WorldWideScience

Sample records for explains contextual modifications

  1. Adaptive gain modulation in V1 explains contextual modifications during bisection learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Schäfer

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The neuronal processing of visual stimuli in primary visual cortex (V1 can be modified by perceptual training. Training in bisection discrimination, for instance, changes the contextual interactions in V1 elicited by parallel lines. Before training, two parallel lines inhibit their individual V1-responses. After bisection training, inhibition turns into non-symmetric excitation while performing the bisection task. Yet, the receptive field of the V1 neurons evaluated by a single line does not change during task performance. We present a model of recurrent processing in V1 where the neuronal gain can be modulated by a global attentional signal. Perceptual learning mainly consists in strengthening this attentional signal, leading to a more effective gain modulation. The model reproduces both the psychophysical results on bisection learning and the modified contextual interactions observed in V1 during task performance. It makes several predictions, for instance that imagery training should improve the performance, or that a slight stimulus wiggling can strongly affect the representation in V1 while performing the task. We conclude that strengthening a top-down induced gain increase can explain perceptual learning, and that this top-down signal can modify lateral interactions within V1, without significantly changing the classical receptive field of V1 neurons.

  2. Relevance of Student and Contextual School Variables in Explaining a Student's Severity of Violence Experienced

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooij, Ton

    2015-01-01

    Teachers conceptualise and interpret violent behaviour of secondary students in different ways. They also differ in their estimates of the relevance of student and contextual school variables when explaining the severity of violence experienced by students. Research can assist here by explicating the role of different types of contextual school…

  3. Explaining consumer attitudes to genetic modification in food production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredahl, Lone

    Consumers have not had many possibilities yet for seeking out, buying and consuming genetically modified food products. However, for various reasons consumer attitude formation with regard to these products is likely to be complex and closely related to personal values. The paper presents a model...... for explaining consumer attitudes to genetic modification in food production which builds on modern cognitive psychology and multi-attribute attitude theory. In addition, the paper introduces the empirical research which is undertaken at present to validate and estimate the parameters of the model by means...

  4. Relevance of student and contextual school variables in explaining a student’s severity of violence experienced

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooij, Ton

    2015-01-01

    Teachers conceptualise and interpret violent behaviour of secondary students in different ways. They also differ in their estimates of the relevance of student and contextual school variables when explaining the severity of violence experienced by students. Research can assist here by explicating

  5. Contextual interactions in grating plaid configurations are explained by natural image statistics and neural modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udo Alexander Ernst

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Processing natural scenes requires the visual system to integrate local features into global object descriptions. To achieve coherent representations, the human brain uses statistical dependencies to guide weighting of local feature conjunctions. Pairwise interactions among feature detectors in early visual areas may form the early substrate of these local feature bindings. To investigate local interaction structures in visual cortex, we combined psychophysical experiments with computational modeling and natural scene analysis. We first measured contrast thresholds for 2x2 grating patch arrangements (plaids, which differed in spatial frequency composition (low, high or mixed, number of grating patch co-alignments (0, 1 or 2, and inter-patch distances (1° and 2° of visual angle. Contrast thresholds for the different configurations were compared to the prediction of probability summation (PS among detector families tuned to the four retinal positions. For 1° distance the thresholds for all configurations were larger than predicted by PS, indicating inhibitory interactions. For 2° distance, thresholds were significantly lower compared to PS when the plaids were homogeneous in spatial frequency and orientation, but not when spatial frequencies were mixed or there was at least one misalignment. Next, we constructed a neural population model with horizontal laminar structure, which reproduced the detection thresholds after adaptation of connection weights. Consistent with prior work, contextual interactions were medium-range inhibition and long-range, orientation-specific excitation. However, inclusion of orientation-specific, inhibitory interactions between populations with different spatial frequency preferences were crucial for explaining detection thresholds. Finally, for all plaid configurations we computed their likelihood of occurrence in natural images. The likelihoods turned out to be inversely related to the detection thresholds obtained

  6. Contextualizing ontologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouquet, Paolo; Giunchiglia, Fausto; Van Harmelen, Frank; Serafini, Luciano; Stuckenschmidt, Heiner

    2004-01-01

    Ontologies are shared models of a domain that encode a view which is common to a set of different parties. Contexts are local models that encode a party's subjective view of a domain. In this paper, we show how ontologies can be contextualized, thus acquiring certain useful properties that a pure

  7. Contextual Autism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raahauge, Kirsten Marie

    2009-01-01

    This project deals with the notion of ghost anthropologically and artistic. The contextual autism of ghosting reveals itself as a sensation of in-betweeness in art as well as in everyday life. The ghost is not easily defined; as Jacques Derrida states in Spectres of Marx (1993/1994) about...

  8. Brogaard's Moral Contextualism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binderup, Lars Grassme

    2008-01-01

    Brogaard's non-indexical version of moral contextualism has two related problems. It is unable to account for the function of truth-governed assertoric moral discourse, since it leaves two (semantically clearheaded) disputants without any incentive to resolve seemingly contradictory moral claims....... The moral contextualist could explain why people do feel such an incentive by ascribing false beliefs about the semantic workings of their own language. But, secondly, this leaves Brogaard's moral contextualism looking weaker than a Mackie-style invariantist error theory about morals. The latter is equally...... non-objectivist, but less revisionist, since it takes the semantics of moral discourse at face value, and can also explain all of Brogaard's other linguistic evidence....

  9. Communication games measure preparation contextuality

    OpenAIRE

    Hameedi, Alley; Tavakoli, Armin; Marques, Breno; Bourennane, Mohamed

    2017-01-01

    A communication game consists of distributed parties attempting to jointly complete a task with restricted communication. Such games are useful tools for studying limitations of physical theories. A theory exhibits preparation contextuality whenever its predictions cannot be explained by a preparation noncontextual model. Here, we show that the ability of an operational theory to perform communication games is a measure of the degree of preparation contextuality in that theory. For statistics...

  10. Personalizing and Contextualizing Multimedia Case Methods in University-based Teacher Education: An Important Modification for Promoting Technological Design in School Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bencze, Larry; Hewitt, Jim; Pedretti, Erminia

    2009-01-01

    Results of various studies suggest that multimedia ‘case methods’ (activities associated with case documentaries) have many benefits in university-based teacher education contexts. They can, for example, help to ‘bridge the gap’ between perspectives and practices held by academic teacher educators and those held by student-teachers - who may adhere to perspectives and practices commonly supported in schools. On the other hand, some studies, along with theoretical arguments, suggest that there are limits to the effectiveness of multimedia case methods - because, for example, they can never fully represent realities of teaching and learning in schools. Furthermore, often missing from multimedia case methods is the student-teacher in the role of teacher. To address these concerns, we modified an existing multimedia case method by associating it with a special practice teaching situation in a school context. Qualitative data analyzed using constant comparative methods suggest that student-teachers engaged in this modified multimedia case method developed relatively deep commitments to encouraging students to conduct technology design projects - a non-traditional practice in school science. Factors that appeared to influence development of this motivation included student-teachers’ pre-instructional perspectives about science and the personalization and contextualization inherent to the modified multimedia case method.

  11. Contextual inquiry for medical device design

    CERN Document Server

    Privitera, Mary Beth

    2015-01-01

    Contextual Inquiry for Medical Device Design helps users understand the everyday use of medical devices and the way their usage supports the development of better products and increased market acceptance. The text explains the concept of contextual inquiry using real-life examples to illustrate its application. Case studies provide a frame of reference on how contextual inquiry is successfully used during product design, ultimately producing safer, improved medical devices. Presents the ways contextual inquiry can be used to inform the evaluation and business case of technologyHelps users

  12. Contextual Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janani Harish

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available When the knowledge gained over centuries has to be presented to students through a 12-15 year study, it has to be abridged and organized elaborately. This process of encapsulating all knowledge into an educational course often results in fragmentation of knowledge and a mental divorce from life. Life knowledge that is reduced to objective principles may be intelligible to the intellect, but is incomprehensible to the imagination, creativity and emotional intelligence, all of which are important to the full development of personality. A study of Economics without the human and social dimensions, industrialization detached from ecology, or science devoid of moral accountability results in problems. Education of each part must be in the context of the whole. Knowing the whole context helps one get the right perspective to address the issue effectively. In the education of the future, the gap between abstract concept and social relevance must be bridged. The following article explores the need for contextual education and the ways in which it can be implemented.

  13. A protocol for evaluating contextual design principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamps, Arthur

    2014-11-07

    This paper explains how scientific data can be incorporated into urban design decisions, such as evaluating contextual design principles. The recommended protocols are based on the Cochrane Reviews that have been widely used in medical research. The major concepts of a Cochrane Review are explained, as well as the underlying mathematics. The underlying math is meta-analysis. Data are reported for three applications and seven contextual design policies. It is suggested that use of the Cochrane protocols will be of great assistance to planners by providing scientific data that can be used to evaluate the efficacies of contextual design policies prior to implementing those policies.

  14. A Protocol for Evaluating Contextual Design Principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Stamps

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper explains how scientific data can be incorporated into urban design decisions, such as evaluating contextual design principles. The recommended protocols are based on the Cochrane Reviews that have been widely used in medical research. The major concepts of a Cochrane Review are explained, as well as the underlying mathematics. The underlying math is meta-analysis. Data are reported for three applications and seven contextual design policies. It is suggested that use of the Cochrane protocols will be of great assistance to planners by providing scientific data that can be used to evaluate the efficacies of contextual design policies prior to implementing those policies.

