIF) imaging to measure the relaxation of back to equilibrium. We observe clear non-exponential decay in , which indicates non-Markovian dynamics. We further demonstrate there is a theoretical basis to consider as an approximation to the ion velocity autocorrelation function (VAF). We then calculate diffusion coefficients from our data, demonstrating experimental measurement of self-diffusion coefficients for 0 . 3 < Γ < 3 . 5 . This work was supported by the United States National Science Foundation and Department of Energy Partnership in Basic Plasma Science and Engineering (PHY-1102516) and the Air Force Office of Scientific Research (FA9550- 12-1-0267).

  15. Dynamics of a mesoscopic qubit ensemble coupled to a cavity: Role of collective dark states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukov, A. A.; Shapiro, D. S.; Pogosov, W. V.; Lozovik, Yu. E.

    2017-09-01

    We consider the dynamics of a disordered ensemble of qubits interacting with a single-mode photon field, which is described by an exactly solvable inhomogeneous Dicke model. In particular, we concentrate on the crossover from few-qubit systems to the system of many qubits and analyze how the collective behavior of a coupled qubit-cavity system emerges despite the broadening. We show that quantum interference effects survive in the mesoscopic regime—the dynamics of an entangled Bell state encoded into the qubit subsystem remains highly sensitive to the symmetry of the total wave function. Moreover, relaxation of these states is slowed down due to the formation of collective dark states weakly coupled to light. Dark states also significantly influence the dynamics of the excitations of a photon subsystem by absorbing them into the qubit subsystem and releasing quasiperiodically in time. We argue that the predicted phenomena can be useful in quantum technologies based on superconducting qubits. For instance, they provide tools to deeply probe both collective and quantum properties of such artificial macroscopic systems.

  16. Dynamic modeling and experiments on the coupled vibrations of building and elevator ropes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dong-Ho; Kim, Ki-Young; Kwak, Moon K.; Lee, Seungjun

    2017-03-01

    This study is concerned with the theoretical modelling and experimental verification of the coupled vibrations of building and elevator ropes. The elevator ropes consist of a main rope which supports the cage and the compensation rope which is connected to the compensation sheave. The elevator rope is a flexible wire with a low damping, so it is prone to vibrations. In the case of a high-rise building, the rope length also increases significantly, so that the fundamental frequency of the elevator rope approaches the fundamental frequency of the building thus increasing the possibility of resonance. In this study, the dynamic model for the analysis of coupled vibrations of building and elevator ropes was derived by using Hamilton's principle, where the cage motion was also considered. An experimental testbed was built to validate the proposed dynamic model. It was found that the experimental results are in good agreement with the theoretical predictions thus validating the proposed dynamic model. The proposed model was then used to predict the vibrations of real building and elevator ropes.

  17. Direct simulation of proton-coupled electron transfer reaction dynamics and mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretchmer, Joshua S.; Miller, Thomas F., III

    2014-03-01

    Proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) reactions, in which both an electron and an associated proton undergo reactive transfer, play an important role in many chemical and biological systems. Due to the complexity of this class of reactions, a variety of different mechanisms fall under the umbrella of PCET. However, the physical driving forces that determine the preferred mechanism in a given system still remain poorly understood. Towards this end, we extend ring polymer molecular dynamics (RPMD), a path-integral quantum dynamics method, to enable the direct simulation and characterization of PCET reaction dynamics in both fully atomistic and system-bath models of organometallic catalysts. In addition to providing validation for the simulation method via extensive comparison with existing PCET rate theories, we analyze the RPMD trajectories to investigate the competition between the concerted and sequential reaction mechanisms for PCET, elucidating the large role of the solvent in controlling the preferred mechanism. We further employ RPMD to determine the kinetics and mechanistic features of concerted PCET reactions across different regimes of electronic and vibrational coupling, providing evidence for a new and distinct PCET reaction mechanism.

  18. A Non-Hermitian Approach to Non-Linear Switching Dynamics in Coupled Cavity-Waveguide Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heuck, Mikkel; Kristensen, Philip Trøst; Mørk, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    We present a non-Hermitian perturbation theory employing quasi-normal modes to investigate non-linear all-optical switching dynamics in a photonic crystal coupled cavity-waveguide system and compare with finite-difference-time-domain simulations.......We present a non-Hermitian perturbation theory employing quasi-normal modes to investigate non-linear all-optical switching dynamics in a photonic crystal coupled cavity-waveguide system and compare with finite-difference-time-domain simulations....

  19. Coupled contagion dynamics of fear and disease: mathematical and computational explorations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua M Epstein

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In classical mathematical epidemiology, individuals do not adapt their contact behavior during epidemics. They do not endogenously engage, for example, in social distancing based on fear. Yet, adaptive behavior is well-documented in true epidemics. We explore the effect of including such behavior in models of epidemic dynamics. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using both nonlinear dynamical systems and agent-based computation, we model two interacting contagion processes: one of disease and one of fear of the disease. Individuals can "contract" fear through contact with individuals who are infected with the disease (the sick, infected with fear only (the scared, and infected with both fear and disease (the sick and scared. Scared individuals--whether sick or not--may remove themselves from circulation with some probability, which affects the contact dynamic, and thus the disease epidemic proper. If we allow individuals to recover from fear and return to circulation, the coupled dynamics become quite rich, and can include multiple waves of infection. We also study flight as a behavioral response. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In a spatially extended setting, even relatively small levels of fear-inspired flight can have a dramatic impact on spatio-temporal epidemic dynamics. Self-isolation and spatial flight are only two of many possible actions that fear-infected individuals may take. Our main point is that behavioral adaptation of some sort must be considered.

  20. Ab Initio Nonadiabatic Dynamics with Coupled Trajectories: A Rigorous Approach to Quantum (De)Coherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Seung Kyu; Agostini, Federica; Tavernelli, Ivano; Gross, E K U

    2017-07-06

    We report the first nonadiabatic molecular dynamics study based on the exact factorization of the electron-nuclear wave function. Our approach (a coupled-trajectory mixed quantum-classical, CT-MQC, scheme) is based on the quantum-classical limit derived from systematic and controlled approximations to the full quantum-mechanical problem formulated in the exact-factorization framework. Its strength is the ability to correctly capture quantum (de)coherence effects in a trajectory-based approach to excited-state dynamics. We show this by benchmarking CT-MQC dynamics against a revised version of the popular fewest-switches surface-hopping scheme that is able to fix its well-documented overcoherence issue. The CT-MQC approach is successfully applied to investigation of the photochemistry (ring-opening) of oxirane in the gas phase, analyzing in detail the role of decoherence. This work represents a significant step forward in the establishment of the exact factorization as a powerful tool to study excited-state dynamics, not only for interpretation purposes but mainly for nonadiabatic ab initio molecular dynamics simulations.

  1. A Coupled Phase-Temperature Model for Dynamics of Transient Neuronal Signal in Mammals Cold Receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firman Ahmad Kirana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a theoretical model consisting of coupled differential equation of membrane potential phase and temperature for describing the neuronal signal in mammals cold receptor. Based on the results from previous work by Roper et al., we modified a nonstochastic phase model for cold receptor neuronal signaling dynamics in mammals. We introduce a new set of temperature adjusted functional parameters which allow saturation characteristic at high and low steady temperatures. The modified model also accommodates the transient neuronal signaling process from high to low temperature by introducing a nonlinear differential equation for the “effective temperature” changes which is coupled to the phase differential equation. This simple model can be considered as a candidate for describing qualitatively the physical mechanism of the corresponding transient process.

  2. Dynamical correlation functions of the quadratic coupling spin-Boson model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Da-Chuan; Tong, Ning-Hua

    2017-06-01

    The spin-boson model with quadratic coupling is studied using the bosonic numerical renormalization group method. We focus on the dynamical auto-correlation functions {C}O(ω ), with the operator \\hat{O} taken as {\\hat{{{σ }}}}x, {\\hat{{{σ }}}}z, and \\hat{X}, respectively. In the weak-coupling regime α qualitatively, showing enhanced dephasing at the spin flip point. Project supported by the National Key Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2012CB921704), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11374362), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, China, and the Research Funds of Renmin University of China (Grant No. 15XNLQ03).

  3. Optimizing basin-scale coupled water quantity and water quality management with stochastic dynamic programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Claus; Liu, Suxia; Mo, Xingguo

    2015-01-01

    Few studies address water quality in hydro-economic models, which often focus primarily on optimal allocation of water quantities. Water quality and water quantity are closely coupled, and optimal management with focus solely on either quantity or quality may cause large costs in terms of the oth......-er component. In this study, we couple water quality and water quantity in a joint hydro-economic catchment-scale optimization problem. Stochastic dynamic programming (SDP) is used to minimize the basin-wide total costs arising from water allocation, water curtailment and water treatment. The simple water......-economic optimiza-tion model can be used to assess costs of meeting additional constraints such as minimum water qual-ity or to economically prioritize investments in waste water treatment facilities based on economic criteria....

  4. A Benchmarking setup for Coupled Earthquake Cycle - Dynamic Rupture - Tsunami Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, Joern; Bader, Michael; van Dinther, Ylona; Gabriel, Alice-Agnes; Madden, Elizabeth H.; Ulrich, Thomas; Uphoff, Carsten; Vater, Stefan; Wollherr, Stephanie; van Zelst, Iris

    2017-04-01

    We developed a simulation framework for coupled physics-based earthquake rupture generation with tsunami propagation and inundation on a simplified subduction zone system for the project "Advanced Simulation of Coupled Earthquake and Tsunami Events" (ASCETE, funded by the Volkswagen Foundation). Here, we present a benchmarking setup that can be used for complex rupture models. The workflow begins with a 2D seismo-thermo-mechanical earthquake cycle model representing long term deformation along a planar, shallowly dipping subduction zone interface. Slip instabilities that approximate earthquakes arise spontaneously along the subduction zone interface in this model. The absolute stress field and material properties for a single slip event are used as initial conditions for a dynamic earthquake rupture model.The rupture simulation is performed with SeisSol, which uses an ADER discontinuous Galerkin discretization scheme with an unstructured tetrahedral mesh. The seafloor displacements resulting from this rupture are transferred to the tsunami model with a simple coastal run-up profile. An adaptive mesh discretizing the shallow water equations with a Runge-Kutta discontinuous Galerkin (RKDG) scheme subsequently allows for an accurate and efficient representation of the tsunami evolution and inundation at the coast. This workflow allows for evaluation of how the rupture behavior affects the hydrodynamic wave propagation and coastal inundation. We present coupled results for differing earthquake scenarios. Examples include megathrust only ruptures versus ruptures with splay fault branching off the megathrust near the surface. Coupling to the tsunami simulation component is performed either dynamically (time dependent) or statically, resulting in differing tsunami wave and inundation behavior. The simplified topographical setup allows for systematic parameter studies and reproducible physical studies.

  5. Development of a dynamic coupled hydro-geomechanical code and its application to induced seismicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miah, Md Mamun

    This research describes the importance of a hydro-geomechanical coupling in the geologic sub-surface environment from fluid injection at geothermal plants, large-scale geological CO2 sequestration for climate mitigation, enhanced oil recovery, and hydraulic fracturing during wells construction in the oil and gas industries. A sequential computational code is developed to capture the multiphysics interaction behavior by linking a flow simulation code TOUGH2 and a geomechanics modeling code PyLith. Numerical formulation of each code is discussed to demonstrate their modeling capabilities. The computational framework involves sequential coupling, and solution of two sub-problems- fluid flow through fractured and porous media and reservoir geomechanics. For each time step of flow calculation, pressure field is passed to the geomechanics code to compute effective stress field and fault slips. A simplified permeability model is implemented in the code that accounts for the permeability of porous and saturated rocks subject to confining stresses. The accuracy of the TOUGH-PyLith coupled simulator is tested by simulating Terzaghi's 1D consolidation problem. The modeling capability of coupled poroelasticity is validated by benchmarking it against Mandel's problem. The code is used to simulate both quasi-static and dynamic earthquake nucleation and slip distribution on a fault from the combined effect of far field tectonic loading and fluid injection by using an appropriate fault constitutive friction model. Results from the quasi-static induced earthquake simulations show a delayed response in earthquake nucleation. This is attributed to the increased total stress in the domain and not accounting for pressure on the fault. However, this issue is resolved in the final chapter in simulating a single event earthquake dynamic rupture. Simulation results show that fluid pressure has a positive effect on slip nucleation and subsequent crack propagation. This is confirmed by

  6. Failure mechanism and coupled static-dynamic loading theory in deep hard rock mining: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xibing Li

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Rock failure phenomena, such as rockburst, slabbing (or spalling and zonal disintegration, related to deep underground excavation of hard rocks are frequently reported and pose a great threat to deep mining. Currently, the explanation for these failure phenomena using existing dynamic or static rock mechanics theory is not straightforward. In this study, new theory and testing method for deep underground rock mass under coupled static-dynamic loading are introduced. Two types of coupled loading modes, i.e. “critical static stress + slight disturbance” and “elastic static stress + impact disturbance”, are proposed, and associated test devices are developed. Rockburst phenomena of hard rocks under coupled static-dynamic loading are successfully reproduced in the laboratory, and the rockburst mechanism and related criteria are demonstrated. The results of true triaxial unloading compression tests on granite and red sandstone indicate that the unloading can induce slabbing when the confining pressure exceeds a certain threshold, and the slabbing failure strength is lower than the shear failure strength according to the conventional Mohr-Column criterion. Numerical results indicate that the rock unloading failure response under different in situ stresses and unloading rates can be characterized by an equivalent strain energy density. In addition, we present a new microseismic source location method without premeasuring the sound wave velocity in rock mass, which can efficiently and accurately locate the rock failure in hard rock mines. Also, a new idea for deep hard rock mining using a non-explosive continuous mining method is briefly introduced.

  7. Coherent control of the motion of complex molecules and the coupling to internal state dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venn, Paul; Ulbricht, Hendrik

    2011-01-01

    We discuss coherent control of the centre of mass motion of complex molecules by de Broglie interferometry. We describe an experiment to couple the dynamics of internal state population of complex molecules to their centre of mass motion. We discuss how this can be used to probe state population and transition, especially the photo-switching of flourinated di-azobenzene molecules between their cis- and trans-configuration. We propose an experiment to photo-isomerise complex di-azobenzene molecules in the gas-phase, including the selective detection of molecules in different conformations. In addition we discuss possible ways of optimising the conformation detection through cooling, and optical techiques.

  8. Integrable three-dimensional coupled nonlinear dynamical systems related with centrally extended operator Lie algebras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana Ye. Hentosh

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A hierarchy of Lax-type flows on a dual space to the centrally extended Lie algebra of integral-differential operators with matrix-valued coefficients is considered. By means of a specially constructed Backlund transformation the Hamiltonian representations for these flows coupled with suitable eigenfunctions and adjoint eigenfunctions evolutions of associated spectral problems are obtained. The Hamiltonian description of the corresponding set of additional symmetry hierarchies is represented. The relation of these hierarchies with Lax integrable \\((3+1\\-dimensional nonlinear dynamical systems and their triple Lax-type linearizations is analysed.

  9. Coupling bosonic modes with a qubit: entanglement dynamics at zero and finite temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciancio, Emanuele [Institute for Scientific Interchange (ISI), Viale Settimio Severo 65, 10133 Turin (Italy)]. E-mail: ciancio@isiosf.isi.it; Zanardi, Paolo [Institute for Scientific Interchange (ISI), Viale Settimio Severo 65, 10133 Turin (Italy)]. E-mail: zanardi@isiosf.isi.it

    2006-12-18

    We consider a system of two iso-spectral bosonic modes coupled with a single two-level systems i.e., a qubit. The dynamics is described by a mode-symmetric two-modes Jaynes-Cummings Hamiltonian. The entanglement, induced between the two bosonic modes, is analyzed and quantified by negativity. We computed the time evolution of negativity starting from an initial thermal state of the bosonic sector for both zero and finite temperature. We also studied the entangling power of the interaction as a function of mode-qubit detuning and its resilience against temperature increase. Finally a two-qubit gate based on bosonic virtual subsystem is discussed.

  10. One-dimensional dynamics for travelling fronts in coupled map lattices

    CERN Document Server

    Carretero-González, R; Vivaldi, F

    1999-01-01

    Multistable coupled map lattices typically support travelling fronts, separating two adjacent stable phases. We show how the existence of an invariant function describing the front profile, allows a reduction of the infinitely-dimensional dynamics to a one-dimensional circle homeomorphism, whose rotation number gives the propagation velocity. The mode-locking of the velocity with respect to the system parameters then typically follows. We study the behaviour of fronts near the boundary of parametric stability, and we explain how the mode-locking tends to disappear as we approach the continuum limit of an infinite density of sites.

  11. Tight Coupling of Metabolic Oscillations and Intracellular Water Dynamics in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoke, Henrik Seir; Tobiesen, Asger; Brewer, Jonathan R.

    2015-01-01

    We detected very strong coupling between the oscillating concentration of ATP and the dynamics of intracellular water during glycolysis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Our results indicate that: i) dipolar relaxation of intracellular water is heterogeneous within the cell and different from dilute...... conditions, ii) water dipolar relaxation oscillates with glycolysis and in phase with ATP concentration, iii) this phenomenon is scale-invariant from the subcellular to the ensemble of synchronized cells and, iv) the periodicity of both glycolytic oscillations and dipolar relaxation are equally affected by D...

  12. Late Miocene Pacific plate kinematic change explained with coupled global models of mantle and lithosphere dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stotz, Ingo Leonardo; Iaffaldano, Giampiero; Davies, DR

    2017-01-01

    and the consequent subduction polarity reversal. The uncertainties associated with the timing of this event, however, make it difficult to quantitatively demonstrate a dynamical association. Here, we first reconstruct the Pacific plate's absolute motion since the mid-Miocene (15 Ma), at high-temporal resolution......, building on previous efforts to mitigate the impact of finite-rotation data noise. We find that the largest change in Pacific plate-motion direction occurred between 10 and 5 Ma, with the plate rotating clockwise. We subsequently develop and use coupled global numerical models of the mantle...

  13. Subduction zones dynamics and structure from coupled geodynamic and seismological modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faccenda, Manuele

    2017-04-01

    The present-day structure of subduction settings is mainly determined by means of seismological methods. The interpretation of seismological data (e.g., isotropic and anisotropic velocity anomalies) is however non-unique, as different processes occurring simultaneously at subduction zones can be invoked to explain the observations. A further complication arises when regional tomographic seismic models ignore seismic anisotropy, in which case apparent seismic anomalies due to non-uniform sampling of anisotropic areas will appear. In order to decrease the uncertainties related to the interpretation of seismological observations, geodynamic modelling can be exploited to reproduce the micro and macro scale dynamics and structure of subduction settings, yielding a valuable first-order approximation of the rock isotropic and anisotropic elastic properties. The model output can be subsequently tested against observations by performing seismological synthetics (e.g., SKS splitting, travel-time tomography, receiver functions, azimuthal and radial anisotropy). When the misfit between the modelled and measured seismic parameters is low, the geodynamic model likely provides a good approximation of the recent dynamics and present-day structure of the subduction setting. Such a model can then be used to give a more robust and thermomechanically-based interpretation of the observables and/or further improve the seismological model by providing a-priori information for subsequent inversions. The methodology is still in its infancy, but we envisage that future developments could substantially improve seismological models and, overall, our understanding of complex subduction settings.

  14. Coupling of the wings and the body dynamics enhances damselfly maneuverability

    CERN Document Server

    Zeyghami, Samane

    2015-01-01

    In flapping flight, motion of the wings through the air generates the majority of the force and torque that controls the body motion. On the other hand, it is not clear how much effect the body motion imposes on the wings. We investigated this connection via analyzing fast yaw turns of three different species of damselfly. In this combined experimental and theoretical study, we show that the dynamics of the wings and the body are coupled together in low frequency flapping flight. As a result, damselflies benefit from a passive mechanism for enhancing the bilateral wing pitch angle asymmetry to sustain the body rotation. A physics-based model derived from this mechanism is proved valid for linking morphology, kinematics and dynamics of the wing and the body of the flying insects in fast turning maneuvers.

  15. Coupled quintessence and the impossibility of an interaction: a dynamical analysis study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernardi, Fabrizio F.; Landim, Ricardo G. [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Instituto de Fisica, Caixa Postal 66318, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-05-15

    We analyze the coupled quintessence in the light of the linear dynamical systems theory, with two different interactions: (1) proportional to the energy density of the dark energy and (2) proportional to the sum of the energy densities of the dark matter and dark energy. The results presented here enlarge the previous analyses in the literature, wherein the interaction has been only proportional to the energy density of the dark matter. In the first case it is possible to get the well-known sequence of cosmological eras. For the second interaction only the radiation and the dark-energy era can be described by the fixed points. Therefore, from the point of view of dynamical system theory, the interaction proportional to the sum of the energy densities of the dark matter and dark energy does not describe the universe we live in. (orig.)

  16. A coupled dynamical-copula downscaling approach for temperature projections over the Canadian Prairies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiong; Huang, Guohe; Wang, Xiuquan; Fan, Yurui; Cheng, Guanhui

    2017-11-01

    In this study, a coupled dynamical-copula downscaling approach was developed through integrating the Providing Regional Climates for Impacts Studies (PRECIS) modeling system and the copula method. This approach helps to reflect detailed features at local scales based on dynamical downscaling, while also effectively simulating the interactions between large-scale atmospheric variables (predictors) and local surface variables (predictands). The performance of the proposed approach in reproducing historical climatology of the Canadian Prairies was evaluated through comparison with observations. Future climate projections generated by the developed approach were analyzed over three time slices (i.e., the 2030s, 2050s, and 2080s) to help understand the plausible changes in temperature over the Canadian Prairies in response to global warming. The results showed that there would be an apparent increasing pattern over the Canadian Prairies. The projections of future temperature over three time slices can provide decision makers with valuable information for climate change impacts assessment over the Canadian Prairies.

  17. Kibble-Zurek dynamics in an array of coupled binary Bose condensates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jun; Wu, Shuyuan; Qin, Xizhou; Huang, Jiahao; Ke, Yongguan; Zhong, Honghua; Lee, Chaohong

    2016-03-01

    Universal dynamics of spontaneous symmetry breaking is central to understanding the universal behavior of spontaneous defect formation in various systems from the early universe, condensed-matter systems to ultracold atomic systems. We explore the universal real-time dynamics in an array of coupled binary atomic Bose-Einstein condensates in optical lattices, which undergo a spontaneous symmetry breaking from the symmetric Rabi oscillation to the broken-symmetry self-trapping. In addition to Goldstone modes, there exist gapped Higgs modes whose excitation gap vanishes at the critical point. In the slow passage through the critical point, we analytically find that the symmetry-breaking dynamics obeys the Kibble-Zurek mechanism. From the scalings of bifurcation delay and domain formation, we numerically extract two Kibble-Zurek exponents, b1=ν/(1+ν z) and b2=1/(1+ν z) , which give the static correlation-length critical exponent ν and the dynamic critical exponent z. Our approach provides an efficient way for the simultaneous determination of the critical exponents ν and z for a continuous phase transition.

  18. Bounded Confidence under Preferential Flip: A Coupled Dynamics of Structural Balance and Opinions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parravano, Antonio; Andina-Díaz, Ascensión; Meléndez-Jiménez, Miguel A

    2016-01-01

    In this work we study the coupled dynamics of social balance and opinion formation. We propose a model where agents form opinions under bounded confidence, but only considering the opinions of their friends. The signs of social ties -friendships and enmities- evolve seeking for social balance, taking into account how similar agents' opinions are. We consider both the case where opinions have one and two dimensions. We find that our dynamics produces the segregation of agents into two cliques, with the opinions of agents in one clique differing from those in the other. Depending on the level of bounded confidence, the dynamics can produce either consensus of opinions within each clique or the coexistence of several opinion clusters in a clique. For the uni-dimensional case, the opinions in one clique are all below the opinions in the other clique, hence defining a "left clique" and a "right clique". In the two-dimensional case, our numerical results suggest that the two cliques are separated by a hyperplane in the opinion space. We also show that the phenomenon of unidimensional opinions identified by DeMarzo, Vayanos and Zwiebel (Q J Econ 2003) extends partially to our dynamics. Finally, in the context of politics, we comment about the possible relation of our results to the fragmentation of an ideology and the emergence of new political parties.

  19. Bounded Confidence under Preferential Flip: A Coupled Dynamics of Structural Balance and Opinions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Parravano

    Full Text Available In this work we study the coupled dynamics of social balance and opinion formation. We propose a model where agents form opinions under bounded confidence, but only considering the opinions of their friends. The signs of social ties -friendships and enmities- evolve seeking for social balance, taking into account how similar agents' opinions are. We consider both the case where opinions have one and two dimensions. We find that our dynamics produces the segregation of agents into two cliques, with the opinions of agents in one clique differing from those in the other. Depending on the level of bounded confidence, the dynamics can produce either consensus of opinions within each clique or the coexistence of several opinion clusters in a clique. For the uni-dimensional case, the opinions in one clique are all below the opinions in the other clique, hence defining a "left clique" and a "right clique". In the two-dimensional case, our numerical results suggest that the two cliques are separated by a hyperplane in the opinion space. We also show that the phenomenon of unidimensional opinions identified by DeMarzo, Vayanos and Zwiebel (Q J Econ 2003 extends partially to our dynamics. Finally, in the context of politics, we comment about the possible relation of our results to the fragmentation of an ideology and the emergence of new political parties.

  20. Coupling Protein Dynamics with Proton Transport in Human Carbonic Anhydrase II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taraphder, Srabani; Maupin, C Mark; Swanson, Jessica M J; Voth, Gregory A

    2016-08-25

    The role of protein dynamics in enzyme catalysis is one of the most highly debated topics in enzymology. The main controversy centers around what may be defined as functionally significant conformational fluctuations and how, if at all, these fluctuations couple to enzyme catalyzed events. To shed light on this debate, the conformational dynamics along the transition path surmounting the highest free energy barrier have been herein investigated for the rate limiting proton transport event in human carbonic anhydrase (HCA) II. Special attention has been placed on whether the motion of an excess proton is correlated with fluctuations in the surrounding protein and solvent matrix, which may be rare on the picosecond and subpicosecond time scales of molecular motions. It is found that several active site residues, which do not directly participate in the proton transport event, have a significant impact on the dynamics of the excess proton. These secondary participants are shown to strongly influence the active site environment, resulting in the creation of water clusters that are conducive to fast, moderately slow, or slow proton transport events. The identification and characterization of these secondary participants illuminates the role of protein dynamics in the catalytic efficiency of HCA II.

  1. Enhanced sampling of molecular dynamics simulation of peptides and proteins by double coupling to thermal bath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Changjun; Huang, Yanzhao; Xiao, Yi

    2013-01-01

    Low sampling efficiency in conformational space is the well-known problem for conventional molecular dynamics. It greatly increases the difficulty for molecules to find the transition path to native state, and costs amount of CPU time. To accelerate the sampling, in this paper, we re-couple the critical degrees of freedom in the molecule to environment temperature, like dihedrals in generalized coordinates or nonhydrogen atoms in Cartesian coordinate. After applying to ALA dipeptide model, we find that this modified molecular dynamics greatly enhances the sampling behavior in the conformational space and provides more information about the state-to-state transition, while conventional molecular dynamics fails to do so. Moreover, from the results of 16 independent 100 ns simulations by the new method, it shows that trpzip2 has one-half chances to reach the naive state in all the trajectories, which is greatly higher than conventional molecular dynamics. Such an improvement would provide a potential way for searching the conformational space or predicting the most stable states of peptides and proteins.

  2. Development of an analysis for the determination of coupled helicopter rotor/control system dynamic response. Part 2: Program listing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, L. R.

    1975-01-01

    A theoretical analysis is developed for a coupled helicopter rotor system to allow determination of the loads and dynamic response behavior of helicopter rotor systems in both steady-state forward flight and maneuvers. The effects of an anisotropically supported swashplate or gyroscope control system and a deformed free wake on the rotor system dynamic response behavior are included.

  3. Dynamic stress analysis of sewage centrifugal pump impeller based on two-way coupling method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Ji; Yuan, Shouqi; Yuan, Jianping

    2014-03-01

    Current research on the operational reliability of centrifugal pumps has mainly focused on hydrodynamic instability. However, the interaction between the fluid and structure has not been sufficiently considered; this interaction can cause vibration and dynamic stress, which can affect the reliability. In this study, the dynamic stresses in a single-blade centrifugal pump impeller are analysed under different operating conditions; the two-way coupling method is used to calculate the fluid-structure interaction. Three-dimensional unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations are solved with the SST k-ω turbulence model for the fluid in the whole flow passage, while transient structure dynamic analysis is used with the finite element method for the structure side. The dynamic stresses in the rotor system are computed according to the fourth strength theory. The stress results show that the highest stress is near the loose bearing and that the equivalent stress increases with the flow rate because the dynamic stresses are closely related to the pressure load. The stress distributions on the blade pressure side, suction side, leading edge, and trailing edge are each analysed for different flow rates; the highest stress distribution is found on the pressure side. On the blade pressure side, a relatively large stress is found near the trailing edge and hub side. Based on these results, a stress distribution prediction method is proposed for centrifugal pumps, which considers the interaction between the fluid and structure. The method can be used to check the dynamic stress at different flow rates when optimising the pump design to increase the pump reliability.

  4. The Ethics of Exploitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul McLaughlin

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Philosophical inquiry into exploitation has two major deficiencies to date: it assumes that exploitation is wrong by definition; and it pays too much attention to the Marxian account of exploitation. Two senses of exploitation should be distinguished: the ‘moral’ or pejorative sense and the ‘non-moral’ or ‘non-prejudicial’ sense. By demonstrating the conceptual inadequacy of exploitation as defined in the first sense, and by defining exploitation adequately in the latter sense, we seek to demonstrate the moral complexity of exploitation. We contend, moreover, that moral evaluation of exploitation is only possible once we abandon a strictly Marxian framework and attempt, in the long run, to develop an integral ethic along Godwinian lines.

