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Sample records for explains nonlinear flow-metabolism

  1. Chaos and the quantum: how nonlinear effects can explain certain quantum paradoxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHarris, Wm C.

    2011-07-01

    In recent years we have suggested that many of the so-called paradoxes resulting from the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics could well have more logical parallels based in nonlinear dynamics and chaos theory. Perhaps quantum mechanics might not be strictly linear as has been commonly postulated, and indeed, during the past year experimentalists have discovered signatures of chaos in a definitely quantum system. As an illustration of what can go wrong when quantum effects are forced into a linear interpretation, I examine Bell-type inequalities. In conventional derivations of such inequalities, classical systems are found to impose upper limits on the statistical correlations between, say, the properties of a pair of separated but entangled particles, whereas quantum systems allow greater correlations. Numerous experiments have upheld the quantum predictions (greater statistical correlations than allowed classically), which has led to inferences such as the instantaneous transmission of information between effectively infinitely separated particles — Einstein's "spooky action-at-a-distance," incompatible with relativity. I argue that there is nothing wrong with the quantum mechanical side of such derivations (the usual point of attack by those attempting to debunk Bell-type arguments), but implicit in the derivations on the classical side is the assumption of independent, uncorrelated particles. As a result, one is comparing uncorrelated probabilities versus conditional probabilities rather than comparing classical versus quantum mechanics, making moot the experimental inferences. Further, nonlinear classical systems are known to exhibit correlations that can easily be as great as and overlap with quantum correlations — so-called nonextensive thermodynamics with its nonadditive entropy has verified this with numerous examples. Perhaps quantum mechanics does contain fundamental nonlinear elements. Nonlinear dynamics and chaos theory could well

  2. Chaos and the quantum: how nonlinear effects can explain certain quantum paradoxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McHarris, Wm C

    2011-01-01

    In recent years we have suggested that many of the so-called paradoxes resulting from the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics could well have more logical parallels based in nonlinear dynamics and chaos theory. Perhaps quantum mechanics might not be strictly linear as has been commonly postulated, and indeed, during the past year experimentalists have discovered signatures of chaos in a definitely quantum system. As an illustration of what can go wrong when quantum effects are forced into a linear interpretation, I examine Bell-type inequalities. In conventional derivations of such inequalities, classical systems are found to impose upper limits on the statistical correlations between, say, the properties of a pair of separated but entangled particles, whereas quantum systems allow greater correlations. Numerous experiments have upheld the quantum predictions (greater statistical correlations than allowed classically), which has led to inferences such as the instantaneous transmission of information between effectively infinitely separated particles - Einstein's 'spooky action-at-a-distance', incompatible with relativity. I argue that there is nothing wrong with the quantum mechanical side of such derivations (the usual point of attack by those attempting to debunk Bell-type arguments), but implicit in the derivations on the classical side is the assumption of independent, uncorrelated particles. As a result, one is comparing uncorrelated probabilities versus conditional probabilities rather than comparing classical versus quantum mechanics, making moot the experimental inferences. Further, nonlinear classical systems are known to exhibit correlations that can easily be as great as and overlap with quantum correlations - so-called nonextensive thermodynamics with its nonadditive entropy has verified this with numerous examples. Perhaps quantum mechanics does contain fundamental nonlinear elements. Nonlinear dynamics and chaos theory could well provide a

  3. Visuo-manual tracking: does intermittent control with aperiodic sampling explain linear power and non-linear remnant without sensorimotor noise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollee, Henrik; Gawthrop, Peter J; Lakie, Martin; Loram, Ian D

    2017-11-01

    A human controlling an external system is described most easily and conventionally as linearly and continuously translating sensory input to motor output, with the inevitable output remnant, non-linearly related to the input, attributed to sensorimotor noise. Recent experiments show sustained manual tracking involves repeated refractoriness (insensitivity to sensory information for a certain duration), with the temporary 200-500 ms periods of irresponsiveness to sensory input making the control process intrinsically non-linear. This evidence calls for re-examination of the extent to which random sensorimotor noise is required to explain the non-linear remnant. This investigation of manual tracking shows how the full motor output (linear component and remnant) can be explained mechanistically by aperiodic sampling triggered by prediction error thresholds. Whereas broadband physiological noise is general to all processes, aperiodic sampling is associated with sensorimotor decision making within specific frontal, striatal and parietal networks; we conclude that manual tracking utilises such slow serial decision making pathways up to several times per second. The human operator is described adequately by linear translation of sensory input to motor output. Motor output also always includes a non-linear remnant resulting from random sensorimotor noise from multiple sources, and non-linear input transformations, for example thresholds or refractory periods. Recent evidence showed that manual tracking incurs substantial, serial, refractoriness (insensitivity to sensory information of 350 and 550 ms for 1st and 2nd order systems respectively). Our two questions are: (i) What are the comparative merits of explaining the non-linear remnant using noise or non-linear transformations? (ii) Can non-linear transformations represent serial motor decision making within the sensorimotor feedback loop intrinsic to tracking? Twelve participants (instructed to act in three prescribed

  4. Nonlinear Effects in Piezoelectric Transformers Explained by Thermal-Electric Model Based on a Hypothesis of Self-Heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas; Andersen, Michael A. E.; Thomsen, Ole Cornelius

    2012-01-01

    As the trend within power electronic still goes in the direction of higher power density and higher efficiency, it is necessary to develop new topologies and push the limit for the existing technology. Piezoelectric transformers are a fast developing technology to improve efficiency and increase...... power density of power converters. Nonlinearities in piezoelectric transformers occur when the power density is increased enough. The simple linear equations are not valid at this point and more complex theory of electro elasticity must be applied. In This work a simplified thermo-electric model...

  5. Nonlinear Science

    CERN Document Server

    Yoshida, Zensho

    2010-01-01

    This book gives a general, basic understanding of the mathematical structure "nonlinearity" that lies in the depths of complex systems. Analyzing the heterogeneity that the prefix "non" represents with respect to notions such as the linear space, integrability and scale hierarchy, "nonlinear science" is explained as a challenge of deconstruction of the modern sciences. This book is not a technical guide to teach mathematical tools of nonlinear analysis, nor a zoology of so-called nonlinear phenomena. By critically analyzing the structure of linear theories, and cl

  6. How can we explain the frontal presentation of insular lobe epilepsy? The impact of non-linear analysis of insular seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagiwara, Koichi; Jung, Julien; Bouet, Romain; Abdallah, Chifaou; Guénot, Marc; Garcia-Larrea, Luis; Mauguière, François; Rheims, Sylvain; Isnard, Jean

    2017-05-01

    For a decade it has been known that the insular lobe epilepsy can mimic frontal lobe epilepsy. We aimed to clarify the pattern of functional coupling occurring during the frontal presentation. We analyzed five insular lobe epilepsy patients. Frontal semiology was predominant for three of them, whereas insular semiology was predominant for the two others. We applied the non-linear regression analysis to stereoelectroencephalography-recorded seizures. A directed functional coupling index was calculated during clonic discharge periods that were accompanied either with frontal or insular semiology. We found significant functional coupling between the insula and mesial frontal/cingulate regions, with the former being a leader region for seizures propagation. Extra-insular regions showed significantly less or even no coupling with the mesial hemispheric regions. The three patients with frontal semiology showed strong couplings with the mesial frontal as well as cingulate regions, including the medial orbitofrontal cortex, pre-SMA/SMA, and the anterior to posterior cingulate. The two patients with the insular semiology only showed couplings between the insula and cingulate regions. The frontal semiology was expressed by strong functional couplings between the insula and mesial frontal regions. The insular origin of seizure should be considered in cryptogenic mesial frontal epilepsies. Copyright © 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Complexity explained

    CERN Document Server

    Erdi, Peter

    2008-01-01

    This book explains why complex systems research is important in understanding the structure, function and dynamics of complex natural and social phenomena. Readers will learn the basic concepts and methods of complex system research.

  8. SPSS explained

    CERN Document Server

    Hinton, Perry R; Brownlow, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    SPSS Explained provides the student with all that they need to undertake statistical analysis using SPSS. It combines a step-by-step approach to each procedure with easy to follow screenshots at each stage of the process. A number of other helpful features are provided: regular advice boxes with tips specific to each test explanations divided into 'essential' and 'advanced' sections to suit readers at different levels frequently asked questions at the end of each chapter. The first edition of this popular book has been fully updated for IBM SPSS version 21 and also includes: chapters that expl

  9. Astronomy Explained

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, Gerald

    Every year large numbers of people take up the study of astronomy, mostly at amateur level. There are plenty of elementary books on the market, full of colourful photographs, but lacking in proper explanations of how and why things are as they are. Many people eventually wish to go beyond the 'coffee-table book' stage and study this fascinating subject in greater depth. This book is written for them. In addition, many people sit for public examinations in this subject each year and this book is also intended to be of use to them. All the topics from the GCSE syllabus are covered here, with sample questions at the end of each chapter. Astronomy Explained provides a comprehensive treatment of the subject in more depth than is usually found in elementary works, and will be of interest to both amateur astronomers and students of astronomy.

  10. WAP explained

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, M.J.; Pulsipher, A.G.

    2004-01-01

    The Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP) is a federal block grant program administered by all 50 states and the District of Columbia through community action agencies, state energy offices, local government, and other nonprofit organizations to provide weatherization services to eligible households. The WAP was established in 1976 to increase the energy efficiency, reduce the energy expenditures, and improve the health and safety of low-income households, especially those households that are particularly vulnerable such as families with children, persons with disabilities, and the elderly. The manner in which WAP funds have been allocated to states, however, has been a contentious issue since the inception of the program. Southern states have argued that too much of the federal funding goes to cold-climate and rural states. Northern states disagree. In 1990, Congress amended the Energy Conservation and Production Act and required the Department of Energy to develop a new funding formula. The Department of Energy currently uses a three-factor formula developed in 1995 in conjunction with a two-factor formula developed in 1977 and a hold-harmless provision to allocate WAP funding. The purpose of this paper is to explain the WAP allocation mechanism and the assumptions associated with the 1977 and the 1995 funding formula. The factors that compose each funding formula are critically assessed and various implementation issues are reviewed, including the selection of the trigger point and program capacity levels. It is not possible to define the need for weatherization assistance objectively and in a unique manner, and this ambiguity is the main reason why the WAP allocation mechanism is expected to remain a lively topic of debate and contention

  11. Cardiac PET Imaging of Blood Flow, Metabolism, and Function in Normal and Infarcted Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecomte, R.; Croteau, E.; Gauthier, M.-E.; Archambault, M.; Aliaga, A.; Rousseau, J.; Cadorette, J.; Leroux, J.-D.; Lepage, M. D.; Benard, F.; Bentourkia, M.

    2004-06-01

    The rat heart is an excellent model for the investigation of cardiac physiology and metabolism. It has been used extensively for ex vivo studies of the normal heart as well as for the study of various heart diseases. With the advent of dedicated high-resolution small animal PET scanners, it is now possible to transpose many of the cardiac studies routinely used in humans to the rat. These include the in vivo measurement of myocardial blood flow, metabolism, and function. Because these techniques are noninvasive, the same animal can be imaged repetitively, thus allowing for follow-up studies of disease progression and for the assessment of new therapeutic methods. In this work, we report on cardiac studies performed in normal and diseased rats using the Sherbrooke avalanche photodiode PET scanner, a small animal PET imaging device achieving 14 /spl mu/l volumetric spatial resolution with excellent image signal-to-noise ratio. The system also features flexible list-mode data acquisition, which allows dynamic studies to be resampled as desired for kinetic modeling. These cardiac PET imaging methods were used for the follow-up of infarcted rats submitted to experimental intramyocardial revascularization therapy.

  12. Non-linear oscillations

    CERN Document Server

    Hagedorn, Peter

    1982-01-01

    Thoroughly revised and updated, the second edition of this concise text provides an engineer's view of non-linear oscillations, explaining the most important phenomena and solution methods. Non-linear descriptions are important because under certain conditions there occur large deviations from the behaviors predicted by linear differential equations. In some cases, completely new phenomena arise that are not possible in purely linear systems. The theory of non-linear oscillations thus has important applications in classical mechanics, electronics, communications, biology, and many other branches of science. In addition to many other changes, this edition has a new section on bifurcation theory, including Hopf's theorem.

  13. Cerebral autoregulation and flow/metabolism coupling during cardiopulmonary bypass: the influence of PaCO/sub 2/

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murkin, J.M.; Farrar, J.K.; Tweed, W.A.; McKenzie, F.N.; Guiraudon, G.

    1987-09-01

    Measurement of /sup 133/Xe clearance and effluent cerebral venous blood sampling were used in 38 patients to determine the effects of cardiopulmonary bypass, and of maintaining temperature corrected or noncorrected PaCO/sub 2/ at 40 mm Hg on regulation of cerebral blood flow (CBF) and flow/metabolism coupling. After induction of anesthesia with diazepam and fentanyl, mean CBF was 25 ml X 100 g-1 X min-1 and cerebral oxygen consumption, 1.67 ml X 100 g-1 X min-1. Cerebral oxygen consumption during nonpulsatile cardiopulmonary bypass at 26 degrees C was reduced to 0.42 ml X 100 g-1 X min-1 in both groups. CBF was reduced to 14-15 ml X 100 g-1 X min-1 in the non-temperature-corrected group (n = 21), was independent of cerebral perfusion pressure over the range of 20-100 mm Hg, but correlated with cerebral oxygen consumption. In the temperature-corrected group (n = 17), CBF varied from 22 to 32 ml X 100 g-1 X min-1, and flow/metabolism coupling was not maintained (i.e., CBF and cerebral oxygen consumption varied independently). However, variation in CBF correlated significantly with cerebral perfusion pressure over the pressure range of 15-95 mm Hg. This study demonstrates a profound reduction in cerebral oxygen consumption during hypothermic nonpulsatile cardiopulmonary bypass. When a non-temperature-corrected PaCO/sub 2/ of approximately 40 mm Hg was maintained, CBF was lower, and analysis of pooled data suggested that CBF regulation was better preserved, i.e., CBF was independent of pressure changes and dependent upon cerebral oxygen consumption.

  14. Cerebral autoregulation and flow/metabolism coupling during cardiopulmonary bypass: the influence of PaCO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murkin, J.M.; Farrar, J.K.; Tweed, W.A.; McKenzie, F.N.; Guiraudon, G.

    1987-01-01

    Measurement of 133 Xe clearance and effluent cerebral venous blood sampling were used in 38 patients to determine the effects of cardiopulmonary bypass, and of maintaining temperature corrected or noncorrected PaCO 2 at 40 mm Hg on regulation of cerebral blood flow (CBF) and flow/metabolism coupling. After induction of anesthesia with diazepam and fentanyl, mean CBF was 25 ml X 100 g-1 X min-1 and cerebral oxygen consumption, 1.67 ml X 100 g-1 X min-1. Cerebral oxygen consumption during nonpulsatile cardiopulmonary bypass at 26 degrees C was reduced to 0.42 ml X 100 g-1 X min-1 in both groups. CBF was reduced to 14-15 ml X 100 g-1 X min-1 in the non-temperature-corrected group (n = 21), was independent of cerebral perfusion pressure over the range of 20-100 mm Hg, but correlated with cerebral oxygen consumption. In the temperature-corrected group (n = 17), CBF varied from 22 to 32 ml X 100 g-1 X min-1, and flow/metabolism coupling was not maintained (i.e., CBF and cerebral oxygen consumption varied independently). However, variation in CBF correlated significantly with cerebral perfusion pressure over the pressure range of 15-95 mm Hg. This study demonstrates a profound reduction in cerebral oxygen consumption during hypothermic nonpulsatile cardiopulmonary bypass. When a non-temperature-corrected PaCO 2 of approximately 40 mm Hg was maintained, CBF was lower, and analysis of pooled data suggested that CBF regulation was better preserved, i.e., CBF was independent of pressure changes and dependent upon cerebral oxygen consumption

  15. Nonlinear optics

    CERN Document Server

    Bloembergen, Nicolaas

    1996-01-01

    Nicolaas Bloembergen, recipient of the Nobel Prize for Physics (1981), wrote Nonlinear Optics in 1964, when the field of nonlinear optics was only three years old. The available literature has since grown by at least three orders of magnitude.The vitality of Nonlinear Optics is evident from the still-growing number of scientists and engineers engaged in the study of new nonlinear phenomena and in the development of new nonlinear devices in the field of opto-electronics. This monograph should be helpful in providing a historical introduction and a general background of basic ideas both for expe

  16. Nonlinearity management in higher dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kevrekidis, P G; Pelinovsky, D E; Stefanov, A

    2006-01-01

    In the present paper, we revisit nonlinearity management of the time-periodic nonlinear Schroedinger equation and the related averaging procedure. By means of rigorous estimates, we show that the averaged nonlinear Schroedinger equation does not blow up in the higher dimensional case so long as the corresponding solution remains smooth. In particular, we show that the H 1 norm remains bounded, in contrast with the usual blow-up mechanism for the focusing Schroedinger equation. This conclusion agrees with earlier works in the case of strong nonlinearity management but contradicts those in the case of weak nonlinearity management. The apparent discrepancy is explained by the divergence of the averaging procedure in the limit of weak nonlinearity management

  17. Nonlinear oscillations

    CERN Document Server

    Nayfeh, Ali Hasan

    1995-01-01

    Nonlinear Oscillations is a self-contained and thorough treatment of the vigorous research that has occurred in nonlinear mechanics since 1970. The book begins with fundamental concepts and techniques of analysis and progresses through recent developments and provides an overview that abstracts and introduces main nonlinear phenomena. It treats systems having a single degree of freedom, introducing basic concepts and analytical methods, and extends concepts and methods to systems having degrees of freedom. Most of this material cannot be found in any other text. Nonlinear Oscillations uses sim

  18. Nonlinear analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rassias, Themistocles M

    1987-01-01

    ... known that nonlinear partial differential equations can not be treated in the same systematic way as linear ones and this volume provides, among other things, proofs of existence and uniqueness theorems for nonlinear differential equations of a global nature. However, the basic techniques which have proven to be efficient in dealing with li...

  19. Nonlinear systems

    CERN Document Server

    Palmero, Faustino; Lemos, M; Sánchez-Rey, Bernardo; Casado-Pascual, Jesús

    2018-01-01

    This book presents an overview of the most recent advances in nonlinear science. It provides a unified view of nonlinear properties in many different systems and highlights many  new developments. While volume 1 concentrates on mathematical theory and computational techniques and challenges, which are essential for the study of nonlinear science, this second volume deals with nonlinear excitations in several fields. These excitations can be localized and transport energy and matter in the form of breathers, solitons, kinks or quodons with very different characteristics, which are discussed in the book. They can also transport electric charge, in which case they are known as polarobreathers or solectrons. Nonlinear excitations can influence function and structure in biology, as for example, protein folding. In crystals and other condensed matter, they can modify transport properties, reaction kinetics and interact with defects. There are also engineering applications in electric lattices, Josephson junction a...

  20. Plagiarism explainer for students

    OpenAIRE

    Barba, Lorena A.

    2016-01-01

    A slide deck to serve as an explainer of plagiarism in academic settings, with a personal viewpoint. For my students.Also on SpeakerDeck:https://speakerdeck.com/labarba/plagiarism-explainer-for-students(The slide viewer on SpeakerDeck is much nicer.)

  1. Nonlinear optics principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Chunfei

    2017-01-01

    This book reflects the latest advances in nonlinear optics. Besides the simple, strict mathematical deduction, it also discusses the experimental verification and possible future applications, such as the all-optical switches. It consistently uses the practical unit system throughout. It employs simple physical images, such as "light waves" and "photons" to systematically explain the main principles of nonlinear optical effects. It uses the first-order nonlinear wave equation in frequency domain under the condition of “slowly varying amplitude approximation" and the classical model of the interaction between the light and electric dipole. At the same time, it also uses the rate equations based on the energy-level transition of particle systems excited by photons and the energy and momentum conservation principles to explain the nonlinear optical phenomenon. The book is intended for researchers, engineers and graduate students in the field of the optics, optoelectronics, fiber communication, information tech...

  2. Nonlinear optics

    CERN Document Server

    Boyd, Robert W

    2013-01-01

    Nonlinear Optics is an advanced textbook for courses dealing with nonlinear optics, quantum electronics, laser physics, contemporary and quantum optics, and electrooptics. Its pedagogical emphasis is on fundamentals rather than particular, transitory applications. As a result, this textbook will have lasting appeal to a wide audience of electrical engineering, physics, and optics students, as well as those in related fields such as materials science and chemistry.Key Features* The origin of optical nonlinearities, including dependence on the polarization of light* A detailed treatment of the q

  3. Nonlinear reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hong-Ming; Yu, Yu; Pen, Ue-Li; Chen, Xuelei; Yu, Hao-Ran

    2017-12-01

    We present a direct approach to nonparametrically reconstruct the linear density field from an observed nonlinear map. We solve for the unique displacement potential consistent with the nonlinear density and positive definite coordinate transformation using a multigrid algorithm. We show that we recover the linear initial conditions up to the nonlinear scale (rδrδL>0.5 for k ≲1 h /Mpc ) with minimal computational cost. This reconstruction approach generalizes the linear displacement theory to fully nonlinear fields, potentially substantially expanding the baryon acoustic oscillations and redshift space distortions information content of dense large scale structure surveys, including for example SDSS main sample and 21 cm intensity mapping initiatives.

  4. Nonlinear analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Gasinski, Leszek

    2005-01-01

    Hausdorff Measures and Capacity. Lebesgue-Bochner and Sobolev Spaces. Nonlinear Operators and Young Measures. Smooth and Nonsmooth Analysis and Variational Principles. Critical Point Theory. Eigenvalue Problems and Maximum Principles. Fixed Point Theory.

  5. Multiorder nonlinear diffraction in frequency doubling processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saltiel, Solomon M.; Neshev, Dragomir N.; Krolikowski, Wieslaw

    2009-01-01

    We analyze experimentally light scattering from 2 nonlinear gratings and observe two types of second-harmonic frequency-scattering processes. The first process is identified as Raman–Nath type nonlinear diffraction that is explained by applying only transverse phase-matching conditions. The angular...... position of this type of diffraction is defined by the ratio of the second-harmonic wavelength and the grating period. In contrast, the second type of nonlinear scattering process is explained by the longitudinal phase matching only, being insensitive to the nonlinear grating...

  6. Practical Nonlinearities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    architectures , practical nonlinearities, nonlinear dynamics 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT: SAR 8. NUMBER OF PAGES...performers from Mesodynamic Architectures (MESO) and uPNT all to include devices in these runs. This cost-sharing was planned, and is necessary for...contributions to the performance of MEMS gyroscopes. In particular, we have demonstrated for the first time that Parametric Amplification can improve the

  7. Reporting explained variance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, Ron; Fletcher, Harold J.

    The importance of reporting explained variance (sometimes referred to as magnitude of effects) in ANOVA designs is discussed in this paper. Explained variance is an estimate of the strength of the relationship between treatment (or other factors such as sex, grade level, etc.) and dependent variables of interest to the researcher(s). Three methods that can be used to obtain estimates of explained variance in ANOVA designs are described and applied to 16 studies that were reported in recent volumes of this journal. The results show that, while in most studies the treatment accounts for a relatively small proportion of the variance in dependent variable scores., in., some studies the magnitude of the treatment effect is respectable. The authors recommend that researchers in science education report explained variance in addition to the commonly reported tests of significance, since the latter are inadequate as the sole basis for making decisions about the practical importance of factors of interest to science education researchers.

  8. Time series with tailored nonlinearities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Räth, C.; Laut, I.

    2015-10-01

    It is demonstrated how to generate time series with tailored nonlinearities by inducing well-defined constraints on the Fourier phases. Correlations between the phase information of adjacent phases and (static and dynamic) measures of nonlinearities are established and their origin is explained. By applying a set of simple constraints on the phases of an originally linear and uncorrelated Gaussian time series, the observed scaling behavior of the intensity distribution of empirical time series can be reproduced. The power law character of the intensity distributions being typical for, e.g., turbulence and financial data can thus be explained in terms of phase correlations.

  9. Nonlinear distortion in wireless systems modeling and simulation with Matlab

    CERN Document Server

    Gharaibeh, Khaled M

    2011-01-01

    This book covers the principles of modeling and simulation of nonlinear distortion in wireless communication systems with MATLAB simulations and techniques In this book, the author describes the principles of modeling and simulation of nonlinear distortion in single and multichannel wireless communication systems using both deterministic and stochastic signals. Models and simulation methods of nonlinear amplifiers explain in detail how to analyze and evaluate the performance of data communication links under nonlinear amplification. The book addresses the analysis of nonlinear systems

  10. Nonlinear optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Ruszczynski, Andrzej

    2011-01-01

    Optimization is one of the most important areas of modern applied mathematics, with applications in fields from engineering and economics to finance, statistics, management science, and medicine. While many books have addressed its various aspects, Nonlinear Optimization is the first comprehensive treatment that will allow graduate students and researchers to understand its modern ideas, principles, and methods within a reasonable time, but without sacrificing mathematical precision. Andrzej Ruszczynski, a leading expert in the optimization of nonlinear stochastic systems, integrates the theory and the methods of nonlinear optimization in a unified, clear, and mathematically rigorous fashion, with detailed and easy-to-follow proofs illustrated by numerous examples and figures. The book covers convex analysis, the theory of optimality conditions, duality theory, and numerical methods for solving unconstrained and constrained optimization problems. It addresses not only classical material but also modern top...

  11. Computer jargon explained

    CERN Document Server

    Enticknap, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    Computer Jargon Explained is a feature in Computer Weekly publications that discusses 68 of the most commonly used technical computing terms. The book explains what the terms mean and why the terms are important to computer professionals. The text also discusses how the terms relate to the trends and developments that are driving the information technology industry. Computer jargon irritates non-computer people and in turn causes problems for computer people. The technology and the industry are changing so rapidly; it is very hard even for professionals to keep updated. Computer people do not

  12. The wireless internet explained

    CERN Document Server

    Rhoton, John

    2001-01-01

    The Wireless Internet Explained covers the full spectrum of wireless technologies from a wide range of vendors, including initiatives by Microsoft and Compaq. The Wireless Internet Explained takes a practical look at wireless technology. Rhoton explains the concepts behind the physics, and provides an overview that clarifies the convoluted set of standards heaped together under the umbrella of wireless. It then expands on these technical foundations to give a panorama of the increasingly crowded landscape of wireless product offerings. When it comes to actual implementation the book gives abundant down-to-earth advice on topics ranging from the selection and deployment of mobile devices to the extremely sensitive subject of security.Written by an expert on Internet messaging, the author of Digital Press''s successful Programmer''s Guide to Internet Mail and X.400 and SMTP: Battle of the E-mail Protocols, The Wireless Internet Explained describes and evaluates the current state of the fast-growing and crucial...

  13. A perspective on nonlinear dynamics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    of material stress is explained in terms of a dynamical model. Other talks at the conference dealt with the transition to turbulence in pipe flow (Eckhardt) .... ECG or EEG signals, and subsequent analysis through techniques developed for nonlinear dynamical systems has been useful and instructive, especially with respect.

  14. Nonlinearity, Conservation Law and Shocks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the Mathematics. Olympiad in India. Phoolan Prasad. We present in two parts, a mathematical theory of conservation laws using the language of physics. In Part I we explain the concept of a special type of nonlinearity which appears in an important class of evolutionary processes governed by hyperbolic partial differential.

  15. Correlations and Non-Linear Probability Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breen, Richard; Holm, Anders; Karlson, Kristian Bernt

    2014-01-01

    Although the parameters of logit and probit and other non-linear probability models are often explained and interpreted in relation to the regression coefficients of an underlying linear latent variable model, we argue that they may also be usefully interpreted in terms of the correlations betwee...... certain circumstances, which we explain, the derived correlation provides a way of overcoming the problems inherent in cross-sample comparisons of the parameters of non-linear probability models....

  16. Present and Future of Nonlinear Dynamics According to a Nonlinear Dynamicist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagasaki, Kazuyuki

    The present state and future of “nonlinear dynamics” is explained in this review. First, chaotic vibrations of nonlinear beams are used as a material to demonstrate our present understanding of chaos, compared with the situation of the early stage of its research. Second, two topics, microcantilever dynamics of tapping-mode atomic force microscopy and design of Earth to the Moon transfer trajectories of spacecrafts, are chosen for describing the importance and usefulness of “nonlinear dynamics” in new technologies. Moreover, two applications of “nonlinear dynamics” to biped walking robots and nonlinear optimal control are briefly addressed.

  17. MAGMADIM: Young Explainers Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paltiel, Z.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text:Physics teachers and educators constantly face the problem of inspiring their students to major in physics. On the other hand, science museums are designed to provide a pleasant environment which will stimulate and encourage a science associated experience to the general public. Typically, there is no intention to teach science as such in science museums. One may, however, use the science museum to teach and inspire certain groups of students in a much deeper sense. In fact they may actually enthusiastically learn much of the school physics curriculum at the museum. This report discusses the Magmadim program through which 10th graders are trained to be young explainers at the Weizmann Institutes Clore Garden of Science. To this end they study the physics underlying its exhibits in an after-school course. The ultimate goal is for the 'magmadim' to become the best possible explainers and be able to face all sorts of museum visitors. Along with learning how to instruct visitors, they must learn the physics behind the exhibits to give a full explanation of the exhibit and be able to answer any question that may arise. Our 5 year experience with the program shows that its self-selected participants not only study a lot of science, but also like it and learn how to explain the content to other people. This program, along with similar programs at the Bloomfield Science Museum and the Madatzim (young physics tutors) program of Ort, help in promoting the interest in science in general and physics in particular among school students. Various ways to expand the programs will also be discussed

  18. Linear Algebra Thoroughly Explained

    CERN Document Server

    Vujičić, Milan

    2008-01-01

    Linear Algebra Thoroughly Explained provides a comprehensive introduction to the subject suitable for adoption as a self-contained text for courses at undergraduate and postgraduate level. The clear and comprehensive presentation of the basic theory is illustrated throughout with an abundance of worked examples. The book is written for teachers and students of linear algebra at all levels and across mathematics and the applied sciences, particularly physics and engineering. It will also be an invaluable addition to research libraries as a comprehensive resource book for the subject.

  19. The nonlinear universe chaos, emergence, life

    CERN Document Server

    Scott, A C

    2007-01-01

    Written in Alwyn Scott’s inimitable style – lucid and accessible – The Nonlinear Universe surveys and explores the explosion of activity in nonlinear science that began in the 1970s and 1980s and continues today. The book explains the wide-ranging implications of nonlinear phenomena for future developments in many areas of modern science, including mathematics, physics, engineering, chemistry, biology, and neuroscience. Arguably as important as quantum theory, modern nonlinear science – and an appreciation of its implications – is essential for understanding scientific developments of the twenty-first century.

  20. Explaining wartime rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottschall, Jonathan

    2004-05-01

    In the years since the first reports of mass rapes in the Yugoslavian wars of secession and the genocidal massacres in Rwanda, feminist activists and scholars, human rights organizations, journalists, and social scientists have dedicated unprecedented efforts to document, explain, and seek solutions for the phenomenon of wartime rape. While contributors to this literature agree on much, there is no consensus on causal factors. This paper provides a brief overview of the literature on wartime rape in historical and ethnographical societies and a critical analysis of the four leading explanations for its root causes: the feminist theory, the cultural pathology theory, the strategic rape theory, and the biosocial theory. The paper concludes that the biosocial theory is the only one capable of bringing all the phenomena associated with wartime rape into a single explanatory context.

  1. Explaining moral religions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumard, Nicolas; Boyer, Pascal

    2013-06-01

    Moralizing religions, unlike religions with morally indifferent gods or spirits, appeared only recently in some (but not all) large-scale human societies. A crucial feature of these new religions is their emphasis on proportionality (between deeds and supernatural rewards, between sins and penance, and in the formulation of the Golden Rule, according to which one should treat others as one would like others to treat oneself). Cognitive science models that account for many properties of religion can be extended to these religions. Recent models of evolved dispositions for fairness in cooperation suggest that proportionality-based morality is highly intuitive to human beings. The cultural success of moralizing movements, secular or religious, could be explained based on proportionality. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Matlab for engineers explained

    CERN Document Server

    Gustafsson, Fredrik

    2003-01-01

    This book is written for students at bachelor and master programs and has four different purposes, which split the book into four parts: 1. To teach first or early year undergraduate engineering students basic knowledge in technical computations and programming using MATLAB. The first part starts from first principles and is therefore well suited both for readers with prior exposure to MATLAB but lacking a solid foundational knowledge of the capabilities of the system and readers not having any previous experience with MATLAB. The foundational knowledge gained from these interactive guided tours of the system will hopefully be sufficient for an effective utilization of MATLAB in the engineering profession, in education and in research. 2. To explain the foundations of more advanced use of MATLAB using the facilities added the last couple of years, such as extended data structures, object orientation and advanced graphics. 3. To give an introduction to the use of MATLAB in typical undergraduate courses in elec...

  3. Non-linear osmosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, Jared M.

    1966-01-01

    1. The relation between osmotic gradient and rate of osmotic water flow has been measured in rabbit gall-bladder by a gravimetric procedure and by a rapid method based on streaming potentials. Streaming potentials were directly proportional to gravimetrically measured water fluxes. 2. As in many other tissues, water flow was found to vary with gradient in a markedly non-linear fashion. There was no consistent relation between the water permeability and either the direction or the rate of water flow. 3. Water flow in response to a given gradient decreased at higher osmolarities. The resistance to water flow increased linearly with osmolarity over the range 186-825 m-osM. 4. The resistance to water flow was the same when the gall-bladder separated any two bathing solutions with the same average osmolarity, regardless of the magnitude of the gradient. In other words, the rate of water flow is given by the expression (Om — Os)/[Ro′ + ½k′ (Om + Os)], where Ro′ and k′ are constants and Om and Os are the bathing solution osmolarities. 5. Of the theories advanced to explain non-linear osmosis in other tissues, flow-induced membrane deformations, unstirred layers, asymmetrical series-membrane effects, and non-osmotic effects of solutes could not explain the results. However, experimental measurements of water permeability as a function of osmolarity permitted quantitative reconstruction of the observed water flow—osmotic gradient curves. Hence non-linear osmosis in rabbit gall-bladder is due to a decrease in water permeability with increasing osmolarity. 6. The results suggest that aqueous channels in the cell membrane behave as osmometers, shrinking in concentrated solutions of impermeant molecules and thereby increasing membrane resistance to water flow. A mathematical formulation of such a membrane structure is offered. PMID:5945254

  4. Introduction to nonlinear finite element analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Nam-Ho

    2015-01-01

    This book introduces the key concepts of nonlinear finite element analysis procedures. The book explains the fundamental theories of the field and provides instructions on how to apply the concepts to solving practical engineering problems. Instead of covering many nonlinear problems, the book focuses on three representative problems: nonlinear elasticity, elastoplasticity, and contact problems. The book is written independent of any particular software, but tutorials and examples using four commercial programs are included as appendices: ANSYS, NASTRAN, ABAQUS, and MATLAB. In particular, the MATLAB program includes all source codes so that students can develop their own material models, or different algorithms. This book also: ·         Presents clear explanations of nonlinear finite element analysis for elasticity, elastoplasticity, and contact problems ·         Includes many informative examples of nonlinear analyses so that students can clearly understand the nonlinear theory ·    ...

  5. New methods of testing nonlinear hypothesis using iterative NLLS estimator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahaboob, B.; Venkateswarlu, B.; Mokeshrayalu, G.; Balasiddamuni, P.

    2017-11-01

    This research paper discusses the method of testing nonlinear hypothesis using iterative Nonlinear Least Squares (NLLS) estimator. Takeshi Amemiya [1] explained this method. However in the present research paper, a modified Wald test statistic due to Engle, Robert [6] is proposed to test the nonlinear hypothesis using iterative NLLS estimator. An alternative method for testing nonlinear hypothesis using iterative NLLS estimator based on nonlinear hypothesis using iterative NLLS estimator based on nonlinear studentized residuals has been proposed. In this research article an innovative method of testing nonlinear hypothesis using iterative restricted NLLS estimator is derived. Pesaran and Deaton [10] explained the methods of testing nonlinear hypothesis. This paper uses asymptotic properties of nonlinear least squares estimator proposed by Jenrich [8]. The main purpose of this paper is to provide very innovative methods of testing nonlinear hypothesis using iterative NLLS estimator, iterative NLLS estimator based on nonlinear studentized residuals and iterative restricted NLLS estimator. Eakambaram et al. [12] discussed least absolute deviation estimations versus nonlinear regression model with heteroscedastic errors and also they studied the problem of heteroscedasticity with reference to nonlinear regression models with suitable illustration. William Grene [13] examined the interaction effect in nonlinear models disused by Ai and Norton [14] and suggested ways to examine the effects that do not involve statistical testing. Peter [15] provided guidelines for identifying composite hypothesis and addressing the probability of false rejection for multiple hypotheses.

  6. Explaining gender segregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, Robert M; Browne, Jude; Brooks, Bradley; Jarman, Jennifer

    2002-12-01

    Occupational gender segregation--the tendency for women and men to work in different occupations--is an important feature of all societies, and particularly the wealthy industrialized ones. To understand this segregation, and to explain its significance, we need to distinguish between vertical segregation entailing inequality and horizontal segregation representing difference without inequality, with overall segregation being the resultant of these components. Three major theoretical approaches to understanding occupational gender segregation are examined: human capital/rational choice, patriarchy, and preference theories. All are found to be inadequate; they tend to confuse overall segregation with its vertical component, and each entails a number of other faults. It is generally assumed or implied that greater empowerment of women would reduce gender segregation. This is the reverse of what actually happens; in countries where the degree of women's empowerment is greater, the level of gender segregation is also greater. An alternative theoretical approach based on processes of social reproduction is shown to be more useful.

  7. Explaining Synthesized Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanBaalen, Jeffrey; Robinson, Peter; Lowry, Michael; Pressburger, Thomas; Lau, Sonie (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Motivated by NASA's need for high-assurance software, NASA Ames' Amphion project has developed a generic program generation system based on deductive synthesis. Amphion has a number of advantages, such as the ability to develop a new synthesis system simply by writing a declarative domain theory. However, as a practical matter, the validation of the domain theory for such a system is problematic because the link between generated programs and the domain theory is complex. As a result, when generated programs do not behave as expected, it is difficult to isolate the cause, whether it be an incorrect problem specification or an error in the domain theory. This paper describes a tool we are developing that provides formal traceability between specifications and generated code for deductive synthesis systems. It is based on extensive instrumentation of the refutation-based theorem prover used to synthesize programs. It takes augmented proof structures and abstracts them to provide explanations of the relation between a specification, a domain theory, and synthesized code. In generating these explanations, the tool exploits the structure of Amphion domain theories, so the end user is not confronted with the intricacies of raw proof traces. This tool is crucial for the validation of domain theories as well as being important in everyday use of the code synthesis system. It plays an important role in validation because when generated programs exhibit incorrect behavior, it provides the links that can be traced to identify errors in specifications or domain theory. It plays an important role in the everyday use of the synthesis system by explaining to users what parts of a specification or of the domain theory contribute to what pieces of a generated program. Comments are inserted into the synthesized code that document these explanations.

  8. Nonlinear resonances

    CERN Document Server

    Rajasekar, Shanmuganathan

    2016-01-01

    This introductory text presents the basic aspects and most important features of various types of resonances and anti-resonances in dynamical systems. In particular, for each resonance, it covers the theoretical concepts, illustrates them with case studies, and reviews the available information on mechanisms, characterization, numerical simulations, experimental realizations, possible quantum analogues, applications and significant advances made over the years. Resonances are one of the most fundamental phenomena exhibited by nonlinear systems and refer to specific realizations of maximum response of a system due to the ability of that system to store and transfer energy received from an external forcing source. Resonances are of particular importance in physical, engineering and biological systems - they can prove to be advantageous in many applications, while leading to instability and even disasters in others. The book is self-contained, providing the details of mathematical derivations and techniques invo...

  9. [Nonlinear magnetohydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Resistive MHD equilibrium, even for small resistivity, differs greatly from ideal equilibrium, as do the dynamical consequences of its instabilities. The requirement, imposed by Faraday's law, that time independent magnetic fields imply curl-free electric fields, greatly restricts the electric fields allowed inside a finite-resistivity plasma. If there is no flow and the implications of the Ohm's law are taken into account (and they need not be, for ideal equilibria), the electric field must equal the resistivity times the current density. The vanishing of the divergence of the current density then provides a partial differential equation which, together with boundary conditions, uniquely determines the scalar potential, the electric field, and the current density, for any given resistivity profile. The situation parallels closely that of driven shear flows in hydrodynamics, in that while dissipative steady states are somewhat more complex than ideal ones, there are vastly fewer of them to consider. Seen in this light, the vast majority of ideal MHD equilibria are just irrelevant, incapable of being set up in the first place. The steady state whose stability thresholds and nonlinear behavior needs to be investigated ceases to be an arbitrary ad hoc exercise dependent upon the whim of the investigator, but is determined by boundary conditions and choice of resistivity profile

  10. Perspectives of nonlinear dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, E.A.

    1985-03-01

    Four lectures were given weekly in October and November, 1984, and some of the ideas presented here will be of use in the future. First, a brief survey of the historical development of nonlinear dynamics since about 1890 was given, and then, a few topics were discussed in detail. The objective was to introduce some of many concepts and methods which are presently used for describing nonlinear dynamics. The symbiotic relationship between sciences of all types and mathematics, two main categories of the models describing nature, the method for describing the dynamics of a system, the idea of control parameters and topological dimension, the asymptotic properties of dynamics, abstract dynamics, the concept of embedding, singular perturbation theory, strange attractor, Fermi-Pasta-Ulam phenomena, an example of computer heuristics, the idea of elementary catastrophe theory and so on were explained. The logistic map is the simplest introduction to complex dynamics. The complicated dynamics is referred to as strange attractors. Two-dimensional maps are the highest dimensional maps commonly studied. These were discussed in detail. (Kako, I.)

  11. Nonlinearities in Behavioral Macroeconomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Orlando

    2017-07-01

    This article undertakes a journey across the literature on behavioral macroeconomics, with attention concentrated on the nonlinearities that the behavioral approach typically suggests or implies. The emphasis is placed on thinking the macro economy as a living organism, composed of many interacting parts, each one having a will of its own, which is in sharp contrast with the mechanism of the orthodox view (well represented by the neoclassical or new Keynesian dynamic stochastic general equilibrium - DSGE - model). The paper advocates that a thorough understanding of individual behavior in collective contexts is the only possible avenue to further explore macroeconomic phenomena and the often observed 'anomalies' that the benchmark DSGE macro framework is unable to explain or justify. After a reflection on the role of behavioral traits as a fundamental component of a new way of thinking the economy, the article proceeds with a debate on some of the most relevant frameworks in the literature that somehow link macro behavior and nonlinearities; covered subjects include macro models with disequilibrium rules, agent-based models that highlight interaction and complexity, evolutionary switching frameworks, and inattention based decision problems. These subjects have, as a fundamental point in common, the use of behavioral elements to transform existing interpretations of the economic reality, making it more evident how irregular fluctuations emerge and unfold on the aggregate.

  12. Nonlinear beam mechanics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westra, H.J.R.

    2012-01-01

    In this Thesis, nonlinear dynamics and nonlinear interactions are studied from a micromechanical point of view. Single and doubly clamped beams are used as model systems where nonlinearity plays an important role. The nonlinearity also gives rise to rich dynamic behavior with phenomena like

  13. Derivation of an applied nonlinear Schroedinger equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitts, Todd Alan [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Laine, Mark Richard [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Schwarz, Jens [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rambo, Patrick K. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Karelitz, David B. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-01-01

    We derive from first principles a mathematical physics model useful for understanding nonlinear optical propagation (including filamentation). All assumptions necessary for the development are clearly explained. We include the Kerr effect, Raman scattering, and ionization (as well as linear and nonlinear shock, diffraction and dispersion). We explain the phenomenological sub-models and each assumption required to arrive at a complete and consistent theoretical description. The development includes the relationship between shock and ionization and demonstrates why inclusion of Drude model impedance effects alters the nature of the shock operator. Unclassified Unlimited Release

  14. Incorporating nonlinearity into mediation analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knafl, George J; Knafl, Kathleen A; Grey, Margaret; Dixon, Jane; Deatrick, Janet A; Gallo, Agatha M

    2017-03-21

    Mediation is an important issue considered in the behavioral, medical, and social sciences. It addresses situations where the effect of a predictor variable X on an outcome variable Y is explained to some extent by an intervening, mediator variable M. Methods for addressing mediation have been available for some time. While these methods continue to undergo refinement, the relationships underlying mediation are commonly treated as linear in the outcome Y, the predictor X, and the mediator M. These relationships, however, can be nonlinear. Methods are needed for assessing when mediation relationships can be treated as linear and for estimating them when they are nonlinear. Existing adaptive regression methods based on fractional polynomials are extended here to address nonlinearity in mediation relationships, but assuming those relationships are monotonic as would be consistent with theories about directionality of such relationships. Example monotonic mediation analyses are provided assessing linear and monotonic mediation of the effect of family functioning (X) on a child's adaptation (Y) to a chronic condition by the difficulty (M) for the family in managing the child's condition. Example moderated monotonic mediation and simulation analyses are also presented. Adaptive methods provide an effective way to incorporate possibly nonlinear monotonicity into mediation relationships.

  15. Incorporating nonlinearity into mediation analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George J. Knafl

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mediation is an important issue considered in the behavioral, medical, and social sciences. It addresses situations where the effect of a predictor variable X on an outcome variable Y is explained to some extent by an intervening, mediator variable M. Methods for addressing mediation have been available for some time. While these methods continue to undergo refinement, the relationships underlying mediation are commonly treated as linear in the outcome Y, the predictor X, and the mediator M. These relationships, however, can be nonlinear. Methods are needed for assessing when mediation relationships can be treated as linear and for estimating them when they are nonlinear. Methods Existing adaptive regression methods based on fractional polynomials are extended here to address nonlinearity in mediation relationships, but assuming those relationships are monotonic as would be consistent with theories about directionality of such relationships. Results Example monotonic mediation analyses are provided assessing linear and monotonic mediation of the effect of family functioning (X on a child’s adaptation (Y to a chronic condition by the difficulty (M for the family in managing the child's condition. Example moderated monotonic mediation and simulation analyses are also presented. Conclusions Adaptive methods provide an effective way to incorporate possibly nonlinear monotonicity into mediation relationships.