  15. Communication Games Reveal Preparation Contextuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hameedi, Alley; Tavakoli, Armin; Marques, Breno; Bourennane, Mohamed

    2017-12-01

    A communication game consists of distributed parties attempting to jointly complete a task with restricted communication. Such games are useful tools for studying limitations of physical theories. A theory exhibits preparation contextuality whenever its predictions cannot be explained by a preparation noncontextual model. Here, we show that communication games performed in operational theories reveal the preparation contextuality of that theory. For statistics obtained in a particular family of communication games, we show a direct correspondence with correlations in spacelike separated events obeying the no-signaling principle. Using this, we prove that all mixed quantum states of any finite dimension are preparation contextual. We report on an experimental realization of a communication game involving three-level quantum systems from which we observe a strong violation of the constraints of preparation noncontextuality.

  16. Human Rights and Behavior Modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, Philip

    1974-01-01

    Criticisms of behavior modification, which charge that it violates ethical and legal principles, are discussed and reasons are presented to explain behavior modification's susceptibility to attack. (GW)

  17. Multiculturalism and contextualism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2015-01-01

    Many political theorists of multiculturalism (e.g. Joseph Carens, Bhikhu Parekh, James Tully) describe their theories as “contextualist.” But it is unclear what “contextualism” means and what difference it makes for political theory. I use a specific prominent example of a multiculturalist...... discussion, namely Tariq Modood’s argument about “moderate secularism,” as a test case and distinguish between different senses of contextualism. I discuss whether the claim that political theory is contextual in each sense is novel and interesting, and whether contextualism is a distinct feature...... of political theory of multiculturalism. I argue that the forms of contextualism which concern the scope and methodology of political theory are sensible, but not novel or distinctive of multiculturalism. I then discuss the more controversial forms of contextualism, which I call political and theoretical...

  18. Contextuality and Indistinguishability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Acacio de Barros

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that in quantum mechanics we cannot always define consistently properties that are context independent. Many approaches exist to describe contextual properties, such as Contextuality by Default (CbD, sheaf theory, topos theory, and non-standard or signed probabilities. In this paper, we propose a treatment of contextual properties that is specific to quantum mechanics, as it relies on the relationship between contextuality and indistinguishability. In particular, we propose that if we assume the ontological thesis that quantum particles or properties can be indistinguishable yet different, no contradiction arising from a Kochen–Specker-type argument appears: when we repeat an experiment, we are in reality performing an experiment measuring a property that is indistinguishable from the first, but not the same. We will discuss how the consequences of this move may help us understand quantum contextuality.

  19. Coordinated modifications in mesophyll conductance, photosynthetic potentials and leaf nitrogen contribute to explain the large variation in foliage net assimilation rates across Quercus ilex provenances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peguero-Pina, José Javier; Sisó, Sergio; Flexas, Jaume; Galmés, Jeroni; Niinemets, Ülo; Sancho-Knapik, Domingo; Gil-Pelegrín, Eustaquio

    2017-08-01

    Leaf dry mass per unit area (LMA) has been suggested to negatively affect the mesophyll conductance to CO2 (gm), the most limiting factor for photosynthesis per unit leaf area (AN) in many evergreens. Several anatomical traits (i.e., greater leaf thickness and thicker cell walls) constraining gm could explain the negative scaling of gm and AN with LMA across species. However, the Mediterranean sclerophyll Quercus ilex L. shows a major within-species variation in functional traits (greater LMA associated with higher nitrogen content and AN) that might contrast the worldwide trends. The objective of this study was to elucidate the existence of variations in other leaf anatomical parameters determining gm and/or biochemical traits improving the capacity of carboxylation (Vc,max) that could modulate the relationship of AN with LMA across this species. The results revealed that gm was the most limiting factor for AN in all the studied Q. ilex provenances from Spain and Italy. The within-species differences in gm can be partly attributed to the variation in several leaf anatomical traits, mainly cell-wall thickness (Tcw), chloroplast thickness (Tchl) and chloroplast exposed surface area facing intercellular air spaces (Sc/S). A positive scaling of gm and AN with Vc,max was also found, associated with an increased nitrogen content per area. A strong correlation of maximum photosynthetic electron transport (Jmax) with AN further indicated a coordination between the carboxylase activity and the electron transport chain. In conclusion, we have confirmed the strong ecotypic variation in the photosynthetic performance of individual provenances of Q. ilex. Thus, the within-species increases found in AN for Q. ilex with increasing foliage robustness can be explained by a synergistic effect among anatomical (at the subcellular and cellular level) and biochemical traits, which markedly improved gm and Vc,max. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights

  20. Cultural and Contextual Influences on Parenting in Mexican American Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Rebecca M. B.; Roosa, Mark W.; Weaver, Scott R.; Nair, Rajni L.

    2009-01-01

    Family stress theory can explain associations between contextual stressors and parenting. The theory, however, has not been tested among Mexican Americans or expanded to include cultural-contextual risks. This study examined associations between neighborhood, economic, and acculturative stressors and parenting behaviors in a sample of 570…

  1. Introduction: Textual and contextual voices of translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    Voices – marks of the tangle of subjectivities involved in textual processes – constitute the very fabric of texts in general and translations in particular. The title of this book, Textual and Contextual Voices of Translation, refers both to textual voices, that is, the voices found within...... the translated texts, and to contextual voices, that is, the voices of those involved in shaping, commenting, or otherwise influencing the textual voices. The latter appear in prefaces, reviews, and other texts that surround the translated texts and provide them with a context. Our main claim is that studying...... both the textual and contextual voices helps us better understand and explain the complexity of both the translation process and the translation product. The dovetailed approach to translation research that is advocated in this book aims at highlighting the diversity of participants, power positions...

  2. Complexity explained

    CERN Document Server

    Erdi, Peter

    2008-01-01

    This book explains why complex systems research is important in understanding the structure, function and dynamics of complex natural and social phenomena. Readers will learn the basic concepts and methods of complex system research.

  3. Contextual factors explain risk-seeking preferences in rhesus monkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah eHeilbronner

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to humans and most other animals, rhesus macaques strongly prefer risky rewards to safe ones with similar expected value. Why macaques prefer risk while other animals typically avoid it remains puzzling and challenges the idea that monkeys provide a model for human economic behavior. Here we argue that monkeys’ risk-seeking preferences are neither mysterious nor unique. Risk-seeking in macaques is possibly induced by specific elements of the tasks that have been used to measure their risk preferences. The most important of these elements are (1 very small stakes, (2 serially repeated gambles with short delays between trials, and (3 task parameters that are learned through experience, not described verbally. Together, we hypothesize that these features will readily induce risk-seeking in monkeys, humans, and rats. Thus, elements of task design that are often ignored when comparing studies of risk attitudes can easily overwhelm basal risk preferences. More broadly, these results highlight the fundamental importance of understanding the psychological basis of economic decisions in interpreting preference data and corresponding neural measures.

  4. Designing Contextualized Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Specht, Marcus

    2007-01-01

    Specht, M. (2008). Designing Contextualized Learning. In H. H. Adelsberger, Kinshuk, J. M. Pawlowski & D. Sampson (Eds.), Handbook on Information Technologies for Education and Training (2th ed., pp. 101-111). Springer, Berlin Heidelberg 2008: International Handbook on Information Systems Series.

  5. Contextual Text Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Qiaozhu

    2009-01-01

    With the dramatic growth of text information, there is an increasing need for powerful text mining systems that can automatically discover useful knowledge from text. Text is generally associated with all kinds of contextual information. Those contexts can be explicit, such as the time and the location where a blog article is written, and the…

  6. Tools of Contextualization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouvin, Niels Olof; Brodersen, Ann Christina; Hansen, Frank Allan

    2005-01-01

    in Danish elementary schools, we present the HyConExplorer, a geospatial hypermedia system supporting project based education and learning outside of the classroom through contextualization of information. More specifically, the HyCon-Explorer provides means for: browsing with your feet, annotating...