  5. Strongly nonlinear dynamics and acoustics of coupled granular sonic vacua: Theoretical and experimental studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Md Arif

    In this dissertation, we aim to analyze the strongly nonlinear dynamics of coupled ordered granular media and investigate interesting response regimes such as, passive wave redirection / redistribution and targeted energy transfer (TET). These studies are performed using numerical computations, analytical calculations, and experimental tests. In particular, we consider weakly coupled granular chains with or without on-site potentials, as well as two-dimensional granular networks with regularly placed intruders that act as effective coupling elements. Unlike previous studies of weakly coupled oscillatory chains, the dynamical systems considered herein incorporate both non-smooth effects due to possible separations between interacting neighboring beads (granules), as well as strongly nonlinear inter-particle Hertzian interactions. We show that these systems exhibit very rich and complex dynamics that, however, can be completely captured by our analytical approximations. For the case of weakly interacting granular networks, three independent mechanisms of efficient transport of energy from one chain to another are found. The first mechanism is a simple exchange of energy between the weakly interacting granular chains providing equi-partition of Nesterenko solitary waves through the chains. The second mechanism is a complete and recurrent exchange of energy (beating phenomenon) between the propagating breathers through the weakly coupled granular chains laying on a strong elastic foundation. The last mechanism is the most intriguing one and demonstrates targeted (irreversible) energy transfer between coupled granular chains due to appropriate stratification of their elastic foundations, in a macroscopic analogue of the well-known Landau-Zener Quantum effect in space. The aforementioned mechanisms of energy transfer and redirection in highly nonlinear granular chains are conceptually new and were presented for the first time. Analytical and computational studies of

  6. Nonreciprocity in the dynamics of coupled oscillators with nonlinearity, asymmetry, and scale hierarchy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Keegan J.; Bunyan, Jonathan; Tawfick, Sameh; Gendelman, Oleg V.; Li, Shuangbao; Leamy, Michael; Vakakis, Alexander F.

    2018-01-01

    In linear time-invariant dynamical and acoustical systems, reciprocity holds by the Onsager-Casimir principle of microscopic reversibility, and this can be broken only by odd external biases, nonlinearities, or time-dependent properties. A concept is proposed in this work for breaking dynamic reciprocity based on irreversible nonlinear energy transfers from large to small scales in a system with nonlinear hierarchical internal structure, asymmetry, and intentional strong stiffness nonlinearity. The resulting nonreciprocal large-to-small scale energy transfers mimic analogous nonlinear energy transfer cascades that occur in nature (e.g., in turbulent flows), and are caused by the strong frequency-energy dependence of the essentially nonlinear small-scale components of the system considered. The theoretical part of this work is mainly based on action-angle transformations, followed by direct numerical simulations of the resulting system of nonlinear coupled oscillators. The experimental part considers a system with two scales—a linear large-scale oscillator coupled to a small scale by a nonlinear spring—and validates the theoretical findings demonstrating nonreciprocal large-to-small scale energy transfer. The proposed study promotes a paradigm for designing nonreciprocal acoustic materials harnessing strong nonlinearity, which in a future application will be implemented in designing lattices incorporating nonlinear hierarchical internal structures, asymmetry, and scale mixing.

  7. Mean field dynamics of networks of delay-coupled noisy excitable units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franović, Igor, E-mail: franovic@ipb.ac.rs [Scientific Computing Laboratory, Institute of Physics Belgrade, University of Belgrade, Pregrevica 118, 11080 Belgrade (Serbia); Todorović, Kristina; Burić, Nikola [Department of Physics and Mathematics, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Belgrade, Vojvode Stepe 450, Belgrade (Serbia); Vasović, Nebojša [Department of Applied Mathematics, Faculty of Mining and Geology, University of Belgrade, PO Box 162, Belgrade (Serbia)

    2016-06-08

    We use the mean-field approach to analyze the collective dynamics in macroscopic networks of stochastic Fitzhugh-Nagumo units with delayed couplings. The conditions for validity of the two main approximations behind the model, called the Gaussian approximation and the Quasi-independence approximation, are examined. It is shown that the dynamics of the mean-field model may indicate in a self-consistent fashion the parameter domains where the Quasi-independence approximation fails. Apart from a network of globally coupled units, we also consider the paradigmatic setup of two interacting assemblies to demonstrate how our framework may be extended to hierarchical and modular networks. In both cases, the mean-field model can be used to qualitatively analyze the stability of the system, as well as the scenarios for the onset and the suppression of the collective mode. In quantitative terms, the mean-field model is capable of predicting the average oscillation frequency corresponding to the global variables of the exact system.

  8. Study on coupled dynamics of ship and flooding water based on experimental and SPH methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, H.; Zhang, A. M.; Ming, F. R.

    2017-10-01

    The present paper studies the fluid dynamics during the flooding of a damaged ship numerically and experimentally. Attention is focused on the fluid flow characteristics and the fluid-structure interactions. The Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) method with an improved boundary treatment is established, which is able to capture the flow behaviors effectively. Fairly good agreement is obtained between the computational and experimental results. Based on the SPH method, the simulations are carried out for the flooding of a damaged ship with different opening sizes, opening positions, and numbers of the flooding cabins. Besides, the effects of the wave are also taken into account. The fluid behaviors are described and analyzed in detail. It is found that, during the first phase of flooding, an inflow jet with a large velocity is formed, significantly influencing the inner flows and the ship responses. During the progressive flooding phase, sloshing, crushing of the free surface, wave breaking, and vortex shedding are observed which are coupled with the ship motions. In addition, some relevant conclusions are enclosed for the motion laws of the damaged ship. This work provides physical insight into the flooding of the damaged ship, which is helpful to understand the coupled dynamics of the ship and flooding water.

  9. High-performance modeling of CO2 sequestration by coupling reservoir simulation and molecular dynamics

    KAUST Repository

    Bao, Kai

    2013-01-01

    The present work describes a parallel computational framework for CO2 sequestration simulation by coupling reservoir simulation and molecular dynamics (MD) on massively parallel HPC systems. In this framework, a parallel reservoir simulator, Reservoir Simulation Toolbox (RST), solves the flow and transport equations that describe the subsurface flow behavior, while the molecular dynamics simulations are performed to provide the required physical parameters. Numerous technologies from different fields are employed to make this novel coupled system work efficiently. One of the major applications of the framework is the modeling of large scale CO2 sequestration for long-term storage in the subsurface geological formations, such as depleted reservoirs and deep saline aquifers, which has been proposed as one of the most attractive and practical solutions to reduce the CO2 emission problem to address the global-warming threat. To effectively solve such problems, fine grids and accurate prediction of the properties of fluid mixtures are essential for accuracy. In this work, the CO2 sequestration is presented as our first example to couple the reservoir simulation and molecular dynamics, while the framework can be extended naturally to the full multiphase multicomponent compositional flow simulation to handle more complicated physical process in the future. Accuracy and scalability analysis are performed on an IBM BlueGene/P and on an IBM BlueGene/Q, the latest IBM supercomputer. Results show good accuracy of our MD simulations compared with published data, and good scalability are observed with the massively parallel HPC systems. The performance and capacity of the proposed framework are well demonstrated with several experiments with hundreds of millions to a billion cells. To our best knowledge, the work represents the first attempt to couple the reservoir simulation and molecular simulation for large scale modeling. Due to the complexity of the subsurface systems

  10. Exciton-vibrational coupling in the dynamics and spectroscopy of Frenkel excitons in molecular aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröter, M.; Ivanov, S. D.; Schulze, J.; Polyutov, S. P.; Yan, Y.; Pullerits, T.; Kühn, O.

    2015-03-01

    The influence of exciton-vibrational coupling on the optical and transport properties of molecular aggregates is an old problem that gained renewed interest in recent years. On the experimental side, various nonlinear spectroscopic techniques gave insight into the dynamics of systems as complex as photosynthetic antennae. Striking evidence was gathered that in these protein-pigment complexes quantum coherence is operative even at room temperature conditions. Investigations were triggered to understand the role of vibrational degrees of freedom, beyond that of a heat bath characterized by thermal fluctuations. This development was paralleled by theory, where efficient methods emerged, which could provide the proper frame to perform non-Markovian and non-perturbative simulations of exciton-vibrational dynamics and spectroscopy. This review summarizes the state of affairs of the theory of exciton-vibrational interaction in molecular aggregates and photosynthetic antenna complexes. The focus is put on the discussion of basic effects of exciton-vibrational interaction from the stationary and dynamics points of view. Here, the molecular dimer plays a prominent role as it permits a systematic investigation of absorption and emission spectra by numerical diagonalization of the exciton-vibrational Hamiltonian in a truncated Hilbert space. An extension to larger aggregates, having many coupled nuclear degrees of freedom, becomes possible with the Multi-Layer Multi-Configuration Time-Dependent Hartree (ML-MCTDH) method for wave packet propagation. In fact it will be shown that this method allows one to approach the limit of almost continuous spectral densities, which is usually the realm of density matrix theory. Real system-bath situations are introduced for two models, which differ in the way strongly coupled nuclear coordinates are treated, as a part of the relevant system or the bath. A rather detailed exposition of the Hierarchy Equations Of Motion (HEOM) method will be

  11. Feedback-Mediated Dynamics in a Model of Coupled Nephrons with Compliant Thick Ascending Limbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layton, Anita T.; Bowen, Matthew; Wen, Amy; Layton, Harold E.

    2011-01-01

    The tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF) system in the kidney, a key regulator of glomerular filtration rate, has been shown in physiologic experiments in rats to mediate oscillations in thick ascending limb (TAL) tubular fluid pressure, flow, and NaCl concentration. In spontaneously hypertensive rats, TGF-mediated flow oscillations may be highly irregular. We conducted a bifurcation analysis of a mathematical model of nephrons that are coupled through their TGF systems; the TALs of these nephrons are assumed to have compliant tubular walls. A characteristic equation was derived for a model of two coupled nephrons. Analysis of that characteristic equation has revealed a number of parameter regions having the potential for differing stable dynamic states. Numerical solutions of the full equations for two model nephrons exhibit a variety of behaviors in these regions. Also, model results suggest that the stability of the TGF system is reduced by the compliance of TAL walls and by internephron coupling; as a result, the likelihood of the emergence of sustained oscillations in tubular fluid pressure and flow is increased. Based on information provided by the characteristic equation, we identified parameters with which the model predicts irregular tubular flow oscillations that exhibit a degree of complexity that may help explain the emergence of irregular oscillations in spontaneously hypertensive rats. PMID:21329704

  12. The nonlinear chemo-mechanic coupled dynamics of the F 1 -ATPase molecular motor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lizhong; Liu, Fang

    2012-03-01

    The ATP synthase consists of two opposing rotary motors, F0 and F1, coupled to each other. When the F1 motor is not coupled to the F0 motor, it can work in the direction hydrolyzing ATP, as a nanomotor called F1-ATPase. It has been reported that the stiffness of the protein varies nonlinearly with increasing load. The nonlinearity has an important effect on the rotating rate of the F1-ATPase. Here, considering the nonlinearity of the γ shaft stiffness for the F1-ATPase, a nonlinear chemo-mechanical coupled dynamic model of F1 motor is proposed. Nonlinear vibration frequencies of the γ shaft and their changes along with the system parameters are investigated. The nonlinear stochastic response of the elastic γ shaft to thermal excitation is analyzed. The results show that the stiffness nonlinearity of the γ shaft causes an increase of the vibration frequency for the F1 motor, which increases the motor's rotation rate. When the concentration of ATP is relatively high and the load torque is small, the effects of the stiffness nonlinearity on the rotating rates of the F1 motor are obvious and should be considered. These results are useful for improving calculation of the rotating rate for the F1 motor and provide insight about the stochastic wave mechanics of F1-ATPase.

  13. Geometric phase effects in low-energy dynamics near conical intersections: a study of the multidimensional linear vibronic coupling model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joubert-Doriol, Loïc; Ryabinkin, Ilya G; Izmaylov, Artur F

    2013-12-21

    In molecular systems containing conical intersections (CIs), a nontrivial geometric phase (GP) appears in the nuclear and electronic wave functions in the adiabatic representation. We study GP effects in nuclear dynamics of an N-dimensional linear vibronic coupling (LVC) model. The main impact of GP on low-energy nuclear dynamics is reduction of population transfer between the local minima of the LVC lower energy surface. For the LVC model, we proposed an isometric coordinate transformation that confines non-adiabatic effects within a two-dimensional subsystem interacting with an N - 2 dimensional environment. Since environmental modes do not couple electronic states, all GP effects originate from nuclear dynamics within the subsystem. We explored when the GP affects nuclear dynamics of the isolated subsystem, and how the subsystem-environment interaction can interfere with GP effects. Comparing quantum dynamics with and without GP allowed us to devise simple rules to determine significance of the GP for nuclear dynamics in this model.

  14. Mouse hair cycle expression dynamics modeled as coupled mesenchymal and epithelial oscillators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Tasseff

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The hair cycle is a dynamic process where follicles repeatedly move through phases of growth, retraction, and relative quiescence. This process is an example of temporal and spatial biological complexity. Understanding of the hair cycle and its regulation would shed light on many other complex systems relevant to biological and medical research. Currently, a systematic characterization of gene expression and summarization within the context of a mathematical model is not yet available. Given the cyclic nature of the hair cycle, we felt it was important to consider a subset of genes with periodic expression. To this end, we combined several mathematical approaches with high-throughput, whole mouse skin, mRNA expression data to characterize aspects of the dynamics and the possible cell populations corresponding to potentially periodic patterns. In particular two gene clusters, demonstrating properties of out-of-phase synchronized expression, were identified. A mean field, phase coupled oscillator model was shown to quantitatively recapitulate the synchronization observed in the data. Furthermore, we found only one configuration of positive-negative coupling to be dynamically stable, which provided insight on general features of the regulation. Subsequent bifurcation analysis was able to identify and describe alternate states based on perturbation of system parameters. A 2-population mixture model and cell type enrichment was used to associate the two gene clusters to features of background mesenchymal populations and rapidly expanding follicular epithelial cells. Distinct timing and localization of expression was also shown by RNA and protein imaging for representative genes. Taken together, the evidence suggests that synchronization between expanding epithelial and background mesenchymal cells may be maintained, in part, by inhibitory regulation, and potential mediators of this regulation were identified. Furthermore, the model suggests that

  15. Coupled dynamics of node and link states in complex networks: a model for language competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carro, Adrián; Toral, Raúl; San Miguel, Maxi

    2016-11-01

    Inspired by language competition processes, we present a model of coupled evolution of node and link states. In particular, we focus on the interplay between the use of a language and the preference or attitude of the speakers towards it, which we model, respectively, as a property of the interactions between speakers (a link state) and as a property of the speakers themselves (a node state). Furthermore, we restrict our attention to the case of two socially equivalent languages and to socially inspired network topologies based on a mechanism of triadic closure. As opposed to most of the previous literature, where language extinction is an inevitable outcome of the dynamics, we find a broad range of possible asymptotic configurations, which we classify as: frozen extinction states, frozen coexistence states, and dynamically trapped coexistence states. Moreover, metastable coexistence states with very long survival times and displaying a non-trivial dynamics are found to be abundant. Interestingly, a system size scaling analysis shows, on the one hand, that the probability of language extinction vanishes exponentially for increasing system sizes and, on the other hand, that the time scale of survival of the non-trivial dynamical metastable states increases linearly with the size of the system. Thus, non-trivial dynamical coexistence is the only possible outcome for large enough systems. Finally, we show how this coexistence is characterized by one of the languages becoming clearly predominant while the other one becomes increasingly confined to ‘ghetto-like’ structures: small groups of bilingual speakers arranged in triangles, with a strong preference for the minority language, and using it for their intra-group interactions while they switch to the predominant language for communications with the rest of the population.

  16. Weakly dynamic dark energy via metric-scalar couplings with torsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sur, Sourav; Singh Bhatia, Arshdeep

    2017-07-01

    We study the dynamical aspects of dark energy in the context of a non-minimally coupled scalar field with curvature and torsion. Whereas the scalar field acts as the source of the trace mode of torsion, a suitable constraint on the torsion pseudo-trace provides a mass term for the scalar field in the effective action. In the equivalent scalar-tensor framework, we find explicit cosmological solutions representing dark energy in both Einstein and Jordan frames. We demand the dynamical evolution of the dark energy to be weak enough, so that the present-day values of the cosmological parameters could be estimated keeping them within the confidence limits set for the standard LCDM model from recent observations. For such estimates, we examine the variations of the effective matter density and the dark energy equation of state parameters over different redshift ranges. In spite of being weakly dynamic, the dark energy component differs significantly from the cosmological constant, both in characteristics and features, for e.g. it interacts with the cosmological (dust) fluid in the Einstein frame, and crosses the phantom barrier in the Jordan frame. We also obtain the upper bounds on the torsion mode parameters and the lower bound on the effective Brans-Dicke parameter. The latter turns out to be fairly large, and in agreement with the local gravity constraints, which therefore come in support of our analysis.

  17. A proton-coupled dynamic conformational switch in the HIV-1 dimerization initiation site kissing complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihailescu, Mihaela-Rita; Marino, John P

    2004-02-03

    In HIV type 1 (HIV-1), the dimerization initiation site (DIS) is the sequence primarily responsible for initiating the noncovalent linkage of two homologous strands of genomic RNA during viral assembly. The DIS loop contains an autocomplementary hexanucleotide sequence and forms a symmetric homodimer through a loop-loop kissing interaction. In a structural rearrangement catalyzed by the HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein (NCp7) and suggested to be associated with maturation of the budded viral particle, the DIS converts from a metastable kissing dimer to an extended duplex. Here, we demonstrate that the DIS kissing dimer displays localized conformational dynamics that result from the specific protonation of the N1 base nitrogen of the DIS loop residue A272 at near-physiological pH. The rate of NCp7-catalyzed maturation of the DIS kissing dimer is also shown to directly correlate with the observed proton-coupled conformational dynamics, where NCp7 is found to convert the dynamic A272 protonated state with a faster rate. Taken together, these results reveal a previously undescribed role for base protonation in modulating local RNA structure and demonstrate a mechanism for promoting the chaperone-mediated structural rearrangement of a kinetically trapped RNA conformational state.

  18. A model of the coupled dynamics of climate, vegetation and terrestrial ecosystem biogeochemistry for regional applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Benjamin; Wramneby, Anna (Dept. of Earth and Ecosystem Sciences, Lund Univ., Geocentrum II, Lund (Sweden)), e-mail: ben.smith.lu@gmail.com; Samuelsson, Patrick (Rossby Centre, Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Inst., SE-60176, Norrkoeping (Sweden)); Rummukainen, Markku (Dept. of Earth and Ecosystem Sciences, Lund Univ., Geocentrum II, SE-22362, Lund (Sweden); Rossby Centre, Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Inst., SE-60176, Norrkoeping (Sweden))

    2011-01-15

    Regional climate models (RCMs) primarily represent physical components of the climate system, omitting vegetation dynamics, ecosystem biogeochemistry and their associated feedbacks. To account for such feedbacks, we implemented a novel plant individual-based vegetation dynamics-ecosystem biogeochemistry scheme within the RCA3 RCM. Variations in leaf area index (LAI) of seven plant functional type (PFTs) in response to physical forcing and evolving vegetation state feed back to climate via adjustments in surface energy fluxes and surface properties. In an ERA-40-driven simulation over Europe, the model reproduces the recent past climate with comparable accuracy to the standard RCM. Large-scale patterns of LAI, net primary production and vegetation composition were comparable with observations, although winter LAI was systematically overestimated compared to satellite estimates. Analysis of the ERA-40 simulation and an A1B climate-change simulation revealed considerable covariation among dynamic variables of the physical climate and vegetation. At a Mediterranean site, periodic soil water limitation led to fluctuations in leaf cover and a likely positive feedback to near-surface temperature. At an alpine site, rising temperatures led to forest advance onto tundra areas, reducing albedo and effecting a likely positive feedback on temperature. Climate vegetation coupling was less pronounced but still apparent at intermediate temperate and boreal sites

  19. Dynamics of Entanglement in Jaynes–Cummings Nodes with Nonidentical Qubit-Field Coupling Strengths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Tuo Shen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available How to analytically deal with the general entanglement dynamics of separate Jaynes–Cummings nodes with continuous-variable fields is still an open question, and few analytical approaches can be used to solve their general entanglement dynamics. Entanglement dynamics between two separate Jaynes–Cummings nodes are examined in this article. Both vacuum state and coherent state in the initial fields are considered through the numerical and analytical methods. The gap between two nonidentical qubit-field coupling strengths shifts the revival period and changes the revival amplitude of two-qubit entanglement. For vacuum-state fields, the maximal entanglement is fully revived after a gap-dependence period, within which the entanglement nonsmoothly decreases to zero and partly recovers without exhibiting sudden death phenomenon. For strong coherent-state fields, the two-qubit entanglement decays exponentially as the evolution time increases, exhibiting sudden death phenomenon, and the increasing gap accelerates the revival period and amplitude decay of the entanglement, where the numerical and analytical results have an excellent coincidence.

  20. Coupled electron-nuclear quantum dynamics through and around a conical intersection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Julian; Hader, Kilian; Engel, Volker

    2017-08-01

    In solving the time-dependent Schrödinger equation for a coupled electron-nuclear system, we study the motion of wave packets in a model which exhibits a conical intersection (CoIn) of adiabatic potential energy surfaces. Three different situations are studied. In the first case, an efficient non-adiabatic transition takes place while the wave packet passes the region of the CoIn. It is demonstrated that during these times, the nuclear probability density retains its Gaussian shape and the electronic density remains approximately constant. Second, dynamics are regarded where non-adiabatic transitions do not take place, and the nuclear dynamics follows a circle around the location of the CoIn. During this motion, the electronic density is shown to rotate. The comparison with the Born-Oppenheimer nuclear dynamics reveals the geometrical phase being associated with the circular motion. This phase is clearly revealed by an analysis of time-dependent autocorrelation functions and spectra obtained from the numerically exact and the Born-Oppenheimer calculation. The intermediate situation with a small non-adiabatic transition probability is characterized by wave-packet splitting into several fractions.

  1. Modeling the coupled return-spread high frequency dynamics of large tick assets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curato, Gianbiagio; Lillo, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    Large tick assets, i.e. assets where one tick movement is a significant fraction of the price and bid-ask spread is almost always equal to one tick, display a dynamics in which price changes and spread are strongly coupled. We present an approach based on the hidden Markov model, also known in econometrics as the Markov switching model, for the dynamics of price changes, where the latent Markov process is described by the transitions between spreads. We then use a finite Markov mixture of logit regressions on past squared price changes to describe temporal dependencies in the dynamics of price changes. The model can thus be seen as a double chain Markov model. We show that the model describes the shape of the price change distribution at different time scales, volatility clustering, and the anomalous decrease of kurtosis. We calibrate our models based on Nasdaq stocks and we show that this model reproduces remarkably well the statistical properties of real data.

  2. Coupled dynamic response analysis of a multi-column tension-leg-type floating wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yong-sheng; Yang, Jian-min; He, Yan-ping; Gu, Min-tong

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents a coupled dynamic response analysis of a multi-column tension-leg-type floating wind turbine (WindStar TLP system) under normal operation and parked conditions. Wind-only load cases, wave-only load cases and combined wind and wave load cases were analyzed separately for the WindStar TLP system to identify the dominant excitation loads. Comparisons between an NREL offshore 5-MW baseline wind turbine installed on land and the WindStar TLP system were performed. Statistics of selected response variables in specified design load cases (DLCs) were obtained and analyzed. It is found that the proposed WindStar TLP system has small dynamic responses to environmental loads and it thus has almost the same mean generator power output under operating conditions as the land-based system. The tension mooring system has a sufficient safety factor, and the minimum tendon tension is always positive in all selected DLCs. The ratio of ultimate load of the tower base fore-aft bending moment for the WindStar TLP system versus the land-based system can be as high as 1.9 in all of the DLCs considered. These results will help elucidate the dynamic characteristics of the proposed WindStar TLP system, identify the difference in load effect between it and land-based systems, and thus make relevant modifications to the initial design for the WindStar TLP system.

  3. Dynamical regimes of a pH-oscillator operated in two mass-coupled flow-through reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pešek, Oldřich; Schreiberová, Lenka; Schreiber, Igor

    2011-05-28

    We present results of experiments focused on emergent and cooperative dynamics in a system of two coupled flow-through stirred reaction cells with diffusion-like mass exchange and a strongly nonlinear chemical reaction between hydrogen peroxide and thiosulphate catalysed by cupric ions in diluted solution of sulphuric acid. Due to complex mechanism, in which a crucial role is played by hydrogen and/or hydroxide ions, dynamics in a single cell entail multiple stationary states, excitability and oscillations conveniently indicated by measuring pH. When coupled, the system shows a plethora of dynamical regimes depending on the coupling strength and flow rate. Under certain conditions both cells display dynamics close to that in the absence of coupling, but majority of the regimes are emergent and cannot be deduced from dynamics of decoupled reactors. The most prominent is a stationary state maintaining highly acidic values of pH in one of the reactors and weakly acidic in the other. When each cell is set to display excitability and the coupled system is externally perturbed, the cells may cooperate and transmit excitations elicited by pulsed perturbations in one cell to the other. Periodic pulses induce firing patterns marked by a various degree of propagated excitations and by being periodic or irregular. This journal is © the Owner Societies 2011

  4. Chromosomal dynamics predicted by an elastic network model explains genome-wide accessibility and long-range couplings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauerwald, Natalie; Zhang, She; Kingsford, Carl; Bahar, Ivet

    2017-04-20

    Understanding the three-dimensional (3D) architecture of chromatin and its relation to gene expression and regulation is fundamental to understanding how the genome functions. Advances in Hi-C technology now permit us to study 3D genome organization, but we still lack an understanding of the structural dynamics of chromosomes. The dynamic couplings between regions separated by large genomic distances (>50 Mb) have yet to be characterized. We adapted a well-established protein-modeling framework, the Gaussian Network Model (GNM), to model chromatin dynamics using Hi-C data. We show that the GNM can identify spatial couplings at multiple scales: it can quantify the correlated fluctuations in the positions of gene loci, find large genomic compartments and smaller topologically-associating domains (TADs) that undergo en bloc movements, and identify dynamically coupled distal regions along the chromosomes. We show that the predictions of the GNM correlate well with genome-wide experimental measurements. We use the GNM to identify novel cross-correlated distal domains (CCDDs) representing pairs of regions distinguished by their long-range dynamic coupling and show that CCDDs are associated with increased gene co-expression. Together, these results show that GNM provides a mathematically well-founded unified framework for modeling chromatin dynamics and assessing the structural basis of genome-wide observations. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  5. Development and validation of coupled dynamics code 'TRIKIN' for VVER reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obaidurrahman, K; Doshi, J. B.; Jain, R. P. [IIT Bombay, Mumbai (India); Jagannathan, V. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    2010-06-15

    New generation nuclear reactors are designed using advanced safety analysis methods. A thorough understanding of different interacting physical phenomena is necessary to avoid underestimation and overestimation of consequences of off normal transients in the reactor safety analysis results. This feature requires a multiphysics reactor simulation model. In this context, a coupled dynamics model based on a multiphysics formulation is developed indigenously for the transient analysis of large pressurized VVER reactors. Major simplifications are employed in the model by making several assumptions based on the physics of individual phenomenon. Space and time grids are optimized to minimize the computational bulk. The capability of the model is demonstrated by solving a series of international (AER) benchmark problems for VVER reactors. The developed model was used to analyze a number of reactivity transients that are likely to occur in VVER reactors

  6. Control of entanglement dynamics in a system of three coupled quantum oscillators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Henao, J C; Pugliese, E; Euzzor, S; Meucci, R; Roversi, J A; Arecchi, F T

    2017-08-30

    Dynamical control of entanglement and its connection with the classical concept of instability is an intriguing matter which deserves accurate investigation for its important role in information processing, cryptography and quantum computing. Here we consider a tripartite quantum system made of three coupled quantum parametric oscillators in equilibrium with a common heat bath. The introduced parametrization consists of a pulse train with adjustable amplitude and duty cycle representing a more general case for the perturbation. From the experimental observation of the instability in the classical system we are able to predict the parameter values for which the entangled states exist. A different amount of entanglement and different onset times emerge when comparing two and three quantum oscillators. The system and the parametrization considered here open new perspectives for manipulating quantum features at high temperatures.

  7. Complex dynamics of a harmonically excited structure coupled with a nonlinear energy sink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Jian; Chen, Li-Qun

    2017-08-01

    Nonlinear behaviors are investigated for a structure coupled with a nonlinear energy sink. The structure is linear and subject to a harmonic excitation, modeled as a forced single-degree-of-freedom oscillator. The nonlinear energy sink is modeled as an oscillator consisting of a mass, a nonlinear spring, and a linear damper. Based on the numerical solutions, global bifurcation diagrams are presented to reveal the coexistence of periodic and chaotic motions for varying nonlinear energy sink mass and stiffness. Chaos is numerically identified via phase trajectories, power spectra, and Poincaré maps. Amplitude-frequency response curves are predicted by the method of harmonic balance for periodic steady-state responses. Their stabilities are analyzed. The Hopf bifurcation and the saddle-node bifurcation are determined. The investigation demonstrates that a nonlinear energy sink may create dynamic complexity.

  8. Coupled Dzyaloshinskii walls and their current-induced dynamics by the spin Hall effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martínez, Eduardo, E-mail: edumartinez@usal.es [Dpto. de Fisica Aplicada, Universidad de Salamanca, Plaza de los Caídos s/n, E-37008 Salamanca (Spain); Alejos, Óscar [Dpto. de Electricidad y Electrónica, Universidad de Valladolid, Paseo de Belén, 7, E-47011 Valladolid (Spain)

    2014-07-14

    The nucleation of domain walls in ultrathin ferromagnetic/heavy-metal bilayers is studied by means of micromagnetic simulations. In the presence of interfacial Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction, the nucleated walls naturally adopt a homochiral configuration with internal magnetization pointing antiparallely. The interaction between these walls was analyzed and described in terms of a classical dipolar force between the magnetic moments of the walls, which couples their dynamics. Additionally, the current-induced motion of two homochiral walls in the presence of longitudinal fields was also studied by means of a simple one-dimensional model and micromagnetic modeling, considering both one free-defect strip and another one with random edge roughness. It is evidenced that in the presence of pinning due to edge roughness, the in-plane longitudinal field introduces an asymmetry in the current-induced depinning, in agreement with recent experimental results.

  9. Partial Overhaul and Initial Parallel Optimization of KINETICS, a Coupled Dynamics and Chemistry Atmosphere Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Howard; Willacy, Karen; Allen, Mark

    2012-01-01

    KINETICS is a coupled dynamics and chemistry atmosphere model that is data intensive and computationally demanding. The potential performance gain from using a supercomputer motivates the adaptation from a serial version to a parallelized one. Although the initial parallelization had been done, bottlenecks caused by an abundance of communication calls between processors led to an unfavorable drop in performance. Before starting on the parallel optimization process, a partial overhaul was required because a large emphasis was placed on streamlining the code for user convenience and revising the program to accommodate the new supercomputers at Caltech and JPL. After the first round of optimizations, the partial runtime was reduced by a factor of 23; however, performance gains are dependent on the size of the data, the number of processors requested, and the computer used.

