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Sample records for explains military history

  1. Military legislation: explaining military officers' writing deficiencies

    OpenAIRE

    Borysov, Andrii

    2016-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited In performing jobs related to national security and defense, personnel must comply with rules and decisions communicated in the form of written legislation, which includes directives, memos, instructions, manuals, standard operating procedures, and reports. Incorrect understanding of legislative provisions may lead to disastrous consequences, making clear communication through these documents paramount. The vast majority of military of...

  2. Military History: A Selected Bibliography

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Murray, Williamson

    2003-01-01

    ...: quality of scholarship, point of view subject matter, and readability. They are categorized by period and subject matter, and given a rating by the author. The first chapter contains an annotated list of twenty-five books that Dr. Murray considers essential to the library of a warfighter, scholar, or student of military history.

  3. National Museum of Military History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Nicolaides

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Attractions such as military history museums which exhibit a wide range of important historical artefacts are fundamental sub-elements in any tourism systems, and yet their study suffers from lack of theoretical depth. Military history is an integral element of the history of any nation and countless varieties of tourists both local and international, visit military museums whenever the opportunity presents itself because museums are generally stimulating places of interest. This article focuses predominantly on international tourists visiting the Ditsong National Museum of Military History. In addition to the interest that such museums generate, they play a key role as the organizational foundation stones of modernity. It is via their many interesting exhibits that museums enlighten us about the past that intrinsically highlights its distance from the present era. Museums also selectively reconstitute aspects of history and in so doing alienate many artefacts from their original context and yet manage to impart deep understanding of events that shaped the modern world. Museums of all types thus impart knowledge and have a wide range of tales to tell concerning the many and diverse assortments of objects they hold. National pride is an obvious reason for having a military museum where the comprehensive display of military equipment is exceptionally unique while exhibition halls also offer an educational narrative of a nation’s history. What is also of interest to many visitors is the type of research that is carried out in a multiplicity of ways. The huge global growth in tourism in recent years has contributed to many museums radically altering their exhibits in both content and manner of exhibition. This is significant given the reciprocal impact that museums and tourism have on one another. The attractions in museums are regarded by many to be central to the tourism process and these are very often the main reason for many tourists visiting

  4. Early history of military radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenberg, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that soon after Roentgen's discovery, physicians in the armed services of the major powers grasped the importance of x-ray sin military surgery. By May of 1896, radiographic examinations were being performed on Italian soldiers returning from the ill-fated Ethiopian campaign. Initially, radiographs were used for foreign body localization and the detection of fractures; later, a full range of diagnostic services was offered. The early challenges of obtaining x-ray examinations in the field - fragility of tubes and plates, mobility of machines and patients, and unpredictability of radiation dosage - became the basis for innovations that would fundamentally alter the daily practice of radiology in civilian life

  5. Military History: A Selected Bibliography

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Murray, Williamson

    2003-01-01

    ... and comprehension of that terrible, yet intriguing, human phenomenon that is war. JAWP is making it available to those individuals in DoD and the Services who feel that history can shed light on the problems they confront today...

  6. Vietnam military service history and prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fritschi Lin

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Three decades after US and Australian forces withdrew from Vietnam, there has been much public interest in the health consequences of service in Vietnam. One controversial question is whether the risk of prostate cancer amongst Vietnam veterans is increased. This paper examines relationships between military history, family history and risk of prostate cancer in a population-based case control study. Methods Cases were selected from the Cancer Registry of Western Australia as incident cases of histologically-confirmed prostate cancer, and controls were age-matched and selected from the Western Australian electoral roll. Study participants were asked to report any military service history and details about that service. Results Between January 2001 and September 2002, 606 cases and 471 controls aged between 40–75 years were recruited. An increased prostate cancer risk was observed in men reporting they were deployed in Vietnam although this was not statistically significant (OR = 2.12; 95% CI 0.88–5.06. An increased risk was also observed in men reporting prostate cancer in fathers (OR = 1.90; 95% CI 1.20–3.00 or brothers (OR = 2.05; 95% CI 1.20–3.50 diagnosed with prostate cancer. Conclusion These findings support a positive association between prostate cancer and military service history in the Vietnam war and a first degree relative family history of prostate cancer.

  7. How Advertising History Helps Explain Current Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanfranco, Leonard W.

    Students majoring in advertising can benefit from a study of that field in its historical context because such study helps them to understand current practices and to foresee future developments. One model of teaching advertising history within a required course about advertising and society begins with some basic definitions of the advertising…

  8. ON WINGS OF EAGLES; SOUTH AFRICA'S MILITARY AVIATION HISTORY

    OpenAIRE

    Ian Van der Waag

    2012-01-01

    With this book, Major Dave Becker has addressed an important hiatus in the military aviation history of South Africa. On Wings of Eagles is the first all-inclusive history of the South African Air Force to be published since 1970, when the SAAF (mistakenly!) celebrated their golden jubilee. The 1970 publication, Per Aspera ad Astra, was nonetheless a useful brochure and embodied the first attempt to present the entire history of the SAAF within one cover. It was, however, too superficial and ...

  9. History of development and modern condition of Chinese military psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr G. Karayani

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Russian military psychology is actively analyzing the achievements gained over the years of its reform and with great interest turns to the military psychological experience of foreign armies. Acquaintance with this experience allows Russian military psychology to assess its place in the world military psychological science, to assess the dynamics and fidelity of the general direction of development. In this regard, it is quite interesting to get acquainted with the state, capabilities, and the most important guidelines for the development of the Chinese military psychology. Objective. The objective of this paper is to get acquainted with the invaluable experience of trial and error, ups and downs, stagnation and real breakthroughs, which can be learnt through getting acquainted with the history and modern functioning of the psychological structures of the Chinese army. Design. The paper considers the centuries-old history and a modern condition of military psychology in China. The methodological foundations of the Chinese military psychology are proved to be the philosophical ideas of Taoism, Confucianism and Buddhism. Theoretical sources Chinese military psychology is rooted in the writings of the great thinkers and generals of ancient China – Sun Tzu, Wu Tzu, Zhuge Liang. The two most vigorously developing areas of military psychology: the psychological selection of military personnel, theory and practice of psychological warfare. The historical analysis of traditions and technologies development for the period of four thousand years is given. The development of psychological selection in the army of China was affected by cooperation with the American psychologists during the Second World War. The overall state and program approach to perfect the system of selecting military men using the psychology methods is underlined. Historical development tendencies and the Chinese paradigm of the theory and practice of psychological war

  10. [Nurses are not into personal marketing: do history explain why?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentil, Rosana Chami

    2009-01-01

    Reflection on the nurse's personal marketing based on beliefs and values explained by the history of the main characters that care for patients. It brings to the surface reflections on the ambiguity between the social image of nursing and scientific, technological and humanistic knowledge developed over the time. It recognizes that there is still a fixation on the attributes relating to attitude and moral of the professionals to the detriment of having high regard for the technical and scientific knowledge. It verifies that the History of Nursing allows understanding that the fight against prejudice in the collective imagination lends weight to the social acceptance and recognition of this profession through the promotion of Nursing Science and the demonstration of its application in the professional practice.

  11. Breaching the Walls of Academe: The Purposes, Problems, and Prospects of Military History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, John A., II

    2008-01-01

    Military history faces a dire fate. Fewer and fewer colleges and universities today regard the historical study of military institutions and practices a worthy social, and therefore scholarly, charge. John Lynn enters this debate, examining the state of military history, which he defines in terms of three genres: popular, applied, and academic.…

  12. Enhancing international tourism to the Ditsong (South African) National Museum of Military History

    OpenAIRE

    A Nicolaides

    2011-01-01

    Attractions such as military history museums which exhibit a wide range of important historical artefacts are fundamental sub-elements in any tourism systems, and yet their study suffers from lack of theoretical depth. Military history is an integral element of the history of any nation and countless varieties of tourists both local and international, visit military museums whenever the opportunity presents itself because museums are generally stimulating places of int...

  13. Military discipline: in the history and in modern Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Grigoryev O. V.

    2016-01-01

    the article deals with the problem of changing the approaches to military discipline. Analyzed and its inextricable link with the military law, the role and place of discipline in strengthening statehood and the suppression of the destructive manifestations. The analysis of the modern understanding of military discipline in passing of military service in the Russian Federation.

  14. Strange history: the fall of Rome explained in Hereditas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengtsson, Bengt O

    2014-12-01

    In 1921 Hereditas published an article on the fall of Rome written by the famous classical scholar Martin P:son Nilsson. Why was a paper on this unexpected topic printed in the newly founded journal? To Nilsson, the demise of the Roman Empire was explained by the "bastardization" occurring between "races" from different parts of the realm. Offspring from mixed couples were of a less stable "type" than their parents, due to the breaking up by recombination of the original hereditary dispositions, which led to a general loss of competence to rule and govern. Thus, the "hardness" of human genes, together with their recombination, was - according to Nilsson - the main cause of the fall of Rome. Nilsson's argument is not particularly convincingly presented. Human "races" are taken to have the same genetic structure as inbred crop strains, and Nilsson believes in a metaphysical unity between the individual and the race to which it belongs. However, in my view, Martin P:son Nilsson and his friend Herman Nilsson-Ehle had wider aims with the article than to explain a historical event. The article can be read as indicating strong support from the classical human sciences to the ambitious new science of genetics. Support is also transferred from genetics to the conservative worldview, where the immutability and inflexibility of the Mendelian genes are used to strengthen the wish for greater stability in politics and life. The strange article in Hereditas can, thus, be read as an early instance in the - still ongoing - tug-of-war between the conservative and the liberal ideological poles over how genetic results best are socially interpreted. © 2015 The Authors.

  15. Explaining History. Hippolyte Taine's Philosophy of Historical Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Philipp

    Historians of European historiography have often characterized Hippolyte Taine (1828-1893) as an adherent of the positivist school of thought, typical for the development of a scientific culture in Western Europe that differed from its German counterpart.1 In accordance with that view, Wilhelm Dilthey grouped him together with other scholars like John Stuart Mill and Herbert Spencer against who Dilthey tried to develop his conception of the human sciences based on the notion of "verstehen" (see Dilthey [1924] 1957, 139ff.). Dilthey understood Taine as proposing to analyze the human mind by identifying its individual components and then explaining their meaning by laws of their relation. He argued that such an approach might be adequate for the natural sciences, but neglected the fact that an analysis of the mind had to start from a given psychological connection that was prior to any definition of particular phenomena. From Dilthey's point of view, applying Taine's theory to historical studies only made them look more objective while actually Taine was unaware of just following the prevailing convictions of his time (idem, 191f.).

  16. History of U.S. military contributions to the study of vaccines against infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artenstein, Andrew W; Opal, Jason M; Opal, Steven M; Tramont, Edmund C; Peter, Georges; Russell, Phillip K

    2005-04-01

    The U.S. military has a long and illustrious history of involvement with vaccines against infectious diseases. For more than 200 years, the military has been actively engaged in vaccine research and has made many important contributions to the development of these products for use in disease prevention and control. Through the efforts of military researchers, numerous serious threats to the health of American troops and their families have been mitigated.

  17. America's Women Veterans: Military Service History and VA Benefit Utilization Statistics

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — This comprehensive report chronicles the history of women in the military and as Veterans, profiles the characteristics of women Veterans in 2009, illustrates how...

  18. Of Ballots and Bullets: Explaining Civilian Control of the Military in Turkey, 2002-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    society is “one of the most accurate indicators of the existence of a substantive, participatory democracy . A high degree of...the armed forces is an essential component to a free and open democracy . The states of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) rely on civilian...these forces challenge military supremacy in democracies . Policies or budget decisions that infringe on military prerogatives lead to conflict with

  19. Explaining Anti-U.S. Military Base Sentiment in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    transition. Thus, Roh dismissed the initial succession plan and assured the public a general vote for the upcoming presidential selection . Upon his...military member was accused of killing an innocent college student at a fast food restaurant in Itawon. Furthermore, the U.S. armored vehicle accident

  20. Are We Winning? A Brief History of Military Operations Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    battle damage assessment ( BDA ). Labeled effects-based assessment (EBA), this framework would comprise most of the guidance on assessments as the U.S...assessments during the invasion were focused on the location and conditions of various fighting units as well as collating and analyzing BDA ...The media are counting U.S. casualties. The military counts Iraqi soldiers. Both are measures of convenience, reflecting the ease with which data

  1. Mellem historie- og krigsvidenskab

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen Schøning, Anna Sofie

    2016-01-01

    history was used to establish national and organisational identity. In the 1880s, military history was used as a means to find, explain and apply universal principles of war and, in the 1910s, military history should be used as a means to gain general insight that could potentially lead to a better......The article investigates how military history was taught as part of the Danish higher officer education from 1830 to 1920 and how the subject was affected by developments in academic history and the science of war. It argues that military history, as it was taught in the formal officer education......, could not be seen solely as a historic subject but also as a subject under the influence of the discipline of military science. Three very different understandings of how military history can contribute to higher officer education are shown through the analysis of textbooks. In the 1830s military...

  2. Immediate survival focus: synthesizing life history theory and dual process models to explain substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, George B; Hardesty, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Researchers have recently applied evolutionary life history theory to the understanding of behaviors often conceived of as prosocial or antisocial. In addition, researchers have applied cognitive science to the understanding of substance use and used dual process models, where explicit cognitive processes are modeled as relatively distinct from implicit cognitive processes, to explain and predict substance use behaviors. In this paper we synthesized these two theoretical perspectives to produce an adaptive and cognitive framework for explaining substance use. We contend that this framework provides new insights into the nature of substance use that may be valuable for both clinicians and researchers.

  3. Immediate Survival Focus: Synthesizing Life History Theory and Dual Process Models to Explain Substance Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George B. Richardson

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Researchers have recently applied evolutionary life history theory to the understanding of behaviors often conceived of as prosocial or antisocial. In addition, researchers have applied cognitive science to the understanding of substance use and used dual process models, where explicit cognitive processes are modeled as relatively distinct from implicit cognitive processes, to explain and predict substance use behaviors. In this paper we synthesized these two theoretical perspectives to produce an adaptive and cognitive framework for explaining substance use. We contend that this framework provides new insights into the nature of substance use that may be valuable for both clinicians and researchers.

  4. A Guide to the Study and Use of Military History

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    psychological, and quantitative techniques to older as well as newer forms of history. The legacy of ferment left from older debates in historical...Western expansion into Africa, Asia, and South America introduced ferment and instability into what had been areas of high social, economic, and political...the leading American figure there, Joseph W. (" Vinegar Joe") Stilwell, and because of the enigma of American relations with China and its generalissimo

  5. Explaining life history variation in a changing climate across a species' range

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neuheimer, Anna B.; MacKenzie, Brian R.

    2014-01-01

    Timing of reproduction greatly influences offspring success and resulting population production. Explaining and predicting species' dynamics necessitates disentangling the intrinsic (genotypic) and extrinsic (climatic) factors controlling reproductive timing. Here we explore temporal and spatial...... changes in spawning time for 21 populations of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) across the species' range (40 degrees to 80 degrees N). We estimate spawning time using a physiologically relevant metric that includes information on fish thermal history (degree-days, DD). First, we estimate spawning DD among...... years (within populations) to show how recent changes in spawning time can be explained by local changes in temperature. Second, we employ spawning DD to identify temperature-independent trends in spawning time among populations that are consistent with parallel adaptive evolution and the evolutionary...

  6. Transformation in Russian and Soviet Military History: Proceedings of the Military History Symposium (12th) Held in Washington, D.C. on 1-3 October 1986

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    SESSION IV: CO,"AMENTARY 314 former Defense Secretary McNamara’s Pentagon "whiz kids ." There is a lot of talk in the Soviet Union today about...Philosophical Heritage of V. 1. Lenin and Problems of Contemporary War Concept, Algorithm, Decision Military Pedagogy Military Psychology Dictionary...Tactics, 1966. Military Pedagogy , 1966. M I Kalinin: On Communist Education and Military Duty, 1967. Military Psychology, 1968. Officer’s Guide for

  7. Does mental health history explain gender disparities in insomnia symptoms among young adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Lauren; Do, D Phuong; Basurto-Davila, Ricardo; Heron, Melonie; Finch, Brian K; Dubowitz, Tamara; Lurie, Nicole; Bird, Chloe E

    2009-12-01

    Insomnia is the most commonly reported sleep disorder, characterized by trouble falling asleep, staying asleep, or waking up too early. Previous epidemiological data reveal that women are more likely than men to suffer from insomnia symptoms. We investigate the role that mental health history plays in explaining the gender disparity in insomnia symptoms. Using logistic regression, we analyze National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES) III interview and laboratory data, merged with data on sociodemographic characteristics of the residential census tract of respondents. Our sample includes 5469 young adults (ages 20-39) from 1429 census tracts. Consistent with previous research, we find that women are more likely to report insomnia symptoms compared to men (16.7% vs. 9.2%). However, in contrast to previous work, we show that the difference between women's and men's odds of insomnia becomes statistically insignificant after adjusting for history of mental health conditions (OR=1.08, p>.05). The gender disparity in insomnia symptoms may be driven by higher prevalence of affective disorders among women. This finding has implications for clinical treatment of both insomnia and depression, especially among women.

  8. American Military Veteran Entrepreneurs: A Comprehensive Profile of Demographic, Service History, and Psychosocial Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz, Adrienne J; Freeman, Michael A; Harpaz-Rotem, Ilan; Pietrzak, Robert H

    2017-01-01

    American military veterans are nearly twice as likely to be self-employed compared to non-veterans, and are majority owners in nine percent of all businesses nationwide. Despite their contribution to the broader economy and the potential for training programs to cultivate and foster successful self-employment and veteran-lead entrepreneurial ventures, research on veteran entrepreneurs remains limited. In order to gain a better understanding of the potential strengths and vulnerabilities of veteran entrepreneurs, the current study utilized data from a large, nationally representative sample to profile self-employed veterans (n=230) and compare them to veterans who work as employees (n=1,055) with respect to demographic, military service history, and psychosocial characteristics. Results indicated that self-employed veterans were older and more educated and more likely to utilize VA healthcare. Self-employed veterans were more likely to serve in Vietnam and to serve in the military for fewer years. No differences were noted in perceived military experience, level of combat exposure, or military branch served as a function of self-employment. Although reporting more lifetime traumas, self-employed veterans did not experience higher rates of current or lifetime psychopathology or lower perceived quality of life. Potential protective resilience-promoting factors may be associated with the higher levels of openness, extraversion, optimism, achievement-orientation (purpose in life), and greater need for autonomy and professional development observed among self-employed veterans. Moreover, self-employed veterans demonstrated higher levels of gratitude, community integration, and altruistic service to others. Findings have potential to inform human resources management strategies and vocational training and reintegration initiatives for veterans.

  9. American Military Veteran Entrepreneurs: A Comprehensive Profile of Demographic, Service History, and Psychosocial Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz, Adrienne J.; Freeman, Michael A.; Harpaz-Rotem, Ilan; Pietrzak, Robert H.

    2017-01-01

    American military veterans are nearly twice as likely to be self-employed compared to non-veterans, and are majority owners in nine percent of all businesses nationwide. Despite their contribution to the broader economy and the potential for training programs to cultivate and foster successful self-employment and veteran-lead entrepreneurial ventures, research on veteran entrepreneurs remains limited. In order to gain a better understanding of the potential strengths and vulnerabilities of veteran entrepreneurs, the current study utilized data from a large, nationally representative sample to profile self-employed veterans (n=230) and compare them to veterans who work as employees (n=1,055) with respect to demographic, military service history, and psychosocial characteristics. Results indicated that self-employed veterans were older and more educated and more likely to utilize VA healthcare. Self-employed veterans were more likely to serve in Vietnam and to serve in the military for fewer years. No differences were noted in perceived military experience, level of combat exposure, or military branch served as a function of self-employment. Although reporting more lifetime traumas, self-employed veterans did not experience higher rates of current or lifetime psychopathology or lower perceived quality of life. Potential protective resilience-promoting factors may be associated with the higher levels of openness, extraversion, optimism, achievement-orientation (purpose in life), and greater need for autonomy and professional development observed among self-employed veterans. Moreover, self-employed veterans demonstrated higher levels of gratitude, community integration, and altruistic service to others. Findings have potential to inform human resources management strategies and vocational training and reintegration initiatives for veterans. PMID:29290645

  10. A Didactic Approach between Music and History: Military Images in Early 19th-Century Concertos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Aversano

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article looks at the representation of military images in the violin and orchestra concerts of the early 19th century in a didactic perspective. It introduces a reflection on methodology that focuses on the way in which school teaching can connect the analysis of past musical forms with the history of European culture. At the same time, the essay provides an example for a possible didactic approach, conceived essentially for upper secondary schools, but also potentially useful for teachers at other school levels.

  11. Migratory life histories explain the extreme egg-size dimorphism of Eudyptes penguins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Tony D.

    2016-01-01

    When successive stages in the life history of an animal directly overlap, physiological conflicts can arise resulting in carryover effects from one stage to another. The extreme egg-size dimorphism (ESD) of Eudyptes penguins, where the first-laid A-egg is approximately 18–57% smaller than the second-laid B-egg, has interested researchers for decades. Recent studies have linked variation in this trait to a carryover effect of migration that limits the physiology of yolk production and egg sizes. We assembled data on ESD and estimates of migration–reproduction overlap in penguin species and use phylogenetic methods to test the idea that migration–reproduction overlap explains variation in ESD. We show that migration overlap is generally restricted to Eudyptes relative to non-Eudyptes penguins, and that this overlap (defined as the amount of time that egg production occurs on land versus at sea during homeward migration) is significantly and positively correlated with the degree of ESD in Eudyptes. In the non-Eudyptes species, however, ESD was unrelated to migration overlap as these species mostly produce their clutches on land. Our results support the recent hypothesis that extreme ESD of Eudyptes penguins evolved, in part, as a response to selection for a pelagic overwinter migration behaviour. This resulted in a temporal overlap with, and thus a constraint on, the physiology of follicle development, leading to smaller A-egg size and greater ESD. PMID:27708146

  12. Military chemical warfare agent human subjects testing: part 1--history of six-decades of military experiments with chemical warfare agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Mark

    2009-10-01

    Military chemical warfare agent testing from World War I to 1975 produced thousands of veterans with concerns of possible long-term health consequences. Clinical and research evaluation of potential long-term health effects has been difficult because the exposures occurred decades ago, the identity of troops exposed and exposure magnitudes are uncertain, and acute effects during experiments poorly documented. In contrast, a companion article describes the large amount of information available about the specific agents tested and their long-term health effects. This short history describes U.S. military chemical-agent experiments with human subjects and identifies tested agents. Finally, the demonstrated need to anticipate future health concerns from military personnel involved in such military testing suggests current and future military researchers should be required, by law and regulation, to fully record the identity of those exposed, relevant exposure magnitude, and complete medical information for all subjects. New study protocols and institutional review board approvals for research involving military personnel should reflect this need.

  13. Professor M. M. Zagorulko’s school of economic and military history of Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redkina Olga Yurievna

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Maxim Matveyevich Zagorulko is the first rector of Volgograd State University, the veteran of the Great Patriotic War, the Honorable Citizen of Volgograd. He is the founder and the head of the scientific school studying various aspects of the Fatherland’s history. In the 1960s, M.M. Zagorulko united researches in the field of an economic history of Russia and the Great Patriotic War history. He had chosen as a subject of his doctoral dissertation a history of operation of economy of temporarily occupied territories of the USSR by fascists. In 1970, M.M. Zagorulko in a co-authorship with the Moscow scholar, the active participant of guerrilla movement A.F. Yudenkov published the monograph “Crash of Economic Plans of Fascist Germany on Temporarily Occupied Territory of the USSR”. Soon it was translated into the Czech language. In 1974, there was the second, added and modified edition of the book by M.M. Zagorulko and A.F. Yudenkov – “Crash of the «Oldenburg» Plan”. The third edition of this book was issued in 1980 in the Russian and Czech languages in Moscow and Bratislava. In 1975, Maxim M. Zagorulko defended his doctoral dissertation in the Dissertation Council of Leningrad State University on the subject “Economic Policy of Fascist Germany in the Occupied Territory of the USSR and Its Crash”. M.M. Zagorulko, his pupils and adherents conduct scientific researches in the field of an Economic History of Russia, History of military captivity in the USSR, History of the Battle of Stalingrad and so forth. Under his management multivolume collections of documents were published, monographs were written and dissertations were defended. The fundamental Encyclopedia of the Battle of Stalingrad created by him was declared in 2010 as “The best book of Russia”. In all these projects, theses and monographs M.M. Zagorulko is the organizer and inspirer of scientific researches.

  14. Integration in the Ranks: Explaining the Effects of Social Pressure and Attitudinal Change on U.S. Military Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bailey, Jr., Richard J

    2006-01-01

    When compared to other organizations in the American bureaucracy, and perhaps American society as a whole, the military is generally regarded as having been one of the pioneers of racial integration...

  15. Institutional origins of the Department of Energy: the Office of Military Application. Energy History Series Volume 1, No. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anders, R.M.

    1980-08-01

    The Department of Energy Organization Act of 1977 brought together for the first time in one department most of the government's energy programs. With these programs came a score of organizational entities, each with its own history and traditions, from a dozen departments and independent agencies. This report traces the history of the Office of Military Application, from its inception as the Division of Military Application in the Atomic Energy Commission, through the Energy Research and Development Administration to its present status as an office in the Department of Energy

  16. Explaining density-dependent regulation in earthworm populations using life-history analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kammenga, J.E.; Spurgeon, D.J.; Svendsen, C.; Weeks, J.M.

    2003-01-01

    At present there is little knowledge about how density regulates population growth rate and to what extent this is determined by life-history patterns. We compared density dependent population consequences in the Nicholsonian sense based oil experimental observations and life-history modeling for

  17. The evolution of military technology

    CERN Document Server

    Hagler, Gina

    2018-01-01

    War has at some point touched every nation. Beginning with ancient history and following through to the present, this book addresses the question of why war exists, and explains the shapes in which it occurs. It will lead young readers on a journey through time by tracing weapons from the earliest stones and clubs to modern technological military warfare. Along with the evolution of weaponry through the ages, it also goes into the development of protective gear, transportation, communication, and military strategies.

  18. History of Military Service and the Risk of Suicidal Ideation: Findings from the 2008 National Survey on Drug Use and Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Richard; Barber, Catherine; Azrael, Deb; Mukamal, Kenneth J.; Miller, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    Studies of completed suicide by history of military service have produced inconsistent findings; no representative population-based study has compared the risk of nonfatal suicidal behavior among veterans with risk among nonveterans. The objective of this study was to examine whether male veterans of the U.S. military are at heightened risk of…

  19. Explaining Participation: An Explanatory History of Select Gender Patterns in Undergraduate STEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastroianni, Michael Pasquale

    This explanatory study examines three focal periods in undergraduate STEM as related to the gender gap. Social, economic, and more general historical data are used to develop a clear and powerful explanation of baccalaureate trends in biology and engineering. Specifically, historical accounts are offered for 1) a ten-year period in undergraduate biology in which the number of baccalaureates awarded to men decreased 44 percent, while the number of baccalaureates awarded to women decreased one percent; 2) the start of a twenty-year period in which the number of bachelor's degrees awarded in the biological sciences increased 150 percent---from 36,068 degrees in 1989, to 90,003 bachelor's degrees in 2011; and 3) a ten year period in undergraduate engineering where female graduation rates septupled---this ten-year time period is the only instance of meaningful and noteworthy growth for women in undergraduate engineering over the past half century. Findings from each history reveal a common narrative underlying baccalaureate trends. Implications for undergraduate STEM are discussed.

  20. History of U.S. Military Contributions to the Study of Diarrheal Diseases

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lim, Matthew L

    2005-01-01

    .... military scientists and physicians implemented the first mandatory typhoid inoculation program, contributed to advances in water chlorination, and pioneered the use of antibiotics for typhoid fever. U.S...

  1. Management of the U.S. Army Center for Military History Exchange-For-Services Agreement

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lane, F

    1997-01-01

    ..., transferring, donating and selling munitions list items. Munitions list items are military articles that require special handling and disposal to prevent their unauthorized use by domestic or foreign purchasers...

  2. Sixty-Five Million Years of Change in Temperature and Topography Explain Evolutionary History in Eastern North American Plethodontid Salamanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Richard; Clark, Adam Thomas

    2017-07-01

    For many taxa and systems, species richness peaks at midelevations. One potential explanation for this pattern is that large-scale changes in climate and geography have, over evolutionary time, selected for traits that are favored under conditions found in contemporary midelevation regions. To test this hypothesis, we use records of historical temperature and topographic changes over the past 65 Myr to construct a general simulation model of plethodontid salamander evolution in eastern North America. We then explore possible mechanisms constraining species to midelevation bands by using the model to predict plethodontid evolutionary history and contemporary geographic distributions. Our results show that models that incorporate both temperature and topographic changes are better able to predict these patterns, suggesting that both processes may have played an important role in driving plethodontid evolution in the region. Additionally, our model (whose annotated source code is included as a supplement) represents a proof of concept to encourage future work that takes advantage of recent advances in computing power to combine models of ecology, evolution, and earth history to better explain the abundance and distribution of species over time.

  3. U.S. military enlisted accession mental health screening: history and current practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardona, Robert Andrew; Ritchie, Elspeth Cameron

    2007-01-01

    Through the stimulus of war and concerns about neuropsychiatric disability, the U.S. military developed methods to rapidly screen the mental health of World War I and II draftees. Intelligence testing and brief psychiatric screening expanded the accession physical examination and underwent revision to identify only gross mental health disability. Supplemental psychiatric evaluations and written psychological screening tools were abandoned after postwar assessments; they demonstrated poor predictive power in evaluating recruit service capacity for combat environments. Currently, only three mental health accession tools are used to screen applicants before their entrance into military service, namely, educational achievement, cognitive testing, and a cursory psychiatric evaluation. The Navy and Air Force use a fourth screening measure during entry-level training. Educational attainment with high school graduation has been the strongest predictor of finishing a service term. The purpose of this article is to provide both a historical review and a review of testing efforts.

  4. Military Classics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    the relation of religion and politics to seventeenth-century English military history. Frederick II, King of Prussia. Frederick the Great on the Art...Beginning with the reign of King Henry VIII, Barnett’s work explores the history of the British Army as an institution and fighting force. The volume...native clans led by Shaka , to its fall under the guns of the British Army by 1878. The Zulus produced a formidable military force, and this excellent

  5. Putting the military back into the history of the military-industrial complex: the management of technological innovation in the U.S. Army, 1945-1960.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassman, Thomas C

    2015-03-01

    In 1946 General Dwight Eisenhower, the Army Chief of Staff, established the Research and Development (R&D) Division on the War Department General Staff to expedite major technological breakthroughs in weapons technology. This goal, based on the separation of the management of R&D from procurement, captured the Army's preference for qualitative rather than quantitative superiority on the battlefield, but it threatened to upend entrenched methods of incremental product improvement under way in the Army's supply organizations, collectively called the technical services. The division's brief existence (it ceased operations in 1947) contrasted sharply with the longevity of the Ordnance Department's in-house manufacturing arsenals; for more than a century they had exploited synergies between R&D and production to turn out new weapons mass-produced in industry. The history of the R&D Division and the corresponding management of technological innovation in the technical services broadens an otherwise narrow historiographical interpretation of postwar knowledge production in the United States that is still focused heavily on the moral and political economy of military-funded academic research.

  6. Military Service Records and Unit Histories: A Guide to Locating Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-26

    records, therefoa- e , written authorization from the veta -an or ne.’Ct of kin is not rEqUired. However, in ordet" to protect the privacy of the...line E -mail: MPR.center@nara.gov Older military personnel records (generally prior to World War I, depending on the service branch) are located at...AFB, DC 20032-5000 E -mail: afhso.research@pentagon.af.mil http://www.afhso.af.mil/ (202) 404-2264 National Museum of the U.S. Air Force 1100

  7. private military contractors, war crimes and international

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP USER

    work.10 Military history has recorded a strong role for private actors in military affairs firmly ..... Evidence records that, while the state military officers found by a military ... Should it be the chief executive officer (CEO) of .... The Financial Times.

  8. Book Review by Daniel Moran of The Iraq War: Strategy, Tactics, and Military Lessons, by Anthony H. Cordesman, and The Iraq War: A Military History, by Williamson Murray and Major General Robert H. Scales

    OpenAIRE

    Moran, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    Reviewed: TThe Iraq War: Strategy, Tactics, and Military Lessons, by Anthony H. Cordesman, and The Iraq War: A Military History, by Williamson Murray and Major General Robert H. Scales The United States and its allies went to war against Iraq in 2003, as Williamson Murray and Robert Scales reasonably propose, “to make an example out of Saddam’s regime, for better or worse” (p. 44). Exactly what the war exemplified, and whether the results are better or worse than might have be...

  9. Conspiracy, Guilt and Rationality: The Memory and History of the German Military Occupation of Denmark on 9 April 1940

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roslyng-Jensen, Palle

    2013-01-01

    The German Military Occupation of Denmark 9. April 1940 was undertaken as a surprise attack and met very short Danish military resistance. It created for long debates, juridical encounters and dicussuions regarding future Danish military policy. Historical analyses did not became dominant before ...

  10. Pinkwashing the Past: Gay Rights, Military History and the Sidelining of Protest in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Drehel

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the implications of the militarisation of Australian history and the dilemmas of increasing public support for same-sex marriage in Australia at a time of renewed assaults on Indigenous rights, austerity measures and the silencing of dissent. The paper analyses the celebratory rhetoric which increasingly typifies both marriage equality campaigns and the commemoration of Australia’s First World War or ‘Anzac’ history in popular media and public debate. Against the confluence between ongoing debates on same-sex marriage and the ‘Anzac myth’, I highlight four key challenges: the silencing of dissent; forgetting of the Frontier Wars; untold stories of civil society achievements; and the normalising of same-sex rights. I argue that professed support for a liberal version of ‘gay rights’ exemplified by same-sex marriage, set against a militarized version of Australian history, glosses over past and ongoing injustices. A militarized version of history underpins a nationalism that misrepresents credit for advances in rights recognition, sidelining public representations of Indigenous sovereignties and the contributions of civil society, protest and social justice campaigning to the recognition and maintenance of civil and political rights. As a result, the transformative claims of Land Rights and Treaty, critiques of war, and queer politics, are contained. Este artículo explora las implicaciones de la militarización de la historia de Australia y los dilemas del creciente apoyo público al matrimonio entre parejas del mismo sexo en Australia, en una época de ataques renovados a los derechos de los indígenas, medidas de austeridad y silenciamiento de las discrepancias. El artículo analiza la retórica de celebración en los medios populares y el debate público que cada vez más acompaña tanto las campañas de igualdad matrimonial como la conmemoración de la historia de Australia en la primera guerra mundial o

  11. Heterogeneity of long-history migration explains cultural differences in reports of emotional expressivity and the functions of smiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rychlowska, Magdalena; Miyamoto, Yuri; Matsumoto, David; Hess, Ursula; Gilboa-Schechtman, Eva; Kamble, Shanmukh; Muluk, Hamdi; Masuda, Takahiko; Niedenthal, Paula Marie

    2015-05-12

    A small number of facial expressions may be universal in that they are produced by the same basic affective states and recognized as such throughout the world. However, other aspects of emotionally expressive behavior vary widely across culture. Just why do they vary? We propose that some cultural differences in expressive behavior are determined by historical heterogeneity, or the extent to which a country's present-day population descended from migration from numerous vs. few source countries over a period of 500 y. Our reanalysis of data on cultural rules for displaying emotion from 32 countries [n = 5,340; Matsumoto D, Yoo S, Fontaine J (2008) J Cross Cult Psychol 39(1):55-74] reveals that historical heterogeneity explains substantial, unique variance in the degree to which individuals believe that emotions should be openly expressed. We also report an original study of the underlying states that people believe are signified by a smile. Cluster analysis applied to data from nine countries (n = 726), including Canada, France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Israel, Japan, New Zealand, and the United States, reveals that countries group into "cultures of smiling" determined by historical heterogeneity. Factor analysis shows that smiles sort into three social-functional subtypes: pleasure, affiliative, and dominance. The relative importance of these smile subtypes varies as a function of historical heterogeneity. These findings thus highlight the power of social-historical factors to explain cross-cultural variation in emotional expression and smile behavior.

  12. Russia - Nato. The military balance

    OpenAIRE

    Daugaard, Søren Bech; Jacobsen, Karen Vestergård; Aigro, Signe; Skarequist, Anne

    2010-01-01

    This project aims to explain how the military balancing of Russia against NATO can be explained from a neoclassical realist framework. The project consists in three analytical parts of respectively, 1: The military capabilities balance between NATO and Russia; 2: How the international system puts pressure on Russia; and 3: How the strategic culture of Russia can explain its balancing. This project aims to explain how the military balancing of Russia against NATO can be explained from a neo...