  16. Nonlinear mechanics of rigidifying curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Mosleh, Salem; Santangelo, Christian

    2017-07-01

    Thin shells are characterized by a high cost of stretching compared to bending. As a result isometries of the midsurface of a shell play a crucial role in their mechanics. In turn, curves on the midsurface with zero normal curvature play a critical role in determining the number and behavior of isometries. In this paper, we show how the presence of these curves results in a decrease in the number of linear isometries. Paradoxically, shells are also known to continuously fold more easily across these rigidifying curves than other curves on the surface. We show how including nonlinearities in the strain can explain these phenomena and demonstrate folding isometries with explicit solutions to the nonlinear isometry equations. In addition to explicit solutions, exact geometric arguments are given to validate and guide our analysis in a coordinate-free way.

  17. Nonlinear elliptic differential equations with multivalued nonlinearities

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Springer Verlag Heidelberg #4 2048 1996 Dec 15 10:16:45

    Nonlinear elliptic differential equations with multivalued ... has a solution. Finally in the last part we consider an eigenvalue problem with a nonmonotone multivalued nonlinearity. Using the critical point theory for nonsmooth .... A is upper semicontinuous (as a set-valued map) from every finite dimensional subspace of X into ...

  18. Periodic and solitary wave solutions of cubic–quintic nonlinear ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    odic, double-kink, bell and antikink-type solutions for cubic–quintic nonlinear reaction-diffusion equation are extracted. Such solutions can be used to explain various biological and physical phenomena. Keywords. Variable coefficient reaction-diffusion equation; solitary wave solution; cubic–quintic nonlinearity. PACS No.

  19. On Poisson Nonlinear Transformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasir Ganikhodjaev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We construct the family of Poisson nonlinear transformations defined on the countable sample space of nonnegative integers and investigate their trajectory behavior. We have proved that these nonlinear transformations are regular.

  20. Nonlinear ordinary differential equations analytical approximation and numerical methods

    CERN Document Server

    Hermann, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The book discusses the solutions to nonlinear ordinary differential equations (ODEs) using analytical and numerical approximation methods. Recently, analytical approximation methods have been largely used in solving linear and nonlinear lower-order ODEs. It also discusses using these methods to solve some strong nonlinear ODEs. There are two chapters devoted to solving nonlinear ODEs using numerical methods, as in practice high-dimensional systems of nonlinear ODEs that cannot be solved by analytical approximate methods are common. Moreover, it studies analytical and numerical techniques for the treatment of parameter-depending ODEs. The book explains various methods for solving nonlinear-oscillator and structural-system problems, including the energy balance method, harmonic balance method, amplitude frequency formulation, variational iteration method, homotopy perturbation method, iteration perturbation method, homotopy analysis method, simple and multiple shooting method, and the nonlinear stabilized march...

  1. Your Radiologist Explains CT Colonography

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Radiology and You Take our survey Sponsored by Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains CT Colonography (Virtual ... to allow for inflation with air while CT images are being taken. If you’re scheduled for ...

  2. Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Radiology and You Take our survey Sponsored by Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine Transcript ... by a special camera and computer to create images of the inside of your body. If you’ ...

  3. Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Abdominal Ultrasound Video: Pelvic Ultrasound Medical Imaging Costs Radiology and You Take our survey Sponsored by Image/ ... Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot org Hello! I’m Dr. Ramji ...

  4. Your Radiologist Explains CT Colonography

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Abdominal Ultrasound Video: Pelvic Ultrasound Medical Imaging Costs Radiology and You Take our survey Sponsored by Image/ ... Explains CT Colonography (Virtual colonoscopy) Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot org! Hi, I’m Dr. Elliot ...

  5. Your Radiologist Explains CT Colonography

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and You Take our survey Sponsored by Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains CT Colonography (Virtual colonoscopy) ... Carotid Intima-Media Thickness Test Medical Imaging Costs Video: Abdominal Ultrasound Video: Pelvic Ultrasound Radiology and You ...

  6. Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and You Take our survey Sponsored by Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine Transcript Welcome ... Carotid Intima-Media Thickness Test Medical Imaging Costs Video: Abdominal Ultrasound Video: Pelvic Ultrasound Radiology and You ...

  7. Explaining variation in nascent entrepreneurship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J. van Stel (André); A.R.M. Wennekers (Sander); P. Reynolds (Paul); A.R. Thurik (Roy)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractThis paper aims at explaining cross-country variation in nascent entrepreneurship. Regression analysis is applied using various explanatory variables derived from three different approaches. We make use of the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor database, including nascent entrepreneurship

  8. Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Sponsored by Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot org ... I’d like to talk to you about nuclear medicine. Nuclear medicine offers the potential to identify ...

  9. Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... by Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot org Hello! ... d like to talk to you about nuclear medicine. Nuclear medicine offers the potential to identify disease ...

  10. Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sponsored by Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot org Hello! ... I’d like to talk to you about nuclear medicine. Nuclear medicine offers the potential to identify disease ...

  11. Terahertz semiconductor nonlinear optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turchinovich, Dmitry; Hvam, Jørn Märcher; Hoffmann, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    In this proceedings we describe our recent results on semiconductor nonlinear optics, investigated using single-cycle THz pulses. We demonstrate the nonlinear absorption and self-phase modulation of strong-field THz pulses in doped semiconductors, using n-GaAs as a model system. The THz nonlinear...

  12. Nonlinear Microwave Optomechanics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shevchuk, O.

    2017-01-01

    The nonlinearity is essential for creation of non-classical states of the cavity or mechanical resonator such as squeezed or cat states. A microwave cavity can be made nonlinear by, for instance, adding Josephson junctions. The mechanical resonator is inherently nonlinear. The radiation pressure

  13. Advances in nonlinear optics

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Xianfeng; Zeng, Heping; Guo, Qi; She, Weilong

    2015-01-01

    This book presents an overview of the state of the art of nonlinear optics from weak light nonlinear optics, ultrafast nonlinear optics to electro-optical theory and applications. Topics range from the fundamental studies of the interaction between matter and radiation to the development of devices, components, and systems of tremendous commercial interest for widespread applications in optical telecommunications, medicine, and biotechnology.

  14. Can Marxism Explain America's Racism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willhelm, Sidney M.

    1980-01-01

    The Marxist interpretation of the Black experience in America has always had difficulty explaining various noneconomic aspects of racism. A perspective is needed that can blend racism as a variable in relationship with economic variables. To reach this perspective, the labor process within capitalism must be more fully understood. (Author/GC)

  15. Journalism and Explaining News Content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albæk, E.; Skovsgaard, M.; de Vreese, C.H.; Nussbaum, J.F.

    Three models are presented to explain variation in news content. In the first model the explanation is based on the individual journalist, in the second model on the professional journalist, and in the third model on the organized journalist. The individual journalist model focuses on how the

  16. Does market competition explain fairness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Descioli, Peter

    2013-02-01

    The target article by Baumard et al. uses their previous model of bargaining with outside options to explain fairness and other features of human sociality. This theory implies that fairness judgments are determined by supply and demand but humans often perceive prices (divisions of surplus) in competitive markets to be unfair.

  17. Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Sponsored by Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot org Hello! ... I’d like to talk to you about nuclear medicine. Nuclear medicine offers the potential to identify disease ...

  18. Reduction of nonlinear patterning effects in SOA-based All-optical Switches using Optical filtering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mads Lønstrup; Mørk, Jesper; Skaguchi, J.

    2005-01-01

    We explain theoretically, and demonstrate and quantify experimentally, how appropriate filtering can reduce the dominant nonlinear patterning effect, which limits the performance of differential-mode SOA-based switches.......We explain theoretically, and demonstrate and quantify experimentally, how appropriate filtering can reduce the dominant nonlinear patterning effect, which limits the performance of differential-mode SOA-based switches....

  19. Nonlinear graphene plasmonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, Kelvin J. A.; Tan, Dawn T. H.

    2017-10-01

    The rapid development of graphene has opened up exciting new fields in graphene plasmonics and nonlinear optics. Graphene's unique two-dimensional band structure provides extraordinary linear and nonlinear optical properties, which have led to extreme optical confinement in graphene plasmonics and ultrahigh nonlinear optical coefficients, respectively. The synergy between graphene's linear and nonlinear optical properties gave rise to nonlinear graphene plasmonics, which greatly augments graphene-based nonlinear device performance beyond a billion-fold. This nascent field of research will eventually find far-reaching revolutionary technological applications that require device miniaturization, low power consumption and a broad range of operating wavelengths approaching the far-infrared, such as optical computing, medical instrumentation and security applications.

  20. Nonlinear Dirac Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Khim Ng

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available We construct nonlinear extensions of Dirac's relativistic electron equation that preserve its other desirable properties such as locality, separability, conservation of probability and Poincaré invariance. We determine the constraints that the nonlinear term must obey and classify the resultant non-polynomial nonlinearities in a double expansion in the degree of nonlinearity and number of derivatives. We give explicit examples of such nonlinear equations, studying their discrete symmetries and other properties. Motivated by some previously suggested applications we then consider nonlinear terms that simultaneously violate Lorentz covariance and again study various explicit examples. We contrast our equations and construction procedure with others in the literature and also show that our equations are not gauge equivalent to the linear Dirac equation. Finally we outline various physical applications for these equations.

  1. Stationary nonlinear Airy beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lotti, A.; Faccio, D.; Couairon, A.; Papazoglou, D. G.; Panagiotopoulos, P.; Tzortzakis, S.; Abdollahpour, D.

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate the existence of an additional class of stationary accelerating Airy wave forms that exist in the presence of third-order (Kerr) nonlinearity and nonlinear losses. Numerical simulations and experiments, in agreement with the analytical model, highlight how these stationary solutions sustain the nonlinear evolution of Airy beams. The generic nature of the Airy solution allows extension of these results to other settings, and a variety of applications are suggested.

  2. Can bootstrapping explain concept learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Jacob

    2017-01-01

    Susan Carey's account of Quinean bootstrapping has been heavily criticized. While it purports to explain how important new concepts are learned, many commentators complain that it is unclear just what bootstrapping is supposed to be or how it is supposed to work. Others allege that bootstrapping falls prey to the circularity challenge: it cannot explain how new concepts are learned without presupposing that learners already have those very concepts. Drawing on discussions of concept learning from the philosophical literature, this article develops a detailed interpretation of bootstrapping that can answer the circularity challenge. The key to this interpretation is the recognition of computational constraints, both internal and external to the mind, which can endow empty symbols with new conceptual roles and thus new contents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Explaining Disparities in Unemployment Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Karanassou, Marika; Snower, Dennis J.

    1993-01-01

    This paper attempts to explain disparities among the unemployment experiences of different OECD countries in terms of the `fragility' of the short-run unemployment equilibrium (the impact of labour market shocks on the short-run unemployment rate) and the lag structure of the employment determination, wage setting, and labour force participation decisions. The effects of this lag structure on unemployment dynamics are captured through two general measures of `unemployment persistence' (occurr...

  4. Nonlinear evolution equations

    CERN Document Server

    Uraltseva, N N

    1995-01-01

    This collection focuses on nonlinear problems in partial differential equations. Most of the papers are based on lectures presented at the seminar on partial differential equations and mathematical physics at St. Petersburg University. Among the topics explored are the existence and properties of solutions of various classes of nonlinear evolution equations, nonlinear imbedding theorems, bifurcations of solutions, and equations of mathematical physics (Navier-Stokes type equations and the nonlinear Schrödinger equation). The book will be useful to researchers and graduate students working in p

  5. Nonlinear Physics of Plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Kono, Mitsuo

    2010-01-01

    A nonlinearity is one of the most important notions in modern physics. A plasma is rich in nonlinearities and provides a variety of behaviors inherent to instabilities, coherent wave structures and turbulence. The book covers the basic concepts and mathematical methods, necessary to comprehend nonlinear problems widely encountered in contemporary plasmas, but also in other fields of physics and current research on self-organized structures and magnetized plasma turbulence. The analyses make use of strongly nonlinear models solved by analytical techniques backed by extensive simulations and available experiments. The text is written for senior undergraduates, graduate students, lecturers and researchers in laboratory, space and fusion plasmas.

  6. Nonlinear optics at interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.K.

    1980-12-01

    Two aspects of surface nonlinear optics are explored in this thesis. The first part is a theoretical and experimental study of nonlinear intraction of surface plasmons and bulk photons at metal-dielectric interfaces. The second part is a demonstration and study of surface enhanced second harmonic generation at rough metal surfaces. A general formulation for nonlinear interaction of surface plasmons at metal-dielectric interfaces is presented and applied to both second and third order nonlinear processes. Experimental results for coherent second and third harmonic generation by surface plasmons and surface coherent antiStokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) are shown to be in good agreement with the theory

  7. Nonlinear drift tearing mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelenyj, L.M.; Kuznetsova, M.M.

    1989-01-01

    Nonlinear study of magnetic perturbation development under single-mode conditions in collision-free plasma in configurations with the magnetic field shear is investigated. Results are obtained with regard of transverse component of electrical field and its effect on ion dynamics within wide range of ion Larmor radius value and values of magnetic field shear. Increments of nonlinear drift tearing mode are obtained and it is shown that excitation drastic conditions of even linearly stable modes are possible. Mechanism of instability nonlinear stabilization is considered and the value of magnetic island at the saturation threshold is estimeted. Energy of nonlinear drift tearing mode is discussed

  8. Amplitude saturation of MEMS resonators explained by autoparametric resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Avoort, C; Bontemps, J J M; Steeneken, P G; Le Phan, K; Van Beek, J T M; Van der Hout, R; Hulshof, J; Fey, R H B

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a phenomenon that limits the power handling of MEMS resonators. It is observed that above a certain driving level, the resonance amplitude becomes independent of the driving level. In contrast to previous studies of power handling of MEMS resonators, it is found that this amplitude saturation cannot be explained by nonlinear terms in the spring constant or electrostatic force. Instead we show that the amplitude in our experiments is limited by nonlinear terms in the equation of motion which couple the in-plane length-extensional resonance mode to one or more out-of-plane (OOP) bending modes. We present experimental evidence for the autoparametric excitation of these OOP modes using a vibrometer. The measurements are compared to a model that can be used to predict a power-handling limit for MEMS resonators

  9. Nonlinear (super)symmetries and amplitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kallosh, Renata [Physics Department, Stanford University,382 Via Pueblo Mall, Stanford, CA 94305-4060 (United States)

    2017-03-07

    There is an increasing interest in nonlinear supersymmetries in cosmological model building. Independently, elegant expressions for the all-tree amplitudes in models with nonlinear symmetries, like D3 brane Dirac-Born-Infeld-Volkov-Akulov theory, were recently discovered. Using the generalized background field method we show how, in general, nonlinear symmetries of the action, bosonic and fermionic, constrain amplitudes beyond soft limits. The same identities control, for example, bosonic E{sub 7(7)} scalar sector symmetries as well as the fermionic goldstino symmetries. We present a universal derivation of the vanishing amplitudes in the single (bosonic or fermionic) soft limit. We explain why, universally, the double-soft limit probes the coset space algebra. We also provide identities describing the multiple-soft limit. We discuss loop corrections to N≥5 supergravity, to the D3 brane, and the UV completion of constrained multiplets in string theory.

  10. Explaining the Evolution of Poverty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Hussain, Azhar; Jones, Edward Samuel

    2012-01-01

    We provide a comprehensive approach for analyzing the evolution of poverty using Mozambique as a case study. Bringing together data from disparate sources, we develop a novel “back-casting” framework that links a dynamic computable general equilibrium model to a micro-simulation poverty module....... This framework provides a new approach to explaining and decomposing the evolution of poverty, as well as to examining rigorously the coherence between poverty, economic growth, and inequality outcomes. Finally, various simple but useful and rarely-applied approaches to considering regional changes in poverty...

  11. Spacecraft nonlinear control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheen, Jyh-Jong; Bishop, Robert H.

    1992-01-01

    The feedback linearization technique is applied to the problem of spacecraft attitude control and momentum management with control moment gyros (CMGs). The feedback linearization consists of a coordinate transformation, which transforms the system to a companion form, and a nonlinear feedback control law to cancel the nonlinear dynamics resulting in a linear equivalent model. Pole placement techniques are then used to place the closed-loop poles. The coordinate transformation proposed here evolves from three output functions of relative degree four, three, and two, respectively. The nonlinear feedback control law is presented. Stability in a neighborhood of a controllable torque equilibrium attitude (TEA) is guaranteed and this fact is demonstrated by the simulation results. An investigation of the nonlinear control law shows that singularities exist in the state space outside the neighborhood of the controllable TEA. The nonlinear control law is simplified by a standard linearization technique and it is shown that the linearized nonlinear controller provides a natural way to select control gains for the multiple-input, multiple-output system. Simulation results using the linearized nonlinear controller show good performance relative to the nonlinear controller in the neighborhood of the TEA.

  12. Nonlinear Optics and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdeldayem, Hossin A. (Editor); Frazier, Donald O. (Editor)

    2007-01-01

    Nonlinear optics is the result of laser beam interaction with materials and started with the advent of lasers in the early 1960s. The field is growing daily and plays a major role in emerging photonic technology. Nonlinear optics play a major role in many of the optical applications such as optical signal processing, optical computers, ultrafast switches, ultra-short pulsed lasers, sensors, laser amplifiers, and many others. This special review volume on Nonlinear Optics and Applications is intended for those who want to be aware of the most recent technology. This book presents a survey of the recent advances of nonlinear optical applications. Emphasis will be on novel devices and materials, switching technology, optical computing, and important experimental results. Recent developments in topics which are of historical interest to researchers, and in the same time of potential use in the fields of all-optical communication and computing technologies, are also included. Additionally, a few new related topics which might provoke discussion are presented. The book includes chapters on nonlinear optics and applications; the nonlinear Schrodinger and associated equations that model spatio-temporal propagation; the supercontinuum light source; wideband ultrashort pulse fiber laser sources; lattice fabrication as well as their linear and nonlinear light guiding properties; the second-order EO effect (Pockels), the third-order (Kerr) and thermo-optical effects in optical waveguides and their applications in optical communication; and, the effect of magnetic field and its role in nonlinear optics, among other chapters.

  13. Lasers for nonlinear microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Frank

    2013-03-01

    Various versions of nonlinear microscopy are revolutionizing the life sciences, almost all of which are made possible because of the development of ultrafast lasers. In this article, the main properties and technical features of short-pulse lasers used in nonlinear microscopy are summarized. Recent research results on fiber lasers that will impact future instruments are also discussed.

  14. Nonlinear optical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lugiato, Luigi; Brambilla, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Guiding graduate students and researchers through the complex world of laser physics and nonlinear optics, this book provides an in-depth exploration of the dynamics of lasers and other relevant optical systems, under the umbrella of a unitary spatio-temporal vision. Adopting a balanced approach, the book covers traditional as well as special topics in laser physics, quantum electronics and nonlinear optics, treating them from the viewpoint of nonlinear dynamical systems. These include laser emission, frequency generation, solitons, optically bistable systems, pulsations and chaos and optical pattern formation. It also provides a coherent and up-to-date treatment of the hierarchy of nonlinear optical models and of the rich variety of phenomena they describe, helping readers to understand the limits of validity of each model and the connections among the phenomena. It is ideal for graduate students and researchers in nonlinear optics, quantum electronics, laser physics and photonics.

  15. Nonlinear optics and photonics

    CERN Document Server

    He, Guang S

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive presentation on most of the major topics in nonlinear optics and photonics, with equal emphasis on principles, experiments, techniques, and applications. It covers many major new topics including optical solitons, multi-photon effects, nonlinear photoelectric effects, fast and slow light , and Terahertz photonics. Chapters 1-10 present the fundamentals of modern nonlinear optics, and could be used as a textbook with problems provided at the end of each chapter. Chapters 11-17 cover the more advanced topics of techniques and applications of nonlinear optics and photonics, serving as a highly informative reference for researchers and experts working in related areas. There are also 16 pages of color photographs to illustrate the visual appearances of some typical nonlinear optical effects and phenomena. The book could be adopted as a textbook for both undergraduates and graduate students, and serve as a useful reference work for researchers and experts in the fields of physics...

  16. Nonlinear dimensionality reduction in climate data

    OpenAIRE

    Gámez, A. J.; Zhou, C. S.; Timmermann, A.; Kurths, J.

    2004-01-01

    International audience; Linear methods of dimensionality reduction are useful tools for handling and interpreting high dimensional data. However, the cumulative variance explained by each of the subspaces in which the data space is decomposed may show a slow convergence that makes the selection of a proper minimum number of subspaces for successfully representing the variability of the process ambiguous. The use of nonlinear methods can improve the embedding of multivariate data into lower di...

  17. Explaining (Missing) Regulator Paradigm Shifts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wigger, Angela; Buch-Hansen, Hubert

    2014-01-01

    The global financial and economic crisis has prompted some scholars to suggest that a fundamental regulatory shift away from neoliberalism will take place – both in general and in the field of EU competition regulation. This paper shows that so far no radical break with the neoliberal type...... of competition regulation is heaving into sight. It sets out to explain this from the vantage point of a critical political economy perspective, which identifies the circumstances under which a crisis can result in a regulatory paradigm shift. Contrasting the current situation with the shift in EC/EU competition...... regulation after the crisis in the 1970s, the paper argues that the preconditions for a fundamental shift in this issue area are not present this time around. Several reasons account for this: the current crisis has been construed by economic and political elites as a crisis within and not of neoliberal...

  18. Nonlinear crack mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khoroshun, L.P.

    1995-01-01

    The characteristic features of the deformation and failure of actual materials in the vicinity of a crack tip are due to their physical nonlinearity in the stress-concentration zone, which is a result of plasticity, microfailure, or a nonlinear dependence of the interatomic forces on the distance. Therefore, adequate models of the failure mechanics must be nonlinear, in principle, although linear failure mechanics is applicable if the zone of nonlinear deformation is small in comparison with the crack length. Models of crack mechanics are based on analytical solutions of the problem of the stress-strain state in the vicinity of the crack. On account of the complexity of the problem, nonlinear models are bason on approximate schematic solutions. In the Leonov-Panasyuk-Dugdale nonlinear model, one of the best known, the actual two-dimensional plastic zone (the nonlinearity zone) is replaced by a narrow one-dimensional zone, which is then modeled by extending the crack with a specified normal load equal to the yield point. The condition of finite stress is applied here, and hence the length of the plastic zone is determined. As a result of this approximation, the displacement in the plastic zone at the abscissa is nonzero

  19. What explains consciousness? Or…What consciousness explains?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulany, Donelson E

    2014-01-01

    In this invited commentary I focus on the topic addressed in three papers: De Sousa's (2013[1617]) Toward an Integrative Theory of Consciousness, a monograph with Parts 1 & 2, as well as commentaries by Pereira (2013a[59]) and Hirstein (2013[42]). All three are impressively scholarly and can stand-and shout-on their own. But theory of consciousness? My aim is to slice that topic into the two fundamentally different kinds of theories of consciousness, say what appears to be an ideology, out of behaviourism into cognitivism, now also influencing the quest for an "explanation of consciousness" in cognitive neuroscience. I will then say what can be expected given what we know of the complexity of brain structure, the richness of a conscious "vocabulary", and current technological limits of brain imaging. This will then turn to the strategy for examining "what consciousness explains"-metatheory, theories, mappings, and a methodology of competitive support, a methodology especially important where there are competing commitments. There are also increasingly common identifications of methodological bias in, along with failures to replicate, studies reporting unconscious controls in decision, social priming-as there have been in perception, learning, problem solving, etc. The literature critique has provided evidence taken as reducing, and in some cases eliminating, a role for conscious controls-a position consistent with that ideology out of behaviourism into cognitivism. It is an ideological position that fails to recognize the fundamental distinction between theoretical and metaphysical assertions.

  20. Nonlinear fitness landscape of a molecular pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilia Perfeito

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Genes are regulated because their expression involves a fitness cost to the organism. The production of proteins by transcription and translation is a well-known cost factor, but the enzymatic activity of the proteins produced can also reduce fitness, depending on the internal state and the environment of the cell. Here, we map the fitness costs of a key metabolic network, the lactose utilization pathway in Escherichia coli. We measure the growth of several regulatory lac operon mutants in different environments inducing expression of the lac genes. We find a strikingly nonlinear fitness landscape, which depends on the production rate and on the activity rate of the lac proteins. A simple fitness model of the lac pathway, based on elementary biophysical processes, predicts the growth rate of all observed strains. The nonlinearity of fitness is explained by a feedback loop: production and activity of the lac proteins reduce growth, but growth also affects the density of these molecules. This nonlinearity has important consequences for molecular function and evolution. It generates a cliff in the fitness landscape, beyond which populations cannot maintain growth. In viable populations, there is an expression barrier of the lac genes, which cannot be exceeded in any stationary growth process. Furthermore, the nonlinearity determines how the fitness of operon mutants depends on the inducer environment. We argue that fitness nonlinearities, expression barriers, and gene-environment interactions are generic features of fitness landscapes for metabolic pathways, and we discuss their implications for the evolution of regulation.

  1. Nonlinear wave equations

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Tatsien

    2017-01-01

    This book focuses on nonlinear wave equations, which are of considerable significance from both physical and theoretical perspectives. It also presents complete results on the lower bound estimates of lifespan (including the global existence), which are established for classical solutions to the Cauchy problem of nonlinear wave equations with small initial data in all possible space dimensions and with all possible integer powers of nonlinear terms. Further, the book proposes the global iteration method, which offers a unified and straightforward approach for treating these kinds of problems. Purely based on the properties of solut ions to the corresponding linear problems, the method simply applies the contraction mapping principle.

  2. Propagation of nonlinear reactive contaminants in porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Sergio E.

    2003-08-01

    A study on the effect of nonlinear reactions on the space and time distribution of contaminant plumes governed by the advective-dispersive equation in porous media was conducted. Several models of nonlinear reactions were considered: the irreversible nonlinear first-order kinetic sorption model, the nonlinear Freundlich sorption isotherm model, the nonlinear Langmuir sorption isotherm model, and the reversible nonlinear kinetic sorption model. Each of these models was coupled with the advective-dispersive equation with dimensionless concentration and an approximate analytical series solutions was obtained. Comparison between linear and nonlinear plumes indicated that nonlinear reactions may have a significant effect on the shape and spatial distribution of a contaminant at a given time and in certain cases may explain quantitatively the occurrence of scaled (e.g., concentration change while preserving shape), retarded, and nonsymmetric plumes as well as the presence of back tails and sharp front ends usually observed in the field. By adopting a nonlinear model of contaminant migration a more realistic representation of contaminant propagation is possible than that obtained with a linear model.

  3. parametric nonlinear quasivariational inequalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeqing Liu

    2005-01-01

    uniqueness results and sensitivity analysis of solutions are also established for the system of generalized nonlinear parametric quasivariational inequalities and some convergence results of iterative sequence generated by the algorithm with errors are proved.

  4. Nonlinear Source Emulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen-Duy, Khiem

    and remains the prime source of energy in non-terrestrial applications such as those in sky-explorers. However, a renewable energy source is expensive, bulky, and its performance is weather dependent, which make testing of downstream converters very difficult. As a result, a nonlinear source emulator (NSE...... of a proposed NSE system with high dynamic performance. The goal of the work is to achieve a state-of-the art transient time of 10 µs. In order to produce the arbitrary nonlinear curve, the exponential function of a typical diode is used, but the diode can be replaced by other nonlinear curve reference...... simulation of nonlinear source systems with higher output power. In this work, a module will consist of two fundamental units: an isolated power supply and an NSE. The isolated power supply has to possess a very low circuit input-to-output capacitance (very low Cio) in order to reduce the effect...

  5. Cognitive Nonlinear Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    filter, Bayesian decision theory, Generalized Likelihood Ratio Test (GLRT), and constant false alarm rate ( CFAR ) processing (31). Once the...Abbreviations, and Acronyms CFAR constant false alarm rate CNR cognitive nonlinear radar EM electromagnetic FCC Federal Communications Comission

  6. Nonlinear Optical Terahertz Technology

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We develop a new approach to generation of THz radiation. Our method relies on mixing two optical frequency beams in a nonlinear crystalline Whispering Gallery Mode...

  7. Nonlinear differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Struble, Raimond A

    2017-01-01

    Detailed treatment covers existence and uniqueness of a solution of the initial value problem, properties of solutions, properties of linear systems, stability of nonlinear systems, and two-dimensional systems. 1962 edition.

  8. Nonlinear ambipolar diffusion waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendonca, J.T.; Rowlands, G.

    1985-07-01

    The evolution of a plasma perturbation in a neutral gas is considered using the ambipolar diffusion approximation. A nonlinear diffusion equation is derived and, in the one-dimensional case, exact solutions of shock type are obtained.

  9. Degenerate nonlinear diffusion equations

    CERN Document Server

    Favini, Angelo

    2012-01-01

    The aim of these notes is to include in a uniform presentation style several topics related to the theory of degenerate nonlinear diffusion equations, treated in the mathematical framework of evolution equations with multivalued m-accretive operators in Hilbert spaces. The problems concern nonlinear parabolic equations involving two cases of degeneracy. More precisely, one case is due to the vanishing of the time derivative coefficient and the other is provided by the vanishing of the diffusion coefficient on subsets of positive measure of the domain. From the mathematical point of view the results presented in these notes can be considered as general results in the theory of degenerate nonlinear diffusion equations. However, this work does not seek to present an exhaustive study of degenerate diffusion equations, but rather to emphasize some rigorous and efficient techniques for approaching various problems involving degenerate nonlinear diffusion equations, such as well-posedness, periodic solutions, asympt...

  10. Crossing a Nonlinear Resonance

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 19; Issue 9. Crossing a Nonlinear Resonance: Adiabatic Invariants and the Melnikov-Arnold Integral. Sudhir R Jain. General Article Volume 19 Issue 9 September 2014 pp 797-813 ...

  11. Introduction to nonlinear science

    CERN Document Server

    Nicolis, G

    1995-01-01

    One of the most unexpected results in science in recent years is that quite ordinary systems obeying simple laws can give rise to complex, nonlinear or chaotic, behavior. In this book, the author presents a unified treatment of the concepts and tools needed to analyze nonlinear phenomena and to outline some representative applications drawn from the physical, engineering, and biological sciences. Some of the interesting topics covered include: dynamical systems with a finite number of degrees of freedom, linear stability analysis of fixed points, nonlinear behavior of fixed points, bifurcation analysis, spatially distributed systems, broken symmetries, pattern formation, and chaotic dynamics. The author makes a special effort to provide a logical connection between ordinary dynamical systems and spatially extended systems, and to balance the emphasis on chaotic behavior and more classical nonlinear behavior. He also develops a statistical approach to complex systems and compares it to traditional deterministi...

  12. Explain bioinformatics to your grandmother!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginie Bernard

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available What are you working on? You have certainly been asked that question many times, whether it be at a Saturday night party, during a discussion with your neighbors, or at a family gathering. Communicating with a lay audience about scientific subjects and making them attractive is a difficult task. But difficult or not, you will have to do it for many years, not only with your family and friends, but also with your colleagues and collaborators. So, better learn now! Although not usually taught, the ability to explain your work to others is an essential skill in science, where communication plays a key role. Using some examples of the French Regional Student Group activities, we discuss here (i why it is important to have such communication skills, (ii how you can get involved in these activities by using existing resources or working with people who have previous experience, and (iii what you get out of this amazing experience. We aim to motivate you and provide you with tips and ideas to get involved in promoting scientific activities while getting all the benefits.

  13. Nonlinear Optical Absorption and Refraction Study of Metallophthalocyanine Dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Tai-Huei

    Metallophthalocyanines and related conjugated ring molecules have attracted recent interest because, as confined, reduced-dimensionality (2D) delocalized electronic systems, large electronic nonlinearities are expected. This has led to interest in: (1) developing a fundamental understanding of the mechanisms which contribute to the nonlinear optical response, (2) obtaining well defined and accurate measurements of the refractive and absorptive contributions to the observed nonlinearities, and (3) identifying means of enhancing and maximizing the nonlinear susceptibilities. This dissertation deals with the characterization of the nonlinear absorption and refraction of two representative metallophthalocyanine dyes: chloro aluminum phthalocyanine dissolved in methanol, referred to as CAP, and a silicon naphthalocyanine derivative dissolved in toluene, referred to as SiNc. Using the Z -scan technique, the experiments are performed on both the picosecond and nanosecond timescales at a wavelength of 0.532 mum. The Z-scan technique separates nonlinear absorption and nonlinear refraction by measuring both the total transmittance and far field axial transmittance of a focused Gaussian beam as a function of the position (z) of the material relative to the beam waist. In the picosecond regime, Z-scan experiments using pulses of different widths indicate that both nonlinear absorption and refraction are fluence dependent. Therefore, we determine the dominant nonlinearities are excited state absorption (ESA) and excited state refraction (ESR). Through nanosecond Z-scan measurements, we see additional nonlinear absorption and nonlinear refraction. By power limiting measurements using single picosecond pulses and trains of picosecond pulses separated by 7 nanosecond, this additional nonlinear absorption is determined due to intersystem crossing to the triplet state with subsequent triplet state ESA. Therefore, a five state model is used to explain the nonlinear absorption. On the

  14. Nonlinear Multiantenna Detection Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Sheng

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A nonlinear detection technique designed for multiple-antenna assisted receivers employed in space-division multiple-access systems is investigated. We derive the optimal solution of the nonlinear spatial-processing assisted receiver for binary phase shift keying signalling, which we refer to as the Bayesian detector. It is shown that this optimal Bayesian receiver significantly outperforms the standard linear beamforming assisted receiver in terms of a reduced bit error rate, at the expense of an increased complexity, while the achievable system capacity is substantially enhanced with the advent of employing nonlinear detection. Specifically, when the spatial separation expressed in terms of the angle of arrival between the desired and interfering signals is below a certain threshold, a linear beamformer would fail to separate them, while a nonlinear detection assisted receiver is still capable of performing adequately. The adaptive implementation of the optimal Bayesian detector can be realized using a radial basis function network. Two techniques are presented for constructing block-data-based adaptive nonlinear multiple-antenna assisted receivers. One of them is based on the relevance vector machine invoked for classification, while the other on the orthogonal forward selection procedure combined with the Fisher ratio class-separability measure. A recursive sample-by-sample adaptation procedure is also proposed for training nonlinear detectors based on an amalgam of enhanced -means clustering techniques and the recursive least squares algorithm.

  15. Fundamentals of nonlinear optical materials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nonlinear optics; nonlinear polarization; optical fiber communication; optical switch- ing. PACS Nos 42.65Tg; ... The importance of nonlinear optics is to understand the nonlinear behavior in the induced polarization and to ..... but much work in material development and characterization remains to be done. 16. Conclusion.

  16. Nonlinear Approaches in Engineering Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Jazar, Reza

    2012-01-01

    Nonlinear Approaches in Engineering Applications focuses on nonlinear phenomena that are common in the engineering field. The nonlinear approaches described in this book provide a sound theoretical base and practical tools to design and analyze engineering systems with high efficiency and accuracy and with less energy and downtime. Presented here are nonlinear approaches in areas such as dynamic systems, optimal control and approaches in nonlinear dynamics and acoustics. Coverage encompasses a wide range of applications and fields including mathematical modeling and nonlinear behavior as applied to microresonators, nanotechnologies, nonlinear behavior in soil erosion,nonlinear population dynamics, and optimization in reducing vibration and noise as well as vibration in triple-walled carbon nanotubes. This book also: Provides a complete introduction to nonlinear behavior of systems and the advantages of nonlinearity as a tool for solving engineering problems Includes applications and examples drawn from the el...

  17. 50 years of nonlinear optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Yuanrang

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a brief introduction to the birth and early investigations of nonlinear optics, such as second harmonic generation,sum and difference frequency generation, stimulated Raman scattering,and self-action of light etc. Several important research achievements and applications of nonlinear optics are presented as well, including nonlinear optical spectroscopy, phase conjugation and adaptive optics, coherent nonlinear optics, and high-order harmonic generation. In the end, current and future research topics in nonlinear optics are summarized. (authors)

  18. Multidimensional nonlinear descriptive analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Nishisato, Shizuhiko

    2006-01-01

    Quantification of categorical, or non-numerical, data is a problem that scientists face across a wide range of disciplines. Exploring data analysis in various areas of research, such as the social sciences and biology, Multidimensional Nonlinear Descriptive Analysis presents methods for analyzing categorical data that are not necessarily sampled randomly from a normal population and often involve nonlinear relations. This reference not only provides an overview of multidimensional nonlinear descriptive analysis (MUNDA) of discrete data, it also offers new results in a variety of fields. The first part of the book covers conceptual and technical preliminaries needed to understand the data analysis in subsequent chapters. The next two parts contain applications of MUNDA to diverse data types, with each chapter devoted to one type of categorical data, a brief historical comment, and basic skills peculiar to the data types. The final part examines several problems and then concludes with suggestions for futu...

  19. Nonlinear dynamics of structures

    CERN Document Server

    Oller, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    This book lays the foundation of knowledge that will allow a better understanding of nonlinear phenomena that occur in structural dynamics.   This work is intended for graduate engineering students who want to expand their knowledge on the dynamic behavior of structures, specifically in the nonlinear field, by presenting the basis of dynamic balance in non‐linear behavior structures due to the material and kinematics mechanical effects.   Particularly, this publication shows the solution of the equation of dynamic equilibrium for structure with nonlinear time‐independent materials (plasticity, damage and frequencies evolution), as well as those time dependent non‐linear behavior materials (viscoelasticity and viscoplasticity). The convergence conditions for the non‐linear dynamic structure solution  are studied, and the theoretical concepts and its programming algorithms are presented.  

  20. Nonlinear elastic waves in materials

    CERN Document Server

    Rushchitsky, Jeremiah J

    2014-01-01

    The main goal of the book is a coherent treatment of the theory of propagation in materials of nonlinearly elastic waves of displacements, which corresponds to one modern line of development of the nonlinear theory of elastic waves. The book is divided on five basic parts: the necessary information on waves and materials; the necessary information on nonlinear theory of elasticity and elastic materials; analysis of one-dimensional nonlinear elastic waves of displacement – longitudinal, vertically and horizontally polarized transverse plane nonlinear elastic waves of displacement; analysis of one-dimensional nonlinear elastic waves of displacement – cylindrical and torsional nonlinear elastic waves of displacement; analysis of two-dimensional nonlinear elastic waves of displacement – Rayleigh and Love nonlinear elastic surface waves. The book is addressed first of all to people working in solid mechanics – from the students at an advanced undergraduate and graduate level to the scientists, professional...

  1. Fundamentals of nonlinear optics

    CERN Document Server

    Powers, Peter E

    2011-01-01

    Peter Powers's rigorous but simple description of a difficult field keeps the reader's attention throughout. … All chapters contain a list of references and large numbers of practice examples to be worked through. … By carefully working through the proposed problems, students will develop a sound understanding of the fundamental principles and applications. … the book serves perfectly for an introductory-level course for second- and third-order nonlinear optical phenomena. The author's writing style is refreshing and original. I expect that Fundamentals of Nonlinear Optics will fast become pop

  2. Nonlinear fiber optics

    CERN Document Server

    Agrawal, Govind

    2012-01-01

    Since the 4e appeared, a fast evolution of the field has occurred. The 5e of this classic work provides an up-to-date account of the nonlinear phenomena occurring inside optical fibers, the basis of all our telecommunications infastructure as well as being used in the medical field. Reflecting the big developments in research, this new edition includes major new content: slow light effects, which offers a reduction in noise and power consumption and more ordered network traffic-stimulated Brillouin scattering; vectorial treatment of highly nonlinear fibers; and a brand new chapter o

  3. Fully nonlinear elliptic equations

    CERN Document Server

    Caffarelli, Luis A

    1995-01-01

    The goal of the book is to extend classical regularity theorems for solutions of linear elliptic partial differential equations to the context of fully nonlinear elliptic equations. This class of equations often arises in control theory, optimization, and other applications. The authors give a detailed presentation of all the necessary techniques. Instead of treating these techniques in their greatest generality, they outline the key ideas and prove the results needed for developing the subsequent theory. Topics discussed in the book include the theory of viscosity solutions for nonlinear equa

  4. Engineered nonlinear lattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Carl A. Balslev; Christiansen, Peter Leth; Torner, L.

    1999-01-01

    We show that with the quasi-phase-matching technique it is possible to fabricate stripes of nonlinearity that trap and guide light like waveguides. We investigate an array of such stripes and find that when the stripes are sufficiently narrow, the beam dynamics is governed by a quadratic nonlinear...... discrete equation. The proposed structure therefore provides an experimental setting for exploring discrete effects in a controlled manner. In particular, we show propagation of breathers that are eventually trapped by discreteness. When the stripes are wide the beams evolve in a structure we term...

  5. Nonlinearity in nanomechanical cantilevers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villanueva Torrijo, Luis Guillermo; Karabalin, R. B.; Matheny, M. H.

    2013-01-01

    predictions deviate strongly from our measurements for the nonlinearity of the fundamental flexural mode, which show a systematic dependence on aspect ratio (length/width) together with random scatter. This contrasts with the second mode, which is always found to be in good agreement with theory....... These findings underscore the delicate balance between inertial and geometric nonlinear effects in the fundamental mode, and strongly motivate further work to develop theories beyond the Euler-Bernoulli approximation. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.87.024304...

  6. Explaining Support Vector Machines: A Color Based Nomogram.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanya Van Belle

    Full Text Available Support vector machines (SVMs are very popular tools for classification, regression and other problems. Due to the large choice of kernels they can be applied with, a large variety of data can be analysed using these tools. Machine learning thanks its popularity to the good performance of the resulting models. However, interpreting the models is far from obvious, especially when non-linear kernels are used. Hence, the methods are used as black boxes. As a consequence, the use of SVMs is less supported in areas where interpretability is important and where people are held responsible for the decisions made by models.In this work, we investigate whether SVMs using linear, polynomial and RBF kernels can be explained such that interpretations for model-based decisions can be provided. We further indicate when SVMs can be explained and in which situations interpretation of SVMs is (hitherto not possible. Here, explainability is defined as the ability to produce the final decision based on a sum of contributions which depend on one single or at most two input variables.Our experiments on simulated and real-life data show that explainability of an SVM depends on the chosen parameter values (degree of polynomial kernel, width of RBF kernel and regularization constant. When several combinations of parameter values yield the same cross-validation performance, combinations with a lower polynomial degree or a larger kernel width have a higher chance of being explainable.This work summarizes SVM classifiers obtained with linear, polynomial and RBF kernels in a single plot. Linear and polynomial kernels up to the second degree are represented exactly. For other kernels an indication of the reliability of the approximation is presented. The complete methodology is available as an R package and two apps and a movie are provided to illustrate the possibilities offered by the method.

  7. Nonlinear dimensionality reduction in climate data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Gámez

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Linear methods of dimensionality reduction are useful tools for handling and interpreting high dimensional data. However, the cumulative variance explained by each of the subspaces in which the data space is decomposed may show a slow convergence that makes the selection of a proper minimum number of subspaces for successfully representing the variability of the process ambiguous. The use of nonlinear methods can improve the embedding of multivariate data into lower dimensional manifolds. In this article, a nonlinear method for dimensionality reduction, Isomap, is applied to the sea surface temperature and thermocline data in the tropical Pacific Ocean, where the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO phenomenon and the annual cycle phenomena interact. Isomap gives a more accurate description of the manifold dimensionality of the physical system. The knowledge of the minimum number of dimensions is expected to improve the development of low dimensional models for understanding and predicting ENSO.

  8. Nonlinear dimensionality reduction in climate data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gámez, A. J.; Zhou, C. S.; Timmermann, A.; Kurths, J.

    2004-09-01

    Linear methods of dimensionality reduction are useful tools for handling and interpreting high dimensional data. However, the cumulative variance explained by each of the subspaces in which the data space is decomposed may show a slow convergence that makes the selection of a proper minimum number of subspaces for successfully representing the variability of the process ambiguous. The use of nonlinear methods can improve the embedding of multivariate data into lower dimensional manifolds. In this article, a nonlinear method for dimensionality reduction, Isomap, is applied to the sea surface temperature and thermocline data in the tropical Pacific Ocean, where the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon and the annual cycle phenomena interact. Isomap gives a more accurate description of the manifold dimensionality of the physical system. The knowledge of the minimum number of dimensions is expected to improve the development of low dimensional models for understanding and predicting ENSO.

  9. Methods of nonlinear kinetics

    OpenAIRE

    Gorban, A. N.; Karlin, I. V.

    2003-01-01

    Nonlinear kinetic equations are reviewed for a wide audience of specialists and postgraduate students in physics, mathematical physics, material science, chemical engineering and interdisciplinary research. Contents: The Boltzmann equation, Phenomenology and Quasi-chemical representation of the Boltzmann equation, Kinetic models, Discrete velocity models, Direct simulation, Lattice Gas and Lattice Boltzmann models, Minimal Boltzmann models for flows at low Knudsen number, Other kinetic equati...

  10. Nonlinear fractional relaxation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We define a nonlinear model for fractional relaxation phenomena. We use ε-expansion method to analyse this model. By studying the fundamental solutions of this model we find that when t → 0 the model exhibits a fast decay rate and when t → ∞ the model exhibits a power-law decay. By analysing the frequency ...

  11. Nonlinear silicon photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghi, M.; Castellan, C.; Signorini, S.; Trenti, A.; Pavesi, L.

    2017-09-01

    Silicon photonics is a technology based on fabricating integrated optical circuits by using the same paradigms as the dominant electronics industry. After twenty years of fervid development, silicon photonics is entering the market with low cost, high performance and mass-manufacturable optical devices. Until now, most silicon photonic devices have been based on linear optical effects, despite the many phenomenologies associated with nonlinear optics in both bulk materials and integrated waveguides. Silicon and silicon-based materials have strong optical nonlinearities which are enhanced in integrated devices by the small cross-section of the high-index contrast silicon waveguides or photonic crystals. Here the photons are made to strongly interact with the medium where they propagate. This is the central argument of nonlinear silicon photonics. It is the aim of this review to describe the state-of-the-art in the field. Starting from the basic nonlinearities in a silicon waveguide or in optical resonator geometries, many phenomena and applications are described—including frequency generation, frequency conversion, frequency-comb generation, supercontinuum generation, soliton formation, temporal imaging and time lensing, Raman lasing, and comb spectroscopy. Emerging quantum photonics applications, such as entangled photon sources, heralded single-photon sources and integrated quantum photonic circuits are also addressed at the end of this review.