  10. A dynamically coupled allosteric network underlies binding cooperativity in Src kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foda, Zachariah H; Shan, Yibing; Kim, Eric T; Shaw, David E; Seeliger, Markus A

    2015-01-20

    Protein tyrosine kinases are attractive drug targets because many human diseases are associated with the deregulation of kinase activity. However, how the catalytic kinase domain integrates different signals and switches from an active to an inactive conformation remains incompletely understood. Here we identify an allosteric network of dynamically coupled amino acids in Src kinase that connects regulatory sites to the ATP- and substrate-binding sites. Surprisingly, reactants (ATP and peptide substrates) bind with negative cooperativity to Src kinase while products (ADP and phosphopeptide) bind with positive cooperativity. We confirm the molecular details of the signal relay through the allosteric network by biochemical studies. Experiments on two additional protein tyrosine kinases indicate that the allosteric network may be largely conserved among these enzymes. Our work provides new insights into the regulation of protein tyrosine kinases and establishes a potential conduit by which resistance mutations to ATP-competitive kinase inhibitors can affect their activity.

  11. Exploiting biogeochemical and spectroscopic techniques to assess the geochemical distribution and release dynamics of chromium and lead in a contaminated floodplain soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinklebe, Jörg; Shaheen, Sabry M; Schröter, Felix; Rennert, Thilo

    2016-05-01

    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) combined with a seven steps sequential extraction technique were used to assess the geochemical distribution of chromium (Cr) and lead (Pb) in a contaminated floodplain soil. Total contents of Cr and Pb were 490.3 and 402.1 mg kg(-1), respectively. The residual fraction was 59.5 and 56.3% of total Cr and Pb. The crystalline iron (Fe) oxide was the dominant non-residual fraction of Cr (35.9% of total Cr). Considerable amounts of Pb were found in the organic fraction (35.4%). Using (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, the soil organic matter was identified as 48.9% aromatic carbon, which indicated that a certain portion of Pb and Cr might be associated with aromatic compounds. The SEM-EDX images demonstrate a concomitant occurrence of Pb, manganese (Mn), Fe, and aluminum (Al) as well as a coexistence of Cr and Fe. The release dynamics of dissolved Cr and Pb as affected by redox potential (EH), pH, Fe, Mn, dissolved organic carbon, and sulfate was quantified using an automated biogeochemical microcosm apparatus. Soil pH decreased under oxic conditions. The release of Cr, Pb, Fe, and Mn increased under acidic oxic (pH = 3.7, EH = 521 mV) conditions due to the associated decrease of pH (7.1-3.7). The mobilization of Cr and Pb was affected by the Fe and Mn. In conclusion, our multi-technique approach identified the geochemical distribution of Cr and Pb and verified major factors that explain mobilization of Cr and Pb in floodplain soils. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Drivers of coupled model ENSO error dynamics and the spring predictability barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Sarah M.; Kirtman, Ben P.

    2017-06-01

    Despite recent improvements in ENSO simulations, ENSO predictions ultimately remain limited by error growth and model inadequacies. Determining the accompanying dynamical processes that drive the growth of certain types of errors may help the community better recognize which error sources provide an intrinsic limit to predictability. This study applies a dynamical analysis to previously developed CCSM4 error ensemble experiments that have been used to model noise-driven error growth. Analysis reveals that ENSO-independent error growth is instigated via a coupled instability mechanism. Daily error fields indicate that persistent stochastic zonal wind stress perturbations (τx^' } ) near the equatorial dateline activate the coupled instability, first driving local SST and anomalous zonal current changes that then induce upwelling anomalies and a clear thermocline response. In particular, March presents a window of opportunity for stochastic τx^' } to impose a lasting influence on the evolution of eastern Pacific SST through December, suggesting that stochastic τx^' } is an important contributor to the spring predictability barrier. Stochastic winds occurring in other months only temporarily affect eastern Pacific SST for 2-3 months. Comparison of a control simulation with an ENSO cycle and the ENSO-independent error ensemble experiments reveals that once the instability is initiated, the subsequent error growth is modulated via an ENSO-like mechanism, namely the seasonal strength of the Bjerknes feedback. Furthermore, unlike ENSO events that exhibit growth through the fall, the growth of ENSO-independent SST errors terminates once the seasonal strength of the Bjerknes feedback weakens in fall. Results imply that the heat content supplied by the subsurface precursor preceding the onset of an ENSO event is paramount to maintaining the growth of the instability (or event) through fall.

  13. Non-adiabatic dynamics around a conical intersection with surface-hopping coupled coherent states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humeniuk, Alexander; Mitrić, Roland

    2016-06-21

    A surface-hopping extension of the coupled coherent states-method [D. Shalashilin and M. Child, Chem. Phys. 304, 103-120 (2004)] for simulating non-adiabatic dynamics with quantum effects of the nuclei is put forward. The time-dependent Schrödinger equation for the motion of the nuclei is solved in a moving basis set. The basis set is guided by classical trajectories, which can hop stochastically between different electronic potential energy surfaces. The non-adiabatic transitions are modelled by a modified version of Tully's fewest switches algorithm. The trajectories consist of Gaussians in the phase space of the nuclei (coherent states) combined with amplitudes for an electronic wave function. The time-dependent matrix elements between different coherent states determine the amplitude of each trajectory in the total multistate wave function; the diagonal matrix elements determine the hopping probabilities and gradients. In this way, both interference effects and non-adiabatic transitions can be described in a very compact fashion, leading to the exact solution if convergence with respect to the number of trajectories is achieved and the potential energy surfaces are known globally. The method is tested on a 2D model for a conical intersection [A. Ferretti, J. Chem. Phys. 104, 5517 (1996)], where a nuclear wavepacket encircles the point of degeneracy between two potential energy surfaces and interferes with itself. These interference effects are absent in classical trajectory-based molecular dynamics but can be fully incorpo rated if trajectories are replaced by surface hopping coupled coherent states.

  14. Relativistic coupling of internal and centre of mass dynamics in classical and simple bound quantum mechanical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    E Krause, Dennis; Lee, Inbum

    2017-07-01

    Although special relativity and quantum mechanics revolutionised physics in the early 20th century, the consequences of combining these two theories are still being explored a hundred years later, usually using the formidable theoretical machinery of quantum field theory. However, a formalism accessible to undergraduates has been recently developed which shows how the centre of mass and internal dynamics of classical and quantum systems is relativistically coupled with interesting consequences. Here we explore some of the implications of this coupling, first classically, where we find that the dynamics of the system is time dilated when moving relative to another inertial frame. We then apply the dynamics to a quantum 2-level atom bound in a one-dimensional infinite potential well, and show that the coupling produces collapses and revivals in quantum interference. This example provides an illustration of how the combination of special relativity and quantum mechanics can be studied in situations familiar to most undergraduates.

  15. Energy coupling and plume dynamics during high power laser heating of metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, S. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering]|[Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Div.

    1997-05-01

    High power laser heating of metals was studied utilizing experimental and numerical methods with an emphasis on the laser energy coupling with a target and on the dynamics of the laser generated vapor flow. Rigorous theoretical modeling of the heating, melting, and evaporation of metals due to laser radiation with a power density below the plasma shielding threshold was carried out. Experimentally, the probe beam deflection technique was utilized to measure the propagation of a laser induced shock wave. The effects of a cylindrical cavity in a metal surface on the laser energy coupling with a solid were investigated utilizing photothermal deflection measurements. A numerical calculation of target temperature and photothermal deflection was performed to compare with the measured results. Reflection of the heating laser beam inside the cavity was found to increase the photothermal deflection amplitude significantly and to enhance the overall energy coupling between a heating laser beam and a solid. Next, unsteady vaporization of metals due to nanosecond pulsed laser heating with an ambient gas at finite pressure was analyzed with a one dimensional thermal evaporation model for target heating and one dimensional compressible flow equations for inviscid fluid for the vapor flow. Lastly, the propagation of a shock wave during excimer laser heating of aluminum was measured with the probe beam deflection technique. The transit time of the shock wave was measured at the elevation of the probe beam above the target surface; these results were compared with the predicted behavior using ideal blast wave theory. The propagation of a gaseous material plume was also observed from the deflection of the probe beam at later times.

  16. Coupled spin-valley-dynamics in singe-layer transition metal dichalcogenides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plechinger, Gerd; Nagler, Philipp; Schüller, Christian; Korn, Tobias

    Single layers of transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) like MoS2 and WS2 can be produced by simple mechanical exfoliation. Offering a direct bandgap at the K-points in the Brillouin zone, they represent a promising semiconductor material for flexible and transparent optoelectronic applications. Due to inversion symmetry breaking together with strong spin-orbit-interaction, the valley and spin degrees of freedom are coupled in monolayer TMDCs. Via circularly polarized optical excitation, an efficient polarization of the K+ or the K- valley can be generated. Here, we investigate the dynamics of these coupled spin-valley polarizations in monolayer MoS2 and WS2 by means of photoluminescence spectroscopy and time-resolved Kerr rotation (TRKR). The results indicate a maximum achievable spin-valley-lifetime in these materials exceeding one nanosecond at low temperatures. Furthermore, we extract the dependence of the spin-valley lifetime on temperature. By varying the excitation energy, we reveal the excitonic resonances as well as the spin-polarized bandstructure around the K valleys common to monolayer TMDCs.

  17. Inflationary dynamics and preheating of the nonminimally coupled inflaton field in the metric and Palatini formalisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Chengjie; Wu, Puxun; Yu, Hongwei

    2017-11-01

    The inflationary dynamics and preheating in a model with a nonminimally coupled inflaton field in the metric and Palatini formalisms are studied in this paper. We find that in both formalisms, irrespective of the initial conditions, our Universe will evolve into a slow-roll inflationary era and then the scalar field rolls into an oscillating phase. The value of the scalar field at the end of the inflation in the Palatini formalism is always larger than that in the metric one, which becomes more and more obvious with the increase of the absolute value of the coupling parameter |ξ |. During the preheating, we find that the inflaton quanta are produced explosively due to the parameter resonance and the growth of inflaton quanta will be terminated by the backreaction. With the increase of |ξ |, the resonance bands gradually close to the zero momentum (k =0 ), and the structure of resonance changes and becomes broader and broader in the metric formalism, while it remains to be narrow in the Palatini formalism. The energy transfer from the inflaton field to the fluctuation becomes more and more efficient with the increase of |ξ |, and in the metric formalism the growth of the efficiency of energy transfer is much faster than that in the Palatini formalism. Therefore, the inflation and preheating show different characteristics in different formalisms.

  18. Modeling of Ship Roll Dynamics and Its Coupling with Heave and Pitch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Ibrahim

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the dynamic behavior of ships navigating in severe environmental conditions it is imperative to develop their governing equations of motion taking into account the inherent nonlinearity of large-amplitude ship motion. The purpose of this paper is to present the coupled nonlinear equations of motion in heave, roll, and pitch based on physical grounds. The ingredients of the formulation are comprised of three main components. These are the inertia forces and moments, restoring forces and moments, and damping forces and moments with an emphasis to the roll damping moment. In the formulation of the restoring forces and moments, the influence of large-amplitude ship motions will be considered together with ocean wave loads. The special cases of coupled roll-pitch and purely roll equations of motion are obtained from the general formulation. The paper includes an assessment of roll stochastic stability and probabilistic approaches used to estimate the probability of capsizing and parameter identification.

  19. Effect of coupling currents on the dynamic inductance during fast transient in superconducting magnets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Marinozzi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We present electromagnetic models aiming to calculate the variation of the inductance in a magnet due to dynamic effects such as the variation of magnetization or the coupling with eddy currents. The models are studied with special regard to the calculation of the inductance in superconducting magnets which are affected by interfilament coupling currents. The developed models have been compared with experimental data coming from tests of prototype Nb_{3}Sn magnets designed for the new generation of accelerators. This work is relevant for the quench protection study of superconducting magnets: quench is an unwanted event, when part of the magnet becomes resistive; in these cases, the current should be discharged as fast as possible, in order to maintain the resistive zone temperature under a safe limit. The magnet inductance is therefore a relevant term for the description of the current discharge, especially for the high-field new generation superconducting magnets for accelerators, and this work shows how to calculate the correct value during rapid current changes, providing a mean for simulations of the reached temperature.

  20. Analysis of Dynamic Coupling Characteristics of the Slope Reinforced by Sheet Pile Wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. L. Qu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Large deformation of slope caused by earthquake can lead to the loss of stability of slope and its retaining structures. At present, there have been some research achievements about the slope reinforcement of stabilizing piles. However, due to the complexity of the structural system, the coupling relationship between soil and pile is still not well understood. Hence it is of great necessity to study its dynamic characteristics further. In view of this, a numerical model was established by FLAC3D in this paper, and the deformation and stress nephogram of sheet pile wall in peak ground motion acceleration (PGA at 0.1 g, 0.2 g, and 0.4 g were obtained. Through the analysis, some conclusions were obtained. Firstly, based on the nephogram of motion characteristics and the positions of the slip surface and the retaining wall, the reinforced slope can be divided into 6 sections approximatively, namely, the sliding body parts of A, B, C, D, and E and the bedrock part F. Secondly, the deformation and stress distributions of slope reinforced by sheet pile wall were carefully studied. Based on the results of deformation calculation from time history analysis, the interaction force between structure and soil can be estimated by the difference of peak horizontal displacements, and the structure-soil coupling law under earthquake can be studied by this approach.

  1. Unified Field Equations Coupling Four Forces and Principle of Interaction Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Tian

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of this article is to postulate a principle of interaction dynamics (PID) and to derive unified field equations coupling all four forces. PID is a least action principle subject to div$_A$-free constraints for the variational element with $A$ being gauge fields. The unified field equations of the coupled interactions of four forces are then uniquely derived based on 1) the Einstein principle of general relativity (or Lorentz invariance) and the principle of equivalence, 2) the principle of gauge invariance, and 3) the PID. The unified model gives rise to a complete new mechanism for spontaneously breaking gauge-symmetries and for energy and mass generation, which provides similar outcomes as the Higgs mechanism. For the electromagnetic and weak interactions alone, we derive a totally different electroweak theory, producing the three vector bosons $W^\\pm$ and $Z$, as well as three Higgs bosons--two charged and one neutral. One important outcome of the unified field equations is a natural dua...

  2. Ultrafast Study of Dynamic Exchange Coupling in Ferromagnet/Oxide/Semiconductor Heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Yu-Sheng

    Spintronics is the area of research that aims at utilizing the quantum mechanical spin degree of freedom of electrons in solid-state materials for information processing and data storage application. Since the discovery of the giant magnetoresistance, the field of spintronics has attracted lots of attention for its numerous potential advantages over contemporary electronics, such as less power consumption, high integration density and non-volatility. The realization of a spin battery, defined by the ability to create spin current without associated charge current, has been a long-standing goal in the field of spintronics. The demonstration of pure spin current in ferromagnet/nonmagnetic material hybrid structures by ferromagnetic resonance spin pumping has defined a thrilling direction for this field. As such, this dissertation targets at exploring the spin and magnetization dynamics in ferromagnet/oxide/semiconductor heterostructures (Fe/MgO/GaAs) using time-resolved optical pump-probe spectroscopy with the long-range goal of understanding the fundamentals of FMR-driven spin pumping. Fe/GaAs heterostructures are complex systems that contain multiple spin species, including paramagnetic spins (GaAs electrons), nuclear spins (Ga and As nuclei) and ferromagnetic spins (Fe). Optical pump-probe studies on their interplay have revealed a number of novel phenomena that has not been explored before. As such they will be the major focus of this dissertation. First, I will discuss the effect of interfacial exchange coupling on the GaAs free-carrier spin relaxation. Temperature- and field-dependent spin-resolved pump-probe studies reveal a strong correlation of the electron spin relaxation with carrier freeze-out, in quantitative agreement with a theoretical interpretation that at low temperatures the free-carrier spin lifetime is dominated by inhomogeneity in the local hyperfine field due to carrier localization. Second, we investigate the impact of tunnel barrier thickness

  3. Exploitability Assessment with TEASER

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    exploits. We saw this as an advantage of our dataset because we had to confirm that either a bug was exploitable or not exploitable. For the 28 CHAPTER 5...corruption which demonstrates that there is very little activity within c-ares to take advantage of after the heap corruption. This idea is in line with the...remote code execution POCs. 42 Bibliography [1] Analyze crashes to find security vulnerabilities in your apps . https: //blogs.msdn.microsoft.com

  4. Dynamics of a spherically symmetric inhomogeneous coupled dark energy model with coupling term proportional to non relatvistic matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izquierdo, Germán; Blanquet-Jaramillo, Roberto C.; Sussman, Roberto A.

    2018-01-01

    The quasi-local scalar variables approach is applied to a spherically symmetric inhomogeneous Lemaître-Tolman-Bondi metric containing a mixture of non-relativistic cold dark matter and coupled dark energy with constant equation of state. The quasi-local coupling term considered is proportional to the quasi-local cold dark matter energy density and a quasi-local Hubble factor-like scalar via a coupling constant α . The autonomous numerical system obtained from the evolution equations is classified for different choices of the free parameters: the adiabatic constant of the dark energy w and α . The presence of a past attractor in a non-physical region of the energy densities phase-space of the system makes the coupling term non physical when the energy flows from the matter to the dark energy in order to avoid negative values of the dark energy density in the past. On the other hand, if the energy flux goes from dark energy to dark matter, the past attractor lies in a physical region. The system is also numerically solved for some interesting initial profiles leading to different configurations: an ever expanding mixture, a scenario where the dark energy is completely consumed by the non-relativistic matter by means of the coupling term, a scenario where the dark energy disappears in the inner layers while the outer layers expand as a mixture of both sources, and, finally, a structure formation toy model scenario, where the inner shells containing the mixture collapse while the outer shells expand.

  5. Anthropology of sexual exploitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalić Velibor

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the authors observe sexual exploitation from an anthropological perspective. They analyze the rational, ethical, emotional and mythological dimensions of human sexuality. Consequently, after setting the phenomenon in a social and historical context, sexual exploitation is closely observed in the contemporary age. Based on thoughts of relevant thinkers, they make the conclusion that the elimination of sexual exploitation is not an utterly legal issue, but political and economical issues as well. Namely, legal norms are not sufficient to overcome sexual exploitation, but, political and economical relationships in contemporary societies, which will be based on sincere equal opportunities must be established.

  6. Involuntary Neuromuscular Coupling between the Thumb and Finger of Stroke Survivors during Dynamic Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher L. Jones

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Finger–thumb coordination is crucial to manual dexterity but remains incompletely understood, particularly following neurological injury such as stroke. While being controlled independently, the index finger and thumb especially must work in concert to perform a variety of tasks requiring lateral or palmar pinch. The impact of stroke on this functionally critical sensorimotor control during dynamic tasks has been largely unexplored. In this study, we explored finger–thumb coupling during close–open pinching motions in stroke survivors with chronic hemiparesis. Two types of perturbations were applied randomly to the index with a novel Cable-Actuated Finger Exoskeleton: a sudden joint acceleration stretching muscle groups of the index finger and a sudden increase in impedance in selected index finger joint(s. Electromyographic signals for specific thumb and index finger muscles, thumb tip trajectory, and index finger joint angles were recorded during each trial. Joint angle perturbations invoked reflex responses in the flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS, first dorsal interossei (FDI, and extensor digitorum communis muscles of the index finger and heteronymous reflex responses in flexor pollicis brevis of the thumb (p < 0.017. Phase of movement played a role as a faster peak reflex response was observed in FDI during opening than during closing (p < 0.002 and direction of perturbations resulted in shorter reflex times for FDS and FDI (p < 0.012 for extension perturbations. Surprisingly, when index finger joint impedance was suddenly increased, thumb tip movement was substantially increased, from 2 to 10 cm (p < 0.001. A greater effect was seen during the opening phase (p < 0.044. Thus, involuntary finger–thumb coupling was present during dynamic movement, with perturbation of the index finger impacting thumb activity. The degree of coupling modulated with the phase of motion. These findings reveal a potential

  7. Hybrid system-environment dynamics with a non-Gaussian bath coupling: Exact dissipaton theory versus extended Zusman equation

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Rui-Xue; Zhang, Hou-Dao; Yan, YiJing

    2016-01-01

    The quest of an exact and nonperturbative treatment of quantum dissipation in non-Gaussian coupling environments remains in general an untractable task. In this work we address the key issues on the solutions to a class of non-Gaussian coupling environments. As an illustration we consider explicitly a harmonic bath coupled quadratically with an arbitrary system, at finite temperature, and construct a novel dissipaton-equation-of-motion (DEOM) formalism. To validate the underlying dissipaton algebra, we derive in parallel also the extended Zusman equation via a totally different approach, and further prove that DEOM constitutes the resolutions to the latter formalism. Thus, we verify by de facto the novel dissipaton algebraic construction, by which not only the quadratic but also higher-order nonlinear bath couplings can be easily treated. We report the benchmark results on a two-level system dynamics as the interplay between linear and quadratic bath couplings.

  8. Modeling and Analysis of Coupling Performance of Dynamic Stiffness Models for a Novel Combined Radial-Axial Hybrid Magnetic Bearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bangcheng Han

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The combined radial-axial magnetic bearing (CRAMB with permanent magnet creating bias flux can reduce the size, cost, and mass and save energy of the magnetic bearing. The CRAMB have three-degree-of-freedom control ability, so its structure and magnetic circuits are more complicated compared to those of the axial magnetic bearing (AMB or radial magnetic bearing (RMB. And the eddy currents have a fundamental impact on the dynamic performance of the CRAMB. The dynamic stiffness model and its cross coupling problems between different degrees of freedom affected for the CRAMB are proposed in this paper. The dynamic current stiffness and the dynamic displacement stiffness models of the CRAMB are deduced by using the method of equivalent magnetic circuit including eddy current effect, but the dynamic current stiffness of the RMB unit is approximately equal to its static current stiffness. The analytical results of an example show that the bandwidth of the dynamic current stiffness of the AMB unit and the dynamic displacement stiffness of the CRAMB is affected by the time-varying control currents or air gap, respectively. And the dynamic current stiffness and the dynamic displacement stiffness between the AMB unit and the RMB unit are decoupled due to few coupling coefficients.

  9. The Coupling of Back-arc Extension, Extrusion and Subduction Dynamics in the Eastern Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capitanio, Fabio A.

    2017-04-01

    Extension in the Aegean Sea and lateral Anatolian extrusion are contrasting and seemingly unrelated examples of continental tectonics In the Eastern Mediterranean. It is acknowledged that these must reconcile with the dynamics of Tethys closure and following continental collision along the convergent margin, however the underlying mechanisms have been difficult to pinpoint, thus far. Three-dimensional numerical modelling of the dynamics of subduction and coupling with the mantle and upper plates allows probing the evolution of similar areas, supporting inferences on the ultimate causes for the continental tectonics. I will present models that reproduce the force balance of subducting slabs' buoyancy, mantle flow and upper plate interiors, and emphasise the role of perturbations in the force balance that may have followed slab breakoff, collision and trench land-locking reconstructed during the oceanic closure in the Eastern Mediterranean. These perturbations lead to a range of different margin motions and strain regimes in the upper plate, from rollback and back-arc spreading, to indentation and extrusion along the collisional margin. Different spatial and temporal fingerprints are illustrated for these processes, and while the trench rollback and back-arc spreading are rather stable features, extrusion is transient. When these regimes overlap, rapid and complex rearrangements of the tectonics in the upper plate are the result. The remarkable similarity between the models' and the Eastern Mediterranean tectonic regimes and geophysical observable allows proposing viable driving mechanisms and support inferences on the Miocene-to-Pliocene evolution of this puzzling area.

  10. Collective Dynamics on a Two-Lane Asymmetrically Coupled TASEP with Mutually Interactive Langmuir Kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Arvind Kumar

    2016-03-01

    Motivated by the recent experimental observations on clustering of motor proteins on microtubule filament, we study an open system of two parallel totally asymmetric simple exclusion processes under asymmetric coupling conditions, which incorporates the mutual interaction with the surrounding environment through Langmuir Kinetics (LK) in both the lanes. In the modified LK, the attachment and detachment rates depends on the configuration of nearest neighboring sites. We analyse the model within the framework of continuum mean-field theory and the phase diagrams along with density profiles are obtained using boundary layer analysis. The effect of mutual interactions on the phase diagram for two different situations of attachment and detachment (LK) rates is discussed. Under the symmetric LK dynamics, the topological structure of the phase diagram remains similar to the one in without mutual interaction; while for the antisymmetric case, after a certain critical value of attractive/repulsive mutual attraction, significant changes are found in the qualitative nature of phase diagram. Moreover, it is shown that the type of mutual interaction affects the dynamic properties of motor proteins. The theoretical findings are examined by extensive Monte-Carlo simulations.

  11. Late Miocene Pacific plate kinematic change explained with coupled global models of mantle and lithosphere dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stotz, I. L.; Iaffaldano, G.; Davies, D. R.

    2017-07-01

    The timing and magnitude of a Pacific plate motion change within the past 10 Ma remains enigmatic, due to the noise associated with finite-rotation data. Nonetheless, it has been hypothesized that this change was driven by the arrival of the Ontong Java Plateau (OJP) at the Melanesian arc and the consequent subduction polarity reversal. The uncertainties associated with the timing of this event, however, make it difficult to quantitatively demonstrate a dynamical association. Here, we first reconstruct the Pacific plate's absolute motion since the mid-Miocene (15 Ma), at high-temporal resolution, building on previous efforts to mitigate the impact of finite-rotation data noise. We find that the largest change in Pacific plate-motion direction occurred between 10 and 5 Ma, with the plate rotating clockwise. We subsequently develop and use coupled global numerical models of the mantle/lithosphere system to test hypotheses on the dynamics driving this change. These indicate that the arrival of the OJP at the Melanesian arc, between 10 and 5 Ma, followed by a subduction polarity reversal that marked the initiation of subduction of the Australian plate underneath the Pacific realm, were the key drivers of this kinematic change.

  12. Coupling meso- and micro-scale fluid dynamics codes for wind-energy computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satkauskas, Ignas; Sprague, Michael; Churchfield, Matt

    2012-11-01

    Enabled by peta-scale supercomputing, the next generation of computer models for wind energy will simulate a vast range of scales and physics, spanning from wind-turbine structural dynamics and blade-scale turbulence to meso-scale atmospheric flow. This work focuses on new mathematical interface conditions and computational algorithms for coupling meso-scale numerical-weather-prediction codes with micro-scale turbine-vicinity fluid-dynamics codes. Here, an inherent challenge exists when the weather code is based on the compressible Euler equations while the turbine-vicinity flow is modeled by the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. We propose several one- and two-way code-interaction approaches. These approaches are implemented in a two-dimensional testing platform composed of two in-house codes: (1) a finite-difference code that mimics the weather research and forecasting (WRF) solver and (2) an embedded-domain code based on a common finite-volume approach. Supported by the Center for Research and Education in Wind.

  13. High-Performance Modeling of Carbon Dioxide Sequestration by Coupling Reservoir Simulation and Molecular Dynamics

    KAUST Repository

    Bao, Kai

    2015-10-26

    The present work describes a parallel computational framework for carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration simulation by coupling reservoir simulation and molecular dynamics (MD) on massively parallel high-performance-computing (HPC) systems. In this framework, a parallel reservoir simulator, reservoir-simulation toolbox (RST), solves the flow and transport equations that describe the subsurface flow behavior, whereas the MD simulations are performed to provide the required physical parameters. Technologies from several different fields are used to make this novel coupled system work efficiently. One of the major applications of the framework is the modeling of large-scale CO2 sequestration for long-term storage in subsurface geological formations, such as depleted oil and gas reservoirs and deep saline aquifers, which has been proposed as one of the few attractive and practical solutions to reduce CO2 emissions and address the global-warming threat. Fine grids and accurate prediction of the properties of fluid mixtures under geological conditions are essential for accurate simulations. In this work, CO2 sequestration is presented as a first example for coupling reservoir simulation and MD, although the framework can be extended naturally to the full multiphase multicomponent compositional flow simulation to handle more complicated physical processes in the future. Accuracy and scalability analysis are performed on an IBM BlueGene/P and on an IBM BlueGene/Q, the latest IBM supercomputer. Results show good accuracy of our MD simulations compared with published data, and good scalability is observed with the massively parallel HPC systems. The performance and capacity of the proposed framework are well-demonstrated with several experiments with hundreds of millions to one billion cells. To the best of our knowledge, the present work represents the first attempt to couple reservoir simulation and molecular simulation for large-scale modeling. Because of the complexity of

  14. Influence of slab length on dynamic characteristics of subway train-steel spring floating slab track-tunnel coupled system

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Qing-yuan; Yan, Bin; Lou, Ping; Zhou, Xiao-lin

    2015-01-01

    A subway train-steel spring floating slab track-tunnel coupling dynamic model, considering short and middle-long wavelength random track irregularities, and longitudinal connection between adjacent slabs of steel spring floating slab track, was developed. And the influence of slab length on dynamic characteristics of the system under different track conditions and train speeds are theoretically studied. The calculated results show: (1) In general, the acceleration of each component of the cou...

  15. Dynamical control of self-trapping of two weakly coupled Bose-Einstein condensates with a time-modulated nonlinearity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie Qiongtao [Department of Physics, Hunan Normal University, Changsha 410081 (China)], E-mail: xieqiongtao@yahoo.cn

    2009-01-05

    We investigate the effect of a periodic nonlinearity on the self-trapping transitions of two weakly coupled Bose-Einstein condensates in a double well potential. By using an averaging method, the equations of motion of the slow dynamics are derived to analyze the self-trapping behavior. A new type of the tunneling dynamics, characterized by alternate appearance of self-tapping in the two wells, is observed when certain conditions are satisfied.

  16. EXPLOITATION OF GRANITE BOULDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Cotman

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available The processes of forming, petrography, features, properties and exploitation of granite boulders are described. The directional drilling and black powder blasting is the succesful method in exploitation of granite boulders (boulder technology (the paper is published in Croatian.

  17. Coupled Static and Dynamic Buckling Modelling of Thin-Walled Structures in Elastic Range Review of Selected Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kołakowski Zbigniew

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A review of papers that investigate the static and dynamic coupled buckling and post-buckling behaviour of thin-walled structures is carried out. The problem of static coupled buckling is sufficiently well-recognized. The analysis of dynamic interactive buckling is limited in practice to columns, single plates and shells. The applications of finite element method (FEM or/and analytical-numerical method (ANM to solve interaction buckling problems are on-going. In Poland, the team of scientists from the Department of Strength of Materials, Lodz University of Technology and co-workers developed the analytical-numerical method. This method allows to determine static buckling stresses, natural frequencies, coefficients of the equation describing the post-buckling equilibrium path and dynamic response of the plate structure subjected to compression load and/or bending moment. Using the dynamic buckling criteria, it is possible to determine the dynamic critical load. They presented a lot of interesting results for problems of the static and dynamic coupled buckling of thin-walled plate structures with complex shapes of cross-sections, including an interaction of component plates. The most important advantage of presented analytical-numerical method is that it enables to describe all buckling modes and the post-buckling behaviours of thin-walled columns made of different materials. Thin isotropic, orthotropic or laminate structures were considered.