  13. The Utility of the Mayo-Portland Adaptability Inventory Participation Index (M2PI) in US Military Veterans With a History of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    OʼRourke, Justin; Critchfield, Edan; Soble, Jason; Bain, Kathleen; Fullen, Chrystal; Eapen, Blessen

    2018-05-31

    To examine the utility of the Mayo-Portland Adaptability Inventory-4th Edition Participation Index (M2PI) as a self-report measure of functional outcome following mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) in US Military veterans. Department of Veterans Affairs Polytrauma Rehabilitation Center specialty hospital. On hundred thirty-nine veterans with a history of self-reported mTBI. Retrospective cross-sectional examination of data collected from regular clinical visits. M2PI, Neurobehavioral Symptoms Inventory with embedded validity measures, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist-Military Version. Forty-one percent of the sample provided symptom reports that exceeded established cut scores on embedded symptom validity tests. Invalid responders had higher levels of unemployment and endorsed significantly greater functional impairment, posttraumatic stress symptoms, and postconcussive complaints. For valid responders, regression analyses revealed that self-reported functioning was primarily related to posttraumatic stress complaints, followed by postconcussive cognitive complaints. For invalid responders, posttraumatic stress complaints also predicted self-reported functioning. Caution is recommended when utilizing the M2PI to measure functional outcome following mTBI in military veterans, particularly in the absence of symptom validity tests.

  14. The American Military and the Far East, Proceedings of the Ninth Military History Symposium, United States Air Force Academy, 1-3 October 1980,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-10-01

    movies and social dances had so permeated the country that many Chinese were influenced by the Western notion that marriage, or for that matter divorce ...34The Monterrey Campaign" of Zachary Taylor in the Mexican War.3 The nearest thing to an official history, The Philippine Insurrection Against the

  15. History and political cultures: the legal conceptions evoked by the military governments while score of getting legitimacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Pereira da Silva

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes to analyse the period of brazilian military governments (1964-1985 under the view of lawfulness culture. We intend to show how the take of political power in 1964, far of being considered just the invest of the force and of the will, it was based into a juridical effort engagement, made upon a determined theory of constitutional right with emphasis in the thought of Carl Schmitt and Hans Kelsen.

  16. About Military Sexual Trauma

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Try it free Find out why Close About Military Sexual Trauma Veterans Health Administration Loading... Unsubscribe from ... Veterans Health Administration 2,027 views 25:30 Language: English Location: United States Restricted Mode: Off History ...

  17. Neuropsychological Performance and Subjective Symptom Reporting in Military Service Members With a History of Multiple Concussions: Comparison With a Single Concussion, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, and Orthopedic Trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Douglas B; Curtiss, Glenn; Armistead-Jehle, Patrick; Belanger, Heather G; Tate, David F; Reid, Matthew; Bowles, Amy O; Velez, Carmen S; Kennedy, Jan E; Vanderploeg, Rodney D

    To examine differences in objective neurocognitive performance and subjective cognitive symptoms in individuals with a history of a single concussion, multiple concussions, orthopedic injuries, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Participants included 116 military service members who sustained a mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) during combat deployment. Subjects were subdivided into groups based on concussion frequency: a single concussion (n = 42), 2 concussions (n = 21), and 3 or more concussions (n = 53). Eighty-one subjects sustained an orthopedic injury (n = 60) during deployment or were diagnosed with PTSD (n = 21), but had no history of mTBI. Subjects completed a battery of neuropsychological tests and self-report measures of postconcussive symptoms, PTSD symptoms, and psychopathology. No differences were found among the concussion groups on a composite neuropsychological measure. The PTSD group had the highest number of symptom complaints, with the 2-concussion and 3-plus-concussion groups being most similar to the PTSD group. The concussion groups showed a nonsignificant pattern of increasing distress with increasing number of concussions. The current findings are consistent with meta-analytic results showing no differential effect on neuropsychological functioning due to multiple concussions. Results also support the burden of adversity hypothesis suggesting increasing symptom levels with increasing psychological or physically traumatic exposures.

  18. Jewish Culture and the American Military

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Goldberg, Adam M

    2006-01-01

    This study explores the Jewish experience within the American military. The history of military service by persons of the Jewish faith corresponds roughly to that of persons from many other ethnic or religious groups...

  19. Symptom Reporting Patterns of US Military Service Members with a History of Concussion According to Duty Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Lisa H; Cooper, Doug B; Reid, Matthew W; Khokhar, Bilal; Tsagaratos, Jennifer E; Kennedy, Jan E

    2018-03-28

    To compare symptom reporting patterns of service members with a history of concussion based on work status: full duty, limited duty, or in the Medical Evaluation Board (MEB)/disability process. Retrospective analysis of 181 service members with a history of concussion (MEB n = 56; limited duty n = 62; full duty n = 63). Neurobehavioral Symptom Inventory (NSI) Validity-10 cutoff (>22) and Mild Brain Injury Atypical Symptoms Scale (mBIAS) cutoffs (≥10 and ≥8) were used to evaluate potential over-reporting of symptoms. The MEB group displayed significantly higher NSI scores and significantly higher proportion scored above the mBIAS ≥10 cutoff (MEB = 15%; limited duty = 3%; full duty = 5%). Validity-10 cutoff did not distinguish between groups. MEB but not limited duty status was associated with increased risk of over-reporting symptoms in service members with a history of concussion. Results support the use of screening measures for over-reporting in the MEB/disability samples.

  20. Headache in military service members with a history of mild traumatic brain injury: A cohort study of diagnosis and classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkel, Alan G; Yerry, Juanita A; Klaric, John S; Ivins, Brian J; Scher, Ann; Choi, Young S

    2017-05-01

    Introduction Headaches after concussion are highly prevalent, relatively persistent and are being treated like primary headaches, especially migraine. Methods We studied all new patients seen between August 2008 and December 2009 assessed by a civilian headache specialist at the TBI Center at Womack Army Medical Center, Fort Bragg, NC. We report sample demographics, injuries and headache characteristics, including time from injury to headache onset, detailed descriptions and International Classification of Headache Disorders second edition primary headache diagnosis type. Results A total of 95 soldiers reported 166 headaches. The most common injury cited was a blast (53.7%). Most subjects (76.8%) recalled the onset of any headache within 7 days of injury. The most commonly diagnosed headache was a continuous type with migraine features ( n = 31 (18.7%)), followed by chronic migraine (type 1.5.1, n = 14 (8.4%)), migraine with aura (type 1.2.1, n = 10 (6.0%)), hemicrania continua (type 4.7, n = 12 (7.2%)), chronic cluster (type 3.1.2, n = 6 (3.6%)) and headaches not otherwise classifiable (type 14.1, n = 5 (3.0%)) also present. The most clinically important was a continuous headache with migraine features. Conclusion We present a series of patients seen in a military treatment facility for headache diagnosis after concussion in whom we found migraine, as well as uncommon primary headache types, at frequencies that were much higher than expected.

  1. Complexity explained

    CERN Document Server

    Erdi, Peter

    2008-01-01

    This book explains why complex systems research is important in understanding the structure, function and dynamics of complex natural and social phenomena. Readers will learn the basic concepts and methods of complex system research.

  2. Military Legislation: Explaining Military Officers’ Writing Deficiencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Skinner1953_Operant.pdf. 5 (and others) can learn writing subconsciously by turning into habit the responses they have encountered in their academic...100 Each source is evaluated for potential biases , purpose, and reliability. After evaluating multiple sources, the authors select those that are...and effect • Describe the tone, and look for bias • Identify inferences and assumptions • Identify implications139 Their third recommended step is

  3. Iraqi Military Academies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nodar Z. Mossaki

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the system of training of officers in military academies in Iraq – in Zakho, Qalacholan, ar-Rustamiyah and an-Nasiriyah. The author describes the history of creation, process of evolution, challenges and features of training in these colleges. Particular attention paid to military academies in the territory of Iraqi Kurdistan, which actually do not obey the central government of Iraq, however, have the highest level of training. Currently, Iraq's military academies operate on the basis of the NATO standards. Iraqi military academies paid miuch attention to the specifics of the military and political situation in Iraq – counterinsurgency and counterterrorism operations, patrolling cities, fighting in an urban environment etc. Significant place in the curriculum take the courses contributing to the formation of pro-Western sentiment.

  4. Performance and Symptom Validity Testing as a Function of Medical Board Evaluation in U.S. Military Service Members with a History of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armistead-Jehle, Patrick; Cole, Wesley R; Stegman, Robert L

    2018-02-01

    The study was designed to replicate and extend pervious findings demonstrating the high rates of invalid neuropsychological testing in military service members (SMs) with a history of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) assessed in the context of a medical evaluation board (MEB). Two hundred thirty-one active duty SMs (61 of which were undergoing an MEB) underwent neuropsychological assessment. Performance validity (Word Memory Test) and symptom validity (MMPI-2-RF) test data were compared across those evaluated within disability (MEB) and clinical contexts. As with previous studies, there were significantly more individuals in an MEB context that failed performance (MEB = 57%, non-MEB = 31%) and symptom validity testing (MEB = 57%, non-MEB = 22%) and performance validity testing had a notable affect on cognitive test scores. Performance and symptom validity test failure rates did not vary as a function of the reason for disability evaluation when divided into behavioral versus physical health conditions. These data are consistent with past studies, and extends those studies by including symptom validity testing and investigating the effect of reason for MEB. This and previous studies demonstrate that more than 50% of SMs seen in the context of an MEB will fail performance validity tests and over-report on symptom validity measures. These results emphasize the importance of using both performance and symptom validity testing when evaluating SMs with a history of mTBI, especially if they are being seen for disability evaluations, in order to ensure the accuracy of cognitive and psychological test data. Published by Oxford University Press 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  5. Differentiating the evolution of female song and male-female duets in the New World blackbirds: can tropical natural history traits explain duet evolution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odom, Karan J; Omland, Kevin E; Price, J Jordan

    2015-03-01

    Female bird song and combined vocal duets of mated pairs are both frequently associated with tropical, monogamous, sedentary natural histories. Little is known, however, about what selects for duetting behavior versus female song. Female song likely preceded duet evolution and could drive apparent relationships between duets and these natural histories. We compared the evolution of female song and male-female duets in the New World blackbirds (Icteridae) by investigating patterns of gains and losses of both traits and their relationships with breeding latitude, mating system, nesting pattern, and migratory behavior. We found that duets evolved only in lineages in which female song was likely ancestral. Both female song and duets were correlated with tropical breeding, social monogamy, territorial nesting, and sedentary behavior when all taxa were included; however, correlations between duets and these natural history traits disappeared when comparisons were limited to taxa with female song. Also, likelihood values supported stronger relationships between the natural history traits and female song than between these traits and duets. Our results suggest that the natural histories thought to favor the evolution of duetting may in fact be associated with female song and that additional selection pressures are responsible for the evolution of duets. © 2015 The Author(s).

  6. SPSS explained

    CERN Document Server

    Hinton, Perry R; Brownlow, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    SPSS Explained provides the student with all that they need to undertake statistical analysis using SPSS. It combines a step-by-step approach to each procedure with easy to follow screenshots at each stage of the process. A number of other helpful features are provided: regular advice boxes with tips specific to each test explanations divided into 'essential' and 'advanced' sections to suit readers at different levels frequently asked questions at the end of each chapter. The first edition of this popular book has been fully updated for IBM SPSS version 21 and also includes: chapters that expl

  7. Explaining variation in life history timing across a species range: Effects of climate on spawning time in an exploited marine fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neuheimer, Anna; MacKenzie, Brian

    . Combined, these results shed light on the adaptive capacity of the species in the face of changing climate. We use our results to estimate expected spawning time under future climate regimes, and discuss the implications for codecology and management across the species’ range, and in the greater ecosystem......The capacity of a species to tolerate and/or adapt to environmental conditions will shape its response to future climate change including climate extremes. Of the many life-history processes affected by climate change, timing of reproduction greatly influences offspring success and resulting...... population production. Here we explore temporal and spatial changes in spawning time for Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) across the species’ range (4 to 80°N). We estimate spawning time using a physiologically relevant metric that includes information on fish thermal history (degree days, DD). First, we estimate...

  8. A comparison of HAART outcomes between the US military HIV Natural History Study (NHS and HIV Atlanta Veterans Affairs Cohort Study (HAVACS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jodie L Guest

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The Department of Defense (DoD and the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA provide comprehensive HIV treatment and care to their beneficiaries with open access and few costs to the patient. Individuals who receive HIV care in the VA have higher rates of substance abuse, homelessness and unemployment than individuals who receive HIV care in the DoD. A comparison between individuals receiving HIV treatment and care from the DoD and the VA provides an opportunity to explore the impact of individual-level characteristics on clinical outcomes within two healthcare systems that are optimized for clinic retention and medication adherence. METHODS: Data were collected on 1065 patients from the HIV Atlanta VA Cohort Study (HAVACS and 1199 patients from the US Military HIV Natural History Study (NHS. Patients were eligible if they had an HIV diagnosis and began HAART between January 1, 1996 and June 30, 2010. The analysis examined the survival from HAART initiation to all-cause mortality or an AIDS event. RESULTS: Although there was substantial between-cohort heterogeneity and the 12-year survival of participants in NHS was significantly higher than in HAVACS in crude analyses, this survival disparity was reduced from 21.5% to 1.6% (mortality only and 26.8% to 4.1% (combined mortality or AIDS when controlling for clinical and demographic variables. CONCLUSION: We assessed the clinical outcomes for individuals with HIV from two very similar government-sponsored healthcare systems that reduced or eliminated many barriers associated with accessing treatment and care. After controlling for clinical and demographic variables, both 12-year survival and AIDS-free survival rates were similar for the two study cohorts who have open access to care and medication despite dramatic differences in socioeconomic and behavioral characteristics.

  9. Mental Reservation and Military Testimony before Congress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Roberts, Gordon R

    2008-01-01

    .... The cause for this apparent mental reservation on the part of military leaders can be found in their organizational bias and environmental influences, but the solution can be found in history. It is vital for the military to understand that a currency of truth is the most important contribution it can make to the civilian-military relationship.

  10. Astronomy Explained

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, Gerald

    Every year large numbers of people take up the study of astronomy, mostly at amateur level. There are plenty of elementary books on the market, full of colourful photographs, but lacking in proper explanations of how and why things are as they are. Many people eventually wish to go beyond the 'coffee-table book' stage and study this fascinating subject in greater depth. This book is written for them. In addition, many people sit for public examinations in this subject each year and this book is also intended to be of use to them. All the topics from the GCSE syllabus are covered here, with sample questions at the end of each chapter. Astronomy Explained provides a comprehensive treatment of the subject in more depth than is usually found in elementary works, and will be of interest to both amateur astronomers and students of astronomy.

  11. Enlisting in the Military

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin M. Beaver

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Given that enlistment in the U.S. military is completely voluntary, there has been a great deal of interest in identifying the various factors that might explain why some people join the military, whereas others do not. The current study expanded on this line of literature by estimating the extent to which genetic and environmental factors explained variance in the liability for lifetime participation in the military. Analysis of twin pairs drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health revealed that 82% of the variance was the result of genetic factors, 18% of the variance was the result of nonshared environmental factors, and none of the variance was accounted for by shared environmental factors. In light of a number of limitations, replication studies are needed to determine the robustness of these findings and whether they are generalizable to other samples and populations.

  12. The Role of Communication in Military Leadership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Lewińska

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to discuss the role of communication in military leadership. First of all, basic terms related to communication, command and military leadership are explained. In the following parts of the paper it is intended to answer the question contained in the title: what is the role of communication in the military leadership? To precise the issue: is the role of communication in military organisations similar to civilian leadership and management or does it significantly differ?

  13. Explaining mental health disparities for non-monosexual women: abuse history and risky sex, or the burdens of non-disclosure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Tonje J; Pfaus, James G; Ryder, Andrew G

    2015-03-01

    Research has found that non-monosexual women report worse mental health than their heterosexual and lesbian counterparts. The reasons for these mental health discrepancies are unclear. This study investigated whether higher levels of child abuse and risky sexual behavior, and lower levels of sexual orientation disclosure, may help explain elevated symptoms of depression and anxiety among non-monosexual women. Participants included 388 women living in Canada (Mean age = 24.40, SD = 6.40, 188 heterosexual, 53 mostly heterosexual, 64 bisexual, 32 mostly lesbian, 51 lesbian) who filled out the Beck Depression and Anxiety Inventories as part of an online study running from April 2011 to February 2014. Participants were collapsed into non-monosexual versus monosexual categories. Non-monosexual women reported more child abuse, risky sexual behavior, less sexual orientation disclosure, and more symptoms of depression and anxiety than monosexual women. Statistical mediation analyses, using conditional process modeling, revealed that sexual orientation disclosure and risky sexual behavior uniquely, but not sequentially, mediated the relation between sexual orientation, depression and anxiety. Sexual orientation disclosure and risky sexual behavior were both associated with depression and anxiety. Childhood abuse did not moderate depression, anxiety, or risky sexual behavior. Findings indicate that elevated levels of risky sexual behavior and deflated levels of sexual orientation disclosure may in part explain mental health disparities among non-monosexual women. Results highlight potential targets for preventive interventions aimed at decreasing negative mental health outcomes for non-monosexual women, such as public health campaigns targeting bisexual stigma and the development of sex education programs for vulnerable sexual minority women, such as those defining themselves as bisexual, mostly heterosexual, or mostly lesbian. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  14. Slowing Military Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-01

    existential fear of one’s superpower rival. Nor was the Cold War the only arms race in history: naval rivalry in the late 19th and early 20th centuries...Military Review, July-August 2006; Norman Solomon, “The Bogus Blurring of Terrorism and Insurgency in Iraq,” The Humanist , Vol. 66, No. 2, March-April

  15. WAP explained

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, M.J.; Pulsipher, A.G.

    2004-01-01

    The Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP) is a federal block grant program administered by all 50 states and the District of Columbia through community action agencies, state energy offices, local government, and other nonprofit organizations to provide weatherization services to eligible households. The WAP was established in 1976 to increase the energy efficiency, reduce the energy expenditures, and improve the health and safety of low-income households, especially those households that are particularly vulnerable such as families with children, persons with disabilities, and the elderly. The manner in which WAP funds have been allocated to states, however, has been a contentious issue since the inception of the program. Southern states have argued that too much of the federal funding goes to cold-climate and rural states. Northern states disagree. In 1990, Congress amended the Energy Conservation and Production Act and required the Department of Energy to develop a new funding formula. The Department of Energy currently uses a three-factor formula developed in 1995 in conjunction with a two-factor formula developed in 1977 and a hold-harmless provision to allocate WAP funding. The purpose of this paper is to explain the WAP allocation mechanism and the assumptions associated with the 1977 and the 1995 funding formula. The factors that compose each funding formula are critically assessed and various implementation issues are reviewed, including the selection of the trigger point and program capacity levels. It is not possible to define the need for weatherization assistance objectively and in a unique manner, and this ambiguity is the main reason why the WAP allocation mechanism is expected to remain a lively topic of debate and contention

  16. Military History: A Selected Bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-03-01

    II. 1959. Stadelman, Rudolf . Scharnhorst: Schicksal and geistige Welt. 1952. Tarle, Eugene. Napoleon’s Invasion of Russia. 1942. Thiry, J...of Germany. 1975. *** Smith, Cecil Woodham. The Reason Why. 1965. Stadelman, Rudolf . Moltke und der Stadt. 1950. *** Wawro, Geoffrey. The Austro...Gerhard. The Sword and the Scepter, 4 vols. 1973. Steiner , Zarc S. The Foreign Office and Foreign Policy, 1898-1914. 1969. *** Stevenson, David

  17. Noncitizens in the U.S. Military

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    O'Neil, Lynn

    2004-01-01

    ... from 1990 through 1998. The history of noncitizen service corresponds roughly to the nation's history of immigration and naturalization policy, with military service having offered immigrants economic benefits, as well...

  18. Baczoni, Tamás, Tibor Balla et al. eds. 2014. A Nagy Háború, 1914-1918 - kézzelfogható hadtörténelem (The Great War, 1914-1918 - Tangible Military History]. Budapest: Zrínyi Kiadó, Honvédelmi Minisztérium Hadtörténeti Intézet és Múzeum munkatársai (Staff of the Institute and Museum of Military History Ministry of Defense. 68 pp. Two DVDs and fifty-six reproduced documentary inserts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Deák

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Baczoni, Tamás, Tibor Balla et al. eds. 2014. A Nagy Háború, 1914-1918 - kézzelfogható hadtörténelem (The Great War, 1914-1918 - Tangible Military History]. Budapest: Zrínyi Kiadó, Honvédelmi Minisztérium Hadtörténeti Intézet és Múzeum munkatársai (Staff of the Institute and Museum of Military History Ministry of Defense. 68 pp. Two DVDs and fifty-six reproduced documentary inserts.

  19. Can the life-history strategy explain the success of the exotic trees Ailanthus altissima and Robinia pseudoacacia in Iberian floodplain forests?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Castro-Díez

    Full Text Available Ailanthus altissima and Robina pseudoacacia are two successful invasive species of floodplains in central Spain. We aim to explain their success as invaders in this habitat by exploring their phenological pattern, vegetative and sexual reproductive growth, and allometric relations, comparing them with those of the dominant native tree Populus alba. During a full annual cycle we follow the timing of vegetative growth, flowering, fruit set, leaf abscission and fruit dispersal. Growth was assessed by harvesting two-year old branches at the peaks of vegetative, flower and fruit production and expressing the mass of current-year leaves, stems, inflorescences and infrutescences per unit of previous-year stem mass. Secondary growth was assessed as the increment of trunk basal area per previous-year basal area. A. altissima and R. pseudoacacia showed reproductive traits (late flowering phenology, insect pollination, late and long fruit set period, larger seeds different from P. alba and other native trees, which may help them to occupy an empty reproductive niche and benefit from a reduced competition for the resources required by reproductive growth. The larger seeds of the invaders may make them less dependent on gaps for seedling establishment. If so, these invaders may benefit from the reduced gap formation rate of flood-regulated rivers of the study region. The two invasive species showed higher gross production than the native, due to the higher size of pre-existing stems rather than to a faster relative growth rate. The latter was only higher in A. altissima for stems, and in R. pseudoacacia for reproductive organs. A. altissima and R. pseudoacacia showed the lowest and highest reproductive/vegetative mass ratio, respectively. Therefore, A. altissima may outcompete native P. alba trees thanks to a high potential to overtop coexisting plants whereas R. pseudoacacia may do so by means of a higher investment in sexual reproduction.

  20. Autonomous military robotics

    CERN Document Server

    Nath, Vishnu

    2014-01-01

    This SpringerBrief reveals the latest techniques in computer vision and machine learning on robots that are designed as accurate and efficient military snipers. Militaries around the world are investigating this technology to simplify the time, cost and safety measures necessary for training human snipers. These robots are developed by combining crucial aspects of computer science research areas including image processing, robotic kinematics and learning algorithms. The authors explain how a new humanoid robot, the iCub, uses high-speed cameras and computer vision algorithms to track the objec

  1. Military Strategy vs. Military Doctrine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfoed, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    The article argues that while doctrine represents the more scientific side of warfare, strategy represents the artistic side. Existing doctrine will almost never meet the requirements for winning the next war; it is through the artistic application of generic peacetime doctrine to the specific st...... strategic and operational context, using doctrine as building blocks for a context specific military strategy, that the military commander outwits and defeats or coerces the adversary and achieves the military objectives....

  2. Military Suicide Research Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    funded autism study – it covers autism spectrum disorders . He was not aware that DOD had this subject in their portfolio. He will be working with Dr...serotonin transporter gene and family history of depression? Journal of Affective Disorders , 77, 273-275. 8. Joiner, T., Sheldon, K., Williams, G...the military, impact unit morale, and take a large emotional toll on the involved friends, family , and commanders. As noted before with continued

  3. Do family history of CHD, education, paternal social class, number of siblings and height explain the association between psychosocial factors at work and coronary heart disease? The Whitehall II study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintsa, T; Shipley, M; Gimeno, D; Elovainio, M; Chandola, T; Jokela, M; Keltikangas-Järvinen, L; Vahtera, J; Marmot, MG; Kivimäki, M

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To examine whether the association between psychosocial factors at work and incident coronary heart disease (CHD) is explained by pre-employment factors such as family history of CHD, education, paternal social class, number of siblings and height. Methods A prospective cohort study of 6435 of British men aged 35–55 years at phase 1 (1985–1988) and free from prevalent CHD at phase 2 (1989–1990) was conducted. Psychosocial factors at work were assessed at phases 1 and 2 and mean scores across the two phases were used to determine long-term exposure. Selected pre-employment factors were assessed at phase 1. Follow-up for coronary death, first non-fatal myocardial infarction or definite angina between phase 2 and 1999 was based on clinical records (250 events, follow-up 8.7 years). Results Pre-employment factors were associated with risk for CHD: hazard ratio, HRs (95% CI) were 1.33 (1.03 to 1.73) for family history of CHD, 1.18 (1.05–1.32) for each quartile decrease in height, and marginally 1.16 (0.99–1.35) for each category increase in number of siblings. Psychosocial work factors predicted CHD: 1.72 (1.08–2.74) for low job control and 1.72 (1.10–2.67) for low organisational justice. Adjustment for pre-employment factors changed these associations by 4.1% or less. Conclusions In this well-characterised occupational cohort of British men, the association between psychosocial factors at work and CHD was largely independent of family history of CHD, education, paternal education and social class, number of siblings and height. PMID:19819857

  4. Psychohistory before Hitler: early military analyses of German national psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendersky, J W

    1988-04-01

    As part of a grandiose post-World War I psychological project to predict the behavior of nations, the U.S. Military Intelligence Division (MID) utilized racial and social psychological theories to explain an alleged problematic German national character. Though unsuccessful, this project has major significance in the history of psychohistory. For the newly discovered MID files reveal that ideas, attitudes, and biases many psychohistorians subsequently identified as manifestations of a peculiar German national character had previously been held by American officers and reputable psychologists. What American analysts would, in 1940, view as symptoms of a maladjusted German mind, their predecessors had, in 1920, considered valid scientific concepts.

  5. Trial by Jury in Russian Military Courts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolai P. Kovalev

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available One of peculiar features of the military criminal justice system in Russia is that in some cases military defendants may apply for trial by jury. Unlike the existing U.S. court-martial jury and the Russian military jury of the early 1900s (World War I period which were comprised of the members of the armed forces, in modern Russia jurors trying military defendants are civilians. This article aims to provide a brief history of military jury in Russia and identify issues of independence and impartiality in Russian military courts with participation of lay decision-makers. In particular, the article will analyze two high-profile cases which resulted in acquittals of Russian officers accused of killing several Chechen civilians during counter-terrorist operations in Chechnya.

  6. Military necessity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hayashi, N.

    2017-01-01

    It is often said that international humanitarian law (IHL) “accounts for” military necessity, but its meaning and normative consequences have remained obscure. This thesis develops a theory that offers a coherent explanation of the process through which IHL generates its rules. To

  7. Military radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Historic military uses of radiography are discussed in this chapter: Battle of Adowa in 1986 was the first. Besides describing the early campaigns in which radiography was used, the author discusses the problems faced: a reliable source of electricity; the problems of extreme heat; moving and breakage of equipment. Numerous historical photographs are included. 9 refs

  8. "Polite People" and Military Meekness: the Attributes of Military Ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel V. Didov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the phenomenon of "polite people" from the point of view of the history and theory of ethical thought. Identify and specify ethical principles that form the basis of military courtesy. On the basis of the revealed regularities, the study proves that ethics is impossible without a certain power attributes, which constitute its core. In relation to the traditions of Russian warriors revealed the key role to their formation of the Orthodox ethics and the military of meekness. The obtained results can serve as material for educational activities for the formation of fighting spirit.

  9. Air Power and Warfare. The Proceedings of the Military History Symposium (8th), United States Air Force Academy, 18-20 October 1978,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Doubtless you noticed that the title of his classic history book resembles the title of our non- book here tonight. Since The Influence of Sea Power Upon...wife, edited and ex- panded his War College lectures. Mrs. Mahan bought a secondhand typewriter, taught herself to use it. and typed the five hundred and...fifty pages. No publisher would accept them. A "vanity press" offe red to publish the book at a cost of two thousand dollars. Mahan invited two men

  10. Coming in From the Cold ... War: Defense Humint Services Support to Military Operations Other Than War

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Becker, David

    2000-01-01

    ...) and theater commander in chiefs (CINCs) in military operations other than war (MOOTW). The examination included a study into the recent history of military HUMINT, and the Department of Defense's (DoD's...

  11. Explaining Away Intuitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Ichikawa

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available What is it to explain away an intuition? Philosophers regularly attempt to explain intuitions away, but it is often unclear what the success conditions for their project consist in. I attempt to articulate some of these conditions, taking philosophical case studies as guides, and arguing that many attempts to explain away intuitions underestimate the challenge the project of explaining away involves. I will conclude, therefore, that explaining away intuitions is a more difficult task than has sometimes been appreciated; I also suggest, however, that the importance of explaining away intuitions has often been exaggerated.

  12. Military and Political Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Alexey I. Podberyozkin

    2014-01-01

    Military-political issues is an important area of research work at MGIMO. The difference in this direction from the classical international specialization is that it is at the intersection of several disciplines: military science, military-technical and military-industrial as well as International Relations. A specialist in military and political issues should not only be an expert in the field of international relations and diplomacy, but also have a deep knowledge of military-technical issu...

  13. Explaining Alliance Sustainability: The U.S.-Japan Military Relationship

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Long, Matthew

    1997-01-01

    .... By constructing an analytical framework that integrates a comparative approach to the study of national defense policy with aspects of the foreign policy/area studies and international relations...

  14. Military Review: Training the Force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    attack birds move in, it realizes the reserve must finish the fight. TF Sa- is over.., the senior controller calls "change of ber is alerted to recycle ...concentrate on field S1 must then take the casualties and recycle exerise performance alone, measwing it them as replacements. objectively against a...degenerate into a formal rehash of military history and the causes and consequences of common places and a plodding through trivia , tension between

  15. Plagiarism explainer for students

    OpenAIRE

    Barba, Lorena A.

    2016-01-01

    A slide deck to serve as an explainer of plagiarism in academic settings, with a personal viewpoint. For my students.Also on SpeakerDeck:https://speakerdeck.com/labarba/plagiarism-explainer-for-students(The slide viewer on SpeakerDeck is much nicer.)

  16. USE OF UBIQUITOUS TECHNOLOGIES IN MILITARY LOGISTIC SYSTEM IN IRAN

    OpenAIRE

    P. Jafari; A. Sadeghi-Niaraki

    2013-01-01

    This study is about integration and evaluation of RFID and ubiquitous technologies in military logistic system management. Firstly, supply chain management and the necessity of a revolution in logistic systems especially in military area, are explained. Secondly RFID and ubiquitous technologies and the advantages of their use in supply chain management are introduced. Lastly a system based on these technologies for controlling and increasing the speed and accuracy in military logistic system ...

  17. Quality of Life and Shelter: An Overview of the History of Military Housing Policy and Initiatives Since the Adoption of the All-Volunteer Force Concept (1973-1996)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Twiss, Pamela

    1997-01-01

    ... (Campbell, 1981; Campbell, Converse & Rodgers, 1976; Defense Science Board, 1995; Kerce, 1994). Figure 1 illustrates the role housing may play in situating military members in relationship to their primary and secondary social networks...

  18. Headache triggers in the US military.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theeler, Brett J; Kenney, Kimbra; Prokhorenko, Olga A; Fideli, Ulgen S; Campbell, William; Erickson, Jay C

    2010-05-01

    Headaches can be triggered by a variety of factors. Military service members have a high prevalence of headache but the factors triggering headaches in military troops have not been identified. The objective of this study is to determine headache triggers in soldiers and military beneficiaries seeking specialty care for headaches. A total of 172 consecutive US Army soldiers and military dependents (civilians) evaluated at the headache clinics of 2 US Army Medical Centers completed a standardized questionnaire about their headache triggers. A total of 150 (87%) patients were active-duty military members and 22 (13%) patients were civilians. In total, 77% of subjects had migraine; 89% of patients reported at least one headache trigger with a mean of 8.3 triggers per patient. A wide variety of headache triggers was seen with the most common categories being environmental factors (74%), stress (67%), consumption-related factors (60%), and fatigue-related factors (57%). The types of headache triggers identified in active-duty service members were similar to those seen in civilians. Stress-related triggers were significantly more common in soldiers. There were no significant differences in trigger types between soldiers with and without a history of head trauma. Headaches in military service members are triggered mostly by the same factors as in civilians with stress being the most common trigger. Knowledge of headache triggers may be useful for developing strategies that reduce headache occurrence in the military.

  19. Environmental History

    OpenAIRE

    Kearns, Gerard

    2004-01-01

    There was a time when almost all Western geography could be termed environmental history. In the late nineteenth century, physical geographers explained landscapes by describing how they had evolved. Likewise, human geographers saw society as shaped by the directing hands of the environment. By the 1960s this had very much changed. Process studies shortened the temporal framework in geographical explanation and cut the cord between nature and society. Now, physical and human...

  20. East Europe Report, Political, Sociological and Military Affairs, No. 2161

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-07-06

    Military Affairs Chemistry Cybernetics, Computers and Automation Technology Earth Sciences Electronics and Electrical Engineering Engineering and...language "from which classical Latin developed."^ An army journal undertook the task to explain the etymological origin of the designation Walach

  1. Legal Implications of Military Uses of Outer Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catena, Johanna

    2002-01-01

    Acquisition of Space Weapons, the Legal, Political and Military Impact for International Peace and At the dawn of a new century an immediate danger is upon us: The weaponization of outer space, including potential cost implications upon the prospect of ushering an era of peace and prosperity. But, can such statements be explained as pure sentimentality for hopes of a new era? Or is the danger misplaced that the threat to peace and security is an ever more ominous? By militarising outer space one could monitor crisis areas that could become a potential threat and this would in turn build confidence and security amongst nations. However the Outer Space Treaty prohibits placing in orbit nuclear and other weapons of mass destruction. This does not include other military systems. Many countries feel the prohibition should be extended in the Treaty. Other military systems may involve anti-satellite weapons, (ASATS), emitting or simply placing technologies in space using laser and /or particle beams from space to intercept presently specific military targets such as ballistic missiles and hostile satellites, but in the future this may extend to destroying a target on earth. Military presence in space however, is not founded on weapons alone, but also through military surveillance systems and seen by some countries as an effective measure in verification on arms control. It is also seen as intensifying an arms race. At the forefront of the debate for space weapons is the possibility of countries deploying a National Missile Defence system. How does one reconcile such a system with present treaties? There has always been a direct relationship between weapons and space exploration, particularly if traced through the history of the late nineteenth century to the era of the space race. Konstantin Tsiolkovsky, (1857 - 1935), was one of the founders to astronautics. Robert Goddard, (1882-1945) an Englishman, developed Tsiolkovskys' work further. He built the first liquid

  2. TECHNOLOGICAL CONTRIBUTIONS OF THE MILITARY ENGINEERING TO THE NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    RODRIGO CARO DE KARTZOW

    2018-01-01

    The development of the Chilean military industry is closely related to the growing of the national industry. Similarly to the way the history of the Army and the country are tightly related, the history of the military engineering is an example of organic growth when compared to its civilian counterpart. Collaboration instead of competition is the distinctive seal that best shows the development of weaponry, explosives, cartography and nuclear power. This collaboration have lasted with the ye...

  3. USE OF UBIQUITOUS TECHNOLOGIES IN MILITARY LOGISTIC SYSTEM IN IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Jafari

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study is about integration and evaluation of RFID and ubiquitous technologies in military logistic system management. Firstly, supply chain management and the necessity of a revolution in logistic systems especially in military area, are explained. Secondly RFID and ubiquitous technologies and the advantages of their use in supply chain management are introduced. Lastly a system based on these technologies for controlling and increasing the speed and accuracy in military logistic system in Iran with its unique properties, is presented. The system is based on full control of military logistics (supplies from the time of deployment to replenishment using sensor network, ubiquitous and RFID technologies.

  4. Use of Ubiquitous Technologies in Military Logistic System in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, P.; Sadeghi-Niaraki, A.

    2013-09-01

    This study is about integration and evaluation of RFID and ubiquitous technologies in military logistic system management. Firstly, supply chain management and the necessity of a revolution in logistic systems especially in military area, are explained. Secondly RFID and ubiquitous technologies and the advantages of their use in supply chain management are introduced. Lastly a system based on these technologies for controlling and increasing the speed and accuracy in military logistic system in Iran with its unique properties, is presented. The system is based on full control of military logistics (supplies) from the time of deployment to replenishment using sensor network, ubiquitous and RFID technologies.

  5. China's Military Potential

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wortzel, Larry

    1998-01-01

    The People's Republic of China (PRC) is seen by many as an economic powerhouse with the world's largest standing military that has the potential to translate economic power into the military sphere...