  7. SPSS explained

    CERN Document Server

    Hinton, Perry R; Brownlow, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    SPSS Explained provides the student with all that they need to undertake statistical analysis using SPSS. It combines a step-by-step approach to each procedure with easy to follow screenshots at each stage of the process. A number of other helpful features are provided: regular advice boxes with tips specific to each test explanations divided into 'essential' and 'advanced' sections to suit readers at different levels frequently asked questions at the end of each chapter. The first edition of this popular book has been fully updated for IBM SPSS version 21 and also includes: chapters that expl

  8. Contextuality under weak assumptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Andrew W.; Wallman, Joel J.; Pashayan, Hakop; Bartlett, Stephen D.; Rudolph, Terry

    2017-03-01

    The presence of contextuality in quantum theory was first highlighted by Bell, Kochen and Specker, who discovered that for quantum systems of three or more dimensions, measurements could not be viewed as deterministically revealing pre-existing properties of the system. More precisely, no model can assign deterministic outcomes to the projectors of a quantum measurement in a way that depends only on the projector and not the context (the full set of projectors) in which it appeared, despite the fact that the Born rule probabilities associated with projectors are independent of the context. A more general, operational definition of contextuality introduced by Spekkens, which we will term ‘probabilistic contextuality’, drops the assumption of determinism and allows for operations other than measurements to be considered contextual. Even two-dimensional quantum mechanics can be shown to be contextual under this generalised notion. Probabilistic noncontextuality represents the postulate that elements of an operational theory that cannot be distinguished from each other based on the statistics of arbitrarily many repeated experiments (they give rise to the same operational probabilities) are ontologically identical. In this paper, we introduce a framework that enables us to distinguish between different noncontextuality assumptions in terms of the relationships between the ontological representations of objects in the theory given a certain relation between their operational representations. This framework can be used to motivate and define a ‘possibilistic’ analogue, encapsulating the idea that elements of an operational theory that cannot be unambiguously distinguished operationally can also not be unambiguously distinguished ontologically. We then prove that possibilistic noncontextuality is equivalent to an alternative notion of noncontextuality proposed by Hardy. Finally, we demonstrate that these weaker noncontextuality assumptions are sufficient to prove

  9. Contextualizing symbol, symbolizing context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maudy, Septiani Yugni; Suryadi, Didi; Mulyana, Endang

    2017-08-01

    When students learn algebra for the first time, inevitably they are experiencing transition from arithmetic to algebraic thinking. Once students could apprehend this essential mathematical knowledge, they are cultivating their ability in solving daily life problems by applying algebra. However, as we dig into this transitional stage, we identified possible students' learning obstacles to be dealt with seriously in order to forestall subsequent hindrance in studying more advance algebra. We come to realize this recurring problem as we undertook the processes of re-personalization and re-contextualization in which we scrutinize the very basic questions: 1) what is variable, linear equation with one variable and their relationship with the arithmetic-algebraic thinking? 2) Why student should learn such concepts? 3) How to teach those concepts to students? By positioning ourselves as a seventh grade student, we address the possibility of children to think arithmetically when confronted with the problems of linear equation with one variable. To help them thinking algebraically, Bruner's modes of representation developed contextually from concrete to abstract were delivered to enhance their interpretation toward the idea of variables. Hence, from the outset we designed the context for student to think symbolically initiated by exploring various symbols that could be contextualized in order to bridge student traversing the arithmetic-algebraic fruitfully.

  10. Contextualizing aquired brain damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Charlotte Marie Bisgaard

    2014-01-01

    Contextualizing aquired brain damage Traditional approaches study ’communicational problems’ often in a discourse of disabledness or deficitness. With an ontology of communcation as something unique and a presupposed uniqueness of each one of us, how could an integrational approach (Integrational...... for people with aquired brain injuries will be presented and comparatively discussed in a traditional versus an integrational perspective. Preliminary results and considerations on ”methods” and ”participation” from this study will be presented along with an overview of the project's empirical data....

  11. The Contextuality of Fallacies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frans H. van Eemeren

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Van Eemeren and Houtlosser observe that Walton’s (and Walton and Krabbe’s notion of ‘dialogue type’ involves a mixture of an empirical notion on a par with a speech event or activity type and a normative notion such as the model of a critical discussion. Then they discuss Walton’s contextual analysis of fallacies as illegitimate dialectical shifts of dialogue types and offer an alternative in which both the empirical and the normative dimension are given their due.

  12. Contextual Advantage for State Discrimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Schmid

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Finding quantitative aspects of quantum phenomena which cannot be explained by any classical model has foundational importance for understanding the boundary between classical and quantum theory. It also has practical significance for identifying information processing tasks for which those phenomena provide a quantum advantage. Using the framework of generalized noncontextuality as our notion of classicality, we find one such nonclassical feature within the phenomenology of quantum minimum-error state discrimination. Namely, we identify quantitative limits on the success probability for minimum-error state discrimination in any experiment described by a noncontextual ontological model. These constraints constitute noncontextuality inequalities that are violated by quantum theory, and this violation implies a quantum advantage for state discrimination relative to noncontextual models. Furthermore, our noncontextuality inequalities are robust to noise and are operationally formulated, so that any experimental violation of the inequalities is a witness of contextuality, independently of the validity of quantum theory. Along the way, we introduce new methods for analyzing noncontextuality scenarios and demonstrate a tight connection between our minimum-error state discrimination scenario and a Bell scenario.

  13. Contextualism in Normative Political Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2016-01-01

    Contextualism denotes a set of ideas about the importance of attention to context. The topic of the article is contextualism in normative political theory/philosophy, in relation to the part of political theory concerned with systematic political argument for normative claims—evaluative claims...

  14. Individual and contextual factors associated with verbal bullying among Brazilian adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Azeredo, CM; Levy, RB; Araya, R.; Menezes,PR

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Few studies have been carried out in low- middle-income countries assessing contextual characteristics associated with bullying. This study aimed to assess the relative importance of contextual (school and city) and individual-level factors to explain the variance in verbal bullying among a nationally representative sample of Brazilian adolescents. Methods ...

  15. A contextual perspective on presupposition, with reference to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper aims to elaborate on the notion of 'presupposition' from the contextual perspective in consideration of translation studies. Presupposition plays an important role for researchers to understand translation or the process of translating, work out the implications of translated texts, and explain various issues ...

  16. Secondary Students' Stable and Unstable Optics Conceptions Using Contextualized Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Hye-Eun; Treagust, David F.

    2014-01-01

    This study focuses on elucidating and explaining reasons for the stability of and interrelationships between students' conceptions about "Light Propagation" and "Visibility of Objects" using contextualized questions across 3 years of secondary schooling from Years 7 to 9. In a large-scale quantitative study involving 1,233…

  17. Individual and contextual factors associated with verbal bullying among Brazilian adolescents

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Azeredo, Catarina Machado; Levy, Renata Bertazzi; Araya, Ricardo; Menezes, Paulo Rossi

    2015-01-01

    .... This study aimed to assess the relative importance of contextual (school and city) and individual-level factors to explain the variance in verbal bullying among a nationally representative sample of Brazilian adolescents...

  18. Contextual sensitivity in scientific reproducibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Bavel, Jay J.; Mende-Siedlecki, Peter; Brady, William J.; Reinero, Diego A.

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, scientists have paid increasing attention to reproducibility. For example, the Reproducibility Project, a large-scale replication attempt of 100 studies published in top psychology journals found that only 39% could be unambiguously reproduced. There is a growing consensus among scientists that the lack of reproducibility in psychology and other fields stems from various methodological factors, including low statistical power, researcher’s degrees of freedom, and an emphasis on publishing surprising positive results. However, there is a contentious debate about the extent to which failures to reproduce certain results might also reflect contextual differences (often termed “hidden moderators”) between the original research and the replication attempt. Although psychologists have found extensive evidence that contextual factors alter behavior, some have argued that context is unlikely to influence the results of direct replications precisely because these studies use the same methods as those used in the original research. To help resolve this debate, we recoded the 100 original studies from the Reproducibility Project on the extent to which the research topic of each study was contextually sensitive. Results suggested that the contextual sensitivity of the research topic was associated with replication success, even after statistically adjusting for several methodological characteristics (e.g., statistical power, effect size). The association between contextual sensitivity and replication success did not differ across psychological subdisciplines. These results suggest that researchers, replicators, and consumers should be mindful of contextual factors that might influence a psychological process. We offer several guidelines for dealing with contextual sensitivity in reproducibility. PMID:27217556

  19. Empathy and contextual social cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melloni, Margherita; Lopez, Vladimir; Ibanez, Agustin

    2014-03-01

    Empathy is a highly flexible and adaptive process that allows for the interplay of prosocial behavior in many different social contexts. Empathy appears to be a very situated cognitive process, embedded with specific contextual cues that trigger different automatic and controlled responses. In this review, we summarize relevant evidence regarding social context modulation of empathy for pain. Several contextual factors, such as stimulus reality and personal experience, affectively link with other factors, emotional cues, threat information, group membership, and attitudes toward others to influence the affective, sensorimotor, and cognitive processing of empathy. Thus, we propose that the frontoinsular-temporal network, the so-called social context network model (SCNM), is recruited during the contextual processing of empathy. This network would (1) update the contextual cues and use them to construct fast predictions (frontal regions), (2) coordinate the internal (body) and external milieus (insula), and (3) consolidate the context-target associative learning of empathic processes (temporal sites). Furthermore, we propose these context-dependent effects of empathy in the framework of the frontoinsular-temporal network and examine the behavioral and neural evidence of three neuropsychiatric conditions (Asperger syndrome, schizophrenia, and the behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia), which simultaneously present with empathy and contextual integration impairments. We suggest potential advantages of a situated approach to empathy in the assessment of these neuropsychiatric disorders, as well as their relationship with the SCNM.

  20. Recent Advances in Contextuality Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Jayne; Kurzyński, Paweł; Lee, Su-Yong; Soeda, Akihito; Kaszlikowski, Dagomir

    2016-07-01

    Our everyday experiences support the hypothesis that physical systems exist independently of the act of observation. Concordant theories are characterized by the objective realism assumption whereby the act of measurement simply reveals preexisting well-defined elements of reality. In stark contrast quantum mechanics portrays a world in which reality loses its objectivity and is in fact created by observation. Quantum contextuality as first discovered by Bell [1] and Kochen-Specker [2] captures aspects of this philosophical clash between classical and quantum descriptions of the world. Here we briefly summarize some of the more recent advances in the field of quantum contextuality. We approach quantum contextuality through its close relation to Bell type nonlocal scenarios and highlight some of the rapidly developing tests and experimental implementations.