  12. Nonlinear Control System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaydeep Jesur

    2000-01-01

    and features are added such a way that it can be also used for design of nonlinear control systems to achieve desired performance. It is very simple to learn this tool. One can easily use it with preliminary knowledge of DF and PPT methods.

  13. Nonlinear collisionless magnetic reconnection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottaviani, M.; Porcelli, F.

    1993-12-01

    Collisionless magnetic reconnection in regimes where the mode structure is characterized by global convection cells is found to exhibit a quasiexplosive time behavior in the early nonlinear stage where the fluid displacement is smaller than the equilibrium scale length. This process is accompanied by the formation of a current density sublayer narrower than the skin depth. This sublayer keeps shrinking with time.

  14. Intramolecular and nonlinear dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, M.J. [Argonne National Laboratory, IL (United States)

    1993-12-01

    Research in this program focuses on three interconnected areas. The first involves the study of intramolecular dynamics, particularly of highly excited systems. The second area involves the use of nonlinear dynamics as a tool for the study of molecular dynamics and complex kinetics. The third area is the study of the classical/quantum correspondence for highly excited systems, particularly systems exhibiting classical chaos.

  15. Explanation of the Inverse Doppler Effect Observed in Nonlinear Transmission Lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozyrev, Alexander B.; Weide, Daniel W. van der

    2005-01-01

    The theory of the inverse Doppler effect recently observed in magnetic nonlinear transmission lines is developed. We explain the crucial role of the backward spatial harmonic in the occurrence of an inverse Doppler effect and draw analogies of the magnetic nonlinear transmission line to the backward wave oscillator

  16. Nonlinear dynamics approach of modeling the bifurcation for aircraft wing flutter in transonic speed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matsushita, Hiroshi; Miyata, T.; Christiansen, Lasse Engbo

    2002-01-01

    The procedure of obtaining the two-degrees-of-freedom, finite dimensional. nonlinear mathematical model. which models the nonlinear features of aircraft flutter in transonic speed is reported. The model enables to explain every feature of the transonic flutter data of the wind tunnel tests...

  17. A nonlinear screen as an element for sound absorption and frequency conversion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudenko, O. V.

    2016-01-01

    The paper discusses a model for a screen with dissipative and nonlinear elastic properties that can be used in acoustic sound absorption and frequency conversion systems. Calculation and estimation schemes are explained that are necessary for understanding the functional capabilities of the device. Examples of the nonlinear elements in the screen and promising applications are described.

  18. Nonlinearity and disorder: Classification and stability of nonlinear impurity modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sukhorukov, Andrey A.; Kivshar, Yuri S.; Bang, Ole

    2001-01-01

    We study the effects produced by competition of two physical mechanisms of energy localization in inhomogeneous nonlinear systems. As an example, we analyze spatially localized modes supported by a nonlinear impurity in the generalized nonlinear Schrödinger equation and describe three types of no...

  19. Non-linear excitation of gravitational radiation antennae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blair, D.G.

    1982-01-01

    A mechanism of non-linear excitation is proposed to explain observed excess noise in gravitational radiation antennae, driven by low frequency vibration. The mechanism is analogous to the excitation of a violin string by low frequency bowing. Numerical estimates for Weber bars suspended by cables are in good agreement with observations. (Auth.)

  20. A nonlinear approach to analyse the development of tropical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The development of atmospheric disturbances in the tropical region is explained using vibrational resonance, a nonlinear phenomenon. As the Lorenz system is the most plausible model to describe the convective process in a tropical region, the influence of vertical wind shear and tropical waves on the system leading to ...

  1. On nonlinear Fourier transform: towards the nonlinear superposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saksida, Pavle

    2017-01-01

    In the paper we consider the nonlinear Fourier transform associated to the AKNSZS systems. In particular, we discuss the construction of the nonlinear Fourier modes of this transform by means of a perturbation scheme. The linearization of the AKNS-ZS nonlinear Fourier transform is the usual, linear Fourier transform and the linearization of a nonlinear Fourier mode of frequency d is the linear Fourier mode of the same frequency. We show that the first non-trivial term in the perturbation expression of any nonlinear Fourier mode is given by the dilogarithm function.

  2. Nonlinearity, Conservation Law and Shocks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nonlinearity, Conservation Law and Shocks. Part I : Genuine Nonlinearity and Discontinuous Solutions. Phoolan Prasad is with the. Department of. Mathematics, Indian. Institute of Science and has been working in the area of nonlinear waves and hyperbolic partial differential equations. He is deeply interested in.

  3. Terahertz Nonlinear Optics in Semiconductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turchinovich, Dmitry; Hvam, Jørn Märcher; Hoffmann, Matthias C.

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate the nonlinear optical effects – selfphase modulation and saturable absorption of a single-cycle THz pulse in a semiconductor. Resulting from THz-induced modulation of Drude plasma, these nonlinear optical effects, in particular, lead to self-shortening and nonlinear spectral...... breathing of a single-cycle THz pulse in a semiconductor....

  4. FRF decoupling of nonlinear systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaycıoğlu, Taner; Özgüven, H. Nevzat

    2018-03-01

    Structural decoupling problem, i.e. predicting dynamic behavior of a particular substructure from the knowledge of the dynamics of the coupled structure and the other substructure, has been well investigated for three decades and led to several decoupling methods. In spite of the inherent nonlinearities in a structural system in various forms such as clearances, friction and nonlinear stiffness, all decoupling studies are for linear systems. In this study, decoupling problem for nonlinear systems is addressed for the first time. A method, named as FRF Decoupling Method for Nonlinear Systems (FDM-NS), is proposed for calculating FRFs of a substructure decoupled from a coupled nonlinear structure where nonlinearity can be modeled as a single nonlinear element. Depending on where nonlinear element is, i.e., either in the known or unknown subsystem, or at the connection point, the formulation differs. The method requires relative displacement information between two end points of the nonlinear element, in addition to point and transfer FRFs at some points of the known subsystem. However, it is not necessary to excite the system from the unknown subsystem even when the nonlinear element is in that subsystem. The validation of FDM-NS is demonstrated with two different case studies using nonlinear lumped parameter systems. Finally, a nonlinear experimental test structure is used in order to show the real-life application and accuracy of FDM-NS.

  5. Fault Detection for Nonlinear Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoustrup, Jakob; Niemann, H.H.

    1998-01-01

    The paper describes a general method for designing fault detection and isolation (FDI) systems for nonlinear processes. For a rich class of nonlinear systems, a nonlinear FDI system can be designed using convex optimization procedures. The proposed method is a natural extension of methods based o...

  6. Nonlinear FMR spectra in yttrium iron garnet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.M. Bunkov, P.M. Vetoshko, I.G. Motygullin, T.R. Safin, M.S. Tagirov, N.A. Tukmakova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Results of demagnetizing effect studies in yttrium iron garnet Y3Fe5O12 thin films are reported. Experiments were performed on X-Band of electron paramagnetic resonance spectrometer at room temperature. The ferromagnetic resonance (FMR spectra were obtained for one-layer single crystal YIG films for different values of the applied microwave power. Nonlinear FMR spectra transformation by the microwave power increasing in various directions of magnetic field sweep was observed. It is explained by the influence of the demagnetization action of nonequilibrium magnons.

  7. Nonlinear differential equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dresner, L.

    1988-01-01

    This report is the text of a graduate course on nonlinear differential equations given by the author at the University of Wisconsin-Madison during the summer of 1987. The topics covered are: direction fields of first-order differential equations; the Lie (group) theory of ordinary differential equations; similarity solutions of second-order partial differential equations; maximum principles and differential inequalities; monotone operators and iteration; complementary variational principles; and stability of numerical methods. The report should be of interest to graduate students, faculty, and practicing scientists and engineers. No prior knowledge is required beyond a good working knowledge of the calculus. The emphasis is on practical results. Most of the illustrative examples are taken from the fields of nonlinear diffusion, heat and mass transfer, applied superconductivity, and helium cryogenics.

  8. Nonlinear terahertz superconducting plasmonics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Jingbo; Liang, Lanju; Jin, Biaobing, E-mail: bbjin@nju.edu.cn, E-mail: tonouchi@ile.osaka-u.ac.jp, E-mail: phwu@nju.edu.cn; Kang, Lin; Xu, Weiwei; Chen, Jian; Wu, Peiheng, E-mail: bbjin@nju.edu.cn, E-mail: tonouchi@ile.osaka-u.ac.jp, E-mail: phwu@nju.edu.cn [Research Institute of Superconductor Electronics (RISE), School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Zhang, Caihong; Kawayama, Iwao; Murakami, Hironaru; Tonouchi, Masayoshi, E-mail: bbjin@nju.edu.cn, E-mail: tonouchi@ile.osaka-u.ac.jp, E-mail: phwu@nju.edu.cn [Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, 2-6 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Wang, Huabing [Research Institute of Superconductor Electronics (RISE), School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba 305-0047 (Japan)

    2014-10-20

    Nonlinear terahertz (THz) transmission through subwavelength hole array in superconducting niobium nitride (NbN) film is experimentally investigated using intense THz pulses. The good agreement between the measurement and numerical simulations indicates that the field strength dependent transmission mainly arises from the nonlinear properties of the superconducting film. Under weak THz pulses, the transmission peak can be tuned over a frequency range of 145 GHz which is attributed to the high kinetic inductance of 50 nm-thick NbN film. Utilizing the THz pump-THz probe spectroscopy, we study the dynamic process of transmission spectra and demonstrate that the transition time of such superconducting plasmonic device is within 5 ps.

  9. Essentials of nonlinear optics

    CERN Document Server

    Murti, Y V G S

    2014-01-01

    Current literature on Nonlinear Optics varies widely in terms of content, style, and coverage of specific topics, relative emphasis of areas and the depth of treatment. While most of these books are excellent resources for the researchers, there is a strong need for books appropriate for presenting the subject at the undergraduate or postgraduate levels in Universities. The need for such a book to serve as a textbook at the level of the bachelors and masters courses was felt by the authors while teaching courses on nonlinear optics to students of both science and engineering during the past two decades. This book has emerged from an attempt to address the requirement of presenting the subject at college level. A one-semester course covering the essentials can effectively be designed based on this.

  10. Nonlinear data assimilation

    CERN Document Server

    Van Leeuwen, Peter Jan; Reich, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    This book contains two review articles on nonlinear data assimilation that deal with closely related topics but were written and can be read independently. Both contributions focus on so-called particle filters. The first contribution by Jan van Leeuwen focuses on the potential of proposal densities. It discusses the issues with present-day particle filters and explorers new ideas for proposal densities to solve them, converging to particle filters that work well in systems of any dimension, closing the contribution with a high-dimensional example. The second contribution by Cheng and Reich discusses a unified framework for ensemble-transform particle filters. This allows one to bridge successful ensemble Kalman filters with fully nonlinear particle filters, and allows a proper introduction of localization in particle filters, which has been lacking up to now.

  11. Nonlinear Photonics 2014: introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhmediev, N; Kartashov, Yaroslav

    2015-01-12

    International Conference "Nonlinear Photonics-2014" took place in Barcelona, Spain on July 27-31, 2014. It was a part of the "Advanced Photonics Congress" which is becoming a traditional notable event in the world of photonics. The current focus issue of Optics Express contains contributions from the participants of the Conference and the Congress. The articles in this focus issue by no means represent the total number of the congress contributions (around 400). However, it demonstrates wide range of topics covered at the event. The next conference of this series is to be held in 2016 in Australia, which is the home of many researchers working in the field of photonics in general and nonlinear photonics in particular.

  12. Nonlinear (Anharmonic Casimir Oscillator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habibollah Razmi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We want to study the dynamics of a simple linear harmonic micro spring which is under the influence of the quantum Casimir force/pressure and thus behaves as a (an nonlinear (anharmonic Casimir oscillator. Generally, the equation of motion of this nonlinear micromechanical Casimir oscillator has no exact solvable (analytical solution and the turning point(s of the system has (have no fixed position(s; however, for particular values of the stiffness of the micro spring and at appropriately well-chosen distance scales and conditions, there is (are approximately sinusoidal solution(s for the problem (the variable turning points are collected in a very small interval of positions. This, as a simple and elementary plan, may be useful in controlling the Casimir stiction problem in micromechanical devices.

  13. Nonlinear chiral transport phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiunn-Wei; Ishii, Takeaki; Pu, Shi; Yamamoto, Naoki

    2016-06-01

    We study the nonlinear responses of relativistic chiral matter to the external fields such as the electric field E , gradients of temperature and chemical potential, ∇T and ∇μ . Using the kinetic theory with Berry curvature corrections under the relaxation time approximation, we compute the transport coefficients of possible new electric currents that are forbidden in usual chirally symmetric matter but are allowed in chirally asymmetric matter by parity. In particular, we find a new type of electric current proportional to ∇μ ×E due to the interplay between the effects of the Berry curvature and collisions. We also derive an analog of the "Wiedemann-Franz" law specific for anomalous nonlinear transport in relativistic chiral matter.

  14. The forced nonlinear Schroedinger equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaup, D.J.; Hansen, P.J.

    1985-01-01

    The nonlinear Schroedinger equation describes the behaviour of a radio frequency wave in the ionosphere near the reflexion point where nonlinear processes are important. A simple model of this phenomenon leads to the forced nonlinear Schroedinger equation in terms of a nonlinear boundary value problem. A WKB analysis of the time evolution equations for the nonlinear Schroedinger equation in the inverse scattering transform formalism gives a crude order of magnitude estimation of the qualitative behaviour of the solutions. This estimation is compared with the numerical solutions. (D.Gy.)

  15. Nonlinear gyrokinetic tokamak physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brizard, A.J.

    1990-01-01

    The gyrokinetic reduced description of low-frequency and small-perpendicular-wavelength nonlinear tokamak dynamics is presented in three different versions: the reduced dynamical description of test particles moving in electromagnetic fields; the reduced gyrokinetic description of the self-consistent interaction of particles and fields through the Maxwell-Vlasov equations; and the reduced description of nonlinear fluid motion. The unperturbed tokamak plasma is described in terms of a noncanonical Hamiltonian guiding-center theory. The unperturbed guiding-center tokamak plasma is then perturbed by gyrokinetic electromagnetic fields and consequently the perturbed guiding-center dynamical system acquires new gyrophase dependence. The perturbation analysis that follows makes extensive use of Lie-transform perturbation techniques. Because the electromagnetic perturbations affect both the Hamiltonian and the Poisson-bracket structure, the Phase-space Lagrangian Lie perturbation method is used. The description of the reduced test-particle dynamics is given in terms of a non-canonical Hamiltonian gyrocenter theory. The description of the reduced kinetic dynamics is concerned with the self consistent response of the guiding-center plasma and is described in terms of the nonlinear gyrokinetic Maxwell-Vlasov equations. It is also shown that the gyrokinetic Maxwell-Vlasov system possesses a gyrokinetic energy adiabatic invariant and that, in both the linear and nonlinear (quadratic) approximations, the corresponding energy invariants are exact. The description of the reduced fluid dynamics is concerned with the derivation of a closed set of reduced fluid equations. Three generations of reduced fluid models are presented: the reduced MHD equations; the reduced FLR-MHD equations; and the gyrofluid equations

  16. Damped nonlinear Schrodinger equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicholson, D.R.; Goldman, M.V.

    1976-01-01

    High frequency electrostatic plasma oscillations described by the nonlinear Schrodinger equation in the presence of damping, collisional or Landau, are considered. At early times, Landau damping of an initial soliton profile results in a broader, but smaller amplitude soliton, while collisional damping reduces the soliton size everywhere; soliton speeds at early times are unchanged by either kind of damping. For collisional damping, soliton speeds are unchanged for all time

  17. Strongly nonlinear oscillators analytical solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Cveticanin, Livija

    2014-01-01

    This book provides the presentation of the motion of pure nonlinear oscillatory systems and various solution procedures which give the approximate solutions of the strong nonlinear oscillator equations. The book presents the original author’s method for the analytical solution procedure of the pure nonlinear oscillator system. After an introduction, the physical explanation of the pure nonlinearity and of the pure nonlinear oscillator is given. The analytical solution for free and forced vibrations of the one-degree-of-freedom strong nonlinear system with constant and time variable parameter is considered. Special attention is given to the one and two mass oscillatory systems with two-degrees-of-freedom. The criteria for the deterministic chaos in ideal and non-ideal pure nonlinear oscillators are derived analytically. The method for suppressing chaos is developed. Important problems are discussed in didactic exercises. The book is self-consistent and suitable as a textbook for students and also for profess...

  18. Nonlinear robust hierarchical control for nonlinear uncertain systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonessa Alexander

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A nonlinear robust control-system design framework predicated on a hierarchical switching controller architecture parameterized over a set of moving nominal system equilibria is developed. Specifically, using equilibria-dependent Lyapunov functions, a hierarchical nonlinear robust control strategy is developed that robustly stabilizes a given nonlinear system over a prescribed range of system uncertainty by robustly stabilizing a collection of nonlinear controlled uncertain subsystems. The robust switching nonlinear controller architecture is designed based on a generalized (lower semicontinuous Lyapunov function obtained by minimizing a potential function over a given switching set induced by the parameterized nominal system equilibria. The proposed framework robustly stabilizes a compact positively invariant set of a given nonlinear uncertain dynamical system with structured parametric uncertainty. Finally, the efficacy of the proposed approach is demonstrated on a jet engine propulsion control problem with uncertain pressure-flow map data.

  19. Discrete nonlinear Schrodinger equations with arbitrarily high-order nonlinearities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khare, A.; Rasmussen, Kim Ø; Salerno, M.

    2006-01-01

    A class of discrete nonlinear Schrodinger equations with arbitrarily high-order nonlinearities is introduced. These equations are derived from the same Hamiltonian using different Poisson brackets and include as particular cases the saturable discrete nonlinear Schrodinger equation and the Ablowitz......-Ladik equation. As a common property, these equations possess three kinds of exact analytical stationary solutions for which the Peierls-Nabarro barrier is zero. Several properties of these solutions, including stability, discrete breathers, and moving solutions, are investigated....

  20. Nonlinear simulation of electromagnetic current diffusive interchange mode turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagi, M.; Itoh, S.I.; Fukuyama, A.

    1998-01-01

    The anomalous transport in toroidal plasmas has been investigated extensively. It is pointed out that the nonlinear instability is important in driving the microturbulence[1], i.e., the self-sustained plasma turbulence. This concept is explained as follows; when the electron motion along the magnetic field line is resisted by the background turbulence, it gives rise to the effective resistivity and enhances the level of the turbulence. The nonlinear simulation of the electrostatic current diffusive interchange mode (CDIM) in the two dimensional sheared slab geometry has been performed as an example. The occurrence of the nonlinear instability and the self-sustainment of the plasma turbulence were confirmed by this simulation[2]. On the other hand, the electromagnetic turbulence is sustained in the high pressure limit. The possibility of the self-organization with more variety has been pointed out[3]. It is important to study the electromagnetic turbulence based on the nonlinear simulation. In this paper, the model equation for the electrostatic CDIM turbulence[2] is extended for both electrostatic and electromagnetic turbulence. (1) Not only E x B convective nonlinearity but also the electromagnetic nonlinearity which is related to the parallel flow are incorporated into the model equation. (2) The electron and ion pressure evolution equations are solved separately, making it possible to distinguish the electron and ion thermal diffusivities. The two dimensional nonlinear simulation of the electromagnetic CDIM is performed based on the extended fluid model. This paper is organized as follows. The model equation is explained in section II. The result of simulation is shown in section III. The conclusion and discussion are given in section IV. (author)

  1. Nonlinearity of bituminous mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangiafico, S.; Babadopulos, L. F. A. L.; Sauzéat, C.; Di Benedetto, H.

    2018-02-01

    This paper presents an experimental characterization of the strain dependency of the complex modulus of bituminous mixtures for strain amplitude levels lower than about 110 μm/m. A series of strain amplitude sweep tests are performed at different temperatures (8, 10, 12 and 14°C) and frequencies (0.3, 1, 3 and 10 Hz), during which complex modulus is monitored. For each combination of temperature and frequency, four maximum strain amplitudes are targeted (50, 75, 100 and 110 μm/m). For each of them, two series of 50 loading cycles are applied, respectively at decreasing and increasing strain amplitudes. Before each decreasing strain sweep and after each increasing strain sweep, 5 cycles are performed at constant maximum targeted strain amplitude. Experimental results show that the behavior of the studied material is strain dependent. The norm of the complex modulus decreases and phase angle increases with strain amplitude. Results are presented in Black and Cole-Cole plots, where characteristic directions of nonlinearity can be identified. Both the effects of nonlinearity in terms of the complex modulus variation and of the direction of nonlinearity in Black space seem to validate the time-temperature superposition principle with the same shift factors as for linear viscoelasticity. The comparison between results obtained during increasing and decreasing strain sweeps suggests the existence of another phenomenon occurring during cyclic loading, which appears to systematically induce a decrease of the norm of the complex modulus and an increase of the phase angle, regardless of the type of the strain sweep (increasing or decreasing).

  2. Methods of nonlinear analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Bellman, Richard Ernest

    1970-01-01

    In this book, we study theoretical and practical aspects of computing methods for mathematical modelling of nonlinear systems. A number of computing techniques are considered, such as methods of operator approximation with any given accuracy; operator interpolation techniques including a non-Lagrange interpolation; methods of system representation subject to constraints associated with concepts of causality, memory and stationarity; methods of system representation with an accuracy that is the best within a given class of models; methods of covariance matrix estimation;methods for low-rank mat

  3. Topics in Nonlinear Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosekilde, Erik

    Through a significant number of detailed and realistic examples this book illustrates how the insights gained over the past couple of decades in the fields of nonlinear dynamics and chaos theory can be applied in practice. Aomng the topics considered are microbiological reaction systems, ecological...... food-web systems, nephron pressure and flow regulation, pulsatile secretion of hormones, thermostatically controlled radiator systems, post-stall maneuvering of aircrafts, transfer electron devices for microwave generation, economic long waves, human decision making behavior, and pattern formation...... in chemical reaction-diffusion systems....

  4. Nonlinear diffusion equations

    CERN Document Server

    Wu Zhuo Qun; Li Hui Lai; Zhao Jun Ning

    2001-01-01

    Nonlinear diffusion equations, an important class of parabolic equations, come from a variety of diffusion phenomena which appear widely in nature. They are suggested as mathematical models of physical problems in many fields, such as filtration, phase transition, biochemistry and dynamics of biological groups. In many cases, the equations possess degeneracy or singularity. The appearance of degeneracy or singularity makes the study more involved and challenging. Many new ideas and methods have been developed to overcome the special difficulties caused by the degeneracy and singularity, which

  5. Limits to Nonlinear Inversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosegaard, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    For non-linear inverse problems, the mathematical structure of the mapping from model parameters to data is usually unknown or partly unknown. Absence of information about the mathematical structure of this function prevents us from presenting an analytical solution, so our solution depends on our...... ability to produce efficient search algorithms. Such algorithms may be completely problem-independent (which is the case for the so-called 'meta-heuristics' or 'blind-search' algorithms), or they may be designed with the structure of the concrete problem in mind. We show that pure meta...

  6. Nonlinear backreaction in cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Stephen Roland

    This thesis, based on two papers by Green and Wald, investigates the problem of nonlinear backreaction in cosmology. We first analyze the problem in a general context by developing a new, mathematically precise framework for treating the effects of nonlinear phenomena occurring on small scales in general relativity. Our framework requires the metric to be close to a background metric (not necessarily a cosmological metric), but allows arbitrarily large stress-energy fluctuations on small scales. We prove that, within our framework, if the matter stress-energy tensor satisfies the weak energy condition (i.e., positivity of energy density in all frames), then the only effect that small-scale inhomogeneities can have on the background metric is to provide an effective stress-energy tensor that is traceless and satisfies the weak energy condition itself—corresponding to the presence of gravitational radiation. In particular, nonlinear effects produced by small-scale inhomogeneities cannot mimic the effects of dark energy. We also develop perturbation theory off of the background metric. We derive an equation for the long-wavelength part of the leading order deviation of the metric from the background metric, which contains the usual terms occurring in linearized perturbation theory plus additional contributions from the small-scale inhomogeneities. Next, we apply our framework to the cosmological context, specializing our background metric to be of the Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker form. We demonstrate that, in the case of dust matter, a cosmological constant, and vanishing spatial curvature (i.e., our universe today), Newtonian gravity alone provides a good global description of an inhomogeneous general relativistic cosmology, even when there is significant nonlinear dynamical behavior at small scales. Namely, we find a relatively straightforward dictionary—which is exact at the linearized level—that maps Newtonian dust cosmologies into general

  7. Nonlinear surface electromagnetic phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Ponath, H-E

    1991-01-01

    In recent years the physics of electromagnetic surface phenomena has developed rapidly, evolving into technologies for communications and industry, such as fiber and integrated optics. The variety of phenomena based on electromagnetism at surfaces is rich and this book was written with the aim of summarizing the available knowledge in selected areas of the field. The book contains reviews written by solid state and optical physicists on the nonlinear interaction of electromagnetic waves at and with surfaces and films. Both the physical phenomena and some potential applications are

  8. Oscillators from nonlinear realizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozyrev, N.; Krivonos, S.

    2018-02-01

    We construct the systems of the harmonic and Pais-Uhlenbeck oscillators, which are invariant with respect to arbitrary noncompact Lie algebras. The equations of motion of these systems can be obtained with the help of the formalism of nonlinear realizations. We prove that it is always possible to choose time and the fields within this formalism in such a way that the equations of motion become linear and, therefore, reduce to ones of ordinary harmonic and Pais-Uhlenbeck oscillators. The first-order actions, that produce these equations, can also be provided. As particular examples of this construction, we discuss the so(2, 3) and G 2(2) algebras.

  9. Explaining excess morbidity amongst homeless shelter users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benjaminsen, Lars; Birkelund, Jesper Fels

    2018-01-01

    AIMS: This article analyses excess morbidity amongst homeless shelter users compared to the general Danish population. The study provides an extensive control for confounding and investigates to what extent excess morbidity is explained by homelessness or other risk factors. METHODS: Data set...... background explain only a limited part. However, when conducting an extensive control for confounding, a significantly higher morbidity was identified amongst shelter users for infectious diseases, lung, skin, blood and digestive diseases, injuries, and poisoning. CONCLUSIONS: Ill health amongst homeless...... shelter users is widely explained by substance abuse problems and other risk factors. Nonetheless, for many diseases homelessness poses an additional risk to the health....

  10. Nonlinear Trivelpiece--Gould waves: Recurrence, harmonic cascade, and sidebands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabral, J.A.C.; Lapao, L.M.; Mendonca, J.T. (Centro de Electrodinamica, Instituto Superior Tecnico, 1096 Lisboa Codex (Portugal))

    1993-03-01

    A theoretical and experimental study of Trivelpiece--Gould waves propagating in a magnetized plasma column is presented in this paper. In the experiments, these waves are excited by a radio frequency (rf) source, which also serves to create the plasma. Observation of nonlinear effects includes space and time recurrence effects, a wave spectrum containing a large number (up to 25) harmonics, and low-frequency sidebands. The theoretical model explains the recurrence effects as a consequence of multiple nonlinear interactions between the fundamental wave and its harmonics. A good agreement is found between theory and the experiments.

  11. Global Analysis of Nonlinear Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, Albert

    2012-01-01

    Global Analysis of Nonlinear Dynamics collects chapters on recent developments in global analysis of non-linear dynamical systems with a particular emphasis on cell mapping methods developed by Professor C.S. Hsu of the University of California, Berkeley. This collection of contributions prepared by a diverse group of internationally recognized researchers is intended to stimulate interests in global analysis of complex and high-dimensional nonlinear dynamical systems, whose global properties are largely unexplored at this time. This book also: Presents recent developments in global analysis of non-linear dynamical systems Provides in-depth considerations and extensions of cell mapping methods Adopts an inclusive style accessible to non-specialists and graduate students Global Analysis of Nonlinear Dynamics is an ideal reference for the community of nonlinear dynamics in different disciplines including engineering, applied mathematics, meteorology, life science, computational science, and medicine.  

  12. Nonlinear evolution of drift instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, W.W.; Krommes, J.A.; Oberman, C.R.; Smith, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    The nonlinear evolution of collisionless drift instabilities in a shear-free magnetic field has been studied by means of gyrokinetic particle simulation as well as numerical integration of model mode-coupling equations. The purpose of the investigation is to identify relevant nonlinear mechanisms responsible for the steady-state drift wave fluctuations. It is found that the saturation of the instability is mainly caused by the nonlinear E x B convection of the resonant electrons and their associated velocity space nonlinearity. The latter also induces energy exchange between the competing modes, which, in turn, gives rise to enhanced diffusion. The nonlinear E x B convection of the ions, which contributes to the nonlinear frequency shift, is also an important ingredient for the saturation

  13. Efferent feedback can explain many hearing phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, W. Harvey; Flax, Matthew R.

    2015-12-01

    The mixed mode cochlear amplifier (MMCA) model was presented at the last Mechanics of Hearing workshop [4]. The MMCA consists principally of a nonlinear feedback loop formed when an efferent-controlled outer hair cell (OHC) is combined with the cochlear mechanics and the rest of the relevant neurobiology. Essential elements of this model are efferent control of the OHC motility and a delay in the feedback to the OHC. The input to the MMCA is the passive travelling wave. In the MMCA amplification is localized where both the neural and tuned mechanical systems meet in the Organ of Corti (OoC). The simplest model based on this idea is a nonlinear delay line resonator (DLR), which is mathematically described by a nonlinear delay-differential equation (DDE). This model predicts possible Hopf bifurcations and exhibits its most interesting behaviour when operating near a bifurcation. This contribution presents some simulation results using the DLR model. These show that various observed hearing phenomena can be accounted for by this model, at least qualitatively, including compression effects, two-tone suppression and some forms of otoacoustic emissions (OAEs).

  14. Nonlinear Analysis and Variational Problems

    CERN Document Server

    Pardalos, Panos M

    2010-01-01

    The chapters in this volume, written by international experts from different fields of mathematics, are devoted to honoring George Isac, a renowned mathematician. These contributions focus on recent developments in complementarity theory, variational principles, stability theory of functional equations, nonsmooth optimization, and several other important topics at the forefront of nonlinear analysis and optimization. "Nonlinear Analysis and Variational Problems" is organized into two parts. Part I, Nonlinear Analysis, centers on stability issues for functional equations, fixed point

  15. Applications of nonlinear fiber optics

    CERN Document Server

    Agrawal, Govind

    2008-01-01

    * The only book describing applications of nonlinear fiber optics * Two new chapters on the latest developments: highly nonlinear fibers and quantum applications* Coverage of biomedical applications* Problems provided at the end of each chapterThe development of new highly nonlinear fibers - referred to as microstructured fibers, holey fibers and photonic crystal fibers - is the next generation technology for all-optical signal processing and biomedical applications. This new edition has been thoroughly updated to incorporate these key technology developments.The bo

  16. Nonlinear optical properties of colloidal silver nanoparticles produced by laser ablation in liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karavanskii, V A; Krasovskii, V I; Ivanchenko, P V; Simakin, Aleksandr V

    2004-01-01

    The optical and nonlinear optical properties of colloidal solutions of silver obtained by laser ablation in water and ethanol are studied. It is shown that freshly prepared colloids experience a full or partial sedimentation by changing their nonlinear optical properties. Aqueous colloids undergo a partial sedimentation and their nonlinear optical absorption changes to nonlinear optical transmission. The obtained results are interpreted using the Drude model for metal particles taking the particle size into account and can be explained by the sedimentation of larger silver particles accompanied by the formation of a stable colloid containing silver nanoparticles with a tentatively silver oxide shell. The characteristic size of particles forming such a stable colloid is determined and its optical nonlinearity is estimated. (nonlinear optical phenomena)

  17. Your Radiologist Explains Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Radiology and You Take our survey Sponsored by Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Magnetic Resonance Angiography ( ... pictures of the major blood vessels throughout your body. It may be performed with or without contrast ...

  18. Your Radiologist Explains Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... by Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA) Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot ... d like to talk with you about magnetic resonance angiography, or as it’s commonly known, MRA. MRA ...

  19. Your Radiologist Explains Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Abdominal Ultrasound Video: Pelvic Ultrasound Medical Imaging Costs Radiology and You Take our survey Sponsored by Image/ ... Explains Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA) Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot org Hello, I’m Dr. Elliot ...

  20. Your Radiologist Explains Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA)

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    Full Text Available ... and You Take our survey Sponsored by Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA) ... Carotid Intima-Media Thickness Test Medical Imaging Costs Video: Abdominal Ultrasound Video: Pelvic Ultrasound Radiology and You ...

  1. Topology Explains Why Automobile Sunshades Fold Oddly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feist, Curtis; Naimi, Ramin

    2009-01-01

    Automobile sunshades always fold into an "odd" number of loops. The explanation why involves elementary topology (braid theory and linking number, both explained in detail here with definitions and examples), and an elementary fact from algebra about symmetric group.

  2. Explorers Presentation: Explaining the Tides to Children

    OpenAIRE

    Institute, Marine

    2015-01-01

    Explaining the tides to children Presentation includes information about: Orbits of the Earth, Moon and Sun; Moon phases and the lunar cycle; Gravity; Gravity and the tide; Types of tides; The tides and me!; Tide tables; Extra insight

  3. Nonlinear acoustic tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monk, P.

    1993-01-01

    The use of acoustic waves as probes to determine otherwise inaccessible properties of a medium is extremely widespread. Applications include sonar, medical imaging and non-destructive testing. Despite the importance of the applications, there is as yet no acceptable method for solving the full non-linear problem at resonance frequencies (frequencies at which the size of the features under investigations are approximately the wavelength of the incident acoustic field). The medical imaging problem, which consists in trying to determine the sound speed, density and absorption properties of a bounded inhomogeneous medium from scattered acoustic waves is the motivaiton for the investigation described in this paper. We shall present a solution technique for a standard model inverse acoustic scattering problem which consists of reconstructing the refractive index of an inhomogeneity from given far field data (far field data is essentially the measured scattered field at considerable distance from the inhomogeneity). This model inverse problem simplifies the inhomogeneity by neglecting density and absorption but includes two important features of the real problem: nonlinearity and illposedness. Furthermore the method we present can easily by extended to more general problems

  4. Explainers – New energy for the museum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Martin

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The Exploratorium explainer program is not only important to the young people involved, but is an integral part of the museum culture. This initiative that started to help the youth of our community has blossomed into a program that has been very helpful to the science centre. In fact, the institution would not be complete without the fresh energy of the explainers. They help the Exploratorium to continue to give the real pear to its public.

  5. Control design of a nonlinear controller to stabilize the nonlinear ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article presents the design of a highly efficient nonlinear0 controller which is a kind of an Active Queue Management (AQM) scheme to stabilize the nonlinear TCP model dynamics. Specific boundary conditions have been considered for stability occurrences and have been compared with other existing Active Queue ...

  6. Nonlinear Response of Strong Nonlinear System Arisen in Polymer Cushion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A dynamic model is proposed for a polymer foam-based nonlinear cushioning system. An accurate analytical solution for the nonlinear free vibration of the system is derived by applying He's variational iteration method, and conditions for resonance are obtained, which should be avoided in the cushioning design.

  7. Nonlinear Water Waves

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This volume brings together four lecture courses on modern aspects of water waves. The intention, through the lectures, is to present quite a range of mathematical ideas, primarily to show what is possible and what, currently, is of particular interest. Water waves of large amplitude can only be fully understood in terms of nonlinear effects, linear theory being not adequate for their description. Taking advantage of insights from physical observation, experimental evidence and numerical simulations, classical and modern mathematical approaches can be used to gain insight into their dynamics. The book presents several avenues and offers a wide range of material of current interest. Due to the interdisciplinary nature of the subject, the book should be of interest to mathematicians (pure and applied), physicists and engineers. The lectures provide a useful source for those who want to begin to investigate how mathematics can be used to improve our understanding of water wave phenomena. In addition, some of the...

  8. Nonlinear Photonic Crystal Fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim Per

    2004-01-01

    Despite the general recession in the global economy and the collapse of the optical telecommunication market, research within specialty fibers is thriving. This is, more than anything else, due to the technology transition from standard all-glass fibers to photonic crystal fibers, which, instead...... of doping, use a microstructure of air and glass to obtain a refractive index difference between the core and the cladding. This air/glass microstructure lends the photonic crystal fibers a range of unique and highly usable properties, which are very different from those found in solid standard fibers......, leading to reduced mode confinement and dispersion flexibility. In this thesis, we treat the nonlinear photonic crystal fiber – a special sub-class of photonic crystal fibers, the core of which has a diameter comparable to the wavelength of the light guided in the fiber. The small core results in a large...

  9. Nonlinear estimation and classification

    CERN Document Server

    Hansen, Mark; Holmes, Christopher; Mallick, Bani; Yu, Bin

    2003-01-01

    Researchers in many disciplines face the formidable task of analyzing massive amounts of high-dimensional and highly-structured data This is due in part to recent advances in data collection and computing technologies As a result, fundamental statistical research is being undertaken in a variety of different fields Driven by the complexity of these new problems, and fueled by the explosion of available computer power, highly adaptive, non-linear procedures are now essential components of modern "data analysis," a term that we liberally interpret to include speech and pattern recognition, classification, data compression and signal processing The development of new, flexible methods combines advances from many sources, including approximation theory, numerical analysis, machine learning, signal processing and statistics The proposed workshop intends to bring together eminent experts from these fields in order to exchange ideas and forge directions for the future

  10. Perspectives on Nonlinear Filtering

    KAUST Repository

    Law, Kody

    2015-01-07

    The solution to the problem of nonlinear filtering may be given either as an estimate of the signal (and ideally some measure of concentration), or as a full posterior distribution. Similarly, one may evaluate the fidelity of the filter either by its ability to track the signal or its proximity to the posterior filtering distribution. Hence, the field enjoys a lively symbiosis between probability and control theory, and there are plenty of applications which benefit from algorithmic advances, from signal processing, to econometrics, to large-scale ocean, atmosphere, and climate modeling. This talk will survey some recent theoretical results involving accurate signal tracking with noise-free (degenerate) dynamics in high-dimensions (infinite, in principle, but say d between 103 and 108 , depending on the size of your application and your computer), and high-fidelity approximations of the filtering distribution in low dimensions (say d between 1 and several 10s).

  11. Adaptive nonlinear flight control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rysdyk, Rolf Theoduor

    1998-08-01

    Research under supervision of Dr. Calise and Dr. Prasad at the Georgia Institute of Technology, School of Aerospace Engineering. has demonstrated the applicability of an adaptive controller architecture. The architecture successfully combines model inversion control with adaptive neural network (NN) compensation to cancel the inversion error. The tiltrotor aircraft provides a specifically interesting control design challenge. The tiltrotor aircraft is capable of converting from stable responsive fixed wing flight to unstable sluggish hover in helicopter configuration. It is desirable to provide the pilot with consistency in handling qualities through a conversion from fixed wing flight to hover. The linear model inversion architecture was adapted by providing frequency separation in the command filter and the error-dynamics, while not exiting the actuator modes. This design of the architecture provides for a model following setup with guaranteed performance. This in turn allowed for convenient implementation of guaranteed handling qualities. A rigorous proof of boundedness is presented making use of compact sets and the LaSalle-Yoshizawa theorem. The analysis allows for the addition of the e-modification which guarantees boundedness of the NN weights in the absence of persistent excitation. The controller is demonstrated on the Generic Tiltrotor Simulator of Bell-Textron and NASA Ames R.C. The model inversion implementation is robustified with respect to unmodeled input dynamics, by adding dynamic nonlinear damping. A proof of boundedness of signals in the system is included. The effectiveness of the robustification is also demonstrated on the XV-15 tiltrotor. The SHL Perceptron NN provides a more powerful application, based on the universal approximation property of this type of NN. The SHL NN based architecture is also robustified with the dynamic nonlinear damping. A proof of boundedness extends the SHL NN augmentation with robustness to unmodeled actuator

  12. Variable coefficient nonlinear systems derived from an atmospheric dynamical system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao-Yan, Tang; Yuan, Gao; Sen-Yue, Lou; Fei, Huang

    2009-01-01

    Variable coefficient nonlinear systems, the Korteweg de Vries (KdV), the modified KdV (mKdV) and the nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) type equations, are derived from the nonlinear inviscid barotropic nondivergent vorticity equation in a beta-plane by means of the multi-scale expansion method in two different ways, with and without the so-called y-average trick. The non-auto-Bäcklund transformations are found to transform the derived variable coefficient equations to the corresponding standard KdV, mKdV and NLS equations. Thus, many possible exact solutions can be obtained by taking advantage of the known solutions of these standard equations. Further, many approximate solutions of the original model are ready to be yielded which might be applied to explain some real atmospheric phenomena, such as atmospheric blocking episodes. (general)

  13. Nonlinear aspects of structural fatigue damage assessment and accumulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leis, B.N.

    1977-01-01

    The present paper reviews a recently developed concept for structural fatigue analysis which is capable of accounting for nonlinearities in both the above noted transformations. It is shown that, for cases where the local stressing and straining is proportional, the multiplicity of initiation sites and mechanisms observed to dominate structural fatigue resistance can be explained in terms of these additional nonlinearities. The ability of current concepts for structural fatigue analysis which account for nonlinear action to handle situaions where nonproportional stressing occurs in fatigue critical locations is next examined. Limitations in the assumptions made in fatigue analysis are shown to essentially preclude the application of present technology to that class of problems. A new approach whereby the present fatigue analysis procedures based on a deformation-type plasticity analysis can be extended to handle the nonproportional cycling by their application on a 'memory event' by 'memory event' basis is postulated and discussed in the context of a simple component

  14. Nonlinear evolution of oblique whistler waves in radiation belts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, R. P.; Nandal, P.; Yadav, N.; Sharma, Swati

    2017-02-01

    Magnetic power spectrum and formation of coherent structures have been investigated in the present work applicable to Van Allen radiation belt. The nonlinear interaction of high frequency oblique whistler wave and low frequency magnetosonic wave has been investigated. Simulation was performed of the coupled equation of these two waves. The nonlinear interaction of these waves leads to the formation of the localized structures. These resulting localized structures are of complex nature. The associated magnetic power spectrum has also been studied. Dispersive nonlinear processes account for the high frequency part of the spectrum. The resulting magnetic power spectrum shows a scaling of k^{ - 4.5}. The energy transfer process from injection scales to smaller scales is explained by the results.

  15. Nonlinear Elasticity of Doped Semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    AFRL-RY-WP-TR-2016-0206 NONLINEAR ELASTICITY OF DOPED SEMICONDUCTORS Mark Dykman and Kirill Moskovtsev Michigan State University...2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE NONLINEAR ELASTICITY OF DOPED SEMICONDUCTORS 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA8650-16-1-7600 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...vibration amplitude. 15. SUBJECT TERMS semiconductors , microresonators, microelectromechanical 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF

  16. Nonlinear theory of elastic shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa Junior, J.A.

    1979-08-01

    Nonlinear theory of elastic shells is developed which incorporates both geometric and physical nonlinearities and which does not make use of the well known Love-Kirchhoff hypothesis. The resulting equations are formulated in tensorial notation and are reduced to the ones of common use when simplifying assumptions encountered in the especific litterature are taken. (Author) [pt

  17. Oscillating solitons in nonlinear optics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Oscillating solitons are obtained in nonlinear optics. Analytical study of the variable- coefficient nonlinear Schrödinger equation, which is used to describe the soliton propagation in those systems, is carried out using the Hirota's bilinear method. The bilinear forms and analytic soliton solutions are derived, and the ...

  18. Analysis, control and optimal operations in hybrid power systems advanced techniques and applications for linear and nonlinear systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bizon, Nicu; Mahdavi Tabatabaei, Naser

    2014-01-01

    This book explains and analyzes the dynamic performance of linear and nonlinear systems, particularly for Power Systems including Hybrid Power Sources. Offers a detailed description of system stability using state space energy conservation principle, and more.

  19. Mining and Explaining Relationships in Wikipedia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinpeng; Asano, Yasuhito; Yoshikawa, Masatoshi

    Mining and explaining relationships between concepts are challenging tasks in the field of knowledge search. We propose a new approach for the tasks using disjoint paths formed by links in Wikipedia. Disjoint paths are easy to understand and do not contain redundant information. To achieve this approach, we propose a naive method, as well as a generalized flow based method, and a technique for mining more disjoint paths using the generalized flow based method. We also apply the approach to classification of relationships. Our experiments reveal that the generalized flow based method can mine many disjoint paths important for understanding a relationship, and the classification is effective for explaining relationships.

  20. PREFACE Integrability and nonlinear phenomena Integrability and nonlinear phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Ullate, David; Lombardo, Sara; Mañas, Manuel; Mazzocco, Marta; Nijhoff, Frank; Sommacal, Matteo

    2010-10-01

    Back in 1967, Clifford Gardner, John Greene, Martin Kruskal and Robert Miura published a seminal paper in Physical Review Letters which was to become a cornerstone in the theory of integrable systems. In 2006, the authors of this paper received the AMS Steele Prize. In this award the AMS pointed out that `In applications of mathematics, solitons and their descendants (kinks, anti-kinks, instantons, and breathers) have entered and changed such diverse fields as nonlinear optics, plasma physics, and ocean, atmospheric, and planetary sciences. Nonlinearity has undergone a revolution: from a nuisance to be eliminated, to a new tool to be exploited.' From this discovery the modern theory of integrability bloomed, leading scientists to a deep understanding of many nonlinear phenomena which is by no means reachable by perturbation methods or other previous tools from linear theories. Nonlinear phenomena appear everywhere in nature, their description and understanding is therefore of great interest both from the theoretical and applicative point of view. If a nonlinear phenomenon can be represented by an integrable system then we have at our disposal a variety of tools to achieve a better mathematical description of the phenomenon. This special issue is largely dedicated to investigations of nonlinear phenomena which are related to the concept of integrability, either involving integrable systems themselves or because they use techniques from the theory of integrability. The idea of this special issue originated during the 18th edition of the Nonlinear Evolution Equations and Dynamical Systems (NEEDS) workshop, held at Isola Rossa, Sardinia, Italy, 16-23 May 2009 (http://needs-conferences.net/2009/). The issue benefits from the occasion offered by the meeting, in particular by its mini-workshops programme, and contains invited review papers and contributed papers. It is worth pointing out that there was an open call for papers and all contributions were peer reviewed

  1. Basic considerations on surface optical nonlinearities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guyot-Sionnest, P.; Chen, W.; Shen, Y.R.