  6. Military Effectiveness: A Reappraisal

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bernasconi, Jeffrey J

    2007-01-01

    .... Two divergent theories cover the ground of military effectiveness. One looks at the interaction of social structures, whereas the other looks at the effect organization has on military effectiveness...

  7. Price of military uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klimenko, A.V.

    1998-01-01

    The theoretical results about optimum strategy of use of military uranium confirmed by systems approach accounts are received. The numerical value of the system approach price of the highly enriched military uranium also is given

  8. National Military Family Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... MilitaryFamily.org © 2017 - National Military Family Association Twitter Facebook Pinterest Instagram Charity Navigator Four Star Charity GuideStar Exchange Better Business Bureau Charity Watch Independent Charity of America nonprofit ...

  9. TRICARE, Military Health System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Claim Get Proof of TRICARE Coverage View My Military Health Record Less TRICARE Enrollment Freeze Starting Dec. ... Disaster Information Download a Form Go Paperless My Military Health Records Multimedia Center Plan Information Kits Recoupment ...

  10. Computer jargon explained

    CERN Document Server

    Enticknap, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    Computer Jargon Explained is a feature in Computer Weekly publications that discusses 68 of the most commonly used technical computing terms. The book explains what the terms mean and why the terms are important to computer professionals. The text also discusses how the terms relate to the trends and developments that are driving the information technology industry. Computer jargon irritates non-computer people and in turn causes problems for computer people. The technology and the industry are changing so rapidly; it is very hard even for professionals to keep updated. Computer people do not

  11. Military Intervention, Kemalism, and Politics in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-05-01

    to inadequate or misdirected actions by the military during their tenure following the interventions. Despite the checkered history of democratic... ikeas .). AtaturK: Founder or a Modern State. London: C. Hurst.19. Hianeo. Anarew. "Turkey’s Ten Year Itch" in Tne wor!6 Today, 4oi 45 N’o. F. eb 1969

  12. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Military Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-06-03

    Sciences History of the USSR Institute: When studying historical experience we often restrict ourselves to military-technical matters, letting slip...well then he, his sons or his pupils bring egoism with them into the army. That is the dialectic. If he does not set an example of mutual help for

  13. The wireless internet explained

    CERN Document Server

    Rhoton, John

    2001-01-01

    The Wireless Internet Explained covers the full spectrum of wireless technologies from a wide range of vendors, including initiatives by Microsoft and Compaq. The Wireless Internet Explained takes a practical look at wireless technology. Rhoton explains the concepts behind the physics, and provides an overview that clarifies the convoluted set of standards heaped together under the umbrella of wireless. It then expands on these technical foundations to give a panorama of the increasingly crowded landscape of wireless product offerings. When it comes to actual implementation the book gives abundant down-to-earth advice on topics ranging from the selection and deployment of mobile devices to the extremely sensitive subject of security.Written by an expert on Internet messaging, the author of Digital Press''s successful Programmer''s Guide to Internet Mail and X.400 and SMTP: Battle of the E-mail Protocols, The Wireless Internet Explained describes and evaluates the current state of the fast-growing and crucial...

  14. Self-explaining roads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horst, A.R.A. van der; Kaptein, N.

    1999-01-01

    As a means to a sustainable safe traffic environment the concept of Self-Explaining Roads (SER) has been developed. The SER concept advocates a traffic environment that elicits safe driving behaviour simply by its design. In order to support safe driving behaviour and appropriate speed choice,

  15. Young Australians’ Attitudes to the Military and Military Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Wadham

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available What are young Australians’ understandings of, and attitudes to, the military and military service? This article describes a pilot study of 320 young Australian university students’ attitudes to the military and military service during a time when Australia was engaged in the Afghanistan war. The main purpose of this study was to develop a survey instrument for further work in researching civil–military relations in Australia. Civil–military relations describe the complex set of relationships between the civil and military spheres. The role of the military, the relationship between the state and the military, the division of labor between civilian and military entities, foreign policy, and knowledge of military service are some of the fields that constitute a study of civil–military relations. This article reports on beliefs about, and attitudes to the specificities of military service and responses to the broader field of civil–military relations.

  16. Theorizing ‘conditions for success’ in military conflict management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodt, Annemarie Peen

    2015-01-01

    Violent conflict and military conflict management are both complex phenomena. Consequently, success in military conflict management is a difficult issue to explain and predict. Because of this complexity it is crucial that such success (or indeed lack thereof) is theorized, so we can draw lessons...... with the need for further theoretical research in this realm and seeks to respond to it. It hopes to contribute to the development of a mid-range theory, which explains the relationship between structure, agency and outcome in military conflict management operations conducted by international organizations...

  17. Serratia Infections: from Military Experiments to Current Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahlen, Steven D.

    2011-01-01

    Summary: Serratia species, in particular Serratia marcescens, are significant human pathogens. S. marcescens has a long and interesting taxonomic, medical experimentation, military experimentation, and human clinical infection history. The organisms in this genus, particularly S. marcescens, were long thought to be nonpathogenic. Because S. marcescens was thought to be a nonpathogen and is usually red pigmented, the U.S. military conducted experiments that attempted to ascertain the spread of this organism released over large areas. In the process, members of both the public and the military were exposed to S. marcescens, and this was uncovered by the press in the 1970s, leading to U.S. congressional hearings. S. marcescens was found to be a certain human pathogen by the mid-1960s. S. marcescens and S. liquefaciens have been isolated as causative agents of numerous outbreaks and opportunistic infections, and the association of these organisms with point sources such as medical devices and various solutions given to hospitalized patients is striking. Serratia species appear to be common environmental organisms, and this helps to explain the large number of nosocomial infections due to these bacteria. Since many nosocomial infections are caused by multiply antibiotic-resistant strains of S. marcescens, this increases the danger to hospitalized patients, and hospital personnel should be vigilant in preventing nosocomial outbreaks due to this organism. S. marcescens, and probably other species in the genus, carries several antibiotic resistance determinants and is also capable of acquiring resistance genes. S. marcescens and S. liquefaciens are usually identified well in the clinical laboratory, but the other species are rare enough that laboratory technologists may not recognize them. 16S rRNA gene sequencing may enable better identification of some of the less common Serratia species. PMID:21976608

  18. Building Explainable Artificial Intelligence Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Core, Mark G; Lane, H. Chad; van Lent, Michael; Gomboc, Dave; Solomon, Steve; Rosenberg, Milton

    2006-01-01

    As artificial intelligence (AI) systems and behavior models in military simulations become increasingly complex, it has been difficult for users to understand the activities of computer-controlled entities...

  19. MAGMADIM: Young Explainers Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paltiel, Z.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text:Physics teachers and educators constantly face the problem of inspiring their students to major in physics. On the other hand, science museums are designed to provide a pleasant environment which will stimulate and encourage a science associated experience to the general public. Typically, there is no intention to teach science as such in science museums. One may, however, use the science museum to teach and inspire certain groups of students in a much deeper sense. In fact they may actually enthusiastically learn much of the school physics curriculum at the museum. This report discusses the Magmadim program through which 10th graders are trained to be young explainers at the Weizmann Institutes Clore Garden of Science. To this end they study the physics underlying its exhibits in an after-school course. The ultimate goal is for the 'magmadim' to become the best possible explainers and be able to face all sorts of museum visitors. Along with learning how to instruct visitors, they must learn the physics behind the exhibits to give a full explanation of the exhibit and be able to answer any question that may arise. Our 5 year experience with the program shows that its self-selected participants not only study a lot of science, but also like it and learn how to explain the content to other people. This program, along with similar programs at the Bloomfield Science Museum and the Madatzim (young physics tutors) program of Ort, help in promoting the interest in science in general and physics in particular among school students. Various ways to expand the programs will also be discussed

  20. Linear Algebra Thoroughly Explained

    CERN Document Server

    Vujičić, Milan

    2008-01-01

    Linear Algebra Thoroughly Explained provides a comprehensive introduction to the subject suitable for adoption as a self-contained text for courses at undergraduate and postgraduate level. The clear and comprehensive presentation of the basic theory is illustrated throughout with an abundance of worked examples. The book is written for teachers and students of linear algebra at all levels and across mathematics and the applied sciences, particularly physics and engineering. It will also be an invaluable addition to research libraries as a comprehensive resource book for the subject.

  1. Wireless radio a history

    CERN Document Server

    Coe, Lewis

    2006-01-01

    ""Informative...recommended""--Choice; ""interesting...a good read...well worth reading""--Contact Magazine. This history first looks at Marconi's wireless communications system and then explores its many applications, including marine radio, cellular telephones, police and military uses, television and radar. Radio collecting is also discussed, and brief biographies are provided for the major figures in the development and use of the wireless.

  2. Matlab for engineers explained

    CERN Document Server

    Gustafsson, Fredrik

    2003-01-01

    This book is written for students at bachelor and master programs and has four different purposes, which split the book into four parts: 1. To teach first or early year undergraduate engineering students basic knowledge in technical computations and programming using MATLAB. The first part starts from first principles and is therefore well suited both for readers with prior exposure to MATLAB but lacking a solid foundational knowledge of the capabilities of the system and readers not having any previous experience with MATLAB. The foundational knowledge gained from these interactive guided tours of the system will hopefully be sufficient for an effective utilization of MATLAB in the engineering profession, in education and in research. 2. To explain the foundations of more advanced use of MATLAB using the facilities added the last couple of years, such as extended data structures, object orientation and advanced graphics. 3. To give an introduction to the use of MATLAB in typical undergraduate courses in elec...

  3. About Military Sexual Trauma

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... why Close About Military Sexual Trauma Veterans Health Administration Loading... Unsubscribe from Veterans Health Administration? Cancel Unsubscribe Working... Subscribe Subscribed Unsubscribe 20K Loading... ...

  4. Vedr.: Military capacity building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Josefine Kühnel; Struwe, Lars Bangert

    2013-01-01

    Military capacity building has increasingly become an integral part of Danish defence. Military capacity is a new way of thinking Danish defence and poses a new set of challenges and opportunities for the Danish military and the Political leadership. On the 12th of december, PhD. Candidate Josefine...... Kühnel Larsen and researcher Lars Bangert Struwe of CMS had organized a seminar in collaboration with Royal Danish Defense Colleg and the East African Security Governance Network. The seminar focused on some of the risks involved in Military capacity building and how these risks are dealt with from...

  5. About Military Sexual Trauma

    Medline Plus

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  7. The Military's Business

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mikkel Vedby

    If the military were a business, would you buy shares? Over recent years, Western armed forces, particularly the US, have been costing more yet achieving less. At the same time, austerity measures are reducing defence budgets. This book uses defence data to examine the workings of modern Western...... militaries and explore what kind of strategies can overcome this gap between input and output. Instead of focusing on military strategy, Mikkel Vedby Rasmussen seeks to draw on the ideas of business strategy to assess alternative business cases - reforming military HR to combat instability in the 'Global...

  8. The Military's Business

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mikkel Vedby

    If the military were a business, would you buy shares? Over recent years, Western armed forces, particularly the US, have been costing more yet achieving less. At the same time, austerity measures are reducing defence budgets. This book uses defence data to examine the workings of modern Western...... militaries and explore what kind of strategies can overcome this gap between input and output. Instead of focusing on military strategy, Mikkel Vedby Rasmussen seeks to draw on the ideas of business strategy to assess alternative business cases - reforming military HR to combat instability in the 'Global...... to fit within a nation's overall national security system without ever-increasing budgets....

  9. About Military Sexual Trauma

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  10. USDA Research in Support of Deployed Military Troops

    Science.gov (United States)

    The US Department of Agriculture has a long history of collaborating with the US military to conduct research in support of war efforts. The predecessor laboratory of the current USDA-ARS Center for Medical, Agricultural and Veterinary Entomology (CMAVE) located in Gainesville, Florida has a history...

  11. Encountering women veterans with military sexual trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conard, Patricia L; Young, Cathy; Hogan, LaMicha; Armstrong, Myrna L

    2014-10-01

    As women veterans (WVs) are returning from Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom with military sexual trauma (MST), the purpose of this article is twofold. First, important exploratory questions that can assist with a thorough assessment and history are presented as well as the applicable treatment for any new, recurrent, or unresolved symptoms that involve MST. Review of multiple literary materials, as well as a clinical situation. WVs will be encountered in a variety of military or civilian primary and community care healthcare settings. Every woman (and man) in the civilian sector should be asked, "Have you ever served in the military?" Recognition, acknowledgment, and applicable interventions for MST and associated comorbidities, especially post-traumatic stress disorder, are presented as currently 80-90% of MST experiences have gone unreported. Immediate treatment and follow-up are critical for the well-being of the WVs. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Military and Political Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey I. Podberyozkin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Military-political issues is an important area of research work at MGIMO. The difference in this direction from the classical international specialization is that it is at the intersection of several disciplines: military science, military-technical and military-industrial as well as International Relations. A specialist in military and political issues should not only be an expert in the field of international relations and diplomacy, but also have a deep knowledge of military-technical issues to understand the basic trends in the development of scientific and technological progress and its impact on the balance of forces in the world. Global changes in the balance of power and the nature of the conflict, the emergence of new types of weapons are changing the basic methods and approaches to the art of war, which requires a science-based perspective on problem solving and multi-disciplinary approach in achieving the goals. Military and political studies allow us to understand how the development of military technology and military organization of the state affected by the political situation in the world, the national security of the country and its place in the system of international relations. Military-political research has been developing at MGIMO for a few decades. It laid down the basis for a scientific school of political-military studies. Its founding fathers were such prominent scholars of international affairs, as I.G. Usachyov, A.D. Nikonov, A.G. Arbatov, V.G. Baranovsky, V.M. Kulagin, A.N. Nikitin and other well-known experts. Their work covers a wide range of military and political issues, including the topics of arms control and disarmament, international, and especially European security, military policy, NATO, the Western military-political doctrines and their practical application. Now the lead in the development of this research at MGIMO has taken Center for Military-Political Studies, which became a concentration of relevant

  13. UK role 4 military infection services: past, present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufty, Ngozi E; Bailey, M S

    2013-09-01

    NATO describes 'Role 4' military medical services as those provided for the definitive care of patients who cannot be treated within a theatre of operations and these are usually located in a military force's country of origin and may include the involvement of civilian medical services. The UK Defence Medical Services have a proud history of developing and providing clinical services in infectious diseases and tropical medicine, sexual health and HIV medicine, and medical microbiology and virology. These UK Role 4 Military Infection Services have adapted well to recent overseas deployments, but new challenges will arise due to current military cutbacks and a greater diversity of contingency operations in the future. Further evidence-based development of these services will require leadership by military clinicians and improved communication and support for 'reach-back' services.

  14. Military Justice Study Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-07-01

    statute within the military system, persons unfamiliar with the military justice system may find the procedure something of a paradox at first blush...Manual for Courts-Martial) Is RM Nemitafinuestlitimelf.(er- V. GRAD*: c. ORGANIZATION dDT FRPR ast eiRO t: fII) EPR LCDR/ Naval Justice School

  15. Families in the Military

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... family that loses the active presence of a parent through separation faces significant challenges and stress. During the parent's ... children can and do adjust successfully to the separation and stress involved when a parent in the military is deployed. Visit AACAP's Military ...

  16. Young Australians’ Attitudes to the Military and Military Service

    OpenAIRE

    Ben Wadham; Grace Skrzypiec; Phillip Slee

    2014-01-01

    What are young Australians’ understandings of, and attitudes to, the military and military service? This article describes a pilot study of 320 young Australian university students’ attitudes to the military and military service during a time when Australia was engaged in the Afghanistan war. The main purpose of this study was to develop a survey instrument for further work in researching civil–military relations in Au...

  17. Change, organisational culture and the development of the South African Military Academy to 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G E (Deon Visser

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the impact of change and organisational culture on the growth and development of the South African Military Academy. It explores the impact of Nationalist Party rule since 1948 and black majority rule since 1994 on the institutional culture of the South African military and how that influenced the development of the Military Academy. This is intertwined with an investigation of the nature and impact of the diverging military and academic subcultures at the Academy. The article contends that, together with the historical exclusion of blacks and women from the military, the marginalisation of white English-speaking citizens by Nationalist Party rule denied the Academy the exploitation of a significant portion of the country’s human resource potential in the interest of institutional development. The same happened with the introduction of racial quotas and the marginalisation of whites since 1994. The Military Academy has, furthermore, historically been too reflective of the organisational culture of the South African National Defence Force and its predecessors instead of informing that culture to meet the challenges of military professionalism. The Academy has a potentially vital educational role to play in the South African and Sub-Saharan African militaries, but requires some changes in its organisational culture to fulfil that mission. Keywords: South African Military Academy, organisational culture, military culture, military education, Stellenbosch University Disciplines: Military History, Industrial Psychology

  18. MILITARY LEADERSHIP VISION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe CALOPĂREANU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The actual study is aimed at defining the place and the role of the concepts of authority, management and leadership and their connexions within the recognized military strategic systems. In addition to the above mentioned main objective, the following related aims will be achieved in the present work: - to analyze the command, management and leadership nexus; - to make suggestions for configuring an effective professional framework to address the armed forces leadership challenges and the visionary leader concept. Eventually, the present study will emphasize the need for the military leaders to lead not only the members of the organization but the military organizations themselves.

  19. CIVIL-MILITARY RELATIONS IN MUSLIM COUNTRIES. THE CASES OF EGYPT, PAKISTAN, AND TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas C. BRUNEAU

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the role of the military in the contemporary politics of Egypt, Pakistan, and Turkey. While there is literature on military coups, and analyses of the military in democratic consolidation, there is little on the military’s role in democratic transitions. There is virtually none on Arab or Muslim countries. The Arab Spring has brought renewed attention to the role of the military in these problematic transitions. Utilizing a common framework, based on Alfred Stepan’s “prerogatives”, the article compares and contrasts the position of the military in these three countries. In order to explain the different powers of the militaries in accord with these variables, the article then examines a series of five commonly identified factors promoting or impeding the political role position of the military.

  20. The Bright Face of Dark Tourism - Military Conflicts and World Travel in the Modern Era

    OpenAIRE

    Mihály Miklós Nagy

    2016-01-01

    In the history of modern culture, besides its primary task of imposing political will, the military has also served as a major travel institution. The geographical dimensions of wars and the increasingly greater military forces involved have resulted in millions of people being compelled to get to know foreign lands and cultures as soldiers. Thus, military forces have become agents of developing societies’ geographical culture. This phenomenon is the bright face of dark tourism. Still, dark t...

  1. Forecasting military expenditure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Böhmelt

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available To what extent do frequently cited determinants of military spending allow us to predict and forecast future levels of expenditure? The authors draw on the data and specifications of a recent model on military expenditure and assess the predictive power of its variables using in-sample predictions, out-of-sample forecasts and Bayesian model averaging. To this end, this paper provides guidelines for prediction exercises in general using these three techniques. More substantially, however, the findings emphasize that previous levels of military spending as well as a country’s institutional and economic characteristics particularly improve our ability to predict future levels of investment in the military. Variables pertaining to the international security environment also matter, but seem less important. In addition, the results highlight that the updated model, which drops weak predictors, is not only more parsimonious, but also slightly more accurate than the original specification.

  2. Military Deception Reconsidered

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Martin, Charmaine L

    2008-01-01

    ...: focus, integration, timeliness, security, objective, and centralized control. However, I propose that operational advantage, consisting of surprise, information advantage and security, are essential elements of a successful military deception...

  3. About Military Sexual Trauma

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  4. About Military Sexual Trauma

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    Full Text Available ... it free Find out why Close About Military Sexual Trauma Veterans Health Administration Loading... Unsubscribe from Veterans ... is Cognitive Processing Therapy (CPT) [for posttraumatic stress disorder]? - Duration: 2:01. Veterans Health Administration 27,844 ...

  5. About Military Sexual Trauma

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  6. About Military Sexual Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Try it free Find out why Close About Military Sexual Trauma Veterans Health Administration Loading... Unsubscribe from ... 5:31 Get Fit for Life (8) Strength/Balance Training - Duration: 32:02. Veterans Health Administration 2, ...

  7. The Military Cooperation Group

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Renzi, Jr, Alfred E

    2006-01-01

    .... This thesis will describe a structure to assist with both those needs. The premise is that an expanded and improved network of US Military Groups is the weapon of choice for the war on terror, and beyond...

  8. Privatized Military Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    environment such as that in Abu Grahib prison , where military personnel tasked with similar duties to that of contractors have been held legally accountable... Grahib Prison . The Washington Post. Office of Management and Budget Circular A-76. (August 4, 1988. Revised 1999). Performance of Commercial...downsizes the military after the Global War on Terror as it did after the Cold War. Private contractors depend largely upon former service members to

  9. The Professional Military Ethic

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-14

    would require of us. (In fact, it could ultimately end up requiring us to do harm.) This is a case of cultural relativism in its least plausible...recent accounts of the PME that seek its source in various artifacts of our military culture and society. Moral obligation is a product of...that seek its source in various artifacts of our military culture and society. Moral obligation is a product of individual abilities and relationships

  10. Do Military Personnel Patent

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    following questions: In what fields are military personnel most likely to patent, and how do demographics, such as age, race, and gender , along with...technologies, which have transformed how the United States wages war. DARPA continues to develop new technologies and capabilities for the U.S. military today...build the European navies so it instead decided to utilize an innovative ship design to exploit a gap specific to the British Royal Navy. The six

  11. At the Interface: Academic History, School History and the Philosophy of History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retz, Tyson

    2016-01-01

    How history is learnt and taught must to some extent be shaped by conceptions of what history is. Historians tend to conceptualize what something is by investigating what it has been and what it has meant in different contexts. This article explains how a debate in the philosophy of history between positivism and intentionalism provided the…

  12. Food allergy guidance in the United States Military: A work group report from the AAAAI Military Allergy and Immunology Assembly (MAIA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waibel, Kirk; Lee, Rachel; Coop, Christopher; Mendoza, Yun; White, Kevin

    2018-05-16

    A diagnosis of food allergy adversely impacts one's ability to join or remain in the military. Inadequate knowledge or misconceptions of current military-specific standards regarding food allergy and how these apply to enlistment, induction, and retention in the United States military can potentially lead to inaccurate counseling as each military service has specific regulations which impact the evaluation and decision-making process. Recognizing this knowledge gap, the American Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology (AAAAI) Military Allergy and Immunology Assembly (MAIA) established a Work Group who reviewed and summarized all aspects of military instructions, policies, and regulations regarding IgE mediated food allergy. A flowchart was developed outlining each step of the military entry process for an individual with a history of food allergy. Further, summary tables were made to provide improved "fluency" regarding each service's medical regulations while key considerations were outlined for the allergist who is evaluating an individual who is seeking military entry or retention. Both civilian and military allergists play an essential role in the evaluation, counseling, and management of patients with a food allergy history. Understanding the service-specific language and regulations regarding food allergy will improve the allergist's awareness, counseling, and management of these individuals. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Atlas of peaceful and military nuclear activities (from origins to proliferation)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaliand, G.; Jan, M.

    1993-01-01

    This atlas collects worldwide geopolitical data and maps concerning peaceful and military activities. It is made of six parts: (1) origins (history); (2) strategies; (3) nuclear fuel cycle; (4) peaceful activities; (5) military activities; (6) proliferation. (D.L.). figs., maps

  14. the rise and fall of Union War Histories

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Official support for such an undertaking was first provided by Major General A.I.. Brink ... of Military Intelligence, and Captain I.A.I. Agar-Hamilton was ... to Deputy Director of Military Intelligence. 26 Sep ... disadvantage of the official history.

  15. Explaining Physics – What Skills does a good Explainer Need?

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Bartels, Hauke

    2018-01-01

    Explaining physics in a way that it is both scientifically correct and comprehensible is a highly demanding practice. But are explanations an effective way to teach physics? Under which circumstances should a physics teacher explain – and is there such a thing as a guideline for effective instructional explanations? Of course, explaining is more than just presenting content knowledge in clear language – but what more? In our talk, we want to discuss empirical studies on instructional explanations from science education and psychology to address these questions. Among other things, we will refer to results from a large study aiming to research whether teacher education contributes to the development of explaining skills. Besides, we will give insights into a project that seeks to measure explaining skills with an interactive online test instrument.

  16. Selling petroleum to the military

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uscher, R.H.

    1999-01-01

    This article examines what petroleum products and services the US military buys, the contracts awarded to Asian and European refiners for supplies outside the USA, and military specifications and test methods including the specifications of JP-8 battlefield fuel and the JP-8+100 additive package for military aircraft. The way in which the military buys petroleum products is described, and details are given of the types of military contracts, the bidding on Defense Energy Support Center (DESC) petroleum contracts, the performance of military petroleum contracts, socio-economic programmes, the Prompt Payment Act requiring contractors to be paid promptly, and procedures for claims and disputes

  17. Financial history and financial economics

    OpenAIRE

    Turner, John D.

    2014-01-01

    This essay looks at the bidirectional relationship between financial history and financial economics. It begins by giving a brief history of financial economics by outlining the main topics of interest to financial economists. It then documents and explains the increasing influence of financial economics upon financial history, and warns of the dangers of applying financial economics unthinkingly to the study of financial history. The essay proceeds to highlight the many insights that financi...

  18. Contractors on the Battlefield: Has the Military Accepted Too Much Risk?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Croft, Christopher

    2001-01-01

    Contracting for services is not new. Throughout the history of warfare, armies used the services of non-military personnel or civilians to accomplish logistical functions to maintain the force and support combat operations...

  19. Defense.gov Special Report: African American History Month

    Science.gov (United States)

    in Military and Business Tuskegee Airman Shares History Soldier's Life Provides Example for West Department of Defense Submit Search During National African-American History Month, we celebrate the rich In honor of African-American History Month, Fred Moore, the first African-American Tomb Guard

  20. New Interpretations of the History of Ancient Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avraamides, Achilles

    1977-01-01

    The author critically examines the most significant interpretations and reinterpretations of ancient Greek history of interest to secondary teachers. Discussed are the history of Mycenaeans, Athenians, and Persians, military history, Alexander, and the role of the centuries 800 B.C.-500 B.C. in preparing for classical times. (Author/RM)

  1. Socially-pedagogical terms of preparation of senior pupils to service in Military Powers of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryutin V.V.

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The problem of preparation of senior pupils is investigational to military service. The social pedagogical terms of preparation of senior pupils are certain to military service. Adequate psychological pedagogical measures are developed on overcoming of tendency of subzero perception by the senior pupils of service in Military Powers of Ukraine. Basic directions the personal interest are rotined in harmonious, valuable psychical and physical development of the Ukrainian young people. The national orientation of military patriotic education of senior pupils is marked. It is based on ethnology and regional principles of education, respect to history of the people and state.

  2. Passing on the History of "Comfort Women": The Experiences of a Women's Museum in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Mina

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the activities and experiences of a women's peace museum in Japan which especially tries to pass on the history of Japan's military sexual slavery, or the "comfort women" issue. The system of Japan's military sexual slavery had not been written as a part of history until courageous survivors testified and…

  3. TECHNOLOGICAL CONTRIBUTIONS OF THE MILITARY ENGINEERING TO THE NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RODRIGO CARO DE KARTZOW

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of the Chilean military industry is closely related to the growing of the national industry. Similarly to the way the history of the Army and the country are tightly related, the history of the military engineering is an example of organic growth when compared to its civilian counterpart. Collaboration instead of competition is the distinctive seal that best shows the development of weaponry, explosives, cartography and nuclear power. This collaboration have lasted with the years and we can afirm today that the relationship within civilian professionals and technicians and their military counterparts has reached an state that has never seen before. The governmental policies that fund R&D of initiatives that facilitate the science and technology study and research, come of a futuristic vision, born in the rim of the independent movements, driven naturally by the need of self sustain as sovereign nations.

  4. Military Culture. A Paradigm Shift?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dunivin, Karen

    1997-01-01

    In this study, Lt Col Karen O. Dunivin, USAF, examines social change in American military culture and explores the current struggle between the military's traditional and exclusionary combat, masculine-warrior (CMW...

  5. Nuclear plants - military hostages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramberg, B.

    1986-01-01

    Recent events suggest that nuclear reactors could make tempting military or terrorist targets. Despite the care with which most reactors are built, studies document their vulnerability to willful destruction through disruption of coolant mechanisms both inside and outside the containment building. In addition to reactors, such nuclear support facilities as fuel fabrication, reprocessing, and waste storage installations may be attractive military targets. A nuclear bomb which exploded in the vicinity of a reactor could increase its lethal effects by one-third. The implications of this is vulnerability for Middle East stability as well as to other volatile regions. The author suggests several avenues for controlling the dangers: international law, military and civil defense, facility siting, increasing plant safety, and the international management of nuclear energy. 21 references

  6. Military Expenditure, Threats, and Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Aizenman, Joshua; Glick, Reuven

    2003-01-01

    This paper clarifies one of the puzzling results of the economic growth literature: the impact of military expenditure is frequently found to be non-significant or negative, yet most countries spend a large fraction of their GDP on defense and the military. We start by empirical evaluation of the non- linear interactions between military expenditure, external threats, corruption, and other relevant controls. While growth falls with higher levels of military spending, given the values of the o...

  7. Problems of Military Cemeteries Greenery - Case Study of the Military Cemetery in Zvolen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halajová, Denisa; Petreková, Denisa; Bihuňová, Mária

    2017-10-01

    The intention of this work is to highlight the importance of understanding military cemeteries as objects of cultural and historical heritage and as a part of garden design history. The design and maintenance of cemeteries and graves is a manifestation of the national culture. This is even more evident in military cemeteries, the maintenance of which is regulated by international agreements. Objects of military cemeteries are important places not only from the historical and architectural point of view, but also as green space. Most military cemeteries in Slovakia originated from World War I and II. In Slovakia, 160,000 soldiers were buried, 75,206 of them lost their lives in World War I and 93,000 in World War II. 32,495 war graves are registered by The Ministry of the Interior of the Slovak Republic - 23,316 war graves from World War I and 9,179 from World War II. From the period of World War II, there are 22 cemeteries and graveyards in Slovakia, established for soldiers of the Soviet, German, Romanian and Czechoslovak army. Military cemeteries and memorials are mostly high quality works of architecture and art. This paper focuses on the current situation and restoration issues of military cemeteries by examining the Military Cemetery in Zvolen. In the context of its planned reconstruction, a comprehensive tree assessment has been started in 2016. The Military Cemetery in Zvolen, being one of the largest military cemeteries in Slovakia, consists of The Cemetery of the Soviet Army with 17,628 buried soldiers and The Romanian Cemetery with 11,000 buried soldiers. The Romanian Cemetery is one of the largest cemeteries of the Romanian Army in Europe. Both cemeteries were declared national cultural monuments in 1963. In the cemetery, dendrometrical parameters and the health condition of trees were evaluated. In total, there are 825 woody plants. In both cemeteries, coniferous trees prevail, mainly individuals of the genus Thuja (49.4 %). Moreover, the maintenance of

  8. Military Strategy Of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Zaitsev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the evolution of military strategy of the Republic of India and key factors that influences its development. New Delhi keeps an eye on the balance of power in South Asia to create favorable conditions for its economic and social development, yet the remaining threats and new challenges still undermine the security and stability in India. The ambitions of China aspiring to power in Asia-Pacific region, combined with its immense military build-up and territorial disputes, cause disturbance in New Delhi. The remaining tensions between India and Pakistan also cause often border skirmishes and medium-scale conflicts. Close relations between China and Pakistan, labeled as “all-weather friendship”, are a source of major concern for India. The fact that both Beijing and Islamabad wield nuclear weapons means that without effective mechanisms of nuclear deterrence any military conflict may turn into a full-scale nuclear war. Terrorist activities and insurgency in the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir and in the North-Eastern regions of the country, along with maritime piracy and illicit drug trafficking contribute to the complicated nature of the challenges to the Indian security. Indian military strategy is considered as a combination of the army doctrine, maritime doctrine and nuclear doctrine. The Indian political and military leadership wants to meet the challenges of changing geopolitical environment and thus continuously adapts its strategy. However, there is still a gap between theory and practice: Indian armed forces lack the capacity to implement the declared goals because of bulky bureaucratic system, outdated military equipment and insufficient level of command and control. The government needs to mobilize political will and administrative resources to upgrade its defense sector to counter its security threats and challenges.

  9. TURNER LECTURE Military education and the study of War

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the Need for the Study of Military History found in 1971 that less attention was paid ... historian, to maintain that line for very long, but a spirit of technological determinism ... systems analysis principles whose application to business he and others had pioneered .... intellectual advancement of officers of every army', he wrote.

  10. Producing Military Commanders: A Systemic Exploration of the Development Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-15

    all decisions and learning is important for developing officers. Motivation and Personality by Abraham Maslow gives readers a relevant explanation...Center of Military History, 1992. Lawson, Bryan. How Designers Think: The Design Process Demystified. Burlington: Elsevier Linacre House, 2007. Maslow ... Abraham H. Motivation and Personality. New York: Harper & Row, 1954. Paul, Richard and Linda Elder. Critical Thinking: Tools for Taking Charge of

  11. Military Review. Volume 91, Number 5, September-October 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    REVIEW reader. The crisp tales have the stark realism of a fi rst-person lens. The author is at his absolute best when he introduces us to Marine...author has woven a narrative from poetry, memoir, and biography, as well as literary, cinematic , classical, and military history sources. He sees

  12. Science, Technology, and Warfare. Proceedings of the Military History Symposium (3rd) Held at the United States Air Force Academy (Colorado Springs, Colorado) on 8-9 May 1969

    Science.gov (United States)

    1970-09-01

    case of long-range bom - bardment possibilities. Progression from the B-17 bomber to the B-29 to the B-36 had been straightforward, bigger and faster...in the hospital at Walter Reed waiting to go to Georgetown to be part of the Jesuit plot. So they sent me to the Pentagon for a few months and...graduate of Jesus College and an Oxford don until 1964, when he was appointed Profes- sor of History at the University of Warwick. Graduate work at

  13. The press and the military government: their relationship in the history of Argentine archaeology (1976-1983. The case of the “La Nación” newspaper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Silvia RAMUNDO

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a critical and reflexive analysis of the news published between 1976 and 1983 by the newspaper La Nación dealing with Argentine archaeology. Hence, news are considered a tool to study the history of this discipline during a badly reviewed period, evaluating the impact of the socio-historical context on Archaeology in order to determine the degree of public communication of science and the specific role played by this discipline in the construction of the past. Current and past views on Archaeology by the press are analyzed, considering these written documents an opinion former mass media.

  14. Syria’s Military Capabilities and Options for Military Intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pradhan-Blach, Flemming

    2012-01-01

    This background paper does not endorse any military action towards Syria. The document does not reflect or express any official Danish policy or a position of the University of Copenhagen or the Centre for Military Studies. The purpose of this paper is to briefly describe military capabilities...... and options in order to provide a factual background for the ongoing discussion on possible military intervention in the Syrian conflict and Denmark’s possible participation in such an intervention. The paper is primarily based on the Military Balance published by the International Institute for Strategic...

  15. Inequality in military expenditures and the Samuelson rule

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, L.; van den Berg, V.A.C.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we show that standard measures used in the income inequality literature, the Lorenz curve and the associated Gini-index, can successfully be applied to the distribution of defence spending across countries. Secondly, we use the Samuelson rule to explain the distribution of military

  16. The great power game and Thai military rule

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk

    2007-01-01

    There are a variety of suggestions trying to explain why the Thai military decided, in 2006, to stage the 18th coup in 75 years. Some point to corruption and declining growth and investment rates, others to the security problems in the South. A third explanation has tried to relate the coup...

  17. Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Disorders Video: The Basketball Game: An MRI Story Radiology and You Sponsored by Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot org Hello! I’m Dr. Ramji ...

  18. Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... by Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot org Hello! ... d like to talk to you about nuclear medicine. Nuclear medicine offers the potential to identify disease ...

  19. Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... An MRI Story Radiology and You Sponsored by Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine Transcript ... by a special camera and computer to create images of the inside of your body. If you’ ...

  20. Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Sponsored by Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot org ... I’d like to talk to you about nuclear medicine. Nuclear medicine offers the potential to identify ...

  1. Explaining variation in nascent entrepreneurship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J. van Stel (André); A.R.M. Wennekers (Sander); P. Reynolds (Paul); A.R. Thurik (Roy)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractThis paper aims at explaining cross-country variation in nascent entrepreneurship. Regression analysis is applied using various explanatory variables derived from three different approaches. We make use of the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor database, including nascent entrepreneurship

  2. Explaining nascent entrepreneurship across countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.R. Thurik (Roy); A.J. van Stel (André); A.R.M. Wennekers (Sander); P. Reynolds (Paul)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThis paper aims at explaining cross-country variation in nascent entrepreneurship. Regression analysis is applied using various explanatory variables derived from three different approaches. We make use of the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor database, including nascent entrepreneurship

  3. The Transgender Military Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Dietert

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Although there have been studies that focus on the experiences of the gay and lesbian population serving in the United States military, few have focused on the experience of active duty transgender service members. Transgender individuals transgress the binary conception of gender by deviating from societal gender norms associated with assigned sex at birth. The Department of Defense has set policies and standards that reflect a binary conception of gender, with a focus on conformity. We argue that able-bodied gender variant service personnel are just as capable of serving their country as anyone else. Because of the repercussions associated with active duty transgender military personnel, our sample is small and involves nine clandestine service members and two international service members who wanted to share their stories from a different perspective. Snowball sampling was aimed at finding current active duty and reserve transgender service members. Using a combination of telephone interviews and questionnaires, data were collected from active duty transgender service personnel throughout the United States and two from international militaries that allow transgender people to serve. Data collection focused on the overall experiences of the participants along with questions regarding workplace discrimination, suggestions for policy changes, and their views about the overturn of Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell. Our findings add to a growing source of information about the transgender military experience in the U.S. armed forces and the importance of overturning discriminatory workplace policies that negatively impact transgender service members.