  1. 3D Bayesian contextual classifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Rasmus

    2000-01-01

    We extend a series of multivariate Bayesian 2-D contextual classifiers to 3-D by specifying a simultaneous Gaussian distribution for the feature vectors as well as a prior distribution of the class variables of a pixel and its 6 nearest 3-D neighbours.......We extend a series of multivariate Bayesian 2-D contextual classifiers to 3-D by specifying a simultaneous Gaussian distribution for the feature vectors as well as a prior distribution of the class variables of a pixel and its 6 nearest 3-D neighbours....

  2. Skepticism, Contextualism, Externalism and Modality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ron Wilburn

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I argue for the following claims. Contextualist strategies to tame or localize epistemic skepticism are hopeless if contextualist factors are construed internalistically. However, because efforts to contextualize externalism via subjunctive conditional analysis court circularity, it is only on an internalistic interpretation that contextualist strategies can even be motivated. While these claims do not give us an argument for skepticism, they do give us an argument that contextualism, as such, is not likely to provide us with an argument against skepticism.

  3. Linear contextual modal type theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schack-Nielsen, Anders; Schürmann, Carsten

    Abstract. When one implements a logical framework based on linear type theory, for example the Celf system [?], one is immediately con- fronted with questions about their equational theory and how to deal with logic variables. In this paper, we propose linear contextual modal type theory that gives...

  4. Quantum Contextuality with Stabilizer States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiri Vala

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Pauli groups are ubiquitous in quantum information theory because of their usefulness in describing quantum states and operations and their readily understood symmetry properties. In addition, the most well-understood quantum error correcting codes—stabilizer codes—are built using Pauli operators. The eigenstates of these operators—stabilizer states—display a structure (e.g., mutual orthogonality relationships that has made them useful in examples of multi-qubit non-locality and contextuality. Here, we apply the graph-theoretical contextuality formalism of Cabello, Severini and Winter to sets of stabilizer states, with particular attention to the effect of generalizing two-level qubit systems to odd prime d-level qudit systems. While state-independent contextuality using two-qubit states does not generalize to qudits, we show explicitly how state-dependent contextuality associated with a Bell inequality does generalize. Along the way we note various structural properties of stabilizer states, with respect to their orthogonality relationships, which may be of independent interest.

  5. Contextual Bandits for Information Retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofmann, K.; Whiteson, S.; de Rijke, M.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we give an overview of and outlook on research at the intersection of information retrieval (IR) and contextual bandit problems. A critical problem in information retrieval is online learning to rank, where a search engine strives to improve the quality of the ranked result lists it

  6. Fuzzy-Contextual Contrast Enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parihar, Anil; Verma, Om; Khanna, Chintan

    2017-02-08

    This paper presents contrast enhancement algorithms based on fuzzy contextual information of the images. We introduce fuzzy similarity index and fuzzy contrast factor to capture the neighborhood characteristics of a pixel. A new histogram, using fuzzy contrast factor of each pixel is developed, and termed as the fuzzy dissimilarity histogram (FDH). A cumulative distribution function (CDF) is formed with normalized values of FDH and used as a transfer function to obtain the contrast enhanced image. The algorithm gives good contrast enhancement and preserves the natural characteristic of the image. In order to develop a contextual intensity transfer function, we introduce a fuzzy membership function based on fuzzy similarity index and coefficient of variation of the image. The contextual intensity transfer function is designed using the fuzzy membership function to achieve final contrast enhanced image. The overall algorithm is referred as the fuzzy contextual contrast-enhancement (FCCE) algorithm. The proposed algorithms are compared with conventional and state-of-art contrast enhancement algorithms. The quantitative and visual assessment of the results is performed. The results of quantitative measures are statistically analyzed using t-test. The exhaustive experimentation and analysis show the proposed algorithm efficiently enhances contrast and yields in natural visual quality images.

  7. Contextual Analysis: Invitation to Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garzone, Lio

    This paper contains a report of a theoretical investigation of contextual analysis (CA) that ranked this reading strategy as the most complex of four kindred word recognition skills although many current reading programs advance its use in the beginning stages of formal reading instruction. Three propositions are offered: CA holds kinship with the…

  8. 3-D contextual Bayesian classifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Rasmus

    In this paper we will consider extensions of a series of Bayesian 2-D contextual classification pocedures proposed by Owen (1984) Hjort & Mohn (1984) and Welch & Salter (1971) and Haslett (1985) to 3 spatial dimensions. It is evident that compared to classical pixelwise classification further...

  9. Neural segregation of objective and contextual aspects of fairness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Nicholas D; Symmonds, Mkael; Fleming, Stephen M; Dolan, Raymond J

    2011-04-06

    Perception of fairness can influence outcomes in human exchange. However, an inherent subjectivity in attribution renders it difficult to manipulate fairness experimentally. Here using a modified ultimatum game, within a varying social context, we induced a bias in human subjects' acceptance of objectively identical offers. To explain this fairness-related behavior, we use a computational model to specify metrics for the objective and contextual aspects of fairness, testing for correlations between these model parameters and brain activity determined using functional magnetic resonance imaging. We show that objective social inequality, as defined by our model, is tracked in posterior insula cortex. Crucially, this inequality is integrated with social context in posterior and mid-insula, consistent with construction of a fairness motivation that flexibly adapted to the social environment. We suggest that the dual importance of objective and contextual aspects to fairness we highlight might explain seemingly inconsistent societal phenomena, including public attitudes to income disparities.

  10. Toy Modification Note. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderheiden, Gregg C.; And Others

    Described are toy modifications which enable handicapped individuals to operate battery-powered toys. A battery interrupter is explained as a device which fits between the batteries in a toy and provides the ability to have a separate on-off switch which can be custom designed to fit a handicapped user's needs. Construction and use of three types…

  11. Contextual factors associated with smoking among Brazilian adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Barreto, Sandhi Maria; Giatti, Luana; Casado, Leticia; de Moura, Lenildo; Crespo,Claudio; Malta,Deborah

    2011-01-01

    Background Very few studies have examined the role of school, household and family contexts in youth smoking in middle-income countries. Methods This work describes smoking exposure among 59 992 high school students who took part in the Brazilian Survey of School Health and investigates contextual factors associated with regular smoking, defined as smoking cigarettes at least once in the past 30 days. The explaining variables were grouped into: socio-demographic characteristics, school contex...

  12. IRIT at TREC 2014 Contextual Suggestion Track

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    both criteria users preferences and geographical location criteria. 1 Introduction TREC3 2014 Contextual Suggestion track examines search techniques...Contextual Retrieval Framework We address here the contextual retrieval problem as a multi-criteria decision making ( MCDM ) problem. The difficulty here

  13. Nicotine Withdrawal Disrupts Contextual Learning but Not Recall of Prior Contextual Associations: Implications for Nicotine Addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Portugal, George S.; Gould, Thomas J.

    2008-01-01

    Interactions between nicotine and learning could contribute to nicotine addiction. Although previous research indicates that nicotine withdrawal disrupts contextual learning, the effects of nicotine withdrawal on contextual memories acquired before withdrawal are unknown. The present study investigated whether nicotine withdrawal disrupted recall of prior contextual memories by examining the effects of nicotine withdrawal on recall of nicotine conditioned place preference (CPP) and contextual...

  14. Competing definitions of contextual environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerrett Michael

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The growing interest in the effects of contextual environments on health outcomes has focused attention on the strengths and weaknesses of alternate contextual unit definitions for use in multilevel analysis. The present research examined three methods to define contextual units for a sample of children already enrolled in a respiratory health study. The Inclusive Equal Weights Method (M1 and Inclusive Sample Weighted Method (M2 defined communities using the boundaries of the census blocks that incorporated the residences of the CHS participants, except that the former estimated socio-demographic variables by averaging the census block data within each community, while the latter used weighted proportion of CHS participants per block. The Minimum Bounding Rectangle Method (M3 generated minimum bounding rectangles that included 95% of the CHS participants and produced estimates of census variables using the weighted proportion of each block within these rectangles. GIS was used to map the locations of study participants, define the boundaries of the communities where study participants reside, and compute estimates of socio-demographic variables. The sensitivity of census variable estimates to the choice of community boundaries and weights was assessed using standard tests of significance. Results The estimates of contextual variables vary significantly depending on the choice of neighborhood boundaries and weights. The choice of boundaries therefore shapes the community profile and the relationships between its components (variables. Conclusion Multilevel analysis concerned with the effects of contextual environments on health requires careful consideration of what constitutes a contextual unit for a given study sample, because the alternate definitions may have differential impact on the results. The three alternative methods used in this research all carry some subjectivity, which is embedded in the decision as to what

  15. Experimental contextuality in classical light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tao; Zeng, Qiang; Song, Xinbing; Zhang, Xiangdong

    2017-03-14

    The Klyachko, Can, Binicioglu, and Shumovsky (KCBS) inequality is an important contextuality inequality in three-level system, which has been demonstrated experimentally by using quantum states. Using the path and polarization degrees of freedom of classical optics fields, we have constructed the classical trit (cetrit), tested the KCBS inequality and its geometrical form (Wright's inequality) in this work. The projection measurement has been implemented, the clear violations of the KCBS inequality and its geometrical form have been observed. This means that the contextuality inequality, which is commonly used in test of the conflict between quantum theory and noncontextual realism, may be used as a quantitative tool in classical optical coherence to describe correlation characteristics of the classical fields.