    1986-01-01

    The origins of the surface nonlinearity in surface second harmonic generation are discussed. It is shown that this second-order nonlinear optical process is characterized by a surface nonlinear susceptibility tensor containing both local and nonlocal contributions

  2. Breatherlike impurity modes in discrete nonlinear lattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hennig, D.; Rasmussen, Kim; Tsironis, G. P.

    1995-01-01

    We investigate the properties of a disordered generalized discrete nonlinear Schrodinger equation, containing both diagonal and nondiagonal nonlinear terms. The equation models a Linear host lattice doped with nonlinear impurities. We find different types of impurity states that form itinerant...

  3. Nonlinear periodic space-charge waves in plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovalev, V. A.

    2009-01-01

    A solution is obtained in the form of coupled nonlinear periodic space-charge waves propagating in a magnetoactive plasma. The wave spectrum in the vicinity of the critical point, where the number of harmonics increases substantially, is found to fall with harmonic number as ∝ s -1/3 . Periodic space-charge waves are invoked to explain the zebra pattern in the radio emission from solar flares.

  4. Spatial solitons in nonlinear photonic crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corney, Joel Frederick; Bang, Ole

    2000-01-01

    We study solitons in one-dimensional quadratic nonlinear photonic crystals with periodic linear and nonlinear susceptibilities. We show that such crystals support stable bright and dark solitons, even when the effective quadratic nonlinearity is zero.......We study solitons in one-dimensional quadratic nonlinear photonic crystals with periodic linear and nonlinear susceptibilities. We show that such crystals support stable bright and dark solitons, even when the effective quadratic nonlinearity is zero....

  5. Explaining the VET Applied Research Developmental Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Linda; Beddie, Francesca M.

    2017-01-01

    This document explains the VET Applied Research Developmental Framework, created as part of a project that explored how the vocational education and training (VET) sector could broaden its engagement in Australia's research and development (R&D) and innovation systems. Achieving this engagement will rely significantly on building the…

  6. Explaining Violence in Sierra Leone's Civil War

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Explaining the violence of civil war is never a simple task for the scholar. In the case of the Sierra Leone, paradoxically, the task has in some ways been rendered more difficult by the sheer variety of compelling scholarship on the question. This paper seeks to identify the most useful of the explanations offered thus far, and ...

  7. Your Radiologist Explains Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Recently posted: Carotid Intima-Media Thickness Test Medical Imaging Costs Video: Abdominal Ultrasound Video: Pelvic Ultrasound Radiology and You Take our survey Sponsored by Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA) Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot ...

  8. Your Radiologist Explains Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Radiology and You Take our survey Sponsored by Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Magnetic Resonance Angiography ( ... problems, recent surgeries and allergies. If you’re female and there’s a possibility that you’re pregnant ...

  9. Adaptive hatching hypotheses do not explain asynchronous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    At the core of the suite of adaptive hatching hypotheses advanced to explain asynchronous hatching in birds is the assumption that if food is not limited then all the hatchlings will develop normally to adulthood. In this study Brown-headed Parrot Poicephalus cryptoxanthus chicks were hand fed and weighed on a daily basis.

  10. Your Radiologist Explains Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Sponsored by Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA) Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info ... I’d like to talk with you about magnetic resonance angiography, or as it’s commonly known, MRA. ...

  11. How Contracts and Enforcement Explain Transaction Outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooi, E.A.; Gilliland, D.I.

    2013-01-01

    This study considers the influence of contracts on enforcement and the subsequent performance impact of aligned and misaligned enforcement. We define enforcement as a corrective action aimed at remedying problems occurring in the transaction. First we explain the role of contracts and show that at

  12. Measuring and explaining house price developments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vries, P.

    2010-01-01

    This study discusses ways of measuring and explaining the development of house prices. The goal of the research underpinning this dissertation was to develop a methodological framework for studying these developments. This framework relates, first, to correcting for changes in the composition of

  13. Explaining quality of life with crisis theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sprangers, M.A.G.; van den Heuvel, W.J.A.; de Haes, H.C.J.M.

    2002-01-01

    Based on the premises of crisis theory. we expected cancer patients in-crisis to report a poorer quality of life (QL) and cancer patients post-crisis to report a similar level of overall QL in comparison to healthy individuals. To explain these hypothesized findings, we expected the coping resources

  14. Linear instability and nonlinear motion of rotating plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, J.

    1985-01-01

    Two coupled nonlinear equations describing the flute dynamics of the magnetically confined low-β collisionless rotating plasma are derived. The linear instability and nonlinear dynamics of the rotating column are analyzed theoretically. In the linear stability analysis, a new sufficient condition of stability is obtained. From the exact solution of eigenvalue equation for Gaussian density profile and uniform rotation of the plasma, the stability of the system strongly depends on the direction of plasma rotation, FLR effect and the location of the conducting wall. An analytic expression showing the finite wall effect on different normal modes is obtained and it explains the different behavior of (1,0) normal mode from other modes. The sheared rotation driven instability is investigated by using three model equilibrium profiles, and the analytic expressions of eigenvalues which includes the wall effect are obtained. The analogy between shear rotation driven instability and the instability driven by sheared plane parallel flow in the inviscid fluid is analyzed. Applying the linear analysis to the central cell of tandem mirror system, the trapped particle instability with only passing electronics is analyzed. For uniform rotation and Gaussian density profile, an analytic expression that determines the stability boundary is found. The nonlinear analysis shows that the nonlinear equations have a solitary vortex solution which is very similar to the vortex solution of nonlinear Rossby wave equation

  15. Stability, Nonlinearity and Reliability of Electrostatically Actuated MEMS Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Chen

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Electrostatic micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS is a special branch with a wide range of applications in sensing and actuating devices in MEMS. This paper provides a survey and analysis of the electrostatic force of importance in MEMS, its physical model, scaling effect, stability, nonlinearity and reliability in detail. It is necessary to understand the effects of electrostatic forces in MEMS and then many phenomena of practical importance, such as pull-in instability and the effects of effective stiffness, dielectric charging, stress gradient, temperature on the pull-in voltage, nonlinear dynamic effects and reliability due to electrostatic forces occurred in MEMS can be explained scientifically, and consequently the great potential of MEMS technology could be explored effectively and utilized optimally. A simplified parallel-plate capacitor model is proposed to investigate the resonance response, inherent nonlinearity, stiffness softened effect and coupled nonlinear effect of the typical electrostatically actuated MEMS devices. Many failure modes and mechanisms and various methods and techniques, including materials selection, reasonable design and extending the controllable travel range used to analyze and reduce the failures are discussed in the electrostatically actuated MEMS devices. Numerical simulations and discussions indicate that the effects of instability, nonlinear characteristics and reliability subjected to electrostatic forces cannot be ignored and are in need of further investigation.

  16. Nonlinear fibre optics overview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Travers, J. C.; Frosz, Michael Henoch; Dudley, J. M.

    2010-01-01

    The optical fiber based supercontinuum source has recently become a significant scientific and commercial success, with applications ranging from frequency comb production to advanced medical imaging. This one-of-a-kind book explains the theory of fiber supercontinuum broadening, describes...... the diverse operational regimes and indicates principal areas of applications, making it a very important guide for researchers and graduate students. With contributions from major figures and groups who have pioneered research in this field, the book describes the historical development of the subject...

  17. Nonlinear time heteronymous damping in nonlinear parametric planetary systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hortel, Milan; Škuderová, Alena

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 225, č. 7 (2014), s. 2059-2073 ISSN 0001-5970 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : nonlinear dynamics * planetary systems * heteronymous damping Subject RIV: JT - Propulsion, Motors ; Fuels Impact factor: 1.465, year: 2014

  18. Control Design of a Nonlinear Controller to Stabilize the Nonlinear ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    inyangs

    AQM) scheme employing .... A nonlinear control design is considered for application in this case, so that when there is any change in network .... shows that the system is asymptotically stable with a negative definite solution in equation (14).

  19. Nonlinear dynamics of the relativistic standard map

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomura, Y.; Ichikawa, Y.H.; Horton, W.

    1991-04-01

    Heating and acceleration of charged particles by RF fields have been extensively investigated by the standard map. The question arises as to how the relativistic effects change the nonlinear dynamical behavior described by the classical standard map. The relativistic standard map is a two parameter (K, Β = ω/kc) family of dynamical systems reducing to the standard map when Β → 0. For Β ≠ 0 the relativistic mass increase suppresses the onset of stochasticity. It shown that the speed of light limits the rate of advance of the phase in the relativistic standard map and introduces KAM surfaces persisting in the high momentum region. An intricate structure of mixing in the higher order periodic orbits and chaotic orbits is analyzed using the symmetry properties of the relativistic standard map. The interchange of the stability of the periodic orbits in the relativistic standard map is also observed and is explained by the local linear stability of the orbits. 12 refs., 16 figs

  20. Sensitivity and Nonlinearity of Thermoacoustic Oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juniper, Matthew P.; Sujith, R. I.

    2018-01-01

    Nine decades of rocket engine and gas turbine development have shown that thermoacoustic oscillations are difficult to predict but can usually be eliminated with relatively small ad hoc design changes. These changes can, however, be ruinously expensive to devise. This review explains why linear and nonlinear thermoacoustic behavior is so sensitive to parameters such as operating point, fuel composition, and injector geometry. It shows how nonperiodic behavior arises in experiments and simulations and discusses how fluctuations in thermoacoustic systems with turbulent reacting flow, which are usually filtered or averaged out as noise, can reveal useful information. Finally, it proposes tools to exploit this sensitivity in the future: adjoint-based sensitivity analysis to optimize passive control designs and complex systems theory to warn of impending thermoacoustic oscillations and to identify the most sensitive elements of a thermoacoustic system.

  1. Scalable Nonlinear Compact Schemes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Debojyoti [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Constantinescu, Emil M. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States); Brown, Jed [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2014-04-01

    In this work, we focus on compact schemes resulting in tridiagonal systems of equations, specifically the fifth-order CRWENO scheme. We propose a scalable implementation of the nonlinear compact schemes by implementing a parallel tridiagonal solver based on the partitioning/substructuring approach. We use an iterative solver for the reduced system of equations; however, we solve this system to machine zero accuracy to ensure that no parallelization errors are introduced. It is possible to achieve machine-zero convergence with few iterations because of the diagonal dominance of the system. The number of iterations is specified a priori instead of a norm-based exit criterion, and collective communications are avoided. The overall algorithm thus involves only point-to-point communication between neighboring processors. Our implementation of the tridiagonal solver differs from and avoids the drawbacks of past efforts in the following ways: it introduces no parallelization-related approximations (multiprocessor solutions are exactly identical to uniprocessor ones), it involves minimal communication, the mathematical complexity is similar to that of the Thomas algorithm on a single processor, and it does not require any communication and computation scheduling.

  2. Nonlinear functional analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Deimling, Klaus

    1985-01-01

    topics. However, only a modest preliminary knowledge is needed. In the first chapter, where we introduce an important topological concept, the so-called topological degree for continuous maps from subsets ofRn into Rn, you need not know anything about functional analysis. Starting with Chapter 2, where infinite dimensions first appear, one should be familiar with the essential step of consider­ ing a sequence or a function of some sort as a point in the corresponding vector space of all such sequences or functions, whenever this abstraction is worthwhile. One should also work out the things which are proved in § 7 and accept certain basic principles of linear functional analysis quoted there for easier references, until they are applied in later chapters. In other words, even the 'completely linear' sections which we have included for your convenience serve only as a vehicle for progress in nonlinearity. Another point that makes the text introductory is the use of an essentially uniform mathematical languag...

  3. Nonlinear Frequency Compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scollie, Susan; Glista, Danielle; Seelisch, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Frequency lowering technologies offer an alternative amplification solution for severe to profound high frequency hearing losses. While frequency lowering technologies may improve audibility of high frequency sounds, the very nature of this processing can affect the perceived sound quality. This article reports the results from two studies that investigated the impact of a nonlinear frequency compression (NFC) algorithm on perceived sound quality. In the first study, the cutoff frequency and compression ratio parameters of the NFC algorithm were varied, and their effect on the speech quality was measured subjectively with 12 normal hearing adults, 12 normal hearing children, 13 hearing impaired adults, and 9 hearing impaired children. In the second study, 12 normal hearing and 8 hearing impaired adult listeners rated the quality of speech in quiet, speech in noise, and music after processing with a different set of NFC parameters. Results showed that the cutoff frequency parameter had more impact on sound quality ratings than the compression ratio, and that the hearing impaired adults were more tolerant to increased frequency compression than normal hearing adults. No statistically significant differences were found in the sound quality ratings of speech-in-noise and music stimuli processed through various NFC settings by hearing impaired listeners. These findings suggest that there may be an acceptable range of NFC settings for hearing impaired individuals where sound quality is not adversely affected. These results may assist an Audiologist in clinical NFC hearing aid fittings for achieving a balance between high frequency audibility and sound quality. PMID:23539261

  4. Design with Nonlinear Constraints

    KAUST Repository

    Tang, Chengcheng

    2015-12-10

    Most modern industrial and architectural designs need to satisfy the requirements of their targeted performance and respect the limitations of available fabrication technologies. At the same time, they should reflect the artistic considerations and personal taste of the designers, which cannot be simply formulated as optimization goals with single best solutions. This thesis aims at a general, flexible yet e cient computational framework for interactive creation, exploration and discovery of serviceable, constructible, and stylish designs. By formulating nonlinear engineering considerations as linear or quadratic expressions by introducing auxiliary variables, the constrained space could be e ciently accessed by the proposed algorithm Guided Projection, with the guidance of aesthetic formulations. The approach is introduced through applications in different scenarios, its effectiveness is demonstrated by examples that were difficult or even impossible to be computationally designed before. The first application is the design of meshes under both geometric and static constraints, including self-supporting polyhedral meshes that are not height fields. Then, with a formulation bridging mesh based and spline based representations, the application is extended to developable surfaces including origami with curved creases. Finally, general approaches to extend hard constraints and soft energies are discussed, followed by a concluding remark outlooking possible future studies.

  5. Kerr nonlinear coupler and entanglement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonski, Wieslaw; Miranowicz, Adam

    2004-01-01

    We discuss a model comprising two coupled nonlinear oscillators (Kerr-like nonlinear coupler) with one of them pumped by an external coherent excitation. Applying the method of nonlinear quantum scissors we show that the quantum evolution of the coupler can be closed within a finite set of n-photon Fock states. Moreover, we show that the system is able to generate Bell-like states and, as a consequence, the coupler discussed behaves as a two-qubit system. We also analyse the effects of dissipation on entanglement of formation parametrized by concurrence

  6. Nonlinear Dynamic Phenomena in Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Warminski, Jerzy; Cartmell, Matthew P

    2012-01-01

    Nonlinear phenomena should play a crucial role in the design and control of engineering systems and structures as they can drastically change the prevailing dynamical responses. This book covers theoretical and applications-based problems of nonlinear dynamics concerned with both discrete and continuous systems of interest in civil and mechanical engineering. They include pendulum-like systems, slender footbridges, shape memory alloys, sagged elastic cables and non-smooth problems. Pendulums can be used as a dynamic absorber mounted in high buildings, bridges or chimneys. Geometrical nonlinear

  7. Nonlinear price impact from linear models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patzelt, Felix; Bouchaud, Jean-Philippe

    2017-12-01

    The impact of trades on asset prices is a crucial aspect of market dynamics for academics, regulators, and practitioners alike. Recently, universal and highly nonlinear master curves were observed for price impacts aggregated on all intra-day scales (Patzelt and Bouchaud 2017 arXiv:1706.04163). Here we investigate how well these curves, their scaling, and the underlying return dynamics are captured by linear ‘propagator’ models. We find that the classification of trades as price-changing versus non-price-changing can explain the price impact nonlinearities and short-term return dynamics to a very high degree. The explanatory power provided by the change indicator in addition to the order sign history increases with increasing tick size. To obtain these results, several long-standing technical issues for model calibration and testing are addressed. We present new spectral estimators for two- and three-point cross-correlations, removing the need for previously used approximations. We also show when calibration is unbiased and how to accurately reveal previously overlooked biases. Therefore, our results contribute significantly to understanding both recent empirical results and the properties of a popular class of impact models.

  8. John Watson's paradoxical struggle to explain Freud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rilling, M

    2000-03-01

    John Watson was fascinated by the discoveries of psychoanalysis, but he rejected Freud's central concept of the unconscious as incompatible with behaviorism. After failing to explain psychoanalysis in terms of William James's concept of habit, Watson borrowed concepts from classical conditioning to explain Freud's discoveries. Watson's famous experiment with Little Albert is interpreted not only in the context of Pavlovian conditioning but also as a psychoanalytically inspired attempt to capture simplified analogues of adult phobic behavior, including the "transference" of emotion in an infant. Watson used his behavioristic concept of conditioned emotional responses to compete with Freud's concepts of displacement and the unconscious transference of emotion. Behind a mask of anti-Freudian bias, Watson surprisingly emerges as a psychologist who popularized Freud and pioneered the scientific appraisal of his ideas in the laboratory.

  9. Explaining the Allocation of Regional Structural Funds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charron, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    What regional factors can explain the heterogeneity in Structural Funds distribution to European Union regions? Past studies have shown that aside from the level of economic development and rates of unemployment, other political, and economic factors systematically explain why certain European...... Union regions receive greater funding than others, in particular where there is room for bargaining. In this article, a novel theory is posited which argues that the determination of Structural Funds is based on an interaction between a region’s formal institutions (the level of a regional autonomy......) and informal institutions (its level of quality of government). In cases of low regional autonomy, member states and European Union level actors prefer to allocate greater levels of Funds to regions with lower quality of government in order to increase cohesion. Yet in cases of high regional autonomy, risks...

  10. Children's Theories and the Drive to Explain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwitzgebel, Eric

    Debate has been growing in developmental psychology over how much the cognitive development of children is like theory change in science. Useful debate on this topic requires a clear understanding of what it would be for a child to have a theory. I argue that existing accounts of theories within philosophy of science and developmental psychology either are less precise than is ideal for the task or cannot capture everyday theorizing of the sort that children, if they theorize, must do. I then propose an account of theories that ties theories and explanation very closely together, treating theories primarily as products of a drive to explain. I clarify some of the positions people have taken regarding the theory theory of development, and I conclude by proposing that psychologists interested in the ''theory theory'' look for patterns of affect and arousal in development that would accompany the existence of a drive to explain.

  11. Explaining money creation by commercial banks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Ib

    2015-01-01

    created by commercial banks, as explained by the Bank of England recently (McLeay, Radia & Thomas, 2014b), is often met with incredulity: “What do you mean, created?” This paper introduces five easy-to-grasp analogies that educators and reformers may use to convey key money-creation concepts to a lay......Educators and economists concerned with monetary reform face the extraordinary challenge of explaining to the public and its elected representatives not only what a reformed system would look like, but also how the current system works. Centrally, the point that in a modern economy money is largely...... audience. The analogies offered include (1) money as patches in an expandable patchwork quilt that covers a nation’s real assets, (2) the money supply as water in a bathtub with a faucet and a drain, (3) money understood as debt in a model economy run by schoolchildren, (4) the misleading concept of a bank...

  12. Explaining the gender wage gap in Georgia

    OpenAIRE

    Khitarishvili, Tamar

    2009-01-01

    This paper evaluates gender wage differentials in Georgia between 2000 and 2004. Using ordinary least squares, we find that the gender wage gap in Georgia is substantially higher than in other transition countries. Correcting for sample selection bias using the Heckman approach further increases the gender wage gap. The Blinder Oaxaca decomposition results suggest that most of the wage gap remains unexplained. The explained portion of the gap is almost entirely attributed to industrial variab...

  13. IEE wiring regulations explained and illustrated

    CERN Document Server

    Scaddan, Brian

    2013-01-01

    The IEE Wiring Regulations Explained and Illustrated, Second Edition discusses the recommendations of the IEE Regulations for the Electrical Equipment of Buildings for the safe selection or erection of wiring installations. The book emphasizes earthing, bonding, protection, and circuit design of electrical wirings. The text reviews the fundamental requirements for safety, earthing systems, the earth fault loop impedance, and supplementary bonding. The book also describes the different types of protection, such as protection against mechanical damage, overcurrent, under voltage (which prevents

  14. A More Practical Method for Explaining Equilibrium

    OpenAIRE

    Yi-Jang Yu

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to suggest a more practical method for explaining market equilibrium in a two-dimensional risk-return world. Its main difference from textbook contents is to define, in both qualitative and quantitative ways, the environment or the system factor and treat it as an endogenous variable. Once the two-dimensional framework that is capable of managing uncertainty and environmental relationship can be reasonably established, a greater number of economic issues can be effect...

  15. Spatial inequalities explained - Evidence from Burkina Faso

    OpenAIRE

    Johannes Gräb; Michael Grimm

    2008-01-01

    The literature shows that regional disparities in growth and poverty are often relatively high, that these regional disparities do not necessarily disappear as the economies grow and develop and that these disparities are itself in many cases an important driver of the overall performance of an economy. In this paper we make use of the advantage of a multilevel random coefficient model to explain spatial disparities in incomes among Burkinab`e households. Our findings show that it is not a ge...

  16. Device Applications of Nonlinear Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Baglio, Salvatore

    2006-01-01

    This edited book is devoted specifically to the applications of complex nonlinear dynamic phenomena to real systems and device applications. While in the past decades there has been significant progress in the theory of nonlinear phenomena under an assortment of system boundary conditions and preparations, there exist comparatively few devices that actually take this rich behavior into account. "Device Applications of Nonlinear Dynamics" applies and exploits this knowledge to make devices which operate more efficiently and cheaply, while affording the promise of much better performance. Given the current explosion of ideas in areas as diverse as molecular motors, nonlinear filtering theory, noise-enhanced propagation, stochastic resonance and networked systems, the time is right to integrate the progress of complex systems research into real devices.

  17. Nonlinear integral operators and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Musielak, Julian; Bardaro, Carlo

    2003-01-01

    In 1903 Fredholm published his famous paper on integral equations. Since then linear integral operators have become an important tool in many areas, including the theory of Fourier series and Fourier integrals, approximation theory and summability theory, and the theory of integral and differential equations. As regards the latter, applications were soon extended beyond linear operators. In approximation theory, however, applications were limited to linear operators mainly by the fact that the notion of singularity of an integral operator was closely connected with its linearity. This book represents the first attempt at a comprehensive treatment of approximation theory by means of nonlinear integral operators in function spaces. In particular, the fundamental notions of approximate identity for kernels of nonlinear operators and a general concept of modulus of continuity are developed in order to obtain consistent approximation results. Applications to nonlinear summability, nonlinear integral equations and ...

  18. Optical Computing With Nonlinear Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khitrova, Galina; Gibbs, Hyatt; Peyghambarian, Nasser

    1987-01-01

    Nonlinear optics is becoming a new thrust in the field of optical computing and signal processing.14 Optical nonlinearity makes the device's transmission intensity dependent, so one can obtain the thresholding needed for logic decisionmaking. Thresholding is essential to digital optical computing, neural nets, and associative memories. GaAs etalons exhibit many of the characteristics desirable for the nonlinear devices including high speed (picosecond) and diode-laser compatability. However, demonstrations of the use of nonlinear decisionmaking for optical computing have used ZnS or ZnSe interference filters. They are slow (millisecond), but they can be used with the visible 514.5-nm output of an argon laser. We have used such filters to demonstrate all-optical logic operations, one-bit addition by symbolic substitution, and recognition of a three-spot pattern in an arbitrary 2 x 8 array of input beams. The application to associative memories is under study.

  19. Nonlinear programming analysis and methods

    CERN Document Server

    Avriel, Mordecai

    2012-01-01

    This text provides an excellent bridge between principal theories and concepts and their practical implementation. Topics include convex programming, duality, generalized convexity, analysis of selected nonlinear programs, techniques for numerical solutions, and unconstrained optimization methods.

  20. Equivalent linearization of nonlinear forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Guang; Xue, Zhongqing

    1987-07-01

    A method used for equivalent linearization of the two orthogonal squeeze-film forces is extended here to the general case of n degrees of freedom and n components of nonlinear forces, and the expressions for equivalent linear coefficients are derived. Nonlinear forces can be linearized by the methods of Fourier expansion, active and reactive powers, or mean-square error. The n components of nonlinear forces can all be expressed formally as the sum of an average force, a linear spring force, and a linear damping force. This paper also gives a flow chart for calculating the steady-state responses of a nonlinear system with many degrees of freedom, using the method of equivalent linearization. The resulting saving in computation time is demonstrated by a numerical example of a flexible rotor-bearing system with a noncentralized squeeze-film damper.

  1. Extreme Nonlinear Optics An Introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Wegener, Martin

    2005-01-01

    Following the birth of the laser in 1960, the field of "nonlinear optics" rapidly emerged. Today, laser intensities and pulse durations are readily available, for which the concepts and approximations of traditional nonlinear optics no longer apply. In this regime of "extreme nonlinear optics," a large variety of novel and unusual effects arise, for example frequency doubling in inversion symmetric materials or high-harmonic generation in gases, which can lead to attosecond electromagnetic pulses or pulse trains. Other examples of "extreme nonlinear optics" cover diverse areas such as solid-state physics, atomic physics, relativistic free electrons in a vacuum and even the vacuum itself. This book starts with an introduction to the field based primarily on extensions of two famous textbook examples, namely the Lorentz oscillator model and the Drude model. Here the level of sophistication should be accessible to any undergraduate physics student. Many graphical illustrations and examples are given. The followi...

  2. Nonlinear transformations of random processes

    CERN Document Server

    Deutsch, Ralph

    2017-01-01

    This concise treatment of nonlinear noise techniques encountered in system applications is suitable for advanced undergraduates and graduate students. It is also a valuable reference for systems analysts and communication engineers. 1962 edition.

  3. A Nonlinear Transfer Operator Theorem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollicott, Mark

    2017-02-01

    In recent papers, Kenyon et al. (Ergod Theory Dyn Syst 32:1567-1584 2012), and Fan et al. (C R Math Acad Sci Paris 349:961-964 2011, Adv Math 295:271-333 2016) introduced a form of non-linear thermodynamic formalism based on solutions to a non-linear equation using matrices. In this note we consider the more general setting of Hölder continuous functions.

  4. Nonlinear optics principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Rottwitt, Karsten

    2014-01-01

    IntroductionReview of linear opticsInduced polarizationHarmonic oscillator modelLocal field correctionsEstimated nonlinear responseSummaryTime-domain material responseThe polarization time-response functionThe Born-Oppenheimer approximationRaman scattering response function of silicaSummaryMaterial response in the frequency domain, susceptibility tensorsThe susceptibility tensorThe induced polarization in the frequency domainSum of monochromatic fieldsThe prefactor to the induced polarizationThird-order polarization in the Born-Oppenheimer approximation in the frequency domainKramers-Kronig relationsSummarySymmetries in nonlinear opticsSpatial symmetriesSecond-order materialsThird-order nonlinear materialsCyclic coordinate-systemContracted notation for second-order susceptibility tensorsSummaryThe nonlinear wave equationMono and quasi-monochromatic beamsPlane waves - the transverse problemWaveguidesVectorial approachNonlinear birefringenceSummarySecond-order nonlinear effectsGeneral theoryCoupled wave theoryP...

  5. Modeling nonlinearities in MEMS oscillators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Deepak K; Woodhouse, Jim; Seshia, Ashwin A

    2013-08-01

    We present a mathematical model of a microelectromechanical system (MEMS) oscillator that integrates the nonlinearities of the MEMS resonator and the oscillator circuitry in a single numerical modeling environment. This is achieved by transforming the conventional nonlinear mechanical model into the electrical domain while simultaneously considering the prominent nonlinearities of the resonator. The proposed nonlinear electrical model is validated by comparing the simulated amplitude-frequency response with measurements on an open-loop electrically addressed flexural silicon MEMS resonator driven to large motional amplitudes. Next, the essential nonlinearities in the oscillator circuit are investigated and a mathematical model of a MEMS oscillator is proposed that integrates the nonlinearities of the resonator. The concept is illustrated for MEMS transimpedance-amplifier- based square-wave and sine-wave oscillators. Closed-form expressions of steady-state output power and output frequency are derived for both oscillator models and compared with experimental and simulation results, with a good match in the predicted trends in all three cases.

  6. Inverse scattering solution of non-linear evolution equations in one space dimension: an introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez-Estrada, R.F.

    1979-01-01

    A comprehensive review of the inverse scattering solution of certain non-linear evolution equations of physical interest in one space dimension is presented. We explain in some detail the interrelated techniques which allow to linearize exactly the following equations: (1) the Korteweg and de Vries equation; (2) the non-linear Schrodinger equation; (3) the modified Korteweg and de Vries equation; (4) the Sine-Gordon equation. We concentrate in discussing the pairs of linear operators which accomplish such an exact linearization and the solution of the associated initial value problem. The application of the method to other non-linear evolution equations is reviewed very briefly

  7. The effect of compression on tuning estimates in a simple nonlinear auditory filter model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marschall, Marton; MacDonald, Ewen; Dau, Torsten

    2013-01-01

    Behavioral experiments using auditory masking have been used to characterize frequency selectivity, one of the basic properties of the auditory system. However, due to the nonlinear response of the basilar membrane, the interpretation of these experiments may not be straightforward. Specifically...... consists of a compressor between two bandpass filters. The BPNL forms the basis of the dual-resonance nonlinear (DRNL) filter that has been used in a number of modeling studies. The location of the nonlinear element and its effect on estimated tuning in the two measurement paradigms was investigated......, then compression alone may explain a large part of the behaviorally observed differences in tuning between simultaneous and forward-masking conditions....

  8. Nonlinear gravity-capillary water waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lei

    1997-11-01

    Two-dimensional gravity-capillary water waves are analyzed using a fully-nonlinear Cauchy-integral method with spectral accuracy. Standing waves are generated in experiments by vertical oscillation and measured by a non-intrusive optical system along with a wave probe. Nonlinear resonance of standing waves with non-wetting contact line effects are discussed in detail. Amplitude- dependent wave frequency and damping in a glass rectangular tank suggest a new contact-line model. A new type of sideband resonance due to modulated forcing is discovered and explained by weakly-nonlinear analysis. This analytical solution is verified by our numerical simulations and physical experiments. New standing waveforms with dimpled or sharp crests are observed in experiments and computations. These new waveforms have strong symmetry breaking in time as a result of nonlinear harmonic interaction. With increasing wave steepness, steep standing waves experience period- tripling with three distinct forms: sharp crest, dimpled or flat crest, and round crest. Significant breaking occurs in the sharp-crest mode and the dimpled-crest mode. Using a complex-demodulation technique, I find that these breaking waves are related to the same 1:2 internal resonance (harmonic interaction) that causes the new steep waveforms. Novel approaches are used to estimate the (breaking and non-breaking) wave dissipation in steep and breaking standing waves. The breaking events (spray, air entrainment, and plunging) approximately double the wave dissipation. Weak capillarity significantly affects the limiting wave height and the form of standing waves, as demonstrated by both computations and small-scale Faraday-wave experiments. Capillary ripple generation on traveling waves is shown to be significant even at moderate wave steepness. The ubiquitous horizontal asymmetry of traveling waves is shown to be critical to capillary ripple generation. Two new asymmetric modes are identified and are shown to have an

  9. A reliable treatment for nonlinear Schroedinger equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khani, F.; Hamedi-Nezhad, S.; Molabahrami, A.

    2007-01-01

    Exp-function method is used to find a unified solution of nonlinear wave equation. Nonlinear Schroedinger equations with cubic and power law nonlinearity are selected to illustrate the effectiveness and simplicity of the method. It is shown that the Exp-function method, with the help of symbolic computation, provides a powerful mathematical tool for solving nonlinear equation

  10. Identification of Nonlinear Dynamic Systems Possessing Some Non-linearities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. N. Pavlov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this work is the problem of identification of nonlinear dynamic systems based on the experimental data obtained by applying test signals to the system. The goal is to determinate coefficients of differential equations of systems by experimental frequency hodographs and separate similar, but different, in essence, forces: dissipative forces with the square of the first derivative in the motion equations and dissipative force from the action of dry friction. There was a proposal to use the harmonic linearization method to approximate each of the nonlinearity of "quadratic friction" and "dry friction" by linear friction with the appropriate harmonic linearization coefficient.Assume that a frequency transfer function of the identified system has a known form. Assume as well that there are disturbances while obtaining frequency characteristics of the realworld system. As a result, the points of experimentally obtained hodograph move randomly. Searching for solution of the identification problem was in the hodograph class, specified by the system model, which has the form of the frequency transfer function the same as the form of the frequency transfer function of the system identified. Minimizing a proximity criterion (measure of the experimentally obtained system hodograph and the system hodograph model for all the experimental points described and previously published by one of the authors allowed searching for the unknown coefficients of the frequenc ransfer function of the system model. The paper shows the possibility to identify a nonlinear dynamic system with multiple nonlinearities, obtained on the experimental samples of the frequency system hodograph. The proposed algorithm allows to select the nonlinearity of the type "quadratic friction" and "dry friction", i.e. also in the case where the nonlinearity is dependent on the same dynamic parameter, in particular, on the derivative of the system output value. For the dynamic

  11. Nonlinear optical properties and nonlinear optical probes of organic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, Gerald R.

    1992-02-01

    Nonlinear optical processes and electro-optical effects are expected to have increasing importance as the information age matures and photonics augment electronics in various high density and high bandwidth technologies. Whereas for electronics the emphasis is in construction of smaller device structures from a few parent materials, for organic materials the direction of materials research has been reversed. For some time it's been known that some molecular structures engender exceptionally large molecular nonlinear-polarization responses. If such molecules could be assembled in convenient, versatile, and reliable ways, the resulting materials would be very useful or even enabling in various photonics applications. The mature science and art of chemistry allows very good control over molecular composition and structure and, as will be illustrated in this talk, our knowledge of hyperpolarizability structure- property relationships is advancing rapidly. However, the science of fabrication and arrangement in molecular ensembles and polymers is rather primitive. Thus the goal to develop the appropriately structured materials for utilization in nonlinear and electro-optics has fostered the widespread use of nonlinear optical processes to probe the nature of supramolecular order and assembly. Examples of intrinsic and artificially assembled structures of crystals, molecular aggregates, polymeric orientational electrets and molecular mono- and multi-layer thin films will be shown. Nonlinear optical processes, primarily second-harmonic generation, provide unique probes of these structures, their assembly, and evolution.

  12. Final report. [Nonlinear magnetohydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montgomery, D.C.

    1998-01-01

    This is a final report on the research activities carried out under the above grant at Dartmouth. During the period considered, the grant was identified as being for nonlinear magnetohydrodynamics, considered as the most tractable theoretical framework in which the plasma problems associated with magnetic confinement of fusion plasmas could be studied. During the first part of the grant's lifetime, the author was associated with Los Alamos National Laboratory as a consultant and the work was motivated by the reversed-field pinch. Later, when that program was killed at Los Alamos, the problems became ones that could be motivated by their relation to tokamaks. Throughout the work, the interest was always on questions that were as fundamental as possible, compatible with those motivations. The intent was always to contribute to plasma physics as a science, as well as to the understanding of mission-oriented confined fusion plasmas. Twelve Ph.D. theses were supervised during this period and a comparable number of postdoctoral research associates were temporarily supported. Many of these have gone on to distinguished careers, though few have done so in the context of the controlled fusion program. Their work was a combination of theory and numerical computation, in gradually less and less idealized settings, moving from rectangular periodic boundary conditions in two dimensions, through periodic straight cylinders and eventually, before the grant was withdrawn, to toroids, with a gradually more prominent role for electrical and mechanical boundary conditions. The author never had access to a situation where he could initiate experiments and relate directly to the laboratory data he wanted. Computers were the laboratory. Most of the work was reported in referred publications in the open literature, copies of which were transmitted one by one to DOE at the time they appeared. The Appendix to this report is a bibliography of published work which was carried out under the

  13. Explaining convergence of oecd welfare states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmitt, C.; Starke, Peter

    2011-01-01

    of conditional convergence helps to both better describe and explain the phenomenon. By applying error correction models, we examine conditional convergence of various types of social expenditure in 21 OECD countries between 1980 and 2005. Our empirical findings go beyond the existing literature in two respects....... First, we show that there is very strong evidence of convergence across all categories of social expenditure when conditional factors are taken into account. Second, we demonstrate that the speed of convergence is highly driven by globalization and European Union membership and shaped by existing...

  14. SOME THEORETICAL MODELS EXPLAINING ADVERTISING EFFECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilica Magdalena SOMEŞFĂLEAN

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Persuade clients is still the main focus of the companies, using a set of methods and techniques designed to influence their behavior, in order to obtain better results (profits over a longer period of time. Since the late nineteenth - early twentieth century, the american E.St.Elmo Lewis, considered a pioneer in advertising and sales, developed the first theory, AIDA model, later used by marketers and advertisers to develop a marketing communications strategy. Later studies have developed other models that are the main subject of this research, which explains how and why persuasive communication works, to understand why some approaches are effective and others are not.

  15. Important variables in explaining real-time peak price in the independent power market of Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rueda, I.E.A.; Marathe, A.

    2005-01-01

    This paper uses support vector machines (SVM) based learning algorithm to select important variables that help explain the real-time peak electricity price in the Ontario market. The Ontario market was opened to competition only in May 2002. Due to the limited number of observations available, finding a set of variables that can explain the independent power market of Ontario (IMO) real-time peak price is a significant challenge for the traders and analysts. The kernel regressions of the explanatory variables on the IMO real-time average peak price show that non-linear dependencies exist between the explanatory variables and the IMO price. This non-linear relationship combined with the low variable-observation ratio rule out conventional statistical analysis. Hence, we use an alternative machine learning technique to find the important explanatory variables for the IMO real-time average peak price. SVM sensitivity analysis based results find that the IMO's predispatch average peak price, the actual import peak volume, the peak load of the Ontario market and the net available supply after accounting for load (energy excess) are some of the most important variables in explaining the real-time average peak price in the Ontario electricity market. (author)

  16. A mechanism-based pharmacokinetic model of fenofibrate for explaining increased drug absorption after food consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Back, Hyun-Moon; Song, Byungjeong; Pradhan, Sudeep; Chae, Jung-Woo; Han, Nayoung; Kang, Wonku; Chang, Min Jung; Zheng, Jiao; Kwon, Kwang-Il; Karlsson, Mats O; Yun, Hwi-Yeol

    2018-01-25

    Oral administration of drugs is convenient and shows good compliance but it can be affected by many factors in the gastrointestinal (GI) system. Consumption of food is one of the major factors affecting the GI system and consequently the absorption of drugs. The aim of this study was to develop a mechanistic GI absorption model for explaining the effect of food on fenofibrate pharmacokinetics (PK), focusing on the food type and calorie content. Clinical data from a fenofibrate PK study involving three different conditions (fasting, standard meals and high-fat meals) were used. The model was developed by nonlinear mixed effect modeling method. Both linear and nonlinear effects were evaluated to explain the impact of food intake on drug absorption. Similarly, to explain changes in gastric emptying time for the drug due to food effects was evaluated. The gastric emptying rate increased by 61.7% during the first 6.94 h after food consumption. Increased calories in the duodenum increased the absorption rate constant of the drug in fed conditions (standard meal = 16.5%, high-fat meal = 21.8%) compared with fasted condition. The final model displayed good prediction power and precision. A mechanistic GI absorption model for quantitatively evaluating the effects of food on fenofibrate absorption was successfully developed, and acceptable parameters were obtained. The mechanism-based PK model of fenofibrate can quantify the effects of food on drug absorption by food type and calorie content.

  17. Complex motions and chaos in nonlinear systems

    CERN Document Server

    Machado, José; Zhang, Jiazhong

    2016-01-01

    This book brings together 10 chapters on a new stream of research examining complex phenomena in nonlinear systems—including engineering, physics, and social science. Complex Motions and Chaos in Nonlinear Systems provides readers a particular vantage of the nature and nonlinear phenomena in nonlinear dynamics that can develop the corresponding mathematical theory and apply nonlinear design to practical engineering as well as the study of other complex phenomena including those investigated within social science.

  18. EXPLAINING THE ASSOCIATION BETWEEN INCARCERATION AND DIVORCE*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siennick, Sonja E.; Stewart, Eric A.; Staff, Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that incarceration dramatically increases the odds of divorce, but we know little about the mechanisms that explain the association. This study uses prospective longitudinal data from a subset of married young adults in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 1,919) to examine whether incarceration is associated with divorce indirectly via low marital love, economic strain, relationship violence, and extramarital sex. The findings confirmed that incarcerations occurring during, but not before, a marriage were associated with an increased hazard of divorce. Incarcerations occurring during marriage also were associated with less marital love, more relationship violence, more economic strain, and greater odds of extramarital sex. Above-average levels of economic strain were visible among respondents observed preincarceration, but only respondents observed postincarceration showed less marital love, more relationship violence, and higher odds of extramarital sex than did respondents who were not incarcerated during marriage. These relationship problems explained approximately 40 percent of the association between incarceration and marital dissolution. These findings are consistent with theoretical predictions that a spouse’s incarceration alters the rewards and costs of the marriage and the relative attractiveness of alternative partners. PMID:25598544

  19. Introduction to nonlinear dispersive equations

    CERN Document Server

    Linares, Felipe

    2015-01-01

    This textbook introduces the well-posedness theory for initial-value problems of nonlinear, dispersive partial differential equations, with special focus on two key models, the Korteweg–de Vries equation and the nonlinear Schrödinger equation. A concise and self-contained treatment of background material (the Fourier transform, interpolation theory, Sobolev spaces, and the linear Schrödinger equation) prepares the reader to understand the main topics covered: the initial-value problem for the nonlinear Schrödinger equation and the generalized Korteweg–de Vries equation, properties of their solutions, and a survey of general classes of nonlinear dispersive equations of physical and mathematical significance. Each chapter ends with an expert account of recent developments and open problems, as well as exercises. The final chapter gives a detailed exposition of local well-posedness for the nonlinear Schrödinger equation, taking the reader to the forefront of recent research. The second edition of Introdu...

  20. Nonlinear Waves in Complex Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2007-01-01

    The study of nonlinear waves has exploded due to the combination of analysis and computations, since the discovery of the famous recurrence phenomenon on a chain of nonlinearly coupled oscillators by Fermi-Pasta-Ulam fifty years ago. More than the discovery of new integrable equations, it is the ......The study of nonlinear waves has exploded due to the combination of analysis and computations, since the discovery of the famous recurrence phenomenon on a chain of nonlinearly coupled oscillators by Fermi-Pasta-Ulam fifty years ago. More than the discovery of new integrable equations......, it is the universality and robustness of the main models with respect to perturbations that developped the field. This is true for both continuous and discrete equations. In this volume we keep this broad view and draw new perspectives for nonlinear waves in complex systems. In particular we address energy flow...... in Fourier space and equipartition, the role of inhomogeneities and complex geometry and the importance of coupled systems....

  1. Explaining NDVI trends in northern Burkina Faso

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kjeld; Fensholt, Rasmus; Fog, Bjarne

    2014-01-01

    by a distinct spatial pattern and strongly dominated by negative trends in Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). The aim of the paper is to explain this distinct pattern. When studied over the period 2000–2012, using NDVI data from the MODIS sensor the spatial pattern of NDVI trends indicates that non......-climatic factors are involved. By relating NDVI trends to landscape elements and land use change we demonstrate that NDVI trends in the north-western parts of the study area are mostly related to landscape elements, while this is not the case in the south-eastern parts, where rapidly changing land use, including....... expansion of irrigation, plays a major role. It is inferred that a process of increased redistribution of fine soil material, water and vegetation from plateaus and slopes to valleys, possibly related to higher grazing pressure, may provide an explanation of the observed pattern of NDVI trends. Further work...

  2. Explaining the moral of the story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Caren M; Lombrozo, Tania

    2017-10-01

    Although storybooks are often used as pedagogical tools for conveying moral lessons to children, the ability to spontaneously extract "the moral" of a story develops relatively late. Instead, children tend to represent stories at a concrete level - one that highlights surface features and understates more abstract themes. Here we examine the role of explanation in 5- and 6-year-old children's developing ability to learn the moral of a story. Two experiments demonstrate that, relative to a control condition, prompts to explain aspects of a story facilitate children's ability to override salient surface features, abstract the underlying moral, and generalize that moral to novel contexts. In some cases, generating an explanation is more effective than being explicitly told the moral of the story, as in a more traditional pedagogical exchange. These findings have implications for moral comprehension, the role of explanation in learning, and the development of abstract reasoning in early childhood. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Can molecular cell biology explain chromosome motions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gagliardi L

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mitotic chromosome motions have recently been correlated with electrostatic forces, but a lingering "molecular cell biology" paradigm persists, proposing binding and release proteins or molecular geometries for force generation. Results Pole-facing kinetochore plates manifest positive charges and interact with negatively charged microtubule ends providing the motive force for poleward chromosome motions by classical electrostatics. This conceptual scheme explains dynamic tracking/coupling of kinetochores to microtubules and the simultaneous depolymerization of kinetochore microtubules as poleward force is generated. Conclusion We question here why cells would prefer complex molecular mechanisms to move chromosomes when direct electrostatic interactions between known bound charge distributions can accomplish the same task much more simply.

  4. Alcohol and breast cancer: the mechanisms explained.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sader, Hassen; Abdul-Jabar, Hani; Allawi, Zahra; Haba, Yasser

    2009-08-01

    Breast cancer is a leading cause of death amongst women, several studies have shown significant association between alcohol consumption and breast cancer. The aim of this overview is to highlight some of the mechanisms by which alcohol consumption could increase the risk of developing breast cancer. Using online Medline search engine, article containing details about mechanisms which explain the link between alcohol and breast cancer were examined. A number of mechanisms were found by which alcohol could increase the risk of breast cancer, alcohol's interaction and effect on oestrogen secretion; number of oestrogen receptors; the generation of acetaldehyde and hydroxyl free radicals; cells migration and metastasis; secretion of IGF1 and interaction with HRT and folate metabolism. In conclusion, it is essential for clinicians to understand these mechanisms and inform patients of the link between alcohol and breast cancer. Breast cancer; Alcohol; Mechanisms.