  4. THE MILITARY GLIDER REVISITED

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    briefest life span of any major military equipment type - spanning not ... that country. The disadvantages of this to PLAN ... increasingly hamper the employment of heli- .... time, both attack and medium helicopters could .... balance out his armoured superiority and to im- ... derable flexibility to our operations and enhance.

  5. About Military Sexual Trauma

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Get YouTube Red. Working... Not now Try it free Find out why Close About Military Sexual Trauma ... MST. http://www.mentalhealth.va.gov/msthom... Category Education License Standard YouTube License Show more Show less ...

  6. Soviet Union, Military Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-06-05

    supremacy in the world. Like the foreign policies of the USSR and the USA , their military doctrines reveal the objectives they pursue: the Soviet... Gastronom or a Detskiy Mir. In- stallation of the equipment was delayed a long time as a result. The district finance service therefore did not consider

  7. About Military Sexual Trauma

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... starting stop Loading... Watch Queue Queue __count__/__total__ It’s YouTube. Uninterrupted. Loading... Want music and videos with ... ads? Get YouTube Red. Working... Not now Try it free Find out why Close About Military Sexual ...

  8. Resilience among Military Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easterbrooks, M. Ann; Ginsburg, Kenneth; Lerner, Richard M.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the authors present their approach to understanding resilience among military connected young people, and they discuss some of the gaps in their knowledge. They begin by defining resilience, and then present a theoretical model of how young people demonstrate resilient functioning. Next they consider some of the research on…

  9. Military radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, J.

    1993-01-01

    The Ministry of Defence and the military in particular have a very strong commitment to radiation protection of personnel in war and peace. MOD endeavours to do better all the time because it is essential that the armed forces have the confidence to fulfil their role and this is best achieved by providing them with the best possible protection irrespective of the hazard. (author)

  10. The Military Instructor's Handbook

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjøstedt, Peter; Grønlund, Thomas

    The Military Instructor's handbook was written for the basic professional training of instructors in the danish defence. The book describes the work of instructors and their areas of responsibility, and it offers guidance and direction on how to plan, conduct and evaluate learning activities...

  11. About Military Sexual Trauma

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... count__/__total__ Find out why Close About Military Sexual Trauma Veterans Health Administration Loading... Unsubscribe from Veterans ... MST. http://www.mentalhealth.va.gov/msthom... Category Education License Standard YouTube License Show more Show less ...

  12. The Social Determinants of Health in Military Forces of Iran: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadkarim Bahadori

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Providing effective health interventions and achieving equity in health need to apply the community-based approaches such as social determinants of health. In the military organizations, these determinants have received less attention from the military health researchers and policymakers. Therefore, this study aimed to identify and explain the social determinants affecting the health of military forces in Iran. This was a qualitative study which was conducted in 2014. The required data were collected through semistructured interviews and analyzed through Conventional Content Analysis. The studied sample consisted of 22 military health experts, policymakers, and senior managers selected using purposeful sampling method with maximum variation sampling. MAXQDA.2007 was used to analyze the collected data. After analyzing the collected data, two main contents, that is, “general social determinants of health” and “military social determinants of health,” with 22 themes and 90 subthemes were identified as the social determinants of military forces’ health. Main themes were religious rule, spirituality promotion policies, international military factors, military command, and so forth. Given the role and importance of social factors determining the military forces’ health, it can be recommended that the military organizations should pay more attention to these determinants in making policies and creating social, economic, and cultural structures for their forces.

  13. The Social Determinants of Health in Military Forces of Iran: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanaeinasab, Hormoz; Ghanei, Mostafa; Mehrabi Tavana, Ali; Ravangard, Ramin; Karamali, Mazyar

    2015-01-01

    Providing effective health interventions and achieving equity in health need to apply the community-based approaches such as social determinants of health. In the military organizations, these determinants have received less attention from the military health researchers and policymakers. Therefore, this study aimed to identify and explain the social determinants affecting the health of military forces in Iran. This was a qualitative study which was conducted in 2014. The required data were collected through semistructured interviews and analyzed through Conventional Content Analysis. The studied sample consisted of 22 military health experts, policymakers, and senior managers selected using purposeful sampling method with maximum variation sampling. MAXQDA.2007 was used to analyze the collected data. After analyzing the collected data, two main contents, that is, “general social determinants of health” and “military social determinants of health,” with 22 themes and 90 subthemes were identified as the social determinants of military forces' health. Main themes were religious rule, spirituality promotion policies, international military factors, military command, and so forth. Given the role and importance of social factors determining the military forces' health, it can be recommended that the military organizations should pay more attention to these determinants in making policies and creating social, economic, and cultural structures for their forces. PMID:26379716

  14. Military Importance of Natural Toxins and Their Analogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitschmann, Vladimír; Hon, Zdeněk

    2016-04-28

    Toxin weapon research, development, production and the ban on its uses is an integral part of international law, with particular attention paid to the protection against these weapons. In spite of this, hazards associated with toxins cannot be completely excluded. Some of these hazards are also pointed out in the present review. The article deals with the characteristics and properties of natural toxins and synthetic analogs potentially constituting the basis of toxin weapons. It briefly describes the history of military research and the use of toxins from distant history up to the present age. With respect to effective disarmament conventions, it mentions certain contemporary concepts of possible toxin applications for military purposes and the protection of public order (suppression of riots); it also briefly refers to the question of terrorism. In addition, it deals with certain traditional as well as modern technologies of the research, synthesis, and use of toxins, which can affect the continuing development of toxin weapons. These are, for example, cases of new toxins from natural sources, their chemical synthesis, production of synthetic analogs, the possibility of using methods of genetic engineering and modern biotechnologies or the possible applications of nanotechnology and certain pharmaceutical methods for the effective transfer of toxins into the organism. The authors evaluate the military importance of toxins based on their comparison with traditional chemical warfare agents. They appeal to the ethics of the scientific work as a principal condition for the prevention of toxin abuse in wars, military conflicts, as well as in non-military attacks.

  15. Transforming Dance History: The Lost History of Rehearsals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodes, Stuart

    1989-01-01

    Explains that an important aspect of dance history is lost by not recording dance rehearsals. Argues that recording rehearsals can reveal the creative process and illuminate the environment that engendered this art form. Concludes that a transformed dance history will influence curriculum development. (GG)

  16. Unintended pregnancies among women serving in the Israeli military.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rottenstreich, Misgav; Loitner, Limor; Dar, Shir; Kedem, Ron; Smorgick, Noam; Vaknin, Zvi

    2017-07-01

    The objective was to identify the prevalence of and variables associated with unintended pregnancy among young, unmarried women serving in the Israeli military. We performed a retrospective cohort study of unmarried women drafted by the Israeli military between 2013 and 2015 at the age of 18 years. We used multivariable logistic regression to examine associations between unintended pregnancy and women's education, IQ, immigration status, country of origin, neighborhood socioeconomic status and history of psychiatric illness. Most women (n=127,262) did not become pregnant while serving in the Israeli military. Unintended pregnancy was reported by 2365, with an additional 6 women reporting pregnancy resulting from sexual assault and 5 an intended pregnancy. Annual rates of unintended pregnancy among young women serving in the Israeli military declined from 1.69% in 2013 to 1.56% in 2014 and 1.33% in 2015. In multivariable models, unintended pregnancy was more common among women soldiers who had not graduated from high school (adjusted relative risk [RR], 5.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 4.69-6.04) and those who were first-generation immigrants (adjusted RR, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.90-2.35). Unintended pregnancy is rare among women serving into the Israeli military. Increasing contraceptive use among women who have not graduated from high school may further reduce rates of unintended pregnancy among women serving in the Israeli military. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The Military Family: A Selective Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-01

    1975 K8 iittle. Roger W ., ed. Handbook of Military Instituit ions. Beve rly 1iII s , CA: Sage, 1971. 607 1. UA 10 .1123 l.ittle, Roger W., ed. A...Program Management ." Commanh r.; Digest 18: entire issue, September 11, 1975 "CHAMPUS Complexitis Explained by ROA Sui-gt.n." CO),. Ialrrv G. Becker...lluaiv 1973 ’Missing Pilots’ Chi ldren Rece iv,, VA Schl Aid." Air Iorce ’lit:; l’ 1I, 1971 ’Mission: Financial Planning." (apt. Lvle R. Me tzlor and 2d

  18. Citizens, Soldiers, and War: Comparing American Societal-Military Relationships with the Use of Forces Abroad, 1975-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    connection is the same as a smaller gap. Both manners of speech seek to explain the convergence or divergence between a society and its military...the Military Establishment,” 100-122. 23 Morris Janowitz, The Professional Soldier: A Social and Political Portrait (New York: Free Press, 1960...indications of discomfort between non-military citizens and some of the service members who have been fighting in the Global War on Terror. Although it is

  19. Public Affairs: The Military and the Media, 1962-1968

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    Society," the debate over the Civil Rights Act of 1964, and the Beatles all shared space with South Vietnam in the pages of the press, more often than...07 United States Army in Vietnam Public Affairs: The Military and the Media, 1962-1968 by William M. Hammond A Center of Military History United...Di. t ib.tio [ Avaiiabiiity Codes Avail ar:dIor Dist zSpzcial \\ First Printing For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S

  20. Bohmian histories and decoherent histories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartle, James B.

    2004-01-01

    The predictions of the Bohmian and the decoherent (or consistent) histories formulations of the quantum mechanics of a closed system are compared for histories--sequences of alternatives at a series of times. For certain kinds of histories, Bohmian mechanics and decoherent histories may both be formulated in the same mathematical framework within which they can be compared. In that framework, Bohmian mechanics and decoherent histories represent a given history by different operators. Their predictions for the probabilities of histories of a closed system therefore generally differ. However, in an idealized model of measurement, the predictions of Bohmian mechanics and decoherent histories coincide for the probabilities of records of measurement outcomes. The formulations are thus difficult to distinguish experimentally. They may differ in their accounts of the past history of the Universe in quantum cosmology

  1. Journalism and Explaining News Content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albæk, E.; Skovsgaard, M.; de Vreese, C.H.; Nussbaum, J.F.

    Three models are presented to explain variation in news content. In the first model the explanation is based on the individual journalist, in the second model on the professional journalist, and in the third model on the organized journalist. The individual journalist model focuses on how the

  2. Can Marxism Explain America's Racism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willhelm, Sidney M.

    1980-01-01

    The Marxist interpretation of the Black experience in America has always had difficulty explaining various noneconomic aspects of racism. A perspective is needed that can blend racism as a variable in relationship with economic variables. To reach this perspective, the labor process within capitalism must be more fully understood. (Author/GC)

  3. Does market competition explain fairness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Descioli, Peter

    2013-02-01

    The target article by Baumard et al. uses their previous model of bargaining with outside options to explain fairness and other features of human sociality. This theory implies that fairness judgments are determined by supply and demand but humans often perceive prices (divisions of surplus) in competitive markets to be unfair.

  4. Mechanical Design of Military Communication Satellite X-band PCM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung Je Woo

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Before an actual military communications satellite is designed and constructed, a feasibility study should take place. The basic functions of such system can be observed and demonstrated in an X-Band payload simulator. For this purpose a Payload Concept Model (PCM for X-Band payload subsystem has been developed to simulate the workings of an actual military communications payload. This paper explains and illustrates the mechanical design, manufacture, and integration of the PCM. Basic RF tests also have been performed in order to verify the design requirement of the system. The results demonstrate successful development of the PCM and operation without RF losses.

  5. Military and Military Medical Support in Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI/H5N1) Pandemic Scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taleski, V.

    2007-01-01

    Avian influenza (Bird flu) is a highly contagious viral disease affecting mainly chickens, turkeys, ducks, other birds and mammals. Reservoirs for HPAI /H5N1 virus are shore birds and waterfowl (asymptomatic, excrete virus in feces for a long periods of time), live bird markets and commercial swine facilities. Virus tends to cycle between pigs and birds. HPAI (H5N1) virus is on every 'top ten' list available for potential agricultural bio-weapon agents. The threat of a HPAI/H5N1 pandemic is a definitively global phenomenon and the response must be global. A number of National plans led to various measures of preventing and dealing with epidemics/pandemics. Lessons learned form the pandemic history indicated essential role of military and military medical support to civil authorities in a crisis situation. Based on International Military Medical Avian Influenza Pandemic workshop (Vienna 2006), an expected scenario would involve 30-50% outpatients, 20-30% hospital admission, 2-3% deaths, 10-20% complicated cases. Activities of civil hospital may be reduced by 50%. Benefits of military support could be in: Transportation of patients (primarily by air); Mass vaccination and provision of all other preventive measures (masks, Tamiflu); Restriction of movements; Infection control of health care facilities; Field hospitals for triage and quarantine, military barracks to treat milder cases and military hospitals for severe cases; Deal with corpses; Stockpiling (vaccines, antiviral, antibiotics, protective equipment, supplies); Training; Laboratories; Ensure public safety, etc. With the aim of minimizing the risk of a pandemic spread by means of rapid and uncomplicated cooperation, an early warning system has to be established to improve surveillance, improve international contacts (WHO, ECDC, CDC), establish Platform for sharing information, close contacts of national and international military and civilian surveillance networks and databases, cooperation between military

  6. Shrinking the Civil-Military Divide: A Military Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-13

    behavior and rights, the values of the military are different and unique. Senior military officers highlight the importance of understanding the...Examples include on-base housing, shopping , schools, children’s sports leagues, and community and social events such as concerts, comedy shows, and movies... mall , a sporting event, or the movies provides a simple, 16 Skelton, “The Civil-Military Gap

  7. Unconventional Military Advising Mission Conducted by Conventional US Military Forces

    OpenAIRE

    Hajjar, Remi M.

    2016-01-01

    This article examines how and why many contemporary US mainstream military advisors—as compared to Special Forces advisors—often work from a position of disadvantage when conducting unconventional advising missions. Post-9/11 deployments to Iraq and Afghanistan have caused the US military to adapt to myriad complexities, including a renewed need for the widespread execution of the unconventional military advising mission by the Special Forces and conventional units. Although Special Forces ty...

  8. History Matters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2017-01-01

    In 2002, she began working as alecturer at Minzu University of China.Now, she teaches English, historicalliterature, ancient Chinese history,historical theory and method, ancientsocial history of China, ancient palacepolitical history of China and the historyof the Sui and Tang dynasties and thePeriod of Five Dynasties.

  9. Military Psychology for Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Heerden, Adelaide

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available are unaware of the causes and symptoms of PTSD, and that awareness training at junior leadership levels could provide commanders with critical skills and insight to identify, manage, coordinate and facilitate such incidents before the situation gets... and group level is discussed in the context of contributing toward the end state of combat readiness. The critical contribution of leadership (p. 263), personal relationships both within the military and personal life as well as the construct of hardiness...

  10. Military Personnel Law Deskbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-08-01

    Recreation Centers (AFRCs) and the Army Recreation Machine Program (ARMP), NAF Major Construction program, and NAF employee benefit programs... Bingo . • Bowling Centers (over 12 lanes). • Food, Beverage, and Entertainment Operations. • Golf Courses. • Military Clubs. • Others...nds. ach service has specific policies. (2) Funds must be used for the collective benefit of all unit members for off-duty recreational purposes

  11. Nanotechnology in Military Development

    OpenAIRE

    Andrus Pedai; Igor Astrov

    2014-01-01

    Nanotechnology is the new cyber, according to several major leaders in this field. Just as cyber is entrenched across global society now, nano is poised to be major capabilities enabler of the next decades. Expert members from the National Nanotechnology Initiative (in U.S.) representing government and science disciplines say nano has great significance for the military and the general public. It is predicted that after next 15 years nanotechnology will replace information technology as the m...

  12. Movies and the Military

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    by the hundreds. The most popular subjects were his tor ical dramas, comedies , simplistic versions of the classics, and sentimental domestic and...Germans and the making of a world "safe for democracy." All the war films, even the slapstick comedies , presented a simple view of the conflict-the...an exciting and romantic background for a love story or a musical. The value of military preparedness was implied strongly in these films which

  13. Converting Resources from Military to Non-military Uses

    OpenAIRE

    Jurgen Brauer; John Tepper Marlin

    1992-01-01

    As a proportion of gross national product, U.S. military spending has declined steadily since the mid-1980s. The end of the Cold War has given rise to calls for even more cuts in military spending. In early 1992, President George Bush proposed to reduce military spending by 3 percent per year, in real dollars, for the next five years. The Democratic leadership in the House of Representatives countered with a plan calling for substantially deeper cuts. Any substantial changes in military expen...

  14. 14 CFR 61.73 - Military pilots or former military pilots: Special rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Military pilots or former military pilots... Ratings and Pilot Authorizations § 61.73 Military pilots or former military pilots: Special rules. (a... a disciplinary action involving aircraft operations, a U.S. military pilot or former military pilot...

  15. [Civilian-military coordination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Montravel, G

    2002-01-01

    Current humanitarian emergencies create complex, mutidimensional situations that stimulate simultaneous responses from a wide variety of sources including governments, non-governmental organizations (NGO), United Nations agencies, and private individuals. As a result, it has become essential to establish a coherent framework in which each actor can contribute promptly and effectively to the overall effort. This is the role of the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs. Regardless of the circumstances and level of coordination, cooperation and collaboration between humanitarian and military personnel, it is necessary to bear in mind their objectives. The purpose of humanitarian action is to reduce human suffering. The purpose of military intervention is to stop warfare. The author of this article will discuss the three major obstacles to civilian-military coordination (strategic, tactical, and operational). Operations cannot be conducted smoothly and differences cannot be ironed out without mutual respect between the two parties, an explicit definition of their respective duties and responsibilities, a clear understanding of their cultural differences, and the presence of an organization and facilities for coordination and arbitrage by a neutral referee.

  16. Military radiobiology: A perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, R.I.; Conklin, J.J.

    1987-01-01

    Acute medical consequences affecting military personnel fall into two major classes: early events affecting performance and later more lethal events associated with single and combined injuries. If cells survive the radiation insult, they have the capability for repair. But the patient must survive fluid loss, infection, and bleeding defects until this can occur. Although no one can ever eliminate the incomprehensible destruction of human life associated with the use of nuclear weapons, significant medical advances can be achieved that will increase the performance and recovery of persons exposed to these weapons. Furthermore, these medical advances will go far toward improving the life and functioning of persons undergoing radiotherapy, trauma, accidental exposures, or a variety of other clinical situations. In the near future, the military battlefield will move into another dimension - space. Once outside the geomagnetic shield of the earth, military prsonnel will be exposed to a formidable array of new radiations. Among the new radiations will be high solar energy, solar particles and flares, and heavy nuclei from galactic cosmic arrays. Associated stresses will be microgravity, vibration, and isolation. To protect man in these new environments will truly challenge our ingenuity. This book looks at various medical consequences we face as a result of nuclear energy

  17. Histories electromagnetism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burch, Aidan

    2004-01-01

    Working within the HPO (History Projection Operator) Consistent Histories formalism, we follow the work of Savvidou on (scalar) field theory [J. Math. Phys. 43, 3053 (2002)] and that of Savvidou and Anastopoulos on (first-class) constrained systems [Class. Quantum Gravt. 17, 2463 (2000)] to write a histories theory (both classical and quantum) of Electromagnetism. We focus particularly on the foliation-dependence of the histories phase space/Hilbert space and the action thereon of the two Poincare groups that arise in histories field theory. We quantize in the spirit of the Dirac scheme for constrained systems

  18. O enfermeiro não faz marketing pessoal: a história explica por quê? Enfermeros no hacen marketing personal: la historia lo dice por qué? Nurses are not into personal marketing: do history explain why?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Chami Gentil

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Reflexão sobre o marketing pessoal do enfermeiro embasado nas crenças e valores que a história dos protagonistas do cuidado ao enfermo explica. Traz à tona reflexões sobre a ambigüidade entre a imagem social da enfermagem e os conhecimentos científicos, tecnológicos e humanísticos que desenvolveu ao longo do tempo. Reconhece que ainda há fixação nos atributos relativos à postura e moral dos profissionais, em detrimento da valorização do conhecimento técnico-científico. Constata que o estudo da História da Enfermagem leva a compreender que as lutas travadas contra os preconceitos presentes no imaginário coletivo têm importância na aceitação e reconhecimento social dessa profissão e que o caminho para isso está na divulgação da Ciência da Enfermagem e demonstração de sua aplicação na prática profissional.Reflexión sobre el marketing personal del enfermero basado en las creencias y valores que la historia de los protagonistas del cuidado al enfermo explica. Saca a flote reflexiones sobre la ambigüedad entre la imagen social de la enfermería y los conocimientos científicos, tecnológicos y humanísticos que desarrolló a lo largo del tiempo. Reconoce que todavía hay fijación en los atributos relacionados con la postura y moral de los profesionales, en detrimento de la valoración del conocimiento técnico-científico. Constata que el estudio de la Historia de la Enfermería permite comprender que las luchas contra de los perjuicios existentes en la imaginación colectiva tiene importancia en la aceptación y en el reconocimiento social de esta profesión, lo que puede hacerse promocionando la Ciencia de la Enfermería y demostrando su aplicación en la práctica profesional.Reflection on the nurse's personal marketing based on beliefs and values explained by the history of the main characters that care for patients. It brings to the surface reflections on the ambiguity between the social image of nursing and

  19. The Bright Face of Dark Tourism - Military Conflicts and World Travel in the Modern Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihály Miklós Nagy

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In the history of modern culture, besides its primary task of imposing political will, the military has also served as a major travel institution. The geographical dimensions of wars and the increasingly greater military forces involved have resulted in millions of people being compelled to get to know foreign lands and cultures as soldiers. Thus, military forces have become agents of developing societies’ geographical culture. This phenomenon is the bright face of dark tourism. Still, dark tourism has another positive aspect as well: the scientific exploration of certain landscapes and regions. Modern military forces have launched numerous scientific explorations to learn about the Earth. There are two types of such explorations: exploratory trips related to military campaigns and endeavors of purely scientific purposes. At the same time, scientific knowledge accumulated in the military has also played important roles in geographic research. The transportation of large numbers of personnel and the scientific expeditions of military forces have led to the development of military travel literature, whose significance goes beyond the framework of military geography and which has become an organic part of academic geographical literature.

  20. The Diffusion of Military Dictatorships

    OpenAIRE

    Raul Caruso; Ilaria Petrarca; Roberto Ricciuti

    2012-01-01

    We show the existence of a diffusion process of military dictatorships in Sub-Saharan Africa from 1972 through 2007, using panel data probit estimation and a Markov chain transition model. This process is shortly-lived, since we observe an overall trend that reduces the number of military regimes. We also find that Manufacturing share of GDP, Primary share of GDP positively affect the probability of military dictatorship, and Openness to trade, whereas the British colonial origin are negative...

  1. Cultural Dimensions of Military Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-13

    to military, and to make them able to operate effectively in multicultural dimensions. This cultural impact forced the military doctrine to adapt...degree the research findings and conclusions. The bibliography reviewed for this thesis is available at the Combined Arms Research Library . Unfortunately...in terms of increased ability of understanding and operating in a different cultural or multicultural setting, led the military decision makers to

  2. Explaining Disparities in Unemployment Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Karanassou, Marika; Snower, Dennis J.

    1993-01-01

    This paper attempts to explain disparities among the unemployment experiences of different OECD countries in terms of the `fragility' of the short-run unemployment equilibrium (the impact of labour market shocks on the short-run unemployment rate) and the lag structure of the employment determination, wage setting, and labour force participation decisions. The effects of this lag structure on unemployment dynamics are captured through two general measures of `unemployment persistence' (occurr...

  3. Explaining the Gender Wealth Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruel, Erin; Hauser, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    To assess and explain the United States’ gender wealth gap, we use the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study to examine wealth accumulated by a single cohort over 50 years by gender, by marital status, and limited to the respondents who are their family’s best financial reporters. We find large gender wealth gaps between currently married men and women, and never-married men and women. The never-married accumulate less wealth than the currently married, and there is a marital disruption cost to wealth accumulation. The status-attainment model shows the most power in explaining gender wealth gaps between these groups explaining about one-third to one-half of the gap, followed by the human-capital explanation. In other words, a lifetime of lower earnings for women translates into greatly reduced wealth accumulation. A gender wealth gap remains between married men and women after controlling for the full model that we speculate may be related to gender differences in investment strategies and selection effects. PMID:23264038

  4. Conversion of Abbandoned Military Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiva Marcinkevičiūtė

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the situation of abandoned military sites, their value and significance of their conservation. It also reviews their impact on their environment and their potential in tourism, environmental, economic and social spheres. Further the positive experiences in military sites' conversion are studied. The importance of society's involvement in the conversions is discussed. The situation of XIX-XX age's military object's, the significance of their conservation and their potential in tourism market is separately analysed. The results of two researches are introduced, one of which inquires about the Lithuanian military objects' potential in tourism sphere, another one explores the possibilities of conversion. Article in Lithuanian

  5. Suicides and Suicide Attempts in the U.S. Military, 2008-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Nigel E.; Reger, Mark A.; Luxton, David D.; Skopp, Nancy A.; Kinn, Julie; Smolenski, Derek; Gahm, Gregory A.

    2013-01-01

    The Department of Defense Suicide Event Report Program collects extensive information on suicides and suicide attempts from the U.S. Air Force, Army, Marine Corps, and Navy. Data are compiled on demographics, suicide event details, behavioral health treatment history, military history, and information about other potential risk factors such as…

  6. Physical health status of female veterans: contributions of sex partnership and in-military rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Brenda M; Davis, Teri D; Cheney, Ann M; Mengeling, Michelle A; Torner, James C; Sadler, Anne G

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether current physical health status in female veterans is associated with rape during military service and same-sex partnership. Retrospective computer-assisted telephone interviews of 1004 Midwestern US female veterans identified from Veterans Affairs electronic records were conducted. Data included rape history including rape in military, sex partnership history, demographics, and medical history including chronic pain, mental health (depression and posttraumatic stress disorder [PTSD]), and the physical health component of the Short-Form 12-item interview (PCS-12). Physical health in this sample was lower than norm values [PCS-12: mean (standard deviation) = 43 [12]; norm: mean (standard deviation) = 50 [10]). Fifty-one percent of the participants reported rape in their lifetime, 25% reported rape in military, 11% reported history of women as sex partners, and 71% reported history of chronic pain. Multiple regression analysis indicated that physical health (PCS-12) was associated with chronic pain history (β = -.40, p rape in military (β = -.09, p = .002), and current PTSD (β = .07, p = .03), adjusting for demographic data. Mediational analysis indicated that chronic pain history significantly mediated relationships of women who have sex with women, childhood rape, PTSD, depression, and current substance use disorder with PCS-12. Both rape and sex partnership are adversely associated with lower physical functioning in female veterans. Clinicians evaluating the physical health of this population should therefore consider obtaining detailed sexual histories, and a multidisciplinary team is needed to address mental health issues in female veterans.

  7. Mainstreaming Military Compensation: Problems and Prospects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    MacDonald, David

    1998-01-01

    Changes to the military retirement system in the 1980's and attention by law makers, military leadership, and service members to pay comparability between the private sector and the military indicate...

  8. [Military psychiatry in Israel: a 50-year perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleich, A

    2000-05-01

    The history of military psychiatry in Israel may be divided into 2 main periods. The first extended from the War of Independence in 1948, through the Sinai, Six Day and Yom Kippur Wars. Its outstanding feature was avoidance of the issue of combat stress reaction (CSR). The Yom Kippur War made the recognition of CSR inescapable, assisted in breaking up denial, and served as a stimulus for development of the next phase of the system. This second phase was characterized by impressive progress in all areas of military psychiatry. The rich experience accumulated during the wars, together with the assimilation of a research culture which began blooming, especially in the wake of the Lebanon War, aided the development and crystallization of concepts related to combat and non-combat military psychiatry alike. The build-up of the mental health organization overlapped field deployment of the Medical Corps.

  9. The nuclear deterrence history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumoulin, Andre

    2013-01-01

    This book relates the history of French nuclear deterrence, from its political, scientific and military genesis, to its context, sometimes complex, of the relations between France and its strategic environment. It details the air and submarine means and the evolution of the political context, from the cold war to the present day. This book is intended to be a synthesis in which all topics, doctrine, means, capacity and nuclear diplomacy are approached. At a time when France is reconsidering the future of its deterrence, this book addresses all the questions: the open debate of the abolitionists' policy, the new fields of proliferation, and the question of the French nuclear situation in the case of a withdrawal of the last US missiles from Europe

  10. Atomic policies: history, problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galvan, Cesare Giuseppe.

    1993-01-01

    Two kinds of problems follow from the development of nuclear technology: its use in (diversion to) armaments, and its dangers for the population. Both arise as social phenomena: technology can be diverted to military aims; and installations require specific measures in order not to expose human life to danger. The diffusion of this technology required a series of tentative solutions for such problems. Its history constitutes our first part. The second part aims at understanding the dynamics, which led to the diffusion of such a technology in the capitalist world. The concept of subsumption (especially of its realization) is suited to interpret the meanings of the social interests, which led content ro this diffusion. Subsumption is found between labor and capital, but also between society and state. At both levels, it shows that there was some social meaning in the diffusion of nuclear technology notwithstanding its problems. 590 refs

  11. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Military Affairs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1988-01-01

    Partial Contents: Military Political Issues, Military Science, Warsaw Pact, Armed Forces, Air Forces, Air Defense Forces, Naval Forces, Strategic Rocket Forces, Civil Defense, Rear Services, Defense Industries, DOSAAF...

  12. Military Medical Care: Questions and Answers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jansen, Don J

    2009-01-01

    .... Known as Tricare, this system of military and private health care offers benefits to active duty personnel and other beneficiaries, including dependents of active duty personnel, military retirees...

  13. Explaining the Evolution of Poverty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Hussain, Azhar; Jones, Edward Samuel

    2012-01-01

    We provide a comprehensive approach for analyzing the evolution of poverty using Mozambique as a case study. Bringing together data from disparate sources, we develop a novel “back-casting” framework that links a dynamic computable general equilibrium model to a micro-simulation poverty module....... This framework provides a new approach to explaining and decomposing the evolution of poverty, as well as to examining rigorously the coherence between poverty, economic growth, and inequality outcomes. Finally, various simple but useful and rarely-applied approaches to considering regional changes in poverty...

  14. Soviet Union, Military Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-06-15

    the embryo of future possibilities: good-neighbor relations between one person and another, the memory of history, histor- ical self-awareness, the...when reading the terse material, void of emotion. Behind it are destinies ; behind it are history, our past and present; behind it are great spirits

  15. The Military Emergency Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Requena, J. M.

    2007-01-01

    One of the most justified and pressing demands that society makes of the State, requiring a fast, forceful and effective response, is that it guarantees the safety of people and their assets when a disaster seriously endangers them. At the proposal of the President of the Government, the Cabinet of Ministers, in its meeting held on October 7, 2005, agreed to create the Military Emergency Unit, known since the as the UME. Its mission is to intervene anywhere in the national territory when the President of the Government, or the Minister to whom he delegates, so decides in order to assure the safety and welfare of citizens in cases of serious risk, disaster, catastrophe or any other public need. The UME is organically incorporated into the Ministry of Defense and its actions may be supported with all the available human and material needs of the Armed Forces. Availability and effectiveness, with calmness and humility, have characterized the early actions of the Military Emergency Unit and are the guidelines for future action. The first steps of this military unit have focused on a clear goal: collaboration and participation in situations whose seriousness requires the coordination of different forces in order to immediately respond to them. The UME is the States tool to join forces and, with other administration and institutions, help to rapidly and effectively deal with emergencies. It has taken its first step and achieved the capacity specified in the UME Operations Order for 2007. The 150 men and women per battalion, plus the 80 in the Gando detachment, are on active duty and have sufficient material means to deploy, if necessary and when requested by the regions, town councils an other administrative bodies, to help in the extinction of forest fires. (Author)

  16. Tobacco Pricing in Military Stores: Views of Military Policy Leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Elizabeth A; Jahnke, Sara A; Poston, Walker S C; Malone, Ruth E; Haddock, Christopher K

    2016-10-01

    Higher tobacco taxes reduce tobacco use. On military installations, cigarettes and other tobacco products are sold tax-free, keeping prices artificially low. Pricing regulations in the military specify that tobacco should be within 5% of the local most competitive price, but prices still average almost 13% lower than those at local Walmarts. To gain insight into policy leaders' ideas and positions on military tobacco pricing, we interviewed members of the Department of Defense (DoD) Addictive Substances Misuse Advisory Committee and the Advisory Committee on Tobacco about tobacco pricing policies (n = 12). Participants frequently lacked specific knowledge of details of military pricing policy, and the impact higher prices might have on military tobacco use. Most participants thought tobacco should not be sold at military stores, but many also felt that this policy change was unlikely due to tobacco industry pressure, and DoD reliance on tobacco profits to support Morale, Welfare, and Recreation funds. Achieving a tobacco-free military will require changing pricing policy, but this study suggests that for effective implementation, military leadership must also understand and articulate more clearly the rationale for doing so. Previous work has found that adherence to military tobacco pricing policy is inconsistent at best. This study suggests that lack of knowledge about the policy and conflicting pressures resulting from the funding stream tobacco sales represent extend to high level military policy leaders. Without clearer information and direction, these leaders are unlikely to be able to establish and implement better tobacco pricing policy. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Entangled histories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotler, Jordan; Wilczek, Frank

    2016-01-01

    We introduce quantum history states and their mathematical framework, thereby reinterpreting and extending the consistent histories approach to quantum theory. Through thought experiments, we demonstrate that our formalism allows us to analyze a quantum version of history in which we reconstruct the past by observations. In particular, we can pass from measurements to inferences about ‘what happened’ in a way that is sensible and free of paradox. Our framework allows for a richer understanding of the temporal structure of quantum theory, and we construct history states that embody peculiar, non-classical correlations in time. (paper)

  18. Post-deployment family violence among UK military personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Jamie; Jones, Margaret; Somaini, Greta; Hull, Lisa; Wessely, Simon; Fear, Nicola T; MacManus, Deirdre

    2017-12-19

    Research into violence among military personnel has not differentiated between stranger- and family-directed violence. While military factors (combat exposure and post-deployment mental health problems) are risk factors for general violence, there has been limited research on their impact on violence within the family environment. This study aims to compare the prevalence of family-directed and stranger-directed violence among a deployed sample of UK military personnel and to explore risk factors associated with both family- and stranger-directed violence. This study utilised data from a large cohort study which collected information by questionnaire from a representative sample of randomly selected deployed UK military personnel (n = 6711). The prevalence of family violence immediately following return from deployment was 3.6% and 7.8% for stranger violence. Family violence was significantly associated with having left service, while stranger violence was associated with younger age, male gender, being single, having a history of antisocial behaviour as well as having left service. Deployment in a combat role was significantly associated with both family and stranger violence after adjustment for confounders [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.92 (1.25-2.94), p = 0.003 and aOR = 1.77 (1.31-2.40), p violence both inside and outside the family environment and should be considered in violence reduction programmes for military personnel. Further research using a validated measurement tool for family violence would improve comparability with other research.