  18. Kinetic reactions in thin polyaniline films revisited through Raman-impedance dynamic coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, X.; Bernard, M.C. [CNRS, UPR 015, LISE, F-75005 Paris (France); UPMC Univ Paris 06, UPR 015, LISE, F-75005 Paris (France); Deslouis, C., E-mail: claude.deslouis@upmc.f [CNRS, UPR 015, LISE, F-75005 Paris (France); UPMC Univ Paris 06, UPR 015, LISE, F-75005 Paris (France); Joiret, S.; Rousseau, P. [CNRS, UPR 015, LISE, F-75005 Paris (France); UPMC Univ Paris 06, UPR 015, LISE, F-75005 Paris (France)

    2011-04-01

    Recently introduced as a new technique in electrochemistry, the Raman-impedance dynamic coupling allows one characterizing transfer functions so far not accessible to experiment such as instantaneous concentrations of adsorbed species in response to potential modulations. These were assessed from the measurement of the time-dependent Raman band intensities of different moieties of reduced and oxidized polyaniline. The local concentrations were assumed to be proportional to these instantaneous band intensities. This technique was used to analyze the kinetics of thin polyaniline films at high pH in the limit of electronic conductivity of the film (pH {<=} 3.7). A model was developed for the different available transfer functions such as Raman (viz. concentrations)/potential, Raman/charge or classical EIS, from a mechanism based on two electron transfer between leucoemeraldine and emeraldine salt and base and a protonation reaction between the last two ones. Among the main results, the band ascribable to leucoemeraldine was found to be proportional to the total charge in the pH and potential ranges investigated which confirms the fact that it is the only reduced species involved in the redox process. A frequency-dependent relaxation was found for emeraldine base vs. charge, with an increase in intensity and a decrease of the characteristic frequency when both the pH and potential increased. Emeraldine salt (polaronic) showed practically no relaxation vs. charge at variance with the bipolaronic one but the response of the latter remained weak and noisy. An improvement in the accuracy of the coupled techniques would bring information that could not be resolved by any of the other alternative techniques alone.

  19. Physics and dynamics coupling across scales in the next generation CESM: Meeting the challenge of high resolution. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, Vincent E.

    2015-02-21

    This is a final report for a SciDAC grant supported by BER. The project implemented a novel technique for coupling small-scale dynamics and microphysics into a community climate model. The technique uses subcolumns that are sampled in Monte Carlo fashion from a distribution of subgrid variability. The resulting global simulations show several improvements over the status quo.

  20. Coherent spin dynamics of an interwell excitonic gas in GaAs/AlGaAs coupled quantum wells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larionov, A. V.; Bisti, V. E.; Bayer, M.

    2006-01-01

    The spin dynamics of an interwell exciton gas has been investigated in n-i-n GaAs/AlGaAs coupled quantum wells. The time evolution kinetics of the interwell exciton photoluminescence has been measured under resonant excitation of the 1s heavy-hole intrawell exciton, using a pulsed tunable laser...

  1. Coupling dynamic modeling and simulation of three-degree-of-freedom micromanipulator based on piezoelectric ceramic of fuzzy PID

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dongjie; Fu, Yu; Yang, Liu

    2017-08-01

    For further research on the microparticles trajectory in the process of micromanipulation, the paper modeled on the coupling dynamic of three-degree-of-freedom micromanipulator which is based on piezoelectric ceramic. In the micromanipulation, the transformation of certain movement direction can generate a corresponding change in the coupling in three-degree-of-freedom micromanipulator movement, the fuzzy PID method was adopted by the control system of this study, and the modeling analysis was performed on the control system. After completing the above modeling, the simulation model is built by the MATLAB Simulink software. The simulation output results are basically in accordance with the actual trajectory, which achieve the successful research purposes of coupling dynamics model for three-degree-of-freedom micromanipulator and application of fuzzy PID method.

  2. PEATBOG: a biogeochemical model for analyzing coupled carbon and nitrogen dynamics in northern peatlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Wu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Elevated nitrogen deposition and climate change alter the vegetation communities and carbon (C and nitrogen (N cycling in peatlands. To address this issue we developed a new process-oriented biogeochemical model (PEATBOG for analyzing coupled carbon and nitrogen dynamics in northern peatlands. The model consists of four submodels, which simulate: (1 daily water table depth and depth profiles of soil moisture, temperature and oxygen levels; (2 competition among three plants functional types (PFTs, production and litter production of plants; (3 decomposition of peat; and (4 production, consumption, diffusion and export of dissolved C and N species in soil water. The model is novel in the integration of the C and N cycles, the explicit spatial resolution belowground, the consistent conceptualization of movement of water and solutes, the incorporation of stoichiometric controls on elemental fluxes and a consistent conceptualization of C and N reactivity in vegetation and soil organic matter. The model was evaluated for the Mer Bleue Bog, near Ottawa, Ontario, with regards to simulation of soil moisture and temperature and the most important processes in the C and N cycles. Model sensitivity was tested for nitrogen input, precipitation, and temperature, and the choices of the most uncertain parameters were justified. A simulation of nitrogen deposition over 40 yr demonstrates the advantages of the PEATBOG model in tracking biogeochemical effects and vegetation change in the ecosystem.

  3. Dynamic modeling of hybrid energy storage systems coupled to photovoltaic generation in residential applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maclay, James D.; Brouwer, Jacob; Samuelsen, G. Scott

    A model of a photovoltaic (PV) powered residence in stand-alone configuration was developed and evaluated. The model assesses the sizing, capital costs, control strategies, and efficiencies of reversible fuel cells (RFC), batteries, and ultra-capacitors (UC) both individually, and in combination, as hybrid energy storage devices. The choice of control strategy for a hybrid energy storage system is found to have a significant impact on system efficiency, hydrogen production and component utilization. A hybrid energy storage system comprised of batteries and RFC has the advantage of reduced cost (compared to using a RFC as the sole energy storage device), high system efficiency and hydrogen energy production capacity. A control strategy that preferentially used the RFC before the battery in meeting load demand allows both grid independent operation and better RFC utilization compared to a system that preferentially used the battery before the RFC. Ultra-capacitors coupled with a RFC in a hybrid energy storage system contain insufficient energy density to meet dynamic power demands typical of residential applications.

  4. Coupled Attitude and Orbit Dynamics and Control in Formation Flying Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yun-Jun; Fitz-Coy, Norman; Mason, Paul

    2003-01-01

    Formation flying systems can range from global constellations offering extended service coverage to clusters of highly coordinated vehicles that perform distributed sensing. Recently, the use of groups of micro-satellites in the areas of near Earth explorations, deep space explorations, and military applications has received considerable attention by researchers and practitioners. To date, most proposed control strategies are based on linear models (e.g., Hill-Clohessy-Wiltshire equations) or nonlinear models that are restricted to circular reference orbits. Also, all models in the literature are uncoupled between relative position and relative attitude. In this paper, a generalized dynamic model is proposed. The reference orbit is not restricted to the circular case. In this formulation, the leader or follower satellite can be in either a circular or an elliptic orbit. In addition to maintaining a specified relative position, the satellites are also required to maintain specified relative attitudes. Thus the model presented couples vehicle attitude and orbit requirements. Orbit perturbations are also included. In particular, the J(sub 2) effects are accounted in the model. Finally, a sliding mode controller is developed and used to control the relative attitude of the formation and the simulation results are presented.

  5. Extraction of Electromagnetic Transition Form Factors for Nucleon Resonances within a Dynamical Coupled-Channels Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N. Suzuki, T. Sato, T.-S. H. Lee

    2010-10-01

    We explain the application of a recently developed analytic continuation method to extract the electromagnetic transition form factors for the nucleon resonances ($N^*$) within a dynamical coupled-channel model of meson-baryon reactions.Illustrative results of the obtained $N^*\\rightarrow \\gamma N$ transition form factors, defined at the resonance pole positions on the complex energy plane, for the well isolated $P_{33}$ and $D_{13}$, and the complicated $P_{11}$ resonances are presented. A formula has been developed to give an unified representation of the effects due to the first two $P_{11}$ poles, which are near the $\\pi\\Delta$ threshold, but are on different Riemann sheets. We also find that a simple formula, with its parameters determined in the Laurent expansions of $\\pi N \\rightarrow \\pi N$ and $\\gamma N \\rightarrow\\pi N$ amplitudes, can reproduce to a very large extent the exact solutions of the considered model at energies near the real parts of the extracted resonance positions. We indicate the differences between our results and those extracted from the approaches using the Breit-Wigner parametrization of resonant amplitudes to fit the data.

  6. The impact of multiple information on coupled awareness-epidemic dynamics in multiplex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yaohui; Yan, Zhijun

    2018-02-01

    Growing interest has emerged in the study of the interplay between awareness and epidemics in multiplex networks. However, previous studies on this issue usually assume that all aware individuals take the same level of precautions, ignoring individual heterogeneity. In this paper, we investigate the coupled awareness-epidemic dynamics in multiplex networks considering individual heterogeneity. Here, the precaution levels are heterogeneous and depend on three types of information: contact information and local and global prevalence information. The results show that contact-based precautions can decrease the epidemic prevalence and augment the epidemic threshold, but prevalence-based precautions, regardless of local or global information, can only decrease the epidemic prevalence. Moreover, unlike previous studies in single-layer networks, we do not find a greater impact of local prevalence information on the epidemic prevalence compared to global prevalence information. In addition, we find that the altruistic behaviors of infected individuals can effectively suppress epidemic spreading, especially when the level of contact-based precaution is high.

  7. Coupled longitudinal-transverse dynamics of a marine propulsion shafting under superharmonic resonances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Donglin; Rao, Zhushi; Ta, Na

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, the transverse superharmonic resonances of a marine propulsion shafting are investigated under the first blade frequency excitation. A coupled longitudinal-transverse dynamic model due to geometrical nonlinearity is established by Hamilton's principle and then is discretized by Galerkin method. The method of multiple scales is applied to these equations. The steady-state response and the stabilities are analyzed. The effect of the support stiffness, load, mass of propeller, damping ratio and slender ratio on the nonlinear effect is discussed. Research shows smaller values of slender ratio, bigger values of load and smaller values of damping ratio lead to stronger nonlinear effect. The nonlinear effect is reduced by increasing the back stern bearing stiffness and increased by increasing the front stern bearing and thrust bearing stiffness and the propeller mass. While the middle bearing makes small influence to it. It is also shown that these resonance curves are of the hardening type. Results of perturbation method are agreement with numerical simulations.

  8. Inductively coupled TI-MPD spacecraft electric propulsion. [thermionic magnetoplasma dynamic thruster design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britt, E. J.; Clark, K. E.; Pawlik, E. V.

    1976-01-01

    A nuclear electric propulsion concept using a thermionic reactor inductively coupled to a magnetoplasma-dynamic (MPD) accelerator is described and the results of preliminary analyses are presented. In this system, the thermionic generating unit operates continuously at a power level of approximately 0.4 MW, while the MPD thruster operates intermittently at higher voltages and power levels. Energy storage is provided by building up a large current in an inductor. Periodically, the charging current is interrupted and the energy stored in the magnetic field of the inductor is utilized for a short duration thrust pulse. A typical thrust pulse is characterized by a power level of 1 to 4 MWe, a duration of 1 msec, and a duty cycle of approximately 20%. Results of the preliminary analysis show that approximately 85 to 90% of the power available from the thermionic converter array can be delivered to the MPD thruster for a nominal 400 kWe system with an inductive unit suitable for a flight vehicle. Optimized values of the total specific mass of the system including the thermionic reactor, the inductor, and the MPD thruster are estimated in the range of 23 to 24 kg/kWe.

  9. Simulating coupled carbon and nitrogen dynamics following mountain pine beetle outbreaks in the western United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edburg, Steven L. [Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States); Hicke, Jeffrey A. [Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States); Lawrence, David M. [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Thornton, Peter E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Insect outbreaks are major ecosystem disturbances, affecting a similar area as forest fires annually across North America. Tree mortality caused by epidemics of bark beetles alters carbon cycling in the first several years following the disturbance by reducing stand-level primary production and increasing decomposition rates. The few studies of biogeochemical cycling following outbreaks have shown a range of impacts from small responses of net carbon fluxes in the first several years after a severe outbreak to large forest areas that are sources of carbon to the atmosphere for decades. To gain more understanding about causes of this range of responses, we used an ecosystem model to assess impacts of different bark beetle outbreak conditions on coupled carbon and nitrogen cycling. We modified the Community Land Model with prognostic carbon and nitrogen to include prescribed bark beetle outbreaks. We then compared control simulations (without a bark beetle outbreak) to simulations with various mortality severity, durations of outbreak, and snagfall dynamics to quantify the range of carbon flux responses and recovery rates of net ecosystem exchange to a range of realistic outbreak conditions. Prescribed mortality by beetles reduced leaf area and thus productivity. Gross primary productivity decreased by as much as 80% for a severe outbreak (95% mortality) and by 10% for less severe outbreaks (25% mortality). Soil mineral nitrogen dynamics (immobilization and plant uptake) were important in governing post-outbreak productivity, and were strongly modulated by carbon inputs to the soil from killed trees. Initial increases in heterotrophic respiration caused by a pulse of labile carbon from roots were followed by a slight reduction (from pre-snagfall reduced inputs), then a secondary increase (from inputs due to snagfall). Secondary increases in heterotrophic respiration were largest for simulated windthrow of snags after a prescribed snagfall delay period. Net ecosystem

  10. Dynamic functional-structural coupling within acute functional state change phases: Evidence from a depression recognition study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Kun; Hua, Lingling; Wei, Maobin; Qin, Jiaolong; Lu, Qing; Yao, Zhijian

    2016-02-01

    Dynamic functional-structural connectivity (FC-SC) coupling might reflect the flexibility by which SC relates to functional connectivity (FC). However, during the dynamic acute state change phases of FC, the relationship between FC and SC may be distinctive and embody the abnormality inherent in depression. This study investigated the depression-related inter-network FC-SC coupling within particular dynamic acute state change phases of FC. Magnetoencephalography (MEG) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data were collected from 26 depressive patients (13 women) and 26 age-matched controls (13 women). We constructed functional brain networks based on MEG data and structural networks from DTI data. The dynamic connectivity regression algorithm was used to identify the state change points of a time series of inter-network FC. The time period of FC that contained change points were partitioned into types of dynamic phases (acute rising phase, acute falling phase,acute rising and falling phase and abrupt FC variation phase) to explore the inter-network FC-SC coupling. The selected FC-SC couplings were then fed into the support vector machine (SVM) for depression recognition. The best discrimination accuracy was 82.7% (P=0.0069) with FC-SC couplings, particularly in the acute rising phase of FC. Within the FC phases of interest, the significant discriminative network pair was related to the salience network vs ventral attention network (SN-VAN) (P=0.0126) during the early rising phase (70-170ms). This study suffers from a small sample size, and the individual acute length of the state change phases was not considered. The increased values of significant discriminative vectors of FC-SC coupling in depression suggested that the capacity to process negative emotion might be more directly related to the SC abnormally and be indicative of more stringent and less dynamic brain function in SN-VAN, especially in the acute rising phase of FC. We demonstrated that depressive brain

  11. Static and dynamic strain coupling behaviour of ferroic and multiferroic perovskites from resonant ultrasound spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, M. A.

    2015-07-01

    Resonant ultrasound spectroscopy (RUS) provides a window on the pervasive influence of strain coupling at phase transitions in perovskites through determination of elastic and anelastic relaxations across wide temperature intervals and with the application of external fields. In particular, large variations of elastic constants occur at structural, ferroelectric and electronic transitions and, because of the relatively long interaction length provided by strain fields in a crystal, Landau theory provides an effective formal framework for characterizing their form and magnitude. At the same time, the Debye equations provide a robust description of dynamic relaxational processes involving the mobility of defects which are coupled with strain. Improper ferroelastic transitions driven by octahedral tilting in KMnF3, LaAlO3, (Ca,Sr)TiO3, Sr(Ti,Zr)O3 and BaCeO3 are accompanied by elastic softening of tens of % and characteristic patterns of acoustic loss due to the mobility of twin walls. RUS data for ferroelectrics and ferroelectric relaxors, including BaTiO3, (K,Na)NbO3,Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3 (PMN), Pb(Sc1/2Ta1/2)O3 (PST), (Pb(Zn1/3Nb2/3)O3)0.955(PbTiO3)0.045 (PZN-PT) and (Pb(In1/2Nb1/2)O3)0.26(Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3)0.44(PbTiO3)0.30 (PIN-PMN-PT) show similar patterns of softening and attenuation but also have precursor softening associated with the development of polar nano regions. Defect-induced ferroelectricity occurs in KTaO3, without the development of long range ordering. By way of contrast, spin-lattice coupling is much more variable in strength, as reflected in a greater range of softening behaviour for Pr0.48Ca0.52MnO3 and Sm0.6Y0.4MnO3 as well as for the multiferroic perovskites EuTiO3,BiFeO3, Bi0.9Sm0.1FeO3, Bi0.9Nd0.1FeO3, (BiFeO3)0.64(CaFeO2.5)0.36, (Pb(Fe0.5Ti0.5)O3)0.4(Pb(Zr0.53Ti0.47)O3)0.6. A characteristic feature of transitions in which there is a significant Jahn-Teller component is softening as the transition point is approached from above, as illustrated by

  12. Electromagnetic dynamic response of HL-2M vacuum vessel under plasma disruption considering the electromagneto-mechanical coupling effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Hongwei; Yuan, Zhensheng; Li, Weixin; Pei, Cuixiang; Xie, Shejuan [State Key Laboratory for Strength and Vibration of Mechanical Structures, Shaanxi Engineering Research Center for NDT and Structural Integrity Evaluation, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Chen, Zhenmao, E-mail: chenzm@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory for Strength and Vibration of Mechanical Structures, Shaanxi Engineering Research Center for NDT and Structural Integrity Evaluation, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Pan, Yudong; Cai, Lijun; Li, Jiaxian [Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu 610041 (China)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • A 1/5 numerical model is established and validated for HL-2M vacuum vessel. • The Lagrangian approach used for treating the EM-mechanical coupling problem is introduced. • The EM field and structural dynamic response of HL-2M VV during plasma disruptions are simulated by using the Lagrangian strategy. • The dynamic responses of the VV of HL-2M are compared to clarify the effect of the EM-mechanical coupling under the MD and VED conditions. • The results present a basis for the safe operation of the HL-2M VV device. - Abstract: During plasma disruptions (PDs), transient eddy currents are induced in the HL-2M vacuum vessel (VV) which is a D-shaped, double thin-wall structure. Under the circumstance of high magnetic field, the resulting electromagnetic (EM) forces during PDs are large and the dynamic response of related structures may be violent. In this complicated EM circumstance, the EM-mechanical coupling effect may also have a great influence on the dynamic response of VV structure. In this paper, the EM field and structural dynamic response of HL-2M VV during PDs are simulated by adopting a numerical code of the Lagrangian approach. The Lagrangian approach is on the basis of the Maxwell equations in the Lagrangian description, which treats the coupling behavior of magnetic damping effect without explicitly using the velocity term. This approach can be easily applied to actual structures by updating FEM meshes and reforming coefficient matrices before calculating EM field at each time step. In this work, the disruption plasma currents of operating conditions are simulated by using the DINA code and then the dynamic responses of displacements and stresses of the VV of HL-2M are obtained for both cases with and without considering the coupling effect. The numerical results show that stresses under the disruptions (MD and VDE) are not significant and the coupling effect does not significantly affect the peak dynamic response for the HL-2M

  13. Dynamics of coupled electron-nuclei-systems in laser fields; Dynamik gekoppelter Elektronen-Kern-Systeme in Laserfeldern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falge, Mirjam

    2012-07-01

    This work aimed at the theoretical analysis of high harmonic generation in molecules and the influence of coupled electron and nuclear dynamics on ultra-short pulse ionization processes. In the first part of this thesis, the isotope effect and influence of vibrational excitation on high harmonic generation were investigated for the isotope pairs H{sub 2}O/D{sub 2}O and H{sub 2}/D{sub 2}. It was shown that on the one hand high harmonic intensities strongly depend on the vibrational quantum number of the initial state of the water molecule and on the other hand the spectra of H{sub 2}O and D{sub 2}O exhibit a clear isotope effect for certain vibrationally excited states. Also it was shown that high harmonics of vibrationally excited states show an even more pronounced isotope effect than the ground state. The second and third part of this work treats the influence of coupled electron and nuclear dynamics on photoelectron spectra. In order to facilitate a numerically exact description of this dynamics, a simple one-dimensional model system (Shin-Metiu model) was used. It consists of only a single electronic and nuclear degree-of-freedom and allows for a switching between adiabatic and strongly non-adiabatic dynamics by its parameterization. This model served for the analysis of the dynamics of three different cases ranging from weak over intermediate to strong electron-nuclear coupling. To investigate the influence of non-adiabatic effects on photoelectron spectra, time-resolved photoelectron spectra were calculated applying two methods: a numerically exact treatment and an adiabatic approach neglecting the electron-nuclear coupling. Subsequently, the dependence of the efficiency of a non-adiabatic transition on the nuclear mass was analysed. To this end, the population dynamics and photoelectron spectra were calculated numerically exactly for a strong electron and nuclear coupling. Thereafter the asymmetry in forward and backward direction of time

  14. Dynamical dispersion engineering in coupled vertical cavities employing a high-contrast grating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taghizadeh, Alireza; Chung, Il-Sug

    2017-01-01

    strength. This can be implemented by employing a high-contrast grating (HCG) as the coupling reflector in a system of two coupled vertical cavities, and engineering both the HCG reflection phase and amplitude response. Several examples of HCG-based coupled cavities with novel features are discussed...

  15. Influence of slab length on dynamic characteristics of subway train-steel spring floating slab track-tunnel coupled system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-yuan Xu

    Full Text Available A subway train-steel spring floating slab track-tunnel coupling dynamic model, considering short and middle-long wavelength random track irregularities, and longitudinal connection between adjacent slabs of steel spring floating slab track, was developed. And the influence of slab length on dynamic characteristics of the system under different track conditions and train speeds are theoretically studied. The calculated results show: (1 In general, the acceleration of each component of the coupled system decreases with the increase of slab length under the perfectly smooth track condition; (2 Slab length has different influence laws on acceleration of each component of subway train-steel spring floating slab track-tunnel coupled system under random irregularity of track condition. The lower the dominant frequency distribution of vibration acceleration is, the higher influence slab length has; (3 With the increase of slab length, the force of rail, fastener and steel spring also decreases significantly, which helps to lengthen the service life of these components; (4 With the increase of slab length, the longitudinal bending moment of slab increases sharply at first, then it begins to drop slightly. When slab length exceeds the distance between two bogies of a vehicle, the longitudinal bending moment of slab changes little; (5 Slab length has significant influence on the dynamic force and displacement of the coupled system when train speed is higher.

  16. Dynamic Analysis of the High Speed Train and Slab Track Nonlinear Coupling System with the Cross Iteration Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyan Lei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A model for dynamic analysis of the vehicle-track nonlinear coupling system is established by the finite element method. The whole system is divided into two subsystems: the vehicle subsystem and the track subsystem. Coupling of the two subsystems is achieved by equilibrium conditions for wheel-to-rail nonlinear contact forces and geometrical compatibility conditions. To solve the nonlinear dynamics equations for the vehicle-track coupling system, a cross iteration algorithm and a relaxation technique are presented. Examples of vibration analysis of the vehicle and slab track coupling system induced by China’s high speed train CRH3 are given. In the computation, the influences of linear and nonlinear wheel-to-rail contact models and different train speeds are considered. It is found that the cross iteration algorithm and the relaxation technique have the following advantages: simple programming; fast convergence; shorter computation time; and greater accuracy. The analyzed dynamic responses for the vehicle and the track with the wheel-to-rail linear contact model are greater than those with the wheel-to-rail nonlinear contact model, where the increasing range of the displacement and the acceleration is about 10%, and the increasing range of the wheel-to-rail contact force is less than 5%.

  17. Dynamics of coupled plasmon polariton wave packets excited at a subwavelength slit in optically thin metal films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei-Ming; Zhang, Lingxiao; Seideman, Tamar; Petek, Hrvoje

    2012-10-01

    We study by numerical simulations the excitation and propagation dynamics of coupled surface plasmon polariton (SPP) wave packets (WPs) in optically thin Ag films and a bulk Ag/vacuum interface under the illumination of a subwavelength slit by 400 nm continuous wave (cw) and femtosecond pulsed light. The generated surface fields include contributions from both SPPs and quasicylindrical waves, which dominate in different regimes. We explore aspects of the coupled SPP modes in Ag thin films, including symmetry, propagation, attenuation, and the variation of coupling with incident angle and film thickness. Simulations of the electromagnetic transients initiated with femtosecond pulses reveal new features of coupled SPP WP generation and propagation in thin Ag films. Our results show that, under pulsed excitation, the SPP modes in an Ag thin film break up into two distinct bound surface wave packets characterized by marked differences in symmetries, group velocities, attenuation lengths, and dispersion properties. The nanometer spatial and femtosecond temporal scale excitation and propagation dynamics of the coupled SPP WPs are revealed in detail by movies recording the evolution of their transient field distributions.

  18. Impacts of dynamical ocean coupling in MJO experiments using NICAM/NICOCO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyakawa, T.

    2016-12-01

    The cloud-system resolving atmosphereic model NICAM has been successfull in producing Madden-Julian Oscillations(MJOs), having it's prediction skill estimated to be about 4 weeks in a series of hindcast experiments for winter MJO events during 2003-2012 (Miyakawa et al. 2014). A simple mixed-layer ocean model has been applied with nudging towards a prescribed "persistent anomaly SST", which maintains the initial anomaly with a time-varying climatological seasonal cycle. This setup enables the model to interact with an ocean with reasonably realistic SST, and also run in a "forecast mode", without using any observational information after the initial date. A limitation is that under this setup, the model skill drops if the oceanic anomaly rapidly changes after the initial date in the real world. Here we run a recently developed, full 3D-ocean coupled version NICAM-COCO (NICOCO) and explore its impact on MJO simulations. Dynamical ocean models can produce oceanic waves/currents, but will also have a bias and drift away from reality. In a sub-seasonal simulation (an initial problem), it is essential to compare the merit of having better represented oceanic signals and the demerit of bias/drift. A test case simulation series featuring an MJO that triggered the abrupt termination of a major El Nino in 1998 shows that the abrupt termination occurs in all 9 simulation members, highlighting the merit of ocean coupling. However, this is a case where oceanic signals are at its extremes. We carried out an estimation of MJO prediction skill for a preliminary 1-degree mesh ocean version of NICOCO in a similar manner to Miyakawa et al. (2014). The MJO skill was degraded for simulations that was initialized at RMM phases 1 and 2 (corresponding to the Indian Ocean), while those initialized at phase 8 (Africa) was not strongly affected. The tendency of the model ocean to overestimate the Maritime Continent warm pool SST possibly delays the eastward propagation of MJO convective

  19. Dynamical coupled modes theory for an s{sub ±}-pairing mechanism of superconductivity in doped iron pnictides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiselev, Mikhail [International Center for Theoretical Physics, I-34151 Trieste (Italy); Efremov, Dmitriy; Drechsler, Stefan-Ludwig; Brink, Jeroen van den [Institute for Theoretical Solid State Physics at the Leibniz Institute for Solid State an Materials Research Dresden, IFW-Dresden, D-01171 Dresden (Germany); Kikoin, Konstantin [School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel Aviv University, 69978 Tel Aviv (Israel)

    2016-07-01

    We develop a high-temperature approach to the problem of the interplay between magnetic and superconducting phases in multi-band iron pnictides. A dynamical mode-mode coupling theory is derived from the the microscopic theory based on the solution of the coupled Bethe-Salpeter equations. We focus on the vicinity to a spin density wave (SDW) where spin fluctuations enhance the onset of superconducting ordering. Special attention is paid to arsenic deficient materials where As vacancies behaves as effective magnetic defects. The proposed theory allows generalization to multi-mode regimes.

  20. Award 1 Title: Acoustic Communications 2011 Experiment: Deployment Support and Post Experiment Data Handling and Analysis. Award 2 Title: Exploiting Structured Dependencies in the Design of Adaptive Algorithms for Underwater Communication Award. 3 Title: Coupled Research in Ocean Acoustics and Signal Processing for the Next Generation of Underwater Acoustic Communication Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    Exploiting Structured Dependencies in the Design of Adaptive Algorithms for Underwater Communication Award #3 Title Coupled Research in Ocean Acoustics...and Signal Processing for theNext Generation of Underwater Acoustic Communication Systems James Preisig Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution...141-0079, N00014-14C-0230 LONG-TERM GOALS A high performance, versatile, and reliable underwater communications capability is of strategic

  1. Rigid-flexible coupling dynamic modeling and investigation of a redundantly actuated parallel manipulator with multiple actuation modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Dong; Song, Yimin; Sun, Tao; Jin, Xueying

    2017-09-01

    A systematic dynamic modeling methodology is presented to develop the rigid-flexible coupling dynamic model (RFDM) of an emerging flexible parallel manipulator with multiple actuation modes. By virtue of assumed mode method, the general dynamic model of an arbitrary flexible body with any number of lumped parameters is derived in an explicit closed form, which possesses the modular characteristic. Then the completely dynamic model of system is formulated based on the flexible multi-body dynamics (FMD) theory and the augmented Lagrangian multipliers method. An approach of combining the Udwadia-Kalaba formulation with the hybrid TR-BDF2 numerical algorithm is proposed to address the nonlinear RFDM. Two simulation cases are performed to investigate the dynamic performance of the manipulator with different actuation modes. The results indicate that the redundant actuation modes can effectively attenuate vibration and guarantee higher dynamic performance compared to the traditional non-redundant actuation modes. Finally, a virtual prototype model is developed to demonstrate the validity of the presented RFDM. The systematic methodology proposed in this study can be conveniently extended for the dynamic modeling and controller design of other planar flexible parallel manipulators, especially the emerging ones with multiple actuation modes.

  2. Effects of dynamically variable saturation and matrix-conduit coupling of flow in karst aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimann, T.; Geyer, T.; Shoemaker, W.B.; Liedl, R.; Sauter, M.