  5. Explaining the gender difference in nightmare frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schredl, Michael

    2014-01-01

    A recent meta-analysis showed a robust gender difference in nightmare frequency of medium effect size in adolescents and young adults: Women tend to report nightmares more frequently than men. The present study, carried out in an unselected student sample, indicates that 2 factors mediate the gender difference in nightmare frequency: neuroticism and overall dream recall frequency. The effect of neuroticism on the gender difference and the finding that the gender difference in nightmare frequency emerges at an age of about 10 years suggest that gender-specific socialization processes may play an important role in explaining the gender differences in nightmare frequency in adolescents and young to middle-aged adults. This idea is supported by the previous finding that nightmare frequency is related to sex role orientation. However, longitudinal studies are necessary to validate these hypotheses.

  6. Explaining fast radio bursts through Dicke's superradiance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houde, Martin; Mathews, Abhilash; Rajabi, Fereshteh

    2018-03-01

    Fast radio bursts (FRBs), characterized by strong bursts of radiation intensity at radio wavelengths lasting on the order of a millisecond, have yet to be firmly associated with a family, or families, of astronomical sources. It follows that despite the large number of proposed models, no well-defined physical process has been identified to explain this phenomenon. In this paper, we demonstrate how Dicke's superradiance, for which evidence has recently been found in the interstellar medium, can account for the characteristics associated with FRBs. Our analysis and modelling of previously detected FRBs suggest they could originate from regions in many ways similar to those known to harbour masers or megamasers, and result from the coherent radiation emanating from populations of molecules associated with large-scale entangled quantum mechanical states. We estimate this entanglement to involve as many as ˜1030 to ˜1032 molecules over distances spanning 100-1000 au.

  7. Explaining CMS lepton excesses with supersymmetry

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Prof. Allanach, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    1) Kostas Theofilatos will give an introduction to CMS result 2) Ben Allanach: Several CMS analyses involving di-leptons have recently reported small 2.4-2.8 sigma local excesses: nothing to get too excited about, but worth keeping an eye on nonetheless. In particular, a search in the $lljj p_T$(miss) channel, a search for $W_R$ in the $lljj$ channel and a di-leptoquark search in the $lljj$ channel and $ljj p_T$(miss) channel have all yielded small excesses. We interpret the first excess in the MSSM, showing that the interpretation is viable in terms of other constraints, despite only having squark masses of around 1 TeV. We can explain the last three excesses with a single R-parity violating coupling that predicts a non-zero contribution to the neutrinoless double beta decay rate.

  8. Explaining variation in Down's syndrome screening uptake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crombag, Neeltje M T H; Vellinga, Ynke E; Kluijfhout, Sandra A

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The offer of prenatal Down's syndrome screening is part of routine antenatal care in most of Europe; however screening uptake varies significantly across countries. Although a decision to accept or reject screening is a personal choice, it is unlikely that the widely differing uptake...... rates across countries can be explained by variation in individual values alone.The aim of this study was to compare Down's syndrome screening policies and programmes in the Netherlands, where uptake is relatively low ( 90% respectively....... RESULTS: There were many similarities in the demographics, healthcare systems, government abortion legislation and Down's syndrome screening policy across the studied countries. However, the additional cost for Down's syndrome screening over and above standard antenatal care in the Netherlands...

  9. Explaining African Participation in International Courts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gissel, Line Engbo; Brett, Peter

    2018-01-01

    Africa has more international courts than any other continent, yet International Relations scholarship has failed to explain this move to law on the African continent. This article provides such an explanation using Jean-François Bayart’s concept of extraversion. It shows how the creation...... of international courts in the 1990s and early 2000s was the result of extraverted strategies for attracting international resources and pre-empting donor pressures for political and legal reforms. By adopting these strategies, African states failed to behave in the ‘strategic’ manner anticipated by both...... Tribunal and International Criminal Court. Using the case studies of Zimbabwe and Kenya, it shows how global scripts were repeated by even those states which have, in recent years, most vocally asserted their national interests against these courts....

  10. The Inverted Pendulum Benchmark in Nonlinear Control Theory: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olfa Boubaker

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract For at least fifty years, the inverted pendulum has been the most popular benchmark, among others, in nonlinear control theory. The fundamental focus of this work is to enhance the wealth of this robotic benchmark and provide an overall picture of historical and current trend developments in nonlinear control theory, based on its simple structure and its rich nonlinear model. In this review, we will try to explain the high popularity of such a robotic benchmark, which is frequently used to realize experimental models, validate the efficiency of emerging control techniques and verify their implementation. We also attempt to provide details on how many standard techniques in control theory fail when tested on such a benchmark. More than 100 references in the open literature, dating back to 1960, are compiled to provide a survey of emerging ideas and challenging problems in nonlinear control theory accomplished and verified using this robotic system. Possible future trends that we can envision based on the review of this area are also presented.

  11. Exposing the nonlinear viscoelastic behavior of asphalt-aggregate mixes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levenberg, Eyal; Uzan, Jacob

    2012-05-01

    In this study asphalt-aggregate mixes are treated as both viscoelastic and viscoplastic. Following a damage mechanics approach, a nonlinear viscoelastic constitutive formulation is generated from a linear formulation by replacing `applied stresses' with `effective viscoelastic stresses'. A non-dimensional scalar entity called `relative viscoelastic stiffness' is introduced; it is defined as the ratio of applied to effective viscoelastic stress and encapsulates different types of nonlinearities. The paper proposes a computational scheme for exposing these nonlinearities by uncovering, through direct analysis of any test data, changes experienced by the `relative viscoelastic stiffness'. In general terms, the method is based on simultaneous application of creep and relaxation formulations while preserving the interrelationship between the corresponding time functions. The proposed scheme is demonstrated by analyzing a uniaxial tension test and a uniaxial compression test (separately). Results are presented and discussed, unveiling and contrasting the character of viscoelastic nonlinearities in both cases. A conceptual viewpoint is offered to explain the observations, illustrating the requirements from any candidate constitutive theory.

  12. Nonlinear dynamics and plasma transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonsen, T.M. Jr.; Drake, J.F.; Finn, J.M.; Guzdar, P.N.; Hassam, A.B.; Sageev, R.Z.

    1993-01-01

    This progress report details work done on a program in nonlinear dynamical aspects of plasma turbulence and transport funded by DOE since 1989. This program has been in cooperation with laboratories in theUSSR [now Russia and the Confederation of Independent States (CIS)]. The purpose of this program has been: To promote the utilization of recent pathbreaking developments in nonlinear science in plasma turbulence and transport. To promote cooperative scientific investigations between the US and CIS in the related areas of nonlinear science and plasma turbulence and transport. In the work reported in our progress report, we have studied simple models which are motivated by observation on actual fusion devices. The models focus on the important physical processes without incorporating the complexity of the geometry of real devices. This allows for a deeper analysis and understanding of the system both analytically and numerically.

  13. Nonlinear Deformable-body Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, Albert C J

    2010-01-01

    "Nonlinear Deformable-body Dynamics" mainly consists in a mathematical treatise of approximate theories for thin deformable bodies, including cables, beams, rods, webs, membranes, plates, and shells. The intent of the book is to stimulate more research in the area of nonlinear deformable-body dynamics not only because of the unsolved theoretical puzzles it presents but also because of its wide spectrum of applications. For instance, the theories for soft webs and rod-reinforced soft structures can be applied to biomechanics for DNA and living tissues, and the nonlinear theory of deformable bodies, based on the Kirchhoff assumptions, is a special case discussed. This book can serve as a reference work for researchers and a textbook for senior and postgraduate students in physics, mathematics, engineering and biophysics. Dr. Albert C.J. Luo is a Professor of Mechanical Engineering at Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, IL, USA. Professor Luo is an internationally recognized scientist in the field of non...

  14. Optimization for nonlinear inverse problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyadzhiev, G.; Brandmayr, E.; Pinat, T.; Panza, G.F.

    2007-06-01

    The nonlinear inversion of geophysical data in general does not yield a unique solution, but a single model, representing the investigated field, is preferred for an easy geological interpretation of the observations. The analyzed region is constituted by a number of sub-regions where the multi-valued nonlinear inversion is applied, which leads to a multi-valued solution. Therefore, combining the values of the solution in each sub-region, many acceptable models are obtained for the entire region and this complicates the geological interpretation of geophysical investigations. In this paper are presented new methodologies, capable to select one model, among all acceptable ones, that satisfies different criteria of smoothness in the explored space of solutions. In this work we focus on the non-linear inversion of surface waves dispersion curves, which gives structural models of shear-wave velocity versus depth, but the basic concepts have a general validity. (author)

  15. NONLINEAR DYNAMICS OF ORGANIZATION DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Денис Антонович БУШУЕВ

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The nonlinear behavior of organizations in development projects is considered. The nonlinear behavior is initiated in the growth of organizations and requires a restructuring of governance in identifying dysfunctions. Such a restructuring is needed in the area of soft components, determining the organizational levels of competence in the management of projects, programs, portfolios and heads of the Project Management Office. An important component of the strategic development of the organization is the proposed concept for formation and management of development programs in the context according to their life cycle. It should take into account the non-linear behavior of the soft components of the system and violation of functional processes of the organization. The specific management syndromes of projects and programs are considered. Such as syndromes time management project linked to the singular points of the project. These syndromes are "shift to the right", "point of no return", "braking at the end of the project" and others.

  16. Nonlinear dynamics in biological systems

    CERN Document Server

    Carballido-Landeira, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    This book presents recent research results relating to applications of nonlinear dynamics, focusing specifically on four topics of wide interest: heart dynamics, DNA/RNA, cell mobility, and proteins. The book derives from the First BCAM Workshop on Nonlinear Dynamics in Biological Systems, held in June 2014 at the Basque Center of Applied Mathematics (BCAM). At this international meeting, researchers from different but complementary backgrounds, including molecular dynamics, physical chemistry, bio-informatics and biophysics, presented their most recent results and discussed the future direction of their studies using theoretical, mathematical modeling and experimental approaches. Such was the level of interest stimulated that the decision was taken to produce this publication, with the organizers of the event acting as editors. All of the contributing authors are researchers working on diverse biological problems that can be approached using nonlinear dynamics. The book will appeal especially to applied math...

  17. Nonlinear photoacoustic spectroscopy of hemoglobin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danielli, Amos; Maslov, Konstantin; Favazza, Christopher P.; Xia, Jun; Wang, Lihong V.

    2015-01-01

    As light intensity increases in photoacoustic imaging, the saturation of optical absorption and the temperature dependence of the thermal expansion coefficient result in a measurable nonlinear dependence of the photoacoustic (PA) signal on the excitation pulse fluence. Here, under controlled conditions, we investigate the intensity-dependent photoacoustic signals from oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin at varied optical wavelengths and molecular concentrations. The wavelength and concentration dependencies of the nonlinear PA spectrum are found to be significantly greater in oxygenated hemoglobin than in deoxygenated hemoglobin. These effects are further influenced by the hemoglobin concentration. These nonlinear phenomena provide insights into applications of photoacoustics, such as measurements of average inter-molecular distances on a nm scale or with a tuned selection of wavelengths, a more accurate quantitative PA tomography

  18. Nonlinear photoacoustic spectroscopy of hemoglobin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danielli, Amos; Maslov, Konstantin; Favazza, Christopher P.; Xia, Jun; Wang, Lihong V., E-mail: LHWANG@WUSTL.EDU [Optical Imaging Laboratory, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Washington University in St. Louis, One Brookings Drive, St. Louis, Missouri 63130 (United States)

    2015-05-18

    As light intensity increases in photoacoustic imaging, the saturation of optical absorption and the temperature dependence of the thermal expansion coefficient result in a measurable nonlinear dependence of the photoacoustic (PA) signal on the excitation pulse fluence. Here, under controlled conditions, we investigate the intensity-dependent photoacoustic signals from oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin at varied optical wavelengths and molecular concentrations. The wavelength and concentration dependencies of the nonlinear PA spectrum are found to be significantly greater in oxygenated hemoglobin than in deoxygenated hemoglobin. These effects are further influenced by the hemoglobin concentration. These nonlinear phenomena provide insights into applications of photoacoustics, such as measurements of average inter-molecular distances on a nm scale or with a tuned selection of wavelengths, a more accurate quantitative PA tomography.

  19. Training science centre Explainers. The Techniquest experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin Johnson

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Techniquest was established in 1986, and in 1995 moved to its current premises at Cardiff Bay, South Wales. This was the first purpose-built science centre in the UK. It receives around 200,000 visitors every year to its exhibition, and to its programmes for schools and public audiences in the theatre, laboratory, discovery room and planetarium. The author joined the Techniquest project in 1985, became a staff member in 1990 and was the Chief Executive from 1997 until his retirement in 2004. Techniquest has three “out-stations” in Wales, and is responsible for the supply and maintenance of exhibits to the Look Out Discovery Centre in Bracknell, England. There is a Techniquest gallery at the Lisbon Pavilhão do Conhecimento - Ciência Viva, and a traveling exhibition, SciQuest, in South Africa which was also supplied by Techniquest. All these centres rely on the effective intervention of “Explainers” (at Techniquest we call them “Helpers” to provide the best possible experience for visitors. At its most demanding, the tasks of an Explainer are varied and intensive, yet there may be times when the duties are mundane or even dull. When you rely on people to act as both hosts and housekeepers, to provide both support and stimulus, and to be both welcoming and watchful, you are asking a great deal. This article raises some of the issues concerned with the recruitment and retention of Explainers, their training and management, and the way in which their role is recognized and valued by the science centre as a whole.

  20. Explaining polarization reversals in STEREO wave data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breneman, A.; Cattell, C.; Wygant, J.; Kersten, K.; Wilson, L. B., III; Dai, L.; Colpitts, C.; Kellogg, P. J.; Goetz, K.; Paradise, A.

    2012-04-01

    Recently, Breneman et al. (2011) reported observations of large amplitude lightning and transmitter whistler mode waves from two STEREO passes through the inner radiation belt (L plane transverse to the magnetic field showed that the transmitter waves underwent periodic polarization reversals. Specifically, their polarization would cycle through a pattern of right-hand to linear to left-hand polarization at a rate of roughly 200 Hz. The lightning whistlers were observed to be left-hand polarized at frequencies greater than the lower hybrid frequency and less than the transmitter frequency (21.4 kHz) and right-hand polarized otherwise. Only right-hand polarized waves in the inner radiation belt should exist in the frequency range of the whistler mode and these reversals were not explained in the previous paper. We show, with a combination of observations and simulated wave superposition, that these polarization reversals are due to the beating of an incident electromagnetic whistler mode wave at 21.4 kHz and linearly polarized, symmetric lower hybrid sidebands Doppler-shifted from the incident wave by ±200 Hz. The existence of the lower hybrid waves is consistent with the parametric decay mechanism of Lee and Kuo (1984) whereby an incident whistler mode wave decays into symmetric, short wavelength lower hybrid waves and a purely growing (zero-frequency) mode. Like the lower hybrid waves, the purely growing mode is Doppler-shifted by ˜200 Hz as observed on STEREO. This decay mechanism in the upper ionosphere has been previously reported at equatorial latitudes and is thought to have a direct connection with explosive spread F enhancements. As such it may represent another dissipation mechanism of VLF wave energy in the ionosphere and may help to explain a deficit of observed lightning and transmitter energy in the inner radiation belts as reported by Starks et al. (2008).

  1. Nonlinear Optics: Principles and Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rottwitt, Karsten; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter

    As nonlinear optics further develops as a field of research in electromagnetic wave propagation, its state-of-the-art technologies will continue to strongly impact real-world applications in a variety of fields useful to the practicing scientist and engineer. From basic principles to examples...... of applications, Nonlinear Optics: Principles and Applications effectively bridges physics and mathematics with relevant applied material for real-world use. The book progresses naturally from fundamental aspects to illustrative examples, and presents a strong theoretical foundation that equips the reader...

  2. Topics in nonlinear functional analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Nirenberg, Louis

    2001-01-01

    Since its first appearance as a set of lecture notes published by the Courant Institute in 1974, this book served as an introduction to various subjects in nonlinear functional analysis. The current edition is a reprint of these notes, with added bibliographic references. Topological and analytic methods are developed for treating nonlinear ordinary and partial differential equations. The first two chapters of the book introduce the notion of topological degree and develop its basic properties. These properties are used in later chapters in the discussion of bifurcation theory (the possible br

  3. Nonlinear Multigrid for Reservoir Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Max la Cour; Eskildsen, Klaus Langgren; Engsig-Karup, Allan Peter

    2016-01-01

    modeled after local linearization, leading to a nonlinear multigrid method in the form of the full-approximation scheme (FAS). It is demonstrated through numerical experiments that, without loss of robustness, the FAS method can outperform the conventional techniques in terms of algorithmic and numerical...... efficiency for a black-oil model. Furthermore, the use of the FAS method enables a significant reduction in memory usage compared with conventional techniques, which suggests new possibilities for improved large-scale reservoir simulation and numerical efficiency. Last, nonlinear multilevel preconditioning...

  4. Nonlinear Optics of Hexaphenyl Nanofibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balzer, Frank; Al-Shamery, Katharina; Neuendorf, Rolf

    2003-01-01

    The nonlinear optical response of films of needle-shaped para-hexaphenyl nanoaggregates on mica surfaces is investigated. Two-photon luminescence as well as optical second harmonic generation (SHG) are observed following excitation with femtosecond pulses at 770 nm. Polarization dependent...... measurements reveal that the nonlinear optical transition dipole moment is oriented with an angle of 75° with respect to the needles long axes. The absolute value of the macroscopic second-order susceptibility, averaged over a size distribution of p-6P nanoaggregates, is estimated to be of the order of 6...

  5. Nonlinear waves and weak turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Zakharov, V E

    1997-01-01

    This book is a collection of papers on dynamical and statistical theory of nonlinear wave propagation in dispersive conservative media. Emphasis is on waves on the surface of an ideal fluid and on Rossby waves in the atmosphere. Although the book deals mainly with weakly nonlinear waves, it is more than simply a description of standard perturbation techniques. The goal is to show that the theory of weakly interacting waves is naturally related to such areas of mathematics as Diophantine equations, differential geometry of waves, Poincaré normal forms, and the inverse scattering method.

  6. Periodic waves in nonlinear metamaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Wen-Jun; Xiao, Jing-Hua; Yan, Jie-Yun; Tian, Bo

    2012-01-01

    Periodic waves are presented in this Letter. With symbolic computation, equations for monochromatic waves are studied, and analytic periodic waves are obtained. Factors affecting properties of periodic waves are analyzed. Nonlinear metamaterials, with the continuous distribution of the dielectric permittivity obtained, are different from the ones with the discrete distribution. -- Highlights: ► Equations for the monochromatic waves in transverse magnetic polarization have been studied. ► Analytic periodic waves for the equations have been obtained. ► Periodic waves are theoretically presented and studied in the nonlinear metamaterials.

  7. Field guide to nonlinear optics

    CERN Document Server

    Powers, Peter E

    2013-01-01

    Optomechanics is a field of mechanics that addresses the specific design challenges associated with optical systems. This [i]Field Guide [/i]describes how to mount optical components, as well as how to analyze a given design. It is intended for practicing optical and mechanical engineers whose work requires knowledge in both optics and mechanics. This Field Guide is designed for those looking for a condensed and concise source of key concepts, equations, and techniques for nonlinear optics. Topics covered include technologically important effects, recent developments in nonlinear optics

  8. Stability analysis of nonlinear systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lakshmikantham, Vangipuram; Martynyuk, Anatoly A

    2015-01-01

    The book investigates stability theory in terms of two different measure, exhibiting the advantage of employing families of Lyapunov functions and treats the theory of a variety of inequalities, clearly bringing out the underlying theme. It also demonstrates manifestations of the general Lyapunov method, showing how this technique can be adapted to various apparently diverse nonlinear problems. Furthermore it discusses the application of theoretical results to several different models chosen from real world phenomena, furnishing data that is particularly relevant for practitioners. Stability Analysis of Nonlinear Systems is an invaluable single-sourse reference for industrial and applied mathematicians, statisticians, engineers, researchers in the applied sciences, and graduate students studying differential equations.

  9. Nonlinear Control of Heartbeat Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witt Thanom

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel application of nonlinear control theory to heartbeat models. Existing heartbeat models are investigated and modified by incorporating the control input as a pacemaker to provide the control channel. A nonlinear feedback linearization technique is applied to force the output of the systems to generate artificial electrocardiogram (ECG signal using discrete data as the reference inputs. The synthetic ECG may serve as a flexible signal source to assess the effectiveness of a diagnostic ECG signal-processing device.

  10. Nonlinearity and nonclassicality in a nanomechanical resonator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teklu, Berihu [Clermont Universite, Blaise Pascal University, CNRS, PHOTON-N2, Institut Pascal, Aubiere Cedex (France); Universita degli Studi di Milano, Dipartimento di Fisica, Milano (Italy); Ferraro, Alessandro; Paternostro, Mauro [Queen' s University, Centre for Theoretical Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics, School of Mathematics and Physics, Belfast (United Kingdom); Paris, Matteo G.A. [Universita degli Studi di Milano, Dipartimento di Fisica, Milano (Italy)

    2015-12-15

    We address quantitatively the relationship between the nonlinearity of a mechanical resonator and the nonclassicality of its ground state. In particular, we analyze the nonclassical properties of the nonlinear Duffing oscillator (being driven or not) as a paradigmatic example of a nonlinear nanomechanical resonator. We first discuss how to quantify the nonlinearity of this system and then show that the nonclassicality of the ground state, as measured by the volume occupied by the negative part of the Wigner function, monotonically increases with the nonlinearity in all the working regimes addressed in our study. Our results show quantitatively that nonlinearity is a resource to create nonclassical states in mechanical systems. (orig.)

  11. Topology optimization of nonlinear optical devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard

    2011-01-01

    This paper considers the design of nonlinear photonic devices. The nonlinearity stems from a nonlinear material model with a permittivity that depends on the local time-averaged intensity of the electric field. A finite element model is developed for time-harmonic wave propagation and an incremen......This paper considers the design of nonlinear photonic devices. The nonlinearity stems from a nonlinear material model with a permittivity that depends on the local time-averaged intensity of the electric field. A finite element model is developed for time-harmonic wave propagation...

  12. Traveling wave solutions and conservation laws for nonlinear evolution equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baleanu, Dumitru; Inc, Mustafa; Yusuf, Abdullahi; Aliyu, Aliyu Isa

    2018-02-01

    In this work, the Riccati-Bernoulli sub-ordinary differential equation and modified tanh-coth methods are used to reach soliton solutions of the nonlinear evolution equation. We acquire new types of traveling wave solutions for the governing equation. We show that the equation is nonlinear self-adjoint by obtaining suitable substitution. Therefore, we construct conservation laws for the equation using new conservation theorem. The obtained solutions in this work may be used to explain and understand the physical nature of the wave spreads in the most dispersive medium. The constraint condition for the existence of solitons is stated. Some three dimensional figures for some of the acquired results are illustrated.

  13. Information theory and stochastics for multiscale nonlinear systems

    CERN Document Server

    Majda, Andrew J; Grote, Marcus J

    2005-01-01

    This book introduces mathematicians to the fascinating emerging mathematical interplay between ideas from stochastics and information theory and important practical issues in studying complex multiscale nonlinear systems. It emphasizes the serendipity between modern applied mathematics and applications where rigorous analysis, the development of qualitative and/or asymptotic models, and numerical modeling all interact to explain complex phenomena. After a brief introduction to the emerging issues in multiscale modeling, the book has three main chapters. The first chapter is an introduction to information theory with novel applications to statistical mechanics, predictability, and Jupiter's Red Spot for geophysical flows. The second chapter discusses new mathematical issues regarding fluctuation-dissipation theorems for complex nonlinear systems including information flow, various approximations, and illustrates applications to various mathematical models. The third chapter discusses stochastic modeling of com...

  14. Explaining Polarization Reversals in STEREO Wave Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breneman, A.; Cattell, C.; Wygant, J.; Kersten, K.; Wilson, L, B., III; Dai, L.; Colpitts, C.; Kellogg, P. J.; Goetz, K.; Paradise, A.

    2012-01-01

    Recently Breneman et al. reported observations of large amplitude lightning and transmitter whistler mode waves from two STEREO passes through the inner radiation belt (Lpaper. We show, with a combination of observations and simulated wave superposition, that these polarization reversals are due to the beating of an incident electromagnetic whistler mode wave at 21.4 kHz and linearly polarized, symmetric lower hybrid sidebands Doppler-shifted from the incident wave by +/-200 Hz. The existence of the lower hybrid waves is consistent with the parametric decay mechanism of Lee and Kuo whereby an incident whistler mode wave decays into symmetric, short wavelength lower hybrid waves and a purely growing (zero-frequency) mode. Like the lower hybrid waves, the purely growing mode is Doppler-shifted by 200 Hz as observed on STEREO. This decay mechanism in the upper ionosphere has been previously reported at equatorial latitudes and is thought to have a direct connection with explosive spread F enhancements. As such it may represent another dissipation mechanism of VLF wave energy in the ionosphere and may help to explain a deficit of observed lightning and transmitter energy in the inner radiation belts as reported by Starks et al.

  15. Explaining Global Secularity: Existential Security or Education?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude M. J. Braun

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available At the time of data analysis for this report there were 193 countries in the world. Various institutions – the United Nations, the World Health Organization, the CIA, the World Values Survey, Gallup, and many others – have performed sophisticated statistical analyses on cross-national data. The present investigation demonstrates that valid and reliable data concerning religiosity and secularity exist for most countries and that these data are comparable. Cross-national data relating to social, political, economic and cultural aspects of life were tested for correlation with religiosity/secularity. In contrast to the most widely accepted general account of secularity, the Existential Security Framework (ESF; Norris & Inglehart, 2004, secularity was not most highly related to material security, though these were highly related. Rather, secularity was most strongly related to the degree of formal education attained. Material security explained no significant variance beyond education. Thus, religion’s primary function in the world today is being replaced, not so much by the pseudo-materialistic supplication for better living conditions as posited by the ESF, but by contemporary education – extensive knowledge of contemporary cultures, philosophy, modes of thought or processes of reasoning.

  16. Explaining Change in Language: A Cybersemiotic Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Danesi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the greatest conundrums in semiotics and linguistics is explaining why change occurs in communication systems. The descriptive apparatus of how change occurs has been developed in great detail since at least the nineteenth century, but a viable explanatory framework of why it occurs in the first place still seems to be clouded in vagueness. So far, only the so-called Principle of Least Effort has come forward to provide a suggestive psychobiological framework for understanding change in communication codes such as language. Extensive work in using this model has shown many fascinating things about language structure and how it evolves. However, the many findings need an integrative framework for shedding light on any generalities implicit in them. This paper argues that a new approach to the study of codes, called cybersemiotics, can be used to great advantage for assessing theoretical frameworks and notions such as the Principle of Least Effort. Amalgamating cybernetic and biosemiotic notions, this new science provides analysts with valuable insights on the raison d’être of phenomena such as linguistic change.

  17. Dark matter "transporting" mechanism explaining positron excesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Doojin; Park, Jong-Chul; Shin, Seodong

    2018-04-01

    We propose a novel mechanism to explain the positron excesses, which are observed by satellite-based telescopes including PAMELA and AMS-02, in dark matter (DM) scenarios. The novelty behind the proposal is that it makes direct use of DM around the Galactic Center where DM populates most densely, allowing us to avoid tensions from cosmological and astrophysical measurements. The key ingredients of this mechanism include DM annihilation into unstable states with a very long laboratory-frame life time and their "retarded" decay near the Earth to electron-positron pair(s) possibly with other (in)visible particles. We argue that this sort of explanation is not in conflict with relevant constraints from big bang nucleosynthesis and cosmic microwave background. Regarding the resultant positron spectrum, we provide a generalized source term in the associated diffusion equation, which can be readily applicable to any type of two-"stage" DM scenarios wherein production of Standard Model particles occurs at completely different places from those of DM annihilation. We then conduct a data analysis with the recent AMS-02 data to validate our proposal.

  18. Statistical methods in nonlinear dynamics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sensitivity to initial conditions in nonlinear dynamical systems leads to exponential divergence of trajectories that are initially arbitrarily close, and hence to unpredictability. Statistical methods have been found to be helpful in extracting useful information about such systems. In this paper, we review briefly some statistical ...

  19. Oscillating solitons in nonlinear optics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... are derived, and the relevant properties and features of oscillating solitons are illustrated. Oscillating solitons are controlled by the reciprocal of the group velocity and Kerr nonlinearity. Results of this paper will be valuable to the study of dispersion-managed optical communication system and mode-locked fibre lasers.

  20. Nonlinear smoothing for random fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aihara, ShinIchi; Bagchi, Arunabha

    1995-01-01

    Stochastic nonlinear elliptic partial differential equations with white noise disturbances are studied in the countably additive measure set up. Introducing the Onsager-Machlup function to the system model, the smoothing problem for maximizing the modified likelihood functional is solved and the

  1. Dynamical Imaging using Spatial Nonlinearity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-29

    Wan, J.W. Fleischer, Imaging through nonlinear media using digital holography , Nat Photonics, 3 (2009) 211-215. [18] W. Wan, S. Jia, J.W. Fleischer...Bones, M.A. Fiddy, R.P. Millane (Eds.) Optical Science and Technology , the SPIE 49th Annual Meeting, SPIE, 2004, pp. 58-64. [32] P.J. Bardroff, U

  2. Impurity solitons with quadratic nonlinearities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Carl A. Balslev; Torres, Juan P-; Torner, Lluis

    1998-01-01

    We fmd families of solitary waves mediated by parametric mixing in quadratic nonlinear media that are localized at point-defect impurities. Solitons localized at attractive impurities are found to be dynamically stable. It is shown that localization at the impurity modifies strongly the soliton...

  3. Nonlinear Filtering in High Dimension

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-02

    work of Handschin and Mayne in 1969 [30]. The idea behind the SIS algorithm is to apply the self-normalized im- portance sampling paradigm introduced...Springer, Berlin, 2003. [30] J. E. Handschin and D. Q. Mayne . Monte Carlo techniques to estimate the conditional expectation in multi-stage non-linear

  4. Nonlinear Markov processes: Deterministic case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, T.D.

    2008-01-01

    Deterministic Markov processes that exhibit nonlinear transition mechanisms for probability densities are studied. In this context, the following issues are addressed: Markov property, conditional probability densities, propagation of probability densities, multistability in terms of multiple stationary distributions, stability analysis of stationary distributions, and basin of attraction of stationary distribution

  5. Analysis of Nonlinear Dynamic Structures

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bheema

    work a two degrees of freedom nonlinear system with zero memory was simulated, modeled and analyzed to show ... polynomial stiffness and damping, clearance, impacts, friction and saturation effect (Worden and. Tomlinson ..... one frequency as shown for the regions of green and red colors or around the tip of the curved.

  6. A perspective on nonlinear dynamics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The study of nonlinear dynamical systems has been an active area of research for over twenty five years now. Well after the initial upsurge of interest caused by the seminal works in the 1960s and 70s – associated with the names of Lorenz, Gardner,. Greene, Kruskal and Miura, Kolmogorov, Arnold and Moser, Ruelle and ...

  7. Halo Mitigation Using Nonlinear Lattices

    CERN Document Server

    Sonnad, Kiran G

    2005-01-01

    This work shows that halos in beams with space charge effects can be controlled by combining nonlinear focusing and collimation. The study relies on Particle-in-Cell (PIC) simulations for a one dimensional, continuous focusing model. The PIC simulation results show that nonlinear focusing leads to damping of the beam oscillations thereby reducing the mismatch. It is well established that reduced mismatch leads to reduced halo formation. However, the nonlinear damping is accompanied by emittance growth causing the beam to spread in phase space. As a result, inducing nonlinear damping alone cannot help mitigate the halo. To compensate for this expansion in phase space, the beam is collimated in the simulation and further evolution of the beam shows that the halo is not regenerated. The focusing model used in the PIC is analysed using the Lie Transform perturbation theory showing that by averaging over a lattice period, one can reuduce the focusing force to a form that is identical to that used in the PIC simula...

  8. Nonlinear compression of optical solitons

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    pulse area can be conserved by the inclusion of gain (or loss) and phase modulation effects. Keywords. Optical solitons; bright and dark solitons; nonlinear compression; phase modulation; fibre amplification; loss. PACS Nos 42.81. Dp; 02.30 Jr; 04.30 Nk. 1. Introduction. The term soliton refers to special kinds of waves that ...

  9. Nonlinear simulation of meander evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, D.; Zhang, Y.; Ottevanger, W.; Blanckaert, K.; Leilei, G.

    2012-01-01

    Evolution of meanders, a complex morpho-dynamic process, has been the focus of research challenging river engineers for decades. The study replicates the natural evolution of meandering processes by coupling the Bank Erosion and Retreat Model (BERM, by Chen and Duan) with a nonlinear flow model (by

  10. Observation of Nonlinear Compton Scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotseroglou, T.

    2003-12-19

    This experiment tests Quantum Electrodynamics in the strong field regime. Nonlinear Compton scattering has been observed during the interaction of a 46.6 GeV electron beam with a 10{sup 18} W/cm{sup 2} laser beam. The strength of the field achieved was measured by the parameter {eta} = e{var_epsilon}{sub rms}/{omega}mc = 0.6. Data were collected with infrared and green laser photons and circularly polarized laser light. The timing stabilization achieved between the picosecond laser and electron pulses has {sigma}{sub rms} = 2 ps. A strong signal of electrons that absorbed up to 4 infrared photons (or up to 3 green photons) at the same point in space and time, while emitting a single gamma ray, was observed. The energy spectra of the scattered electrons and the nonlinear dependence of the electron yield on the field strength agreed with the simulation over 3 orders of magnitude. The detector could not resolve the nonlinear Compton scattering from the multiple single Compton scattering which produced rates of scattered electrons of the same order of magnitude. Nevertheless, a simulation has studied this difference and concluded that the scattered electron rates observed could not be accounted for only by multiple ordinary Compton scattering; nonlinear Compton scattering processes are dominant for n {ge} 3.

  11. Nonlinear Dynamics of Nanomechanical Resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Subramanian; Gulak, Yuiry; Sundaram, Bala; Benaroya, Haym

    2007-03-01

    Nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS) offer great promise for many applications including motion and mass sensing. Recent experimental results suggest the importance of nonlinear effects in NEMS, an issue which has not been addressed fully in theory. We report on a nonlinear extension of a recent analytical model by Armour et al [1] for the dynamics of a single-electron transistor (SET) coupled to a nanomechanical resonator. We consider the nonlinear resonator motion in both (a) the Duffing and (b) nonlinear pendulum regimes. The corresponding master equations are derived and solved numerically and we consider moment approximations as well. In the Duffing case with hardening stiffness, we observe that the resonator is damped by the SET at a significantly higher rate. In the cases of softening stiffness and the pendulum, there exist regimes where the SET adds energy to the resonator. To our knowledge, this is the first instance of a single model displaying both negative and positive resonator damping in different dynamical regimes. The implications of the results for SET sensitivity as well as for, as yet unexplained, experimental results will be discussed. 1. Armour et al. Phys.Rev.B (69) 125313 (2004).

  12. Non-Linear Mixed Logit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Harrison, Glenn W.; Hole, Arne Risa

    2012-01-01

    We develop an extension of the familiar linear mixed logit model to allow for the direct estimation of parametric non-linear functions defined over structural parameters. Classic applications include the estimation of coefficients of utility functions to characterize risk attitudes and discounting...

  13. Nonlinear dynamics: Challenges and perspectives

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Tiruchirapalli 620 024, India. E-mail: lakshman@cnld.bdu.ac.in. Abstract. The study of nonlinear dynamics has been an active area of research since. 1960s, after certain path-breaking discoveries, leading to the concepts of solitons, inte- grability, bifurcations, chaos and spatio-temporal patterns, to name a few. Several new.

  14. Nonlinear theory of drift instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatori, T.

    1981-01-01

    In this chapter, we review recent works on the analytical and numerical analysis for the nonlinear evolution of drift instabilities. Only the case of a coherent wave is considered. Contributions to the turbulence theory for drift instabilities are already presented in Chapter 4. (author)

  15. Visual Aftereffects and Sensory Nonlinearities from a single Statistical Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valero eLaparra

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available When adapted to a particular scenery our senses may fool us: colors are misinterpreted, certain spatial patterns seem to fade out, and static objects appear to move in reverse. A mere empirical description of the mechanisms tuned to color, texture and motion may tell us where these visual illusions come from. However such empirical models of gain control do not explain why these mechanisms work in this apparently dysfunctional manner.Current normative explanations of aftereffects based on scene statistics derive gain changes by (1 invoking decorrelation and linear manifold matching/equalization, or (2 using nonlinear divisive normalization obtained from parametric scene models. These principled approaches have different drawbacks: the first is not compatible with the known saturation nonlinearities in the sensors and it cannot fully accomplish information maximization due to its linear nature. In the second, gain change is almost determined a priori by the assumed parametric image model linked to divisive normalization.In this study we show that both the response changes that lead to aftereffects and the nonlinear behavior can be simultaneously derived from a single statistical framework: the Sequential Principal Curves Analysis (SPCA. As opposed to mechanistic models, SPCA is not intended to describe how physiological sensors work, but it is focused on explaining why they behave as they do. Nonparametric SPCA has two key advantages as a normative model of adaptation: (i it is better than linear techniques as it is a flexible equalization that can be tuned for more sensible criteria other than plain decorrelation (either full information maximization or error minimization; and (ii it makes no a priori functional assumption regarding the nonlinearity, so the saturations emerge directly from the scene data and the goal (and not from the assumed function. It turns out that the optimal responses derived from these more sensible criteria and SPCA are

  16. Nonlinear laser-plasma interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaw, P. K.

    2017-12-01

    Soon after lasers were invented, there was tremendous curiosity on the nonlinear phenomena which would result in their interaction with a fully ionized plasma. Apart from the basic interest, it was realized that it could be used for the achievement of nuclear fusion in the laboratory. This led us to a paper on the propagation of a laser beam into an inhomogeneous fusion plasma, where it was first demonstrated that light would go up to the critical layer (where the frequency matches the plasma frequency) and get reflected from there with a reflection coefficient of order unity. The reflection coefficient was determined by collisional effects. Since the wave was expected to slow down to near zero group speed at the reflection point, the dominant collision frequency determining the reflection coefficient was the collision frequency at the reflection point. It turned out that the absorption of light was rather small for fusion temperatures. This placed a premium on investigation of nonlinear phenomena which might contribute to the absorption and penetration of the light into high-density plasma. An early investigation showed that electron jitter with respect to ions would be responsible for the excitation of decay instabilities which convert light waves into electrostatic plasma waves and ion waves near the critical frequency. These electrostatic waves would then get absorbed into the plasma even in the collisionless case and lead to plasma heating which is nonlinear. Detailed estimates of this heating were made. Similar nonlinear processes which could lead to stimulated scattering of light in the underdense region (ω >ω _p) were investigated together with a number of other workers. All these nonlinear processes need a critical threshold power for excitation. Another important process which was discovered around the same time had to do with filamentation and trapping of light when certain thresholds were exceeded. All of this work has been extensively verified in

  17. Hamiltonian Realizations of Nonlinear Adjoint Operators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fujimoto, Kenji; Scherpen, Jacquelien M.A.; Gray, W. Steven

    2000-01-01

    This paper addresses state-space realizations for nonlinear adjoint operators. In particular the relationship among nonlinear Hilbert adjoint operators, Hamiltonian extensions and port-controlled Hamiltonian systems are clarified. The characterization of controllability, observability and Hankel

  18. International Conference on Applications in Nonlinear Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Longhini, Patrick; Palacios, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    This book presents collaborative research works carried out by experimentalists and theorists around the world in the field of nonlinear dynamical systems. It provides a forum for applications of nonlinear systems while solving practical problems in science and engineering. Topics include: Applied Nonlinear Optics, Sensor, Radar & Communication Signal Processing, Nano Devices, Nonlinear Biomedical Applications, Circuits & Systems, Coupled Nonlinear Oscillator, Precision Timing Devices, Networks, and other contemporary topics in the general field of Nonlinear Science. This book provides a comprehensive report of the various research projects presented at the International Conference on Applications in Nonlinear Dynamics (ICAND 2016) held in Denver, Colorado, 2016. It can be a valuable tool for scientists and engineering interested in connecting ideas and methods in nonlinear dynamics with actual design, fabrication and implementation of engineering applications or devices.

  19. Nonlinear dynamics between linear and impact limits

    CERN Document Server

    Pilipchuk, Valery N; Wriggers, Peter

    2010-01-01

    This book examines nonlinear dynamic analyses based on the existence of strongly nonlinear but simple counterparts to the linear models and tools. Discusses possible application to periodic elastic structures with non-smooth or discontinuous characteristics.

  20. Interpreting and Understanding Logits, Probits, and other Non-Linear Probability Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breen, Richard; Karlson, Kristian Bernt; Holm, Anders

    2018-01-01

    guidelines take little or no account of a body of work that, over the past 30 years, has pointed to problematic aspects of these nonlinear probability models and, particularly, to difficulties in interpreting their parameters. In this chapterreview, we draw on that literature to explain the problems, show...

  1. A geometric criterion for the stability of forced oscillations in non-linear mechanics (1961)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaquiere, A.

    1961-01-01

    The author completes the two-parameter diagram theory which he has previously explained, by giving a geometric criterion of stability for a non-linear system under forced conditions. After two simple geometric transformations of the diagram he obtains the separators which are the boundary conditions for the zones of stability. (author) [fr

  2. Explaining clinical behaviors using multiple theoretical models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eccles, Martin P; Grimshaw, Jeremy M; MacLennan, Graeme; Bonetti, Debbie; Glidewell, Liz; Pitts, Nigel B; Steen, Nick; Thomas, Ruth; Walker, Anne; Johnston, Marie

    2012-10-17

    In the field of implementation research, there is an increased interest in use of theory when designing implementation research studies involving behavior change. In 2003, we initiated a series of five studies to establish a scientific rationale for interventions to translate research findings into clinical practice by exploring the performance of a number of different, commonly used, overlapping behavioral theories and models. We reflect on the strengths and weaknesses of the methods, the performance of the theories, and consider where these methods sit alongside the range of methods for studying healthcare professional behavior change. These were five studies of the theory-based cognitions and clinical behaviors (taking dental radiographs, performing dental restorations, placing fissure sealants, managing upper respiratory tract infections without prescribing antibiotics, managing low back pain without ordering lumbar spine x-rays) of random samples of primary care dentists and physicians. Measures were derived for the explanatory theoretical constructs in the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), Social Cognitive Theory (SCT), and Illness Representations specified by the Common Sense Self Regulation Model (CSSRM). We constructed self-report measures of two constructs from Learning Theory (LT), a measure of Implementation Intentions (II), and the Precaution Adoption Process. We collected data on theory-based cognitions (explanatory measures) and two interim outcome measures (stated behavioral intention and simulated behavior) by postal questionnaire survey during the 12-month period to which objective measures of behavior (collected from routine administrative sources) were related. Planned analyses explored the predictive value of theories in explaining variance in intention, behavioral simulation and behavior. Response rates across the five surveys ranged from 21% to 48%; we achieved the target sample size for three of the five surveys. For the predictor variables

  3. Explaining clinical behaviors using multiple theoretical models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eccles Martin P

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the field of implementation research, there is an increased interest in use of theory when designing implementation research studies involving behavior change. In 2003, we initiated a series of five studies to establish a scientific rationale for interventions to translate research findings into clinical practice by exploring the performance of a number of different, commonly used, overlapping behavioral theories and models. We reflect on the strengths and weaknesses of the methods, the performance of the theories, and consider where these methods sit alongside the range of methods for studying healthcare professional behavior change. Methods These were five studies of the theory-based cognitions and clinical behaviors (taking dental radiographs, performing dental restorations, placing fissure sealants, managing upper respiratory tract infections without prescribing antibiotics, managing low back pain without ordering lumbar spine x-rays of random samples of primary care dentists and physicians. Measures were derived for the explanatory theoretical constructs in the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB, Social Cognitive Theory (SCT, and Illness Representations specified by the Common Sense Self Regulation Model (CSSRM. We constructed self-report measures of two constructs from Learning Theory (LT, a measure of Implementation Intentions (II, and the Precaution Adoption Process. We collected data on theory-based cognitions (explanatory measures and two interim outcome measures (stated behavioral intention and simulated behavior by postal questionnaire survey during the 12-month period to which objective measures of behavior (collected from routine administrative sources were related. Planned analyses explored the predictive value of theories in explaining variance in intention, behavioral simulation and behavior. Results Response rates across the five surveys ranged from 21% to 48%; we achieved the target sample size for three of

  4. Analytical and numerical investigation of nonlinear internal gravity waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Kshevetskii

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The propagation of long, weakly nonlinear internal waves in a stratified gas is studied. Hydrodynamic equations for an ideal fluid with the perfect gas law describe the atmospheric gas behaviour. If we neglect the term Ͽ dw/dt (product of the density and vertical acceleration, we come to a so-called quasistatic model, while we name the full hydro-dynamic model as a nonquasistatic one. Both quasistatic and nonquasistatic models are used for wave simulation and the models are compared among themselves. It is shown that a smooth classical solution of a nonlinear quasistatic problem does not exist for all t because a gradient catastrophe of non-linear internal waves occurs. To overcome this difficulty, we search for the solution of the quasistatic problem in terms of a generalised function theory as a limit of special regularised equations containing some additional dissipation term when the dissipation factor vanishes. It is shown that such solutions of the quasistatic problem qualitatively differ from solutions of a nonquasistatic nature. It is explained by the fact that in a nonquasistatic model the vertical acceleration term plays the role of a regularizator with respect to a quasistatic model, while the solution qualitatively depends on the regularizator used. The numerical models are compared with some analytical results. Within the framework of the analytical model, any internal wave is described as a system of wave modes; each wave mode interacts with others due to equation non-linearity. In the principal order of a perturbation theory, each wave mode is described by some equation of a KdV type. The analytical model reveals that, in a nonquasistatic model, an internal wave should disintegrate into solitons. The time of wave disintegration into solitons, the scales and amount of solitons generated are important characteristics of the non-linear process; they are found with the help of analytical and numerical investigations. Satisfactory

  5. Explaining Counterfeit Alcohol Purchases in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotelnikova, Zoya

    2017-04-01

    of surrogate alcohol (i.e., nonbeverage) are more influential in explaining why people purchase counterfeit alcohol. Further research on these 2 factors is needed to more fully understand the purchase and consumption of counterfeit alcoholic beverages. Copyright © 2017 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  6. Explaining G20 and BRICS Compliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Larionova

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the internal and external factors influencing the compliance performance of the Group of 20 (G20 and the BRICS. The authors start with an overview of the G20 and BRICS compliance patterns using comparative data onthe number of commitments made by the two institutions, the level of institutional compliance, and distribution of commitments and compliance across issue areas. G20 compliance is traced since the leaders’ first 2008 summit in Washington. The BRICS compliance performance record includes data since the third stand alone summit in Sanya in 2011.The study then takes stock of compliance catalysts embedded in the summits’ discourse: priority placements, numerical targets, timelines, self-accountability pledges and mandates to implement and/or monitor implementation. The authors review trends in the use of catalysts in different years and issue areas and identify commonalities and differences.The analysis then turns to external causes of compliance and focuses on demand for collective actions and members’ collective power to respond and deliver on their pledges. Here the study explores whether the self-accountability mechanisms created by the institutions in response to the demand for effectiveness and legitimacy facilitate compliance.The article concludes by highlighting catalysts, causes of compliance and their combinations with the greatest power to encourage implementation, explaining trends in G20 and BRICS compliance performance. The data sets on G20 and BRICS differ in terms of scale. The G20 data set contains 1,511 commitments of which 114 have been monitored, and the BRICS data set contains 231 commitments of which 23 have been monitored.