  19. Burns and military clothing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, A D

    2001-02-01

    Burn injury is a ubiquitous threat in the military environment. The risks during combat are well recognised, but the handling of fuel, oil, munitions and other hot or flammable materials during peacetime deployment and training also imposes an inherent risk of accidental burn injury. Over the last hundred years, the burn threat in combat has ranged from nuclear weapons to small shoulder-launched missiles. Materials such as napalm and white phosphorus plainly present a risk of burn, but the threat extends to encompass personnel in vehicles attacked by anti-armour weapons, large missiles, fuel-air explosives and detonations/conflagrations on weapons platforms such as ships. Large numbers of burn casualties were caused at Pearl Harbor, in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Vietnam, during the Arab/Israeli Wars and in the Falkland Islands conflict. The threat from burns is unlikely to diminish, indeed new developments in weapons seek to exploit the vulnerability of the serviceman and servicewoman to burns. Clothing can be a barrier to some types of burn--both inherently in the properties of the material, but also by trapping air between clothing layers. Conversely, ignition of the clothing may exacerbate a burn. There is hearsay that burnt clothing products within a wound may complicate the clinical management, or that materials that melt (thermoplastic materials) should not be worn if there is a burn threat. This paper explores the incidence of burn injury, the mechanisms of heat transfer to bare skin and skin covered by materials, and the published evidence for the complication of wound management by materials. Even light-weight combat clothing can offer significant protection to skin from short duration flash burns; the most vulnerable areas are the parts of the body not covered--face and hands. Multilayered combat clothing can offer significant protection for short periods from engulfment by flames; lightweight tropical wear with few layers offers little protection. Under

  20. Military Families: A Selected Bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    CTC_depression_family_sheet.pdf U.S. Army War College. Basics from the Barracks: Military Etiquette and Protocol ; A Spouse’s Quick Reference to Its Unique Customs...http://youtu.be/zfTknLkDPTY U.S. Army War College. Military Family Program. Customs & Courtesies/ Protocol . Carlisle Barracks: U.S. Army War College

  1. Military Contractors - Too Much Dependence

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hill, Nathan E

    2008-01-01

    .... There is undoubtedly a need for military contractors and there are numerous positive arguments in their favor. However, the negative arguments have not been highlighted enough recently and the scales are now out of balance. The intent of this research paper is to encourage the U.S. military to rebalance the scales and curb the over-reliance on contractors.

  2. The Death of Military Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Military Court of Appeals ruled in United States v. Beeker that “the use or possession of marihuana was service connected because the use or...possession . . . of marihuana and narcotics has a special military significance since their use has ‘disastrous effects on the health, morale and fitness

  3. Psychological Safety During Military Integrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wermser, Frederik; Täuber, Susanne; Essens, Peter; Molleman, Henricus; Beeres, Robert; Bakx, Gwendolyn; de Waard, Erik; Rietjens, Sebastiaan

    Increased military cooperation between member states of the European Union is a political given. The Netherlands and Germany form a spearhead in this process by integrating entire military units (i.e., brigades, battalions, companies) into higher-order units of the respective other nation (i.e.,

  4. Military Implications of Global Warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-05-20

    U.S. environmental issues also have important global implications. This paper analyzes current U.S. Policy as it pertains to global warming and climate...for military involvement to reduce global warming . Global warming and other environmental issues are important to the U.S. military. As the United

  5. Teaching in Overseas Military Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinney, Fred

    1980-01-01

    Reveals strengths and weaknesses encountered by a psychology teacher involved in the overseas graduate counseling program for Ball State University. Problems included lack of proper teaching and counseling facilities, long teaching hours, and civilian teachers' ignorance of military protocol. Advantages included helping military personnel obtain a…

  6. The Effectiveness of Military Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    against the heart of the U.S. Pacific Fleet in 1941. Italy’s uneven naval buildup, stressing submarines and unemployed battleships, posed a particular...military, not to speak of a society which has yet to recover from its psychic wounds. How to arrange our American military institutions so that they

  7. The Importance of Military Cultural Competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Eric G; Writer, Brian W; Brim, William

    2016-03-01

    Military cultural competence has recently gained national attention. Experts have posited that limited outcomes in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder and depression in the military may be related to limited familiarity with the military. National surveys have indicated low military cultural competence among providers and limited educational efforts on military culture or pertinent military pathology in medical schools and residency training programs. Military families, with their own unique military cultural identity, have been identified as a population with increased risks associated with deployment. In response to these findings, several curricula regarding military culture have been established and widely distributed. Assessments of military cultural competence have also been developed. The clinical impact of enhanced cultural competence in general has thus far been limited. The military, however, with its highly prescribed cultural identity, may be a model culture for further study.

  8. Historiosophical views about Ukrainian history in Maksymovych academic heritage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svitlenko, S. I.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The author studies historical and historiosophical aspects in M. Maksymovych's philosophical heritage and shows it place in historiographycal tradition. There have been analyzed those Maksymovych historical and Ukrainian folk art song researchers, which present some general historiosophical ideas. It is shown that this famous thinker pointed out Ukrainian nation as a particular object of a special historical research, explained geneses of the Rus people, singled out South-Rus (Ukrainian historical zone, showed its population autochthonity, stressed the importance of Kyiv in consolidation of land and peoples within the borders of Rus area. It has been paid attention that Maksymovych had offered periodization of this area and ethnic processes history, proved historical continuity and then, as a result, connectivity of Kyiv Rus and Cossack periods of Ukrainian history. The author emphasizes the causal factors of historical progress, including social, spiritual, cultural, church, religious and military points. Contradictions in historiosophical views of this thinker have been also identified. On the one hand, Maksymovych promoted the idea of the dual (Kyiv and Moscow Rus, that reveals his loyalty to a united Rus world within the Russian Empire. On the other hand, the thinker supported recognition of the Ukrainian people as a distinct ethnos with its own historical space, time, power and leaders, that had put the basis of Modernity period of Ukraine.

  9. Intellectual History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    In the 5 Questions book series, this volume presents a range of leading scholars in Intellectual History and the History of Ideas through their answers to a brief questionnaire. Respondents include Michael Friedman, Jacques le Goff, Hans Ulrich Gumbrecht, Jonathan Israel, Phiip Pettit, John Pocock...

  10. Explaining the harmonic sequence paradox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Ulrich; Zimper, Alexander

    2012-05-01

    According to the harmonic sequence paradox, an expected utility decision maker's willingness to pay for a gamble whose expected payoffs evolve according to the harmonic series is finite if and only if his marginal utility of additional income becomes zero for rather low payoff levels. Since the assumption of zero marginal utility is implausible for finite payoff levels, expected utility theory - as well as its standard generalizations such as cumulative prospect theory - are apparently unable to explain a finite willingness to pay. This paper presents first an experimental study of the harmonic sequence paradox. Additionally, it demonstrates that the theoretical argument of the harmonic sequence paradox only applies to time-patient decision makers, whereas the paradox is easily avoided if time-impatience is introduced. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.

  11. About Military Sexual Trauma

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Supporting Veterans through Bay Pines VA Healthcare System's MOVE! Program - Duration: 4:15. Veterans Health Administration 749 views 4:15 Language: English Location: United States Restricted Mode: Off History Help ...

  12. Civil-Military Challenges for a Consolidating Democracy: The Maldives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    11  E.  THE MALDIVES AS A CMR CASE STUDY ............................................15  II.  POLITICAL HISTORY OF THE MALDIVES...Maldives has undergone a rapid transformation in all aspects of life. Since the opening of the Maldivian economy for tourism in the late 1970s, the GDP...1 See Thomas C. Bruneau, “ Ecuador : The Continuing Challenge of Democratic Consolidation and Civil-Military Relations,” Strategic

  13. Security issues of cloud computing environment in possible military applications

    OpenAIRE

    Samčović, Andreja B.

    2013-01-01

    The evolution of cloud computing over the past few years is potentially one of major advances in the history of computing and telecommunications. Although there are many benefits of adopting cloud computing, there are also some significant barriers to adoption, security issues being the most important of them. This paper introduces the concept of cloud computing; looks at relevant technologies in cloud computing; takes into account cloud deployment models and some military applications. Addit...

  14. On Military Innovation: Toward an Analytical Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Ross, Andrew L

    2010-01-01

    What is military innovation? How should we think about Chinese military innovation? By developing an analytical framework that captures both the components of military innovation (technology, doctrine, and organization) and the continuum of change, we can better assess the nature, extent, and importance of contemporary Chinese military innovation.

  15. Patient Satisfaction in Military Dental Treatment Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-07

    the variance in regards to overall satisfaction. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Dentistry, Patient Satisfaction, Military, Consumer Satisfaction, Dental... patient satisfaction in military dental treatment facilities. Dental health is extremely important for the military as dental assets are not always... customer satisfaction is an important component of military dental care. Quarterly patient satisfaction reports are generated for each dental treatment

  16. The Military and the Transition to Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelty, Ryan; Kleykamp, Meredith; Segal, David R.

    2010-01-01

    Ryan Kelty, Meredith Kleykamp, and David Segal examine the effect of military service on the transition to adulthood. They highlight changes since World War II in the role of the military in the lives of young adults, focusing especially on how the move from a conscription to an all-volunteer military has changed the way military service affects…

  17. 32 CFR 575.1 - Military Academy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Military Academy. 575.1 Section 575.1 National... MILITARY ACADEMY § 575.1 Military Academy. (a) Organization and administration. (1) The United States Military Academy is under the general direction and supervision of the Department of the Army. The...

  18. 31 CFR 29.333 - Military service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Military service. 29.333 Section 29... Satisfied by June 30, 1997 § 29.333 Military service. (a) For employees who entered on duty on or before June 30, 1997, and whose military service was performed prior to that date, credit for military service...

  19. The Ambiguity of Foreign Military Assistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laugesen, Henrik

    This study tests the argument that Foreign Military Assistance and the consequently professionalizing of the recipient military has a positive effect on the process of democratization in Kenya.......This study tests the argument that Foreign Military Assistance and the consequently professionalizing of the recipient military has a positive effect on the process of democratization in Kenya....

  20. Gender Dysphoria in the Military.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Shannon; Schnitzlein, Carla

    2017-11-07

    With the announcement that members of the military who identify as transgender are allowed to serve openly, the need for Department of Defense behavioral health providers to be comfortable in the assessment, diagnosis, and treatment of this population becomes quickly evident. This population has been seeking care in the community and standards have been developed to help guide decision-making, but a comparable document does not exist for the military population. Previously published papers were written in anticipation of the policy allowing for open service. The civilian sector has treatment guidelines and evidence supporting the same for reference. There is no similar document for the military population, likely due to the recent change and ongoing development. This paper attempts to provide an overview of the recent Department of Defense policy and walks the reader through key considerations when providing care to a transgender member of the military as it relates to those who are currently serving in the military through the use of a case example. The military transgender population faces some unique challenges due to the need to balance readiness and deployability with medically necessary health care. Also complicating patient care is that policy development is ongoing-as of this publication, the decision has not yet been made regarding how people who identify as transgender will access into the military nor is there final approval regarding coverage for surgical procedures. Unique circumstances of this population are brought up to generate more discussion and encourage further evaluation and refinement of the process.

  1. History: development of civil and military nuclear - the French case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greneche, D.

    2016-01-01

    4 countries: USA, USSR, Great-Britain and France have been pioneers for the development of nuclear energy and the article shows that for the 3 first countries the saga of the atom began with the development of the atomic bomb while for France the works for both the achievement of the bomb and the production of electricity from nuclear energy began at the same period in mid fifties. (A.C.)

  2. Military Food Inspection: Its History and Its Effect on Readiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-03-15

    inspections. Establishments include commercial food plants such as animal slaughter houses, milk plants, bakeries , ice cream plants, and warehouses...establishments had never been checked for sanitation. Local bakeries had no concept of sanitation. The fresh fruits and vegetables being purchased from the Saigon... franchise in Vietnam. The approved ice needed to be identified by some means. The veterinary service planned to identify it by adding an approved Food

  3. American Military History and its Insights into Fourth Generation Warfare

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Davis, Scott A

    2006-01-01

    .... The case studies of Braddock's Campaign, the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution, and the Philippines Insurrection provide justification for the presence of the tenets of 4GW throughout...

  4. Command History. United States Military Assistance Command, Vietnam 1965. Sanitized

    Science.gov (United States)

    1965-01-01

    aspirations of the South Vietnamese people." Although not all Americans chose to recognize this, the doubting minority dwindled numerically, if rot...fforts were being made by VNAF to obtain B-57 Jet aircraft as a substitute for A-l’s in the sixth squadron., (C) In spite of VAF’a jet aspirations the...cargoes. Ti4VC ’AE GRAUUL- t f~illy0)ý m"LApO \\ %60150 or𔃾b8" Vaps 6) Cambodian border river surveillance -Waterborne infiltration from Cambodia

  5. The Harmon Memorial Lectures in Military History 1959-1987

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    Farrand, ed., Records of the Federal Convention of 1787 (New Haven, 1911-1937), 111, 85, 86n. 4. Pogue, Marshall, 1, 323; Larry 1. Bland and Sharon R...569, iU2, 573 Boulogne camp: 316, 317 594 INDEX Bourke , John G.: 26 Chamberlain, Neville: 572 Bradley, Omar N.: 163, 166, 167, 185, 190, Charles

  6. A HISTORY OF MILITARY NOMENCLATURE IN SOUTH AFRICA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . From 1922,the UDFwas cut and reorganised annually and when the Great Depression started in. 1929, even the Active Citizen Force. (ACF) units were disbanded. Whether there was actually a need for a no- menclature policy at that stage, ...

  7. The traumatologist and the battlefield: the book that changed the history of traumatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Matteo, Berardo; Tarabella, Vittorio; Filardo, Giuseppe; Viganò, Anna; Tomba, Patrizia; Marcacci, Maurilio

    2013-01-01

    This is a brief historical essay about the 16th century European military surgeon Hans von Gersdorff (approximately 1455 to 1529 in Strasbourg) and his epochal illustrated text, Feldbuch der Wundtartzney (Field Book of Surgery), the first manual of traumatology describing the treatment of battle injuries covering topics ranging from human anatomy to pharmacy, as a guide to field surgery, and explaining the use of surgical instruments developed by Gersdorff himself; for the first time in medical history, a precursor to scientific books for practitioners, this manual is a precious source of information, and it is illustrated by hand-colored woodcuts, attributed to distinguished German renaissance artist Hans Wechtlin; this combination of text and pictures made the Feldbuch a point of reference in the process of arriving at modern traumatology.

  8. A theory of military dictatorships

    OpenAIRE

    Acemoglu, Daron; Ticchi, Davide; Vindigni, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    We investigate how nondemocratic regimes use the military and how this can lead to the emergence of military dictatorships. Nondemocratic regimes need the use of force in order to remain in power, but this creates a political moral hazard problem; a strong military may not simply work as an agent of the elite but may turn against them in order to create a regime more in line with their own objectives. The political moral hazard problem increases the cost of using repression in nondemocratic r...

  9. A Study of Military Technopolitics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Katrine

    , governments and military services hope to introduce game-changing military technologies that are ‘better, faster and cheaper’, investing heavily in research and development of AWS. In this paper, I wish to map the different and competing practices of critique and justification that shape the technopolitical...... controversy of AWS, showing its complexity and internal contradictions. In addition to identifying the dominant regimes of justification, that organize the discourse of AWS, I argue that the military bureau and its officeholders become technopolitical mediators and translators of risk in an emergent practice...

  10. Family History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your family history includes health information about you and your close relatives. Families have many factors in common, including their genes, ... as heart disease, stroke, and cancer. Having a family member with a disease raises your risk, but ...

  11. History or histories of socio-economic rights?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Christian O.

    2016-01-01

    The German historian Reinhart Koselleck was once described as a partisan for histories in the plural (as opposed to history in the singular). His point was that history has many different layers, logics, and temporalities and that the modernist idea of one, overarching history with one direction ......) at work in the histories and dynamics of socio-economic rights. More specifically, I propose a list of eight important variables that may help explain the dynamics of the histories of socio-economic rights - their failures as well as their successes....... (telos) – be it towards progress or decline – was inadequate for the multi-faceted geographies, rhythms and dynamics of life. In these reflections on a two-days research workshop in Paris, I argue that Koselleck’s point also applies to the field of the history of socio-economic rights. Instead of writing...... the history of socio-economic rights, I would propose thinking about the histories of socio-economic rights. There are three main reasons for this: the non-teleological histories of socioeconomic rights; the distinctiveness between different socio-economic rights; and the complexity (multiple variables...

  12. The economic impact of military expenditures

    OpenAIRE

    Landau, Daniel

    1993-01-01

    The author addresses three questions about military spending in developing countries: What are the levels of (and trends in) military spending as a percentage of gross national product? What impact does peacetime military spending have on growth, government spending on social welfare and infrastructure, and other key economic variables? What major factors influence the level of military spending? The author finds that military spending as a share of GNP generally fell in the 1980s, even in th...

  13. Military Importance of Natural Toxins and Their Analogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír Pitschmann

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Toxin weapon research, development, production and the ban on its uses is an integral part of international law, with particular attention paid to the protection against these weapons. In spite of this, hazards associated with toxins cannot be completely excluded. Some of these hazards are also pointed out in the present review. The article deals with the characteristics and properties of natural toxins and synthetic analogs potentially constituting the basis of toxin weapons. It briefly describes the history of military research and the use of toxins from distant history up to the present age. With respect to effective disarmament conventions, it mentions certain contemporary concepts of possible toxin applications for military purposes and the protection of public order (suppression of riots; it also briefly refers to the question of terrorism. In addition, it deals with certain traditional as well as modern technologies of the research, synthesis, and use of toxins, which can affect the continuing development of toxin weapons. These are, for example, cases of new toxins from natural sources, their chemical synthesis, production of synthetic analogs, the possibility of using methods of genetic engineering and modern biotechnologies or the possible applications of nanotechnology and certain pharmaceutical methods for the effective transfer of toxins into the organism. The authors evaluate the military importance of toxins based on their comparison with traditional chemical warfare agents. They appeal to the ethics of the scientific work as a principal condition for the prevention of toxin abuse in wars, military conflicts, as well as in non-military attacks.

  14. Why Keep Changing Explaining the Evolution of Singapore’s Military Strategy Since Independence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    have agreed that the Dolphin strategy, with the 3G SAF as its core, is characterized by the use of “ intelligence , speed, and maneuverability in a...secure investor confidence. Any “loss of confidence in the republic’s stability or security would seriously damage its economic health.”55 The...the Singaporean leadership’s acknowledgement of the need to secure investor confidence and also of the increasing importance of the maritime domain

  15. Ireland and immigration: explaining the absence of the far right

    OpenAIRE

    Garner, Steve

    2007-01-01

    This article seeks to explain the absence of far-right political formations in the history of the Republic of Ireland, especially in relation to immigration. I argue that the ‘mainstream’ nationalist parties have implemented a racialized governance of Ireland via the issue of citizenship (in the referendum of 2004). While hegemonic ideas on the racial purity of indigenous populations and the highly ambivalent attitudes and policies on immigration pursued over the last decade are characteristi...

  16. Military Librarians Workshop: A Premier Gathering of Military Librarians, 1957-1999

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Palmer, William A., Jr; Hanna, Marcia

    2000-01-01

    The Military Librarian Workshop(MLW) is an annual meeting that brings together civilian and military personnel who serve as special librarians, library supervisors, or technical information officers in military or governmental...

  17. Outsourcing Small Wars: Expanding the Role of Private Military Companies in U.S. Military Operations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jorgensen, Brent M

    2005-01-01

    "Outsourcing Small Wars: Expanding the Role of Private Military Companies in U.S. Military Operations" argues that, under current domestic and international laws, and current military regulations and doctrine...

  18. Military Engineers and Chemical Warfare Troops (Inzhenernye Voiska Khimicheskie Voiska),

    Science.gov (United States)

    MILITARY FORCES(FOREIGN), *MILITARY ORGANIZATIONS, MILITARY ENGINEERING , INFANTRY, AMPHIBIOUS OPERATIONS, MINELAYING, ARMORED VEHICLES, NUCLEAR...RADIATION, DOSIMETERS, CHEMICAL WARFARE, PROTECTIVE CLOTHING, DECONTAMINATION, HEALTH PHYSICS.

  19. MilitaryPayDecnService

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — Supports operations to access/update data related to (Compensation and Pension) Awards. This service will also support business processes such as reading military...

  20. Energy Requirements of Military Personnel

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tharion, William J; Lieberman, Harris R; Montain, Scott J; Young, Andrew J; Baker-Fulco, Carol J

    2005-01-01

    ...) have been measured while training under various conditions. Group mean total energy expenditures for 424 male military personnel from various units engaged in diverse missions ranged from 13.0 to 29.8 MJ per day...

  1. Comparative International Military Personnel Policies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Harries-Jenkins, Gwyn

    1998-01-01

    .... It is particularly concerned with issues relating to the recruitment and retention within the military of homosexuals, that is, those individuals who have a sexual propensity for persons of their own gender...

  2. French military plans for Superphenix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albright, D.

    1984-01-01

    France refuses to rule out military use of the plutonium produced by the planned breeder reactor Superphenix, although other nations, including the US, have contributed nuclear materials to it. US policy has been to separate military and civilian nuclear programs to set an example. France has not stated an intention to use Superphenix for military purposes, but is reserving the right to do so. It does not separate the two kinds of nuclear materials for economic reasons. The Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) does not address the possibility that plutonium pledged to peaceful use might be commingled with plutonium for military use in a civilian facility within a weapons state. The US could work to strengthen the US-Euratom Agreement on the basis of the contamination principle. 11 references

  3. Committee on Military Nutrition Research

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Poos, Mary

    2000-01-01

    .... Its purpose is to provide reviews and recommendations to the Commander, U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command, on research projects, programs, and products as they relate to the nutrition and performance of military personnel...

  4. Western Military Culture and Counterinsurgency:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    francois

    with a threat both abroad and within their homeland societies. Civilians fulfil a ..... we have now with the use of force and forces is their persistent structuring ... advanced equipment remains the main feature of Western military culture. Western.

  5. Education and the Knowledge Military

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    sea power introducing education as an additional population characteristic , a review of education philosophy, education trends, impact of education on the knowledge military, and the impact of the knowledge on the joint force.

  6. Obesity Prevention in the Military.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shams-White, Marissa; Deuster, Patricia

    2017-06-01

    The objective was to review prevention efforts and approaches attempting to limit the problem of obesity in the military. Various individual-level initiatives have emerged, including programs promoting healthy cooking, meal planning, and other behavior changes among service members. Importantly, the military is attempting to tackle environmental factors contributing to the rise of obesity, by focusing on many recent environmental-level interventions and initiatives to improve military dining facilities and examine and modify other aspects of installations' built environments. Although published research within the military setting directed towards obesity prevention is limited, many innovative programs have been launched and need to be followed forward. The review of past and ongoing efforts can be an important step in identifying specific areas needing improvement, gaps that should be considered, lessons learned, and characteristics of successful programs that should be disseminated as best practices and further expanded.

  7. Army Military Land Tracts (AMLT)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Geographic Data Committee — This data set is part of a collection of real estate data concerning current and historic military installations whose real property interests are managed by the...

  8. Military Strategy of Global Jihad

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zabel, Sarah E

    2007-01-01

    .... The 9/11 attacks set this plan in motion. In the years leading up to and following the 9/11 attacks, global jihadis have written copiously on their military strategy for creating an Islamic state...

  9. Trauma history is associated with prior suicide attempt history in hospitalized patients with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Lily A; Armey, Michael A; Sejourne, Corinne; Miller, Ivan W; Weinstock, Lauren M

    2016-09-30

    Although the relationships between PTSD, abuse history, and suicidal behaviors are well-established in military and outpatient samples, little data is available on this relationship in inpatient samples. This study examines the relationships between these variables and related demographic and clinical correlates in a sample of psychiatric inpatients with a diagnosis of major depressive disorder using electronic medical record (EMR) data. Controlling for relevant demographic and clinical variables, PTSD diagnosis and history of abuse were both significantly associated with history of suicide attempt, but in a combined model, only history of abuse remained as a significant predictor. Whereas history of abuse was associated with a history multiple suicide attempts, PTSD diagnosis was not. Both insurance status and gender acted as significant moderators of the relationship between history of abuse and history of suicide attempt, with males and those with public/no insurance having greater associations with history of suicide attempts when an abuse history was present. These data indicate the importance of documentation of PTSD, abuse history, and history of suicide attempts. The results also suggest that in the presence of an abuse history or PTSD diagnosis, additional time spent on safety and aftercare planning following hospital discharge may be indicated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Military use of Virtual Reality

    OpenAIRE

    Gullaksen, Rasmus; Nielsen, Kristoffer Merrild; Siegel, Viktor; Labuz, Patrick Ravn

    2017-01-01

    This project is sparked by the contemporary evolvement that has been happening with consumer Virtual Reality technology and an interest for looking into the military industrial complex. The paper describes how Virtual Reality as a concept has evolved historically since the 19th century and how it has since entered the military and consumer market. The implementation of Virtual Reality is described in order to analyse it by using Technology-Oriented Scenario Analysis, as described by Francesco...

  11. Cybersecurity education for military officers

    OpenAIRE

    Bardwell, Andrew; Buggy, Sean; Walls, Remuis

    2017-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Cyber threats are a growing concern for our military, creating a need for cybersecurity education. Current methods used to educate students about cyber, including annual Navy Knowledge Online training, are perceived to be ineffective. The Naval Postgraduate School developed an All hands pilot cybersecurity course with the objective of increasing military officers' cybersecurity awareness. The three of us participated in the ten-week co...

  12. Military Construction: Process and Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-14

    barracks, schools, hospitals, child development centers, and other facilities needed to support U.S. military forces at home and overseas. This military...and programming into the President’s budget could take three or more years. Furthermore, it is important to note that only those projects that have...travel, fuel, minor construction projects of $1M or less, training and education , and depot maintenance, and base operations support. O&M

  13. Whose History and Who Is Denied? Politics and the History Curriculum in Lebanon and Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maadad, Nina; Rodwell, Grant

    2016-01-01

    This paper seeks to explain and develop a better understanding of the relationship between the History curriculum and the consequences of political motive. It compares the History curricula of Australia and Lebanon, and is relevant to understanding the purpose of the History curricula in the two countries as well as, more generally, other…

  14. The John F. Morrison Lecture in Military History. Military Leadership and the American Experience

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Linderman, Gerald F

    1988-01-01

    .... Despite complaints in every generation that individualism is on the decline, by any comparative measurement-simply setting this society against others-we have not sought to express ourselves through the social group...

  15. Introduction: military neurosurgery, past and present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimo, Paul; Ragel, Brian T

    2010-05-01

    For a physician has the worth of many other warriors, both for the excision of arrows and for the administration of soothing drugs. Homer, Iliad XI.514-515 Ever since armed conflict has been used as a means to settle disputes among men, there have been those who have been tasked to mend the wounds that ravage a soldier's body from the weapons of war. The Iliad portrays the pivotal 10th year of the legendary Trojan War, during which a schism in the Greek leadership prolongs the extended siege of the city of Troy. In the midst of this martial epic come the lines quoted above, quietly attesting to the value of the military physician, even under the crude conditions of the Greek Dark Age. They are uttered by Idomeneus, one of the foremost Greeks, when he is enjoining one of his comrades, Nestor, to rescue the injured Greek physician Machaon and take him back from the line to treat his wounds. He is afraid that Machaon will be captured by the Trojans, a loss far greater than that of any other single warrior. Duty to country has helped shape the careers of many neurosurgeons, including iconic US figures such as Harvey Cushing and Donald Matson. This issue of Neurosurgical Focus celebrates the rich history of military neurosurgery from the wars of yesterday to the conflicts of today. We have been humbled by the tremendous response to this topic. The 25 articles within this issue will provide the reader with both a broad and an in-depth look at the many facets of military neurosurgery. We have attempted to group articles based on their predominant topic. We also encourage our audience to read other recently published articles. The first 8 articles relate to the current conflicts in Afghanistan and Iraq. The lead article, written by Randy Bell and colleagues from the National Naval Medical Center and Walter Reed Army Medical Center, discusses what is arguably one of the most important contributions by military neurosurgeons from these 2 conflicts: the rapid and aggressive

  16. Impostor Syndrome, a Reparative History

    OpenAIRE

    Simmons, D

    2016-01-01

    This is an attempt to insert the stories we tell about fear and shame into a history of twentieth-century psychology and its obsession with achievement and modernization. It is an attempt to write an affective history of achievement at the turn of the millennium - and to make this feeling history. Impostor Syndrome is a pop-psychological diagnosis, employed to explain the low presence of women in STEM fields, business and academic administration and ’thought leadership’ in the pubic sphere. T...

  17. Military Construction, Military Quality of Life and Veterans Affairs: FY2007 Appropriations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Else, Daniel H; Scott, Christine; Panangala, Sidath V

    2007-01-01

    ... construction, military housing allowances, military installation maintenance and operation, the Department of Veterans Affairs, and other veteran-related agencies, rested in the House Committee...

  18. Assessing sexual trauma histories in homeless women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinrich, Sally; Hardin, Sally; Glaser, Dale; Barger, Mary; Bormann, Jill; Lizarraga, Cabiria; Terry, Micheal; Criscenzo, Jeeni; Allard, Carolyn B

    2016-01-01

    Almost 1 out of every 3 homeless women (32%) in the United States, United Kingdom, and Australia has experienced childhood sexual trauma. We assessed lifetime sexual trauma histories among 29 homeless women from three Southern California community sites: one residential safe house and two safe parking areas. More than half of the women (54%) reported a history of sexual trauma. That rate was higher (86%) among women living at the safe home than among women staying at the safe parking sites (only 42%). All four of the women who had served in the military reported having experienced military sexual trauma. The high percentages of sexual trauma found in homeless women highlight the need for effective interventions for sexual trauma.

  19. Korean Crisis, 1994: Military Geography, Military Balance, Military Options. CRS Report for Congress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Collins, John

    1994-01-01

    .... This report reviews military options open to each side as the United Nations, United States, and South Korea explore ways to resolve the resultant crisis peacefully despite threats of war from Pyongyang...

  20. Environmental history

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawson, Eric; Christensen, Andreas Aagaard

    2017-01-01

    Environmental history is an interdisciplinary pursuit that has developed as a form of conscience to counter an increasingly powerful, forward-looking liberal theory of the environment. It deals with the relations between environmental ideas and materialities, from the work of the geographers George...... risks”. These are exposed by environmental history’s focus on long-run analysis and its narrative form that identifies the stories that we tell ourselves about nature. How a better understanding of past environmental transformations helps to analyse society and agency, and what this can mean...... for solutions and policies, is the agenda for an engaged environmental history from now on....

  1. Ildens historier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Henrik Roesgaard

    have been written by Andersen. In several chapters the curiously forgotten history of fire-lighting technology is outlined, and it is demonstrated that "Tællelyset" is written by a person with a modern perspective on how to light a candle - among other things. The central argument in the book springs...... from a point-by-point tracing of 'the origins and history' of Hans Christian Andersen's famous fairy tales. Where did the come from? How did they become the iconic texts that we know today? On this background it becomes quite clear that "Tællelyset" is a modern pastiche and not a genuine Hans Christian...

  2. My brief history

    CERN Document Server

    Hawking, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    My Brief History recounts Stephen Hawking’s improbable journey, from his postwar London boyhood to his years of international acclaim and celebrity. Lavishly illustrated with rarely seen photographs, this concise, witty, and candid account introduces readers to a Hawking rarely glimpsed in previous books: the inquisitive schoolboy whose classmates nicknamed him Einstein; the jokester who once placed a bet with a colleague over the existence of a particular black hole; and the young husband and father struggling to gain a foothold in the world of physics and cosmology. Writing with characteristic humility and humor, Hawking opens up about the challenges that confronted him following his diagnosis of ALS at age twenty-one. Tracing his development as a thinker, he explains how the prospect of an early death urged him onward through numerous intellectual breakthroughs, and talks about the genesis of his masterpiece A Brief History of Time—one of the iconic books of the twentieth century.

  3. THE DEMOCRATIC CONTROL OF MILITARY FORCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smail Oštraković

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The transition requirement for post communism countries, especially the part that is about military forces is to establish those civil-military relation that will have prepared projects for awareness evolving of society and military about necessity of democratic control over military sector of country through development of many different communication forms and shapes. Before everything, it means the entire freedom and independence of media at access to military forces as the topic and subject of its interests and also the organization of public military communication system as integral part of information-communication system in society

  4. Are Military and Medical Ethics Necessarily Incompatible? A Canadian Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochon, Christiane; Williams-Jones, Bryn

    2016-12-01

    Military physicians are often perceived to be in a position of 'dual loyalty' because they have responsibilities towards their patients but also towards their employer, the military institution. Further, they have to ascribe to and are bound by two distinct codes of ethics (i.e., medical and military), each with its own set of values and duties, that could at first glance be considered to be very different or even incompatible. How, then, can military physicians reconcile these two codes of ethics and their distinct professional/institutional values, and assume their responsibilities towards both their patients and the military institution? To clarify this situation, and to show how such a reconciliation might be possible, we compared the history and content of two national professional codes of ethics: the Defence Ethics of the Canadian Armed Forces and the Code of Ethics of the Canadian Medical Association. Interestingly, even if the medical code is more focused on duties and responsibility while the military code is more focused on core values and is supported by a comprehensive ethical training program, they also have many elements in common. Further, both are based on the same core values of loyalty and integrity, and they are broad in scope but are relatively flexible in application. While there are still important sources of tension between and limits within these two codes of ethics, there are fewer differences than may appear at first glance because the core values and principles of military and medical ethics are not so different.

  5. Life History Trade-offs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smallegange, I.M.; Kliman, R.M.

    2016-01-01

    Trade-offs play a central role in life history theory. This article explains why they exist, how they arise, how they can be measured, and briefly discusses their evolution. Three important trade-offs are discussed in detail: the trade-off between current reproduction and survival, between current

  6. Business History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Per H.

    2012-01-01

    This article argues that a cultural and narrative perspective can enrich the business history field, encourage new and different questions and answers, and provide new ways of thinking about methods and empirical material. It discusses what culture is and how it relates to narratives. Taking...

  7. LCA History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Anders; Owsianiak, Mikołaj; Molin, Christine

    2018-01-01

    The idea of LCA was conceived in the 1960s when environmental degradation and in particular the limited access to resources started becoming a concern. This chapter gives a brief summary of the history of LCA since then with a focus on the fields of methodological development, application...

  8. Rewriting History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Catherine Clark

    1994-01-01

    Suggests that the telling of vivid stories can help engage elementary students' emotions and increase the chances of fostering an interest in Texas history. Suggests that incorporating elements of the process approach to writing can merge with social studies objectives in creating a curriculum for wisdom. (RS)

  9. All Military Adolescents Are Not the Same: Sexuality and Substance Use among Adolescents in the U.S. Military Healthcare System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A Klein

    Full Text Available Data examining sexuality and substance use among active duty and military-dependent youth is limited; however, these psychosocial factors have military implications. Adolescents and young adults aged 12-23 were recruited from an active-duty trainee clinic (n = 225 and a military pediatric clinic (n = 223. Active duty participants were more likely to be older, male, White, previous tobacco users, and report a history of sexual activity and less contraception use at their most recent intercourse, compared to the dependent group. Over 10% of all participants indicated attraction to members of the same gender or both genders. In logistic regression analysis, non-White participants were less likely to use contraception compared to White participants. Adolescents and young adults seen in military clinics frequently engage in high-risk behavior. Clinicians who care for military youth should assess their patient's psychosocial history. Further study of this population is warranted to identify factors that may influence risk and resilience.

  10. Business History as Cultural History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunde Jørgensen, Ida

    The paper engages with the larger question of how cultural heritage becomes taken for granted and offers a complimentary view to the anthropological ʻCopenhagen School’ of business history, one that draws attention to the way corporate wealth directly and indirectly influences the culture available...

  11. 78 FR 5717 - Safety Zone; Military Ocean Terminal Concord Safety Zone, Suisun Bay, Military Ocean Terminal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-28

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Military Ocean Terminal Concord Safety Zone, Suisun Bay, Military Ocean Terminal... Guard is establishing a safety zone in the navigable waters of Suisun Bay near Military Ocean Terminal Concord, CA in support of military onload and offload operations. This safety zone is established to...

  12. 14 CFR 65.117 - Military riggers or former military riggers: Special certification rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Military riggers or former military riggers: Special certification rule. 65.117 Section 65.117 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... Riggers § 65.117 Military riggers or former military riggers: Special certification rule. In place of the...

  13. Youth Attitudes Toward the Military: Poll One

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bailey, Robert

    2002-01-01

    ...%). Only 4 percent of youth volunteered that they might be joining the military. Overall, youth mentioned family, friends and acquaintances, and movies and television most often as influencing their impression of the military...

  14. Making IT Happen: Transforming Military Information Technology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mait, Joseph N

    2005-01-01

    .... This report is a primer for commercial providers to gain some understanding of the military's thinking about military information technology and some of the programs it foresees for the future...

  15. Military Transformation: Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chizek, Judy G

    2003-01-01

    .... As the military services attempt to increase the agility and versatility of their weapon systems, they also see a need to increase the capabilities of military intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance (ISR...

  16. Information Management: Military Affiliate Radio System (MARS)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1986-01-01

    .... It describes a program sponsored by the Department of Defense and supported by the Department of the Army in which military installations, military units, clubs, and volunteer licensed amateur radio...

  17. USSR Report Military Affairs No. 1790

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1983-01-01

    Partial Contents: Military Political Issues, Ministry Of Defense and General Staff, Warsaw Pact and Groups of FOrces, Armed Forces, Ground Forces, Air Defense Forces, Naval Forces, Civil Defense, DOSAAF and Military...

  18. Committee on Military Nutrition Research Proposal

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Poos, Mary

    1999-01-01

    This publication, Military Sfrategies for Sustainment of Nufrition and Immune Function in the Field, is the latest in a series of reports based on workshops sponsored by the Committee on Military Nutrition Research (CMNR...