  16. Contextual approach to quantum formalism

    CERN Document Server

    Khrennikov, Andrei

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this book is to show that the probabilistic formalisms of classical statistical mechanics and quantum mechanics can be unified on the basis of a general contextual probabilistic model. By taking into account the dependence of (classical) probabilities on contexts (i.e. complexes of physical conditions), one can reproduce all distinct features of quantum probabilities such as the interference of probabilities and the violation of Bell’s inequality. Moreover, by starting with a formula for the interference of probabilities (which generalizes the well known classical formula of total probability), one can construct the representation of contextual probabilities by complex probability amplitudes or, in the abstract formalism, by normalized vectors of the complex Hilbert space or its hyperbolic generalization. Thus the Hilbert space representation of probabilities can be naturally derived from classical probabilistic assumptions. An important chapter of the book critically reviews known no-go theorems...

  17. A Contextual Concept of Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumei Cheng

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The contextual concept of science regards a scientific theory as a whole simulation for the mechanism of natural world under the given context. It argues that a scientific theory is to understand the reality only in the sense of intentionality in the process of reality simulation, rather than to describe reality in the sense of one-to-one correspondence. This concept of understanding reality is totally different from that of describing reality. Compared with the realist approaches and the anti-realist approach, the contextual approach has the following advantages: (1 it contributes to bridge the communication between the preachers of scientism and the humanists; (2 it has helped to solve the problem of underdetermination faced by scientific realism; (3 it is relatively easy to understand the correction about the concept and theory; (4 it could reflect the true process of science more properly. Therefore, it is a more promising and convincing new perspective to understand science.

  18. Contextualizing Floyd Allports's Social Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkovnick, S

    2000-01-01

    This paper looks at the program for social psychology presented by Floyd Allport in his Social Psychology of 1924. It contextualizes Allport's program in terms of intellectual currents of the time and the views of his teachers at Harvard University, specifically the philosopher Ralph Barton Perry and the psychologists Edwin B. Holt and Hugo Münsterberg. Finally, the paper analyzes responses to Allport's program at the time and later, retrospective responses. Copyright 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  19. Contextualizing Data Warehouses with Documents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perez, Juan Manuel; Berlanga, Rafael; Aramburu, Maria Jose

    2008-01-01

    Current data warehouse and OLAP technologies are applied to analyze the structured data that companies store in databases. The context that helps to understand data over time is usually described separately in text-rich documents. This paper proposes to integrate the traditional corporate data...... warehouse with a document warehouse, resulting in a contextualized warehouse. Thus, the user first selects an analysis context by supplying some keywords. Then, the analysis is performed on a novel type of OLAP cube, called an R-cube, which is materialized by retrieving and ranking the documents...

  20. Moral contextualism and the problem of triviality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, H.W.A.

    2013-01-01

    Moral contextualism is the view that claims like ‘A ought to X’ are implicitly relative to some (contextually variable) standard. This leads to a problem: what are fundamental moral claims like ‘You ought to maximize happiness’ relative to? If the claim is relative to a utilitarian standard, then

  1. Moral contextualism and the problem of triviality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, Daan

    Moral contextualism is the view that claims like ‘A ought to X’ are implicitly relative to some (contextually variable) standard. This leads to a problem: what are fundamental moral claims like ‘You ought to maximize happiness’ relative to? If this claim is relative to a utilitarian standard, then

  2. Contextual dependencies in a stimulus equivalence paradigm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dibbets, P.; Maes, J.H.R.; Vossen, J.M.H.

    2002-01-01

    Two experiments with human subjects assessed contextual dependencies in a stimulus equivalence paradigm. Subjects learned to form two sets of stimuli in a matching-to-sample training procedure. Each set was presented against one of two different background colours, the contextual cues. At test, the

  3. Reliable computation from contextual correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oestereich, André L.; Galvão, Ernesto F.

    2017-12-01

    An operational approach to the study of computation based on correlations considers black boxes with one-bit inputs and outputs, controlled by a limited classical computer capable only of performing sums modulo-two. In this setting, it was shown that noncontextual correlations do not provide any extra computational power, while contextual correlations were found to be necessary for the deterministic evaluation of nonlinear Boolean functions. Here we investigate the requirements for reliable computation in this setting; that is, the evaluation of any Boolean function with success probability bounded away from 1 /2 . We show that bipartite CHSH quantum correlations suffice for reliable computation. We also prove that an arbitrarily small violation of a multipartite Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger noncontextuality inequality also suffices for reliable computation.

  4. Contextual and social influences on valuation and choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelmann, Jan B; Hein, Grit

    2013-01-01

    To survive in our complex environment, we have to adapt to changing contexts. Prior research that investigated how contextual changes are processed in the human brain has demonstrated important modulatory influences on multiple cognitive processes underlying decision-making, including perceptual judgments, working memory, as well as cognitive and attentional control. However, in everyday life, the importance of context is even more obvious during economic and social interactions, which often have implicit rule sets that need to be recognized by a decision-maker. Here, we review recent evidence from an increasing number of studies in the fields of Neuroeconomics and Social Neuroscience that investigate the neurobiological basis of contextual effects on valuation and social choice. Contrary to the assumptions of rational choice theory, multiple contextual factors, such as the availability of alternative choice options, shifts in reference point, and social context, have been shown to modulate behavior, as well as signals in task-relevant neural networks. A consistent picture that emerges from neurobiological results is that valuation-related activity in striatum and ventromedial prefrontal cortex is highly context dependent during both social and nonsocial choice. Alternative approaches to model and explain choice behavior, such as comparison-based choice models, as well as implications for future research are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Contextual determinants of induced abortion: a panel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorente-Marrón, Mar; Díaz-Fernández, Montserrat; Méndez-Rodríguez, Paz

    2016-01-01

    Analyze the contextual and individual characteristics that explain the differences in the induced abortion rate, temporally and territorially. We conducted an econometric analysis with panel data of the influence of public investment in health and per capita income on induced abortion as well as a measurement of the effect of social and economic factors related to the labor market and reproduction: female employment, immigration, adolescent fertility and marriage rate. The empirical exercise was conducted with a sample of 22 countries in Europe for the 2001-2009 period. The great territorial variability of induced abortion was the result of contextual and individual socioeconomic factors. Higher levels of national income and investments in public health reduce its incidence. The following sociodemographic characteristics were also significant regressors of induced abortion: female employment, civil status, migration, and adolescent fertility. Induced abortion responds to sociodemographic patterns, in which the characteristics of each country are essential. The individual and contextual socioeconomic inequalities impact significantly on its incidence. Further research on the relationship between economic growth, labor market, institutions and social norms is required to better understand its transnational variability and to reduce its incidence.

  6. Plagiarism explainer for students

    OpenAIRE

    Barba, Lorena A.

    2016-01-01

    A slide deck to serve as an explainer of plagiarism in academic settings, with a personal viewpoint. For my students.Also on SpeakerDeck:https://speakerdeck.com/labarba/plagiarism-explainer-for-students(The slide viewer on SpeakerDeck is much nicer.)

  7. Correlates of Depressed Mothers' Sensitivity toward Their Infants: The Role of Maternal, Child, and Contextual Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Doesum, Karin T. M.; Hosman, Clemens M. H.; Riksen-Walraven, J. Marianne; Hoefnagels, Cees

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To examine various maternal, child, and contextual characteristics, as well as the number of risk factors present, to distinguish which factors explain variance in the sensitivity of depressed mothers toward their infants. Method: Participants were depressed mothers (n = 84) with their infants ages 1 month up to 1 year. Mothers were…

  8. A More Efficient Contextuality Distillation Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Hui-xian; Cao, Huai-xin; Wang, Wen-hua; Fan, Ya-jing; Chen, Liang

    2017-12-01

    Based on the fact that both nonlocality and contextuality are resource theories, it is natural to ask how to amplify them more efficiently. In this paper, we present a contextuality distillation protocol which produces an n-cycle box B ∗ B ' from two given n-cycle boxes B and B '. It works efficiently for a class of contextual n-cycle (n ≥ 4) boxes which we termed as "the generalized correlated contextual n-cycle boxes". For any two generalized correlated contextual n-cycle boxes B and B ', B ∗ B ' is more contextual than both B and B '. Moreover, they can be distilled toward to the maximally contextual box C H n as the times of iteration goes to infinity. Among the known protocols, our protocol has the strongest approximate ability and is optimal in terms of its distillation rate. What is worth noting is that our protocol can witness a larger set of nonlocal boxes that make communication complexity trivial than the protocol in Brunner and Skrzypczyk (Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 160403 2009), this might be helpful for exploring the problem that why quantum nonlocality is limited.