  7. Characteristics explaining performance in downhill mountain biking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidley, Joel B; MacGregor, Alexandra L; Martin, Caoimhe; Arthur, Calum A; Macdonald, Jamie H

    2015-03-01

    To identify physiological, psychological, and skill characteristics that explain performance in downhill (DH) mountain-bike racing. Four studies were used to (1) identify factors potentially contributing to DH performance (using an expert focus group), (2) develop and validate a measure of rider skill (using video analysis and expert judge evaluation), (3) evaluate whether physiological, psychological, and skill variables contribute to performance at a DH competition, and (4) test the specific contribution of aerobic capacity to DH performance. STUDY 1 identified aerobic capacity, handgrip endurance, anaerobic power, rider skill, and self-confidence as potentially important for DH. In study 2 the rider-skill measure displayed good interrater reliability. Study 3 found that rider skill and handgrip endurance were significantly related to DH ride time (β=-0.76 and -0.14, respectively; R2=.73), with exploratory analyses suggesting that DH ride time may also be influenced by self-confidence and aerobic capacity. Study 4 confirmed aerobic capacity as an important variable influencing DH performance (for a DH ride, mean oxygen uptake was 49±5 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1), and 90% of the ride was completed above the 1st ventilatory threshold). In order of importance, rider skill, handgrip endurance, self-confidence, and aerobic capacity were identified as variables influencing DH performance. Practically, this study provides a novel assessment of rider skill that could be used by coaches to monitor training and identify talent. Novel intervention targets to enhance DH performance were also identified, including self-confidence and aerobic capacity.

  8. Explaining the gender gap in sickness absence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Østby, K A; Mykletun, A; Nilsen, W

    2018-04-17

    In many western countries, women have a much higher rate of sickness absence than men. To what degree the gender differences in sickness absence are caused by gender differences in health is largely unknown. To assess to what degree the gender gap in sickness absence can be explained by health factors and work- and family-related stressors. Norwegian parents participating in the Tracking Opportunities and Problems (TOPP) study were asked about sickness absence and a range of factors possibly contributing to gender differences in sickness absence, including somatic and mental health, sleep problems, job control/demands, work-home conflicts, parent-child conflicts and stressful life events. Using a cross-sectional design, we did linear regression analyses, to assess the relative contribution from health and stressors. There were 557 study participants. Adjusting for health factors reduced the gender difference in sickness absence by 24%, while adjusting for stressors in the family and at work reduced the difference by 22%. A simultaneous adjustment for health factors and stressors reduced the difference in sickness absence by about 28%. Despite adjusting for a large number of factors, including both previously well-studied factors (e.g. health, job control/demands) and lesser-studied factors (parent-child conflict and sexual assault), this study found that most of the gender gap in sickness absence remains unexplained. Gender differences in health and stressors account for only part of the differences in sickness absence. Other factors must, therefore, exist outside the domains of health, work and family stressors.

  9. Nonlinear Whistler Wave Physics in the Radiation Belts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crabtree, Chris

    2016-10-01

    Wave particle interactions between electrons and whistler waves are a dominant mechanism for controlling the dynamics of energetic electrons in the radiation belts. They are responsible for loss, via pitch-angle scattering of electrons into the loss cone, and energization to millions of electron volts. It has previously been theorized that large amplitude waves on the whistler branch may scatter their wave-vector nonlinearly via nonlinear Landau damping leading to important consequences for the global distribution of whistler wave energy density and hence the energetic electrons. It can dramatically reduce the lifetime of energetic electrons in the radiation belts by increasing the pitch angle scattering rate. The fundamental building block of this theory has now been confirmed through laboratory experiments. Here we report on in situ observations of wave electro-magnetic fields from the EMFISIS instrument on board NASA's Van Allen Probes that show the signatures of nonlinear scattering of whistler waves in the inner radiation belts. In the outer radiation belts, whistler mode chorus is believed to be responsible for the energization of electrons from 10s of Kev to MeV energies. Chorus is characterized by bursty large amplitude whistler mode waves with frequencies that change as a function of time on timescales corresponding to their growth. Theories explaining the chirping have been developed for decades based on electron trapping dynamics in a coherent wave. New high time resolution wave data from the Van Allen probes and advanced spectral techniques are revealing that the wave dynamics is highly structured, with sub-elements consisting of multiple chirping waves with discrete frequency hops between sub-elements. Laboratory experiments with energetic electron beams are currently reproducing the complex frequency vs time dynamics of whistler waves and in addition revealing signatures of wave-wave and beat-wave nonlinear wave-particle interactions. These new data

  10. Development of non-linear vibration analysis code for CANDU fuelling machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Hajime; Hirai, Takeshi; Horikoshi, Kiyomi; Mizukoshi, Kaoru; Takenaka, Yasuo; Suzuki, Norio.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a non-linear, dynamic analysis code for the CANDU 600 fuelling machine (F-M), which includes a number of non-linearities such as gap with or without Coulomb friction, special multi-linear spring connections, etc. The capabilities and features of the code and the mathematical treatment for the non-linearities are explained. The modeling and numerical methodology for the non-linearities employed in the code are verified experimentally. Finally, the simulation analyses for the full-scale F-M vibration testing are carried out, and the applicability of the code to such multi-degree of freedom systems as F-M is demonstrated. (author)

  11. Nonlinear Snell law for grazing incidence along interfaces with discontinuous second-order susceptibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaohui; Zheng, Yuanlin; Ren, Huaijin; An, Ning; Deng, Xuewei; Chen, Xianfeng

    2017-04-01

    In this article, we demonstrate that the angles at which second-harmonic (SH) waves are generated at ferroelectric domain walls satisfy the Snell law for nonlinear media. Nonlinear reflection and refraction are observed experimentally and the relation is found to be in good agreement with theoretical predictions. The ratio of the intensities of refracted and reflected waves has been measured. Under an anomalous-dispersion-like condition, the forbidden nonlinear reflection and refraction is analyzed and found to have a behavior similar to that of the total internal reflection in linear optics. In the periodic domain structure, the coherent superposition of SH waves has been observed, on the basis of which we have proposed a comprehensive theory to explain nonlinear effects in multilayered structures.

  12. Stabilization of nonlinear system using uniform eigenvalue assignment in linear model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siahaan, Sahat P.; Pangaribuan, Timbang

    2017-09-01

    Some plant in control system has nonlinear dynamic, so it is not easy to do in analysis to see its behavior using eigenstructure assignment. From many observations which have been made, some literature give methods to design nonlinear control system. The modern control theory uses state-space method to explain the behaviour on stability of a plant. To improve the stability of the closed-loop system, designer commonly use the state feedback control law. For the case inverted pendulum plant with the nonlinear dynamics, its need to perform the nonlinear control law with the concepts of modern control theory to satisfy the closed-loop system characteristic, and all the behaviour of the closed-loop system only determined from the given linear pole specifications.

  13. Nonlinear optical absorption and stimulated Mie scattering in metallic nanoparticle suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Guang S; Law, Wing-Cheung; Baev, Alexander; Liu, Sha; Swihart, Mark T; Prasad, Paras N

    2013-01-14

    The nonlinear optical properties of four metallic (Au-, Au/Ag-, Ag-, and Pt-) nanoparticle suspensions in toluene have been studied in both femtosecond and nanosecond regimes. Nonlinear transmission measurements in the femtosecond laser regime revealed two-photon absorption (2PA) induced nonlinear attenuation, while in the nanosecond laser regime a stronger nonlinear attenuation is due to both 2PA and 2PA-induced excited-state absorption. In the nanosecond regime, at input pump laser intensities above a certain threshold value, a new type of stimulated (Mie) scattering has been observed. Being essentially different from all other well known molecular (Raman, Brillouin) stimulated scattering effects, the newly observed stimulated Mie scattering from the metallic nanoparticles exhibits the features of no frequency shift and low pump threshold requirement. A physical model of induced Bragg grating initiated by the backward Mie scattering from metallic nanoparticles is proposed to explain the gain mechanism of the observed stimulated scattering effect.

  14. Nonlinear diffraction from a virtual beam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saltiel, Solomon M.; Neshev, Dragomir N.; Krolikowski, Wieslaw

    2010-01-01

    We observe experimentally a novel type of nonlinear diffraction in the process of two-wave mixing on a nonlinear quadratic grating.We demonstrate that when the nonlinear grating is illuminated simultaneously by two noncollinear beams, a second-harmonic diffraction pattern is generated by a virtual...... beam propagating along the bisector of the two pump beams. The observed iffraction phenomena is a purely nonlinear effect that has no analogue in linear diffraction...

  15. Nonlinear waves in solar plasmas - a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballai, I

    2006-01-01

    Nonlinearity is a direct consequence of large scale dynamics in the solar plasmas. When nonlinear steepening of waves is balanced by dispersion, solitary waves are generated. In the vicinity of resonances, waves can steepen into nonlinear waves influencing the efficiency of energy deposition. Here we review recent theoretical breakthroughs that have lead to a greater understanding of many aspects of nonlinear waves arising in homogeneous and inhomogeneous solar plasmas

  16. Nonlinear Michelson interferometer for improved quantum metrology

    OpenAIRE

    Luis, Alfredo; Rivas, Ángel

    2015-01-01

    We examine quantum detection via a Michelson interferometer embedded in a gas with Kerr nonlinearity. This nonlinear interferometer is illuminated by pulses of classical light. This strategy combines the robustness against practical imperfections of classical light with the improvement provided by nonlinear processes. Regarding ultimate quantum limits, we stress that, as a difference with linear schemes, the nonlinearity introduces pulse duration as a new variable into play along with the ene...

  17. Explaining pathological changes in axonal excitability through dynamical analysis of conductance-based models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coggan, Jay S.; Ocker, Gabriel K.; Sejnowski, Terrence J.; Prescott, Steven A.

    2011-10-01

    Neurons rely on action potentials, or spikes, to relay information. Pathological changes in spike generation likely contribute to certain enigmatic features of neurological disease, like paroxysmal attacks of pain and muscle spasm. Paroxysmal symptoms are characterized by abrupt onset and short duration, and are associated with abnormal spiking although the exact pathophysiology remains unclear. To help decipher the biophysical basis for 'paroxysmal' spiking, we replicated afterdischarge (i.e. continued spiking after a brief stimulus) in a minimal conductance-based axon model. We then applied nonlinear dynamical analysis to explain the dynamical basis for initiation and termination of afterdischarge. A perturbation could abruptly switch the system between two (quasi-)stable attractor states: rest and repetitive spiking. This bistability was a consequence of slow positive feedback mediated by persistent inward current. Initiation of afterdischarge was explained by activation of the persistent inward current forcing the system to cross a saddle point that separates the basins of attraction associated with each attractor. Termination of afterdischarge was explained by the attractor associated with repetitive spiking being destroyed. This occurred when ultra-slow negative feedback, such as intracellular sodium accumulation, caused the saddle point and stable limit cycle to collide; in that regard, the active attractor is not truly stable when the slowest dynamics are taken into account. The model also explains other features of paroxysmal symptoms, including temporal summation and refractoriness.

  18. Nonlinear science as a fluctuating research frontier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Jihuan

    2009-01-01

    Nonlinear science has had quite a triumph in all conceivable applications in science and technology, especially in high energy physics and nanotechnology. COBE, which was awarded the physics Nobel Prize in 2006, might be probably more related to nonlinear science than the Big Bang theory. Five categories of nonlinear subjects in research frontier are pointed out.

  19. Eigenvalues of Non-Linear Problems

    CERN Document Server

    Prodi, Giovanni

    2011-01-01

    H. Amann: Nonlinear eigenvalue problems in ordered Banach spaces.- P.C. Fife: Branching phenomena in fluid dynamics and chemical reaction-diffusion theory.- W. Klingenberg: The theory of closed geodesics.- P. Rabinowitz: Variational methods for nonlinear eigenvalue problems.- M. Reeken: Existence of solutions to the Hartree-Fock equations.- R. Turner: Positive solutions of nonlinear eigenvalue problems.

  20. Solitons in quadratic nonlinear photonic crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corney, Joel Frederick; Bang, Ole

    2001-01-01

    We study solitons in one-dimensional quadratic nonlinear photonic crystals with modulation of both the linear and nonlinear susceptibilities. We derive averaged equations that include induced cubic nonlinearities, which can be defocusing, and we numerically find previously unknown soliton families...

  1. Nonlinear parametric instability of wind turbine wings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jesper Winther; Nielsen, Søren R.K.

    2006-01-01

    Nonlinear rotor dynamic is characterized by parametric excitation of both linear and nonlinear terms caused by centrifugal and Coriolis forces when formulated in a moving frame of reference. Assuming harmonically varying support point motions from the tower, the nonlinear parametric instability...

  2. Nonlinear approaches in engineering applications 2

    CERN Document Server

    Jazar, Reza N

    2013-01-01

    Provides updated principles and applications of the nonlinear approaches in solving engineering and physics problems Demonstrates how nonlinear approaches may open avenues to better, safer, cheaper systems with less energy consumption Has a strong emphasis on the application, physical meaning, and methodologies of nonlinear approaches in different engineering and science problems

  3. Averaging of nonlinearity-managed pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zharnitsky, Vadim; Pelinovsky, Dmitry

    2005-01-01

    We consider the nonlinear Schroedinger equation with the nonlinearity management which describes Bose-Einstein condensates under Feshbach resonance. By using an averaging theory, we derive the Hamiltonian averaged equation and compare it with other averaging methods developed for this problem. The averaged equation is used for analytical approximations of nonlinearity-managed solitons

  4. Nonlinear Electron Waves in Strongly Magnetized Plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pécseli, Hans; Juul Rasmussen, Jens

    1980-01-01

    Weakly nonlinear dispersive electron waves in strongly magnetized plasma are considered. A modified nonlinear Schrodinger equation is derived taking into account the effect of particles resonating with the group velocity of the waves (nonlinear Landau damping). The possibility of including the ion...

  5. Singular Nonlinear H∞ Optimal Control Problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaft, A.J. van der

    1996-01-01

    The theory of nonlinear H∞ optimal control for affine nonlinear systems is extended to the more general context of singular H∞ optimal control of nonlinear systems using ideas from the linear H∞ theory. Our approach yields under certain assumptions a necessary and sufficient condition for

  6. Armstrong-McGehee mechanism revisited: competitive exclusion and coexistence of nonlinear consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xiao; Fussmann, Gregor F

    2013-12-21

    A number of mechanisms have been proposed to explain the coexistence of species engaging in exploitative competition. The Armstrong-McGehee mechanism relies on different levels of nonlinearity in functional response between competing consumers and their ability to avoid competitive exclusion through temporal resource partitioning during endogenously generated fluctuations. While previous studies have mainly focused on cases where one consumer has nonlinear functional response and the other consumer has linear functional response, our study assessed coexistence and competitive exclusion under a more realistic scenario with two nonlinear consumers. Using analytical and numerical methods we found that the potential of coexistence of the two consumers decreases with increasing nonlinearity in the more linear species; increasing nonlinearity in the more nonlinear species, however, resulted in non-monotonic changes in the parameter space allowing coexistence. When coexistence potential is quantified under the presupposition that each consumer must be able to persist with the resource by itself, coexistence becomes consistently less likely with increasing similarity of the functional responses of the two consumers. Our results suggest that the Armstrong-McGehee mechanism is unlikely to operate as the sole coexistence-promoting mechanism in communities with generally nonlinear consumer-resource interactions. However, its role as a module in more complex systems and in synergy with other factors remains to be established. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Nonlinear observer design for a nonlinear string/cable FEM model using contraction theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turkyilmaz, Yilmaz; Jouffroy, Jerome; Egeland, Olav

    Contraction theory is a recently developed nonlinear analysis tool which may be useful for solving a variety of nonlinear control problems. In this paper, using Contraction theory, a nonlinear observer is designed for a general nonlinear cable/string FEM (Finite Element Method) model. The cable...

  8. Lie Symmetries and Solitons in Nonlinear Systems with Spatially Inhomogeneous Nonlinearities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belmonte-Beitia, Juan; Perez-Garcia, Victor M.; Vekslerchik, Vadym; Torres, Pedro J.

    2007-01-01

    Using Lie group theory and canonical transformations, we construct explicit solutions of nonlinear Schroedinger equations with spatially inhomogeneous nonlinearities. We present the general theory, use it to show that localized nonlinearities can support bound states with an arbitrary number solitons, and discuss other applications of interest to the field of nonlinear matter waves

  9. Nonlinear analysis of a cross-coupled quadrature harmonic oscillator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Djurhuus, Torsten; Krozer, Viktor; Vidkjær, Jens

    2005-01-01

    The dynamic equations governing the cross-coupled quadrature harmonic oscillator are derived assuming quasi-sinusoidal operation. This allows for an investigation of the previously reported tradeoff between close-to-carrier phase noise and quadrature precision. The results explain how nonlinearity...... in the coupling transconductances, in conjunction with a finite amplitude relaxation time and de-tuning of the individual oscillators, cause close-to-carrier AM-to-PM noise conversion. A discussion is presented of how the theoretic results translate into design rules for quadrature oscillator ICs. SPECTRE RF...

  10. New approaches to nonlinear waves

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    The book details a few of the novel methods developed in the last few years for studying various aspects of nonlinear wave systems. The introductory chapter provides a general overview, thematically linking the objects described in the book. Two chapters are devoted to wave systems possessing resonances with linear frequencies (Chapter 2) and with nonlinear frequencies (Chapter 3). In the next two chapters modulation instability in the KdV-type of equations is studied using rigorous mathematical methods (Chapter 4) and its possible connection to freak waves is investigated (Chapter 5). The book goes on to demonstrate how the choice of the Hamiltonian (Chapter 6) or the Lagrangian (Chapter 7) framework allows us to gain a deeper insight into the properties of a specific wave system. The final chapter discusses problems encountered when attempting to verify the theoretical predictions using numerical or laboratory experiments. All the chapters are illustrated by ample constructive examples demonstrating the app...

  11. BFFT quantization with nonlinear constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barcelos-Neto, J. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, RJ 21945-970, Caixa Postal 68528 (Brazil)

    1997-02-01

    We consider the method due to Batalin, Fradkin, Fradkina, and Tyutin (BFFT) that makes the conversion of second-class constraints into first-class ones for the case of nonlinear theories. We first present a general analysis of an attempt to simplify the method, showing the conditions that must be satisfied in order to have first-class constraints for nonlinear theories that are linear in the auxiliary variables. There are cases where this simplification cannot be done and the full BFFT method has to be used. However, in the way the method is formulated, we show with details that it is not practicable to be done. Finally, we speculate on a solution for these problems. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  12. Nonlinear PT-symmetric plaquettes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Kai; Kevrekidis, P G; Malomed, Boris A; Günther, Uwe

    2012-01-01

    We introduce four basic two-dimensional (2D) plaquette configurations with onsite cubic nonlinearities, which may be used as building blocks for 2D PT-symmetric lattices. For each configuration, we develop a dynamical model and examine its PTsymmetry. The corresponding nonlinear modes are analyzed starting from the Hamiltonian limit, with zero value of the gain–loss coefficient, γ. Once the relevant waveforms have been identified (chiefly, in an analytical form), their stability is examined by means of linearization in the vicinity of stationary points. This reveals diverse and, occasionally, fairly complex bifurcations. The evolution of unstable modes is explored by means of direct simulations. In particular, stable localized modes are found in these systems, although the majority of identified solutions are unstable. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘Quantum physics with non-Hermitian operators’. (paper)

  13. Nanoplasmonic solution for nonlinear optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bache, Morten; Lavrinenko, Andrei; Lysenko, Oleg

    2014-01-01

    . The quality of samples was inspected using the optical microscope, scanningelectron microscope, atomic force microscope, and ellipsometer. The ready wafer was diced into several rectangular sliced with the fixed width of 15 mm and the different length from 2 mm to 6 mm for optical characterization......Nonlinear optical properties of dielectric waveguides are well known and are widely used in moderntelecommunication systems [1]. However, the fundamental law of diffraction imposes physical limitation for integration of dielectric photonics and semiconductor electronics [2]. A possible way...... to combine the high speed of a photonic device with the compact size of an electronic device is to produce ananoplasmonic device based on metal waveguides. The successful solutions can be used for future sustainable technologies. In meantime, nonlinear optics of metal waveguides is not fully understood...

  14. Dimensional reduction in nonlinear filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J. H.; Sowers, R. B.; Sri Namachchivaya, N.

    2010-02-01

    The theory of nonlinear filtering forms the framework of many data assimilation problems. When the rates of change of different variables differ by orders of magnitude, efficient data assimilation can be accomplished by constructing nonlinear filtering equations for the coarse-grained signal. We consider the conditional law of a signal given the observations in a multi-scale context. In particular, we study how scaling interacts with filtering via stochastic averaging. This is an extension of our previous work (Park et al 2008 Stoch. Dyn. 8 543-60) where the observation process depended only on the fast variable, so the filter became independent of the observation in the limit. Here, we investigate a more realistic setting in which the observation depends on both the slow and the fast variables. Paper dedicated to Professor Manfred Denker on the occasion of his 65th birthday.

  15. Characterization of Nonlinear Integrated Capacitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Kolka

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with a modified CBCM (Charge-Based Capacitance Measurements method for nonlinear capacitance characterization. The method is characterized by high resolution although it is based on equipment found in any average laboratory. CBCM was originally developed for linear interconnect measurements. The proposed modification uses two DC swept sources to measure the whole nonlinear Q-v characteristic in both polarities without the necessity to switch the measured object. A test-chip implementing the method was designed and manufactured in the 0.35μm CMOS process. Verifica- tion against known capacitances proved the correctness and accuracy of the method. It was successfully used for MOSCAPs characterization.

  16. Nonlinear waves and pattern dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Pelinovsky, Efim; Mutabazi, Innocent

    2018-01-01

    This book addresses the fascinating phenomena associated with nonlinear waves and spatio-temporal patterns. These appear almost everywhere in nature from sand bed forms to brain patterns, and yet their understanding still presents fundamental scientific challenges. The reader will learn here, in particular, about the current state-of-the art and new results in: Nonlinear water waves: resonance, solitons, focusing, Bose-Einstein condensation, as well as and their relevance for the sea environment (sea-wind interaction, sand bed forms, fiber clustering) Pattern formation in non-equilibrium media: soap films, chimera patterns in oscillating media, viscoelastic Couette-Taylor flow, flow in the wake behind a heated cylinder, other pattern formation. The editors and authors dedicate this book to the memory of Alexander Ezersky, Professor of Fluid Mechanics at the University of Caen Normandie (France) from September 2007 to July 2016. Before 2007, he had served as a Senior Scientist at the Institute of Applied Physi...

  17. Some nonlinear space decomposition algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tai, Xue-Cheng; Espedal, M. [Univ. of Bergen (Norway)

    1996-12-31

    Convergence of a space decomposition method is proved for a general convex programming problem. The space decomposition refers to methods that decompose a space into sums of subspaces, which could be a domain decomposition or a multigrid method for partial differential equations. Two algorithms are proposed. Both can be used for linear as well as nonlinear elliptic problems and they reduce to the standard additive and multiplicative Schwarz methods for linear elliptic problems. Two {open_quotes}hybrid{close_quotes} algorithms are also presented. They converge faster than the additive one and have better parallelism than the multiplicative method. Numerical tests with a two level domain decomposition for linear, nonlinear and interface elliptic problems are presented for the proposed algorithms.

  18. Nonlinear dynamics of a rotating double pendulum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maiti, Soumyabrata, E-mail: ayanmaiti19@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Engineering Science and Technology, Shibpur, 711103 (India); Roy, Jyotirmoy, E-mail: jyotirmoy.roy@live.com [UM-DAE Centre for Excellence in Basic Sciences, Santa Cruz, Mumbai, 400098 (India); Mallik, Asok K., E-mail: asokiitk@gmail.com [Department of Applied Mechanics and Aerospace Engineering, Indian Institute of Engineering Science and Technology, Shibpur, 711103 (India); Bhattacharjee, Jayanta K., E-mail: jayanta.bhattacharjee@gmail.com [Harish-Chandra Research Institute, Allahabad, 211019 (India)

    2016-01-28

    Nonlinear dynamics of a double pendulum rotating at a constant speed about a vertical axis passing through the top hinge is investigated. Transitions of oscillations from chaotic to quasiperiodic and back to chaotic again are observed with increasing speed of rotation. With increasing speed, a pair of new stable equilibrium states, different from the normal vertical one, appear and the quasiperiodic oscillations occur. These oscillations are first centered around the origin, but with increasing rotation speed they cover the origin and the new fixed points. At a still higher speed, more than one pair of fixed points appear and the oscillation again turns chaotic. The onset of chaos is explained in terms of internal resonance. Analytical and numerical results confirm the critical values of the speed parameter at various transitions. - Highlights: • The rotating double pendulum shows transitions from chaos to order and back to chaos. • These transitions occur as the rotation speed is increased. • The dynamics is quasi-periodic in the ordered state. • Within the ordered state the nature of quasi-periodicity changes with rotation speed. • The chaotic state always emerges as a result of an internal resonance.

  19. Sapphire: A kinking nonlinear elastic solid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, S.; Barsoum, M. W.; Kalidindi, S. R.

    2006-03-01

    Kinking nonlinear elastic (KNE) solids are a recently identified large class of solids that deform fully reversibly by the formation of dislocation-based kink bands [Barsoum et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 255508 (2004)]. We further conjectured that a high c/a ratio-that ensures that only basal slip is operative-is a sufficient condition for a solid to be KNE. The c/a ratio of sapphire is 2.73 and thus, if our conjecture is correct, it should be a KNE solid. Herein by repeatedly loading-up to 30 times-the same location of sapphire single crystals of two orientations-A and C-with a 1 μm radius spherical nanoindenter, followed by atomic force microscopy, we showed that sapphire is indeed a KNE solid. After pop-ins of the order of 100 nm, the repeated loadings give rise to fully reversible, reproducible hysteresis loops wherein the energy dissipated per unit volume per cycle Wd is of the order of 0.5 GJ/m3. Wd is due to the back and fro motion of the dislocations making up the incipient kink bands that are fully reversible. The results presented here strongly suggest that-like in graphite and mica-kink bands play a more critical role in the room temperature constrained deformation of sapphire than had hitherto been appreciated. Our interpretation is also in agreement with, and can explain most, recent nanoindentation results on sapphire.

  20. Nonlinear fiber optics formerly quantum electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Agrawal, Govind

    1995-01-01

    The field of nonlinear fiber optics has grown substantially since the First Edition of Nonlinear Fiber Optics, published in 1989. Like the First Edition, this Second Edition is a comprehensive, tutorial, and up-to-date account of nonlinear optical phenomena in fiber optics. It synthesizes widely scattered research material and presents it in an accessible manner for students and researchers already engaged in or wishing to enter the field of nonlinear fiber optics. Particular attention is paid to the importance of nonlinear effects in the design of optical fiber communication systems. This is

  1. Nonlinear soliton matching between optical fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Christian; Sørensen, Simon Toft; Thomsen, Carsten L.

    2011-01-01

    In this Letter, we propose a generic nonlinear coupling coefficient, η2 NL ¼ ηjγ=β2jfiber2=jγ=β2jfiber1, which gives a quantitative measure for the efficiency of nonlinear matching of optical fibers by describing how a fundamental soliton couples from one fiber into another. Specifically, we use η......NL to demonstrate a significant soliton selffrequency shift of a fundamental soliton, and we show that nonlinear matching can take precedence over linear mode matching. The nonlinear coupling coefficient depends on both the dispersion (β2) and nonlinearity (γ), as well as on the power coupling efficiency η. Being...

  2. Modeling of Nonlinear Systems using Genetic Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Kayoko; Yamamoto, Toru; Kawada, Kazuo

    In this paper, a newly modeling system by using Genetic Algorithm (GA) is proposed. The GA is an evolutionary computational method that simulates the mechanisms of heredity or evolution of living things, and it is utilized in optimization and in searching for optimized solutions. Most process systems have nonlinearities, so it is necessary to anticipate exactly such systems. However, it is difficult to make a suitable model for nonlinear systems, because most nonlinear systems have a complex structure. Therefore the newly proposed method of modeling for nonlinear systems uses GA. Then, according to the newly proposed scheme, the optimal structure and parameters of the nonlinear model are automatically generated.

  3. Generalized solutions of nonlinear partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Rosinger, EE

    1987-01-01

    During the last few years, several fairly systematic nonlinear theories of generalized solutions of rather arbitrary nonlinear partial differential equations have emerged. The aim of this volume is to offer the reader a sufficiently detailed introduction to two of these recent nonlinear theories which have so far contributed most to the study of generalized solutions of nonlinear partial differential equations, bringing the reader to the level of ongoing research.The essence of the two nonlinear theories presented in this volume is the observation that much of the mathematics concernin

  4. Nonlinear optical properties of ultrathin metal layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lysenko, Oleg

    2016-01-01

    has the dominant contribution to the effective third-order nonlinear susceptibility of the longrange surface plasmon polariton mode in the strip plasmonic waveguides. The spectral broadening of the plasmonic mode in the waveguides is determined by the real part of the third-order nonlinear...... susceptibility of the gold layer, and the nonlinear power transmission of the plasmonic mode is determined by the imaginary part of the third-order nonlinear susceptibility of the gold layer. The experimental values of the third-order nonlinear susceptibility of gold for ultrathin layers are presented. The pulse...

  5. Nonlinearity and disorder: Theory and applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Ole; Sørensen, Mads Peter

    Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop (ARW) entitled Nonlinearity and Disorder: Theory and Applications, held in Tashkent, Uzbekistan, October 2-6, 2001. Phenomena of coherent structures in nonlinear systems and disorder are considered opposite in nature. For example one of the most ...... nonlinear media show the rich varieties of phenomena interpolating between these two limiting cases. Related problems are the existence of partially coherent nonlinear wave packets in nonlinear media. These aspects have attracted a lot of attention in recent years due to investigations...

  6. Nonlinear Pricing to Produce Information

    OpenAIRE

    David J. Braden; Shmuel S. Oren

    1994-01-01

    We investigate the firm's dynamic nonlinear pricing problem when facing consumers whose tastes vary according to a scalar index. We relax the standard assumption that the firm knows the distribution of this index. In general the firm should determine its marginal price schedule as if it were myopic, and produce information by lowering the price schedule; “bunching” consumers at positive purchase levels should be avoided. As a special case we also consider a market characterized by homogeneous...

  7. Primordial fluctuations from nonlinear couplings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calzetta, E.A.; Gonorazky, S.

    1997-01-01

    We study the spectrum of primordial fluctuations in theories where the inflaton field is nonlinearly coupled to massless fields and/or to itself. Conformally invariant theories generically predict a scale-invariant spectrum. Scales entering the theory through infrared divergences cause logarithmic corrections to the spectrum, tilting it towards the blue. We discuss in some detail whether these fluctuations are quantum or classical in nature. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  8. Nonlinear Dimensionality Reduction on Graphs

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Yanning; Traganitis, Panagiotis A.; Giannakis, Georgios B.

    2018-01-01

    In this era of data deluge, many signal processing and machine learning tasks are faced with high-dimensional datasets, including images, videos, as well as time series generated from social, commercial and brain network interactions. Their efficient processing calls for dimensionality reduction techniques capable of properly compressing the data while preserving task-related characteristics, going beyond pairwise data correlations. The present paper puts forth a nonlinear dimensionality redu...

  9. Nonlinear positron acoustic solitary waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tribeche, Mouloud; Aoutou, Kamel; Younsi, Smain; Amour, Rabia

    2009-01-01

    The problem of nonlinear positron acoustic solitary waves involving the dynamics of mobile cold positrons is addressed. A theoretical work is presented to show their existence and possible realization in a simple four-component plasma model. The results should be useful for the understanding of the localized structures that may occur in space and laboratory plasmas as new sources of cold positrons are now well developed.

  10. Some nonlinear challenges in biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosconi, Francesco; Julou, Thomas; Desprat, Nicolas; Sinha, Deepak Kumar; Allemand, Jean-François; Croquette, Vincent; Bensimon, David

    2008-01-01

    Driven by a deluge of data, biology is undergoing a transition to a more quantitative science. Making sense of the data, building new models, asking the right questions and designing smart experiments to answer them are becoming ever more relevant. In this endeavour, nonlinear approaches can play a fundamental role. The biochemical reactions that underlie life are very often nonlinear. The functional features exhibited by biological systems at all levels (from the activity of an enzyme to the organization of a colony of ants, via the development of an organism or a functional module like the one responsible for chemotaxis in bacteria) are dynamically robust. They are often unaffected by order of magnitude variations in the dynamical parameters, in the number or concentrations of actors (molecules, cells, organisms) or external inputs (food, temperature, pH, etc). This type of structural robustness is also a common feature of nonlinear systems, exemplified by the fundamental role played by dynamical fixed points and attractors and by the use of generic equations (logistic map, Fisher–Kolmogorov equation, the Stefan problem, etc.) in the study of a plethora of nonlinear phenomena. However, biological systems differ from these examples in two important ways: the intrinsic stochasticity arising from the often very small number of actors and the role played by evolution. On an evolutionary time scale, nothing in biology is frozen. The systems observed today have evolved from solutions adopted in the past and they will have to adapt in response to future conditions. The evolvability of biological system uniquely characterizes them and is central to biology. As the great biologist T Dobzhansky once wrote: 'nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution'. (open problem)

  11. Nonlinear effects in water waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janssen, P.A.E.M.

    1989-05-01

    This set of lecture notes on nonlinear effects in water waves was written on the occasion of the first ICTP course on Ocean Waves and Tides held from 26 September until 28 October 1988 in Trieste, Italy. It presents a summary and unification of my knowledge on nonlinear effects of gravity waves on an incompressible fluid without vorticity. The starting point of the theory is the Hamiltonian for water waves. The evolution equations of both weakly nonlinear, shallow water and deep water gravity waves are derived by suitable approximation of the energy of the waves, resulting in the Korteweg-de Vries equation and the Zakharov equation, respectively. Next, interesting properties of the KdV equation (solitons) and the Zakharov equation (instability of a finite amplitude wave train) are discussed in some detail. Finally, the evolution of a homogeneous, random wave field due to resonant four wave processes is considered and the importance of this process for ocean wave prediction is pointed out. 38 refs, 21 figs

  12. Focus issue introduction: nonlinear photonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhmediev, Nail; Rottwitt, Karsten

    2012-11-19

    It is now 23 years since the first Topical Meeting "Nonlinear Guided Wave Phenomena" (Houston, TX, February 2-4, 1989) has been organised by George Stegeman and Allan Boardman with support of the Optical Society of America. These series of the OSA conferences known as NLGW, continued under the name "Nonlinear Photonics" starting from 2007. The latest one, in Colorado Springs in June 17-21, 2012 has been a great success despite the fierce fires advancing around the city at the time of the conference. This Focus issue is a collection of several papers presented at the conference with extended content submitted to Optics Express. Although this collection is small in comparison to the total number of papers presented at the conference, it gives a flavor of the topics considered at the meeting. It is also worthy to mention here that the next meeting "Nonlinear Photonics" is planned to be held in Barcelona - one of the main European centers on this subject.

  13. Adaptive regression for modeling nonlinear relationships

    CERN Document Server

    Knafl, George J

    2016-01-01

    This book presents methods for investigating whether relationships are linear or nonlinear and for adaptively fitting appropriate models when they are nonlinear. Data analysts will learn how to incorporate nonlinearity in one or more predictor variables into regression models for different types of outcome variables. Such nonlinear dependence is often not considered in applied research, yet nonlinear relationships are common and so need to be addressed. A standard linear analysis can produce misleading conclusions, while a nonlinear analysis can provide novel insights into data, not otherwise possible. A variety of examples of the benefits of modeling nonlinear relationships are presented throughout the book. Methods are covered using what are called fractional polynomials based on real-valued power transformations of primary predictor variables combined with model selection based on likelihood cross-validation. The book covers how to formulate and conduct such adaptive fractional polynomial modeling in the s...

  14. Sinusoidal velaroidal shell – numerical modelling of the nonlinear ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Many works are devoted to linear and nonlinear analyses of shells of classical form. But for thin shells of complex geometry, many things remained to do. Four different sources of nonlinearity exist in solid mechanics. The geometric nonlinearity, the material nonlinearity, the kinetic nonlinearity and the force nonlinearity.

  15. Third-order nonlinear optical properties of the poly(methyl methacrylate)-phenothiazinium dye hybrid thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Ru; Lu, Yue-Ting; Yan, Bao-Long; Lu, Jian-Mei; Wu, Xing-Zhi; Song, Ying-Lin; Ge, Jian-Feng

    2014-01-01

    The third-order nonlinear optical properties of poly(methyl methacrylate) films doped with charge flowable 3,7-di(piperidinyl)phenothiazin-5-ium chloride, which tested by Z-scan method with nanosecond laser beam at 532 nm, are reported. Large third-order nonlinear optical susceptibilities (up to 10 −7 esu) and high second hyperpolarizabilities (up to 10 −27 esu) are found. The third-order nonlinear absorptions change from reverse saturated absorptions to saturated absorptions with different percentage of the phenothiazinium dye in the poly(methyl methacrylate) films, which can be explained by the accumulation phenomenon of the phenothiazinium. The results suggest that the phenothiazinium salt is a promising material for third order non-linear applications. - Highlights: • Phenothiazinium containing optical films • Strong third-order nonlinear optical (NLO) absorption • Large third-order NLO susceptibilities

  16. Multiple nonlinear dielectric resonance of ultra-long silver trimolybdate nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Guang-Sheng; Wen, Bo; He, Shuai; Guo, Lin; Cao, Mao-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    The silver molybdate nanowires (NWs) have been synthesized and characterized. The multiple dielectric resonant peaks of the nanocomposites filled with silver molybdate nanowires have been studied from 2 to 18 GHz. The as-established equivalent circuit model of the silver molybdate nanowires were employed to explain the nonlinear dielectric resonant behavior. - Graphical abstract: The untralong silver trimolybdate nanowires were synthesized and the dielectric peoperties of the products were studied from 2 to 18 GHz. The as-established equivalent circuit model of the silver molybdate nanowires were employed to explain the nonlinear dielectric resonant behavior. Highlights: ► The silver molybdate nanowires have been synthesized and characterized. ► The dielectric properties of the silver molybdate/ paraffin nanocomposites have been studied. ► Higher concentration of silver trimolybdate enhances the dielectric properties of composite. ► The dielectric behaviors were explained based on the as-established equivalent circuit mode

  17. Nonlinear DC conduction behavior in epoxy resin/graphite nanosheets composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hongfei; Lu, Wei; Chen, Guohua

    2007-11-01

    Epoxy resin (ER)/graphite nanosheet (GN) composites with a low percolation threshold (owing to particular geometry of GN with the high aspect ratio) were fabricated. The nonlinear conduction behavior of ER/GN composites above the percolation threshold by the action of variable DC electrical field was investigated. For specimens, the current density or current reduces with decreasing graphite nanosheets concentrations, and the J- E curves are well fitted by a cubic, J= σ1E+ σ3E3. Moreover, the crossover current density Jc, at which nonlinearity takes place, scales with the linear conductivity σ1 as J∼σ1x, with x≈1.390 and the third-order conductivity, σ3, also scales with Jc as J∼σ3y, with y≈1.175. Through the discussion of the nonlinearity within the framework of two theoretical models, the nonlinear random resistor network (NLRRN) and the dynamic random resistor network (DRRN), it is indicated that neither of these two models can fully explain our experimental results. Taking into account the microscopic structures and conduction processes of the composites, it is likely that a combination of these two models explain the nonlinear characteristics better.

  18. Nonlinear DC conduction behavior in epoxy resin/graphite nanosheets composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin Hongfei; Lu Wei [Department of Material Science and Engineering, Huaqiao University, Quanzhou 362021 (China); Chen Guohua [Department of Material Science and Engineering, Huaqiao University, Quanzhou 362021 (China)], E-mail: hdcgh@hqu.edu.cn

    2007-11-15

    Epoxy resin (ER)/graphite nanosheet (GN) composites with a low percolation threshold (owing to particular geometry of GN with the high aspect ratio) were fabricated. The nonlinear conduction behavior of ER/GN composites above the percolation threshold by the action of variable DC electrical field was investigated. For specimens, the current density or current reduces with decreasing graphite nanosheets concentrations, and the J-E curves are well fitted by a cubic, J={sigma}{sub 1}E+{sigma}{sub 3}E{sup 3}. Moreover, the crossover current density J{sub c}, at which nonlinearity takes place, scales with the linear conductivity {sigma}{sub 1} as J{sub c}{approx}{sigma}{sub 1}{sup x}, with x{approx}1.390 and the third-order conductivity, {sigma}{sub 3}, also scales with J{sub c} as J{sub c}{approx}{sigma}{sub 3}{sup y}, with y{approx}1.175. Through the discussion of the nonlinearity within the framework of two theoretical models, the nonlinear random resistor network (NLRRN) and the dynamic random resistor network (DRRN), it is indicated that neither of these two models can fully explain our experimental results. Taking into account the microscopic structures and conduction processes of the composites, it is likely that a combination of these two models explain the nonlinear characteristics better.

  19. Computation of nonlinear least squares estimator and maximum likelihood using principles in matrix calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahaboob, B.; Venkateswarlu, B.; Sankar, J. Ravi; Balasiddamuni, P.

    2017-11-01

    This paper uses matrix calculus techniques to obtain Nonlinear Least Squares Estimator (NLSE), Maximum Likelihood Estimator (MLE) and Linear Pseudo model for nonlinear regression model. David Pollard and Peter Radchenko [1] explained analytic techniques to compute the NLSE. However the present research paper introduces an innovative method to compute the NLSE using principles in multivariate calculus. This study is concerned with very new optimization techniques used to compute MLE and NLSE. Anh [2] derived NLSE and MLE of a heteroscedatistic regression model. Lemcoff [3] discussed a procedure to get linear pseudo model for nonlinear regression model. In this research article a new technique is developed to get the linear pseudo model for nonlinear regression model using multivariate calculus. The linear pseudo model of Edmond Malinvaud [4] has been explained in a very different way in this paper. David Pollard et.al used empirical process techniques to study the asymptotic of the LSE (Least-squares estimation) for the fitting of nonlinear regression function in 2006. In Jae Myung [13] provided a go conceptual for Maximum likelihood estimation in his work “Tutorial on maximum likelihood estimation

  20. Waves and Structures in Nonlinear Nondispersive Media General Theory and Applications to Nonlinear Acoustics

    CERN Document Server

    Gurbatov, S N; Saichev, A I

    2012-01-01

    "Waves and Structures in Nonlinear Nondispersive Media: General Theory and Applications to Nonlinear Acoustics” is devoted completely to nonlinear structures. The general theory is given here in parallel with mathematical models. Many concrete examples illustrate the general analysis of Part I. Part II is devoted to applications to nonlinear acoustics, including specific nonlinear models and exact solutions, physical mechanisms of nonlinearity, sawtooth-shaped wave propagation, self-action phenomena, nonlinear resonances and engineering application (medicine, nondestructive testing, geophysics, etc.). This book is designed for graduate and postgraduate students studying the theory of nonlinear waves of various physical nature. It may also be useful as a handbook for engineers and researchers who encounter the necessity of taking nonlinear wave effects into account of their work. Dr. Gurbatov S.N. is the head of Department, and Vice Rector for Research of Nizhny Novgorod State University. Dr. Rudenko O.V. is...

  1. Probing hysteretic elasticity in weakly nonlinear materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Paul A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Haupert, Sylvain [UPMC UNIV PARIS; Renaud, Guillaume [UPMC UNIV PARIS; Riviere, Jacques [UPMC UNIV PARIS; Talmant, Maryline [UPMC UNIV PARIS; Laugier, Pascal [UPMC UNIV PARIS

    2010-12-07

    Our work is aimed at assessing the elastic and dissipative hysteretic nonlinear parameters' repeatability (precision) using several classes of materials with weak, intermediate and high nonlinear properties. In this contribution, we describe an optimized Nonlinear Resonant Ultrasound Spectroscopy (NRUS) measuring and data processing protocol applied to small samples. The protocol is used to eliminate the effects of environmental condition changes that take place during an experiment, and that may mask the intrinsic elastic nonlinearity. As an example, in our experiments, we identified external temperature fluctuation as a primary source of material resonance frequency and elastic modulus variation. A variation of 0.1 C produced a frequency variation of 0.01 %, which is similar to the expected nonlinear frequency shift for weakly nonlinear materials. In order to eliminate environmental effects, the variation in f{sub 0} (the elastically linear resonance frequency proportional to modulus) is fit with the appropriate function, and that function is used to correct the NRUS calculation of nonlinear parameters. With our correction procedure, we measured relative resonant frequency shifts of 10{sup -5} , which are below 10{sup -4}, often considered the limit to NRUS sensitivity under common experimental conditions. Our results show that the procedure is an alternative to the stringent control of temperature often applied. Applying the approach, we report nonlinear parameters for several materials, some with very small nonclassical nonlinearity. The approach has broad application to NRUS and other Nonlinear Elastic Wave Spectroscopy approaches.