    2011-01-01

    Well-developed karst aquifers consist of highly conductive conduits and a relatively low permeability fractured and/or porous rock matrix and therefore behave as a dual-hydraulic system. Groundwater flow within highly permeable strata is rapid and transient and depends on local flow conditions, i.e., pressurized or nonpressurized flow. The characterization of karst aquifers is a necessary and challenging task because information about hydraulic and spatial conduit properties is poorly defined or unknown. To investigate karst aquifers, hydraulic stresses such as large recharge events can be simulated with hybrid (coupled discrete continuum) models. Since existing hybrid models are simplifications of the system dynamics, a new karst model (ModBraC) is presented that accounts for unsteady and nonuniform discrete flow in variably saturated conduits employing the Saint-Venant equations. Model performance tests indicate that ModBraC is able to simulate (1) unsteady and nonuniform flow in variably filled conduits, (2) draining and refilling of conduits with stable transition between free-surface and pressurized flow and correct storage representation, (3) water exchange between matrix and variably filled conduits, and (4) discharge routing through branched and intermeshed conduit networks. Subsequently, ModBraC is applied to an idealized catchment to investigate the significance of free-surface flow representation. A parameter study is conducted with two different initial conditions: (1) pressurized flow and (2) free-surface flow. If free-surface flow prevails, the systems is characterized by (1) a time lag for signal transmission, (2) a typical spring discharge pattern representing the transition from pressurized to free-surface flow, and (3) a reduced conduit-matrix interaction during free-surface flow. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  3. Carabidae population dynamics and temporal partitioning: response to coupled neonicotinoid-transgenic technologies in maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, T W; Biddinger, D J; Mullin, C A; Fleischer, S J

    2009-06-01

    Insecticidal Bt crops and seed treatments represent additional pest management tools for growers, prompting ecological studies comparing their impact on farm system inputs and effects to nontarget organisms compared with conventional practices. Using high taxonomic and temporal resolution, we contrast the dominance structure of carabids and dynamics of the most abundant species in maize (both sweet and field corn) agroecosystems using pest management tactics determined by the purchase of seed and application of pyrethroid insecticides. In the seed-based treatments, sweet corn contained Cry1Ab/c proteins, whereas field corn contained the coupled technology of Cry3Bb1 proteins for control of corn rootworm and neonicotinoid seed treatments aimed at secondary soil-borne pests. The insecticide treatments involved foliar pyrethroids in sweet corn and at-planting pyrethroids in field corn. The carabid community, comprised of 49 species, was dominated by four species, Scarites quadriceps Chaudoir, Poecilus chalcites Say, Pterostichus melanarius Illiger, and Harpalus pensylvanicus DeGeer, that each occupied a distinct temporal niche during the growing season. Two species, Pt. melanarius and H. pensylvanicus, exhibited differences between treatments over time. Only H. pensylvanicus had consistent results in both years, in which activity densities in field corn were significantly higher in the control in July and/or August. These results, along with laboratory bioassays, led us to hypothesize that lower adult captures resulted from decrease in prey availability or exposure of H. pensylvanicus larvae to soil-directed insecticides-either the neonicotinoid seed treatment in the transgenic field corn or an at-planting soil insecticide in the conventional field corn.

  4. Wandering breathers and self-trapping in weakly coupled nonlinear chains: classical counterpart of macroscopic tunneling quantum dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosevich, Yu A; Manevitch, L I; Savin, A V

    2008-04-01

    We present analytical and numerical studies of the phase-coherent dynamics of intrinsically localized excitations (breathers) in a system of two weakly coupled nonlinear oscillator chains. We show that there are two qualitatively different dynamical regimes of the coupled breathers, either immovable or slowly moving: the periodic transverse translation (wandering) of the low-amplitude breather between the chains and the one-chain-localization of the high-amplitude breather. These two modes of coupled nonlinear excitations, which involve a large number of anharmonic oscillators, can be mapped onto two solutions of a single pendulum equation, detached by a separatrix mode. We also show that these two regimes of coupled phase-coherent breathers are similar and are described by a similar pair of equations to the two regimes in the nonlinear tunneling dynamics of two weakly linked interacting (nonideal) Bose-Einstein condensates. On the basis of this profound analogy, we predict a tunneling mode of two weakly coupled Bose-Einstein condensates in which their relative phase oscillates around pi/2 mod pi. We also show that the magnitude of the static displacements of the coupled chains with nonlinear localized excitation, induced by the cubic term in the intrachain anharmonic potential, scales approximately as the total vibrational energy of the excitation, either a one- or two-chain one, and does not depend on the interchain coupling. This feature is also valid for a narrow stripe of several parallel-coupled nonlinear chains. We also study two-chain breathers which can be considered as bound states of discrete breathers, with different symmetry and center locations in the coupled chains, and bifurcation of the antiphase two-chain breather into the one-chain one. Bound states of two breathers with different commensurate frequencies are found in the two-chain system. Merging of two breathers with different frequencies into one breather in two coupled chains is observed

  5. Multiphoton dynamics of qutrits in the ultrastrong coupling regime with a quantized photonic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avetissian, H. K., E-mail: avetissian@ysu.am; Avetissian, A. K.; Mkrtchian, G. F. [Yerevan State University 0025, Center of Strong Fields Physics (Armenia); Kibis, O. V. [Novosibirsk State Technical University, Department of Applied and Theoretical Physics (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-15

    Multiphoton resonant excitation of a three-state quantum system (a qutrit) with a single-mode photonic field is considered in the ultrastrong coupling regime, when the qutrit–photonic field coupling rate is comparable to appreciable fractions of the photon frequency. For ultrastrong couplings, the obtained solutions of the Schrödinger equation that reveal multiphoton Rabi oscillations in qutrits with the interference effects leading to the collapse and revival of atomic excitation probabilities at the direct multiphoton resonant transitions.

  6. Numerical analysis of dynamic response of vehicle–bridge coupled system on long-span continuous girder bridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lipeng An

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available To systematically study the vehicle–bridge coupled dynamic response and its change rule with different parameters, a vehicle model with seven degrees of freedom was built and the total potential energy of vehicle space vibration system was deduced. Considering the stimulation of road roughness, the dynamic response equation of vehicle–bridge coupled system was established in accordance with the elastic system principle of total potential energy with stationary value and the “set-in-right-position” rule. On the basis of the self-compiled Fortran program and bridge engineering, the dynamic response of long-span continuous girder bridge under vehicle load was studied. This study also included the calculation of vehicle impact coefficient, evaluation of vibration comfort, and analysis of dynamic response parameters. Results show the impact coefficient changes with lane number and is larger than the value calculated by the “general code for design of highway bridges and culverts (China”. The Dieckmann index of bridge vibration is also related to lane number, and the vibration comfort evaluation is good in normal conditions. The relevant conclusions from parametric analyses have practical significance to dynamic design and daily operation of long-span continuous girder bridges in expressways. Safety and comfort are expected to improve significantly with further control of the vibration of vehicle–bridge system.

  7. Dynamical diagnostics of the SST annual cycle in the eastern equatorial Pacific: part I a linear coupled framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying-Ying; Jin, Fei-Fei

    2017-07-01

    The eastern equatorial Pacific has a pronounced westward propagating SST annual cycle resulting from ocean-atmosphere interactions with equatorial semiannual solar forcing and off-equatorial annual solar forcing conveyed to the equator. In this two-part paper, a simple linear coupled framework is proposed to quantify the internal dynamics and external forcing for a better understanding of the linear part of the dynamics annual cycle. It is shown that an essential internal dynamical factor is the SST damping rate which measures the coupled stability in a similar way as the Bjerknes instability index for the El Niño-Southern Oscillation. It comprises three major negative terms (dynamic damping due to the Ekman pumping feedback, mean circulation advection, and thermodynamic feedback) and two positive terms (thermocline feedback and zonal advection). Another dynamical factor is the westward-propagation speed that is mainly determined by the thermodynamic feedback, the Ekman pumping feedback, and the mean circulation. The external forcing is measured by the annual and semiannual forcing factors. These linear internal and external factors, which can be estimated from data, determine the amplitude of the annual cycle.

  8. Spin and tunneling dynamics in an asymmetrical double quantum dot with spin-orbit coupling: Selective spin transport device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Madhav K.; Jha, Pradeep K.; Bhattacherjee, Aranya B.

    2017-09-01

    In this article, we study the spin and tunneling dynamics as a function of magnetic field in a one-dimensional GaAs double quantum dot with both the Dresselhaus and Rashba spin-orbit coupling. In particular, we consider different spatial widths for the spin-up and spin-down electronic states. We find that the spin dynamics is a superposition of slow as well as fast Rabi oscillations. It is found that the Rashba interaction strength as well as the external magnetic field strongly modifies the slow Rabi oscillations which is particularly useful for implementing solid state selective spin transport device.

  9. Nonlinear dynamic behaviour of a rotor-foundation system coupled through passive magnetic bearings with magnetic anisotropy - Theory and experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Søren; Santos, Ilmar F.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, the nonlinear dynamic behaviour of a vertical rigid rotor interacting with a flexible foundation by means of two passive magnetic bearings is quantified and evaluated. The quantification is based on theoretical and experimental investigation of the non-uniformity (anisotropy......-coupling between the two orthogonal directions, especially during counter-phase motion between shaft and bearings. The clear nonlinear behaviour is facilitated by the lack of damping resulting in relatively large vibrations. The overall nonlinear dynamic behaviour is well captured by the theoretical model, thereby...

  10. Optimal Control Strategy Design Based on Dynamic Programming for a Dual-Motor Coupling-Propulsion System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuo; Zhang, Chengning; Han, Guangwei; Wang, Qinghui

    2014-01-01

    A dual-motor coupling-propulsion electric bus (DMCPEB) is modeled, and its optimal control strategy is studied in this paper. The necessary dynamic features of energy loss for subsystems is modeled. Dynamic programming (DP) technique is applied to find the optimal control strategy including upshift threshold, downshift threshold, and power split ratio between the main motor and auxiliary motor. Improved control rules are extracted from the DP-based control solution, forming near-optimal control strategies. Simulation results demonstrate that a significant improvement in reducing energy loss due to the dual-motor coupling-propulsion system (DMCPS) running is realized without increasing the frequency of the mode switch. PMID:25540814

  11. Estimation of coupling between oscillators from short time series via phase dynamics modeling: limitations and application to EEG data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, D A; Bodrov, M B; Velazquez, J L Perez; Wennberg, R A; Bezruchko, B P

    2005-06-01

    We demonstrate in numerical experiments that estimators of strength and directionality of coupling between oscillators based on modeling of their phase dynamics [D. A. Smirnov and B. P. Bezruchko, Phys. Rev. E 68, 046209 (2003)] are widely applicable. Namely, although the expressions for the estimators and their confidence bands are derived for linear uncoupled oscillators under the influence of independent sources of Gaussian white noise, they turn out to allow reliable characterization of coupling from relatively short time series for different properties of noise, significant phase nonlinearity of the oscillators, and nonvanishing coupling between them. We apply the estimators to analyze a two-channel human intracranial epileptic electroencephalogram (EEG) recording with the purpose of epileptic focus localization.

  12. Influence of environment induced correlated fluctuations in electronic coupling on coherent excitation energy transfer dynamics in model photosynthetic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Pengfei; Coker, David F

    2012-03-21

    Two-dimensional photon-echo experiments indicate that excitation energy transfer between chromophores near the reaction center of the photosynthetic purple bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides occurs coherently with decoherence times of hundreds of femtoseconds, comparable to the energy transfer time scale in these systems. The original explanation of this observation suggested that correlated fluctuations in chromophore excitation energies, driven by large scale protein motions could result in long lived coherent energy transfer dynamics. However, no significant site energy correlation has been found in recent molecular dynamics simulations of several model light harvesting systems. Instead, there is evidence of correlated fluctuations in site energy-electronic coupling and electronic coupling-electronic coupling. The roles of these different types of correlations in excitation energy transfer dynamics are not yet thoroughly understood, though the effects of site energy correlations have been well studied. In this paper, we introduce several general models that can realistically describe the effects of various types of correlated fluctuations in chromophore properties and systematically study the behavior of these models using general methods for treating dissipative quantum dynamics in complex multi-chromophore systems. The effects of correlation between site energy and inter-site electronic couplings are explored in a two state model of excitation energy transfer between the accessory bacteriochlorophyll and bacteriopheophytin in a reaction center system and we find that these types of correlated fluctuations can enhance or suppress coherence and transfer rate simultaneously. In contrast, models for correlated fluctuations in chromophore excitation energies show enhanced coherent dynamics but necessarily show decrease in excitation energy transfer rate accompanying such coherence enhancement. Finally, for a three state model of the Fenna-Matthews-Olsen light

  13. Ent: A global dynamic terrestrial ecosystem model for climate interactions at seasonal to century time scales through coupled water, carbon, and nitrogen dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiang, N. Y.; Koster, R. D.; Moorcroft, P. R.; Ni-Meister, W.; Rind, D. H.; Aleinov, I.; Kharecha, P.

    2006-12-01

    Ent is a dynamic global terrestrial ecosystem model (DGTEM) under development at the NASA GISS for coupling with atmospheric general circulation models (GCMs). Ent will be capable of predicting the fast time scale fluxes of water, carbon, nitrogen and energy between the land-surface and the atmosphere and the resulting diurnal surface fluxes, seasonal and inter-annual vegetation growth, and decadal to century scale alterations in vegetation structure and soil carbon and nitrogen. Canopy radiative transfer, biophysics, biogeochemistry, and ecological dynamics will be integrated in a consistent, prognostic, process-based manner, in a way that is both biologically realistic and computationally efficient, and suitable for two-way coupling and parallel computing in GCMs. Canopy radiative transfer is derived from the Geometric-Optical Radiative Transfer (GORT) model (Ni, et al., JGR, 102(D24): 9,555-29,566, 1997); biophysics combines the dynamic construction/destruction of the photosynthetic apparatus of Kull and Kruijt (Adv. Water Resources Res, 24:745-762, 1998) with stomatal conductance of Ball and Berry (Plant Phys., 77(Suppl. 4):91, 1985); dynamic allocation of plant carbon and nitrogen; CASA soil biogeochemistry with extended soil depth (Potter, et al., GBC, 7(4):811-841); and community dynamics of Moorcroft, et al. (Ecol. Monographs, 71(4):557-586, 2001). The model can be used for both assimilation of satellite data and with the GISS GCM for long-term climate studies. Ent will be a standalone set of modules that can be used by the climate modeling community to couple with land surface models and atmospheric GCMs for studies on seasonal weather evolution, vegetation phenology, the carbon budget, climate variability, paleoclimate, global change, vegetation-climate feedbacks, and astronomical biosignatures. Ent is envisioned as a tool for understanding the conditions and signatures of habitability of the Earth, ancient, modern, and future.

  14. Time variant analysis of large scale constrained rotorcraft systems dynamics - An exploitation of IBM-3090 vector-processor's pipe-lining feature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirouche, F. M. L.; Shareef, N. H.; Xie, M.

    1991-01-01

    A generalized algorithmic procedure is presented for handling the constraints in transmissions, which are treated as a multibody system of interconnected rigid/flexible bodies. The type of constraints are classified based on the interconnection of the bodies, assuming one or more points of contact to exist between them. The method is explained through flow charts and configuration/interaction tables. A significant increase in speed of execution is achieved by vectorizing the developed code in computationally intensive areas. The study of an example consisting of two meshing disks rotating at high angular velocity is carried out. The dynamic behavior of the constraint forces associated with the generalized coordinates of the system are plotted by selecting various modes. Applications are intended for the study of dynamic and subsequent prediction of constraint forces at the gear teeth contacting points in helicopter transmissions with the aim of improving performance dependability.

  15. Chiral symmetry breaking and monopole dynamics in non-compact QED3 coupled to a four-fermi interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Armour, Wesley; Strouthos, Costas

    2010-01-01

    We present results from the first lattice simulations of three dimensional non-compact quantum electrodynamics (QED3) with N_f four-component fermion flavors coupled to a weak Z(2) chirally invariant four-fermi interaction. Results with $N_f \\ge 4$ show that the scaling near the strong coupling chiral transition or sharp crossover is determined by the 3d Gross Neveu ultraviolet-stable renormalization group fixed point. Small deviations of the N_f=4 critical exponents from the respective Gross Neveu ones, hint at evidence for non-zero fermion mass generated by the gauge fields dynamics that might have been enhanced by the four-fermi coupling. It is also shown that the scaling region is suppressed at weak four-fermi couplings and large N_f values. Measurements of i) a monopole susceptibility which is the polarizability of the monopole configurations, and ii) the density of isolated monopoles, imply that for $N_f \\ge 1$ and weak gauge couplings the monopoles do not affect the theory's confining properties, becau...

  16. Dynamics of Coupled Electron-Boson Systems with the Multiple Davydov D1Ansatz and the Generalized Coherent State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lipeng; Borrelli, Raffaele; Zhao, Yang

    2017-11-22

    The dynamics of a coupled electron-boson system is investigated by employing a multitude of the Davydov D 1 trial states, also known as the multi-D 1 Ansatz, and a second trial state based on a superposition of the time-dependent generalized coherent state (GCS Ansatz). The two Ansätze are applied to study population dynamics in the spin-boson model and the Holstein molecular crystal model, and a detailed comparison with numerically exact results obtained by the (multilayer) multiconfiguration time-dependent Hartree method and the hierarchy equations of motion approach is drawn. It is found that the two methodologies proposed here have significantly improved over that with the single D 1 Ansatz, yielding quantitatively accurate results even in the critical cases of large energy biases and large transfer integrals. The two methodologies provide new effective tools for accurate, efficient simulation of many-body quantum dynamics thanks to a relatively small number of parameters which characterize the electron-nuclear wave functions. The wave-function-based approaches are capable of tracking explicitly detailed bosonic dynamics, which is absent by construct in approaches based on the reduced density matrix. The efficiency and flexibility of our methods are also advantages as compared with numerically exact approaches such as QUAPI and HEOM, especially at low temperatures and in the strong coupling regime.

  17. Statistical and dynamical properties of covariant lyapunov vectors in a coupled atmosphere-ocean model—multiscale effects, geometric degeneracy, and error dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannitsem, Stéphane; Lucarini, Valerio

    2016-06-01

    We study a simplified coupled atmosphere-ocean model using the formalism of covariant Lyapunov vectors (CLVs), which link physically-based directions of perturbations to growth/decay rates. The model is obtained via a severe truncation of quasi-geostrophic equations for the two fluids, and includes a simple yet physically meaningful representation of their dynamical/thermodynamical coupling. The model has 36 degrees of freedom, and the parameters are chosen so that a chaotic behaviour is observed. There are two positive Lyapunov exponents (LEs), sixteen negative LEs, and eighteen near-zero LEs. The presence of many near-zero LEs results from the vast time-scale separation between the characteristic time scales of the two fluids, and leads to nontrivial error growth properties in the tangent space spanned by the corresponding CLVs, which are geometrically very degenerate. Such CLVs correspond to two different classes of ocean/atmosphere coupled modes. The tangent space spanned by the CLVs corresponding to the positive and negative LEs has, instead, a non-pathological behaviour, and one can construct robust large deviations laws for the finite time LEs, thus providing a universal model for assessing predictability on long to ultra-long scales along such directions. Interestingly, the tangent space of the unstable manifold has substantial projection on both atmospheric and oceanic components. The results show the difficulties in using hyperbolicity as a conceptual framework for multiscale chaotic dynamical systems, whereas the framework of partial hyperbolicity seems better suited, possibly indicating an alternative definition for the chaotic hypothesis. They also suggest the need for an accurate analysis of error dynamics on different time scales and domains and for a careful set-up of assimilation schemes when looking at coupled atmosphere-ocean models.

  18. Coupled effects of dehydration reaction, dilatant strengthening and shear heating on dynamic fault slip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, T.

    2012-12-01

    It is believed that dynamic fault slip is affected by thermal pressurization. However, dilatant strengthening and dehydration reaction may significantly affect the degree of thermal pressurization. In addition, it is not clear how such effects influence the fault slip as a whole. We theoretically study how dilatant strengthening, frictional heating and dehydration reaction are coupled and how they affect dynamic slip assuming a fault in a thermoporoelastic medium saturated with fluid. After mathematical analysis is carried out for 1D model, the behavior of 2D fault model is studied numerically. The porosity is assumed to increase with increasing fault slip following Suzuki and Yamashita (2008). Our mathematical formulation of dehydration reaction is based on Brantut et al.(2010); the dehydration reaction is assumed to be endothermic. In addition, starting from the temperature Ts, all the frictional energy is assumed to be absorbed by the dehydration reaction rather than converted into heat. Although Brantut et al.(2010) assumed a constant slip velocity, we consider the temporal evolution of slip assuming the Coulomb law of friction on the fault. We first make the analysis assuming adiabatic and undrained conditions for the 1D model. We find that three nondimensional parameters Su, P0 and G0 determine the system behavior if the initial temperature T0 and dehydration starting temperature Ts are given, where Su (>0) is a parameter proportional to the pore creation rate, P0 (>0) is the initial nondimensional frictional stress and G0 (>0) is a parameter proportional to the mass fraction of fluid released per unit of total rock mass divided by the energy change per unit volume of the slip zone. The nondimensional frictional stress P is defined by the Coulomb frictional stress divided by the initial shear stress, which suggests the relation 0Ts, where Te is the temperature. We find for Te>Ts that the evolution of P is described by the equation dP/dT=(1-P)(Su-G0*P), where

  19. Dynamic evolution of vortex solitons for coupled Bose-Einstein condensates in harmonic potential trap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Wang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available We studied the evolution of vortex solitons in two-component coupled Bose-Einstein condensates trapped in a harmonic potential. Using a two-dimensional coupled Gross-Pitaevskii equation model and a variational method, we theoretically derived the vortex soliton solution. Under an appropriate parametric setting, the derived vortex soliton radius was found to oscillate periodically. The derived quasi-stable states with typical nonlinear features are pictorially demonstrated and can be used to guide relevant experimental observations of vortex soliton phenomena in coupled ultracold atomic systems.

  20. Real-time dynamic control of the Three Gorges Reservoir by coupling numerical weather rainfall prediction and flood forecasting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Y.; Chen, H.; Rosbjerg, Dan

    2013-01-01

    Center. Here, the flood forecast model coupled with the rainfall forecast from RSM has been employed to carry out real-time dynamic control of the Flood Limiting Water Level (FLWL) of TGR in order to improve the hydropower generation without increasing the flood risk. Taking the flood events of the flood...... season 2012 as example, real-time dynamic control of the FLWL was implemented by using the forecasted reservoir flood inflow as input. The forecasted inflow with 5 days lead-time rainfall forecast was evaluated by several performance indices, including the mean relative error of the volumetric reservoir...... content, the relative error of peak flow and the time difference between the forecasted and the observed peak flow, all showing good performance of the forecast. Using the forecasted inflow as input to the FLWL model of TGR, the results showed that the dynamic control scheme did not increase the flood...

  1. Coupled Water, Energy, Carbon and Nutrient Cycle Dynamics in Ecohydrologic Response: Integration of Modeling with Ameriflux and FACE Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, P.; Drewry, D.; Sivapalan, M.; Long, S. P.; Ling, X.

    2008-12-01

    The terrestrial biosphere that encompasses vegetation and the adjacent soil and atmosphere, is a veritable biogeochemical crossroads, consisting of complex interactions between energy, water, carbon and nutrient transfers. Changes in one component, e.g., water, energy, carbon or nutrient cycles, has a feedback effect on all other components, with the result that the connection between cause and effect is not easily understood and is hard to predict with confidence. As the CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere increase there is compelling evidence that vegetation functions are altered with consequences for water and biogeochemical cycling. To predict these dynamics we have developed a multilayer canopy-soil model coupling above-ground vegetation processes with below-ground soil transport mechanisms and root moisture and nutrient uptake. The above-ground vegetation component includes a Farquhar-based photosynthesis module, coupled to canopy energy balance processes through Ball-Berry-Leuning stomatal conductance relationships. The below-ground model is based on a novel mechanistic formulation coupling soil moisture transport with root water uptake and hydraulic redistribution. These equations are solved simultaneously with subsurface temperature and nutrient transport and uptake relationships. The complete model couples the soil and vegetation systems linked through biogeochemical and water flows. Studies consist of model application to examine the feedbacks in the plant-soil-atmosphere system using Ameriflux and FACE (Free Air CO2 Exchange) experiment data that characterize the conditions for ambient and elevated CO2 levels, respectively. We examine the biophysical processes that result in elevated temperature and reduced transpiration response from the canopy and the consequent changes in other related dynamics such as boundary layer growth and nutrient dynamics.

  2. A mesoscopic bridging scale method for fluids and coupling dissipative particle dynamics with continuum finite element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojic, Milos; Filipovic, Nenad; Tsuda, Akira

    2012-01-01

    A multiscale procedure to couple a mesoscale discrete particle model and a macroscale continuum model of incompressible fluid flow is proposed in this study. We call this procedure the mesoscopic bridging scale (MBS) method since it is developed on the basis of the bridging scale method for coupling molecular dynamics and finite element models [G.J. Wagner, W.K. Liu, Coupling of atomistic and continuum simulations using a bridging scale decomposition, J. Comput. Phys. 190 (2003) 249–274]. We derive the governing equations of the MBS method and show that the differential equations of motion of the mesoscale discrete particle model and finite element (FE) model are only coupled through the force terms. Based on this coupling, we express the finite element equations which rely on the Navier–Stokes and continuity equations, in a way that the internal nodal FE forces are evaluated using viscous stresses from the mesoscale model. The dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) method for the discrete particle mesoscale model is employed. The entire fluid domain is divided into a local domain and a global domain. Fluid flow in the local domain is modeled with both DPD and FE method, while fluid flow in the global domain is modeled by the FE method only. The MBS method is suitable for modeling complex (colloidal) fluid flows, where continuum methods are sufficiently accurate only in the large fluid domain, while small, local regions of particular interest require detailed modeling by mesoscopic discrete particles. Solved examples – simple Poiseuille and driven cavity flows illustrate the applicability of the proposed MBS method. PMID:23814322

  3. Dynamics of Small-Scale Perched Aquifers in the Semi-Arid South-Western Region of Madagascar and Implications for the Sustainable Groundwater Exploitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englert, A.; Brinkmann, K.; Kobbe, S.; Buerkert, A.

    2016-12-01

    The south-western region of Madagascar is characterized by limited water resources throughout the year and recurrent droughts, which affect agricultural production and increase the risk of food insecurity. To deliver reliable estimates on the availability and dynamics of water resources, we studied the hydrogeology of several villages in the Mahafaly region. Detailed investigations were conducted for a selected village on a calcareous plateau to predict the local water resources under changing boundary conditions including enhanced water abstraction and changes in groundwater recharge. In 2014 a participatory monitoring network was established, which allowed groundwater level measurements in three wells twice a day. Additional hydrogeological investigations included pumping tests, automatic monitoring of meteorological data, daily groundwater abstraction appraisal and mapping of the spatial extent of the perched aquifer using satellite data. Analysis of the measured data unraveled the aquifer dynamic to be dominated by a groundwater level driven leakage process. The latter is superimposed by groundwater recharge in the rainy season and a daily groundwater abstraction. Based on these findings we developed a model for the aquifer, which allows to predict the duration of groundwater availability as a function of annual precipitation and daily water abstraction. The latter will be implemented in an agent-based land-use model, were groundwater abstraction is a function of population and livestock. The main objective is to model land use scenarios and global trends (climate, market trends and population development) through explicit imbedding of artificial and natural groundwater dynamics. The latter is expected to enable the evaluation of additional water abstraction for agricultural purposes without endangering water supply of the local population and their livestock.

  4. The Coupled Orbit-Attitude Dynamics and Control of Electric Sail in Displaced Solar Orbits

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mingying Huo; He Liao; Yanfang Liu; Naiming Qi

    2017-01-01

    .... The results of stability analysis show that only some of the orbits are marginally stable. For unstable displaced orbits, linear quadratic regulator is employed to control the coupled attitude-orbit...

  5. Dynamics of a driven spin coupled to an antiferromagnetic spin bath

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan Xiaozhong; Goan, Hsi-Sheng [Department of Physics and Center for Theoretical Sciences, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Zhu, Ka-Di, E-mail: goan@phys.ntu.edu.tw [Department of Physics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2011-02-15

    We study the behavior of the Rabi oscillations of a driven central spin (qubit) coupled to an antiferromagnetic spin bath (environment). It is found that the decoherence behavior of the central spin depends on the detuning, driving strength, qubit-bath coupling and an important factor {Omega}, associated with the number of coupled atoms, the detailed lattice structure and the temperature of the environment. If detuning exists, Rabi oscillations may show the behavior of collapses and revivals; however, if detuning is absent, such a behavior will not appear. We investigate the weighted frequency distribution of the time evolution of the central spin inversion and give a reasonable explanation of this phenomenon of collapses and revivals. We also discuss the decoherence and pointer states of the qubit from the perspective of von Neumann entropy. We found that the eigenstates of the qubit self-Hamiltonian emerge as pointer states in the weak system-environment coupling limit.

  6. Dynamics of supercooled liquids: excess wings, {beta} peaks, and rotation-translation coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cummins, H Z [Physics Department, City College of the City University of New York, New York, NY 10031 (United States)

    2005-03-16

    Dielectric susceptibility spectra of liquids cooled towards the liquid-glass transition often exhibit secondary structure in the frequency region between the {alpha} peak and the susceptibility minimum, in the form of either an 'excess wing' or a secondary peak-the Johari-Goldstein {beta} peak. Recently, Goetze and Sperl (2004 Phys. Rev. Lett. 92 105701) showed that a simple schematic mode coupling theory model, which incorporates rotation-translation (RT) coupling, successfully describes the nearly logarithmic decay observed in optical Kerr effect data. This model also exhibits both excess wing and {beta} peak features, qualitatively resembling experimental dielectric data. It also predicts that the excess wing slope decreases with decreasing temperature and gradually evolves into a {beta} peak with increasing RT coupling. We therefore suggest that these features and their observed evolution with temperature may be consequences of RT coupling.

  7. Alexip: an Expert System Coupled with a Dynamic Simulator for the Supervision of the Alphabutol Process ALEXIP : système couplé à un simulateur dynamique pour la supervision du procédé Alphabutol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cauvin S.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available ALEXIP (ALphabutol EXpert IFP is a knowledge-based system designed to improve the operation of the Alphabutol petrochemical process (IFP process which produces 1-butene by dimerizing ethylene by helping the operators in their process control tasks in running industrial units. Coupled with a dynamic simulator, this system assesses the situation of the process at any time and determines the measures to be taken to maintain it or to bring it into a state of optimal operation. The structure developed is generic. The knowledge is stored in the form of facts easily read by the experts and processed by general rules written in second-order logic using the Genesia 2 software. It accordingly helps to accommodate new knowledge easily, and can be adapted to other processes. ALEXIP (ALphabutol Expert IFP est un système à base de connaissances dont le but est d'améliorer l'exploitation du procédé pétrochimique Alphabutol (procédé IFP qui produit du butène-1 par dimérisation de l'éthylène en aidant les opérateurs dans leurs tâches de conduite des unités industrielles. Couplé à un simulateur dynamique, ce système analyse l'état dans lequel se trouve le procédé à un instant donné et détermine les actions à entreprendre pour le maintenir ou le ramener dans un état de fonctionnement optimal. La structure élaborée est générique ; la connaissance est stockée sous forme de faits lisibles facilement par les experts et traités par des règles générales écrites en logique d'ordre 2 à l'aide du logiciel Génésia 2. Elle permet donc d'accueillir facilement de nouvelles connaissances et peut être adaptée à d'autres procédés.