  19. MILITARY LAW PRACTITIONERS AND ACADEMIC DISCOURSE: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the various security forces, policy reviews and the introduction of a human ...... Military legal practitioners must become experts in the land, air, maritime and cyber- ... private military companies, non-governmental organisations, transnational.

  20. Military Medical Care: Questions and Answers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Best Jr, Richard A

    2008-01-01

    ... carry out their military missions, and to be prepared to deliver health care during wartime. The military health system also provides, where space is available, health care services in Department of Defense (DOD...

  1. River history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vita-Finzi, Claudio

    2012-05-13

    During the last half century, advances in geomorphology-abetted by conceptual and technical developments in geophysics, geochemistry, remote sensing, geodesy, computing and ecology-have enhanced the potential value of fluvial history for reconstructing erosional and depositional sequences on the Earth and on Mars and for evaluating climatic and tectonic changes, the impact of fluvial processes on human settlement and health, and the problems faced in managing unstable fluvial systems. This journal is © 2012 The Royal Society

  2. Suicide in the military environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čabarkapa Milanko M.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Suicide of soldiers has its own specifics, because not only it represents the tragedy for the individuals and their family, but also has great psychological effect on social environment and military unit in which it occurs. Suicide can be caused by variety of factors, as reported in the literature. The case reviewed in this article presents multilateral determination of suicide, with particular stress on the character of each individual and social interaction of soldiers. Psychological complex of basic inferiority, low educational level, family problems, and poor integration into military unit could be considered the leading determinants of this suicide. This emphasizes the importance of certain preventive measures such as more rigorous psychological selection for specific military duty, and the education of non-commissioned officers for better recognition and understanding of pre-suicidal syndrome.

  3. Chronic pain management in the active-duty military

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamison, David; Cohen, Steven P.

    2012-06-01

    As in the general population, chronic pain is a prevalent and burdensome affliction in active-duty military personnel. Painful conditions in military members can be categorized broadly in terms of whether they arise directly from combat injuries (gunshot, fragmentation wound, blast impact) or whether they result from non-combat injuries (sprains, herniated discs, motor vehicle accidents). Both combat-related and non-combat-related causes of pain can further be classified as either acute or chronic. Here we discuss the state of pain management as it relates to the military population in both deployed and non-deployed settings. The term non-battle injury (NBI) is commonly used to refer to those conditions not directly associated with the combat actions of war. In the history of warfare, NBI have far outstripped battle-related injuries in terms not only of morbidity, but also mortality. It was not until improvements in health care and field medicine were applied in World War I that battle-related deaths finally outnumbered those attributed to disease and pestilence. However, NBI have been the leading cause of morbidity and hospital admission in every major conflict since the Korean War. Pain remains a leading cause of presentation to military medical facilities, both in and out of theater. The absence of pain services is associated with a low return-to-duty rate among the deployed population. The most common pain complaints involve the low-back and neck, and studies have suggested that earlier treatment is associated with more significant improvement and a higher return to duty rate. It is recognized that military medicine is often at the forefront of medical innovation, and that many fields of medicine have reaped benefit from the conduct of war.

  4. Worldwide Military Spending, 1990-1995

    OpenAIRE

    Jerald A Schiff; Benedict J. Clements; Sanjeev Gupta

    1996-01-01

    The decline in military spending that began in the mid-1980s continued through 1995, and this decline was widespread both geographically and by level of development. Cuts in military spending appear to have potentially important implications for nonmilitary spending and fiscal adjustment. In contrast to findings for previous periods, military spending has declined more than proportionately in those countries that have reduced total spending. Countries with Fund programs have reduced military ...

  5. Star maps history, artistry, and cartography

    CERN Document Server

    Kanas, Nick

    2007-01-01

    Traces the history of celestial cartography and relates this history to the changing ideas of man''s place in the universe and to advances in map-making. This book features reproductions of maps from antiquarian celestial atlases and prints. It includes a legend for each illustration to explain its astronomical and cartographic features.

  6. A Short History of Structural Linguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Peter

    This book is a concise history of structural linguistics, charting its development from the 1870s to the present day. It explains what structuralism was and why its ideas are still central today. For structuralists, a language is a self-contained and tightly organized system whose history is of changes from one state of the system to another. This…

  7. A brief history of the universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, K.K.

    1992-10-01

    The failure of the Big Bang Theory to explain the experimental (cosmological) data is well known. Attempts have been made to give a new interpretation of the above theory to explain the existing cosmological problems and a brief history of the universe. (author). 2 refs, 1 fig

  8. Analysis of Unmanned Systems in Military Logistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    performance measures: customer satisfaction , flexibility, visibility, and trust. If we apply this explanation of Li and Schulze (2011) to the military...unmanned systems, initially, we aimed to define current and proposed unmanned applications in civilian-sector logistics and current military...aimed to define current and proposed unmanned applications in civilian-sector logistics and current military logistics challenges. Then, justifying

  9. The Barracks Subculture of Military School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poliakov, R. Iu.

    2011-01-01

    The subcultures that develop among military students have a powerful influence on their values and behavior, and in some situations are more influential than the official, military culture. Any attempt to improve levels of discipline in the military cannot afford to ignore these subcultures. [This article was translated by Kim Braithwaite.

  10. Military Citation, Sixth Edition, July 1997

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1997-01-01

    .... If the Military Citation and The Bluebook do not address a source of authority used in military practice, the author should attempt to maintain uniformity in citation style by adapting the most analogous and useful citation form that Military Citation and The Bluebook do address. Most importantly, the author should provide the reader with sufficient information to locate the referenced material swiftly.

  11. 5 CFR 842.306 - Military service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Military service. 842.306 Section 842.306... EMPLOYEES RETIREMENT SYSTEM-BASIC ANNUITY Credit for Service § 842.306 Military service. (a) Except as...' Retirement System Act of 1986, an employee's or Member's military service is creditable if it was performed...

  12. 5 CFR 831.301 - Military service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Military service. 831.301 Section 831.301...) RETIREMENT Credit for Service § 831.301 Military service. (a) Service of an individual who first became an... is not receiving military retired pay awarded for reasons other than (i) service-connected disability...

  13. Obesity and the US Military Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Sbrocco, Tracy; Theim, Kelly R.; Cohen, L. Adelyn; Mackey, Eleanor R.; Stice, Eric; Henderson, Jennifer L.; McCreight, Sarah J.; Bryant, Edny J.; Stephens, Mark B.

    2014-01-01

    Objective This review discusses the current knowledge and future directions regarding obesity within the US military family (i.e., active-duty servicemembers, as well as military spouses, children, retirees, and veterans). The increasing rates of overweight and obesity within the US military adversely impact military readiness, limit recruitment, and place a significant financial burden on the Department of Defense. Design and Methods The following topics are reviewed: 1) The prevalence of and the financial, physical, and psychological costs associated with overweight in military communities; 2) military weight regulations, and challenges faced by the military family related to overweight and disordered eating; 3) the continued need for rigorous program evaluations and new intervention development. Results Overweight and its associated sequelae impact the entire military family. Military families share many similarities with their civilian counterparts, but they face unique challenges (e.g., stress related to deployments and relocations). Although the military has weight management resources, there is an urgent need for rigorous program evaluation and the development of enhanced obesity prevention programs across the lifespan of the military family–several of which are proposed herein. Conclusions Interdisciplinary and collaborative research efforts and team-based interventions will continue to inform understanding of obesity treatment and prevention within military and civilian populations. PMID:23836452

  14. 32 CFR 1602.17 - Military service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Military service. 1602.17 Section 1602.17 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 1602.17 Military service. The term military service includes service in the Army, the Navy, the Air Force...

  15. Truth and (self) censorship in military memoirs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinreesink, E.; Soeters, J.M.M.L.

    2016-01-01

    It can be difficult for researchers from outside the military to gain access to the field. However, there is a rich source on the military that is readily available for every researcher: military memoirs. This source does provide some methodological challenges with regard to truth and (self)

  16. Post-9/11 Civil-Military Relations: Room for Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    certain that President Bush would build a more harmonious civil-military re- lationship. His father had enjoyed a remarkably agreeable relationship...Hussein regime. While nearly impossible to prove, the con- textual history suggests differently, and likely better outcomes were pos- sible . At a minimum

  17. DINFOS: Bibliography of Theses and Reports Related to Military Information Activities; Volume V, May 1976.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fort Benjamin Harrison, IN. Defense Information School.

    This bibliography lists theses and research reports related to military information activities. The listings are grouped according to the following subject categories: journalism, public and internal information, mass communications, political science, international communications, sociology, history, education, public relations, leadership,…

  18. Screening for Adaptability to Military Service. Final Report for Period July 1974-April 1975.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinn, Nancy; And Others

    A sample of 15,252 basic airmen were administered the History Opinion Inventory (HOI) during basic military training. This 100-item self-report inventory was designed to tap dimensions of school adjustment, family stability, social orientation, emotional stability, bodily complaints, motivations and expectations for achievement, and response…

  19. Why study the history of psychiatry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, R T

    1993-12-01

    The history of psychiatry is being neglected. The major psychiatric textbooks no longer offer any overview of psychiatric history. Possible reasons for this indifference are discussed. It is suggested that a knowledge of our history is not only necessary in a general intellectual sense, but also specifically in enabling us to more easily tolerate the incompleteness and ambiguity of many of our concepts. Furthermore, it may help psychiatry to more convincingly explain the reality and consequences of mental illness to a sceptical public.

  20. Creating National Attraction: Military Intelligence Sharing Building Foreign Military Interdependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-21

    the Brazilian military.57 The establishment of an enduring program, even after the departure of US personnel, indicated the successful nature of...United States, coming to support the United States in a time of crisis went a long way to begin rebuilding a relationship that was in decline since the

  1. Military coups and military regimes in Africa | Japhet | Scientia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Scientia Militaria: South African Journal of Military Studies. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 8, No 4 (1978) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  2. Impostor Syndrome, a Reparative History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Simmons

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This is an attempt to insert the stories we tell about fear and shame into a history of twentieth-century psychology and its obsession with achievement and modernization. It is an attempt to write an affective history of achievement at the turn of the millennium - and to make this feeling history. Impostor Syndrome is a pop-psychological diagnosis, employed to explain the low presence of women in STEM fields, business and academic administration and ’thought leadership’ in the pubic sphere. The article follows the intellectual lineage of two precursors of Impostor Syndrome, Fear of Success and the Impostor Phenomenon. It argues that the grouping of gender/ race/ success/ affect was a keystone of twentieth-century American psychology and development theory. The history of this feeling has consequences for thinking about situated knowledge, realism and epistemic justice.

  3. The Zoot Suit Riots: Exploring Social Issues in American History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiodo, John J.

    2013-01-01

    The Zoot Suit Riots provide students with a case study of social unrest in American history. The influx of Latinos into the Los Angeles area prior to World War II created high levels of social unrest between Mexican Americans, military servicemen, and local residences. With large numbers of soldiers stationed in the area during the Second World…

  4. Military experience can influence Women's eating habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breland, Jessica Y; Donalson, Rosemary; Nevedal, Andrea; Dinh, Julie V; Maguen, Shira

    2017-11-01

    Disordered eating, ranging from occasional binge eating or restriction to behaviors associated with eating disorder diagnoses, is common among military personnel and veterans. However, there is little information on how military service affects eating habits. To describe possible pathways between military service and disordered eating among women veterans, a high risk group. Twenty women veterans who reported changing eating habits in response to stress participated in audio-recorded focus groups or dyadic interviews between April 2013 and October 2014. We used thematic analysis of transcripts to identify and understand women's self-reported eating habits before, during, and after military service. Participants reported entering the military with varied eating habits, but little disordered eating. Participants described several ways military environments affected eating habits, for example, by promoting fast, irregular, binge-like eating and disrupting the reward value of food. Participants believed military-related stressors, which were often related to gender, also affected eating habits. Such stressors included military sexual trauma and the need to meet military weight requirements in general and after giving birth. Participants also reported that poor eating habits continued after military service, often because they remained under stress. For some women, military service can result in socialization to poor eating habits, which when combined with exposure to stressors can lead to disordered eating. Additional research is needed, including work to understand possible benefits associated with providing support in relation to military weight requirements and the transition out of military service. Given the unique experiences of women in the military, future work could also focus on health services surrounding pregnancy-related weight change and the stress associated with being a woman in predominantly male military environments. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Uncovering History for Future History Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Fritz

    2010-01-01

    The art of history teaching is at a crossroads. Recent scholarship focuses on the need to change the teaching of history so students can better learn history, and insists that history teachers must move beyond traditional structures and methods of teaching in order to improve their students' abilities to think with history. This article presents…

  6. 'Military Thinkers and Academic Thinkers'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugegaard, Rikke

    Culture analysis seems to create friction when we try to introduce academic concepts relating to culture to military planners. This friction might be related to the fact that officers and academics do their thinking in different 'spaces'. This paper argues the interface or overlapping space between...

  7. Stress fractures in military training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jofre, M.J.; Sierralta, M.P.

    2002-01-01

    During military training, the incidence of overuse injuries like stress fractures increase. The aim of the study was to investigate the utility of bone scan in a military population with clinical suspected stress fractures or periostitis. Material and methods: A three-year retrospective analysis was made on patients who were clinically diagnosed with stress fractures at the Military Hospital Nuclear Medicine Department. Thirty-seven patients were studied (mean age 23. +/- 8 y.o; 31 males), 28 cases of which (76%) had tibial stress syndrome. Other localizations were lumbar spine, femoral, fibular, tarsal or metatarsal. Bone scintigraphy was performed injecting 1036 MBq of Tc99m-MDP i.v. Whole body images and lateral projections of lower extremities were done. Results: Bone scan in tibial syndrome was positive for 23 cases (82%), 65% of them were bilateral and 13% also had femoral injuries. X-rays were done in 10 cases and were all negative. In other localizations, the bone scans were negative, but demonstrated other degenerative lesions. All stress fractures were conservatively treated with non-steroidal anti-inflammatories and suspension of physical activity. Conclusions: Bone scan is a reliable confirmatory tool for tibial stress syndrome diagnosis. In addition, it helps to determine both the severity and extension of the injury as well as support the indication of rest in the military population

  8. Stress fractures in military training

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jofre, M J; Sierralta, M P [Military Hospital Nuclear Medicine Department, Santiago (Chile)

    2002-09-01

    During military training, the incidence of overuse injuries like stress fractures increase. The aim of the study was to investigate the utility of bone scan in a military population with clinical suspected stress fractures or periostitis. Material and methods: A three-year retrospective analysis was made on patients who were clinically diagnosed with stress fractures at the Military Hospital Nuclear Medicine Department. Thirty-seven patients were studied (mean age 23. +/- 8 y.o; 31 males), 28 cases of which (76%) had tibial stress syndrome. Other localizations were lumbar spine, femoral, fibular, tarsal or metatarsal. Bone scintigraphy was performed injecting 1036 MBq of Tc99m-MDP i.v. Whole body images and lateral projections of lower extremities were done. Results: Bone scan in tibial syndrome was positive for 23 cases (82%), 65% of them were bilateral and 13% also had femoral injuries. X-rays were done in 10 cases and were all negative. In other localizations, the bone scans were negative, but demonstrated other degenerative lesions. All stress fractures were conservatively treated with non-steroidal anti-inflammatories and suspension of physical activity. Conclusions: Bone scan is a reliable confirmatory tool for tibial stress syndrome diagnosis. In addition, it helps to determine both the severity and extension of the injury as well as support the indication of rest in the military population.

  9. Military Influence in Russian Politics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-09-01

    militarization Union. I have concluded that the disappeared. 5 Indeed, a de -militarization military’s opportunity and motivation to of Soviet society and... sindrom 41-go." Novoe vremya, No. 8 (February volunteers over conscripts, and the Navy 1991); Maj. Gen. V.G. Strekozov, "Zakony ob oborone i statuse

  10. Private Military and Security Contractors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    In Private Military and Security Contractors: Controlling the Corporate Warrior a multinational team of 16 scholars and a practitioner from political science, sociology, and law address a developing phenomenon: controlling the use of privatized force by states in international politics. Robust...

  11. Supporting Students from Military Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossen, Eric; Carter, Courtney D.

    2012-01-01

    In the last decade, more than 800,000 parents of school-age children have been deployed by the U.S. military. Many have deployed more than once and for extended periods, often longer than a year. As a result, increasing numbers of students experience significant distress on a daily basis and are at increased risk for behavioral problems, decreased…

  12. The Politics of Identity: History, Nationalism, and the Prospect for Peace in Post-Cold War East Asia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jager, Sheila M

    2007-01-01

    ... of memory, identity, and nationalism. The potential for violent military clashes in the Taiwan Strait and the Korean peninsula largely involve disputes over history and territory, linked as they are to the unresolved legacies of the Cold War...

  13. Book Review: Thanos Veremis, A Modern History of the Balkans: Nationalism and Identity in Southeast Europe, London and New York: I.B. Tauris & Co. Ltd, 2017.

    OpenAIRE

    Aaron J. Cuevas

    2017-01-01

    Thanos Veremis, an Emeritus professor of Political History at the University of Athens, is a preeminent historian and prolific author. This book comparatively covers the political and military history of the Balkans with a special attention to the Balkan economies, militaries, and nationalist creeds as some of these modern issues still plague the region. In the first part of the book, Veremis provides a concise and fast-paced overview of almost two hundred years of Balkan history from the ...

  14. Holistic Care in the US Military I-The Epidaurus Project: An Initiative in Holistic Medicine for the Military Health System, 2001-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foote, Frederick O; Bulger, Roger J; Frampton, Susan B; Pellegrino, Edmund D

    2012-05-01

    This article describes the history and findings of the Epidaurus Project, a Uniformed Services University-affiliated project to bring holistic care and evidence-based design into the Military Health System (MHS). A distinguished group of civilian thought leaders contributed. The 2005 Base Realignment and Closure process offered a chance to implement the Epidaurus agenda. A new integrated healthcare delivery system, centered around the Walter Reed National Military Medical Center at Bethesda, Maryland, was the result. These facilities will be templates for a new generation of MHS "healing environments" and a model for innovative systems of healthcare nationwide. The Epidaurus Project represents a significant collaboration between civilian medicine and the military in times of war.

  15. Holistic Care in the US Military I—The Epidaurus Project: An Initiative in Holistic Medicine for the Military Health System, 2001–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulger, Roger J.; Frampton, Susan B.; Pellegrino, Edmund D.

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the history and findings of the Epidaurus Project, a Uniformed Services University–affiliated project to bring holistic care and evidence-based design into the Military Health System (MHS). A distinguished group of civilian thought leaders contributed. The 2005 Base Realignment and Closure process offered a chance to implement the Epidaurus agenda. A new integrated healthcare delivery system, centered around the Walter Reed National Military Medical Center at Bethesda, Maryland, was the result. These facilities will be templates for a new generation of MHS “healing environments” and a model for innovative systems of healthcare nationwide. The Epidaurus Project represents a significant collaboration between civilian medicine and the military in times of war. PMID:24278818

  16. Military veterans and Social Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Anya

    There are 9.4 million military veterans receiving Social Security benefits, which means that almost one out of every four adult Social Security beneficiaries has served in the United States military. In addition, veterans and their families make up almost 40 percent of the adult Social Security beneficiary population. Policymakers are particularly interested in military veterans and their families and have provided them with benefits through several government programs, including Social Security credits, home loan guarantees, and compensation and pension payments through the Department of Veterans Affairs. It is therefore important to understand the economic and demographic characteristics of this population. Information in this article is based on data from the March 2004 Current Population Survey, a large, nationally representative survey of U.S. households. Veterans are overwhelmingly male compared with all adult Social Security beneficiaries who are more evenly split between males and females. Military veterans receiving Social Security are more likely to be married and to have finished high school compared with all adult Social Security beneficiaries, and they are less likely to be poor or near poor than the overall beneficiary population. Fourteen percent of veterans receiving Social Security benefits have income below 150 percent of poverty, while 25 percent of all adult Social Security beneficiaries are below this level. The higher economic status among veterans is also reflected in the relatively high Social Security benefits they receive. The number of military veterans receiving Social Security benefits will remain high over the next few decades, while their make-up and characteristics will change. In particular, the number of Vietnam War veterans who receive Social Security will increase in the coming decades, while the number of veterans from World War II and the Korean War will decline.

  17. A cost-effectiveness analysis of typhoid fever vaccines in US military personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, T A; Finder, S F; Brier, K L; Ries, A J; Weber, M P; Miller, M R; Potyk, R P; Reeves, C S; Moran, E L; Tornow, J J

    1996-11-01

    Typhoid fever has been a problem for military personnel throughout history. A cost-effectiveness analysis of typhoid fever vaccines from the perspective of the US military was performed. Currently 3 vaccine preparations are available in the US: an oral live Type 21A whole cell vaccine; a single-dose parenteral, cell subunit vaccine; and a 2-dose parenteral heat-phenol killed, whole cell vaccine. This analysis assumed all vaccinees were US military personnel. Two pharmacoeconomic models were developed, one for personnel who have not yet been deployed, and the other for personnel who are deployed to an area endemic for typhoid fever. Drug acquisition, administration, adverse effect and lost work costs, as well as the costs associated with typhoid fever, were included in this analysis. Unique military issues, typhoid fever attack rates, vaccine efficacy, and compliance with each vaccine's dosage regimen were included in this analysis. A sensitivity analysis was performed to test the robustness of the models. Typhoid fever immunisation is not cost-effective for US military personnel unless they are considered imminently deployable or are deployed. The most cost-effective vaccine for US military personnel is the single-dose, cell subunit parenteral vaccine.

  18. Guilt, shame, and suicidal ideation in a military outpatient clinical sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Craig J; Morrow, Chad E; Etienne, Neysa; Ray-Sannerud, Bobbie

    2013-01-01

    Increased suicide risk among US military personnel is a growing concern. Research has linked trauma exposure, including exposure to combat-related injuries, death, and atrocities to suicidal ideation among combat veterans. Guilt (feeling bad about what you did to another) and shame (feeling bad about who you are) have been proposed as potential contributors to suicidal ideation among military personnel, but have not yet received much empirical attention. Sixty-nine active duty military personnel receiving outpatient mental health treatment at a military clinic completed self-report symptom measures of guilt, shame, depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and suicidal ideation while engaged in treatment. Generalized linear regression modeling was utilized to test the association of guilt and shame with suicidal ideation. Mean levels of guilt and shame were significantly higher among military personnel with a history of suicidal ideation. Guilt (B = 0.203, SE = .046, P guilt (B = 0.167, SE = .053, P = .001) was significantly associated with increased suicidal ideation. Guilt and shame are associated with increased severity of suicidal ideation in military mental health outpatients. Guilt has a particularly strong relationship with suicidal ideation. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. History of electroweak symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kibble, T W B

    2015-01-01

    In this talk, I recall the history of the development of the unified electroweak theory, incorporating the symmetry-breaking Higgs mechanism, as I saw it from my standpoint as a member of Abdus Salam's group at Imperial College. I start by describing the state of physics in the years after the Second World War, explain how the goal of a unified gauge theory of weak and electromagnetic interactions emerged, the obstacles encountered, in particular the Goldstone theorem, and how they were overcome, followed by a brief account of more recent history, culminating in the historic discovery of the Higgs boson in 2012. (paper)

  20. Cygnus History

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henderson, David J.; Gignac, Raymond E.; Good, Douglas E.; Hansen, Mark D.; Mitton, Charles V.; Nelson, Daniel S.; Ormond, Eugene C.; Cordova, Steve R.; Molina, Isidro; Smith, John R.; Rose, Evan A.

    2009-01-01

    The Cygnus Dual Beam Radiographic Facility consists of two identical radiographic sources: Cygnus 1 and Cygnus 2. This Radiographic Facility is located in an underground tunnel test area at the Nevada Test Site. The sources were developed to produce high-resolution images for dynamic plutonium experiments. This work will recount and discuss salient maintenance and operational issues encountered during the history of Cygnus. A brief description of Cygnus systems and rational for design selections will set the stage for this historical narrative. It is intended to highlight the team-derived solutions for technical problems encountered during extended periods of maintenance and operation. While many of the issues are typical to pulsed power systems, some of the solutions are unique. It is hoped that other source teams will benefit from this presentation, as well as other necessary disciplines (e.g., source users, system architects, facility designers and managers, funding managers, and team leaders)

  1. Environmental history

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawson, Eric; Christensen, Andreas Aagaard

    2017-01-01

    Environmental history is an interdisciplinary pursuit that has developed as a form of conscience to counter an increasingly powerful, forward-looking liberal theory of the environment. It deals with the relations between environmental ideas and materialities, from the work of the geographers George...... Perkins Marsh, Carl Sauer, and Clarence Glacken, to more recent global-scale assessments of the impact of the “great acceleration” since 1950. Today’s “runaway world” paradoxically embraces risk management in an attempt to determine its own future whilst generating a whole new category of “manufactured...... risks”. These are exposed by environmental history’s focus on long-run analysis and its narrative form that identifies the stories that we tell ourselves about nature. How a better understanding of past environmental transformations helps to analyse society and agency, and what this can mean...

  2. The Greek Archer Evolution in the Greek Military Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Javier Vilariño Rodríguez

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The trajectory of the bow in the History of Greece is associated with the transformation that was originated inside of the military environment. The poor prominence that for many centuries was granted to the archers in the warlike context, was going to give an unexpected draft with the explosion of the Persian Wars. Later, the playwright Euripides was going to turn Herakles, one of the most famous archer of the hellenic world, into the spokesman of the change that was going to bring with it the acceptance and the definitive incorporation of these soldiers as contingent of considerable value inside the greek armies.

  3. Canadian Model of Military Leadership as a Successful Mixture of Civilian and Military Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Malinowski

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The origins of military leadership are rooted in ancient times and its embodiment are great chieftains and commanders. However, since the moment when in organisation and management sciences the civil theories of leadership started to emerge, the military forces have incorporated their solutions to structure the assumptions of new, coherent and effective models of military leadership. A good example of such solutions is the Canadian model of military leadership, competently merging the civil theories with experience and needs of the military environment. This solution may be a perfect example of effective application of leadership theory to modify the existing national model of military leadership and construct a more efficient one.

  4. Parenting and Military Children’s Behavior: Preliminary Finding in Military Family of New Order Era and Reformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruri Dindasari Fatimah

    2018-03-01

    parenting has implication to the children’s behavior. The argument is based on that change of fundamental values in the Indonesian military in New Order and post Reformation era is aligned with the changing of parenting in the military family. Those changes most likelyhave indirectly affected the children’s behavior. In this study, we use the case of parents from the military family who joined military in the New Order and post Reformation. The method used in this study is qualitative method where data are gathered by conducting indepth interview with the respondents consist of father, mother and child from military families both from New Order era and post Reformation era who lived in Depok City. The result of the study shows that parenting style in the New Order and post Reformation military family is exist on the situation between democratic and authoritarian style. The child behaviors then influenced by these style of parenting. This article also explained the other factors besides parenting that influence military child behaviours. Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE

  5. Public History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Gouveia de Oliveira Rovai

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem como proposta apresentar o conceito e as práticas de História Pública como um novo posicionamento da ciência histórica em diálogo com profissionais da comunicação, no sentido de produzir e divulgar as experiências humanas. Para isso, discute-se a origem do conceito de História Pública e as diferentes formas de educação histórica que a utilização das novas tecnologias podem proporcionar (dentre elas a internet. Nesse sentido, convida-se o leitor para a reflexão sobre as possibilidades de publicização e de democratização do conhecimento histórico e da cultura, ampliando-se a oportunidade de produção, de divulgação e de acesso do público a diferentes formas experiências no tempo. O artigo também intenciona chamar atenção dos profissionais que lidam com a História e com a Comunicação para os perigos de produções exclusivamente submetidas ao mercado que transformam a popularização da História no reforço de estigmas culturais.   PALAVRAS-CHAVE: História Pública; Educação histórica e Comunicação; democratização e estigmatização.     ABSTRACT This article aims to present the concept and practices of Public History as a new positioning of historical science in dialogue with communication professionals, in the sense of producing and disseminating human experiences. For this, the origin of the concept of Public History and the different forms of historical education that the use of the new technologies can provide (among them the Internet is discussed. In this sense, the reader is invited to reflect on the possibilities of publicizing and democratizing historical knowledge and culture, expanding the opportunity for production, dissemination and public access to different forms of experience in time. The article also intends to draw attention from professionals dealing with History and Communication to the dangers of exclusively commercialized productions that transform the popularization

  6. Military Gay Ban Revisited: Is our Military Ready for Change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-20

    support from the lesbian, gay, bi-sexual, transgender ( LGBT ) community and in return made several campaign promises along the way. One of the campaign ...Lesbian, Gay, Bi-sexual, Transgender] ( LGBT ) rights is exploited by those seeking to divide us. But at its core, this issue is about who we are as...No. 85. July 2007. Donnelly, Elaine. Who Will Confront the “ LGBT Left?”. Center for Military Readiness. (5 February 2008). Frank

  7. For a world governance of the civil and military nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gere, Francois

    2010-04-01

    This report first proposes an overview of the history of the emergence of the civil and military nuclear activities, of their relationship and of their distinction. It notably refers to some initiatives like Atoms for Peace in 1953, and the ups and downs of arms control. It discusses the relationship between the power of States and their nuclear capacities, the motivations for the acquisition of nuclear weapons, the disturbance created by nuclear weapons, the emergence of the notion of non proliferation and the evolution of the perception of the national interest. It comments the relationship between war and military nuclear, the role of military nuclear in peace keeping, the role of civil nuclear for peace through sustainable development and compensation of inequalities, the relationship between nuclear and terrorism. The second part describes the evolutions for the century to come (end of Cold War, new energy needs, preservation of the planet) and discusses the possible ban of nuclear weapons. Several proposals are then formulated to strengthen the foundations of a new diplomacy, to act at the institutional level (notably through existing or proposed bodies, for verification and financing), and to elaborate a new social contract about the nuclear

  8. Helmet-Induced Occipital Neuralgia in a Military Aviator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalela, Julio A

    2018-04-01

    Headaches among military personnel are very common and headgear wear is a frequently identified culprit. Helmet wear may cause migrainous headaches, external compression headache, other primary cranial neuralgias, and occipital neuralgia. The clinical features and the response to treatment allow distinction between the different types of headaches. Headaches among aviators are particularly concerning as they may act as distractors while flying and the treatment options are often incompatible with flying status. A 24-yr-old door gunner presented with suboccipital pain associated with the wear of his helmet. He described the pain as a paroxysmal stabbing sensation coming in waves. The physical exam and history supported the diagnosis of primary occipital neuralgia. Systemic pharmacological options were discussed with the soldier, but rejected due to his need to remain in flying status. An occipital nerve block was performed with good clinical results, supporting the diagnosis of occipital neuralgia and allowing him to continue as mission qualified. Occipital neuralgia can be induced by helmet wear in military personnel. Occipital nerve block can be performed in the deployed setting, allowing the service member to remain mission capable and sparing him/her from systemic side effects.Chalela JA. Helmet-induced occipital neuralgia in a military aviator. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2018; 89(4):409-410.

  9. Can model-free reinforcement learning explain deontological moral judgments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayars, Alisabeth

    2016-05-01

    Dual-systems frameworks propose that moral judgments are derived from both an immediate emotional response, and controlled/rational cognition. Recently Cushman (2013) proposed a new dual-system theory based on model-free and model-based reinforcement learning. Model-free learning attaches values to actions based on their history of reward and punishment, and explains some deontological, non-utilitarian judgments. Model-based learning involves the construction of a causal model of the world and allows for far-sighted planning; this form of learning fits well with utilitarian considerations that seek to maximize certain kinds of outcomes. I present three concerns regarding the use of model-free reinforcement learning to explain deontological moral judgment. First, many actions that humans find aversive from model-free learning are not judged to be morally wrong. Moral judgment must require something in addition to model-free learning. Second, there is a dearth of evidence for central predictions of the reinforcement account-e.g., that people with different reinforcement histories will, all else equal, make different moral judgments. Finally, to account for the effect of intention within the framework requires certain assumptions which lack support. These challenges are reasonable foci for future empirical/theoretical work on the model-free/model-based framework. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. New business with the new military.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apgar, Mahlon; Keane, John M

    2004-09-01

    A $200 billion market has appeared on your business horizon, but you may not have noticed it. It's the U.S. military--the new U.S. military. Virtually all aspects of the military are changing to ensure it can fight unpredictable threats while sustaining the infrastructure needed to support and train forces. The military is turning to non-traditional business partners to meet a wide range of needs, from health care to housing to information technology. The Defense Department is yielding its monopoly on every aspect of national security and adopting a more businesslike model in which the military's warfighting capabilities are supported through outsourcing and business alliances. Civilians are replacing military personnel in many noncombat roles. Military functions with corporate equivalents are candidates for outsourcing and privatization. Market standards are replacing the heavy customization that has locked many companies out of this marketplace. The authors have participated in the transformation process from different perspectives--one civilian, the other military. Together, they highlight the prospects that transformation is creating for companies outside the traditional defense industry and reveal paths to success in this complex market. They also present six principles for doing business with the military that require persistence, integrity, and a willingness to master the intricacies of a distinctive culture. By understanding the logic of military transformation, executives can identify and create vast new business opportunities. And by mastering the six principles, they can build profitable long-term relationships.

  11. Iu. Ushakov & A. Stukalov, Front voennykh prokurorov [The Military Procurators’ Front], Moskva, Viatka, 2000, 223 pages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Voisin

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Front voennykh prokurorov is a collection of essays written by two writers who are not known as specialists of military history, but obviously have access to archives, as proves the reprint, in the middle of the book, of several pages from the personal files of Afanas’ev, former Main Military Prosecutor of Soviet Armed Forces.The first part of the book is devoted to Nikolai Porfir’evich Afanas’ev’s memoirs, written, according to the editors, after his retirement in 1950. Afanas’ev, though les...

  12. The policy of latent proliferation. Military use of ''peaceful'' nuclear engineering in Western Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kollert, R.

    1994-01-01

    The booklet contains five case studies on the planning and carrying out of (latent) 'atomic weapons' programmes and civil-military reactor construction in Great Britain, France, Switzerland, Sweden and Spain; an analysis of the aims and implementation of the American 'Atom-for-Peace' policy, based on secret documents of the national security council of the United States; a study of the foreign policy-military motives of the Federal German atomic export policy during the tug-of-war for the non-proliferation treaty; an introduction into the history of nuclear proliferation; a scientific-technological appendix of atomic explosives and their production. (orig.) [de

  13. History of infrared detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogalski, A.

    2012-09-01

    This paper overviews the history of infrared detector materials starting with Herschel's experiment with thermometer on February 11th, 1800. Infrared detectors are in general used to detect, image, and measure patterns of the thermal heat radiation which all objects emit. At the beginning, their development was connected with thermal detectors, such as thermocouples and bolometers, which are still used today and which are generally sensitive to all infrared wavelengths and operate at room temperature. The second kind of detectors, called the photon detectors, was mainly developed during the 20th Century to improve sensitivity and response time. These detectors have been extensively developed since the 1940's. Lead sulphide (PbS) was the first practical IR detector with sensitivity to infrared wavelengths up to ˜3 μm. After World War II infrared detector technology development was and continues to be primarily driven by military applications. Discovery of variable band gap HgCdTe ternary alloy by Lawson and co-workers in 1959 opened a new area in IR detector technology and has provided an unprecedented degree of freedom in infrared detector design. Many of these advances were transferred to IR astronomy from Departments of Defence research. Later on civilian applications of infrared technology are frequently called "dual-use technology applications." One should point out the growing utilisation of IR technologies in the civilian sphere based on the use of new materials and technologies, as well as the noticeable price decrease in these high cost technologies. In the last four decades different types of detectors are combined with electronic readouts to make detector focal plane arrays (FPAs). Development in FPA technology has revolutionized infrared imaging. Progress in integrated circuit design and fabrication techniques has resulted in continued rapid growth in the size and performance of these solid state arrays.

  14. Family Resilience in the Military

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadows, Sarah O.; Beckett, Megan K.; Bowling, Kirby; Golinelli, Daniela; Fisher, Michael P.; Martin, Laurie T.; Meredith, Lisa S.; Osilla, Karen Chan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Military life presents a variety of challenges to military families, including frequent separations and relocations as well as the risks that service members face during deployment; however, many families successfully navigate these challenges. Despite a recent emphasis on family resilience, the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) does not have a standard and universally accepted definition of family resilience. A standard definition is a necessary for DoD to more effectively assess its efforts to sustain and improve family resilience. RAND authors reviewed the literature on family resilience and, in this study, recommend a definition that could be used DoD-wide. The authors also reviewed DoD policies related to family resilience, reviewed models that describe family resilience and identified key family resilience factors, and developed several recommendations for how family-resilience programs and policies could be managed across DoD. PMID:28083409

  15. Organizational commitment of military physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Cesim; Sahin, Bayram; Teke, Kadir; Ucar, Muharrem; Kursun, Olcay

    2009-09-01

    An individual's loyalty or bond to his or her employing organization, referred to as organizational commitment, influences various organizational outcomes such as employee motivation, job satisfaction, performance, accomplishment of organizational goals, employee turnover, and absenteeism. Therefore, as in other sectors, employee commitment is crucial also in the healthcare market. This study investigates the effects of organizational factors and personal characteristics on organizational commitment of military physicians using structural equation modeling (SEM) on a self-report, cross-sectional survey that consisted of 635 physicians working in the 2 biggest military hospitals in Turkey. The results of this study indicate that professional commitment and organizational incentives contribute positively to organizational commitment, whereas conflict with organizational goals makes a significantly negative contribution to it. These results might help develop strategies to increase employee commitment, especially in healthcare organizations, because job-related factors have been found to possess greater impact on organizational commitment than personal characteristics.