  2. Stochastic Erosion of Fractal Structure in Nonlinear Dynamical Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, S.; Wettlaufer, J. S.

    2014-12-01

    We analyze the effects of stochastic noise on the Lorenz-63 model in the chaotic regime to demonstrate a set of general issues arising in the interpretation of data from nonlinear dynamical systems typical in geophysics. The model is forced using both additive and multiplicative, white and colored noise and it is shown that, through a suitable choice of the noise intensity, both additive and multiplicative noise can produce similar dynamics. We use a recently developed measure, histogram distance, to show the similarity between the dynamics produced by additive and multiplicative forcing. This phenomenon, in a nonlinear fractal structure with chaotic dynamics can be explained by understanding how noise affects the Unstable Periodic Orbits (UPOs) of the system. For delta-correlated noise, the UPOs erode the fractal structure. In the presence of memory in the noise forcing, the time scale of the noise starts to interact with the period of some UPO and, depending on the noise intensity, stochastic resonance may be observed. This also explains the mixing in dissipative dynamical systems in presence of white noise; as the fractal structure is smoothed, the decay of correlations is enhanced, and hence the rate of mixing increases with noise intensity.

  3. Nonlinear susceptibility magnitude imaging of magnetic nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ficko, Bradley W.; Giacometti, Paolo; Diamond, Solomon G.

    2015-01-01

    This study demonstrates a method for improving the resolution of susceptibility magnitude imaging (SMI) using spatial information that arises from the nonlinear magnetization characteristics of magnetic nanoparticles (mNPs). In this proof-of-concept study of nonlinear SMI, a pair of drive coils and several permanent magnets generate applied magnetic fields and a coil is used as a magnetic field sensor. Sinusoidal alternating current (AC) in the drive coils results in linear mNP magnetization responses at primary frequencies, and nonlinear responses at harmonic frequencies and intermodulation frequencies. The spatial information content of the nonlinear responses is evaluated by reconstructing tomographic images with sequentially increasing voxel counts using the combined linear and nonlinear data. Using the linear data alone it is not possible to accurately reconstruct more than 2 voxels with a pair of drive coils and a single sensor. However, nonlinear SMI is found to accurately reconstruct 12 voxels (R 2 =0.99, CNR=84.9) using the same physical configuration. Several time-multiplexing methods are then explored to determine if additional spatial information can be obtained by varying the amplitude, phase and frequency of the applied magnetic fields from the two drive coils. Asynchronous phase modulation, amplitude modulation, intermodulation phase modulation, and frequency modulation all resulted in accurate reconstruction of 6 voxels (R 2 >0.9) indicating that time multiplexing is a valid approach to further increase the resolution of nonlinear SMI. The spatial information content of nonlinear mNP responses and the potential for resolution enhancement with time multiplexing demonstrate the concept and advantages of nonlinear SMI. - Highlights: • Development of a nonlinear susceptibility magnitude imaging model • Demonstration of nonlinear SMI with primary and harmonic frequencies • Demonstration of nonlinear SMI with primary and intermodulation frequencies

  4. The non-linear ion trap. Part 5. Nature of non-linear resonances and resonant ion ejection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzen, J.

    1994-01-01

    The superposition of higher order multipole fields on the basic quadrupole field in ion traps generates a non-harmonic oscillator system for the ions. Fourier analyses of simulated secular oscillations in non-linear ion traps, therefore, not only reveal the sideband frequencies, well-known from the Mathieu theory, but additionally a commonwealth of multipole-specific overtones (or higher harmonics), and corresponding sidebands of overtones. Non-linear resonances occur when the overtone frequencies match sideband frequencies. It can be shown that in each of the resonance conditions, not just one overtone matches one sideband, instead, groups of overtones match groups of sidebands. The generation of overtones is studied by Fourier analysis of computed ion oscillations in the direction of thez axis. Even multipoles (octopole, dodecapole, etc.) generate only odd orders of higher harmonics (3, 5, etc.) of the secular frequency, explainable by the symmetry with regard to the planez = 0. In contrast, odd multipoles (hexapole, decapole, etc.) generate all orders of higher harmonics. For all multipoles, the lowest higher harmonics are found to be strongest. With multipoles of higher orders, the strength of the overtones decreases weaker with the order of the harmonics. Forz direction resonances in stationary trapping fields, the function governing the amplitude growth is investigated by computer simulations. The ejection in thez direction, as a function of timet, follows, at least in good approximation, the equation wheren is the order of multipole, andC is a constant. This equation is strictly valid for the electrically applied dipole field (n = 1), matching the secular frequency or one of its sidebands, resulting in a linear increase of the amplitude. It is valid also for the basic quadrupole field (n = 2) outside the stability area, giving an exponential increase. It is at least approximately valid for the non-linear resonances by weak superpositions of all higher odd

  5. Nonlinear Optimization with Financial Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Bartholomew-Biggs, Michael

    2005-01-01

    The book introduces the key ideas behind practical nonlinear optimization. Computational finance - an increasingly popular area of mathematics degree programs - is combined here with the study of an important class of numerical techniques. The financial content of the book is designed to be relevant and interesting to specialists. However, this material - which occupies about one-third of the text - is also sufficiently accessible to allow the book to be used on optimization courses of a more general nature. The essentials of most currently popular algorithms are described, and their performan

  6. Beams on nonlinear elastic foundation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukkassen, Dag; Meidell, Annette

    2014-01-01

    In order to determination vertical deflections and rail bending moments the Winkler model (1867) is often used. This linear model neglects several conditions. For example, by using experimental results, it has been observed that there is a substantial increase in the maximum rail deflection and rail bending moment when considering the nonlinearity of the track support system. A deeper mathematical analysis of the models is necessary in order to obtain better methods for more accurate numerical solutions in the determination of deflections and rail bending moments. This paper is intended to be a small step in this direction

  7. Non-linear wave propagation

    CERN Document Server

    Jefrey, A

    1964-01-01

    In this book, we study theoretical and practical aspects of computing methods for mathematical modelling of nonlinear systems. A number of computing techniques are considered, such as methods of operator approximation with any given accuracy; operator interpolation techniques including a non-Lagrange interpolation; methods of system representation subject to constraints associated with concepts of causality, memory and stationarity; methods of system representation with an accuracy that is the best within a given class of models; methods of covariance matrix estimation;methods for low-rank mat

  8. Logic from nonlinear dynamical evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murali, K. [J. Crayton Pruitt Family Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-6131 (United States); Department of Physics, Anna University, Chennai 600 025 (India)], E-mail: kmurali@annauniv.edu; Miliotis, Abraham; Ditto, William L. [J. Crayton Pruitt Family Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-6131 (United States); Sinha, Sudeshna [Institute of Mathematical Sciences, C.I.T. Campus, Chennai 600 113 (India)

    2009-03-30

    We propose a direct and flexible implementation of logic operations using the dynamical evolution of a nonlinear system. The concept involves the observation of the state of the system at different times to obtain different logic outputs. We explicitly implement the basic NAND, AND, NOR, OR and XOR logic gates, as well as multiple-input XOR and XNOR logic gates. Further we demonstrate how the single dynamical system can do more complex operations such as bit-by-bit addition in just a few iterations.

  9. Logic from nonlinear dynamical evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murali, K.; Miliotis, Abraham; Ditto, William L.; Sinha, Sudeshna

    2009-01-01

    We propose a direct and flexible implementation of logic operations using the dynamical evolution of a nonlinear system. The concept involves the observation of the state of the system at different times to obtain different logic outputs. We explicitly implement the basic NAND, AND, NOR, OR and XOR logic gates, as well as multiple-input XOR and XNOR logic gates. Further we demonstrate how the single dynamical system can do more complex operations such as bit-by-bit addition in just a few iterations

  10. Nonlinear dynamics of musical reed and brass wind instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, D. M.

    1999-06-01

    A musical wind instrument transforms a constant pressure input from the player's mouth into a fluctuating pressure output in the form of a radiating sound wave. In reed woodwind and brass instruments, this transformation is achieved through a nonlinear coupling between two vibrating systems: the flow control valve formed by the mechanical reed or the lips of the player, and the air column contained by the pipe. Although the basic physics of reed wind instruments was developed by Helmholtz in the nineteenth century, the application of ideas from the modern theory of nonlinear dynamics has led to recent advances in our understanding of some musically important features of wind instrument behaviour. As a first step, the nonlinear aspects of the musical oscillator can be considered to be concentrated in the flow control valve; the air column can be treated as a linear vibrating system, with a set of natural modes of vibration corresponding to the standing waves in the pipe. Recent models based on these assumptions have had reasonable success in predicting the threshold blowing pressure and sounding frequency of a clarinet, as well as explaining at least qualitatively the way in which the timbre of the sound varies with blowing pressure. The situation is more complicated for brass instruments, in which the player's lips provide the flow valve. Experiments using artificial lips have been important in permitting systematic studies of the coupling between lips and air column; the detailed nature of this coupling is still not fully understood. In addition, the assumption of linearity in the air column vibratory system sometimes breaks down for brass instruments. Nonlinear effects in the propagation of high amplitude sound waves can lead to the development of shock waves in trumpets and trombones, with important musical consequences.

  11. Computer Simulation of Hydraulic Systems with Typical Nonlinear Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. N. Popov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The task was to synthesise an adjustable hydraulic system structure, the mathematical model of which takes into account its inherent nonlinearity. Its solution suggests using a successive computer simulations starting with a structure of the linearized stable hydraulic system, which is then complicated by including the essentially non-linear elements. The hydraulic system thus obtained may be unable to meet the Lyapunov stability criterion and be unstable. This can be eliminated through correcting elements. Control of correction results is provided according to the form of transition processes due to stepwise variation of the control signal.Computer simulation of a throttle-controlled electrohydraulic servo drive with the rotary output element illustrates the proposed method application. A constant pressure power source provides fluid feed for the drive under pressure.For drive simulation the following models were involved: the linear model, the model taking into consideration a non-linearity of the flow-dynamic characteristics of a spool-type valve, and the non-linear models that take into account the dry friction in the spool-type valve, the backlash in the steering angle sensor of the motor shaft.The paper shows possibility of damping oscillation caused by variable hydrodynamic forces through introducing a correction device.The list of references attached contains 16 sources, which were used to justify and explain certain factors of the automatic control theory and the fluid mechanics of unsteady flows.The article presents 6 block-diagrams of the electrohydraulic servo drive and their appropriate transition processes, which have been studied.

  12. Optical nonlinearity and bistability in the bound exciton energy range of CdS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoenig, T.; Gutowski, J.

    1988-01-01

    Under high excitation conditions thick CdS samples show pronounced broad-band nonlinear transmission in the bound exciton region and up to a wavelength of about 515 nm at cryo-temperatures. This behavior is only explainable in a model based on impurity neutralization and bound exciton creation. The suitability of these nonlinearities to yield optical bistability will be shown. Bistable operation is investigated in dependence of crystal thickness, impurity concentration, excitation density, wavelength, and temperature. A strong correlation to acceptor-bound exciton generation is obtained, and the explanation of this bistable operation fits well with that of the above mentioned transmission behavior. (author)

  13. Impact of initial pulse shape on the nonlinear spectral compression in optical fibre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boscolo, Sonia; Chaussard, Frederic; Andresen, Esben; Rigneault, Hervé; Finot, Christophe

    2018-02-01

    We theoretically study the effects of the temporal intensity profile of the initial pulse on the nonlinear propagation spectral compression process arising from nonlinear propagation in an optical fibre. Various linearly chirped input pulse profiles are considered, and their dynamics is explained with the aid of time-frequency representations. While initially parabolic-shaped pulses show enhanced spectral compression compared to Gaussian pulses, no significant spectral narrowing occurs when initially super-Gaussian pulses are used. Triangular pulses lead to a spectral interference phenomenon similar to the Fresnel bi-prism experiment.

  14. Disorder-induced light trapping enhanced by pulse collisions in one-dimensional nonlinear photonic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novitsky, Denis V.

    2015-10-01

    We use numerical simulations to study interaction of co- and counter-propagating pulses in disordered multilayers with noninstantaneous Kerr nonlinearity. We propose a statistical argument for existence of the disorder-induced trapping which implies the dramatic rise of the probability of realization with low output energy in the structure with a certain level of disorder. This effect is much more pronounced in the case of two interacting pulses than in the single-pulse regime and does not occur in the strictly ordered system at the same intensity of the pulses. Therefore it cannot be explained simply as a result of increase in strength of nonlinear light-matter interaction.

  15. The algebra of non-local charges in non-linear sigma models

    CERN Document Server

    Abdalla, Elcio; Brunelli, J C; Zadra, Ayrton

    1994-01-01

    We obtain the exact Dirac algebra obeyed by the conserved non-local charges in bosonic non-linear sigma models. Part of the computation is specialized for a symmetry group $O(N)$. As it turns out the algebra corresponds to a cubic deformation of the Kac-Moody algebra. The non-linear terms are computed in closed form. In each Dirac bracket we only find highest order terms (as explained in the paper), defining a saturated algebra. We generalize the results for the presence of a Wess-Zumino term. The algebra is very similar to the previous one, containing now a calculable correction of order one unit lower.

  16. Adjustable third-order nonlinear optical properties of the spin coating phenoxazinium–PMMA films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miao, Jia-Tao; Sun, Ru; Yan, Bao-Long; Wu, Xing-Zhi; Song, Ying-Lin; Lu, Jian-Mei; Ge, Jian-Feng

    2014-01-01

    The third-order nonlinear optical properties of spin coating poly(methyl methacrylate) films doped with 3,7-bis(diethylamino)phenoxazin-5-ium chloride (1) are reported. The third-order nonlinear optical properties were tested by Z-scan technology with nanosecond laser beam at 532 nm. The third-order nonlinear absorptions change from reverse saturation absorption to saturation absorption with increasing percentage of the phenoxazinium dye in the poly(methyl methacrylate) film. The different forms of the spin coating films were obtained by atomic force microscopy and transmission electron microscope, and the different aggregation phenomenon of the phenoxazinium in the films can explain the adjustable third-order nonlinear absorption phenomena. Moreover, large third-order nonlinear optical susceptibilities (up to 10 −7  esu) and high second hyperpolarizabilities (up to 10 −28  esu) are found with these films. The results indicate that the phenoxazinium dye is the potential material for the third-order nonlinear optical application. - Highlights: • Third-order NLO properties of the phenoxazinium doped PMMA films were obtained. • Reverse saturated absorption changes to saturated absorption by the different percentage of phenoxazinium in the PMMA films. • Different states of films were obtained

  17. Study of Nonlinear Propagation of Ultrashort Laser Pulses and Its Application to Harmonic Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weerawarne, Darshana L.

    Laser filamentation, which is one of the exotic nonlinear optical phenomena, is self-guidance of high-power laser beams due to the dynamic balance between the optical Kerr effect (self-focusing) and other nonlinear effects such as plasma defocusing. It has many applications including supercontinuum generation (SCG), high-order harmonic generation (HHG), lightning guiding, stand-off sensing, and rain making. The main focus of this work is on studying odd-order harmonic generation (HG) (i.e., 3o, 5o, 7o, etc., where o is the angular frequency) in centrosymmetric media while a high-power, ultrashort harmonic-driving pulse undergoes nonlinear propagation such as laser filamentation. The investigation of highly-controversial nonlinear indices of refraction by measuring low-order HG in air is carried out. Furthermore, time-resolved (i.e., pump-probe) experiments and significant harmonic enhancements are presented and a novel HG mechanism based on higher-order nonlinearities is proposed to explain the experimental results. C/C++ numerical simulations are used to solve the nonlinear Schrodinger equation (NLSE) which supports the experimental findings. Another project which I have performed is selective sintering using lasers. Short-pulse lasers provide a fascinating tool for material processing, especially when the conventional oven-based techniques fail to process flexible materials for smart energy/electronics applications. I present experimental and theoretical studies on laser processing of nanoparticle-coated flexible materials, aiming to fabricate flexible electronic devices.

  18. Econometric testing on linear and nonlinear dynamic relation between stock prices and macroeconomy in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borjigin, Sumuya; Yang, Yating; Yang, Xiaoguang; Sun, Leilei

    2018-03-01

    Many researchers have realized that there is a strong correlation between stock prices and macroeconomy. In order to make this relationship clear, a lot of studies have been done. However, the causal relationship between stock prices and macroeconomy has still not been well explained. A key point is that, most of the existing research adopts linear and stable models to investigate the correlation of stock prices and macroeconomy, while the real causality of that may be nonlinear and dynamic. To fill this research gap, we investigate the nonlinear and dynamic causal relationships between stock prices and macroeconomy. Based on the case of China's stock prices and acroeconomy measures from January 1992 to March 2017, we compare the linear Granger causality test models with nonlinear ones. Results demonstrate that the nonlinear dynamic Granger causality is much stronger than linear Granger causality. From the perspective of nonlinear dynamic Granger causality, China's stock prices can be viewed as "national economic barometer". On the one hand, this study will encourage researchers to take nonlinearity and dynamics into account when they investigate the correlation of stock prices and macroeconomy; on the other hand, our research can guide regulators and investors to make better decisions.

  19. Nonlinear optical crystals a complete survey

    CERN Document Server

    Nikogosyan, David N

    2005-01-01

    Nonlinear optical crystals are widely used in modern optical science and technology for frequency conversion of laser light, i.e. to generate laser radiation at any specific wavelength in visible, UV or IR spectral regions. This unrivalled reference book contains the most complete and up-to-date information on properties of nonlinear optical crystals. It includes: * Database of 63 common and novel nonlinear optical crystals * Periodically-poled and self-frequency-doubling materials * Full description of linear and nonlinear optical properties * Significant amount of crystallophysical, thermophysical, spectroscopic, electro-optic and magneto-optic information * 7 mini-reviews on novel applications, such as deep-UV light generation, terahertz-wave generation, ultrashort laser pulse compression, photonic band-gap crystals, x3 nonlinearity, etc. * More than 1500 different references with full titles It is a vital source of information for scientists and engineers dealing with modern applications of nonlinear opti...

  20. Mathematical modeling and applications in nonlinear dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Merdan, Hüseyin

    2016-01-01

    The book covers nonlinear physical problems and mathematical modeling, including molecular biology, genetics, neurosciences, artificial intelligence with classical problems in mechanics and astronomy and physics. The chapters present nonlinear mathematical modeling in life science and physics through nonlinear differential equations, nonlinear discrete equations and hybrid equations. Such modeling can be effectively applied to the wide spectrum of nonlinear physical problems, including the KAM (Kolmogorov-Arnold-Moser (KAM)) theory, singular differential equations, impulsive dichotomous linear systems, analytical bifurcation trees of periodic motions, and almost or pseudo- almost periodic solutions in nonlinear dynamical systems. Provides methods for mathematical models with switching, thresholds, and impulses, each of particular importance for discontinuous processes Includes qualitative analysis of behaviors on Tumor-Immune Systems and methods of analysis for DNA, neural networks and epidemiology Introduces...

  1. A nonlinear plate control without linearization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yildirim Kenan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an optimal vibration control problem for a nonlinear plate is considered. In order to obtain the optimal control function, wellposedness and controllability of the nonlinear system is investigated. The performance index functional of the system, to be minimized by minimum level of control, is chosen as the sum of the quadratic 10 functional of the displacement. The velocity of the plate and quadratic functional of the control function is added to the performance index functional as a penalty term. By using a maximum principle, the nonlinear control problem is transformed to solving a system of partial differential equations including state and adjoint variables linked by initial-boundary-terminal conditions. Hence, it is shown that optimal control of the nonlinear systems can be obtained without linearization of the nonlinear term and optimal control function can be obtained analytically for nonlinear systems without linearization.

  2. Artificial Nonlinearity Generated from Electromagnetic Coupling Metamolecule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Yongzheng; Zhou, Ji

    2017-04-01

    A purely artificial mechanism for optical nonlinearity is proposed based on a metamaterial route. The mechanism is derived from classical electromagnetic interaction in a metamolecule consisting of a cut-wire meta-atom nested within a split-ring meta-atom. Induced by the localized magnetic field in the split-ring meta-atom, the magnetic force drives an anharmonic oscillation of free electrons in the cut-wire meta-atom, generating an intrinsically nonlinear electromagnetic response. An explicit physical process of a second-order nonlinear behavior is adequately described, which is perfectly demonstrated with a series of numerical simulations. Instead of "borrowing" from natural nonlinear materials, this novel mechanism of optical nonlinearity is artificially dominated by the metamolecule geometry and possesses unprecedented design freedom, offering fascinating possibilities to the research and application of nonlinear optics.

  3. Numerical treatment of a nonlinear hyperbolic equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabiha Brik

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work we consider a nonlinear elliptic partial differential equation, which is derived from an application of a nonlinear Schrödinger equation. Using a variational approach on this problem leads to an optimization problem with a nonlinear constraint. A numerical solution based on finite-element method is used. We propose a new iterative algorithm to relax this problem to a quadratic version.

  4. Nonlinear optical interactions in silicon waveguides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuyken B.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The strong nonlinear response of silicon photonic nanowire waveguides allows for the integration of nonlinear optical functions on a chip. However, the detrimental nonlinear optical absorption in silicon at telecom wavelengths limits the efficiency of many such experiments. In this review, several approaches are proposed and demonstrated to overcome this fundamental issue. By using the proposed methods, we demonstrate amongst others supercontinuum generation, frequency comb generation, a parametric optical amplifier, and a parametric optical oscillator.

  5. Dimensional Reduction of Nonlinear Gauge Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Noriaki; Izawa, K.-I.

    2004-09-01

    We extend 2D nonlinear gauge theory from the Poisson sigma model based on Lie algebroid to a model with additional two-form gauge fields. Dimensional reduction of 3D nonlinear gauge theory yields an example of such a model, which provides a realization of Courant algebroid by 2D nonlinear gauge theory. We see that the reduction of the base structure generically results in a modification of the target (algebroid) structure.

  6. Multiple Steps Prediction with Nonlinear ARX Models

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Qinghua; Ljung, Lennart

    2007-01-01

    NLARX (NonLinear AutoRegressive with eXogenous inputs) models are frequently used in black-box nonlinear system identication. Though it is easy to make one step ahead prediction with such models, multiple steps prediction is far from trivial. The main difficulty is that in general there is no easy way to compute the mathematical expectation of an output conditioned by past measurements. An optimal solution would require intensive numerical computations related to nonlinear filltering. The pur...

  7. Nonlinearities in Josephson-photonics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubala, Bjoern; Ankerhold, Joachim [Institute for Complex Quantum Systems and IQST, Ulm University, Ulm (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Embedding a voltage-biased Josephson junction within a high-Q superconducting microwave cavity provides a new way to explore the interplay of the tunneling transfer of charges and the emission and absorption of light. While for weak driving the system can be reduced to simple cases, such as a (damped) harmonic or parametric oscillator, the inherent nonlinearity of the Josephson junction allows to access regimes of strongly non-linear quantum dynamics. Classically, dynamical phenomena such as thresholds for higher-order resonances, other bifurcations, and up- and down-conversion have been found. Here, we will investigate how and to which extent these features appear in the deep quantum regime, where charge quantization effects are crucial. Theory allows to employ phase-space quantities, such as the Wigner-density of the cavity mode(s), but also observables amenable to more immediate experimental access, such as correlations in light emission and charge transport, to probe these novel non-equilibrium transitions.

  8. Nonlinear spectroscopy of trapped ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlawin, Frank; Gessner, Manuel; Mukamel, Shaul; Buchleitner, Andreas

    2014-08-01

    Nonlinear spectroscopy employs a series of laser pulses to interrogate dynamics in large interacting many-body systems, and it has become a highly successful method for experiments in chemical physics. Current quantum optical experiments approach system sizes and levels of complexity that require the development of efficient techniques to assess spectral and dynamical features with scalable experimental overhead. However, established methods from optical spectroscopy of macroscopic ensembles cannot be applied straightforwardly to few-atom systems. Based on the ideas proposed in M. Gessner et al., (arXiv:1312.3365), we develop a diagrammatic approach to construct nonlinear measurement protocols for controlled quantum systems, and we discuss experimental implementations with trapped ion technology in detail. These methods, in combination with distinct features of ultracold-matter systems, allow us to monitor and analyze excitation dynamics in both the electronic and vibrational degrees of freedom. They are independent of system size, and they can therefore reliably probe systems in which, e.g., quantum state tomography becomes prohibitively expensive. We propose signals that can probe steady-state currents, detect the influence of anharmonicities on phonon transport, and identify signatures of chaotic dynamics near a quantum phase transition in an Ising-type spin chain.

  9. Nonlinear generalization of special relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winterberg, F.

    1985-01-01

    In Poincares axiomatic formulation special relativity is a derived consequence of a true Lorentz contraction, for a rod in absolute motion through a substratum. Furthermore, Lorentz had shown that the rod contraction can be understood by an inverse square law interaction and therefore special relativity derived from more fundamental principles. The derivation by Lorentz shows that the root of the divergence problems is the singular inverse square law. By replacing the inverse square law with a regular one through the introduction of a finite length, the author has succeeded in deriving a nonlinear generalization of special relativity which eliminates all infinities. Besides the relative velocities, these nonlinear transformation equations also contain absolute velocities against a substratum, but in the limit of small energies they go over into the linear Lorentz transformations. Depending on the smallness of the fundamental length, departures from special relativity can be observed only at very high energies. The theorem that the velocity of light is the same in all reference systems still holds and likewise the conservation laws for energy and momentum

  10. Nonlinear optics quantum computing with circuit QED.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Prabin; Hafezi, Mohammad; Taylor, J M

    2013-02-08

    One approach to quantum information processing is to use photons as quantum bits and rely on linear optical elements for most operations. However, some optical nonlinearity is necessary to enable universal quantum computing. Here, we suggest a circuit-QED approach to nonlinear optics quantum computing in the microwave regime, including a deterministic two-photon phase gate. Our specific example uses a hybrid quantum system comprising a LC resonator coupled to a superconducting flux qubit to implement a nonlinear coupling. Compared to the self-Kerr nonlinearity, we find that our approach has improved tolerance to noise in the qubit while maintaining fast operation.

  11. Fast nonlinear susceptibility inversion with variational regularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milovic, Carlos; Bilgic, Berkin; Zhao, Bo; Acosta-Cabronero, Julio; Tejos, Cristian

    2018-01-10

    Quantitative susceptibility mapping can be performed through the minimization of a function consisting of data fidelity and regularization terms. For data consistency, a Gaussian-phase noise distribution is often assumed, which breaks down when the signal-to-noise ratio is low. A previously proposed alternative is to use a nonlinear data fidelity term, which reduces streaking artifacts, mitigates noise amplification, and results in more accurate susceptibility estimates. We hereby present a novel algorithm that solves the nonlinear functional while achieving computation speeds comparable to those for a linear formulation. We developed a nonlinear quantitative susceptibility mapping algorithm (fast nonlinear susceptibility inversion) based on the variable splitting and alternating direction method of multipliers, in which the problem is split into simpler subproblems with closed-form solutions and a decoupled nonlinear inversion hereby solved with a Newton-Raphson iterative procedure. Fast nonlinear susceptibility inversion performance was assessed using numerical phantom and in vivo experiments, and was compared against the nonlinear morphology-enabled dipole inversion method. Fast nonlinear susceptibility inversion achieves similar accuracy to nonlinear morphology-enabled dipole inversion but with significantly improved computational efficiency. The proposed method enables accurate reconstructions in a fraction of the time required by state-of-the-art quantitative susceptibility mapping methods. Magn Reson Med, 2018. © 2018 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2018 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  12. Nonlinear acceleration of transport criticality problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, H.; Knoll, D.A.; Newman, C.K.

    2011-01-01

    We present a nonlinear acceleration algorithm for the transport criticality problem. The algorithm combines the well-known nonlinear diffusion acceleration (NDA) with a recently developed, Newton-based, nonlinear criticality acceleration (NCA) algorithm. The algorithm first employs the NDA to reduce the system to scalar flux, then the NCA is applied to the resulting drift-diffusion system. We apply a nonlinear elimination technique to eliminate the eigenvalue from the Jacobian matrix. Numerical results show that the algorithm reduces the CPU time a factor of 400 in a very diffusive system, and a factor of 5 in a non-diffusive system. (author)

  13. Chaos and Structures in Nonlinear Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, James

    In recent decades, the concepts and applications of chaos, complexity, and nonlinear dynamics have profoundly influenced scientific as well as literary thinking. Some aspects of these concepts are used in almost all of the geophysical disciplines. Chaos and Structures in Nonlinear Plasmas, written by two respected plasma physicists, focuses on nonlinear phenomena in laboratory and space plasmas, which are rich in nonlinear and complex collective effects. Chaos is treated only insofar as it relates to some aspects of nonlinear plasma physics.At the outset, the authors note that plasma physics research has made fundamental contributions to modern nonlinear sciences. For example, the Poincare surface of section technique was extensively used in studies of stochastic field lines in magnetically confined plasmas and turbulence. More generally, nonlinearity in plasma waves and wave-wave and wave-particle interactions critically determines the propagation of energy through a plasma medium. The book also makes it clear that the importance of understanding nonlinear waves goes beyond plasma physics, extending to such diverse fields as solid state physics, fluid dynamics, atmospheric physics, and optics. In space physics, non-linear plasma physics is essential for interpreting in situ as well as remote-sensing data.

  14. Nonlinear dynamics of resistive electrostatic drift waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsholm, Søren Bang; Michelsen, Poul; Pécseli, H.L.

    1999-01-01

    The evolution of weakly nonlinear electrostatic drift waves in an externally imposed strong homogeneous magnetic field is investigated numerically in three spatial dimensions. The analysis is based on a set of coupled, nonlinear equations, which are solved for an initial condition which is pertur......The evolution of weakly nonlinear electrostatic drift waves in an externally imposed strong homogeneous magnetic field is investigated numerically in three spatial dimensions. The analysis is based on a set of coupled, nonlinear equations, which are solved for an initial condition which...... polarity, i.e. a pair of electrostatic convective cells....

  15. Nonlinear Photonics and Novel Optical Phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Morandotti, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    Nonlinear Photonics and Novel Optical Phenomena contains contributed chapters from leading experts in nonlinear optics and photonics, and provides a comprehensive survey of fundamental concepts as well as hot topics in current research on nonlinear optical waves and related novel phenomena. The book covers self-accelerating airy beams, integrated photonics based on high index doped-silica glass, linear and nonlinear spatial beam dynamics in photonic lattices and waveguide arrays, polariton solitons and localized structures in semiconductor microcavities, terahertz waves, and other novel phenomena in different nanophotonic and optical systems.

  16. Model Updating Nonlinear System Identification Toolbox Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ZONA Technology (ZONA) proposes to develop an enhanced model updating nonlinear system identification (MUNSID) methodology that utilizes flight data with...

  17. Nonlinear Gossip Algorithms for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Shi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We study some nonlinear gossip algorithms for wireless sensor networks. Firstly, two types of nonlinear single gossip algorithms are proposed. By using Lyapunov theory, Lagrange mean value theorem, and stochastic Lasalle’s invariance principle, we prove that the nonlinear single gossip algorithms can converge to the average of initial states with probability one. Secondly, two types of nonlinear multigossip algorithms are also presented and the convergence is proved by the same methods. Finally, computer simulation is also given to show the validity of the theoretical results.

  18. The scaled boundary FEM for nonlinear problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhiliang; Liao, Shijun

    2011-01-01

    The traditional scaled boundary finite-element method (SBFEM) is a rather efficient semi-analytical technique widely applied in engineering, which is however valid mostly for linear differential equations. In this paper, the traditional SBFEM is combined with the homotopy analysis method (HAM), an analytic technique for strongly nonlinear problems: a nonlinear equation is first transformed into a series of linear equations by means of the HAM, and then solved by the traditional SBFEM. In this way, the traditional SBFEM is extended to nonlinear differential equations. A nonlinear heat transfer problem is used as an example to show the validity and computational efficiency of this new SBFEM.

  19. Single-ion nonlinear mechanical oscillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akerman, N.; Kotler, S.; Glickman, Y.; Dallal, Y.; Keselman, A.; Ozeri, R.

    2010-01-01

    We study the steady-state motion of a single trapped ion oscillator driven to the nonlinear regime. Damping is achieved via Doppler laser cooling. The ion motion is found to be well described by the Duffing oscillator model with an additional nonlinear damping term. We demonstrate here the unique ability of tuning both the linear as well as the nonlinear damping coefficients by controlling the laser-cooling parameters. Our observations pave the way for the investigation of nonlinear dynamics on the quantum-to-classical interface as well as mechanical noise squeezing in laser-cooling dynamics.

  20. Unidirectional transmission in 1D nonlinear photonic crystal based on topological phase reversal by optical nonlinearity

    OpenAIRE

    Chong Li; Xiaoyong Hu; Hong Yang; Qihuang Gong

    2017-01-01

    We propose a scheme of unidirectional transmission in a 1D nonlinear topological photonic crystal based on the topological edge state and three order optical nonlinearity. The 1D photonic crystals consists of a nonlinear photonic crystal L and a linear photonic crystal R. In the backward direction, light is totally reflected for the photons transmission prohibited by the bandgap. While in the forward direction, light interacts with the nonlinear photonic crystal L by optical Kerr effect, brin...

  1. Effect of foundation nonlinearity on the nonlinear transient response of orthotropic shallow spherical shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, R.K.; Nath, Y.

    1986-01-01

    Interaction of clamped orthotropic shallow spherical shells with nonlinear elastic foundations is studied under transient loads. The effect of softening and hardening foundation nonlinearities on the response behaviour of shallow shells has been investigated. Detailed analysis depicting the influence of hardening type foundation nonlinearity on the maximum response of orthotropic shallow spherical shells has been conducted. The numerical results suggest that for the shell-foundation interaction problems undergoing moderately large deformations, the nonlinear model for the foundation must be considered. (orig.) [de

  2. The variance of the locally measured Hubble parameter explained with different estimators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odderskov, Io; Hannestad, Steen; Brandbyge, Jacob

    2017-01-01

    We study the expected variance of measurements of the Hubble constant, H0, as calculated in either linear perturbation theory or using non-linear velocity power spectra derived from N-body simulations. We compare the variance with that obtained by carrying out mock observations in the N-body simu......We study the expected variance of measurements of the Hubble constant, H0, as calculated in either linear perturbation theory or using non-linear velocity power spectra derived from N-body simulations. We compare the variance with that obtained by carrying out mock observations in the N......-body simulations, and show that the estimator typically used for the local Hubble constant in studies based on perturbation theory is different from the one used in studies based on N-body simulations. The latter gives larger weight to distant sources, which explains why studies based on N-body simulations tend...... of the percent determination of the Hubble constant in the local universe....

  3. Bivariate return periods of temperature and precipitation explain a large fraction of European crop yields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zscheischler, Jakob; Orth, Rene; Seneviratne, Sonia I.

    2017-07-01

    Crops are vital for human society. Crop yields vary with climate and it is important to understand how climate and crop yields are linked to ensure future food security. Temperature and precipitation are among the key driving factors of crop yield variability. Previous studies have investigated mostly linear relationships between temperature and precipitation and crop yield variability. Other research has highlighted the adverse impacts of climate extremes, such as drought and heat waves, on crop yields. Impacts are, however, often non-linearly related to multivariate climate conditions. Here we derive bivariate return periods of climate conditions as indicators for climate variability along different temperature-precipitation gradients. We show that in Europe, linear models based on bivariate return periods of specific climate conditions explain on average significantly more crop yield variability (42 %) than models relying directly on temperature and precipitation as predictors (36 %). Our results demonstrate that most often crop yields increase along a gradient from hot and dry to cold and wet conditions, with lower yields associated with hot and dry periods. The majority of crops are most sensitive to climate conditions in summer and to maximum temperatures. The use of bivariate return periods allows the integration of non-linear impacts into climate-crop yield analysis. This offers new avenues to study the link between climate and crop yield variability and suggests that they are possibly more strongly related than what is inferred from conventional linear models.

  4. Second Order Nonlinear Hydroelastic Analyses of Floating Bodies - the Primary Consideration of Nonlinear Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, X.; Cui, W.; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    2003-01-01

    The theory and typical numerical results of a second order nonlinear hydroelastic analysis of floating bodies are presented in a series of papers in which only nonlinearity in fluids is considered. Under the assumption of linear fluid, the hydroelastic analysis methods of nonlinear structure are ...

  5. Few-cycle nonlinear mid-IR pulse generated with cascaded quadratic nonlinearities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bache, Morten; Liu, Xing; Zhou, Binbin

    Generating few-cycle energetic and broadband mid-IR pulses is an urgent current challenge in nonlinear optics. Cascaded second-harmonic generation (SHG) gives access to an ultrafast and octave-spanning self-defocusing nonlinearity: when ΔkL >> 2π the pump experiences a Kerr-like nonlinear index...

  6. Noise in nonlinear nanoelectromechanical resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra Vidal, Diego N.

    Nano-Electro-Mechanical Systems (NEMS), due to their nanometer scale size, possess a number of desirable attributes: high sensitivity to applied forces, fast response times, high resonance frequencies and low power consumption. However, ultra small size and low power handling result in unwanted consequences: smaller signal size and higher dissipation, making the NEMS devices more susceptible to external and intrinsic noise. The simplest version of a NEMS, a suspended nanomechanical structure with two distinct excitation states, can be used as an archetypal two state system to study a plethora of fundamental phenomena such as Duffing nonlinearity, stochastic resonance, and macroscopic quantum tunneling at low temperatures. From a technical perspective, there are numerous applications such nanomechanical memory elements, microwave switches and nanomechanical computation. The control and manipulation of the mechanical response of these two state systems can be realized by exploiting a (seemingly) counterintuitive physical phenomenon, Stochastic Resonance: in a noisy nonlinear mechanical system, the presence of noise can enhance the system response to an external stimulus. This Thesis is mainly dedicated to study possible applications of Stochastic Resonance in two-state nanomechanical systems. First, on chip signal amplification by 1/falpha is observed. The effectiveness of the noise assisted amplification is observed to decrease with increasing a. Experimental evidence shows an increase in asymmetry between the two states with increasing noise color. Considering the prevalence of 1/f alpha noise in the materials in integrated circuits, the signal enhancement demonstrated here, suggests beneficial use of the otherwise detrimental noise. Finally, a nanomechanical device, operating as a reprogrammable logic gate, and performing fundamental logic functions such as AND/OR and NAND/NOR is presented. The logic function can be programmed (from AND to OR) dynamically, by

  7. Phenomenology of coupled nonlinear oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estevez-Rams, E.; Estevez-Moya, D.; Aragón-Fernández, B.

    2018-02-01

    A recently introduced model of coupled nonlinear oscillators in a ring is revisited in terms of its information processing capabilities. The use of Lempel-Ziv based entropic measures allows to study thoroughly the complex patterns appearing in the system for different values of the control parameters. Such behaviors, resembling cellular automata, have been characterized both spatially and temporally. Information distance is used to study the stability of the system to perturbations in the initial conditions and in the control parameters. The latter is not an issue in cellular automata theory, where the rules form a numerable set, contrary to the continuous nature of the parameter space in the system studied in this contribution. The variation in the density of the digits, as a function of time is also studied. Local transitions in the control parameter space are also discussed.

  8. Nonlinear control of magnetic bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradeep, A. K.; Gurumoorthy, R.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper we present a variety of nonlinear controllers for the magnetic bearing that ensure both stability and robustness. We utilize techniques of discontinuous control to design novel control laws for the magnetic bearing. We present in particular sliding mode controllers, time optimal controllers, winding algorithm based controllers, nested switching controllers, fractional controllers, and synchronous switching controllers for the magnetic bearing. We show existence of solutions to systems governed by discontinuous control laws, and prove stability and robustness of the chosen control laws in a rigorous setting. We design sliding mode observers for the magnetic bearing and prove the convergence of the state estimates to their true values. We present simulation results of the performance of the magnetic bearing subject to the aforementioned control laws, and conclude with comments on design.

  9. Nonlinear, tunable and active metamaterials

    CERN Document Server

    Lapine, Mikhail; Kivshar, Yuri

    2015-01-01

    Metamaterials, artificial electromagnetic media achieved by structuring on the subwave-length-scale were initially suggested for the negative index and superlensing. They became a paradigm for engineering electromagnetic space and controlling propagation of waves. The research agenda is now shifting on achieving tuneable, switchable, nonlinear and sensing functionalities. The time has come to talk about the emerging research field of metadevices employing active and tunable metamaterials with unique functionalities achieved by structuring of functional matter on the subwave-length scale. This book presents the first systematic and comprehensive summary of the reviews written by the pioneers and top-class experts in the field of metamaterials. It addresses many grand challenges of the cutting edge research for creating smaller and more efficient photonic structures and devices.

  10. Oscillating nonlinear acoustic shock waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaididei, Yuri; Rasmussen, Anders Rønne; Christiansen, Peter Leth

    2016-01-01

    We investigate oscillating shock waves in a tube using a higher order weakly nonlinear acoustic model. The model includes thermoviscous effects and is non isentropic. The oscillating shock waves are generated at one end of the tube by a sinusoidal driver. Numerical simulations show...... that at resonance a stationary state arise consisting of multiple oscillating shock waves. Off resonance driving leads to a nearly linear oscillating ground state but superimposed by bursts of a fast oscillating shock wave. Based on a travelling wave ansatz for the fluid velocity potential with an added 2'nd order...... polynomial in the space and time variables, we find analytical approximations to the observed single shock waves in an infinitely long tube. Using perturbation theory for the driven acoustic system approximative analytical solutions for the off resonant case are determined....

  11. Nonlinear image filtering within IDP++

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehman, S.K.; Wieting, M.G.; Brase, J.M.

    1995-02-09

    IDP++, image and data processing in C++, is a set of a signal processing libraries written in C++. It is a multi-dimension (up to four dimensions), multi-data type (implemented through templates) signal processing extension to C++. IDP++ takes advantage of the object-oriented compiler technology to provide ``information hiding.`` Users need only know C, not C++. Signals or data sets are treated like any other variable with a defined set of operators and functions. We here some examples of the nonlinear filter library within IDP++. Specifically, the results of MIN, MAX median, {alpha}-trimmed mean, and edge-trimmed mean filters as applied to a real aperture radar (RR) and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data set.

  12. Nonlinear stability of supersonic jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, S. N. (Principal Investigator); Bhat, T. R. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    The stability calculations made for a shock-free supersonic jet using the model based on parabolized stability equations are presented. In this analysis the large scale structures, which play a dominant role in the mixing as well as the noise radiated, are modeled as instability waves. This model takes into consideration non-parallel flow effects and also nonlinear interaction of the instability waves. The stability calculations have been performed for different frequencies and mode numbers over a range of jet operating temperatures. Comparisons are made, where appropriate, with the solutions to Rayleigh's equation (linear, inviscid analysis with the assumption of parallel flow). The comparison of the solutions obtained using the two approaches show very good agreement.

  13. ANDRomeda: adaptive nonlinear dimensionality reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchette, David J.; Priebe, Carey E.

    2000-03-01

    Standard approaches for the classification of high dimensional data require the selection of features, the projection of the features to a lower dimensional space, and the construction of the classifier in the lower dimensional space. Two fundamental issues arise in determining an appropriate projection to a lower dimensional space: the target dimensionality for the projection must be determined, and a particular projection must be selected from a specified family. We present an algorithm which is designed specifically for classification task and addresses both these issues. The family of nonlinear projections considered is based on interpoint distances - in particular, we consider point-to-subset distances. Our algorithm selects both the number of subsets to use and the subsets themselves. The methodology is applied to an artificial nose odorant classification task.

  14. Nonlinear Diffusion and Transient Osmosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igarashi, Akira; Rondoni, Lamberto; Botrugno, Antonio; Pizzi, Marco

    2011-01-01

    We investigate both analytically and numerically the concentration dynamics of a solution in two containers connected by a narrow and short channel, in which diffusion obeys a porous medium equation. We also consider the variation of the pressure in the containers due to the flow of matter in the channel. In particular, we identify a phenomenon, which depends on the transport of matter across nano-porous membranes, which we call ''transient osmosis . We find that nonlinear diffusion of the porous medium equation type allows numerous different osmotic-like phenomena, which are not present in the case of ordinary Fickian diffusion. Experimental results suggest one possible candidate for transiently osmotic processes. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  15. NONLINEAR ASTEROSEISMOLOGY OF RR LYRAE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molnar, L.; Kollath, Z.; Szabo, R. [Konkoly Observatory, MTA CSFK, H-1121 Budapest, Konkoly Thege Miklos ut 15-17 (Hungary); Bryson, S.; Mullally, F.; Thompson, S. E. [NASA Ames Research Center, MS 244-30, Moffet Field, CA 94035 (United States); Kolenberg, K., E-mail: molnar.laszlo@csfk.mta.hu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge MA 02138 (United States)

    2012-09-20

    The observations of the Kepler Space Telescope revealed that fundamental-mode RR Lyrae stars may show various radial overtones. The presence of multiple radial modes may allow us to conduct nonlinear asteroseismology: comparison of mode amplitudes and frequency shifts between observations and models. Here we report the detection of three radial modes in the star RR Lyr, the eponym of the class, using the Kepler short cadence data: besides the fundamental mode, both the first and the ninth overtones can be derived from the data set. RR Lyrae shows period doubling, but switches occasionally to a state where a pattern of six pulsation cycles repeats instead of two. We found hydrodynamic models that show the same three modes and the period-six state, allowing for comparison with the observations.

  16. Fluctuating nonlinear hydrodynamics of flocking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Sunil Kumar; Das, Shankar P.

    2018-03-01

    Starting from a microscopic model, the continuum field theoretic description of the dynamics of a system of active ingredients or "particles" is presented. The equations of motion for the respective collective densities of mass and momentum follow exactly from that of a single element in the flock. The single-particle dynamics has noise and anomalous momentum dependence in its frictional terms. The equations for the collective densities are averaged over a local equilibrium distribution to obtain the corresponding coarse grained equations of fluctuating nonlinear hydrodynamics (FNH). The latter are the equations used frequently for describing active systems on the basis of intuitive arguments. The transport coefficients which appear in the macroscopic FNH equations are determined in terms of the parameters of the microscopic dynamics.