  8. Spin dynamical phase and anti-resonance in a strongly coupled magnon-photon system

    OpenAIRE

    Harder, Michael; Hyde, Paul; Bai, Lihui; Match, Christophe; Hu, Can-Ming

    2016-01-01

    We experimentally studied a strongly coupled magnon-photon system via microwave transmission measurements. An anti-resonance, i.e. the suppression of the microwave transmission, is observed, indicating a relative phase change between the magnon response and the driving microwave field. We show that this anti-resonance feature can be used to interpret the phase evolution of the coupled magnon-microwave system and apply this technique to reveal the phase evolution of magnon dark modes. Our work...

  9. Preheating after multifield inflation with nonminimal couplings. III. Dynamical spacetime results

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCross, Matthew P.; Kaiser, David I.; Prabhu, Anirudh; Prescod-Weinstein, Chanda; Sfakianakis, Evangelos I.

    2018-01-01

    This paper concludes our semianalytic study of preheating in inflationary models comprised of multiple scalar fields coupled nonminimally to gravity. Using the covariant framework of paper I in this series, we extend the rigid-spacetime results of paper II by considering both the expansion of the Universe during preheating, as well as the effect of the coupled metric perturbations on particle production. The adiabatic and isocurvature perturbations are governed by different effective masses that scale differently with the nonminimal couplings and evolve differently in time. The effective mass for the adiabatic modes is dominated by contributions from the coupled metric perturbations immediately after inflation. The metric perturbations contribute an oscillating tachyonic term that enhances an early period of significant particle production for the adiabatic modes, which ceases on a time scale governed by the nonminimal couplings ξI . The effective mass of the isocurvature perturbations, on the other hand, is dominated by contributions from the fields' potential and from the curvature of the field-space manifold (in the Einstein frame), the balance between which shifts on a time scale governed by ξI. As in papers I and II, we identify distinct behavior depending on whether the nonminimal couplings are small [ξI≲O (1 ) ], intermediate [ξI˜O (1 -10 ) ], or large (ξI≥100 ).

  10. Coupled binding-bending-folding: The complex conformational dynamics of protein-DNA binding studied by atomistic molecular dynamics simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Vaart, Arjan

    2015-05-01

    Protein-DNA binding often involves dramatic conformational changes such as protein folding and DNA bending. While thermodynamic aspects of this behavior are understood, and its biological function is often known, the mechanism by which the conformational changes occur is generally unclear. By providing detailed structural and energetic data, molecular dynamics simulations have been helpful in elucidating and rationalizing protein-DNA binding. This review will summarize recent atomistic molecular dynamics simulations of the conformational dynamics of DNA and protein-DNA binding. A brief overview of recent developments in DNA force fields is given as well. Simulations have been crucial in rationalizing the intrinsic flexibility of DNA, and have been instrumental in identifying the sequence of binding events, the triggers for the conformational motion, and the mechanism of binding for a number of important DNA-binding proteins. Molecular dynamics simulations are an important tool for understanding the complex binding behavior of DNA-binding proteins. With recent advances in force fields and rapid increases in simulation time scales, simulations will become even more important for future studies. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Recent developments of molecular dynamics. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Viruses exploiting peroxisomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarow, Paul B

    2011-08-01

    Viruses that are of great importance for global public health, including HIV, influenza and rotavirus, appear to exploit a remarkable organelle, the peroxisome, during intracellular replication in human cells. Peroxisomes are sites of lipid biosynthesis and catabolism, reactive oxygen metabolism, and other metabolic pathways. Viral proteins are targeted to peroxisomes (the spike protein of rotavirus) or interact with peroxisomal proteins (HIV's Nef and influenza's NS1) or use the peroxisomal membrane for RNA replication. The Nef interaction correlates strongly with the crucial Nef function of CD4 downregulation. Viral exploitation of peroxisomal lipid metabolism appears likely. Mostly, functional significance and mechanisms remain to be elucidated. Recently, peroxisomes were discovered to play a crucial role in the innate immune response by signaling the presence of intracellular virus, leading to the first rapid antiviral response. This review unearths, interprets and connects old data, in the hopes of stimulating new and promising research. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Dissemination and Exploitation Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badger, Merete; Monaco, Lucio; Fransson, Torsten

    The research infrastructure project Virtual Campus Hub (VCH) runs from October 1, 2011 to September 30, 2013. Four technical universities in Europe, who are all active in the field of sustainable energy, form the project consortium: the Technical University of Denmark, The Royal Institute...... of Technology in Sweden, Politecnico di Torino in Italy, and Eindhoven University of Technology in the Netherlands. The project is partially funded by the European Commission under the 7th Framework Programme (project no. RI-283746). This report describes the final dissemination and exploitation strategy...... for project Virtual Campus Hub. A preliminary dissemination and exploitation plan was setup early in the project as described in the deliverable D6.1 Dissemination strategy paper - preliminary version. The plan has been revised on a monthly basis during the project’s lifecycle in connection with the virtual...

  13. A coupling model to simulate the dynamic process of blister-actuated nanosecond laser-induced forward transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yongxiang; Cheng, Han; Xu, Jiaxi; Yao, Zhenqiang

    2017-08-01

    The modeling of laser-induced forward transfer process (LIFT) is helpful to understand and optimize its complex transfer process. In this work, a coupling model is developed to investigate the dynamic response of a thin polymer layer used as the release layer in the blister-actuated LIFT. In this model, the vapor pressure generated by nanosecond laser irradiation is computed through coupling with the transient vapor volume obtained from different step durations to simulate the dynamic blister formation. And the model is validated by experiments on polyimide film irradiated with different laser fluences, which is found to be capable of providing a consistent prediction of blister profiles under several laser conditions. The calibrated energy conversion ratios imply that laser pulse energy is mainly allocated for the heating and vaporizing of polymers, but increasing laser fluence can make this expense gradually saturated to allow more pulse energy to increase the vapor pressure. Transient pressure development from the coupling model is observed to increase rapidly within the pulse duration, but then to decrease because of vapor expansion. Forward velocity in axial direction is also observed to increase with laser fluence. The maximum velocity is possible to exceed the sound velocity under a high laser fluence. And the thin polymer layer is more preferred to obtain a high transfer velocity.

  14. Scalar field as an intrinsic time measure in coupled dynamical matter-geometry systems. I. Neutral gravitational collapse

    CERN Document Server

    Nakonieczna, Anna

    2015-01-01

    There does not exist a notion of time which could be transferred straightforwardly from classical to quantum gravity. For this reason, a method of time quantification which would be appropriate for gravity quantization is being sought. One of the existing proposals is using the evolving matter as an intrinsic `clock' while investigating the dynamics of gravitational systems. The objective of our research was to check whether scalar fields can serve as time variables during a dynamical evolution of a coupled multi-component matter-geometry system. For this purpose, we investigated a gravitational collapse of a self-interacting complex and real scalar fields in the Brans-Dicke theory using the 2+2 spacetime foliation. We focused mainly on the region of high curvature appearing nearby the emerging singularity, which is essential from the perspective of quantum gravity. We investigated several formulations of the theory for various values of the Brans-Dicke coupling constant and the coupling between the Brans-Dic...

  15. Predicting extinction risks under climate change: coupling stochastic population models with dynamic bioclimatic habitat models

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    David A Keith; H. Resit Akçakaya; Wilfried Thuiller; Guy F Midgley; Richard G Pearson; Steven J Phillips; Helen M Regan; Miguel B Araújo; Tony G Rebelo

    2008-01-01

    Species responses to climate change may be influenced by changes in available habitat, as well as population processes, species interactions and interactions between demographic and landscape dynamics...

  16. Dynamic models of G-protein coupled receptor dimers: indications of asymmetry in the rhodopsin dimer from molecular dynamics simulations in a POPC bilayer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filizola, Marta; Wang, Simon X.; Weinstein, Harel

    2006-08-01

    Based on the growing evidence that G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) form homo- and hetero-oligomers, models of GPCR signaling are now considering macromolecular assemblies rather than monomers, with the homo-dimer regarded as the minimal oligomeric arrangement required for functional coupling to the G-protein. The dynamic mechanisms of such signaling assemblies are unknown. To gain some insight into properties of GPCR dimers that may be relevant to functional mechanisms, we study their current structural prototype, rhodopsin. We have carried out nanosecond time-scale molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of a rhodopsin dimer and compared the results to the monomer simulated in the same type of bilayer membrane model composed of an equilibrated unit cell of hydrated palmitoyl-oleoyl-phosphatidyl choline (POPC). The dynamic representation of the homo-dimer reveals the location of structural changes in several regions of the monomeric subunits. These changes appear to be more pronounced at the dimerization interface that had been shown to be involved in the activation process [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 102:17495, 2005]. The results are consistent with a model of GPCR activation that involves allosteric modulation through a single GPCR subunit per dimer.

  17. On-line dynamic fractionation and automatic determination of inorganic phosphorus in environmental solid substrates exploiting sequential injection microcolumn extraction and flow injection analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buanuam, Janya [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Rama VI Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Miro, Manuel [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of the Balearic Islands, Carretera de Valldemossa km. 7.5, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca, Illes Balears (Spain)]. E-mail: manuel.miro@uib.es; Hansen, Elo Harald [Department of Chemistry, Technical University of Denmark, Kemitorvet, Building 207, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)]. E-mail: ehh@kemi.dtu.dk; Shiowatana, Juwadee [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Rama VI Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand)

    2006-06-16

    Sequential injection microcolumn extraction (SI-MCE) based on the implementation of a soil-containing microcartridge as external reactor in a sequential injection network is, for the first time, proposed for dynamic fractionation of macronutrients in environmental solids, as exemplified by the partitioning of inorganic phosphorus in agricultural soils. The on-line fractionation method capitalises on the accurate metering and sequential exposure of the various extractants to the solid sample by application of programmable flow as precisely coordinated by a syringe pump. Three different soil phase associations for phosphorus, that is, exchangeable, Al- and Fe-bound, and Ca-bound fractions, were elucidated by accommodation in the flow manifold of the three steps of the Hieltjes-Lijklema (HL) scheme involving the use of 1.0 M NH{sub 4}Cl, 0.1 M NaOH and 0.5 M HCl, respectively, as sequential leaching reagents. The precise timing and versatility of SI for tailoring various operational extraction modes were utilized for investigating the extractability and the extent of phosphorus re-distribution for variable partitioning times. Automatic spectrophotometric determination of soluble reactive phosphorus in soil extracts was performed by a flow injection (FI) analyser based on the Molybdenum Blue (MB) chemistry. The 3{sigma} detection limit was 0.02 mg P L{sup -1} while the linear dynamic range extended up to 20 mg P L{sup -1} regardless of the extracting media. Despite the variable chemical composition of the HL extracts, a single FI set-up was assembled with no need for either manifold re-configuration or modification of chemical composition of reagents. The mobilization of trace elements, such as Cd, often present in grazed pastures as a result of the application of phosphate fertilizers, was also explored in the HL fractions by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry.

  18. On-line dynamic fractionation and automatic determination of inorganic phosphorus in environmental solid substrates exploiting sequential injection microcolumn extraction and flow injection analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buanuam, Janya; Miró, Manuel; Hansen, Elo Harald; Shiowatana, Juwadee

    2006-06-16

    Sequential injection microcolumn extraction (SI-MCE) based on the implementation of a soil-containing microcartridge as external reactor in a sequential injection network is, for the first time, proposed for dynamic fractionation of macronutrients in environmental solids, as exemplified by the partitioning of inorganic phosphorus in agricultural soils. The on-line fractionation method capitalises on the accurate metering and sequential exposure of the various extractants to the solid sample by application of programmable flow as precisely coordinated by a syringe pump. Three different soil phase associations for phosphorus, that is, exchangeable, Al- and Fe-bound, and Ca-bound fractions, were elucidated by accommodation in the flow manifold of the three steps of the Hieltjes-Lijklema (HL) scheme involving the use of 1.0M NH4Cl, 0.1M NaOH and 0.5M HCl, respectively, as sequential leaching reagents. The precise timing and versatility of SI for tailoring various operational extraction modes were utilized for investigating the extractability and the extent of phosphorus re-distribution for variable partitioning times. Automatic spectrophotometric determination of soluble reactive phosphorus in soil extracts was performed by a flow injection (FI) analyser based on the Molybdenum Blue (MB) chemistry. The 3sigma detection limit was 0.02 mg P L(-1) while the linear dynamic range extended up to 20 mg P L(-1) regardless of the extracting media. Despite the variable chemical composition of the HL extracts, a single FI set-up was assembled with no need for either manifold re-configuration or modification of chemical composition of reagents. The mobilization of trace elements, such as Cd, often present in grazed pastures as a result of the application of phosphate fertilizers, was also explored in the HL fractions by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry.

  19. Large-scale molecular dynamics simulation of coupled dynamics of flow and glycocalyx: towards understanding atomic events on an endothelial cell surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xi Zhuo; Gong, Haipeng; Luo, Kai Hong; Ventikos, Yiannis

    2017-12-01

    The glycocalyx has a prominent role in orchestrating multiple biological processes occurring at the plasma membrane. In this paper, an all-atom flow/glycocalyx system is constructed with the bulk flow velocity in the physiologically relevant ranges for the first time. The system is simulated by molecular dynamics using 5.8 million atoms. Flow dynamics and statistics in the presence of the glycocalyx are presented and discussed. Complex dynamic behaviours of the glycocalyx, particularly the sugar chains, are observed in response to blood flow. In turn, the motion of the glycocalyx, including swing and swirling, disturbs the flow by altering the velocity profiles and modifying the vorticity distributions. As a result, the initially one-dimensional forcing is spread to all directions in the region near the endothelial cell surface. Furthermore, the coupled dynamics exist not only between the flow and the glycocalyx but also within the glycocalyx molecular constituents. Shear stress distributions between one-dimer and three-dimer cases are also conducted. Finally, potential force transmission pathways are discussed based on the dynamics of the glycocalyx constituents, which provides new insight into the mechanism of mechanotransduction of the glycocalyx. These findings have relevance in the pathologies of glycocalyx-related diseases, for example in renal or cardiovascular conditions. © 2017 The Authors.

  20. Implementation of dynamic dual input multiple output logic gate via resonance in globally coupled Duffing oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesh, P. R.; Venkatesan, A.; Lakshmanan, M.

    2017-08-01

    We have used a system of globally coupled double-well Duffing oscillators under an enhanced resonance condition to design and implement Dual Input Multiple Output (DIMO) logic gates. In order to enhance the resonance, the first oscillator in the globally coupled system alone is excited by two forces out of which one acts as a driving force and the other will be either sub-harmonic or super-harmonic in nature. We report that for an appropriate coupling strength, the second force coherently drives and enhances not only the amplitude of the weak first force to all the coupled systems but also drives and propagates the digital signals if any given to the first system. We then numerically confirm the propagation of any digital signal or square wave without any attenuation under an enhanced resonance condition for an amplitude greater than a threshold value. Further, we extend this idea for computing various logical operations and succeed in designing theoretically DIMO logic gates such as AND/NAND, OR/NOR gates with globally coupled systems.

  1. Dynamic Response Analysis of an Asymmetric Coupled Vehicle-Track System Generated by Voided Elastic Two-Block Sleeper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenxing He

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on vehicle-track coupled dynamic theory, a three-dimensional asymmetric vehicle-track coupling vibration model is developed to investigate the effect of voided elastic two-block sleepers on vehicle and track system dynamic responses. For the vehicle system, one car body, two frames, and four wheel sets are assumed to be rigid, with 35 degrees of freedom (DOF. For the track system, the rails and the concrete two-block sleepers are the main vibration components. The rails are modelled as Timoshenko beams, and the concrete two-block sleepers are assumed to be rigid mass with vertical and lateral movement. The pads under the rails and the rubber boots under the sleepers provide greater vertical and lateral elasticity for the track. The Hertz nonlinear elastic contact theory is used to calculate the normal wheel/rail force. The wheel/rail tangent creep force is first calculated using Kalker’s linear creep theory and then modified by the Shen-Hedrick-Elkins theory. The results show that the asymmetric voided elastic two-block sleepers have greater effects on the dynamic responses for fasteners and sleepers than on the car body and the wheel/rail forces under measured geometric irregularity and random irregularity. Two or more voided sleepers will greatly affect the vehicle running safety.

  2. Reconstructing the Nd oceanic cycle using a coupled dynamical – biogeochemical model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Arsouze

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The decoupled behaviour observed between Nd isotopic composition (Nd IC, also referred as εNd and Nd concentration cycles has led to the notion of a "Nd paradox". While εNd behaves in a quasi-conservative way in the open ocean, leading to its broad use as a water-mass tracer, Nd concentration displays vertical profiles that increase with depth, together with a deep-water enrichment along the global thermohaline circulation. This non-conservative behaviour is typical of nutrients affected by scavenging in surface waters and remineralisation at depth. In addition, recent studies suggest the only way to reconcile both concentration and Nd IC oceanic budgets, is to invoke a "Boundary Exchange" process (BE, defined as the co-occurrence of transfer of elements from the margin to the sea with removal of elements from the sea by Boundary Scavenging as a source-sink term. However, these studies do not simulate the input/output fluxes of Nd to the ocean, and therefore prevents from crucial information that limits our understanding of Nd decoupling. To investigate this paradox on a global scale, this study uses for the first time a fully prognostic coupled dynamical/biogeochemical model with an explicit representation of Nd sources and sinks to simulate the Nd oceanic cycle. Sources considered include dissolved river fluxes, atmospheric dusts and margin sediment re-dissolution. Sinks are scavenging by settling particles. This model simulates the global features of the Nd oceanic cycle well, and produces a realistic distribution of Nd concentration (correct order of magnitude, increase with depth and along the conveyor belt, 65% of the simulated values fit in the ±10 pmol/kg envelop when compared to the data and isotopic composition (inter-basin gradient, characterization of the main water-masses, more than 70% of the simulated values fit in the ±3 εNd envelop when compared to the data, though a slight overestimation of

  3. Dynamics of Orientational Phase Ordering Coupled to Elastic Degrees of Freedom

    OpenAIRE

    内田, 就也

    2004-01-01

    Slow dynamics in complex systems : 3rd International Symposium on Slow Dynamics in Complex Systems, Sendai, Japan, 3-8 November 2003 / editors, Tokuyama Michio, Irwin Oppenheim ; sponsoring organizations, Institute of Fluid Science, Tohoku University Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan

  4. Geographic coupling of juvenile and adult habitat shapes spatial population dynamics of a coral reef fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijbers, C.M.; Nagelekerken, I.; Debrot, A.O.; Jongejans, E.

    2013-01-01

    Marine spatial population dynamics are often addressed with a focus on larval dispersal, without taking into account movement behavior of individuals in later life stages. Processes occurring during demersal life stages may also drive spatial population dynamics if habitat quality is perceived

  5. Coupled Global Models of Mantle and Lithosphere Dynamics: Identifying the Forces Governing Pacific Plate Motions since the mid–Miocene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stotz Canales, Ingo Leonardo

    2017-01-01

    at the Melanesian arc. Furthermore, we demonstrate, for the first time, that the sub–Pacific asthenosphere features a significant component of pressure–driven flow (i.e., Poiseuille), and that this accounts for more than half of the Pacific plate motion over at least the past 15 Myr. Our results highlight the power......Almost all surface processes, including motions of the lithospheric plates, can be related to underlying mantle circulation. Geological expressions across Earth’s surface, such as the Andean mountain range in South America, the ancient cratons of Australia and the African continent’s unusual.......e. the direction and magnitude) of lithospheric plates. In this thesis, we have developed novel coupled global numerical models of mantle and lithosphere dynamics and, subsequently, used these to test hypotheses on the force–balance governing motion of the Pacific plate since the mid–Miocene. These coupled models...

  6. Dynamics of a bilayer membrane coupled to a two-dimensional cytoskeleton: Scale transfers of membrane deformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Ryuichi; Komura, Shigeyuki; Fournier, Jean-Baptiste

    2017-07-01

    We theoretically investigate the dynamics of a floating lipid bilayer membrane coupled with a two-dimensional cytoskeleton network, taking into account explicitly the intermonolayer friction, the discrete lattice structure of the cytoskeleton, and its prestress. The lattice structure breaks lateral continuous translational symmetry and couples Fourier modes with different wave vectors. It is shown that within a short time interval a long-wavelength deformation excites a collection of modes with wavelengths shorter than the lattice spacing. These modes relax slowly with a common renormalized rate originating from the long-wavelength mode. As a result, and because of the prestress, the slowest relaxation is governed by the intermonolayer friction. Conversely, and most interestingly, forces applied at the scale of the cytoskeleton for a sufficiently long time can cooperatively excite large-scale modes.

  7. An electro-mechanically coupled model for the dynamic behavior of a dielectric electro-active polymer actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgins, M.; Rizzello, G.; Naso, D.; York, A.; Seelecke, S.

    2014-10-01

    Dielectric electro-active polymer (DEAP) technology holds promise for enabling lightweight, energy efficient, and scalable actuators. The circular DEAP actuator configuration (also known as cone or diaphragm actuator) in particular shows potential in applications such as pumps, valves, micro-positioners and loudspeakers. For a quantitative prediction of the actuator behavior as well as for design optimization tasks, material models which can reproduce the coupled electromechanical behavior inherent to these actuators are necessary. This paper presents a non-linear viscoelastic model based on an electro-mechanical Ogden free energy expression for the DEAP. The DEAP model is coupled with a spring/mass system to study the dynamic performance of such a representative system from static behavior to 50 Hz. The system is identified and validated by several different experiments.

  8. The application of a dynamic OpenMI coupling between a regional climate model and a distributed surface water-groundwater model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butts, Michael; Drews, Martin; Larsen, Morten Andreas Dahl

    2014-01-01

    To support climate adaptation measures for water resources, we have developed and evaluated a dynamic coupling between a comprehensive distributed hydrological modelling system, MIKE SHE, and a regional climate modelling system, HIRHAM. The coupled model enables two-way interaction between the at...

  9. The effect of noise and coupling on beta cell excitation dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    system, but with a quantitative description of the effect of noise. This approach supports previous investigations of the channel sharing hypothesis. For beta cells coupled via gap junctions we briefly discuss the effects of the ATP driven potassium ion gate on reaction diffusion type waves. It is shown......Bursting electrical behavior is commonly observed in a variety of nerve and endocrine cells, including that in electrically coupled β-cells located in intact pancreatic islets. However, individual β-cells usually display either spiking or very fast bursting behavior, and the difference between...... isolated and coupled cells has been suggested to be due to stochastic fluctuations of the plasma membrane ion channels, which are supposed to have a stronger effect on single cells than on cells situated in clusters (the channel sharing hypothesis). This effect of noise has previously been studied using...

  10. Molecular states of HeH/sup +/. Energies and dynamical couplings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macias, A.; Riera, A.; Yanez, M.

    1983-01-01

    We complete the molecular results reported in a previous paper by presenting additional energies (for /sup 1,3/..sigma.. states) and radial couplings (between '..sigma.. states) of the HeH/sup +/ system. These results are needed to treat elastic and inelastic charge-exchange processes when full account is taken of momentum-transfer problems. We also present a formalism to calculate radial couplings between wave functions computed with the use of different variational methods and basis sets. The detailed form of the radial couplings is discussed and related to the Barat-Lichten correlation diagram. The effect of using finite basis sets in calculatig degenerate molecular energies is also discussed.

  11. Optical phase dynamics in mutually coupled diode laser systems exhibiting power synchronization

    CERN Document Server

    Pal, Vishwa; Ghosh, R

    2011-01-01

    We probe the physical mechanism behind the known phenomenon of power synchronization of two diode lasers that are mutually coupled via their delayed optical fields. In a diode laser, the amplitude and the phase of the optical field are coupled by the so-called linewidth enhancement factor, $\\alpha$. In this work, we explore the role of optical phases of the electric fields in amplitude (and hence power) synchronization through $\\alpha$ in such mutually delay-coupled diode laser systems. Our numerical results show that the synchronization of optical phases drives the powers of lasers to synchronized death regimes. We also find that as $\\alpha$ varies for different diode lasers, the system goes through a sequence of in-phase amplitude-death states. Within the windows between successive amplitude-death regions, the cross-correlation between the field amplitudes exhibits a universal power-law behaviour with respect to $\\alpha$.

  12. Highly integrated flow assembly for automated dynamic extraction and determination of readily bioaccessible chromium(VI) in soils exploiting carbon nanoparticle-based solid-phase extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosende, Maria; Miro, Manuel; Cerda, Victor [University of the Balearic Islands, Department of Chemistry, Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Segundo, Marcela A.; Lima, Jose L.F.C. [University of Porto, REQUIMTE, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Porto (Portugal)

    2011-06-15

    An automated dynamic leaching test integrated in a portable flow-based setup is herein proposed for reliable determination of readily bioaccessible Cr(VI) under worst-case scenarios in soils containing varying levels of contamination. The manifold is devised to accommodate bi-directional flow extraction followed by processing of extracts via either in-line clean-up/preconcentration using multi-walled carbon nanotubes or automatic dilution at will, along with Cr(VI) derivatization and flow-through spectrophotometric detection. The magnitude of readily mobilizable Cr(VI) pools was ascertained by resorting to water extraction as promulgated by current standard leaching tests. The role of carbon nanomaterials for the uptake of Cr(VI) in soil leachates and the configuration of the packed column integrated in the flow manifold were investigated in detail. The analytical performance of the proposed system for in vitro bioaccessibility tests was evaluated in chromium-enriched soils at environmentally relevant levels and in a standard reference soil material (SRM 2701) with a certified value of total hexavalent chromium. The automated method was proven to afford unbiased assessment of water-soluble Cr(VI) in soils as a result of the minimization of the chromium species transformation. By combination of the kinetic leaching profile and a first-order leaching model, the water-soluble Cr(VI) fraction in soils was determined in merely 6 h against >24 h taken in batchwise steady-state standard methods. (orig.)

  13. Decay dynamics of radiatively coupled quantum dots in photonic crystal slabs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Philip Trøst; Mørk, Jesper; Lodahl, Peter

    2011-01-01

    We theoretically investigate the influence of radiative coupling on light emission in a photonic crystal slab structure. The calculation method is based on a formalism that combines the photon Green's tensor with a self-consistent Dyson equation approach and is applicable to a wide range of probl......We theoretically investigate the influence of radiative coupling on light emission in a photonic crystal slab structure. The calculation method is based on a formalism that combines the photon Green's tensor with a self-consistent Dyson equation approach and is applicable to a wide range...

  14. Fully implicit, coupled procedures in computational fluid dynamics an engineer's resource book

    CERN Document Server

    Mazhar, Zeka

    2016-01-01

    This book introduces a new generation of superfast algorithms for the treatment of the notoriously difficult velocity-pressure coupling problem in incompressible fluid flow solutions. It provides all the necessary details for the understanding and implementation of the procedures. The derivation and construction of the fully-implicit, block-coupled, incomplete decomposition mechanism are given in a systematic, but easy fashion. Worked-out solutions are included, with comparisons and discussions. A complete program code is included for faster implementation of the algorithm. A brief literature review of the development of the classical solution procedures is included as well. .

  15. Using Landsat time series for characterizing forest disturbance dynamics in the coupled human and natural systems of Central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senf, Cornelius; Pflugmacher, Dirk; Hostert, Patrick; Seidl, Rupert

    2017-08-01

    Remote sensing is a key information source for improving the spatiotemporal understanding of forest ecosystem dynamics. Yet, the mapping and attribution of forest change remains challenging, particularly in areas where a number of interacting disturbance agents simultaneously affect forest development. The forest ecosystems of Central Europe are coupled human and natural systems, with natural and human disturbances affecting forests both individually and in combination. To better understand the complex forest disturbance dynamics in such systems, we utilize 32-year Landsat time series to map forest disturbances in five sites across Austria, the Czech Republic, Germany, Poland, and Slovakia. All sites consisted of a National Park and the surrounding forests, reflecting three management zones of different levels of human influence (managed, protected, strictly protected). This allowed for a comparison of spectral, temporal, and spatial disturbance patterns across a gradient from natural to coupled human and natural disturbances. Disturbance maps achieved overall accuracies ranging from 81% to 93%. Disturbance patches were generally small, with 95% of the disturbances being smaller than 10 ha. Disturbance rates ranged from 0.29% yr-1 to 0.95% yr-1, and differed substantially among management zones and study sites. Natural disturbances in strictly protected areas were longer in duration (median of 8 years) and slightly less variable in magnitude compared to human-dominated disturbances in managed forests (median duration of 1 year). However, temporal dynamics between natural and human-dominated disturbances showed strong synchrony, suggesting that disturbance peaks are driven by natural events affecting managed and unmanaged areas simultaneously. Our study demonstrates the potential of remote sensing for mapping forest disturbances in coupled human and natural systems, such as the forests of Central Europe. Yet, we also highlight the complexity of such systems in terms

  16. Coupling nitrogen-vacancy centers to a dynamic ferromagnetic vortex for fast, nanoscale spin addressability and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berezovsky, Jesse

    As we begin to look at how spin qubits might be integrated into a scalable platform, a promising strategy is to engineer the magnetic environment of the spins using micron- or nanometer-scale ferromagnetic (FM) elements, for functionalities such as nanoscale addressability, spin-wave mediated coupling, or enhanced sensing. The promise of these FM/spin interactions brings with it the question of how the coherence properties of the spin will be affected by coupling to these complex mesoscopic systems. To explore the physics of individual spins coupled to a proximal, dynamic ferromagnetic structure, we have studied interactions between individual nitrogen-vacancy (NV) spins and a model FM system - a vortex magnetization state. The complex, yet controllable, spin texture of a FM vortex, formed in a thin disk or nanowire, allows one to study different regimes of interaction with a nearby confined spin. The vortex core produces a large static dipole-like fringe field. The vortex state also displays discrete dynamic modes ranging from several 100 MHz to GHz. By applying an in-plane magnetic field, the position of the vortex core relative to the NV spin can be controlled with nanometer-scale resolution, and time resolution of 10s of nanoseconds. As the vortex core is translated into proximity with an NV spin, the fringe field from the core generates a large position-dependent spin splitting, permitting nanoscale spin addressability. We also find that the dynamic interaction of the vortex, NV spin, and applied microwave field results in amplification of the Rabi transition rate by more than an order of magnitude. Finally, we explore how spin decoherence and relaxation mechanisms are enhanced as the vortex core approaches the NVs, with implications for proposed technology incorporating coherent spins and proximal FM elements. We acknowledge support from DOE, Award No. DE-SC008148.

  17. Non-steady state mass action dynamics without rate constants: dynamics of coupled reactions using chemical potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, William R.; Baker, Scott E.