  9. Attentional and Contextual Priors in Sound Perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Wolmetz

    Full Text Available Behavioral and neural studies of selective attention have consistently demonstrated that explicit attentional cues to particular perceptual features profoundly alter perception and performance. The statistics of the sensory environment can also provide cues about what perceptual features to expect, but the extent to which these more implicit contextual cues impact perception and performance, as well as their relationship to explicit attentional cues, is not well understood. In this study, the explicit cues, or attentional prior probabilities, and the implicit cues, or contextual prior probabilities, associated with different acoustic frequencies in a detection task were simultaneously manipulated. Both attentional and contextual priors had similarly large but independent impacts on sound detectability, with evidence that listeners tracked and used contextual priors for a variety of sound classes (pure tones, harmonic complexes, and vowels. Further analyses showed that listeners updated their contextual priors rapidly and optimally, given the changing acoustic frequency statistics inherent in the paradigm. A Bayesian Observer model accounted for both attentional and contextual adaptations found with listeners. These results bolster the interpretation of perception as Bayesian inference, and suggest that some effects attributed to selective attention may be a special case of contextual prior integration along a feature axis.

  10. Using contextual advertising in Internet marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Тетяна Олександрівна Левицька

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to the substantiation of the use of contextual advertising in Internet marketing as one of the most universal and expedient tools of modern advertising, applied for the first time in 1994, describing the principles of its implementation and the prospects for using it. The shortcomings and advantages of Internet marketing and contextual advertising in particular, its types and technologies, on which it is implemented, the possibilities, as well as the purposes of application, are considered. The main characteristics of contextual advertising, namely its characteristic properties as compared to the other types of Internet marketing, were highlighted. The use of contextual advertising in the search, on partner sites of the advertising network and an example of the report that was received by means of the Yandex.Metrika service have been shown. On the basis of the analysis the use of contextual advertising has been proved and its basic types and methods of measuring the effectiveness of advertising campaigns using deep analytics services have been demonstrated. The factor of the complexity of the configuration process has been singled out, and in this connection, a variant of professional intervention in setting up contextual advertising by specialized agencies has been offered. In the long term, the tools of contextual advertising are to expand. Every year, more and more services are being created for a deeper analysis of statistics, end-to-end analytics, and the improvement of the campaign management interface

  11. Reporting explained variance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, Ron; Fletcher, Harold J.

    The importance of reporting explained variance (sometimes referred to as magnitude of effects) in ANOVA designs is discussed in this paper. Explained variance is an estimate of the strength of the relationship between treatment (or other factors such as sex, grade level, etc.) and dependent variables of interest to the researcher(s). Three methods that can be used to obtain estimates of explained variance in ANOVA designs are described and applied to 16 studies that were reported in recent volumes of this journal. The results show that, while in most studies the treatment accounts for a relatively small proportion of the variance in dependent variable scores., in., some studies the magnitude of the treatment effect is respectable. The authors recommend that researchers in science education report explained variance in addition to the commonly reported tests of significance, since the latter are inadequate as the sole basis for making decisions about the practical importance of factors of interest to science education researchers.

  12. A unifying Bayesian account of contextual effects in value-based choice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Rigoli

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Empirical evidence suggests the incentive value of an option is affected by other options available during choice and by options presented in the past. These contextual effects are hard to reconcile with classical theories and have inspired accounts where contextual influences play a crucial role. However, each account only addresses one or the other of the empirical findings and a unifying perspective has been elusive. Here, we offer a unifying theory of context effects on incentive value attribution and choice based on normative Bayesian principles. This formulation assumes that incentive value corresponds to a precision-weighted prediction error, where predictions are based upon expectations about reward. We show that this scheme explains a wide range of contextual effects, such as those elicited by other options available during choice (or within-choice context effects. These include both conditions in which choice requires an integration of multiple attributes and conditions where a multi-attribute integration is not necessary. Moreover, the same scheme explains context effects elicited by options presented in the past or between-choice context effects. Our formulation encompasses a wide range of contextual influences (comprising both within- and between-choice effects by calling on Bayesian principles, without invoking ad-hoc assumptions. This helps clarify the contextual nature of incentive value and choice behaviour and may offer insights into psychopathologies characterized by dysfunctional decision-making, such as addiction and pathological gambling.

  13. A unifying Bayesian account of contextual effects in value-based choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigoli, Francesco; Mathys, Christoph; Friston, Karl J; Dolan, Raymond J

    2017-10-01

    Empirical evidence suggests the incentive value of an option is affected by other options available during choice and by options presented in the past. These contextual effects are hard to reconcile with classical theories and have inspired accounts where contextual influences play a crucial role. However, each account only addresses one or the other of the empirical findings and a unifying perspective has been elusive. Here, we offer a unifying theory of context effects on incentive value attribution and choice based on normative Bayesian principles. This formulation assumes that incentive value corresponds to a precision-weighted prediction error, where predictions are based upon expectations about reward. We show that this scheme explains a wide range of contextual effects, such as those elicited by other options available during choice (or within-choice context effects). These include both conditions in which choice requires an integration of multiple attributes and conditions where a multi-attribute integration is not necessary. Moreover, the same scheme explains context effects elicited by options presented in the past or between-choice context effects. Our formulation encompasses a wide range of contextual influences (comprising both within- and between-choice effects) by calling on Bayesian principles, without invoking ad-hoc assumptions. This helps clarify the contextual nature of incentive value and choice behaviour and may offer insights into psychopathologies characterized by dysfunctional decision-making, such as addiction and pathological gambling.

  14. Quantum Fluctuation Theorems, Contextuality, and Work Quasiprobabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lostaglio, Matteo

    2018-01-01

    We discuss the role of contextuality within quantum fluctuation theorems, in the light of a recent no-go result by Perarnau-Llobet et al. We show that any fluctuation theorem reproducing the two-point-measurement scheme for classical states either admits a notion of work quasiprobability or fails to describe protocols exhibiting contextuality. Conversely, we describe a protocol that smoothly interpolates between the two-point-measurement work distribution for projective measurements and Allahverdyan's work quasiprobability for weak measurements, and show that the negativity of the latter is a direct signature of contextuality.

  15. The contextual interference effect and sport skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Frank

    2008-04-01

    During the last twenty-five years, the contextual interference effect has been thoroughly studied. This review finds that the effect is relatively robust in basic research, but considerably weaker in applied settings. Motor learning scholars have urged practitioners to develop instructional strategies based upon the inferences of the contextual interference effect. The smaller effects seem to indicate that the concept may have more limited use for the physical educator. It appears that the generalization of procedures from other domains may not adequately accommodate the complexity of motor skills. Manipulating the task difficulty, both nominal and functional, and the contextual continuum may be a promising route for the practitioner.

  16. From Personal to Contextual Learning Support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Specht, Marcus

    2009-01-01

    Specht, M. (2009). From Personal to Contextual Learning Support. Keynote given at the Tagung Lernen, Wissen, Adaptivität of the Deutschen Gesellschaft für Informatik. September, 21, 2009, Darmstadt, Germany.

  17. An Order-Theoretic Quantification of Contextuality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian T. Durham

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this essay, I develop order-theoretic notions of determinism and contextuality on domains and topoi. In the process, I develop a method for quantifying contextuality and show that the order-theoretic sense of contextuality is analogous to the sense embodied in the topos-theoretic statement of the Kochen–Specker theorem. Additionally, I argue that this leads to a relation between the entropy associated with measurements on quantum systems and the second law of thermodynamics. The idea that the second law has its origin in the ordering of quantum states and processes dates to at least 1958 and possibly earlier. The suggestion that the mechanism behind this relation is contextuality, is made here for the first time.

  18. Computer jargon explained

    CERN Document Server

    Enticknap, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    Computer Jargon Explained is a feature in Computer Weekly publications that discusses 68 of the most commonly used technical computing terms. The book explains what the terms mean and why the terms are important to computer professionals. The text also discusses how the terms relate to the trends and developments that are driving the information technology industry. Computer jargon irritates non-computer people and in turn causes problems for computer people. The technology and the industry are changing so rapidly; it is very hard even for professionals to keep updated. Computer people do not

  19. Local hidden-variable model for a recent experimental test of quantum nonlocality and local contextuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Cour, Brian R.

    2017-07-01

    An experiment has recently been performed to demonstrate quantum nonlocality by establishing contextuality in one of a pair of photons encoding four qubits; however, low detection efficiencies and use of the fair-sampling hypothesis leave these results open to possible criticism due to the detection loophole. In this Letter, a physically motivated local hidden-variable model is considered as a possible mechanism for explaining the experimentally observed results. The model, though not intrinsically contextual, acquires this quality upon post-selection of coincident detections.

  20. Explaining the Oxbridge Figures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Bronwyn; Harre, Rom

    1989-01-01

    Rejects sociobiological theories on female academic achievement and bases findings on social structure to explain why undergraduate women at Oxford University (England) achieve fewer first places and more second places in class honors. Bases theory on bipolarity of gender as an organizing principle of society. Claims that the double bind of social…

  1. The wireless internet explained

    CERN Document Server

    Rhoton, John

    2001-01-01

    The Wireless Internet Explained covers the full spectrum of wireless technologies from a wide range of vendors, including initiatives by Microsoft and Compaq. The Wireless Internet Explained takes a practical look at wireless technology. Rhoton explains the concepts behind the physics, and provides an overview that clarifies the convoluted set of standards heaped together under the umbrella of wireless. It then expands on these technical foundations to give a panorama of the increasingly crowded landscape of wireless product offerings. When it comes to actual implementation the book gives abundant down-to-earth advice on topics ranging from the selection and deployment of mobile devices to the extremely sensitive subject of security.Written by an expert on Internet messaging, the author of Digital Press''s successful Programmer''s Guide to Internet Mail and X.400 and SMTP: Battle of the E-mail Protocols, The Wireless Internet Explained describes and evaluates the current state of the fast-growing and crucial...