  16. Military Retention. A Comparative Outlook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Sminchise

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the main goals for human resources management structures and for armed forces leaders is to maintain all necessary personnel, both qualitatively and quantitatively for operational needs or for full required capabilities. The retention of military personnel is essential to keep morale and unit readiness and to reduce the costs for recruiting, training, replacement of manpower. Retention rates depend not only on money or other social measures. The goal for retention is to keep in use the most valuable resource that belongs to an organization: the human beings and their knowledge. The aim pf this paper is to provide a comparative analysis of retention measures in various countries based on Research and Technology Organisation report released in 2007 and, thus, provide more examples of retention measures as far as the Romanian military system is concerned.

  17. Topology Explains Why Automobile Sunshades Fold Oddly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feist, Curtis; Naimi, Ramin

    2009-01-01

    Automobile sunshades always fold into an "odd" number of loops. The explanation why involves elementary topology (braid theory and linking number, both explained in detail here with definitions and examples), and an elementary fact from algebra about symmetric group.

  18. Your Radiologist Explains Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Disorders Video: The Basketball Game: An MRI Story Radiology and You Sponsored by Image/Video Gallery Your ... Explains Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA) Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot org Hello, I’m Dr. Elliot ...

  19. Explorers Presentation: Explaining the Tides to Children

    OpenAIRE

    Institute, Marine

    2015-01-01

    Explaining the tides to children Presentation includes information about: Orbits of the Earth, Moon and Sun; Moon phases and the lunar cycle; Gravity; Gravity and the tide; Types of tides; The tides and me!; Tide tables; Extra insight

  20. Your Radiologist Explains Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... An MRI Story Radiology and You Sponsored by Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Magnetic Resonance Angiography ( ... posted: How to Obtain and Share Your Medical Images Movement Disorders Video: The Basketball Game: An MRI ...

  1. A model to explain human voice production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilas Bôas, C. S. N.; Gobara, S. T.

    2018-05-01

    This article presents a device constructed with low-cost material to demonstrate and explain voice production. It also provides a contextualized, interdisciplinary approach to introduce the study of sound waves.

  2. Using Expectancy Theory to Explain Performance Appraisal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2018-03-05

    Mar 5, 2018 ... appraisal conducting style, the relation between the performance appraisal system and task ... the article first explains the theory model which is based expectancy theory. II. ... which in return lead to rewards. According to [12],.

  3. Statistical Challenges in Military Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-30

    SGVU SUBJECT: Professional Presentation Approval 8 APR2016 1. Your paper, entitled Statistical Challenges in Military Research presented at Joint...Statistical Meetings, Chicago, IL 30 July - 4 Aug 2016 and Proceedings of the Joint Statistical Meetings with MDWI 41-108, and has been assigned ...charges (to include costs for tables and black and white photos). We cannot pay for reprints. If you are 59 MDW staff member, we can forward your request

  4. Cybersecurity Education for Military Officers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    automated artificial intelligence to act at the speed of cyber (S. Jasper, class notes, September 12, 2017). The idea is to limit damage inside your network...we would not want artificial intelligence conducting counter attacks; there needs to be a human in the loop in order to prevent terrible decisions...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA MBA PROFESSIONAL REPORT CYBERSECURITY EDUCATION FOR MILITARY OFFICERS

  5. Alternative Fuels for Military Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    federal subsidies have promoted produc- tion and use of biodiesel, which is not a hydrocarbon but rather a fatty acid methyl ester ( FAME ) unsuitable for... methyl ester ( FAME ). FAME and blends of FAME with petroleum-derived fuels are currently banned from use in all deployable, tactical DoD military...fatty acid methyl ester FT Fischer-Tropsch FY fiscal year ISBL inside battery limit Navy Fuels Team Naval Fuels and Lubricants Cross-Functional Team

  6. Military Engagement with Social Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-06

    or position of the Department of the Army, Department of Defense, or the U.S. Government. MILITARY ENGAGEMENT WITH SOCIAL MEDIA BY...been the Army’s best and most effective messengers. Every time a member of the Army family joins Army social media , it increases the timely and...transparent dissemination of information. Social media is a cheap, effective , and measurable form of communication.”6 The Deputy Secretary of Defense

  7. The Ethics of Military Deception

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-06-05

    comment directly on the moral dimensions of military deception is the great Roman orator, Marcus Tullius Cicero (106-43 B.C.). Of paramount...action is to be commended, if what is 1 Marcus Tullius Cicero, De Officiis, I.xiii.40, trans. Walter Miller (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1913... Aurelius Augustinus (A.D. 354-430), later known as Saint Augustine, the Catholic bishop of Hippo in North Africa, is in many ways the pivotal

  8. Using multidimensional grief theory to explore the effects of deployment, reintegration, and death on military youth and families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplow, Julie B; Layne, Christopher M; Saltzman, William R; Cozza, Stephen J; Pynoos, Robert S

    2013-09-01

    To date, the US military has made major strides in acknowledging and therapeutically addressing trauma and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in service members and their families. However, given the nature of warfare and high rates of losses sustained by both military members (e.g., deaths of fellow unit members) and military families (e.g., loss of a young parent who served in the military), as well as the ongoing threat of loss that military families face during deployment, we propose that a similar focus on grief is also needed to properly understand and address many of the challenges encountered by bereaved service members, spouses, and children. In this article, we describe a newly developed theory of grief (multidimensional grief theory) and apply it to the task of exploring major features of military-related experiences during the phases of deployment, reintegration, and the aftermath of combat death--especially as they impact children. We also describe implications for designing preventive interventions during each phase and conclude with recommended avenues for future research. Primary aims are to illustrate: (1) the indispensable role of theory in guiding efforts to describe, explain, predict, prevent, and treat maladaptive grief in military service members, children, and families; (2) the relevance of multidimensional grief theory for addressing both losses due to physical death as well as losses brought about by extended physical separations to which military children and families are exposed during and after deployment; and (3) a focus on military-related grief as a much-needed complement to an already-established focus on military-related PTSD.

  9. Using Multidimensional Grief Theory to Explore Effects of Deployment, Reintegration, and Death on Military Youth and Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplow, Julie B.; Layne, Christopher M.; Saltzman, William R.; Cozza, Stephen J.; Pynoos, Robert S.

    2015-01-01

    To date, the U.S. military has made major strides in acknowledging and therapeutically addressing trauma and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in service members and their families. However, given the nature of warfare and high rates of losses sustained by both military members (e.g., deaths of fellow unit members) and military families (e.g., loss of a young parent who served in the military), as well as the ongoing threat of loss that military families face during deployment, we propose that a similar focus on grief is also needed to properly understand and address many of the challenges encountered by bereaved service members, spouses, and children. In this article, we describe a newly developed theory of grief (Multidimensional Grief Theory) and apply it to the task of exploring major features of military-related experiences during the phases of deployment, reintegration, and the aftermath of combat death—especially as they impact children. We also describe implications for designing preventive interventions during each phase and conclude with recommended avenues for future research. Primary aims are to illustrate: (1) the indispensable role of theory in guiding efforts to describe, explain, predict, prevent, and treat maladaptive grief in military service members, children, and families; (2) the relevance of multidimensional grief theory for addressing both losses due to physical death as well as losses brought about by extended physical separations to which military children and families are exposed during and after deployment; and (3) a focus on military-related grief as a much-needed complement to an already-established focus on military-related PTSD. PMID:23760905

  10. Cultural evolution of military camouflage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talas, Laszlo; Baddeley, Roland J; Cuthill, Innes C

    2017-07-05

    While one has evolved and the other been consciously created, animal and military camouflage are expected to show many similar design principles. Using a unique database of calibrated photographs of camouflage uniform patterns, processed using texture and colour analysis methods from computer vision, we show that the parallels with biology are deeper than design for effective concealment. Using two case studies we show that, like many animal colour patterns, military camouflage can serve multiple functions. Following the dissolution of the Warsaw Pact, countries that became more Western-facing in political terms converged on NATO patterns in camouflage texture and colour. Following the break-up of the former Yugoslavia, the resulting states diverged in design, becoming more similar to neighbouring countries than the ancestral design. None of these insights would have been obtained using extant military approaches to camouflage design, which focus solely on concealment. Moreover, our computational techniques for quantifying pattern offer new tools for comparative biologists studying animal coloration.This article is part of the themed issue 'Animal coloration: production, perception, function and application'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  11. REVOLUTION IN MILITARY SCIENCE, ITS IMPORTANCE AND CONSEQUENCES, MILITARY ART ON A NEW STAGE,

    Science.gov (United States)

    The central problem of modern military art is defined as the development of new methods of conducting armed conflict. The changes involving the radical military technical re-equipping of Soviet Armed Forces, are described.

  12. MILITARY CONSTRUCTION: Kaiserslautern Military Community Center Project Continues to Experience Problems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kutz, Gregory D; Causseaux, Bruce A; Dorn, Terrell G

    2008-01-01

    The Kaiserslautern Military Community Center (KMCC) is one of many projects initiated at Ramstein Air Base to upgrade capabilities of the base as a result of the consolidation of military bases in Europe...

  13. The Presence of the American Troops in Romania: Civil-Military Challenges Beyond a "Military Relationship"

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Simion, Valentin

    2008-01-01

    This thesis analyzes the civil-military relations of the growing U.S. military presence in Romania and the implications of this development for bi-lateral relations beyond the barracks and the maneuver field...

  14. A Military and Industry Partnership Program: The Transfer of Military Simulation Technology Into Commercial Industry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McGuire, William

    1997-01-01

    This research thesis is a study through a military commercial industry partnership to seek whether investments in military modeling and simulation can be easily transferred to benefit commercial industry...

  15. The history of neuromyelitis optica

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The discovery of a novel serum autoantibody (termed NMO-IgG or AQP4-Ab) in a subset of patients in 2004 has revived interest in neuromyelitis optica (NMO). While the history of classical multiple sclerosis has been extensively studied, only little is known about the history of NMO. In the present article, we provide a comprehensive review of the early history of this rare but intriguing syndrome. We trace the origins of the concept of NMO in the 19th century medical literature and follow its evolution throughout the 20th and into the 21st century. Finally, we discuss recent proposals to revise the concept of NMO and explain why there is indeed a need for a more systematic and descriptive nomenclature. PMID:23320783

  16. Modern history of weather service for one hundred years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-07-01

    This book describes meteorological history of Korea for a century. It consists of eleven chapters, which deals with the ancient history of meteorologic services, the beginning of modem history of meteorologic services from 1894 to 1910, meteorologic services in Japanese colonial era, meteorologic services in the U. S Military Government in Korea from 1945 to 1948, transition period from 1948 to 1950, Korean war period from 1950 to 1953, foundation construction period from 1953 to 1960, growth period in 1970s'. period of development in 1980s' foundation construction period for advanced technologies of meteorologic services in 1990s' and leaping period of meteorologic services in 2000s'.

  17. Military exceptionalism or tobacco exceptionalism: How civilian health leaders' beliefs may impede military tobacco control efforts

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, EA; Malone, RE

    2013-01-01

    Smoking impairs the readiness and performance of military personnel, yet congressional opposition has thwarted military tobacco control initiatives. Involvement of civilian organizations might alter this political dynamic. We interviewed 13 leaders of national civilian public health and tobacco control organizations to explore their perspectives on military tobacco control, inductively analyzing data for themes. Leaders believed that military tobacco use was problematic but lacked specific kn...

  18. Military service and military vocational training effects on post-service earnings

    OpenAIRE

    Bolin, Phil Warren

    1980-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. The influence of military service and military vocational training on post-service earnings was analyzed using the National Longitudinal Survey of young men (14-24 years of age in 1966) . When individuals were classified by their propensity to use training neither military service nor military vocational training was a significant determinant of post-service earnings. A disaggregation of the sample IQ revealed that m...

  19. Military Family Coping Project - Phase II

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Anxiety, Life Satisfaction , Addiction, Trauma 4 The Military Family Coping Project reflects two phases. The first consisted of a series of focus...need for and guided the work of the Military Family Coping Project Phase II funded by TATRC. The Military Family Coping Project Phase II was...solidarity. For the purposes of family functioning analyses, married and unmarried soldiers were analyzed separately because marital status affects

  20. [Economic problems in military public health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, G M; Moretskiĭ, A A

    2000-03-01

    There are discussed the problems of military treatment and prophylactic institution (TPI) functioning under conditions of market reform of Russian public health. Main marketing concepts in military health are determined and some recommendations on work improvement in TPI of the Armed Forces in the system of obligatory medical insurance are presented, granting population paid medical services. It is necessary to form a new type of director--military and medical manager.

  1. The demand for military spending in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Abu-Qarn, A. S.; Dunne, J. P.; Abdelfattah, Y.; Zaher, S.

    2013-01-01

    Egypt plays a pivotal role in the security of the Middle East as the doorway to Europe and its military expenditure reflects its involvement in the machinations of such an unstable region, showing considerable variation over the last forty years. These characteristics make it a particularly interesting case study of the determinants of military spending. This paper specifies and estimates an econometric model of the Egyptian demand for military spending, taking into account important strategi...

  2. Research on 6R Military Logistics Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jie, Wan; Wen, Wang

    The building of military logistics network is an important issue for the construction of new forces. This paper has thrown out a concept model of 6R military logistics network model based on JIT. Then we conceive of axis spoke y logistics centers network, flexible 6R organizational network, lean 6R military information network based grid. And then the strategy and proposal for the construction of the three sub networks of 6Rmilitary logistics network are given.

  3. Regulation of human cytokines by Cordyceps militaris

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Yong; Shao, Yani; Zhang, Zhiguo; Wang, Lianfen; Mariga, Alfred M.; Pang, Guangchang; Geng, Chaoyu; Ho, Chi-Tang; Hu, Qiuhui; Zhao, Liyan

    2014-01-01

    Cordyceps (Cordyceps militaris) exhibits many biological activities including antioxidant, inhibition of inflammation, cancer prevention, hypoglycemic, and antiaging properties, etc. However, a majority of studies involving C. militaris have focused only on in vitro and animal models, and there is a lack of direct translation and application of study results to clinical practice (e.g., health benefits). In this study, we investigated the regulatory effects of C. militaris micron powder (3 dos...

  4. A Conceptual Model of Military Recruitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    Hiring Expectancies – Expectancy (VIE) Theory ( Vroom , 1996) states individuals choose among a set of employment alternatives on the basis of the...A Conceptual Model of Military Recruitment Presented at NATO Technical Course HFM 180 – Strategies to Address Recruiting and Retention Issues in...the Military Fariya Syed October, 2009 Based on A Proposed Model Of Military Recruitment (Schreurs & Syed, 2007) Report Documentation Page

  5. Translations on USSR Military Affairs, Number 1319

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-12-22

    basis of military economics. As is known, the modern scientific and technological revolution has strengthened even more the dependence of war and...investment spheres of an academy’s graduates must also be consider- ed The teaching of political and military economies would border on enlight - enment...dynamics of its military, economic, scientific and technological potential without mastering the changes in the industrial structure of physical

  6. Bringing the Military Back in: Military Expenditures and Economic Growth 1990 to 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Kentor

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available After the “peace bonus” era, global military expenditures have escalated sharply despite some worldwide declines in military personnel. Theories on the economic impacts of the military institution and escalated military spending greatly differ and include arguments that they either improve domestic economic performance or crowd out growth-inducing processes. Empirical findings on this matter are inconclusive, in part due to a failure to disentangle the various dimensions of military expenditures. We further suggest that modern sociology's relative inattention to such issues has contributed to these shortcomings. We explore a new dimension of military spending that clarifies this issue—military expenditures per soldier —which captures the capital intensiveness of a country’s military organization. Our cross-national panel regression and causal analyses of developed and less developed countries from 1990 to 2003 show that military expenditures per soldier inhibit the growth of per capita GDP, net of control variables, with the most pronounced effects in least developed countries. These expenditures inhibit national development in part by slowing the expansion of the labor force. Labor-intensive militaries may provide a pathway for upward mobility, but comparatively capital-intensive military organizations limit entry opportunities for unskilled and under- or unemployed people. Deep investments in military hardware also reduce the investment capital available for more economically productive opportunities. We also find that arms imports have a positive effect on economic growth, but only in less developed countries.

  7. Impact of Military Lifestyle on Military Spouses' Educational and Career Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Laura E.; Kellley Morgan, Jessica; Akroyd, H. Duane

    2018-01-01

    The military lifestyle imposes unique challenges for military spouses in regards to their education and careers. To help alleviate these challenges, military spouses are encouraged to pursue portable career paths. This causes one to question whether spouses desire these portable careers and what influences spouses place on pursuing specific…

  8. Infection prevention and control in deployed military medical treatment facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hospenthal, Duane R; Green, Andrew D; Crouch, Helen K; English, Judith F; Pool, Jane; Yun, Heather C; Murray, Clinton K

    2011-08-01

    Infections have complicated the care of combat casualties throughout history and were at one time considered part of the natural history of combat trauma. Personnel who survived to reach medical care were expected to develop and possibly succumb to infections during their care in military hospitals. Initial care of war wounds continues to focus on rapid surgical care with debridement and irrigation, aimed at preventing local infection and sepsis with bacteria from the environment (e.g., clostridial gangrene) or the casualty's own flora. Over the past 150 years, with the revelation that pathogens can be spread from patient to patient and from healthcare providers to patients (including via unwashed hands of healthcare workers, the hospital environment and fomites), a focus on infection prevention and control aimed at decreasing transmission of pathogens and prevention of these infections has developed. Infections associated with combat-related injuries in the recent operations in Iraq and Afghanistan have predominantly been secondary to multidrug-resistant pathogens, likely acquired within the military healthcare system. These healthcare-associated infections seem to originate throughout the system, from deployed medical treatment facilities through the chain of care outside of the combat zone. Emphasis on infection prevention and control, including hand hygiene, isolation, cohorting, and antibiotic control measures, in deployed medical treatment facilities is essential to reducing these healthcare-associated infections. This review was produced to support the Guidelines for the Prevention of Infections Associated With Combat-Related Injuries: 2011 Update contained in this supplement of Journal of Trauma.

  9. The importance of understanding military culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Lynn K

    2011-01-01

    Social workers can make a significant contribution to military service members and their families, but first it is essential that the worldview, the mindset, and the historical perspective of life in the military are understood. Unless we understand how the unique characteristics of the military impact the service members and their families, we cannot work effectively with them. In addition, unless we understand their language, their structure, why they join, their commitment to the mission, and the role of honor and sacrifice in military service, we will not be able to adequately intervene and offer care to these families.

  10. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Military Affairs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1988-01-01

    Partial Contents: Military Political Issues, Warsaw Pact, Armed Forces, Ground Forces, Air Force, Air Defense Forces, Naval Forces, Strategic Rocket Forces, Civil Defense , Rear Services, Defense Industries, DOSAAF...

  11. Human Factors Military Lexicon: Auditory Displays

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Letowski, Tomasz

    2001-01-01

    .... In addition to definitions specific to auditory displays, speech communication, and audio technology, the lexicon includes several terms unique to military operational environments and human factors...

  12. Food and housing insecurity and health status among U.S. adults with and without prior military service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schure, Marc B; Katon, Jodie G; Wong, Edwin; Liu, Chuan-Fen

    2016-12-01

    Food and housing insecurity may contribute to poorer mental and physical health. It is unclear as to whether those with prior military service, compared to those without, are more vulnerable to these current stressors. The objective of this study was to use U.S. population-based data to determine whether prior military service moderates the association of food and housing insecurity with poor mental and physical health. We analyzed data from nine states administering the Social Context module from the 2011 and 2012 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine the associations of housing and food insecurity with poor mental and physical health and potential modification by military service. Compared with those with a history of military service, those without had higher prevalence of food insecurity (23.1% versus 13.7%) and housing insecurity (36.0% versus 22.5%). Food insecurity was associated with poor mental and physical health (mental health: odds ratio (OR)=3.47, 95% confidence interval (CI)=[3.18-3.77]; physical health: OR=3.21, 95% CI=[2.92-3.53]). Similar associations were observed between housing insecurity and poor mental and physical health. Prior military service was significantly associated with poor physical health. Interaction terms of prior military service with food and housing were not statistically significant. Food and housing insecurity does not appear to differentially impact mental and physical health among those with and without military service.

  13. Department of Defense Dictionary Of Military and Associated Terms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-31

    authorities, military support to civilian law enforcement agencies, and military assistance for civil disturbances. Also called MACA . (DODD 3025.1...Center MACA military assistance to civil authorities MACB multinational acquisition and contracting board MACCS Marine air command and control

  14. 75 FR 81244 - Military Leadership Diversity Commission Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary Military Leadership Diversity Commission Meeting... will take place: 1. Name of Committee: Military Leadership Diversity Commission (MLDC). 2. Date... Military Leadership Diversity Commission to continue their efforts to address congressional concerns as...

  15. The Arab Spring and civil-military relations

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abel

    power interplay between the civil elites and the military elites using the term 'civil- military relations' ..... the American military, whose 5th Fleet is headquartered in Bahrain. The advice was that the ..... Embassy Madrid. 23 Danopoulos, C (ed).

  16. 75 FR 2114 - Military Leadership Diversity Commission (MLDC); Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary Military Leadership Diversity Commission (MLDC....150, the Department of Defense announces that the Military Leadership Diversity Commission (MLDC) will... commissioners of the Military Leadership Diversity Commission to continue their efforts to address congressional...

  17. Frequency and risk factors of hepatitis c virus in pregnant women attending military hospital rawalpindi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anwar, R.; Razzaq, K.; Imran, A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the frequency of anti-Hepatitis C virus antibodies in pregnant ladies attending Military Hospital Rawalpindi and to analyze risk factors for disease acquisition in them. Study Design: Cross sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of gynaecology and obstetrics Military Hospital Rawalpindi, from Feb 2013 to Jul 2013. Material and Methods: All pregnant ladies attending Military Hospital Rawalpindi were tested for anti HCV antibodies by third generation ELISA method and evaluation of potential risk factors for acquisition of HCV infection was done. Results: Six point ninety five percent of study population was found to be positive for anti HCV antibodies. Conclusion: Six point nine five percentage of study pregnant ladies were found to have anti HCV antibodies. These HCV positive pregnant women were more likely to have history of blood transfusion, therapeutic injection use and surgery. (author)

  18. Severe Neuropsychiatric Reaction in a Deployed Military Member after Prophylactic Mefloquine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan L. Peterson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies of military personnel who have deployed to Iraq and Afghanistan have reported a number of combat-related psychiatric disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, and traumatic brain injury. This case report involves a 27-year-old male active-duty US military service member who developed severe depression, psychotic hallucinations, and neuropsychological sequelae following the prophylactic use of the antimalarial medication mefloquine hydrochloride. The patient had a recent history of depression and was taking antidepressant medications at the time of his deployment to the Middle East. Psychiatrists and other health care providers should be aware of the possible neuropsychiatric side effects of mefloquine in deployed military personnel and should consider the use of other medications for malaria prophylaxis in those individuals who may be at increased risk for side effects.

  19. History of Bioterrorism: Botulism

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... this video were adapted from "Biological Warfare and Terrorism: The Military and Public Health Response," co-produced by the United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID), ...

  20. History of Bioterrorism: Botulism

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Parts of this video were adapted from "Biological Warfare and Terrorism: The Military and Public Health Response," ... Specific Groups Resources for Emergency Health Professionals Training & Education Social Media What’s New Preparation & Planning More on ...

  1. History and Physical Examination for Shoulder Instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haley, Col Chad A

    2017-09-01

    Glenohumeral instability frequently occurs in young active individuals especially those engaged in athletic and military activities. With advanced imaging and arthroscopic evaluation, our understanding of the injury patterns associated with instability has significantly improved. The majority of instability results from a traumatic anterior event which presents with common findings in the history, examination, and imaging studies. As such, a comprehensive evaluation of the patient is important to correctly diagnose the instability patterns and thus provide appropriate treatment intervention. With the correct diagnosis and improved surgical techniques, the majority of patients with instability can return to preinjury levels.

  2. History of Nuclear Weapons Design and Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oelrich, Ivan

    2007-04-01

    The nuclear build-up of the United States and the Soviet Union during the Cold War is often portrayed as an arms race. Some part was indeed a bilateral competition, but much was the result of automatic application of technical advances as they became available, without careful consideration of strategic implications. Thus, the history of nuclear weapon design is partly designers responding to stated military needs and partly the world responding to constant innovations in nuclear capability. Today, plans for a new nuclear warhead are motivated primarily by the desire to maintain a nuclear design and production capability for the foreseeable future.

  3. Food and War in Herodotus’ Histories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Soares

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to study the way Herodotus relates food and war in his work. In the first part we consider the economic causes of war, those related to populations’ food supplies. In the second part we focus on the role of food in a war scenario. In spite of the great relevance given by Herodotus in the construction of his war narratives to the characters of kings and generals, the Greek historian is perfectly aware of the economic implications the military conflicts usually have throughout the history of mankind.http://dx.doi.org/10.14195/2183-1718_66_7

  4. To the Question on the Nature of Military Threats and Non-Military Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sambu R. Tsyrendorzhjyev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The notion of "military danger, military threats, military and non-military measures to Parry, and other definitions from the policy of the State to ensure the military security of the now widely used in journalism, conceptual, other documents and research. The attentive reader it is not difficult to notice the ambiguity in the interpretation of these concepts. This makes it difficult to not only the perception of the relevant topics for ensuring military security publications, but also the development of the theory and practice of ensuring the defence and security of the State. The author's view on the essence of the reasoning logic of non-military measures to counter military threats, as the ultimate goal of the article is the following.First the task of analyzing the concept of "national security", "object of national security" and understand the functions of the State, society and the individual to ensure national security. Decomposition of an object of national security, which is "national property" (the content of the concepts described in the article has made it possible to substantiate the basis for classification of national security threats and with better understanding of the nature, variety, Genesis. This provided a rationale for the role and the place of the tasks ensuring military security in the common task of ensuring national security, the correlation of military and non-military threats.The final phase of the research, the results of which are set out in the article is devoted to analysis of military threats, which made it possible to identify their main structural elements: source, media, military-political and strategic nature, install the main factors defining the content of these elements and their interaction. Based on these results, the proposed definition of the essence of non-military measures for counteracting of military threats, as well as guidelines for developing these measures.

  5. Immunization status of Iranian military recruits against Bordetella pertussis infection (whooping cough).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izadi, Morteza; Afsharpaiman, Shahla; Jonaidi Jafari, Nematollah; Ranjbar, Reza; Gooya, Mohammad Mahdi; Robat Sarpooshi, Javad; Esfahani, Ali Akbar; Soheylipoor, Hamid

    2011-03-21

    Military recruits are susceptible to respiratory pathogens because of increased antibiotic resistance and the lack of an effective vaccine. The goal of the current study was to determine the immunological status of the Bordetella pertussis among conscripts in Iranian military garrisons. The study population consisted of 424 conscripts aged 18 to 21 years who enrolled for military service. They were selected using cluster stratified sampling from all military garrisons in Tehra, Iran. To determine the seroprevalence of infection, blood specimens from all recruits were collected and stored at - 20 °C until assayed. All serum samples were screened for immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies against Bordetella pertussis toxin (PT) and by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The overall prevalence of B. pertussis seropositivity in military recruits was 60.6. Only 55.0% of the recruits had low awareness about the record of vaccination against B. pertussis during childhood. Among 424 studied individuals, 48 recruits (11.3%) had a positive history of whooping cough; prevalence of seropositivity in these recruits was 70.0%. Among these subjects, 61.7% were referred to a physician for treatment and only 39.6% of them were administered anti-pertussis therapy. Our study showed that military conscripts in Tehran garrisons were not serologically immune to pertussis and also confirmed the low awareness about vaccination and medical history related to pertussis infection in this high-risk subgroup of the Iranian population. Routine acellular booster vaccination, particularly before 18 years of age, is recommended.

  6. To Tell the Truth: The Challenge of Military Leadership

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Henderson, Jr, Ronald H

    1998-01-01

    The story of Regulus, while certainly apocryphal, nevertheless illustrates a fundamental tension of military leadership -- the moral imperative for military leaders to tell the truth, even when that...

  7. The Long War and America's Relationship With Its Military

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Field, Kimberly C

    2008-01-01

    The unique characteristics of the "Global War on Terrorism" have implications for the relationship society has with its military, and therefore, for military effectiveness in achieving political ends...

  8. Study of the neuroendocrine and immunologic mechanism of fatigue caused by military operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin LI

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To observe the regularity of the changes in neuroendocrine-immune system caused by fatigue due to military operations, and explore the mechanism by which fatigue occurs in military operations. Methods  The subjects were 240 soldiers belonging to a field artillery force. The medical history and physical examination were taken before military operations, and fatigue assessment scale was accomplished as well. The following variables were measured in all the subjects: pituitary-adrenal [adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH, cortical hormone (B, 24-h urinary free cortisol (UFC], pituitary-gonadal [luteinizing hormone (LH, testosterone (T, estradiol (E2], pituitary-thyroid functions [serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH, tetraiodothyronine (TT4, triiodothyronine (TT3, free thyroxine (FT4, and free triiodothyronine (FT3], and cellular immune parameters (CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, CD4+/CD8+, B, NK. After 7 d of large-scale and high-intensity field exercises, the above variables were again measured in all the subjects. Results  After high-intensity military operations, the unpleasant feelings were significantly increased, and the compulsive and psychotic scores significantly decreased in the soldiers. In addition, the pituitary-adrenal and pituitary-gonadal hormone levels also decreased (all PPPConclusion  The depressed psychological tolerance in soldiers is the psychological factor of fatigue after a high-intensity military operation. The hypocorticoidism and inhibition of hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis are the pathophysiological basis of military operation fatigue. Suppression of immune function is an important reason for an increase of susceptibility to disease after high-intensity military operations.

  9. Celebrate Women's History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Carolyn M.; Baradar, Mariam

    This teachers' guide to activities celebrating Women's History Month focuses on women whose important contributions have been omitted from history textbooks. Women's History Month grew from a 1977 celebration of Women's History Week and is intended to bring women's history into the school curriculum. International Women's Day, celebrated on March…

  10. History of chemical and biological warfare agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szinicz, L.

    2005-01-01

    Chemical and biological warfare agents constitute a low-probability, but high-impact risk both to the military and to the civilian population. The use of hazardous materials of chemical or biological origin as weapons and for homicide has been documented since ancient times. The first use of chemicals in terms of weapons of mass destruction goes back to World War I, when on April 22, 1915 large amounts of chlorine were released by German military forces at Ypres, Belgium. Until around the 1970s of the 20th century, the awareness of the threat by chemical and biological agents had been mainly confined to the military sector. In the following time, the development of increasing range delivery systems by chemical and biological agents possessors sensitised public attention to the threat emanating from these agents. Their proliferation to the terrorists field during the 1990s with the expanding scale and globalisation of terrorist attacks suggested that these agents are becoming an increasing threat to the whole world community. The following article gives a condensed overview on the history of use and development of the more prominent chemical and biological warfare agents

  11. History of chemical and biological warfare agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szinicz, L

    2005-10-30

    Chemical and biological warfare agents constitute a low-probability, but high-impact risk both to the military and to the civilian population. The use of hazardous materials of chemical or biological origin as weapons and for homicide has been documented since ancient times. The first use of chemicals in terms of weapons of mass destruction goes back to World War I, when on April 22, 1915 large amounts of chlorine were released by German military forces at Ypres, Belgium. Until around the 1970s of the 20th century, the awareness of the threat by chemical and biological agents had been mainly confined to the military sector. In the following time, the development of increasing range delivery systems by chemical and biological agents possessors sensitised public attention to the threat emanating from these agents. Their proliferation to the terrorists field during the 1990s with the expanding scale and globalisation of terrorist attacks suggested that these agents are becoming an increasing threat to the whole world community. The following article gives a condensed overview on the history of use and development of the more prominent chemical and biological warfare agents.

  12. Do changes in connectivity explain desertification?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desertification, broad-scale land degradation in drylands, is a major environmental hazard facing inhabitants of the world’s deserts as well as an important component of global change. There is no unifying framework that simply and effectively explains different forms of desertification. Here we arg...

  13. Can the inherence heuristic explain vitalistic reasoning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastian, Brock

    2014-10-01

    Inherence is an important component of psychological essentialism. By drawing on vitalism as a way in which to explain this link, however, the authors appear to conflate causal explanations based on fixed features with those based on general causal forces. The disjuncture between these two types of explanatory principles highlights potential new avenues for the inherence heuristic.

  14. Explaining probalistic risk assessment in common language

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, J.W.

    1994-01-01

    Probabilistic human health risk assessment is explained in ordinary language using a hypothetical example and the ingestion equation from EPA's Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund. A section on understanding probabilities and probability distributions used in a Monte Carlo simulation is included as well as an appendix showing the computer run and the technical assumptions behind it

  15. Explaining Violence in Sierra Leone's Civil War

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Explaining the violence of civil war is never a simple task for the scholar. In the case of the Sierra Leone, paradoxically, the task has in some ways been rendered more difficult by the sheer variety of compelling scholarship on the question. This paper seeks to identify the most useful of the explanations offered thus far, and ...

  16. Measuring and explaining house price developments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vries, P.

    2010-01-01

    This study discusses ways of measuring and explaining the development of house prices. The goal of the research underpinning this dissertation was to develop a methodological framework for studying these developments. This framework relates, first, to correcting for changes in the composition of

  17. Adaptive hatching hypotheses do not explain asynchronous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    At the core of the suite of adaptive hatching hypotheses advanced to explain asynchronous hatching in birds is the assumption that if food is not limited then all the hatchlings will develop normally to adulthood. In this study Brown-headed Parrot Poicephalus cryptoxanthus chicks were hand fed and weighed on a daily basis.

  18. Explaining convergence of oecd welfare states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmitt, C.; Starke, Peter

    2011-01-01

    of conditional convergence helps to both better describe and explain the phenomenon. By applying error correction models, we examine conditional convergence of various types of social expenditure in 21 OECD countries between 1980 and 2005. Our empirical findings go beyond the existing literature in two respects...

  19. Explaining the VET Applied Research Developmental Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Linda; Beddie, Francesca M.

    2017-01-01

    This document explains the VET Applied Research Developmental Framework, created as part of a project that explored how the vocational education and training (VET) sector could broaden its engagement in Australia's research and development (R&D) and innovation systems. Achieving this engagement will rely significantly on building the…

  20. Explaining Teachers' Use of Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichenberg, Monica

    2016-01-01

    In educational systems without comprehensive systems for regulating textbooks, teachers can exert considerable influence on the use of textbooks. However, existing research has not yet identified the mechanisms of this use. Accordingly, the aim of this article is to examine and explain teachers' strategic use of textbooks. I administered a…

  1. Your Radiologist Explains Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Sponsored by Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA) Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot ... I’d like to talk with you about magnetic resonance angiography, or as it’s commonly known, MRA. MRA ...

  2. Advancing Military Professionalism in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    professional military. It simultaneously undermines a military’s commitment to protect the country and its citizens. Plato noted some 2,400 years ago...stepping down from his post as Senior Advisor to the President on Defence and Security.42 He procured not only spoiled food rations for the Ugandan... Plato , The Republic, tr. G.M.A. Grube (Hacket, 1992), 417b and 434a-b. 17 “Above the State: The Officers’ Republic in Egypt,” Carnegie Middle East Center

  3. The Pierrelatte's military factories dismantling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourrelier, P.; Kassel, Ch.

    1999-01-01

    The site of Pierrelatte in France, receives since 1958 gaseous diffusion plants assigned to the uranium enrichment for military uses. Since 1996 Cogema implements, by order of the Cea, a dismantling operation of the site. The operation which will begin in 2000, is going to last ten years. This project shows difficulties that make it innovative. Its originality, the planning, the risks, the program progressing and the regulation aspects are detailed in this paper. Beyond the complicated technical operations, the wastes management is of primary importance for the good development of the operations. (A.L.B.)