    2017-10-01

    Comprehensive and predictive simulation of coupled reaction networks has long been a goal of biology and other fields. Currently, metabolic network models that utilize enzyme mass action kinetics have predictive power but are limited in scope and application by the fact that the determination of enzyme rate constants is laborious and low throughput. We present a statistical thermodynamic formulation of the law of mass action for coupled reactions at both steady states and non-stationary states. The formulation uses chemical potentials instead of rate constants. When used to model deterministic systems, the method corresponds to a rescaling of the time dependent reactions in such a way that steady states can be reached on the same time scale but with significantly fewer computational steps. The relationships between reaction affinities, free energy changes and generalized detailed balance are central to the discussion. The significance for applications in systems biology are discussed as is the concept and assumption of maximum entropy production rate as a biological principle that links thermodynamics to natural selection.

  18. Multi-State Quantum Dissipative Dynamics in Sub-Ohmic Environment: The Strong Coupling Regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Magazzù

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We study the dissipative quantum dynamics and the asymptotic behavior of a particle in a bistable potential interacting with a sub-Ohmic broadband environment. The reduced dynamics, in the intermediate to strong dissipation regime, is obtained beyond the two-level system approximation by using a real-time path integral approach. We find a crossover dynamic regime with damped intra-well oscillations and incoherent tunneling and a completely incoherent regime at strong damping. Moreover, a nonmonotonic behavior of the left/right well population difference is found as a function of the damping strength.

  19. Hybrid Coupled Cluster and Molecular Dynamics Approach: Application to the Excitation Spectrum of Cytosine in the Native DNA Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valiev, Marat; Kowalski, Karol

    2006-12-07

    Evolution of the excited state energies of cytosine base in the native DNA environment was investigated using hybrid coupled cluster and classical molecular dynamics approach. The time averaged excitation energies obtained with the variant of the completely renormalized equation-of-motion with singles, doubles, and non-iterative triples approach that includes a bulk of the correlation effects for excited states, are compared with the analogous calculations in the gas phase. Significant blue shifts for the two lowest singlet excitation energies can be observed as a result of interaction of the quantum system with surrounding environment.

  20. Hacking the art of exploitation

    CERN Document Server

    Erickson, Jon

    2003-01-01

    A comprehensive introduction to the techniques of exploitation and creative problem-solving methods commonly referred to as "hacking," Hacking: The Art of Exploitation is for both technical and non-technical people who are interested in computer security. It shows how hackers exploit programs and write exploits, instead of just how to run other people's exploits. Unlike many so-called hacking books, this book explains the technical aspects of hacking, including stack based overflows, heap based overflows, string exploits, return-into-libc, shellcode, and cryptographic attacks on 802.11b.

  1. Towards silicon speciation in light petroleum products using gas chromatography coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry equipped with a dynamic reaction cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chainet, Fabien, E-mail: fabien.chainet@ifpen.fr [IFP Energies nouvelles, Rond-point de l' échangeur de Solaize, BP 3, 69360 Solaize (France); Lienemann, Charles-Philippe; Ponthus, Jeremie [IFP Energies nouvelles, Rond-point de l' échangeur de Solaize, BP 3, 69360 Solaize (France); Pécheyran, Christophe; Castro, Joaudimir; Tessier, Emmanuel; Donard, Olivier François Xavier [LCABIE-IPREM, UMR 5254, CNRS-UPPA, Helioparc, 2 av. Pr. Angot, 64053 Pau (France)

    2014-07-01

    Silicon speciation has recently gained interest in the oil and gas industry due to the significant poisoning problems caused by silicon on hydrotreatment catalysts. The poisoning effect clearly depends on the structure of the silicon species which must be determined and quantified. The hyphenation of gas chromatography (GC) coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) allows a specific detection to determine the retention times of all silicon species. The aim of this work is to determine the retention indices of unknown silicon species to allow their characterization by a multi-technical approach in order to access to their chemical structure. The optimization of the dynamic reaction cell (DRC) of the ICP-MS using hydrogen as reactant gas successfully demonstrated the resolution of the interferences ({sup 14}N{sup 14}N{sup +} and {sup 12}C{sup 16}O{sup +}) initially present on {sup 28}Si. The linearity was excellent for silicon compounds and instrumental detection limits ranged from 20 to 140 μg of Si/kg depending on the response of the silicon compounds. A continuous release of silicon in the torch was observed most likely due to the use of a torch and an injector which was made of quartz. A non-universal response for silicon was observed and it was clearly necessary to use response coefficients to quantify silicon compounds. Known silicon compounds such as cyclic siloxanes (D{sub 3}–D{sub 16}) coming from PDMS degradation were confirmed. Furthermore, more than 10 new silicon species never characterized before in petroleum products were highlighted in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) degradation samples produced under thermal cracking of hydrocarbons. These silicon species mainly consisted of linear and cyclic structures containing reactive functions such as ethoxy, peroxide and hydroxy groups which can be able to react with the alumina surface and hence, poison the catalyst. This characterization will further allow the development of innovative

  2. Dynamics of coupled vibration modes in a quantum non-linear mechanical resonator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Labadze, G.; Dukalski, M.S.; Blanter, Y.M.

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the behaviour of two non-linearly coupled flexural modes of a doubly clamped suspended beam (nanomechanical resonator). One of the modes is externally driven. We demonstrate that classically, the behavior of the non-driven mode is reminiscent of that of a parametrically driven

  3. Microdialysis reveals dynamics of coupling between noradrenaline release and melatonin secretion in conscious rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drijfhout, W.J; van der Linde, A.G; de Vries, J.B; Grol, Cor; Westerink, B.H.C.

    1996-01-01

    The coupling between noradrenergic innervation of the pineal gland and melatonin production was investigated. Previously, the development of a microdialysis; technique was described which made it possible to study the noradrenaline (NA) input as well as the melatonin output with high time

  4. Magnetization-induced dynamics of a Josephson junction coupled to a nanomagnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Roopayan; Maiti, Moitri; Shukrinov, Yury M.; Sengupta, K.

    2017-11-01

    We study the superconducting current of a Josephson junction (JJ) coupled to an external nanomagnet driven by a time-dependent magnetic field both without and in the presence of an external ac drive. We provide an analytic, albeit perturbative, solution for the Landau-Lifshitz (LL) equations governing the coupled JJ-nanomagnet system in the presence of a magnetic field with arbitrary time dependence oriented along the easy axis of the nanomagnet's magnetization and in the limit of weak dimensionless coupling ɛ0 between the JJ and the nanomagnet. We show the existence of Shapiro-type steps in the I -V characteristics of the JJ subjected to a voltage bias for a constant or periodically varying magnetic field and explore the effect of rotation of the magnetic field and the presence of an external ac drive on these steps. We support our analytic results with exact numerical solution of the LL equations. We also extend our results to dissipative nanomagnets by providing a perturbative solution to the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG) equations for weak dissipation. We study the fate of magnetization-induced Shapiro steps in the presence of dissipation both from our analytical results and via numerical solution of the coupled LLG equations. We discuss experiments which can test our theory.

  5. Dynamics of two coupled chaotic multimode Nd:YAG lasers with ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    He considered the frequency doubling in the KTP crystal by second harmonic generation and sum frequency generation. The sum frequency generation was assumed to give the mode–mode coupling necessary for the appearance of chaos. Later Bracikowski and Roy [17,18] observed that the intensity fluctuations can.

  6. G protein-coupled receptors self-assemble in dynamics simulations of model bilayers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Periole, Xavier; Huber, Thomas; Marrink, Siewert-Jan; Sakmar, Thomas P.

    2007-01-01

    Many integral membrane proteins assemble to form oligomeric structures in biological membranes. In particular, seven-transmembrane helical G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) appear to self-assemble constitutively in membranes, but the mechanism and physiological role of this assembly are unknown.

  7. Coupling molecular dynamics with lattice Boltzmann method based on the immersed boundary method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jifu; Sinno, Talid; Diamond, Scott

    2017-11-01

    The study of viscous fluid flow coupled with rigid or deformable solids has many applications in biological and engineering problems, e.g., blood cell transport, drug delivery, and particulate flow. We developed a partitioned approach to solve this coupled Multiphysics problem. The fluid motion was solved by Palabos (Parallel Lattice Boltzmann Solver), while the solid displacement and deformation was simulated by LAMMPS (Large-scale Atomic/Molecular Massively Parallel Simulator). The coupling was achieved through the immersed boundary method (IBM). The code modeled both rigid and deformable solids exposed to flow. The code was validated with the classic problem of rigid ellipsoid particle orbit in shear flow, blood cell stretching test and effective blood viscosity, and demonstrated essentially linear scaling over 16 cores. An example of the fluid-solid coupling was given for flexible filaments (drug carriers) transport in a flowing blood cell suspensions, highlighting the advantages and capabilities of the developed code. NIH 1U01HL131053-01A1.

  8. The role of the southern annular mode in dynamical global coupled model

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Beraki, AF

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The interannual and decadal variability of the Southern Annual Mode (SAM) was examined in the ECHAM 4.5-MOM3-SA ocean-atmosphere coupled general circulation model (OAGCM). The analysis placed emphasis on the behavior of the SAM when its variability...

  9. Gas coning control for smart wells using a dynamic coupled well-reservoir simulator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leemhuis, A.P.; Nennie, E.D.; Belfroid, S.P.C.; Alberts, G.J.N.; Peters, E.; Joosten, G.J.P.

    2008-01-01

    A strong increase in gas inflow due to gas coning and the resulting bean-back because of Gas to Oil Ratio (GOR) constraints can severely limit oil production and reservoir drive energy. In this paper we will use a coupled reservoir-well model to demonstrate that oil production can be increased by

  10. Urban street canyons: Coupling dynamics, chemistry and within-canyon chemical processing of emissions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bright, Vivien Bianca; Bloss, William James; Cai, Xiaoming

    2013-01-01

    .... As the prevailing atmospheric chemistry is highly non-linear, and the canyon mixing and predominant chemical reaction timescales are comparable, the combined impacts of dynamics and chemistry must...

  11. Climate fluctuations of tropical coupled systems — The role of ocean dynamics

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chang, P.; Yamagata, T.; Schopf, P.; Behera, S.K.; Carton, J.; Kessler, W.S.; Meyers, G.; Qu, T.; Schott, F.; Shetye, S.R.; Xie, S.P.

    of cold and warm states seems unrealistic (Kessler 2002a). At the low frequencies of ENSO, determining wave reflection efficiency and other necessary components of the theory are extremely difficult (Zang et al. 2002), but the work of Schopf and Suarez.... In these theories, the ocean's role lies in the dynamical response of the thermocline throughout the tropics to anomalous wind forcing, transmitting information across the basin through large- scale dynamics. When averaged over periods of a year or more...

  12. Entanglement dynamics of coupled qubits and a semi-decoherence free subspace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campagnano, Gabriele [II Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Stuttgart (Germany); Hamma, Alioscia, E-mail: ahamma@perimeterinstitute.c [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, 31 Caroline St. N, N2L 2Y5, Waterloo ON (Canada); Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Research Laboratory of Electronics, 77 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Weiss, Ulrich [II Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Stuttgart (Germany)

    2010-01-04

    We study the entanglement dynamics and relaxation properties of a system of two interacting qubits in the cases of (I) two independent bosonic baths and (II) one common bath. We find that in the case (II) the existence of a decoherence-free subspace (DFS) makes entanglement dynamics very rich. We show that when the system is initially in a state with a component in the DFS the relaxation time is surprisingly long, showing the existence of semi-decoherence free subspaces.

  13. The new Cloud Dynamics and Radiation Database algorithms for AMSR2 and GMI: exploitation of the GPM observational database for operational applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinzia Marra, Anna; Casella, Daniele; Martins Costa do Amaral, Lia; Sanò, Paolo; Dietrich, Stefano; Panegrossi, Giulia

    2017-04-01

    Two new precipitation retrieval algorithms for the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2 (AMSR2) and for the GPM Microwave Imager (GMI) are presented. The algorithms are based on the Cloud Dynamics and Radiation Database (CDRD) Bayesian approach and represent an evolution of the previous version applied to Special Sensor Microwave Imager/Sounder (SSMIS) observations, and used operationally within the EUMETSAT Satellite Application Facility on support to Operational Hydrology and Water Management (H-SAF). These new products present as main innovation the use of an extended database entirely empirical, derived from coincident radar and radiometer observations from the NASA/JAXA Global Precipitation Measurement Core Observatory (GPM-CO) (Dual-frequency Precipitation Radar-DPR and GMI). The other new aspects are: 1) a new rain-no-rain screening approach; 2) the use of Empirical Orthogonal Functions (EOF) and Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA) both in the screening approach, and in the Bayesian algorithm; 2) the use of new meteorological and environmental ancillary variables to categorize the database and mitigate the problem of non-uniqueness of the retrieval solution; 3) the development and implementations of specific modules for computational time minimization. The CDRD algorithms for AMSR2 and GMI are able to handle an extremely large observational database available from GPM-CO and provide the rainfall estimate with minimum latency, making them suitable for near-real time hydrological and operational applications. As far as CDRD for AMSR2, a verification study over Italy using ground-based radar data and over the MSG full disk area using coincident GPM-CO/AMSR2 observations has been carried out. Results show remarkable AMSR2 capabilities for rainfall rate (RR) retrieval over ocean (for RR > 0.25 mm/h), good capabilities over vegetated land (for RR > 1 mm/h), while for coastal areas the results are less certain. Comparisons with NASA GPM products, and with

  14. Multidimensional treatment of stochastic solvent dynamics in photoinduced proton-coupled electron transfer processes: sequential, concerted, and complex branching mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soudackov, Alexander V; Hazra, Anirban; Hammes-Schiffer, Sharon

    2011-10-14

    A theoretical approach for the multidimensional treatment of photoinduced proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) processes in solution is presented. This methodology is based on the multistate continuum theory with an arbitrary number of diabatic electronic states representing the relevant charge distributions in a general PCET system. The active electrons and transferring proton(s) are treated quantum mechanically, and the electron-proton vibronic free energy surfaces are represented as functions of multiple scalar solvent coordinates corresponding to the single electron and proton transfer reactions involved in the PCET process. A dynamical formulation of the dielectric continuum theory is used to derive a set of coupled generalized Langevin equations of motion describing the time evolution of these collective solvent coordinates. The parameters in the Langevin equations depend on the solvent properties, such as the dielectric constants, relaxation time, and molecular moment of inertia, as well as the solute properties. The dynamics of selected intramolecular nuclear coordinates, such as the proton donor-acceptor distance or a torsional angle within the PCET complex, may also be included in this formulation. A surface hopping method in conjunction with the Langevin equations of motion is used to simulate the nonadiabatic dynamics on the multidimensional electron-proton vibronic free energy surfaces following photoexcitation. This theoretical treatment enables the description of both sequential and concerted mechanisms, as well as more complex processes involving a combination of these mechanisms. The application of this methodology to a series of model systems corresponding to collinear and orthogonal PCET illustrates fundamental aspects of these different mechanisms and elucidates the significance of proton vibrational relaxation and nonequilibrium solvent dynamics. © 2011 American Institute of Physics

  15. A coupled metabolic-hydraulic model and calibration scheme for estimating of whole-river metabolism during dynamic flow conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payn, Robert A.; Hall, Robert O Jr.; Kennedy, Theodore; Poole, Geoff C; Marshall, Lucy A.

    2017-01-01

    Conventional methods for estimating whole-stream metabolic rates from measured dissolved oxygen dynamics do not account for the variation in solute transport times created by dynamic flow conditions. Changes in flow at hourly time scales are common downstream of hydroelectric dams (i.e. hydropeaking), and hydrologic limitations of conventional metabolic models have resulted in a poor understanding of the controls on biological production in these highly managed river ecosystems. To overcome these limitations, we coupled a two-station metabolic model of dissolved oxygen dynamics with a hydrologic river routing model. We designed calibration and parameter estimation tools to infer values for hydrologic and metabolic parameters based on time series of water quality data, achieving the ultimate goal of estimating whole-river gross primary production and ecosystem respiration during dynamic flow conditions. Our case study data for model design and calibration were collected in the tailwater of Glen Canyon Dam (Arizona, USA), a large hydropower facility where the mean discharge was 325 m3 s 1 and the average daily coefficient of variation of flow was 0.17 (i.e. the hydropeaking index averaged from 2006 to 2016). We demonstrate the coupled model’s conceptual consistency with conventional models during steady flow conditions, and illustrate the potential bias in metabolism estimates with conventional models during unsteady flow conditions. This effort contributes an approach to solute transport modeling and parameter estimation that allows study of whole-ecosystem metabolic regimes across a more diverse range of hydrologic conditions commonly encountered in streams and rivers.

  16. Validation of an Actuator Line Model Coupled to a Dynamic Stall Model for Pitching Motions Characteristic to Vertical Axis Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Victor; Bachant, Peter; Wosnik, Martin; Goude, Anders

    2016-09-01

    Vertical axis wind turbines (VAWT) can be used to extract renewable energy from wind flows. A simpler design, low cost of maintenance, and the ability to accept flow from all directions perpendicular to the rotor axis are some of the most important advantages over conventional horizontal axis wind turbines (HAWT). However, VAWT encounter complex and unsteady fluid dynamics, which present significant modeling challenges. One of the most relevant phenomena is dynamic stall, which is caused by the unsteady variation of angle of attack throughout the blade rotation, and is the focus of the present study. Dynamic stall is usually used as a passive control for VAWT operating conditions, hence the importance of predicting its effects. In this study, a coupled model is implemented with the open-source CFD toolbox OpenFOAM for solving the Navier-Stokes equations, where an actuator line model and dynamic stall model are used to compute the blade loading and body force. Force coefficients obtained from the model are validated with experimental data of pitching airfoil in similar operating conditions as an H-rotor type VAWT. Numerical results show reasonable agreement with experimental data for pitching motion.

  17. An optimality-based model of the coupled soil moisture and root dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. Schymanski

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The main processes determining soil moisture dynamics are infiltration, percolation, evaporation and root water uptake. Modelling soil moisture dynamics therefore requires an interdisciplinary approach that links hydrological, atmospheric and biological processes. Previous approaches treat either root water uptake rates or root distributions and transpiration rates as given, and calculate the soil moisture dynamics based on the theory of flow in unsaturated media. The present study introduces a different approach to linking soil water and vegetation dynamics, based on vegetation optimality. Assuming that plants have evolved mechanisms that minimise costs related to the maintenance of the root system while meeting their demand for water, we develop a model that dynamically adjusts the vertical root distribution in the soil profile to meet this objective. The model was used to compute the soil moisture dynamics, root water uptake and fine root respiration in a tropical savanna over 12 months, and the results were compared with observations at the site and with a model based on a fixed root distribution. The optimality-based model reproduced the main features of the observations such as a shift of roots from the shallow soil in the wet season to the deeper soil in the dry season and substantial root water uptake during the dry season. At the same time, simulated fine root respiration rates never exceeded the upper envelope determined by the observed soil respiration. The model based on a fixed root distribution, in contrast, failed to explain the magnitude of water use during parts of the dry season and largely over-estimated root respiration rates. The observed surface soil moisture dynamics were also better reproduced by the optimality-based model than the model based on a prescribed root distribution. The optimality-based approach has the potential to reduce the number of unknowns in a model (e.g. the vertical root distribution, which makes it a

  18. Assessing 20th century climate-vegetation feedbacks of land-use change and natural vegetation dynamics in a fully coupled vegetation-climate model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strengers, B.J.; Müller, C.; Schaeffer, M.; Haarsma, R.J.; Severijns, C.; Gerten, D.; Schaphoff, S.; Houdt, Van den R.; Oostenrijk, R.

    2010-01-01

    This study describes the coupling of the dynamic global vegetation model (DGVM), Lund–Potsdam–Jena Model for managed land (LPJmL), with the general circulation model (GCM), Simplified Parameterizations primitivE Equation DYnamics model (SPEEDY), to study the feedbacks between land-use change and

  19. Development of an analysis for the determination of coupled helicopter rotor/control system dynamic response. Part 1: Analysis and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, L. R.; Rinehart, S. A.

    1975-01-01

    A theoretical analysis is developed for a coupled helicopter rotor system to allow determination of the loads and dynamic response behavior of helicopter rotor systems in both steady-state forward flight and maneuvers. The effects of an anisotropically supported swashplate or gyroscope control system and a deformed free wake on the rotor system dynamic response behavior are included in the analysis.

  20. Subharmonic anti-phase dynamics in coupled mode-locked semiconductor lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivaramakrishnan, Sudarshan; Winful, Herbert G

    2017-12-01

    We show that coupled mode-locked semiconductor lasers can operate in a subharmonic regime in which the two lasers pulsate in an anti-phase manner at one-half the fundamental mode-locking frequency of the solitary lasers. In the subharmonic mode, each pulse has almost twice the energy carried by the isolated lasers in the fundamental mode-locked regime and is also significantly shorter in duration. Depending on the unsaturated gain and coupling strength, the lasers can also exhibit bistability, perfect synchronization, and delayed synchronization, as well as three-halves and five-halves harmonic mode locking. The observed behaviors are robust and persist in the presence of noise.

  1. Impact of asymptomatic infection on coupled disease-behavior dynamics in complex networks

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Hai-Feng; Chen, Han-Shuang; Liu, Can; Small, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Studies on how to model the interplay between diseases and behavioral responses (so-called coupled disease-behavior interaction) have attracted increasing attention. Owing to the lack of obvious clinical evidence of diseases, or the incomplete information related to the disease, the risks of infection cannot be perceived and may lead to inappropriate behavioral responses. Therefore, how to quantitatively analyze the impacts of asymptomatic infection on the interplay between diseases and behavioral responses is of particular importance. In this Letter, under the complex network framework, we study the coupled disease-behavior interaction model by dividing infectious individuals into two states: U-state (without evident clinical symptoms, labelled as U) and I-state (with evident clinical symptoms, labelled as I). A susceptible individual can be infected by U- or I-nodes, however, since the U-nodes cannot be easily observed, susceptible individuals take behavioral responses \\emph{only} when they contact I-nodes....

  2. Weighty dynamics: exploring couples' perceptions of post-weight-loss interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romo, Lynsey Kluever; Dailey, René M

    2014-01-01

    Although romantic couples can use communication to help one another lose weight and maintain weight loss, the effect of weight loss on partner interaction is less understood. However, an examination of the interpersonal context in which partners manage their weight is important to help partners negotiate their weight, their relationship, and the U.S. obesity epidemic. Guided by systems theory, this study explored partners' perceptions of post-weight-loss interaction in relationships in which one partner lost weight and the other did not. Through qualitative questionnaires of 42 adults (21 romantic couples), the dyadic investigation revealed that while losing weight resulted in positive interaction for many partners (e.g., engaging in a shared healthy lifestyle), shedding weight also yielded some negative consequences (e.g., non-weight-loss partner criticism). The extent to which partners embraced new weight management rules and patterns largely influenced post-weight-loss communication and behavior.

  3. A gridless technique for fluid/structural dynamic coupling on flexible membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfe, W.P.; Nelsen, J.M.; Baty, R.S.; Laguna, G.A.; Mello, F.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hailey, C.E.; Snyder, N.T. [Utah State Univ., Logan, UT (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering

    1996-01-01

    A gridless method has been developed for the simulation of coupled fluid/structural interactions over arbitrary bodies. This method uses Eulerian-based points arbitrarily distributed over the computational domain with no formal connectivity as typically required for a traditional grid. Comparisons are made with known exact solutions for simple two-dimensional model problems. Methods of improving the accuracy of the current implementation by using higher order approximations have been implemented. Accuracy improvement by using point adaption has been investigated. Plane strain and axisymmetric shells have been added to the code structural code PRONTO2D for future fluid/structural calculations. To date, coupled fluid/structure calculations have not been made.

  4. From Assortative to Ashortative Coupling: Men's Height, Height Heterogamy, and Relationship Dynamics in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Abigail Weitzman; Dalton Conley

    2014-01-01

    Studies of online dating suggest that physical attraction is a key factor in early relationship formation, but say little about the role of attractiveness in longer-term relationships. Meanwhile, assortative coupling and exchange models widely employed in demographic research overlook the powerful sorting function of initial and sustained physical attraction. This article observes the effects of one physical characteristic of men--height--on various relationship outcomes in longer-term relati...

  5. Dynamics in a Delayed Neural Network Model of Two Neurons with Inertial Coupling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changjin Xu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A delayed neural network model of two neurons with inertial coupling is dealt with in this paper. The stability is investigated and Hopf bifurcation is demonstrated. Applying the normal form theory and the center manifold argument, we derive the explicit formulas for determining the properties of the bifurcating periodic solutions. An illustrative example is given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the obtained results.

  6. A fully coupled method for numerical modeling and dynamic analysis of floating vertical axis wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Zhengshun; Aagaard Madsen, Helge; Gao, Zhen

    2017-01-01

    •Aerodynamic modeling of floating VAWTs is established using the Actuator Cylinder (AC) flow method.•A fully coupled aero-hydro-servo-elastic simulation tool, i.e. SIMO-RIFLEX-AC, is developed for floating VAWTs.•The developedsimulation tool is verified to be accurate by a series of code-to-code ......-to-code comparisons.•This simulation tool can be used for design and response analysis of different floating VAWT concepts....

  7. Erosion dynamics modelling in a coupled catchment-fan system with constant external forcing

    OpenAIRE

    Pepin, E.; Carretier, Sébastien; Hérail, Gérard

    2010-01-01

    Recent alluvial fan models have suggested that deep alluvial fan entrenchment could occur without any change in sediment and water influx. Moreover, other studies have shown that the evolution of a fan could strongly depend on feedback between the fan and the mountain catchment. We evaluate if natural entrenchment still occurs in a coupled catchment-fan system, and we evaluate its possible impact on the evolution of mountain erosion. We use a landscape evolution model where the mountain corre...

  8. Dynamics of wide and snake-like pulses in coupled Schrödinger equations with full-modulated nonlinearities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yomba, Emmanuel, E-mail: emmanuel.yomba@csun.edu; Zakeri, Gholam-Ali, E-mail: ali.zakeri@csun.edu

    2016-02-05

    We investigate the existence of various solitary wave solutions in coupled Schrödinger equations with specific cubic and quintic nonlinearities. This system arises in wave propagation in fiber optics with focusing and defocusing with modulated nonlinearities. We obtain front–front, bright–bright, dark–dark, and dark–bright like solitons using a direct approach, and then, by reducing the system of equations to a single auxiliary equation of a Duffing-type ordinary differential equation, we provide a large class of Jacobi-elliptic solutions. These solutions are presented in the exact form and analyzed. We find a class of wide localized and snake-like (in both space and time) vector solitons. One of the novel aspects of this study is that we have shown that the qualitative behavior of the solutions is independent of the choice of similarity variables. Numerical results show that the solutions of the above system are stable with up to 10% white noises. - Highlights: • Dynamics of wide and snake-like pulses is analyzed for coupled Schrödinger equations. • Qualitative appearance of solutions is analyzed using various similarity variables. • Effect of change in parameter-values on dynamics of the solutions is investigated. • Vectors front–front, bright–bright, dark–dark and dark–bright solitons are obtained.

  9. The influence of thermal photons on the dynamics of a quantum optomechanics system with quadratic cavity-membrane couplings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadiki, M. Hassani; Tavassoly, M. K.

    2017-11-01

    In this paper we investigate the influence of thermal photons as an inevitable source of damping on the dynamics of a quantum optomechanics system consisting of a suspended membrane in an optical cavity. The membrane is putted inside the cavity, in such a way that it plays the role of a movable mirror for each subcavity. In this respect, we investigate about the tunnelling of the photons between the two subcavities as well as the dynamics of membrane position in the mean-field approximation. In particular, the influences of thermal photons (in the presence of ;photon; and ;phonon; loss rates) on the time evolution of the above-mentioned quantities are evaluated and studied through which it is observed that the thermal photons considerably affects on the population inversion of photons number whenever the square coupling constant of cavity-membrane is weak. Inversely, the influence of thermal photons on the position of membrane is more visible for strong square coupling. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that generally the discussed properties can be appropriately adjusted by tuning the involved damping parameters.

  10. Modeling and experimental investigation of thermal-mechanical-electric coupling dynamics in a standing wave ultrasonic motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Yao, Zhiyuan; He, Yigang; Dai, Shichao

    2017-09-01

    Ultrasonic motor operation relies on high-frequency vibration of a piezoelectric vibrator and interface friction between the stator and rotor/slider, which can cause temperature rise of the motor under continuous operation, and can affect motor parameters and performance in turn. In this paper, an integral model is developed to study the thermal-mechanical-electric coupling dynamics in a typical standing wave ultrasonic motor. Stick-slip motion at the contact interface and the temperature dependence of material parameters of the stator are taken into account in this model. The elastic, piezoelectric and dielectric material coefficients of the piezoelectric ceramic, as a function of temperature, are determined experimentally using a resonance method. The critical parameters in the model are identified via measured results. The resulting model can be used to evaluate the variation in output characteristics of the motor caused by the thermal-mechanical-electric coupling effects. Furthermore, the dynamic temperature rise of the motor can be accurately predicted under different input parameters using the developed model, which will contribute to improving the reliable life of a motor for long-term running.

  11. Dynamics of the Coupled Human-climate System Resulting from Closed-loop Control of Solar Geoengineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacMartin, Douglas; Kravitz, Benjamin S.; Keith, David; Jarvis, Andrew

    2014-07-08

    If solar radiation management (SRM) were ever implemented, feedback of the observed climate state might be used to adjust the radiative forcing of SRM, in order to compensate for uncertainty in either the forcing or the climate response; this would also compensate for unexpected changes in the system, e.g. a nonlinear change in climate sensitivity. This feedback creates an emergent coupled human-climate system, with entirely new dynamics. In addition to the intended response to greenhouse-gas induced changes, the use of feedback would also result in a geoengineering response to natural climate variability. We use a simple box-diffusion dynamic model to understand how changing feedback-control parameters and time delay affect the behavior of this coupled natural-human system, and verify these predictions using the HadCM3L general circulation model. In particular, some amplification of natural variability is unavoidable; any time delay (e.g., to average out natural variability, or due to decision-making) exacerbates this amplification, with oscillatory behavior possible if there is a desire for rapid correction (high feedback gain), but a delayed response needed for decision making. Conversely, the need for feedback to compensate for uncertainty, combined with a desire to avoid excessive amplification, results in a limit on how rapidly SRM could respond to uncertain changes.

  12. The Hiccup - A Dynamical Vertical Coupling Process during the Fall Transition of the Northern Hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthias, V.; Shepherd, T. G.; Hoffmann, P.; Rapp, M.