  2. Explaining Comfort with Homosexuality among Social Work Students: The Impact of Demographic, Contextual, and Attitudinal Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swank, Eric; Raiz, Lisa

    2007-01-01

    While recent research explores the determinants of homophobia among college students, only a few studies look at the perceptions of homosexuals among social work students. Unfortunately these rare studies generally present a modest list of predictor variables or small sample sizes. To address this gap, this research explores the ways in which…

  3. Contextualizing Social Science in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dev Raj Dahal

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Social science informs about the ideals and trains experts to deal with the complex social realities. It has a public purpose rooted in what we call dharma (professional and institutional responsibility as opposed to the arrogance of reason, self-will and self-rationalization intrinsic to contemporary rational choice and modernity. Learning has a synergy - establishing connection between the world of social science theories and the drama of social life. A lack of mutual learning between Nepal's traditional faith intellectuals and modern reason-based social scientists has created a big hiatus and contradiction. The academic life of social scientists in Nepal is completely outside of spiritual, moral and ethical influence experienced by ordinary public. The spiritual blindness of modern social scientists has thus opened multiple gaps between their worldview and those of the citizens on various frontiers--theoretical knowledge and practical experience, technical understanding and composite knowledge and secularity of social science and the vitality of the Hindu-Buddhist scriptures in the popular mind, culture, behavior and practices. This has reinforced a division between the system of knowledge of social scientists and the life-world of people. The proponents of new social movements in Nepal, such as women, Dalits, Janajatis, Madhesis, youths and marginalized population are seeking a structural shift in reason-based knowledge to both reason and feeling in social science knowledge discovery. This movement can open the "captive mind" to social learning of contextual knowledge, conduct research with the citizens, provide inputs to the policy makers and reverse their linear, structure-bound, rationalist and disciplinary thinking into the one that represents what the Nepal mandala, the Nepali space, is really like and how to improve it for the better. The renewal and indigenization of qualitative social science research is important to overcome the

  4. Psychological distress among children and adolescents. Do individual or contextual factors matter?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meilstrup, Charlotte; Ersbøll, Annette Kjær; Nielsen, Line

    Psychological distress among children and adolescents. Do individual or contextual factors matter? Authors Meilstrup C, Ersbøll AK, Nielsen L, Due P, Holstein BE Background A large minority of children and adolescents suffer from mental distress and it is important to identify contributing factors...... (compositional effects), this study suggest that contextual factors are important to take into account in the research on psychological complaints among children and adolescents. This analytical model presents a way for future studies about contextual influences on psychological complaints.......% across schools. Individual level variables such as low socio-economic position and family composition explained much of the variation across schools. Still, class level variables also contributed to this variation. In classes where many students reported that the class-mates doesn´t like being together...

  5. Implicit Motives, Explicit Traits, and Task and Contextual Performance at Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lang, J.W.B.; Zettler, Ingo; Ewen, C.

    2012-01-01

    for implicit achievement). As a test of these theoretical ideas, we report a study in which employees (N = 241) filled out a questionnaire booklet and worked on an improved modern implicit motive measure, the operant motive test. Their supervisors rated their task and contextual performance. Results support 4...... of the 6 theoretical predictions and show that interactions between implicit motives and explicit traits increase the explained criterion variance in both task and contextual performance....... apply these ideas in the context of industrial and organizational psychology and propose that 2 explicit traits work as channels for the expression of 3 core implicit motives in task and contextual job performance (extraversion for implicit affiliation and implicit power; explicit achievement...

  6. Learning Contextual Reward Expectations for Value Adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigoli, Francesco; Chew, Benjamin; Dayan, Peter; Dolan, Raymond J

    2018-01-01

    Substantial evidence indicates that subjective value is adapted to the statistics of reward expected within a given temporal context. However, how these contextual expectations are learned is poorly understood. To examine such learning, we exploited a recent observation that participants performing a gambling task adjust their preferences as a function of context. We show that, in the absence of contextual cues providing reward information, an average reward expectation was learned from recent past experience. Learning dependent on contextual cues emerged when two contexts alternated at a fast rate, whereas both cue-independent and cue-dependent forms of learning were apparent when two contexts alternated at a slower rate. Motivated by these behavioral findings, we reanalyzed a previous fMRI data set to probe the neural substrates of learning contextual reward expectations. We observed a form of reward prediction error related to average reward such that, at option presentation, activity in ventral tegmental area/substantia nigra and ventral striatum correlated positively and negatively, respectively, with the actual and predicted value of options. Moreover, an inverse correlation between activity in ventral tegmental area/substantia nigra (but not striatum) and predicted option value was greater in participants showing enhanced choice adaptation to context. The findings help understanding the mechanisms underlying learning of contextual reward expectation.

  7. Contextual influences on alcohol expectancy processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Jennifer P; Curtin, John J

    2007-09-01

    Context may differentially influence expectancy dimensions, in turn affecting drinking behavior. The present study examined alcohol cue and mood contextual influences on expectancy activation, controlling for more stable self-reported expectancy endorsement. We were particularly interested in the specific effects of negative mood on affect-relevant (tension reduction) expectancies. Regularly drinking undergraduates (N = 140; 64 female) underwent a mood (stress or neutral) induction procedure and then were presented with alcohol or nonalcohol beverage cues. Participants next completed a computerized expectancy response time task (ETASK), and self-report measures of drinking variables. Individual difference analyses generally replicated previous reports on the inverse relationship between alcohol involvement and ETASK response time. However, examination of contextual effects revealed a different pattern of ETASK responding. Participants exposed to alcohol cues were slower to respond to expectancy items than those in the nonalcohol cue condition. Mood and expectancy type moderated this effect; response time after alcohol cues slowed selectively for those in the stress mood condition and only for tension-reduction expectancy items. These data highlight the dimensionality of expectancies that comes into relief when contextual factors are considered. Expectancy response times index both facilitation, when examined in the context of drinking expertise, and interference, in response to motivationally relevant stimuli. Our data also support the specificity of contextual effects on those expectancies that are context relevant (i.e., mood). Further consideration of these contextual effects on dynamic expectancy processes may improve prediction of drinking behavior in real-world settings.

  8. Linear Algebra Thoroughly Explained

    CERN Document Server

    Vujičić, Milan

    2008-01-01

    Linear Algebra Thoroughly Explained provides a comprehensive introduction to the subject suitable for adoption as a self-contained text for courses at undergraduate and postgraduate level. The clear and comprehensive presentation of the basic theory is illustrated throughout with an abundance of worked examples. The book is written for teachers and students of linear algebra at all levels and across mathematics and the applied sciences, particularly physics and engineering. It will also be an invaluable addition to research libraries as a comprehensive resource book for the subject.

  9. The Contextual Antecedents of Organizational Trust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Peter Ping; Bai, Yuntao; Xi, Youmin

    2012-01-01

    , and cultural norm at the organizational level, on organizational trust directly, and their behavioural outcomes at the individual level indirectly, using organizational trust as a cross-level mediator. The empirical results, based on a hierarchical linear model with a sample of 444 employees from 82 firms......In this article we seek to explore the contextual antecedents of organizational trust. In light of the complex links between organizational contexts and organizational behaviours, we focus on the effects of the three most critical contextual antecedents, i.e., leadership role, structural rule...... in China, lent support for our multidimensional cross-level model of context–trust–behaviour link. We extend the research on organizational trust by treating it as a cross-level phenomenon and by specifying its core contextual antecedents and behavioural consequences....

  10. Improving Acquisition Outcomes with Contextual Ambidexterity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meglio, Olimpia; King, David R.; Risberg, Annette

    2015-01-01

    The results of research on mergers and acquisitions often point to a need to improve acquisition outcomes and lessen the organizational turmoil that can often follow integration efforts. We assert that viewing acquisition integration through the lens of contextual ambidexterity may improve...... acquisition outcomes in two ways: by providing an integrated solution to the economic and social tensions in acquisitions, and by enabling managers to effectively confront the competing needs of task and human integration. We also posit that by building on contextual ambidexterity, we can extend...... the possibilities for both research and practice regarding task and human integration in acquisitions. We also emphasize the role of an integration manager and integration mechanisms in enabling contextual ambidexterity for successful acquisition integration. Finally, we identify implications for research...

  11. Bounding Quantum Contextuality with Lack of Third-Order Interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henson, Joe

    2015-06-05

    Recently, many simple principles have been proposed that can explain quantum limitations on possible sets of experimental probabilities in nonlocality and contextuality experiments. However, few implications between these principles are known. Here it is shown that the lack of irreducible third-order interference (a generalization of the idea that no probabilistic interference remains unaccounted for once we have taken into account interference between pairs of slits in a n-sit experiment) implies the principle known as the E principle or consistent exclusivity (that, if each pair of a set of experimental outcomes are exclusive alternatives in some measurement, then their probabilities are consistent with the existence of a further measurement in which they are all exclusive). This is a step towards a more unified understanding of quantum nonlocality and contextuality, which promises to allow derivations of important results from minimal, easily grasped assumptions. As one example, this result implies that lack of third-order interference bounds violation of the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt-Bell inequality to 2.883.