  17. Nonlinear behaviour of cantilevered carbon nanotube resonators based on a new nonlinear electrostatic load model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farokhi, Hamed; Païdoussis, Michael P.; Misra, Arun K.

    2018-04-01

    The present study examines the nonlinear behaviour of a cantilevered carbon nanotube (CNT) resonator and its mass detection sensitivity, employing a new nonlinear electrostatic load model. More specifically, a 3D finite element model is developed in order to obtain the electrostatic load distribution on cantilevered CNT resonators. A new nonlinear electrostatic load model is then proposed accounting for the end effects due to finite length. Additionally, a new nonlinear size-dependent continuum model is developed for the cantilevered CNT resonator, employing the modified couple stress theory (to account for size-effects) together with the Kelvin-Voigt model (to account for nonlinear damping); the size-dependent model takes into account all sources of nonlinearity, i.e. geometrical and inertial nonlinearities as well as nonlinearities associated with damping, small-scale, and electrostatic load. The nonlinear equation of motion of the cantilevered CNT resonator is obtained based on the new models developed for the CNT resonator and the electrostatic load. The Galerkin method is then applied to the nonlinear equation of motion, resulting in a set of nonlinear ordinary differential equations, consisting of geometrical, inertial, electrical, damping, and size-dependent nonlinear terms. This high-dimensional nonlinear discretized model is solved numerically utilizing the pseudo-arclength continuation technique. The nonlinear static and dynamic responses of the system are examined for various cases, investigating the effect of DC and AC voltages, length-scale parameter, nonlinear damping, and electrostatic load. Moreover, the mass detection sensitivity of the system is examined for possible application of the CNT resonator as a nanosensor.

  18. Nonlinear control of magnetic signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemoczynski, Bogdan

    Magnetic properties of ferrite structures are known to cause fluctuations in Earth's magnetic field around the object. These fluctuations are known as the object's magnetic signature and are unique based on the object's geometry and material. It is a common practice to neutralize magnetic signatures periodically after certain time intervals, however there is a growing interest to develop real time degaussing systems for various applications. Development of real time degaussing system is a challenging problem because of magnetic hysteresis and difficulties in measurement or estimation of near-field flux data. The goal of this research is to develop a real time feedback control system that can be used to minimize magnetic signatures for ferrite structures. Experimental work on controlling the magnetic signature of a cylindrical steel shell structure with a magnetic disturbance provided evidence that the control process substantially increased the interior magnetic flux. This means near field estimation using interior sensor data is likely to be inaccurate. Follow up numerical work for rectangular and cylindrical cross sections investigated variations in shell wall flux density under a variety of ambient excitation and applied disturbances. Results showed magnetic disturbances could corrupt interior sensor data and magnetic shielding due to the shell walls makes the interior very sensitive to noise. The magnetic flux inside the shell wall showed little variation due to inner disturbances and its high base value makes it less susceptible to noise. This research proceeds to describe a nonlinear controller to use the shell wall data as an input. A nonlinear plant model of magnetics is developed using a constant tau to represent domain rotation lag and a gain function k to describe the magnetic hysteresis curve for the shell wall. The model is justified by producing hysteresis curves for multiple materials, matching experimental data using a particle swarm algorithm, and

  19. NLINEAR - NONLINEAR CURVE FITTING PROGRAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everhart, J. L.

    1994-01-01

    A common method for fitting data is a least-squares fit. In the least-squares method, a user-specified fitting function is utilized in such a way as to minimize the sum of the squares of distances between the data points and the fitting curve. The Nonlinear Curve Fitting Program, NLINEAR, is an interactive curve fitting routine based on a description of the quadratic expansion of the chi-squared statistic. NLINEAR utilizes a nonlinear optimization algorithm that calculates the best statistically weighted values of the parameters of the fitting function and the chi-square that is to be minimized. The inputs to the program are the mathematical form of the fitting function and the initial values of the parameters to be estimated. This approach provides the user with statistical information such as goodness of fit and estimated values of parameters that produce the highest degree of correlation between the experimental data and the mathematical model. In the mathematical formulation of the algorithm, the Taylor expansion of chi-square is first introduced, and justification for retaining only the first term are presented. From the expansion, a set of n simultaneous linear equations are derived, which are solved by matrix algebra. To achieve convergence, the algorithm requires meaningful initial estimates for the parameters of the fitting function. NLINEAR is written in Fortran 77 for execution on a CDC Cyber 750 under NOS 2.3. It has a central memory requirement of 5K 60 bit words. Optionally, graphical output of the fitting function can be plotted. Tektronix PLOT-10 routines are required for graphics. NLINEAR was developed in 1987.

  20. Higher harmonic generation in nonlinear waveguides of arbitrary cross-section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Ankit; Bartoli, Ivan; Salamone, Salvatore; Lanza di Scalea, Francesco

    2010-05-01

    This article concerns the generation and properties of double harmonics in nonlinear isotropic waveguides of complex cross-section. Analytical solutions of nonlinear Rayleigh-Lamb waves and rod waves have been known for some time. These solutions explain the phenomenon of cumulative double harmonic generation of guided waves. These solutions, however, are only applicable to simple geometries. This paper combines the general approach of the analytical solutions with semi-analytical finite element models to generalize the method to more complex geometries, specifically waveguides with arbitrary cross-sections. Supporting comparisons with analytical solutions are presented for simple cases. This is followed by the study of the case of a rail track. One reason for studying nonlinear guided waves in rails is the potential measurement of thermal stresses in welded rail.

  1. Evidence for Nonlinear VLF Wave Physics from Van Allen Probe Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crabtree, C. E.; Tejero, E. M.; Ganguli, G.; Hospodarsky, G. B.; Kletzing, C.

    2015-12-01

    VLF waves in the whistler mode branch in the Earth's radiation belts play a critical role in both the acceleration and loss of energetic electrons. VLF waves are often observed with magnetic field amplitudes that are a significant fraction of the background magnetic field suggesting that nonlinear effects may be important. We develop new Bayesian time-series analysis tools to investigate magnetic and electric field data from the EMFISIS instrument on board the Van Allen Probes. We also validate the analysis techniques through laboratory experiments. We apply these tools to Chorus waves to show that the picture of a single coherent plane wave is insufficient to explain EMFISIS data and that nonlinear collective wave interactions play an important role in moderating Chorus wave growth. We also apply these techniques to show that nonlinear induced scattering by thermal electrons can play a significant role in controlling the propagation of large amplitude lightning generated whistlers inside the plasmasphere.

  2. Three types magnetic moment distribution of nonlinear excitations in a Heisenberg helimagnet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi, Jian-Wen [School of Physics, Northwest University, Xi' an 710069 (China); Shaanxi Key Laboratory for Theoretical Physics Frontiers, Xi' an 710069 (China); Li, Zai-Dong [Department of Applied Physics, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300401 (China); Yang, Zhan-Ying, E-mail: zyyang@nwu.edu.cn [School of Physics, Northwest University, Xi' an 710069 (China); Shaanxi Key Laboratory for Theoretical Physics Frontiers, Xi' an 710069 (China); Yang, Wen-Li [Shaanxi Key Laboratory for Theoretical Physics Frontiers, Xi' an 710069 (China); Institute of Modern Physics, Northwest University, Xi' an 710069 (China)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • Three different types of soliton excitations under the spin-wave background are demonstrated in spin chain system. • The magnetic moment distributions corresponding to these solitons are characterized in detail. • The formation mechanisms of those excitations are explained by the magnon density distribution. - Abstract: We study the nonlinear spin dynamics of an anisotropic Heisenberg helimagnet in a fourth-order integrable nonlinear Schrödinger equation. We demonstrate that there are three types of nonlinear spin excitations on a spin-wave background in the Heisenberg helimagnet, notably including anti-dark soliton, W-shaped soliton, and multi-peak soliton. The magnetic moment distribution that corresponds to each of these are characterized in detail. Additionally, the formation mechanism is clarified by the magnon density distribution.

  3. Cross-constrained problems for nonlinear Schrodinger equation with harmonic potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Runzhang Xu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This article studies a nonlinear Schodinger equation with harmonic potential by constructing different cross-constrained problems. By comparing the different cross-constrained problems, we derive different sharp criterion and different invariant manifolds that separate the global solutions and blowup solutions. Moreover, we conclude that some manifolds are empty due to the essence of the cross-constrained problems. Besides, we compare the three cross-constrained problems and the three depths of the potential wells. In this way, we explain the gaps in [J. Shu and J. Zhang, Nonlinear Shrodinger equation with harmonic potential, Journal of Mathematical Physics, 47, 063503 (2006], which was pointed out in [R. Xu and Y. Liu, Remarks on nonlinear Schrodinger equation with harmonic potential, Journal of Mathematical Physics, 49, 043512 (2008].

  4. Nonlinear electromagnetic fields in 0.5 MHz inductively coupled plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostrikov, K.N.; Tsakadze, E.L.; Xu, S.

    2003-01-01

    Radial profiles of magnetic fields in the electrostatic (E) and electromagnetic (H) modes of low-frequency (similar to500 kHz) inductively coupled plasmas have been measured using miniature magnetic probes. In the low-power (similar to170 W) E-mode, the magnetic field pattern is purely linear......, with the fundamental frequency harmonics only. After transition to higher-power (similar to1130 W) H-mode, the second-harmonic nonlinear azimuthal magnetic field B-phi(2omega) that is in 4-6 times larger than the fundamental frequency component B-phi(omega), has been observed. A simplified plasma fluid model...... explaining the generation of the second harmonics of the azimuthal magnetic field in the plasma source is proposed. The nonlinear second harmonic poloidal (r-z) rf current generating the azimuthal magnetic field B-phi(2omega) is attributed to nonlinear interactions between the fundamental frequency radial...

  5. Polynomial solutions of nonlinear integral equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dominici, Diego [Department of Mathematics, State University of New York at New Paltz, 1 Hawk Dr. Suite 9, New Paltz, NY 12561-2443 (United States)], E-mail: dominicd@newpaltz.edu

    2009-05-22

    We analyze the polynomial solutions of a nonlinear integral equation, generalizing the work of Bender and Ben-Naim (2007 J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 40 F9, 2008 J. Nonlinear Math. Phys. 15 (Suppl. 3) 73). We show that, in some cases, an orthogonal solution exists and we give its general form in terms of kernel polynomials.

  6. Nonlinear integral inequality in two independent variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. T. Vaz

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available In this note, the authors obtain a generalization of the integral inequality of Bihari [1] to a nonlinear inequality in two independent variables. With the aid of this inequality a bound for the solution of a nonlinear partial differential equation is established.

  7. Neural Networks for Non-linear Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, O.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes how a neural network, structured as a Multi Layer Perceptron, is trained to predict, simulate and control a non-linear process.......This paper describes how a neural network, structured as a Multi Layer Perceptron, is trained to predict, simulate and control a non-linear process....

  8. Saturation at Low X and Nonlinear Evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stasto, A.M.

    2002-01-01

    In this talk the results of the analytical and numerical analysis of the nonlinear Balitsky-Kovchegov equation are presented. The characteristic BFKL diffusion into infrared regime is suppressed by the generation of the saturation scale Q s . We identify the scaling and linear regimes for the solution. We also study the impact of subleading corrections onto the nonlinear evolution. (author)

  9. Time Variance of the Suspension Nonlinearity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerkvist, Finn T.; Pedersen, Bo Rohde

    2008-01-01

    but recovers quickly. The the high power and long term measurements affect the non-linearity of the speaker, by incresing the compliance value for all values of displacement. This level dependency is validated with distortion measurements and it is demonstrated how improved accuracy of the non-linear model can...

  10. Neural Networks in Nonlinear Aircraft Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linse, Dennis J.

    1990-01-01

    Recent research indicates that artificial neural networks offer interesting learning or adaptive capabilities. The current research focuses on the potential for application of neural networks in a nonlinear aircraft control law. The current work has been to determine which networks are suitable for such an application and how they will fit into a nonlinear control law.

  11. Non-Linear Approximation of Bayesian Update

    KAUST Repository

    Litvinenko, Alexander

    2016-06-23

    We develop a non-linear approximation of expensive Bayesian formula. This non-linear approximation is applied directly to Polynomial Chaos Coefficients. In this way, we avoid Monte Carlo sampling and sampling error. We can show that the famous Kalman Update formula is a particular case of this update.

  12. Digital signal processing for fiber nonlinearities [Invited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cartledge, John C.; Guiomar, Fernando P.; Kschischang, Frank R.

    2017-01-01

    This paper reviews digital signal processing techniques that compensate, mitigate, and exploit fiber nonlinearities in coherent optical fiber transmission systems......This paper reviews digital signal processing techniques that compensate, mitigate, and exploit fiber nonlinearities in coherent optical fiber transmission systems...

  13. Broadband Nonlinear Signal Processing in Silicon Nanowires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yvind, Kresten; Pu, Minhao; Hvam, Jørn Märcher

    The fast non-linearity of silicon allows Tbit/s optical signal processing. By choosing suitable dimensions of silicon nanowires their dispersion can be tailored to ensure a high nonlinearity at power levels low enough to avoid significant two-photon abso We have fabricated low insertion...

  14. Non-linear finite element modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Lars Pilgaard

    The note is written for courses in "Non-linear finite element method". The note has been used by the author teaching non-linear finite element modeling at Civil Engineering at Aalborg University, Computational Mechanics at Aalborg University Esbjerg, Structural Engineering at the University...

  15. Polynomial solutions of nonlinear integral equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominici, Diego

    2009-01-01

    We analyze the polynomial solutions of a nonlinear integral equation, generalizing the work of Bender and Ben-Naim (2007 J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 40 F9, 2008 J. Nonlinear Math. Phys. 15 (Suppl. 3) 73). We show that, in some cases, an orthogonal solution exists and we give its general form in terms of kernel polynomials

  16. Simulation of non-linear ultrasound fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Fox, Paul D.; Wilhjelm, Jens E.

    2002-01-01

    An approach for simulating non-linear ultrasound imaging using Field II has been implemented using the operator splitting approach, where diffraction, attenuation, and non-linear propagation can be handled individually. The method uses the Earnshaw/Poisson solution to Burgcrs' equation for the non...

  17. Modulational instability in periodic quadratic nonlinear materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corney, Joel Frederick; Bang, Ole

    2001-01-01

    We investigate the modulational instability of plane waves in quadratic nonlinear materials with linear and nonlinear quasi-phase-matching gratings. Exact Floquet calculations, confirmed by numerical simulations, show that the periodicity can drastically alter the gain spectrum but never complete...

  18. The nonlinear CWFA [Cherenkov Wakefield Accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoessow, P.

    1989-01-01

    The possible use of nonlinear media to enhance the performance of the Cherenkov Wakefield Accelerator (CWFA) is considered. Numerical experiments have been performed using a new wakefield code which demonstrate larger gradients and transformer ratios in the nonlinear CWFA than are obtained in the linear case. 7 refs., 3 figs

  19. Methods of stability analysis in nonlinear mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warnock, R.L.; Ruth, R.D.; Gabella, W.; Ecklund, K.

    1989-01-01

    We review our recent work on methods to study stability in nonlinear mechanics, especially for the problems of particle accelerators, and compare our ideals to those of other authors. We emphasize methods that (1) show promise as practical design tools, (2) are effective when the nonlinearity is large, and (3) have a strong theoretical basis. 24 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  20. Non-linear Loudspeaker Unit Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bo Rohde; Agerkvist, Finn

    2008-01-01

    Simulations of a 6½-inch loudspeaker unit are performed and compared with a displacement measurement. The non-linear loudspeaker model is based on the major nonlinear functions and expanded with time-varying suspension behaviour and flux modulation. The results are presented with FFT plots of three...

  1. Modulational instability in nonlocal nonlinear Kerr media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krolikowski, Wieslaw; Bang, Ole; Juul Rasmussen, Jens

    2001-01-01

    We study modulational instability (MI) of plane waves in nonlocal nonlinear Kerr media. For a focusing nonlinearity we show that, although the nonlocality tends to suppress MI, it can never remove it completely, irrespective of the particular profile of the nonlocal response function. For a defoc...

  2. Stabilization of nonlinear excitations by disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Peter Leth; Gaididei, Yuri Borisovich; Johansson, M.

    1998-01-01

    Using analytical and numerical techniques we analyze the static and dynamical properties of solitonlike excitations in the presence of parametric disorder in the one-dimensional nonlinear Schrodinger equation with a homogeneous power nonlinearity. Both the continuum and the discrete problem...

  3. Spatial solitons in nonlinear liquid waveguides

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Spatial solitons are studied in a planar waveguide filled with nonlinear liquids. Spec- tral and spatial measurements for different geometries and input power of the laser beam show the influence of different nonlinear effects as stimulated scatterings on the soliton propagation and in particular on the beam ...

  4. Nonlinearity management and diffraction management for the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Analytical and numerical studies have shown that nonlinearity management and ... management. PACS Nos 42.65.Tg; 42.81.Dp. 1. Introduction. Spatial solitons in nonlinear media have attracted considerable attention in recent years. ..... [27] W H Press, S A Teukolsky, W T Vetterling and B P Flannery, The art of scientific.

  5. Non-linear realizations and bosonic branes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, P.

    2001-01-01

    In this very short note, following hep-th/0001216, we express the well known bosonic brane as a non-linear realization. The reader may also consult hep-th/9912226, 0001216 and 0005270 where the branes of M theory are constructed as a non-linear realisation. The automorphisms of the supersymmetry algebra play an essential role. (author)

  6. Nuclear matter as a nonlinear optical medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hefter, E.F.; Papini, G.

    1986-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the question whether nuclear matter should be considered as a nonlinear optical medium. Taking, in a pragmatic way, quality and quantity of the results of well-established linear and nonlinear approaches as the main criterion, an affirmative answer is seen to be consistent with long-standing practices adhered to in nuclear physics

  7. Completely integrable models of nonlinear optics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The models of the nonlinear optics in which solitons appeared are considered. These models are of paramount importance in studies of nonlinear wave phenomena. The classical ex- amples of phenomena of this kind are the self-focusing, self-induced transparency and parametric interaction of three waves.

  8. Nonlinear pulse propagation in nanoscale waveguides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wulf, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    The bottleneck of optical communication systems, which form the backbone of the internet, is formed by electronical signal processing. A promising approach to solve this issue is to route the data instead by all-optical means using nonlinear optical effects. To exploit the normally weak nonlinear

  9. Design of nonlinear PID controller and nonlinear model predictive controller for a continuous stirred tank reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, J; Srinivasan, K

    2009-07-01

    In this paper, the authors have represented the nonlinear system as a family of local linear state space models, local PID controllers have been designed on the basis of linear models, and the weighted sum of the output from the local PID controllers (Nonlinear PID controller) has been used to control the nonlinear process. Further, Nonlinear Model Predictive Controller using the family of local linear state space models (F-NMPC) has been developed. The effectiveness of the proposed control schemes has been demonstrated on a CSTR process, which exhibits dynamic nonlinearity.

  10. Nonlinear PDEs a dynamical systems approach

    CERN Document Server

    Schneider, Guido

    2017-01-01

    This is an introductory textbook about nonlinear dynamics of PDEs, with a focus on problems over unbounded domains and modulation equations. The presentation is example-oriented, and new mathematical tools are developed step by step, giving insight into some important classes of nonlinear PDEs and nonlinear dynamics phenomena which may occur in PDEs. The book consists of four parts. Parts I and II are introductions to finite- and infinite-dimensional dynamics defined by ODEs and by PDEs over bounded domains, respectively, including the basics of bifurcation and attractor theory. Part III introduces PDEs on the real line, including the Korteweg-de Vries equation, the Nonlinear Schrödinger equation and the Ginzburg-Landau equation. These examples often occur as simplest possible models, namely as amplitude or modulation equations, for some real world phenomena such as nonlinear waves and pattern formation. Part IV explores in more detail the connections between such complicated physical systems and the reduced...

  11. Dynamics and vibrations progress in nonlinear analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Kachapi, Seyed Habibollah Hashemi

    2014-01-01

    Dynamical and vibratory systems are basically an application of mathematics and applied sciences to the solution of real world problems. Before being able to solve real world problems, it is necessary to carefully study dynamical and vibratory systems and solve all available problems in case of linear and nonlinear equations using analytical and numerical methods. It is of great importance to study nonlinearity in dynamics and vibration; because almost all applied processes act nonlinearly, and on the other hand, nonlinear analysis of complex systems is one of the most important and complicated tasks, especially in engineering and applied sciences problems. There are probably a handful of books on nonlinear dynamics and vibrations analysis. Some of these books are written at a fundamental level that may not meet ambitious engineering program requirements. Others are specialized in certain fields of oscillatory systems, including modeling and simulations. In this book, we attempt to strike a balance between th...

  12. Discontinuity and complexity in nonlinear physical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Baleanu, Dumitru; Luo, Albert

    2014-01-01

    This unique book explores recent developments in experimental research in this broad field, organized in four distinct sections. Part I introduces the reader to the fractional dynamics and Lie group analysis for nonlinear partial differential equations. Part II covers chaos and complexity in nonlinear Hamiltonian systems, important to understand the resonance interactions in nonlinear dynamical systems, such as Tsunami waves and wildfire propagations; as well as Lev flights in chaotic trajectories, dynamical system synchronization and DNA information complexity analysis. Part III examines chaos and periodic motions in discontinuous dynamical systems, extensively present in a range of systems, including piecewise linear systems, vibro-impact systems and drilling systems in engineering. And in Part IV, engineering and financial nonlinearity are discussed. The mechanism of shock wave with saddle-node bifurcation and rotating disk stability will be presented, and the financial nonlinear models will be discussed....

  13. Experimental Characterization of Nonlinear Optical Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, Katie; Yang, Chuan; Liu, Zhiwen

    2009-10-01

    An optical system based on a half-wave plate-polarizer attenuator was designed to determine the transmitted light through materials that behave nonlinearly in the presence of high-energy picosecond laser pulses. The sample's nonlinear absorbance of a frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser was measured as the energy of the incident light was regulated by the rotation of a half-wave plate. The optical system was used to measure the absorption of two linear samples as well as a nonlinear liquid crystal. Experimental results revealed that the optical material, which was composed of gold nanospheres in the nonlinear liquid L34, behaved as expected in the presence of lower input energies, but the attenuated beam did not reach a high enough energy to observe the full limiting effects of the nonlinear material.

  14. Nonlinear frequency conversion in coupled ring cavities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchhave, Preben; Abitan, Haim; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter

    2001-01-01

    The steady-state distribution of circulating power in coupled, unidirectional ring resonators containing a diode-pumped laser crystal and nonlinear optical elements is computed. The full set of transcendental nonlinear equations describing the interactions between the circulating power and the op......The steady-state distribution of circulating power in coupled, unidirectional ring resonators containing a diode-pumped laser crystal and nonlinear optical elements is computed. The full set of transcendental nonlinear equations describing the interactions between the circulating power...... and the optical elements is solved by a numerical root find function of a commercial mathematics software. The method allows computation of the output of sequential nonlinear processes such as laser gain, second harmonic generation and optical parametric amplification as a function of the input diode pump power...

  15. Spectral theory and nonlinear functional analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Lopez-Gomez, Julian

    2001-01-01

    This Research Note addresses several pivotal problems in spectral theory and nonlinear functional analysis in connection with the analysis of the structure of the set of zeroes of a general class of nonlinear operators. It features the construction of an optimal algebraic/analytic invariant for calculating the Leray-Schauder degree, new methods for solving nonlinear equations in Banach spaces, and general properties of components of solutions sets presented with minimal use of topological tools. The author also gives several applications of the abstract theory to reaction diffusion equations and systems.The results presented cover a thirty-year period and include recent, unpublished findings of the author and his coworkers. Appealing to a broad audience, Spectral Theory and Nonlinear Functional Analysis contains many important contributions to linear algebra, linear and nonlinear functional analysis, and topology and opens the door for further advances.

  16. Nonlinear Modeling by Assembling Piecewise Linear Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Weigang; Liou, Meng-Sing

    2013-01-01

    To preserve nonlinearity of a full order system over a parameters range of interest, we propose a simple modeling approach by assembling a set of piecewise local solutions, including the first-order Taylor series terms expanded about some sampling states. The work by Rewienski and White inspired our use of piecewise linear local solutions. The assembly of these local approximations is accomplished by assigning nonlinear weights, through radial basis functions in this study. The efficacy of the proposed procedure is validated for a two-dimensional airfoil moving at different Mach numbers and pitching motions, under which the flow exhibits prominent nonlinear behaviors. All results confirm that our nonlinear model is accurate and stable for predicting not only aerodynamic forces but also detailed flowfields. Moreover, the model is robustness-accurate for inputs considerably different from the base trajectory in form and magnitude. This modeling preserves nonlinearity of the problems considered in a rather simple and accurate manner.

  17. Naturally stable Sagnac-Michelson nonlinear interferometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukens, Joseph M; Peters, Nicholas A; Pooser, Raphael C

    2016-12-01

    Interferometers measure a wide variety of dynamic processes by converting a phase change into an intensity change. Nonlinear interferometers, making use of nonlinear media in lieu of beamsplitters, promise substantial improvement in the quest to reach the ultimate sensitivity limits. Here we demonstrate a new nonlinear interferometer utilizing a single parametric amplifier for mode mixing-conceptually, a nonlinear version of the conventional Michelson interferometer with its arms collapsed together. We observe up to 99.9% interference visibility and find evidence for noise reduction based on phase-sensitive gain. Our configuration utilizes fewer components than previous demonstrations and requires no active stabilization, offering new capabilities for practical nonlinear interferometric-based sensors.

  18. Nonlinear dynamics aspects of modern storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helleman, R.H.G.; Kheifets, S.A.

    1986-01-01

    It is argued that the nonlinearity of storage rings becomes an essential problem as the design parameters of each new machine are pushed further and further. Yet the familiar methods of classical mechanics do not allow determination of single particle orbits over reasonable lengths of time. It is also argued that the single particle dynamics of a storage ring is possibly one of the cleanest and simplest nonlinear dynamical systems available with very few degrees of freedom. Hence, reasons are found for accelerator physicists to be interested in nonlinear dynamics and for researchers in nonlinear dynamics to be interested in modern storage rings. The more familiar methods of treating nonlinear systems routinely used in acclerator theory are discussed, pointing out some of their limitations and pitfalls. 39 refs., 1 fig

  19. Nonlinear Absorptions in Liquids Studied by Laser - Anharmonic Thermal Gratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiao-Rong

    In an absorbing medium, nonlinear absorption at a crossed-beam interference pattern creates, through absorptive heating, a temperature modulation containing harmonics of the spatial frequency of the excitation interference pattern, and the temperature dependence of the refractive index then results in an anharmonic volume index grating. A probe beam incident at the Bragg angle for a given spatial harmonic grating will produce a single diffraction order. By measuring the excitation intensity dependence of diffraction efficiencies at several Bragg angles, one can distinguish between various mechanisms of nonlinear absorption. In this dissertation, nonlinear absorption by organic molecules in liquids, with a focus on the sequential two-step absorption, has been studied by a laser-induced anharmonic thermal grating techniques. The nonlinear absorption of all-trans- beta-carotene, a biologically important natural product, in liquids is first investigated, and the results indicate that nonlinear absorption of beta -carotene in hexane is caused by the excited-state absorption, and while the saturation observed in chloroform is due to formation of a long-lived photoisomer. The effect of photoisomerization on saturated absorption of the cyanine laser dye DODCI in alcohols is then examined. It is found that the weaker absorption by the photoisomer and reverse -photoisomerization have made saturation of optical absorption of DODCI difficult. A general numerical method is developed for the first time to treat rigorously the problem of diffraction from anharmonic Gaussian volume gratings. It shows that the previously developed quasi-plane wave approximation (QPWA) theory is valid only at the weak saturation limit for a saturation absorption model. Finally, anomalous dependence of diffraction intensities on the excitation intensity for two tricarbocyanine dyes is observed. A careful analysis shows that it is caused by diffraction from multiple thermal gratings with a 180^ circ

  20. Correlation between ultrasonic nonlinearity and elastic nonlinearity in heat-treated aluminum alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Beom; Jhang, Kyung Young [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    The nonlinear ultrasonic technique is a potential nondestructive method to evaluate material degradation, in which the ultrasonic nonlinearity parameter is usually measured. The ultrasonic nonlinearity parameter is defined by the elastic nonlinearity coefficients of the nonlinear Hooke’s equation. Therefore, even though the ultrasonic nonlinearity parameter is not equal to the elastic nonlinearity parameter, they have a close relationship. However, there has been no experimental verification of the relationship between the ultrasonic and elastic nonlinearity parameters. In this study, the relationship is experimentally verified for a heat-treated aluminum alloy. Specimens of the aluminum alloy were heat-treated at 300°C for different periods of time (0, 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, and 50 h). The relative ultrasonic nonlinearity parameter of each specimen was then measured, and the elastic nonlinearity parameter was determined by fitting the stress-strain curve obtained from a tensile test to the 5th-order-polynomial nonlinear Hooke’s equation. The results showed that the variations in these parameters were in good agreement with each other.

  1. Explaining Infinite Series--An Exploration of Students' Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champney, Danielle Dawn

    2013-01-01

    This study uses self-generated representations (SGR)--images produced in the act of explaining--as a means of uncovering what university calculus students understand about infinite series convergence. It makes use of student teaching episodes, in which students were asked to explain to a peer what that student might have missed had they been…

  2. Explaining Interaction Effects within and across Levels of Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Ulf; Cuervo-Cazurra, Alvaro; Nielsen, Bo Bernhard

    2014-01-01

    Many manuscripts submitted to the Journal of International Business Studies propose an interaction effect in their models in an effort to explain the complexity and contingency of relationships across borders. In this article, we provide guidance on how best to explain the interaction effects...

  3. Democracy in the Arab World : Explaining the Deficit | CRDI - Centre ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Democracy in the Arab World : Explaining the Deficit. Couverture du livre Democracy in the Arab World : Explaining the Deficit. Directeur(s) : Ibrahim Elbadawi et Samir Makdisi. Maison(s) d'édition : Routledge, CRDI. 10 septembre 2010. ISBN : 9780415779999. 352 pages. e-ISBN : 9781552504918. Téléchargez le PDF.

  4. Good for the group? Explaining apparent group-level selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smallegange, I.M.; Egas, M.

    2015-01-01

    The idea that group selection can explain adaptive trait evolution is still controversial. Recent empirical work proposes evidence for group-level adaptation in a social spider, but the findings can also be explained from an individual-level perspective. The challenge remains to identify situations

  5. MHD flow and nonlinear radiative heat transfer of Sisko nanofluid over a nonlinear stretching sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.C. Prasannakumara

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of heat and mass transfer of Siskonanofluid flow over a nonlinear stretching sheet under the influence of nonlinear thermal radiation and chemical reaction is considered. suitable set of similarity transformations are implemented to reduce the governing partial differential equations into coupled nonlinear ordinary differential equations. An efficient Runge–Kutta–Fehlberg fourth–fifth order method along with shooting technique is employed to solve the reduced equations. The influence of several emerging physical parameters on velocity, temperature and concentration profiles for both linear and nonlinear stretching sheet in the presence of linear and nonlinear thermal radiation has been studied and analyzed through plotted graphs and tables in detail. It is found that the Nusselt and Sherwood number are high in case of nonlinear stretching sheet than linear. Further, it is observed that the nonlinear thermal radiation has more influence on temperature profiles than linear.

  6. A new definition of nonlinear statistics mean and variance

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, W.

    1999-01-01

    This note presents a new definition of nonlinear statistics mean and variance to simplify the nonlinear statistics computations. These concepts aim to provide a theoretical explanation of a novel nonlinear weighted residual methodology presented recently by the present author.

  7. Breatherlike excitations in discrete lattices with noise and nonlinear damping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Peter Leth; Gaididei, Yuri B.; Johansson, Magnus

    1997-01-01

    We discuss the stability of highly localized, ''breatherlike,'' excitations in discrete nonlinear lattices under the influence of thermal fluctuations. The particular model considered is the discrete nonlinear Schrodinger equation in the regime of high nonlinearity, where temperature effects...

  8. Periodic nonlinear waves resulting from the contact interaction of a crack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Eon; Jin, Suyeong; Hong, Jung-Wuk

    2017-09-01

    When two different inputs of distinct low and high frequencies are applied to a medium, the linear responses are composed of waves of two dominant frequencies. However, microcracks such as fatigue cracks generate nonlinear waves by modulating the characteristics of the incident waves. Although this phenomenon has been observed and used to detect microcracks, the underlying principles have not been thoroughly elucidated. The hysteresis properties were introduced to describe the nonlinear relationship between the stress and strain to explain these phenomena [Van Den Abeele et al., Res. Nondestruct. Eval. 12, 17 (2000) and Nazarov et al., Acoust. Phys. 49, 344 (2003)]. The generation of harmonics was explained by superimposing stress-strain relations that vary with crack width and excitation magnitude. As the crack depth increases, the ratio of magnitudes of the second harmonic to the first harmonic increases, but the increment becomes smaller [Kawashima et al., Ultrasonics 40, 611 (2002)]. Here, we show that the waves affected by the contact motion of the crack surfaces cultivate the nonlinearity in waveforms, resulting in high frequency off-band signals. With the hypothesis that the clapping of cracks might generate nonlinear components close to the high excitation frequency, we prove that the generation of the high frequency off-band peaks is directly affected by the clapping contact interaction of the crack surfaces. The amount of energy transmitted is closely related to the size of the crack width and the magnitudes of low and high frequency excitations.

  9. Non-linear dynamo waves in an incompressible medium when the turbulence dissipative coefficients depend on temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Pataraya

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-linear α-ω; dynamo waves existing in an incompressible medium with the turbulence dissipative coefficients depending on temperature are studied in this paper. We investigate of α-ω solar non-linear dynamo waves when only the first harmonics of magnetic induction components are included. If we ignore the second harmonics in the non-linear equation, the turbulent magnetic diffusion coefficient increases together with the temperature, the coefficient of turbulent viscosity decreases, and for an interval of time the value of dynamo number is greater than 1. In these conditions a stationary solution of the non-linear equation for the dynamo wave's amplitude exists; meaning that the magnetic field is sufficiently excited. The amplitude of the dynamo waves oscillates and becomes stationary. Using these results we can explain the existence of Maunder's minimum.

  10. Nonlinear analysis of the cooperation of strategic alliances through stochastic catastrophe theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yan; Hu, Bin; Wu, Jiang; Zhang, Jianhua

    2014-04-01

    The excitation intervention of strategic alliance may change with the changes in the parameters of circumstance (e.g., external alliance tasks). As a result, the stable cooperation between members may suffer a complete unplanned betrayal at last. However, current perspectives on strategic alliances cannot adequately explain this transition mechanism. This study is a first attempt to analyze this nonlinear phenomenon through stochastic catastrophe theory (SCT). A stochastic dynamics model is constructed based on the cooperation of strategic alliance from the perspective of evolutionary game theory. SCT explains the discontinuous changes caused by the changes in environmental parameters. Theoretically, we identify conditions where catastrophe can occur in the cooperation of alliance members.

  11. Collapse arrest and soliton stabilization in nonlocal nonlinear media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Ole; Krolikowski, Wieslaw; Wyller, John

    2002-01-01

    We investigate the properties of localized waves in cubic nonlinear materials with a symmetric nonlocal nonlinear response of arbitrary shape and degree of nonlocality, described by a general nonlocal nonlinear Schrodinger type equation. We prove rigorously by bounding the Hamiltonian that nonloc......We investigate the properties of localized waves in cubic nonlinear materials with a symmetric nonlocal nonlinear response of arbitrary shape and degree of nonlocality, described by a general nonlocal nonlinear Schrodinger type equation. We prove rigorously by bounding the Hamiltonian...

  12. Gaining from explaining: Learning improves from explaining to fictitious others on video, not from writing to them

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogerheide, Vincent; Deijkers, Lian; Loyens, Sofie M M; Heijltjes, Anita; van Gog, Tamara

    2016-01-01

    Two experiments investigated whether studying a text with an "explanation intention" and then actually explaining it to (fictitious) other students in writing, would yield the same benefits as previously found for explaining on video. Experiment 1 had participants first studying a text either with

  13. The nonlinearity cancellation phenomenon in micromechanical resonators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao, L C; Tan, W W; Palaniapan, M

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we present comprehensive analysis of the nonlinearities in a micromechanical clamped-clamped beam resonator. A nonlinear model which incorporates both mechanical and electrostatic nonlinear effects is established for the resonator and verified by experimental results. Both the nonlinear model and experimental results show that the first-order cancellation between the mechanical and electrostatic nonlinear spring constants occurs at about 45 V dc polarization voltage for a 193 kHz resonator in vacuum pressure of 37.5 µTorr. Our study also reveals that the nonlinearity cancellation is helpful in optimizing the overall resonator performance. On top of improving the frequency stability of the resonator by reducing its amplitude-frequency coefficient to almost zero, the nonlinearity cancellation also boosts the critical vibration amplitude of the resonator (0.57 µm for the beam resonator with 2 µm nominal gap spacing), leading to better power handling capabilities. The results from the clamped-clamped beam resonator studied in this work can be easily generalized and applied to other types of resonators

  14. Nonlinear Krylov acceleration of reacting flow codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, S.; Rawat, R.; Smith, P.; Pernice, M. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    1996-12-31

    We are working on computational simulations of three-dimensional reactive flows in applications encompassing a broad range of chemical engineering problems. Examples of such processes are coal (pulverized and fluidized bed) and gas combustion, petroleum processing (cracking), and metallurgical operations such as smelting. These simulations involve an interplay of various physical and chemical factors such as fluid dynamics with turbulence, convective and radiative heat transfer, multiphase effects such as fluid-particle and particle-particle interactions, and chemical reaction. The governing equations resulting from modeling these processes are highly nonlinear and strongly coupled, thereby rendering their solution by traditional iterative methods (such as nonlinear line Gauss-Seidel methods) very difficult and sometimes impossible. Hence we are exploring the use of nonlinear Krylov techniques (such as CMRES and Bi-CGSTAB) to accelerate and stabilize the existing solver. This strategy allows us to take advantage of the problem-definition capabilities of the existing solver. The overall approach amounts to using the SIMPLE (Semi-Implicit Method for Pressure-Linked Equations) method and its variants as nonlinear preconditioners for the nonlinear Krylov method. We have also adapted a backtracking approach for inexact Newton methods to damp the Newton step in the nonlinear Krylov method. This will be a report on work in progress. Preliminary results with nonlinear GMRES have been very encouraging: in many cases the number of line Gauss-Seidel sweeps has been reduced by about a factor of 5, and increased robustness of the underlying solver has also been observed.

  15. Improving the explainability of Random Forest classifier - user centered approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkovic, Dragutin; Altman, Russ; Wong, Mike; Vigil, Arthur

    2018-01-01

    Machine Learning (ML) methods are now influencing major decisions about patient care, new medical methods, drug development and their use and importance are rapidly increasing in all areas. However, these ML methods are inherently complex and often difficult to understand and explain resulting in barriers to their adoption and validation. Our work (RFEX) focuses on enhancing Random Forest (RF) classifier explainability by developing easy to interpret explainability summary reports from trained RF classifiers as a way to improve the explainability for (often non-expert) users. RFEX is implemented and extensively tested on Stanford FEATURE data where RF is tasked with predicting functional sites in 3D molecules based on their electrochemical signatures (features). In developing RFEX method we apply user-centered approach driven by explainability questions and requirements collected by discussions with interested practitioners. We performed formal usability testing with 13 expert and non-expert users to verify RFEX usefulness. Analysis of RFEX explainability report and user feedback indicates its usefulness in significantly increasing explainability and user confidence in RF classification on FEATURE data. Notably, RFEX summary reports easily reveal that one needs very few (from 2-6 depending on a model) top ranked features to achieve 90% or better of the accuracy when all 480 features are used.

  16. Large third-order optical nonlinearity of silver colloids in silica glasses synthesized by ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Binita; Chakraborty, Purushottam

    2011-01-01

    Silver ion implantations in fused silica glasses have been made to synthesize silver nanocluster-glass composites and a combination of 'Anti-Resonant Interferometric Nonlinear Spectroscopy (ARINS)' and 'Z-scan' techniques has been employed for the measurement of the third-order optical susceptibility of these nanocomposites. The ARINS technique utilizes the dressing of two unequal-intensity counter-propagating pulsed optical beams with differential nonlinear phases, which occurs upon traversing the sample. This difference in phase manifests itself in the intensity-dependent transmission, measurement of which enables us to extract the values of nonlinear refractive index (η 2 ) and nonlinear absorption coefficient (β), finally yielding the real and imaginary parts of the third-order dielectric susceptibility (χ (3) ). The real and imaginary parts of χ (3) are obtained in the orders of 10 -10 e.s.u for silver nanocluster-glass composites. The present value of χ (3) , to our knowledge, is extremely accurate and much more reliable compared to the values previously obtained by other workers for similar silver-glass nanocomposites using only Z-scan technique. Optical nonlinearity has been explained to be due to two-photon absorption in the present nanocomposite glasses and is essentially of electronic origin.

  17. Periodic nonlinear Fourier transform for fiber-optic communications, Part I: theory and numerical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamalian, Morteza; Prilepsky, Jaroslaw E; Le, Son Thai; Turitsyn, Sergei K

    2016-08-08

    In this work, we introduce the periodic nonlinear Fourier transform (PNFT) method as an alternative and efficacious tool for compensation of the nonlinear transmission effects in optical fiber links. In the Part I, we introduce the algorithmic platform of the technique, describing in details the direct and inverse PNFT operations, also known as the inverse scattering transform for periodic (in time variable) nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLSE). We pay a special attention to explaining the potential advantages of the PNFT-based processing over the previously studied nonlinear Fourier transform (NFT) based methods. Further, we elucidate the issue of the numerical PNFT computation: we compare the performance of four known numerical methods applicable for the calculation of nonlinear spectral data (the direct PNFT), in particular, taking the main spectrum (utilized further in Part II for the modulation and transmission) associated with some simple example waveforms as the quality indicator for each method. We show that the Ablowitz-Ladik discretization approach for the direct PNFT provides the best performance in terms of the accuracy and computational time consumption.

  18. Nonlinear piezoelectricity in PZT ceramics for generating ultrasonic phase conjugate waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto; Kokubo; Sakai; Takagi

    2000-03-01

    We have succeeded in the generation of acoustic phase conjugate waves with nonlinear PZT piezoelectric ceramics and applied them to ultrasonic imaging systems. Our aim is to make a phase conjugator with 100% efficiency. For this purpose, it is important to clarify the mechanism of acoustic phase conjugation through nonlinear piezoelectricity. The process is explained by the parametric interaction via the third-order nonlinear piezoelectricity between the incident acoustic wave at angular frequency omega and the pump electric field at 2 omega. We solved the coupling equations including the third-ordered nonlinear piezoelectricity and theoretically derived the amplitude efficiency of the acoustic phase conjugation. We compared the efficiencies between the theoretical and experimental values for PZT ceramics with eight different compositions. Pb[(Zn1/3Nb2/3)(1 - x)Tix]O3 (X = 0.09, PZNT91/9) piezoelectric single crystals have been investigated for high-performance ultrasonic transducer application, because these have large piezoelectric constants, high electrical-mechanical coupling factors and high dielectric constants. We found that they have third-order nonlinear piezoelectric constants much larger than PZT and are hopeful that the material as a phase conjugator has over 100% efficiency.

  19. Large third-order optical nonlinearity of silver colloids in silica glasses synthesized by ion implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Binita [Surface Physics Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700 064 (India); Chakraborty, Purushottam, E-mail: purushottam.chakraborty@saha.ac.in [Surface Physics Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700 064 (India)

    2011-06-01

    Silver ion implantations in fused silica glasses have been made to synthesize silver nanocluster-glass composites and a combination of 'Anti-Resonant Interferometric Nonlinear Spectroscopy (ARINS)' and 'Z-scan' techniques has been employed for the measurement of the third-order optical susceptibility of these nanocomposites. The ARINS technique utilizes the dressing of two unequal-intensity counter-propagating pulsed optical beams with differential nonlinear phases, which occurs upon traversing the sample. This difference in phase manifests itself in the intensity-dependent transmission, measurement of which enables us to extract the values of nonlinear refractive index ({eta}{sub 2}) and nonlinear absorption coefficient ({beta}), finally yielding the real and imaginary parts of the third-order dielectric susceptibility ({chi}{sup (3)}). The real and imaginary parts of {chi}{sup (3)} are obtained in the orders of 10{sup -10} e.s.u for silver nanocluster-glass composites. The present value of {chi}{sup (3)}, to our knowledge, is extremely accurate and much more reliable compared to the values previously obtained by other workers for similar silver-glass nanocomposites using only Z-scan technique. Optical nonlinearity has been explained to be due to two-photon absorption in the present nanocomposite glasses and is essentially of electronic origin.

  20. Quasiperiodic AlGaAs superlattices for neuromorphic networks and nonlinear control systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malyshev, K. V., E-mail: malyshev@bmstu.ru [Electronics and Laser Technology Department, Bauman Moscow State Technical University, Moscow 105005 (Russian Federation)

    2015-01-28

    The application of quasiperiodic AlGaAs superlattices as a nonlinear element of the FitzHugh–Nagumo neuromorphic network is proposed and theoretically investigated on the example of Fibonacci and figurate superlattices. The sequences of symbols for the figurate superlattices were produced by decomposition of the Fibonacci superlattices' symbolic sequences. A length of each segment of the decomposition was equal to the corresponding figurate number. It is shown that a nonlinear network based upon Fibonacci and figurate superlattices provides better parallel filtration of a half-tone picture; then, a network based upon traditional diodes which have cubic voltage-current characteristics. It was found that the figurate superlattice F{sup 0}{sub 11}(1) as a nonlinear network's element provides the filtration error almost twice less than the conventional “cubic” diode. These advantages are explained by a wavelike shape of the decreasing part of the quasiperiodic superlattice's voltage-current characteristic, which leads to multistability of the network's cell. This multistability promises new interesting nonlinear dynamical phenomena. A variety of wavy forms of voltage-current characteristics opens up new interesting possibilities for quasiperiodic superlattices and especially for figurate superlattices in many areas—from nervous system modeling to nonlinear control systems development.