    2014-12-01

    Sudden stratospheric warmings (SSWs) are the most prominent and dramatic vertical coupling process in the middle atmosphere occurring during winter months. However, during the fall transition another vertical coupling process occurs, approximately every second year, which we refer to as the Hiccup. The Hiccup acts like a "mini SSW" and is argued to be caused by the sudden onset of planetary wave (PW) activity in the stratosphere as the background winds become westerly. The average characteristics of zonal wind, temperature and PW activity between 65° and 75°N during the Hiccup are considered using the nudged CMAM30 simulation, representing 30 years of historical data. Additionally, the mesospheric zonal wind results are compared to radar observations in Andenes (69°N, 16°E) for the years 2000 - 2013. The average Hiccup is characterized by a weakening of the zonal wind from the troposphere up to the mesosphere and by a warming in the stratosphere and a cooling in the mesosphere, i.e. similar to a SSW but with a much smaller magnitude. A comparison of the Hiccup and SSW shows similarities and differences between both coupling processes.

  13. Proton-coupled electron transfer dynamics in the catalytic mechanism of a [NiFe]-hydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Brandon L; Wu, Chang-Hao; McTernan, Patrick M; Adams, Michael W W; Dyer, R Brian

    2015-04-08

    The movement of protons and electrons is common to the synthesis of all chemical fuels such as H2. Hydrogenases, which catalyze the reversible reduction of protons, necessitate transport and reactivity between protons and electrons, but a detailed mechanism has thus far been elusive. Here, we use a phototriggered chemical potential jump method to rapidly initiate the proton reduction activity of a [NiFe] hydrogenase. Coupling the photochemical initiation approach to nanosecond transient infrared and visible absorbance spectroscopy afforded direct observation of interfacial electron transfer and active site chemistry. Tuning of intramolecular proton transport by pH and isotopic substitution revealed distinct concerted and stepwise proton-coupled electron transfer mechanisms in catalysis. The observed heterogeneity in the two sequential proton-associated reduction processes suggests a highly engineered protein environment modulating catalysis and implicates three new reaction intermediates; Nia-I, Nia-D, and Nia-SR(-). The results establish an elementary mechanistic understanding of catalysis in a [NiFe] hydrogenase with implications in enzymatic proton-coupled electron transfer and biomimetic catalyst design.

  14. Synchronization and Collective Dynamics of Flagella and Cilia as Hydrodynamically Coupled Oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Nariya; Golestanian, Ramin; Bennett, Rachel R.

    2017-10-01

    Cooperative motion of flagella and cilia faciliates swimming of microorganisms and material transport in the body of multicellular organisms. Using minimal models, we address the roles of hydrodynamic interaction in synchronization and collective dynamics of flagella and cilia. Collective synchronization of bacterial flagella is studied with a model of bacterial carpets. Cilia and eukaryotic flagella are characterized by periodic modulation of their driving forces, which produces various patterns of two-body synchronization and metachronal waves. Long-range nature of the interaction introduces novel features in the dynamics of these model systems. The flagella of a swimmer synchronize also by a viscous drag force mediated through the swimmer's body. Recent advance in experimental studies of the collective dynamics of flagella, cilia and related artificial systems are summarized.

  15. Markovian and non-Markovian dynamics of quantum emitters coupled to two-dimensional structured reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Tudela, A.; Cirac, J. I.

    2017-10-01

    The interaction of quantum emitters with structured baths modifies both their individual and collective dynamics. In A. González-Tudela and J. I. Cirac, Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 143602 (2017), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.119.143602, we show how exotic quantum dynamics emerges when quantum emitters are spectrally tuned around the middle of the band of a two-dimensional structured reservoir, where we predict the failure of perturbative treatments, anisotropic non-Markovian interactions, and remarkable superradiant and subradiant behavior. In this work, we provide further analysis of that situation, together with a complete analysis for the quantum emitter dynamics in spectral regions different from the center of the band.

  16. Hyperbolic chaotic attractor in amplitude dynamics of coupled self-oscillators with periodic parameter modulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isaeva, Olga B.; Kuznetsov, Sergey P.; Mosekilde, Erik

    2011-01-01

    model corresponds to the situation of equality of natural frequencies of the partial oscillators, and another to a nonresonant ratio of the oscillation frequencies relating to each of the two pairs. Dynamics of all models are illustrated with diagrams indicating the transformation of the angular......The paper proposes an approach to constructing feasible examples of dynamical systems with hyperbolic chaotic attractors based on the successive transfer of excitation between two pairs of self-oscillators that are alternately active. An angular variable that measures the relations of the current...... amplitudes for the two oscillators of each pair undergoes a transformation in accordance with the expanding circle map during each cycle of the process. We start with equations describing the dynamics in terms of complex or real amplitudes and then examine two models based on van der Pol oscillators. One...

  17. Selective optical switching of interface-coupled relaxation dynamics in carbon nanotube-Si heterojunctions

    KAUST Repository

    Ponzoni, Stefano

    2014-10-16

    By properly tuning the photon energy of a femtosecond laser pump, we disentangle, in carbon nanotube-Si (CNT/Si) heterojunctions, the fast relaxation dynamics occurring in CNT from the slow repopulation dynamics due to hole charge transfer at the junction. In this way we are able to track the transfer of the photogenerated holes from the Si depletion layer to the CNT layer, under the action of the built-in heterojunction potential. This also clarifies that CNT play an active role in the junction and do not act only as channels for charge collection and transport.

  18. Scalar field as an intrinsic time measure in coupled dynamical matter-geometry systems. I. Neutral gravitational collapse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakonieczna, Anna [Institute of Physics, Maria Curie-Skłodowska University,Plac Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej 1, 20-031 Lublin (Poland); Institute of Agrophysics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Doświadczalna 4, 20-290 Lublin (Poland); Yeom, Dong-han [Leung Center for Cosmology and Particle Astrophysics, National Taiwan University,No. 1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China)

    2016-02-08

    There does not exist a notion of time which could be transferred straightforwardly from classical to quantum gravity. For this reason, a method of time quantification which would be appropriate for gravity quantization is being sought. One of the existing proposals is using the evolving matter as an intrinsic ‘clock’ while investigating the dynamics of gravitational systems. The objective of our research was to check whether scalar fields can serve as time variables during a dynamical evolution of a coupled multi-component matter-geometry system. We concentrated on a neutral case, which means that the elaborated system was not charged electrically nor magnetically. For this purpose, we investigated a gravitational collapse of a self-interacting complex and real scalar fields in the Brans-Dicke theory using the 2+2 spacetime foliation. We focused mainly on the region of high curvature appearing nearby the emerging singularity, which is essential from the perspective of quantum gravity. We investigated several formulations of the theory for various values of the Brans-Dicke coupling constant and the coupling between the Brans-Dicke field and the matter sector of the theory. The obtained results indicated that the evolving scalar fields can be treated as time variables in close proximity of the singularity due to the following reasons. The constancy hypersurfaces of the Brans-Dicke field are spacelike in the vicinity of the singularity apart from the case, in which the equation of motion of the field reduces to the wave equation due to a specific choice of free evolution parameters. The hypersurfaces of constant complex and real scalar fields are spacelike in the regions nearby the singularities formed during the examined process. The values of the field functions change monotonically in the areas, in which the constancy hypersurfaces are spacelike.

  19. The Geohazards Exploitation Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laur, Henri; Casu, Francesco; Bally, Philippe; Caumont, Hervé; Pinto, Salvatore

    2016-04-01

    The Geohazards Exploitation Platform, or Geohazards TEP (GEP), is an ESA originated R&D activity of the EO ground segment to demonstrate the benefit of new technologies for large scale processing of EO data. This encompasses on-demand processing for specific user needs, systematic processing to address common information needs of the geohazards community, and integration of newly developed processors for scientists and other expert users. The platform supports the geohazards community's objectives as defined in the context of the International Forum on Satellite EO and Geohazards organised by ESA and GEO in Santorini in 2012. The GEP is a follow on to the Supersites Exploitation Platform (SSEP) an ESA initiative to support the Geohazards Supersites & Natural Laboratories initiative (GSNL). Today the GEP allows to exploit 70+ Terabyte of ERS and ENVISAT archive and the Copernicus Sentinel-1 data available on line. The platform has already engaged 22 European early adopters in a validation activity initiated in March 2015. Since September, this validation has reached 29 single user projects. Each project is concerned with either integrating an application, running on demand processing or systematically generating a product collection using an application available in the platform. The users primarily include 15 geoscience centres and universities based in Europe: British Geological Survey (UK), University of Leeds (UK), University College London (UK), ETH University of Zurich (CH), INGV (IT), CNR-IREA and CNR-IRPI (IT), University of L'Aquila (IT), NOA (GR), Univ. Blaise Pascal & CNRS (FR), Ecole Normale Supérieure (FR), ISTERRE / University of Grenoble-Alpes (FR). In addition, there are users from Africa and North America with the University of Rabat (MA) and the University of Miami (US). Furthermore two space agencies and four private companies are involved: the German Space Research Centre DLR (DE), the European Space Agency (ESA), Altamira Information (ES

  20. Exploitative Learning by Exporting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golovko, Elena; Lopes Bento, Cindy; Sofka, Wolfgang

    Decisions on entering foreign markets are among the most challenging but also potentially rewarding strategy choices managers can make. In this study, we examine the effect of export entry on the firm investment decisions in two activities associated with learning about new technologies...... and learning about new markets ? R&D investments and marketing investments, in search of novel insights into the content and process underlying learning by exporting. We draw from organizational learning theory for predicting changes in both R&D and marketing investment patterns that accompany firm entry......, it is predominantly the marketing-related investment decisions associated with starting to export that lead to increases in firm productivity. We conclude that learning-by-exporting might be more properly characterized as ?learning about and exploiting new markets? rather than ?learning about new technologies...

  1. Image exploitation for MISAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinze, N.; Edrich, M.; Saur, G.; Krüger, W.

    2007-04-01

    The miniature SAR-system MiSAR has been developed by EADS Germany for lightweight UAVs like the LUNASystem. MiSAR adds to these tactical UAV-systems the all-weather reconnaissance capability, which is missing until now. Unlike other SAR sensors, that produce large strip maps at update rates of several seconds, MiSAR generates sequences of SAR images with approximately 1 Hz frame rate. photo interpreters (PI) of tactical drones, now mainly experienced with visual interpretation, are not used to SARimages, especially not with SAR-image sequence characteristics. So they should be supported to improve their ability to carry out their task with a new, demanding sensor system. We have therefore analyzed and discussed with military PIs in which task MiSAR can be used and how the PIs can be supported by special algorithms. We developed image processing- and exploitation-algorithms for such SAR-image sequences. A main component is the generation of image sequence mosaics to get more oversight. This mosaicing has the advantage that also non straight /linear flight-paths and varying squint angles can be processed. Another component is a screening-component for manmade objects to mark regions of interest in the image sequences. We use a classification based approach, which can be easily adapted to new sensors and scenes. These algorithms are integrated into an image exploitation system to improve the image interpreters ability to get a better oversight, better orientation and helping them to detect relevant objects, especially considering long endurance reconnaissance missions.

  2. Coupled human and natural system dynamics as key to the sustainability of Lake Victoria's ecosystem services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Downing, Andrea S.; van Nes, Egbert H.; Balirwa, John S.; Beuving, Joost; Bwathondi, P. O. J.; Chapman, Lauren J.; Cornelissen, Ilse J. M.; Cowx, Iain G.; Goudswaard, Kees P. C.; Hecky, Robert E.; Janse, Jan H.; Janssen, Annette B. G.; Kaufman, Les; Kishe-Machumu, Mary A.; Kolding, Jeppe; Ligtvoet, Willem; Mbabazi, Dismas; Medard, Modesta; Mkumbo, Oliva C.; Mlaponi, Enock; Munyaho, Antony T.; Nagelkerke, Leopold A. J.; Ogutu-Ohwayo, Richard; Ojwang, William O.; Peter, Happy K.; Schindler, Daniel E.; Seehausen, Ole; Sharpe, Diana; Silsbe, Greg M.; Sitoki, Lewis; Tumwebaze, Rhoda; Tweddle, Denis; van de Wolfshaar, Karen E.; van Dijk, Han; van Donk, Ellen; van Rijssel, Jacco C.; van Zwieten, Paul A. M.; Wanink, Jan; Witte, F.; Mooij, Wolf M.

    2014-01-01

    East Africa's Lake Victoria provides resources and services to millions of people on the lake's shores and abroad. In particular, the lake's fisheries are an important source of protein, employment, and international economic connections for the whole region. Nonetheless, stock dynamics are poorly

  3. Dynamics of atom tunnelling in a symmetric double well coupled to ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The quantum dynamics of intramolecular H-atom transfer in malonaldehyde is investigated with a model two-dimensional Hamiltonian constructed with the help of available ab initio theoretical data on the rel- evant portion of the potential energy surface. At zero temperature, the H-atom transfer takes place by ...

  4. Lithosphere-mantle coupling and the dynamics of the Eurasian Plate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warners-Ruckstuhl, K.N.; Govers, R.; Wortel, R.

    2012-01-01

    Mechanical equilibrium of tectonic plates implies that lithospheric edge and body forces are balanced by forces arising from interaction with the underlying mantle. We use this quantitative physical relation to integrate existing modelling approaches of lithosphere dynamics and mantle flow into a

  5. Dynamic coupling of subsurface and seepage flows solved within a regularized partition formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marçais, J.; de Dreuzy, J.-R.; Erhel, J.

    2017-11-01

    Hillslope response to precipitations is characterized by sharp transitions from purely subsurface flow dynamics to simultaneous surface and subsurface flows. Locally, the transition between these two regimes is triggered by soil saturation. Here we develop an integrative approach to simultaneously solve the subsurface flow, locate the potential fully saturated areas and deduce the generated saturation excess overland flow. This approach combines the different dynamics and transitions in a single partition formulation using discontinuous functions. We propose to regularize the system of partial differential equations and to use classic spatial and temporal discretization schemes. We illustrate our methodology on the 1D hillslope storage Boussinesq equations (Troch et al., 2003). We first validate the numerical scheme on previous numerical experiments without saturation excess overland flow. Then we apply our model to a test case with dynamic transitions from purely subsurface flow dynamics to simultaneous surface and subsurface flows. Our results show that discretization respects mass balance both locally and globally, converges when the mesh or time step are refined. Moreover the regularization parameter can be taken small enough to ensure accuracy without suffering of numerical artefacts. Applied to some hundreds of realistic hillslope cases taken from Western side of France (Brittany), the developed method appears to be robust and efficient.

  6. Relaxation dynamics of a quantum emitter resonantly coupled to a metal nanoparticle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nerkararyan, K. V.; Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

    2014-01-01

    consequence of this relaxation process is that the emission, being largely determined by the MNP, comes out with a substantial delay. A large number of system parameters in our analytical description opens new possibilities for controlling quantum emitter dynamics. (C) 2014 Optical Society of America...

  7. Learning Metasploit exploitation and development

    CERN Document Server

    Balapure, Aditya

    2013-01-01

    A practical, hands-on tutorial with step-by-step instructions. The book will follow a smooth and easy-to-follow tutorial approach, covering the essentials and then showing the readers how to write more sophisticated exploits.This book targets exploit developers, vulnerability analysts and researchers, network administrators, and ethical hackers looking to gain advanced knowledge in exploitation development and identifying vulnerabilities. The primary goal is to take readers wishing to get into more advanced exploitation discovery and reaching the next level.Prior experience exploiting basic st

  8. Effects of stressor characteristics on early warning signs of critical transitions and "critical coupling" in complex dynamical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blume, Steffen O. P.; Sansavini, Giovanni

    2017-12-01

    Complex dynamical systems face abrupt transitions into unstable and catastrophic regimes. These critical transitions are triggered by gradual modifications in stressors, which push the dynamical system towards unstable regimes. Bifurcation analysis can characterize such critical thresholds, beyond which systems become unstable. Moreover, the stochasticity of the external stressors causes small-scale fluctuations in the system response. In some systems, the decomposition of these signal fluctuations into precursor signals can reveal early warning signs prior to the critical transition. Here, we present a dynamical analysis of a power system subjected to an increasing load level and small-scale stochastic load perturbations. We show that the auto- and cross-correlations of bus voltage magnitudes increase, leading up to a Hopf bifurcation point, and further grow until the system collapses. This evidences a gradual transition into a state of "critical coupling," which is complementary to the established concept of "critical slowing down." Furthermore, we analyze the effects of the type of load perturbation and load characteristics on early warning signs and find that gradient changes in the autocorrelation provide early warning signs of the imminent critical transition under white-noise but not for auto-correlated load perturbations. Furthermore, the cross-correlation between all voltage magnitude pairs generally increases prior to and beyond the Hopf bifurcation point, indicating "critical coupling," but cannot provide early warning indications. Finally, we show that the established early warning indicators are oblivious to limit-induced bifurcations and, in the case of the power system model considered here, only react to an approaching Hopf bifurcation.

  9. Coupling News Sentiment with Web Browsing Data Improves Prediction of Intra-Day Price Dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Ranco

    Full Text Available The new digital revolution of big data is deeply changing our capability of understanding society and forecasting the outcome of many social and economic systems. Unfortunately, information can be very heterogeneous in the importance, relevance, and surprise it conveys, affecting severely the predictive power of semantic and statistical methods. Here we show that the aggregation of web users' behavior can be elicited to overcome this problem in a hard to predict complex system, namely the financial market. Specifically, our in-sample analysis shows that the combined use of sentiment analysis of news and browsing activity of users of Yahoo! Finance greatly helps forecasting intra-day and daily price changes of a set of 100 highly capitalized US stocks traded in the period 2012-2013. Sentiment analysis or browsing activity when taken alone have very small or no predictive power. Conversely, when considering a news signal where in a given time interval we compute the average sentiment of the clicked news, weighted by the number of clicks, we show that for nearly 50% of the companies such signal Granger-causes hourly price returns. Our result indicates a "wisdom-of-the-crowd" effect that allows to exploit users' activity to identify and weigh properly the relevant and surprising news, enhancing considerably the forecasting power of the news sentiment.

  10. Coupling News Sentiment with Web Browsing Data Improves Prediction of Intra-Day Price Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranco, Gabriele; Bordino, Ilaria; Bormetti, Giacomo; Caldarelli, Guido; Lillo, Fabrizio; Treccani, Michele

    2016-01-01

    The new digital revolution of big data is deeply changing our capability of understanding society and forecasting the outcome of many social and economic systems. Unfortunately, information can be very heterogeneous in the importance, relevance, and surprise it conveys, affecting severely the predictive power of semantic and statistical methods. Here we show that the aggregation of web users' behavior can be elicited to overcome this problem in a hard to predict complex system, namely the financial market. Specifically, our in-sample analysis shows that the combined use of sentiment analysis of news and browsing activity of users of Yahoo! Finance greatly helps forecasting intra-day and daily price changes of a set of 100 highly capitalized US stocks traded in the period 2012-2013. Sentiment analysis or browsing activity when taken alone have very small or no predictive power. Conversely, when considering a news signal where in a given time interval we compute the average sentiment of the clicked news, weighted by the number of clicks, we show that for nearly 50% of the companies such signal Granger-causes hourly price returns. Our result indicates a "wisdom-of-the-crowd" effect that allows to exploit users' activity to identify and weigh properly the relevant and surprising news, enhancing considerably the forecasting power of the news sentiment.

  11. A hybrid algorithm for coupling partial differential equation and compartment-based dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Jonathan U; Yates, Christian A

    2016-09-01

    Stochastic simulation methods can be applied successfully to model exact spatio-temporally resolved reaction-diffusion systems. However, in many cases, these methods can quickly become extremely computationally intensive with increasing particle numbers. An alternative description of many of these systems can be derived in the diffusive limit as a deterministic, continuum system of partial differential equations (PDEs). Although the numerical solution of such PDEs is, in general, much more efficient than the full stochastic simulation, the deterministic continuum description is generally not valid when copy numbers are low and stochastic effects dominate. Therefore, to take advantage of the benefits of both of these types of models, each of which may be appropriate in different parts of a spatial domain, we have developed an algorithm that can be used to couple these two types of model together. This hybrid coupling algorithm uses an overlap region between the two modelling regimes. By coupling fluxes at one end of the interface and using a concentration-matching condition at the other end, we ensure that mass is appropriately transferred between PDE- and compartment-based regimes. Our methodology gives notable reductions in simulation time in comparison with using a fully stochastic model, while maintaining the important stochastic features of the system and providing detail in appropriate areas of the domain. We test our hybrid methodology robustly by applying it to several biologically motivated problems including diffusion and morphogen gradient formation. Our analysis shows that the resulting error is small, unbiased and does not grow over time. © 2016 The Authors.

  12. Implications of stochastic magnetization dynamics on reliability of dipole coupled nanomagnetic logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi Fashami, Mohammad; Atulasimha, Jayasimha; Bandyopadhyay, Supriyo

    2013-03-01

    Straintronic nanomagnetic logic (SML), where Boolean computation is elicited from dipole coupled multiferroic nanomagnets switched with electrically generated strain, has emerged as an extremely energy-efficient computing paradigm. We have studied the reliability of such logic circuits by computing the gate error rates in the presence of thermal noise by simulating switching trajectories with the stochastic Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG) equation. In addition, we examine the lower bound of energy dissipation as a function of switching error and explain how the out-of-plane excursion of the magnetization vector leads to excess energy dissipation over this bound for a given switching error. This analysis is performed to understand the connection between reliability and energy dissipation for a single switch and then extended to larger nanomagnetic logic circuits to assess the viability of dipole coupled SML. This work is supported by the US National Science Foundation under the SHF-Small grant CCF-1216614, NEB 2020 grant ECCS-1124714 and by the Semiconductor Research Corporation (SRC) under NRI Task 2203.001.

  13. The Dynamic Analysis of Hydropower House and Unit System in Coupled Hydraulic-mechanical-electric Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    MA, Z. Y.; Wu, Q. Q.

    2016-11-01

    A hydraulic-mechanical-electric and structures coupled model of hydropower station system including subsystem models of the penstock, hydro-turbine model, speed governor, synchronous generator as well as grid, rotor-bearing system and powerhouse structure is established. This model is used to simulate the small fluctuation transient process of 10% load-up in the part load condition for hydropower station. Mechanical eccentric force, unbalanced magnetic pull and vortex pressure fluctuation at inlet of draft tube are considered in the numerical calculation. The interaction between hydraulic-mechanical-electric coupled factors and structural vibration properties during the small fluctuation transient process is studied. The results indicate that the speed regulation for turbine has very litter impact on the transient process of generator. In the process of small fluctuation with loading method in this paper, structure of powerhouse is greatly influenced by vortex pressure pulse in the draft tube, and the vibration of unit is excited by loads which caused by itself rotating.

  14. Dyadic Dynamics in Young Couples Reporting Dating Violence: An Actor-Partner Interdependence Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradis, Alison; Hébert, Martine; Fernet, Mylène

    2017-01-01

    This study uses a combination of observational methods and dyadic data analysis to understand how boyfriends' and girlfriends' perpetration of dating violence (DV) may shape their own and their partners' problem-solving communication behaviors. A sample of 39 young heterosexual couples aged between 15 and 20 years (mean age = 17.8 years) completed a set of questionnaires and were observed during a 45-min dyadic interaction, which was coded using the Interactional Dimension Coding System (IDCS). Results suggest that neither boyfriends' nor girlfriends' own perpetration of DV was related to their display of positive and negative communication behaviors. However, estimates revealed significant partner effects, suggesting that negative communication behaviors displayed by girls and boys and positive communication behavior displayed by girls were associated to their partner's DV but not to their own. Such results confirm the need to shift our focus from an individual perspective to examining dyadic influences and processes involved in the couple system and the bidirectionality of violent relationships. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Infrared Chemical Nano-Imaging: Accessing Structure, Coupling, and Dynamics on Molecular Length Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Eric A; Pollard, Benjamin; Raschke, Markus B

    2015-04-02

    This Perspective highlights recent advances in infrared vibrational chemical nano-imaging. In its implementations of scattering scanning near-field optical microscopy (s-SNOM) and photothermal-induced resonance (PTIR), IR nanospectroscopy provides few-nanometer spatial resolution for the investigation of polymer, biomaterial, and related soft-matter surfaces and nanostructures. Broad-band IR s-SNOM with coherent laser and synchrotron sources allows for chemical recognition with small-ensemble sensitivity and the potential for sensitivity reaching the single-molecule limit. Probing selected vibrational marker resonances, it gives access to nanoscale chemical imaging of composition, domain morphologies, order/disorder, molecular orientation, or crystallographic phases. Local intra- and intermolecular coupling can be measured through frequency shifts of a vibrational marker in heterogeneous environments and associated inhomogeneities in vibrational dephasing. In combination with ultrafast spectroscopy, the vibrational coherent evolution of homogeneous sub-ensembles coupled to their environment can be observed. Outstanding challenges are discussed in terms of extensions to coherent and multidimensional spectroscopies, implementation in liquid and in situ environments, general sample limitations, and engineering s-SNOM scanning probes to better control the nano-localized optical excitation and to increase sensitivity.

  16. Coupled Finite Volume Methods and Extended Finite Element Methods for the Dynamic Crack Propagation Modelling with the Pressurized Crack Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shouyan Jiang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We model the fluid flow within the crack as one-dimensional flow and assume that the flow is laminar; the fluid is incompressible and accounts for the time-dependent rate of crack opening. Here, we discretise the flow equation by finite volume methods. The extended finite element methods are used for solving solid medium with crack under dynamic loads. Having constructed the approximation of dynamic extended finite element methods, the derivation of governing equation for dynamic extended finite element methods is presented. The implicit time algorithm is elaborated for the time descritisation of dominant equation. In addition, the interaction integral method is given for evaluating stress intensity factors. Then, the coupling model for modelling hydraulic fracture can be established by the extended finite element methods and the finite volume methods. We compare our present numerical results with our experimental results for verifying the proposed model. Finally, we investigate the water pressure distribution along crack surface and the effect of water pressure distribution on the fracture property.

  17. Inflationary Quasiparticle Creation and Thermalization Dynamics in Coupled Bose-Einstein Condensates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posazhennikova, Anna; Trujillo-Martinez, Mauricio; Kroha, Johann

    2016-06-03

    A Bose gas in a double-well potential, exhibiting a true Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) amplitude and initially performing Josephson oscillations, is a prototype of an isolated, nonequilibrium many-body system. We investigate the quasiparticle (QP) creation and thermalization dynamics of this system by solving the time-dependent Keldysh-Bogoliubov equations. We find avalanchelike QP creation due to a parametric resonance between BEC and QP oscillations, followed by slow, exponential relaxation to a thermal state at an elevated temperature, controlled by the initial excitation energy of the oscillating BEC above its ground state. The crossover between the two regimes occurs because of an effective decoupling of the QP and BEC oscillations. This dynamics is analogous to elementary particle creation in models of the early universe. The thermalization in our setup occurs because the BEC acts as a grand canonical reservoir for the quasiparticle system.

  18. Driven optical matter: Dynamics of electrodynamically coupled nanoparticles in an optical ring vortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figliozzi, Patrick; Sule, Nishant; Yan, Zijie; Bao, Ying; Burov, Stanislav; Gray, Stephen K.; Rice, Stuart A.; Vaikuntanathan, Suriyanarayanan; Scherer, Norbert F.

    2017-02-01

    To date investigations of the dynamics of driven colloidal systems have focused on hydrodynamic interactions and often employ optical (laser) tweezers for manipulation. However, the optical fields that provide confinement and drive also result in electrodynamic interactions that are generally neglected. We address this issue with a detailed study of interparticle dynamics in an optical ring vortex trap using 150-nm diameter Ag nanoparticles. We term the resultant electrodynamically interacting nanoparticles a driven optical matter system. We also show that a superior trap is created by using a Au nanoplate mirror in a retroreflection geometry, which increases the electric field intensity, the optical drive force, and spatial confinement. Using nanoparticles versus micron sized colloids significantly reduces the surface hydrodynamic friction allowing us to access small values of optical topological charge and drive force. We quantify a further 50% reduction of hydrodynamic friction when the nanoparticles are driven over the Au nanoplate mirrors versus over a mildly electrostatically repulsive glass surface. Further, we demonstrate through experiments and electrodynamics-Langevin dynamics simulations that the optical drive force and the interparticle interactions are not constant around the ring for linearly polarized light, resulting in a strong position-dependent variation in the nanoparticle velocity. The nonuniformity in the optical drive force is also manifest as an increase in fluctuations of interparticle separation, or effective temperature, as the optical driving force is increased. Finally, we resolve an open issue in the literature on periodic modulation of interparticle separation with comparative measurements of driven 300-nm-diameter polystyrene beads that also clearly reveal the significance of electrodynamic forces and interactions in optically driven colloidal systems. Therefore, the modulations in the optical forces and electrodynamic interactions

  19. Dynamics of Coupled Contaminant and Microbial Transport in Heterogeneous Porous Media: Purdue Component

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cushman, J.H.

    2000-06-01

    Dynamic microbial attachment/detachment occurs in subsurface systems in response to changing environmental conditions caused by contaminant movement and degradation. Understanding the environmental conditions and mechanisms by which anaerobic bacteria partition between aqueous and solid phases is a critical requirement for designing and evaluating in situ bioremediation efforts. This interdisciplinary research project, of which we report only the Purdue contribution, provides fundamental information on the attachment/detachment dynamics of bacteria in heterogeneous porous media. Fundamental results from the Purdue collaboration are: (a) development of a matched-index method for obtaining 3-D Lagrangian trajectories of microbial sized particles transporting within porous media or microflow cells, (b) application of advanced numerical methods to optimally design a microflow cell for studying anaerobic bacterial attachment/detachment phenomena, (c) development of two types of models for simulating bacterial movement and attachment/detachment in microflow cells and natural porous media, (d) application of stochastic analysis to upscale pore scale microbial attachment/detachment models to natural heterogeneous porous media, and (e) evaluation of the role nonlocality plays in microbial dynamics in heterogeneous porous media.

  20. Dynamics of Coupled Contaminant and Microbial Transport in Heterogeneous Porous Media: Purdue Component

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cushman, J.H.; Madilyn Fletcher

    2000-06-01

    Dynamic microbial attachment/detachment occurs in subsurface systems in response to changing environmental conditions caused by contaminant movement and degradation. Understanding the environmental conditions and mechanisms by which anaerobic bacteria partition between aqueous and solid phases is a critical requirement for designing and evaluating in situ bioremediation efforts. This interdisciplinary research project, of which we report only the Purdue contribution, provides fundamental information on the attachment/detachment dynamics of bacteria in heterogeneous porous media. Fundamental results from the Purdue collaboration are: (a) development of a matched-index method for obtaining 3-D Lagrangian trajectories of microbial sized particles transporting within porous media or microflow cells, (b) application of advanced numerical methods to optimally design a microflow cell for studying anaerobic bacterial attachment/detachment phenomena, (c) development of two types of models for simulating bacterial movement and attachment/detachment in microflow cells and natural porous media, (d) application of stochastic analysis to upscale pore scale microbial attachment/detachment models to natural heterogeneous porous media, and (e) evaluation of the role nonlocality plays in microbial dynamics in heterogeneous porous media