  4. Problems with military nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawless, W.F.

    1985-01-01

    Spent fuel elements contain the largest amount of radioactivity, but commercial spent fuel is not presently being reprocessed in the US, so the wastes are left contained within spent fuel assemblies and are not immediately accessible to the environment. By reprocessing military spent fuel to separate plutonium and unspent uranium from the highly radioactive and high-heat fission product waste, known as high-level waste (99.5% fission products and about 0.5% plutonium and uranium), nuclear weapons manufacture produces more dangerous radioactive wastes than do current commercial processes. The Department of Energy standards should be subject to an environmental impact study. 27 references

  5. Military service absences and family members' mental health: A timeline followback assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Aubrey J; Margolin, Gayla

    2015-08-01

    Although military service, and particularly absence due to deployment, has been linked to risk for depression and anxiety among some spouses and children of active duty service members, there is limited research to explain the heterogeneity in family members' reactions to military service stressors. The current investigation introduces the Timeline Followback Military Family Interview (TFMFI) as a clinically useful strategy to collect detailed time-linked information about the service member's absences. Two dimensions of parent absence--the extent to which absences coincide with important family events and cumulative time absent--were tested as potential risks to family members' mental health. Data from 70 mother-adolescent pairs revealed that the number of important family events missed by the service member was linked to elevated youth symptoms of depression, even when accounting for the number of deployments and cumulative duration of the service member's absence. However, youth who reported more frequent contact with the service member during absences were buffered from the effects of extensive absence. Mothers' symptoms were associated with the cumulative duration of the service members' time away, but not with family events missed by the service member. These results identify circumstances that increase the risk for mental health symptoms associated with military family life. The TFMFI provides an interview-based strategy for clinicians wishing to understand military family members' lived experience during periods of service-member absence. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. THE DESIRE FOR RECOGNITION IN THE CONTEXT OF FRANCIS FUKUYAMA’S UNIVERSAL HISTORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Danylova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Francis Fukuyama in his famous book “The End of History and the Last Man” assumes that human history should be considered as the battle of ideologies that reaches its goal in the universalization of Western liberal democracy. Author’s ideas have gained many supporters. At the same time, they were subjected to severe criticism that reflected the important trends of political life and ideological preferences. Leaving aside the criticism based on geopolitical and civilizational confrontation and confusion which confronts Fukuyama’s theory, it should be stated that anthropological aspect of Fukuyama’s theory has vastly evaded philosophical comprehension. Purpose. This article attempts to test Fukuyama’s theory through the lens of philosophical anthropology and analyze human desire for recognition in the context of Fukuyama’s World History. Methodology. The analysis is focused on human desire for recognition as a significant dimension of human nature. The author has used hermeneutical methodology and anthropological integrative approach. Theoretical basis and results. Fukuyama is not satisfied by merely economic interpretation of history emphasizing that human is not simply an economic animal. Economic development fails to explain why people advocate the principles of liberal democracy. The author goes back to Hegel’s non-materialistic view of history based on the struggle for recognition. According to Fukuyama, this deeply rooted human desire for recognition is the great motor of history and cause of tyranny, conflicts, and wars. But at the same time, it also acts as a psychological foundation of many virtues – the spirit of citizenship, courage, and justice. Throughout history, this desire for recognition was not satisfied. Only modern liberal democracy provides universal recognition of all humans ensuring and protecting their rights. Originality. Fukuyama’s concept is important and interesting because it draws

  7. On the Military Significance of Language Competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Kurt E.

    1981-01-01

    Argues that facility in a foreign language contributes to the nation's military capability in command, intelligence, operations, logistics, survival skills and in community and official relations. After reviewing relevant historical episodes, suggests that an effort should be made to improve U.S. military personnel language skills. (MES)

  8. Exclusion and Inclusion in the Danish Military

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muhr, Sara Louise; Sløk-Andersen, Beate

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine why and how past stories of women’s insufficiency for military work survive and how they come to form a gendered organizational narrative dominant in constructing current opinions on women in the military. Design/methodology/approach The analysis is...

  9. The European Union and Military Conflict Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodt, Annemarie Peen

    This book provides the first comprehensive review of the European Union’s role in military conflict management beyond its borders and makes an important contribution to debates on the EU’s role in global security governance. The EU has launched five military operations within the framework of its...

  10. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Military Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-07

    Meetings of students and veterans, militarized physical culture celebrations , department and school activities which develop a sense of patriotism, formal...they capable of making military affairs interesting to a young men in Adidas jackets with dyed- hackle hairdos, of getting them to love military

  11. Investigating Team Learning in a Military Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veestraeten, Marlies; Kyndt, Eva; Dochy, Filip

    2014-01-01

    As teams have become fundamental parts of today's organisations, the need for these teams to function and learn efficiently and effectively is widely emphasised. Also in military contexts team learning is vital. The current article examines team learning behaviour in military teams as it aims to cross-validate a team learning model that was…

  12. PAUL, MILITARY IMAGERY AND SOCIAL DISADVANTAGE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of rich and poor – suffice it to refer to Meggitt (1998), in particular, who made ... was poised to use its military prowess ruthlessly when its preferred option. 4 Oakes' ..... 23 The military terms in 1 Peter's moral instruction, στρατεύονται (2:11) and ...

  13. Android Smartphone Relevance to Military Weather Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    lithium -ion battery that may be replaced by the user (unlike Apple iPod Touch devices), thus spare batteries can be carried. If there is only sporadic...Android Smartphone Relevance to Military Weather Applications by David Sauter ARL-TR-5793 October 2011...Android Smartphone Relevance to Military Weather Applications David Sauter Computational and Information Sciences Directorate, ARL

  14. Military Versus Civilian Murder-Suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Christina L; McNally, Matthew R; Fremouw, William J

    2015-07-03

    Previous studies have implicated significant differences between military members and civilians with regard to violent behavior, including suicide, domestic violence, and harm to others, but none have examined military murder-suicide. This study sought to determine whether there were meaningful differences between military and civilian murder-suicide perpetrators. Using data from the Center for Disease Control's (CDC) National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS), military (n = 259) and civilian (n = 259) murder-suicide perpetrators were compared on a number of demographic, psychological, and contextual factors using chi-square analyses. Logistic regression was used to determine which variables predicted membership to the military or civilian perpetrator groups. Military murder-suicide perpetrators were more likely to be older, have physical health problems, be currently or formerly married, less likely to abuse substances, and to exhibit significantly different motives than civilian perpetrators. Logistic regression revealed that membership to the military, rather than the civilian, perpetrator group was predicted by age, physical health problems, and declining heath motive-reflecting the significance of a more than 15-year difference in mean age between the two groups. Findings point to the need to tailor suicide risk assessments to include questions specific to murder-suicide, to assess attitudes toward murder-suicide, and to the importance of assessing suicide and violence risk in older adult military populations. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Military Deployment and Elementary Student Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, Terri; Dunham, Mardis; Lyons, Robert

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the impact that military deployment has upon academic achievement of elementary school students. TerraNova test scores of 137 fourth and fifth grade students in two elementary schools with a high proportion of military dependent children were examined for two consecutive years. Although the academic test performance fell…

  16. Contrapower Sexual Harassment of Military Officers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-08-01

    Sexual Harassment 1 Contrapower Sexual Harassment of Military Officers Sexual harassment is generally categorized in one of two ways: quid pro quo ...power or status over the victim (McKinney, 1992). The very definition of quid pro quo sexual harassment generally necessitates a superior harassing a...Contrapower Sexual Harassment of Military Officers A Thesis Presented by Sarah K. Clapp to the

  17. Military Expenditure and Socio-Economic Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Nicole

    1983-01-01

    The relationship between military expenditure and the stimulation of aggregate demand, inflation, investment, trade balance, foreign exchange, the improvement of taxation, and employment creation and industrialization in the Third World is analyzed. To some extent military expenditure does promote economic growth, but it does not automatically…

  18. Pending crisis in Russian civil military relations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ball, D.Y.

    1997-10-01

    A key issue in the study of civil-military relations has been how to create a military sufficiently strong to ensure security from external threats while simultaneously preventing the military from using its preponderance of power in the domestic arena. This dilemma arises from the fear engendered by a large armed force created to combat foreign threats, but which is also inherently a threat to the society that created it. In Russia, however, the question is not how the civilian leadership can keep the military out of politics, but how the military can keep the leadership from politicizing the armed forces. The Russian military has no interest in resolving Russia`s domestic political problems. It is a professional military that prefers to leave politics to the politicians, and to carry out its mission of defending the nation against external attack. But the lack of responsible central leadership and the poor state of the economy are driving the military toward involvement in domestic politics if for no other reason than to ensure its own survival.

  19. French Military Adaptation in the Afghan War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmitt, Olivier

    2017-01-01

    as any to borrow from other countries’ experiences. In order to do so, this article introduces the concept of ‘selective emulation’, and compares the French and German military adaptation processes in Afghanistan. The article argues that there is indeed something distinctive about French military...

  20. Stress training and the new military environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delahaij, R.; Gaillard, A.W.K.; Soeters, J.M.L.M.

    2006-01-01

    The new environment in which current military operations take place is often characterized by unpredictable and ambiguous situations. This places new demands on military personnel. In combination with high levels of violence and threat, these situations will elicit acute stress reactions, which can

  1. MILITARY MISSION COMBAT EFFICIENCY ESTIMATION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ighoyota B. AJENAGHUGHRURE

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Military infantry recruits, although trained, lacks experience in real-time combat operations, despite the combat simulations training. Therefore, the choice of including them in military operations is a thorough and careful process. This has left top military commanders with the tough task of deciding, the best blend of inexperienced and experienced infantry soldiers, for any military operation, based on available information on enemy strength and capability. This research project delves into the design of a mission combat efficiency estimator (MCEE. It is a decision support system that aids top military commanders in estimating the best combination of soldiers suitable for different military operations, based on available information on enemy’s combat experience. Hence, its advantages consist of reducing casualties and other risks that compromises the entire operation overall success, and also boosting the morals of soldiers in an operation, with such information as an estimation of combat efficiency of their enemies. The system was developed using Microsoft Asp.Net and Sql server backend. A case study test conducted with the MECEE system, reveals clearly that the MECEE system is an efficient tool for military mission planning in terms of team selection. Hence, when the MECEE system is fully deployed it will aid military commanders in the task of decision making on team members’ combination for any given operation based on enemy personnel information that is well known beforehand. Further work on the MECEE will be undertaken to explore fire power types and impact in mission combat efficiency estimation.

  2. New perspectives in film reception of Ancient History: the example of «Dacii / Les guerriers» (Sergiu Nicolaescu, Romania / France 1966

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Óscar LAPEÑA MARCHENA

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes a film that deals with an episode in the history of the Roman Empire practicaly ignored by the cinema: the military campaigns undertaken by the emperor Domitian in the province of Dacia.

  3. The Military Dictatorship (1964-1985 in Brazilian educational narratives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helenice Rocha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The text presents the partial conclusions of the research in which a comparative analysis was made of narratives that address the issue of Brazilian Military Dictatorship (1964-1985 within the set of History textbooks of Elementary School approved by the Brazilian National Textbook Program (Programa Nacional do Livro Didático - PNLD/2011. Possible trends of sense production based on reading are looked for in the set of narratives, considering that, in the organization of their components, such texts carry a potential of meanings which are updated at each reading. Since the narratives cover recent historical events, it is concluded that social memory and history play a peculiar role as mechanisms external to narrative that reflect their internal mechanisms and possibilities of history meaning. In this analysis, elements of language studies and theory of history, with regard to its teaching, are broadly present. How to reference this article Rocha, H. (2015. A Ditadura Militar (1964-1985 nas narrativas didáticas brasileiras. Espacio, Tiempo y Educación, 2(1, pp. 97-120. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.14516/ete.2015.002.001.006

  4. Military and civilian media coverage of suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards-Stewart, Amanda; Kinn, Julie T; June, Jennifer D; Fullerton, Nicole R

    2011-01-01

    Military suicide has increased over the past decade and reports of Service Member and Veteran suicides receive media attention. Some methods of reporting suicide appear to cause a "media contagion" effect, potentially increasing suicide. This effect is explored in relation to media reports of both military and civilian suicides. To reduce possible contagion, recommendations for media reporting of suicides were adapted by the Suicide Prevention Resource Center (SPRC). We assessed 240 military and civilian newspaper reports of suicide from 15 different sources for compliance with the SPRC guidelines. Nearly all reviewed articles violated at least one guideline. Results highlighted military news articles regarding Service Members included more pejorative language and discussion of failed psychological treatment. Conversely, civilian articles romanticized the victim and provided more details regarding the suicide. Further exploration of military suicide reporting bias is discussed as a need in future research.

  5. Explaining crude oil prices using fundamental measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, Les

    2012-01-01

    Oil is the world's most important commodity, and improving the understanding of drivers of its price is a longstanding research objective. This article analyses real oil prices during 1984–2007 using a monthly dataset of fundamental and market parameters that cover financial markets, global economic growth, demand and supply of oil, and geopolitical measures. The innovation is to incorporate proxies for speculative and terrorist activity and dummies for major industry events, and quantify price impacts of each. New findings are positive links between oil prices and speculative activity, bond yields, an interaction term incorporating OPEC market share and OECD import dependence, and the number of US troops and frequency of terrorist attacks in the Middle East. Shocks also prove significant with a $6–18 per barrel impact on price for several months. - Highlights: ► Article introduces new variables to the study of oil prices. ► New variables are terrorist incidents and military activity, and oil futures market size. ► Shocks prove important affecting prices by $6–18 per barrel for several months. ► OPEC market influence rises with OECD import dependence.

  6. The U.S. Military Academy and the Issue of Race in Higher Education: A Perspective. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgovsky, Joel

    The history of the racial problem in the United States is discussed as it affects higher education. The role several universities are playing to ease the problem is considered, including efforts at the U.S. Military Academy to admit larger numbers of minority students. The impact of higher education for minority students on the Army is also…

  7. "You Better Not Get Pregnant while You're Here": Tensions between Masculinities and Femininities in Military Communities of Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taber, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    Using a life history approach, this article explores the ways in which women in the military who are also mothers learn to embody various masculinities and femininities as they negotiate workplace gender processes. Complex intersections of gendered communities of practice result in the participants' learning to variously understand, accept, shape…

  8. Dynamic Adaptation to History of Trial Difficulty Explains the Effect of Congruency Proportion on Masked Priming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Sachiko; Mozer, Michael C.; Forster, Kenneth I.

    2011-01-01

    In reaction time research, there has been an increasing appreciation that response-initiation processes are sensitive to recent experience and, in particular, the difficulty of previous trials. From this perspective, the authors propose an explanation for a perplexing property of masked priming: Although primes are not consciously identified,…

  9. Explaining scene composition using kinematic chains of humans: application to Portuguese tiles history

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Nuno Pinho; Marques, Manuel; Carneiro, Gustavo; Costeira, João P.

    2011-03-01

    Painted tile panels (Azulejos) are one of the most representative Portuguese forms of art. Most of these panels are inspired on, and sometimes are literal copies of, famous paintings, or prints of those paintings. In order to study the Azulejos, art historians need to trace these roots. To do that they manually search art image databases, looking for images similar to the representation on the tile panel. This is an overwhelming task that should be automated as much as possible. Among several cues, the pose of humans and the general composition of people in a scene is quite discriminative. We build an image descriptor, combining the kinematic chain of each character, and contextual information about their composition, in the scene. Given a query image, our system computes its similarity profile over the database. Using nearest neighbors in the space of the descriptors, the proposed system retrieves the prints that most likely inspired the tiles' work.

  10. Growth, history, or institutions? What explains state fragility in sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Bertocchi, Graziella; Guerzoni, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    We explore the determinants of state fragility in sub-Saharan Africa. Controlling for a wide range of economic, demographic, geographic and institutional regressors, we find that institutions, and in particular the civil liberties index and the number of revolutions, are the main determinants of fragility, even taking into account their potential endogeneity. Economic factors such as income growth and investment display a non robust impact after controlling for omitted variables and reverse c...

  11. Coccidian infection may explain the differences in the life history of octopus host populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storero, Lorena P; Narvarte, Maite A

    2013-11-01

    The prevalence of coccidian parasites in three Octopus tehuelchus populations from San Matías Gulf (Patagonia, Argentina) is compared. The prevalence was similar between sexes, but varied between seasons (being highest during cold months) and sites. Islote Lobos had the highest prevalence (42.7-100%) followed by San Antonio Bay (0-66%) and El Fuerte (0-24.5%). Octopuses under 27 mm of dorsal mantle length showed a low prevalence (less than 50%), which increased with size. We hypothesize that the high prevalence of parasites, which affect the three populations differentially, could account for the observed variability in life-span and growth, size-frequency distributions, reproduction and densities of O. tehuelchus populations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Explaining money creation by commercial banks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Ib

    2015-01-01

    Educators and economists concerned with monetary reform face the extraordinary challenge of explaining to the public and its elected representatives not only what a reformed system would look like, but also how the current system works. Centrally, the point that in a modern economy money is largely...... created by commercial banks, as explained by the Bank of England recently (McLeay, Radia & Thomas, 2014b), is often met with incredulity: “What do you mean, created?” This paper introduces five easy-to-grasp analogies that educators and reformers may use to convey key money-creation concepts to a lay...... audience. The analogies offered include (1) money as patches in an expandable patchwork quilt that covers a nation’s real assets, (2) the money supply as water in a bathtub with a faucet and a drain, (3) money understood as debt in a model economy run by schoolchildren, (4) the misleading concept of a bank...

  13. HIV As Trojan Exosome: Immunological Paradox Explained?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildreth, James E K

    2017-01-01

    The HIV pandemic is still a major global challenge, despite the widespread availability of antiretroviral drugs. An effective vaccine would be the ideal approach to bringing the pandemic to an end. However, developing an effective HIV vaccine has proven to be an elusive goal. Three major human HIV vaccine trials revealed a strong trend toward greater risk of infection among vaccine recipients versus controls. A similar observation was made in a macaque SIV vaccine study. The mechanism explaining this phenomenon is not known. Here, a model is presented that may explain the troubling results of vaccine studies and an immunological paradox of HIV pathogenesis: preferential infection of HIV-specific T cells. The central hypothesis of this perspective is that as "Trojan exosomes" HIV particles can directly activate HIV-specific T cells enhancing their susceptibility to infection. Understanding the biology of HIV as an exosome may provide insights that enable novel approaches to vaccine development.

  14. Children's Theories and the Drive to Explain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwitzgebel, Eric

    Debate has been growing in developmental psychology over how much the cognitive development of children is like theory change in science. Useful debate on this topic requires a clear understanding of what it would be for a child to have a theory. I argue that existing accounts of theories within philosophy of science and developmental psychology either are less precise than is ideal for the task or cannot capture everyday theorizing of the sort that children, if they theorize, must do. I then propose an account of theories that ties theories and explanation very closely together, treating theories primarily as products of a drive to explain. I clarify some of the positions people have taken regarding the theory theory of development, and I conclude by proposing that psychologists interested in the ''theory theory'' look for patterns of affect and arousal in development that would accompany the existence of a drive to explain.

  15. Explaining the Allocation of Regional Structural Funds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charron, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    What regional factors can explain the heterogeneity in Structural Funds distribution to European Union regions? Past studies have shown that aside from the level of economic development and rates of unemployment, other political, and economic factors systematically explain why certain European...... Union regions receive greater funding than others, in particular where there is room for bargaining. In this article, a novel theory is posited which argues that the determination of Structural Funds is based on an interaction between a region’s formal institutions (the level of a regional autonomy......) and informal institutions (its level of quality of government). In cases of low regional autonomy, member states and European Union level actors prefer to allocate greater levels of Funds to regions with lower quality of government in order to increase cohesion. Yet in cases of high regional autonomy, risks...

  16. Nest predation risk explains variation in avian clutch size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Kristen G.; Conway, Courtney J.

    2018-01-01

    Questions about the ecological drivers of, and mechanistic constraints on, productivity have driven research on life-history evolution for decades. Resource availability and offspring mortality are considered among the 2 most important influences on the number of offspring per reproductive attempt. We used a factorial experimental design to manipulate food abundance and perceived offspring predation risk in a wild avian population (red-faced warblers; Cardellina rubrifrons) to identify the mechanistic cause of variation in avian clutch size. Additionally, we tested whether female quality helped explain the extant variation in clutch size. We found no support for the Food Limitation or Female Quality Hypotheses, but we did find support for both predictions of the Nest Predation Risk Hypothesis. Females that experienced an experimentally heightened perception of offspring predation risk responded by laying a smaller clutch than females in the control group. Additionally, predation rates at artificial nests were highest where red-faced warbler clutch size was smallest (at high elevations). Life-history theory predicts that an individual should invest less in reproduction when high nest predation risk reduces the likely benefit from that nesting attempt and, indeed, we found that birds exhibit phenotypic plasticity in clutch size by laying fewer eggs in response to increasing nest predation risk.

  17. IEE wiring regulations explained and illustrated

    CERN Document Server

    Scaddan, Brian

    2013-01-01

    The IEE Wiring Regulations Explained and Illustrated, Second Edition discusses the recommendations of the IEE Regulations for the Electrical Equipment of Buildings for the safe selection or erection of wiring installations. The book emphasizes earthing, bonding, protection, and circuit design of electrical wirings. The text reviews the fundamental requirements for safety, earthing systems, the earth fault loop impedance, and supplementary bonding. The book also describes the different types of protection, such as protection against mechanical damage, overcurrent, under voltage (which prevents

  18. A More Practical Method for Explaining Equilibrium

    OpenAIRE

    Yi-Jang Yu

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to suggest a more practical method for explaining market equilibrium in a two-dimensional risk-return world. Its main difference from textbook contents is to define, in both qualitative and quantitative ways, the environment or the system factor and treat it as an endogenous variable. Once the two-dimensional framework that is capable of managing uncertainty and environmental relationship can be reasonably established, a greater number of economic issues can be effect...

  19. "Explaining the Gender Wage Gap in Georgia"

    OpenAIRE

    Tamar Khitarishvili

    2009-01-01

    This paper evaluates gender wage differentials in Georgia between 2000 and 2004. Using ordinary least squares, we find that the gender wage gap in Georgia is substantially higher than in other transition countries. Correcting for sample selection bias using the Heckman approach further increases the gender wage gap. The Blinder Oaxaca decomposition results suggest that most of the wage gap remains unexplained. The explained portion of the gap is almost entirely attributed to industrial variab...

  20. Explaining seeing? Disentangling qualia from perceptual organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibáñez, Agustin; Bekinschtein, Tristan

    2010-09-01

    Abstract Visual perception and integration seem to play an essential role in our conscious phenomenology. Relatively local neural processing of reentrant nature may explain several visual integration processes (feature binding or figure-ground segregation, object recognition, inference, competition), even without attention or cognitive control. Based on the above statements, should the neural signatures of visual integration (via reentrant process) be non-reportable phenomenological qualia? We argue that qualia are not required to understand this perceptual organization.

  1. Private Military Companies: An Assessment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    O'Brien, II, James M

    2008-01-01

    ...) as defense contractors. The history of privatized security, consideration of ethical and legal issues, and examination of three case studies allows assessment of PMCs in accordance with five criteria for success...

  2. Changing of the Guard: Nation Building and the United States Military

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    of Mesopotamian history. -Colin Powell During his January 1992 state of the union address, George H. W. Bush claimed...11 Benjamin Buley, The New American Way of War: Military Culture and the Political Utility of Force (New York, NY: Routledge, 2008), 80. Sarkesian...free and the home of the brave. 5 Balance of Power: Elucidating the Trend George Kennan claimed America is ―a nation which has no

  3. Bibliography of the Latest Russian Literature (2010-2015 on the Problems of Byzantine Military Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Ivanovich Lysikov

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The present outline deals with the bibliographical review of Russian literature on the history of Byzantium published during the period from 2010 to 2015 and concerned with the problems of Byzantine military organization. All of the mentioned scientific works are divided into four parts for ease of data presentation: monographs, translations of sources (both of these two divisions are accompanied with the brief abstracts which reveal contents of the works indicated here, articles and theses.

  4. The Consequences of Modern Military Deployment on Calcium Status and Bone Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    tissue disorders were the predominant illness and injury- related category for ambulatory visits in military clinics and facilities in 2008, accounting...tobacco use, high bone turnover rates, and family history of osteoporosis all contribute to a higher risk of osteoporosis .23 During the physical...Soldiers reported they did not consume large quantities of milk in Baghdad because of its unpleasant taste. Increased skin pigmen- tation, obesity , and

  5. Assessment and treatment of soil and ground water contamination at military airfields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollow, T.; Goth, M.; Nazari, M.

    1994-01-01

    Assessing air pollution at military airfields is difficult for some special reasons. These may be lack of data, frequently changing - and often, therefore, uninformed - personnel, and a history of the use of the most diverse chemicals which were not always properly stored and disposed of. As an added problem, decontamination needs to be effected stepwise, according to priorities, for lack of funds. Procedural recommendations are given by means of practical examples. (orig.) [de

  6. Can surgery improve neurological function in penetrating spinal injury? A review of the military and civilian literature and treatment recommendations for military neurosurgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimo, Paul; Ragel, Brian T; Rosner, Michael; Gluf, Wayne; McCafferty, Randall

    2010-05-01

    Penetrating spinal injury (PSI), although an infrequent injury in the civilian population, is not an infrequent injury in military conflicts. Throughout military history, the role of surgery in the treatment of PSI has been controversial. The US is currently involved in 2 military campaigns, the hallmark of both being the widespread use of various explosive devices. The authors reviewed the evidence for or against the use of decompressive laminectomy to treat PSI to provide a triservice (US Army, Navy, and Air Force) consensus and treatment recommendations for military neurosurgeons and spine surgeons. A US National Library of Medicine PubMed database search that identified all literature dealing with acute management of PSI from military conflicts and civilian urban trauma centers in the post-Vietnam War period was undertaken. Nineteen retrospective case series (11 military and 8 civilian) met the study criteria. Eleven military articles covered a 20-year time span that included 782 patients who suffered either gunshot or blast-related projectile wounds. Four papers included sufficient data that analyzed the effectiveness of surgery compared with nonoperative management, 6 papers concluded that surgery was of no benefit, 2 papers indicated that surgery did have a role, and 3 papers made no comment. Eight civilian articles covered a 9-year time span that included 653 patients with spinal gunshot wounds. Two articles lacked any comparative data because of treatment bias. Two papers concluded that decompressive laminectomy had a beneficial role, 1 paper favored the removal of intracanal bullets between T-12 and L-4, and 5 papers indicated that surgery was of no benefit. Based on the authors' military and civilian PubMed literature search, most of the evidence suggests that decompressive laminectomy does not improve neurological function in patients with PSI. However, there are serious methodological shortcomings in both literature groups. For this and other reasons

  7. A Brief History of Propaganda During Conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haroro J. Ingram

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available There is a tendency in scholarly and strategic-policy fields to see the propaganda produced by groups like Islamic State and Al-Qaeda as historically unheralded. As evidence, slickly produced communiques and a penchant for using social media are typically highlighted. This narrow perspective, in placing the current phenomenon into an historical and thematic vacuum, infers that history has little to offer contemporary efforts to understand and confront extremist propaganda. This Research Paper explores the history of propaganda during conflict and draws out key lessons for improving counter-terrorism strategic communications. For millennia the evolution of propaganda strategies during conflict has been driven by three fundamental factors: (i. developments in communication technology, (ii. advancements in military technology and strategy, and (iii. the shifting relationship between the political elite and the populace. This rich history offers vital lessons for contextualising and improving current (and future efforts. Overall, history suggests that a strategic communications campaign during conflict is more likely to succeed if it based on a multifaceted approach characterised by the deployment of a diversity of messages that leverage a variety of target audience motivations, uses all pertinent means of communication (not just the latest, and synchronises this messaging with strategic-policy/politico-military actions. This Research Paper is a publication within ICCT’s Counter-Terrorism Strategic Communications (CTSC Project, which brings together experts from Europe, USA and Australia as well as researchers from the Middle East and South Asia. It was set up to tackle one of the most significant national and global security challenges facing the world today: how to understand and confront the propaganda messaging of violent extremists like al-Qaeda and the so-called Islamic State. Through empirical research, based largely on primary source

  8. Abortion: a history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovey, G

    1985-01-01

    This review of abortion history considers sacred and secular practice and traces abortion in the US, the legacy of the 19th century, and the change that occurred in the 20th century. Abortion has been practiced since ancient times, but its legality and availability have been threatened continuously by forces that would denigrate women's fundamental rights. Currently, while efforts to decrease the need for abortion through contraception and education continue, access to abortion remains crucial for the well-being of millions of women. That access will never be secure until profound changes occur in the whole society. Laws that prohibit absolutely the practice of abortion are a relatively recent development. In the early Roman Catholic church, abortion was permitted for male fetuses in the first 40 days of pregnancy and for female fetuses in the first 80-90 days. Not until 1588 did Pope Sixtus V declare all abortion murder, with excommunication as the punishment. Only 3 years later a new pope found the absolute sanction unworkable and again allowed early abortions. 300 years would pass before the Catholic church under Pius IX again declared all abortion murder. This standard, declared in 1869, remains the official position of the church, reaffirmed by the current pope. In 1920 the Soviet Union became the 1st modern state formally to legalize abortion. In the early period after the 1917 revolution, abortion was readily available in state operated facilities. These facilities were closed and abortion made illegal when it became clear that the Soviet Union would have to defend itself against Nazi Germany. After World War II women were encouraged to enter the labor force, and abortion once again became legal. The cases of the Catholic church and the Soviet Union illustrate the same point. Abortion legislation has never been in the hands of women. In the 20th century, state policy has been determined by the rhythms of economic and military expansion, the desire for cheap

  9. Resurgent Military Political Adventurism in West Africa: Implications ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR Nneka

    military intervention in the politics of some West African states and this calls for ... experienced military coup leading to military rule in most cases. ... study, we shall examine the closely knit nature of inter-state relationships in West ... It is instructive to note that the military juntas did not fare better in office. ..... Sweden: SIPRI.

  10. 32 CFR 637.4 - Military Police and the USACIDC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Military Police and the USACIDC. 637.4 Section... ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MILITARY POLICE INVESTIGATION Investigations § 637.4 Military Police and the USACIDC. (a) The military police or the USACIDC are authorized to investigate allegations of...

  11. 7 CFR 3550.158 - Active military duty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Active military duty. 3550.158 Section 3550.158... AGRICULTURE DIRECT SINGLE FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Regular Servicing § 3550.158 Active military duty...-time active military duty after a loan is closed not exceed six percent. Active military duty does not...

  12. 20 CFR 226.61 - Use of military service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use of military service. 226.61 Section 226... § 226.61 Use of military service. (a) Claim for use of military service. An employee is deemed to have filed a claim for the use of military service and earnings as service and compensation under the...

  13. 20 CFR 614.21 - Findings of Federal military agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Findings of Federal military agency. 614.21... UNEMPLOYMENT COMPENSATION FOR EX-SERVICEMEMBERS Responsibilities of Federal Military Agencies and State Agencies § 614.21 Findings of Federal military agency. (a) Findings in military documents. Information...

  14. 32 CFR 644.522 - Clearance of military scrap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Clearance of military scrap. 644.522 Section 644... Excess Land and Improvements § 644.522 Clearance of military scrap. Military scrap can contain or be... destruction, by using command, of all military scrap and scrap metal from lands suitable for cultivation or...

  15. Deployment, Mental Health Problems, Suicidality, and Use of Mental Health Services Among Military Personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Carol; Stanley, Ian H; Hom, Melanie A; Lim, Ingrid C; Joiner, Thomas E

    2016-01-01

    Following deployment, soldiers may struggle to cope with the after-effects of combat service and experience increased suicidality. Therefore, connection to mental health services is vital. Research regarding the relationship between deployment, suicidality, and mental health connections has been equivocal, with some studies finding a link between deployment history and mental health outcomes, and others not. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of military deployment on mental health and service utilization outcomes using a longitudinal design. Deployment history, mental health visits, symptoms of suicidality, and various mental health outcomes were assessed in a sample of 1,566 Army recruiters at study entry and 18-months follow-up. Deployment history was positively associated with mental health visits, number of major depressive episodes, and acquired capability for suicide at baseline; however, no significant relationship between deployment, mental health visits, and any other suicide or mental health-related outcomes emerged at baseline or follow-up. Findings suggest a disconnection from mental health services among military personnel. Implications for treatment and suicide prevention efforts among military personnel are discussed.

  16. Implementation and execution of military forward resuscitation programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Timothy J; Nadler, Roy; Badloe, John; Butler, Frank K; Glassberg, Elon

    2014-05-01

    Through necessity, military medicine has been the driver of medical innovation throughout history. The battlefield presents challenges, such as the requirement to provide care while under threat, resource limitation, and prolonged evacuation times, which must be overcome to improve casualty survival. Focus must also be placed on identifying the causes, and timing, of death within the battlefield. By doing so, military medical doctrine can be shaped, appropriate goals set, new concepts adopted, and relevant technologies investigated and implemented. The majority of battlefield casualties still die in the prehospital environment, before reaching a medical treatment facility, and hemorrhage remains the leading cause of potentially survivable death. Many countries have adopted policies that push damage control resuscitation forward into the prehospital setting, while understanding the need for timely medical evacuation. Although these policies vary according to country, the majority share many common principles. These include the need for early catastrophic hemorrhage control at point-of-wounding, judicious use of fluid resuscitation, use of blood products as far forward as possible, and early evacuation to a surgical facility. Some countries place medical providers with the ability, and resources, for advanced resuscitation with the forward fighting units (perhaps at company level), whereas others have established en route resuscitation capabilities. If we are to continue to improve battlefield casualty survival, we must continue to work together and learn from each other. We must also carry on working alongside our civilian colleagues so that the benefits of translational experience are not lost. This review describes several countries current military approaches to prehospital trauma care. These approaches, refined through a decade of experience, merit consideration for integration into civilian prehospital care practice.

  17. The Manhattan project—a part of physics history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mårtensson-Pendrill, Ann-Marie

    2006-11-01

    Current physics textbooks tend to exclude military applications, but it is explained here how a study of the Manhattan project—the devastatingly successful attempt to develop an atomic bomb—can show students how the lives and work of physicists are shaped by events in society. Much of the original source material is available in books and on the internet (and referenced here), which allows students to discover the views of the scientists for themselves.

  18. Calha Norte: Explaining Brazilian Army Presence in the Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-06-01

    the Yanomami Indians.""’ The potential wealth present in the Calha Norte region has been estimated at over US$134 billion, enough to repay almost all...garimpeiros to remain on Yanomami land was essentially a military decision. The Army’s pro-miner position was highlighted by official statements made by the...Environmental Policy and Military Geopolitics in the Development of the Brazilian Amazon: The Case of the Yanomami ," Development and Change (1992

  19. Relationship between psychosocial stress dimensions and salivary cortisol in military police officers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Petri Tavares

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: to analyze the relationship between psychosocial stress dimensions and salivary cortisol in military police officers. Method: cross-sectional and analytical study with 134 military police officers. The Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI Model scale has been used to assess psychosocial stress. Salivary cortisol was collected in three samples. The following tests were used: Student's t-test, Mann-Whitney, ANOVA, Bonferroni, Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn. Pearson and Spearman correlation methods were used, as well as multiple linear regression. Cortisol at night showed an ascending statistical association with the psychosocial reward (p=0.004 and a descending association with the effort-impairment scores (p=0.017. Being part of the Special Tactical Operations Group (GATE and the diastolic blood pressure explained 13.5% of the variation in cortisol levels on waking up. The sectors GATE, Special Patrol of the Elite Squad of the Military Police and Motorcyclists explained 21.9% of the variation in cortisol levels 30-minute after awakening. The variables GATE sector and Effort Dimension explained 27.7% of the variation in cortisol levels at night. Conclusion: it was evidenced that salivary cortisol variation was influenced by individual, labor and psychosocial variables.

  20. Relationship between psychosocial stress dimensions and salivary cortisol in military police officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Juliana Petri; Lautert, Liana; Magnago, Tânia Solange Bosi de Souza; Consiglio, Angélica Rosat; Pai, Daiane Dal

    2017-04-20

    to analyze the relationship between psychosocial stress dimensions and salivary cortisol in military police officers. cross-sectional and analytical study with 134 military police officers. The Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI) Model scale has been used to assess psychosocial stress. Salivary cortisol was collected in three samples. The following tests were used: Student's t-test, Mann-Whitney, ANOVA, Bonferroni, Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn. Pearson and Spearman correlation methods were used, as well as multiple linear regression. Cortisol at night showed an ascending statistical association with the psychosocial reward (p=0.004) and a descending association with the effort-impairment scores (p=0.017). Being part of the Special Tactical Operations Group (GATE) and the diastolic blood pressure explained 13.5% of the variation in cortisol levels on waking up. The sectors GATE, Special Patrol of the Elite Squad of the Military Police and Motorcyclists explained 21.9% of the variation in cortisol levels 30-minute after awakening. The variables GATE sector and Effort Dimension explained 27.7% of the variation in cortisol levels at night. it was evidenced that salivary cortisol variation was influenced by individual, labor and psychosocial variables.