  12. The price of access: capitalization of neighborhood contextual factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Henry Shelton; Yarnell, Lisa M

    2013-08-08

    Studies of neighborhood context on health behavior have not considered that the health benefits of context may be 'capitalized' into, or included in, higher housing values. This study examines the associations of better neighborhood context with neighborhood housing values. We use the third wave of Add Health (2000-2001) to estimate the association of neighborhood contextual variables and housing values first across then within income types. This is a census block group-level analysis. We find that neighborhood context, especially access to fruit and vegetable outlets, is capitalized into, or associated with, higher housing values. Fast food and convenience store access are associated with lower housing values. Capitalization differs by income quartile of the neighborhood. Even those in the poorest neighborhoods value access to fresh fruits and vegetables, and those in the wealthier neighborhoods value activity resources. All neighborhood incomes types place negative value on fast food access and convenience store access. Access to health-related contextual attributes is capitalized into higher housing prices. Access to fresh fruits and vegetables is valued in neighborhoods of all income levels. Modeling these associations by neighborhood income levels helps explain the mixed results in the literature on the built environment in terms of linking health outcomes to access.

  13. Explaining embodied cognition results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakoff, George

    2012-10-01

    From the late 1950s until 1975, cognition was understood mainly as disembodied symbol manipulation in cognitive psychology, linguistics, artificial intelligence, and the nascent field of Cognitive Science. The idea of embodied cognition entered the field of Cognitive Linguistics at its beginning in 1975. Since then, cognitive linguists, working with neuroscientists, computer scientists, and experimental psychologists, have been developing a neural theory of thought and language (NTTL). Central to NTTL are the following ideas: (a) we think with our brains, that is, thought is physical and is carried out by functional neural circuitry; (b) what makes thought meaningful are the ways those neural circuits are connected to the body and characterize embodied experience; (c) so-called abstract ideas are embodied in this way as well, as is language. Experimental results in embodied cognition are seen not only as confirming NTTL but also explained via NTTL, mostly via the neural theory of conceptual metaphor. Left behind more than three decades ago is the old idea that cognition uses the abstract manipulation of disembodied symbols that are meaningless in themselves but that somehow constitute internal "representations of external reality" without serious mediation by the body and brain. This article uniquely explains the connections between embodied cognition results since that time and results from cognitive linguistics, experimental psychology, computational modeling, and neuroscience. Copyright © 2012 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  14. Matlab for engineers explained

    CERN Document Server

    Gustafsson, Fredrik

    2003-01-01

    This book is written for students at bachelor and master programs and has four different purposes, which split the book into four parts: 1. To teach first or early year undergraduate engineering students basic knowledge in technical computations and programming using MATLAB. The first part starts from first principles and is therefore well suited both for readers with prior exposure to MATLAB but lacking a solid foundational knowledge of the capabilities of the system and readers not having any previous experience with MATLAB. The foundational knowledge gained from these interactive guided tours of the system will hopefully be sufficient for an effective utilization of MATLAB in the engineering profession, in education and in research. 2. To explain the foundations of more advanced use of MATLAB using the facilities added the last couple of years, such as extended data structures, object orientation and advanced graphics. 3. To give an introduction to the use of MATLAB in typical undergraduate courses in elec...

  15. Explaining wartime rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottschall, Jonathan

    2004-05-01

    In the years since the first reports of mass rapes in the Yugoslavian wars of secession and the genocidal massacres in Rwanda, feminist activists and scholars, human rights organizations, journalists, and social scientists have dedicated unprecedented efforts to document, explain, and seek solutions for the phenomenon of wartime rape. While contributors to this literature agree on much, there is no consensus on causal factors. This paper provides a brief overview of the literature on wartime rape in historical and ethnographical societies and a critical analysis of the four leading explanations for its root causes: the feminist theory, the cultural pathology theory, the strategic rape theory, and the biosocial theory. The paper concludes that the biosocial theory is the only one capable of bringing all the phenomena associated with wartime rape into a single explanatory context.

  16. Does Viewing Explain Doing?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Gert Martin; Kuyper, Lisette; Adam, Philippe C G

    2013-01-01

    that, when controlling for important other factors, SEM consumption influences sexual behaviors. The small to moderate associations that emerged between SEM consumption and sexual behavior after controlling for other variables suggest that SEM is just one factor among many that may influence youth...... hierarchical multiple regression analyses to control for other factors, the association between SEM consumption and a variety of sexual behaviors was found to be significant, accounting for between 0.3% and 4% of the total explained variance in investigated sexual behaviors. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests......INTRODUCTION: Concerns have been voiced that the use of sexually explicit materials (SEMs) may adversely affect sexual behaviors, particularly in young people. Previous studies have generally found significant associations between SEM consumption and the sexual behaviors investigated. However, most...

  17. Teen Fertility and Gender Inequality in Education: A Contextual Hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Shannon Stokes

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies in developed countries have found a micro-level association between teenage fertility and girls' educational attainment but researchers still debate the policy implications of these associations. First, are these associations causal? Second, are they substantively important enough, at the macro-level, to warrant policy attention? In other words, how much would policy efforts to reduce unintended pregnancy among teens pay off in terms of narrowing national gender gaps in educational attainment? Third, under what contexts are these payoffs likely to be important? This paper focuses on the latter two questions. We begin by proposing a contextual hypothesis to explain cross-national variation in the gender-equity payoffs from reducing unintended teen fertility. We then test this hypothesis, using DHS data from 38 countries.

  18. Grounded Contextual Reasoning enabling Innovative Mobile Services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kranenburg, H.; Salden, Alfons; Broens, T.H.F.; Koolwaaij, Johan

    2005-01-01

    This paper reflects our findings on the technological feasibility of a mobile service scenario. We will show that despite the scenario being quite ordinary for endusers, the required service support functionality is rather complex. The realisation hinges on intricate grounded contextual reasoning

  19. Contextuality in canonical systems of random variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzhafarov, Ehtibar N; Cervantes, Víctor H; Kujala, Janne V

    2017-11-13

    Random variables representing measurements, broadly understood to include any responses to any inputs, form a system in which each of them is uniquely identified by its content (that which it measures) and its context (the conditions under which it is recorded). Two random variables are jointly distributed if and only if they share a context. In a canonical representation of a system, all random variables are binary, and every content-sharing pair of random variables has a unique maximal coupling (the joint distribution imposed on them so that they coincide with maximal possible probability). The system is contextual if these maximal couplings are incompatible with the joint distributions of the context-sharing random variables. We propose to represent any system of measurements in a canonical form and to consider the system contextual if and only if its canonical representation is contextual. As an illustration, we establish a criterion for contextuality of the canonical system consisting of all dichotomizations of a single pair of content-sharing categorical random variables.This article is part of the themed issue 'Second quantum revolution: foundational questions'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  20. Una pedagogía contextual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos G. Wernicke

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on the relationship among politics, economy and pedagogy, in individual development and the knowledge about perception, the construction of conceptual maps and paradigms, pedagogy an education are defined and a contextual pedagogy is proposed, which is described in its essence.

  1. Cultural and Contextual Issues in Exemplar Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Pamela Ebstyne; Oakes Mueller, Ross A.; Furrow, James

    2013-01-01

    This chapter specifically addresses how exemplar methods are especially relevant to examining cultural and contextual issues. Cross-cultural, cultural, and indigenous psychologies are discussed in order to highlight how studying actual exemplars in their unique and complex developmental contexts has the potential to identify themes that either…

  2. Recovering core identity, hermeneutical and contextual preaching

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-07-08

    Jul 8, 2016 ... identity – certainly when it answers the questions 'who are we?' and 'what are we called to be and/or do' – it lacks significantly in its missional identity. Contributing factors are mentioned and remedial action is proposed. Recovering core identity, hermeneutical and contextual preaching. Read online:.

  3. Seeking feasible reconciliation: A transdisciplinary contextual ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This contribution investigates whether the transdisciplinary, region-centred scientific research approach with a focus on the Hölderlin perspective on reconciliation could assist scholars in practical theology to address reconciliation in a post-apartheid and post-TRC society. The article proposes a contextual and constructive ...

  4. Involving Customer Relations in Contextual Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Jesper

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents a case study in the form of a contextual design project, the aim of which was to design a system for a particular organization. The starting point in the case was a need in the organization for a specific system. The case involved an analysis of the organizations customer rela...

  5. Real-Life Contextual Manifestations of Wisdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shih-Ying

    2008-01-01

    Wisdom pertains to managing human affairs, and it arises in highly contextualized situations. The present study aims to investigate manifestations of wisdom in real-life contexts through semi-structured interviews with 66 individuals nominated as wise persons. All nominees were ethnic Chinese from Taiwan, an East Asian country which has…

  6. Contextuality in canonical systems of random variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzhafarov, Ehtibar N.; Cervantes, Víctor H.; Kujala, Janne V.

    2017-10-01

    Random variables representing measurements, broadly understood to include any responses to any inputs, form a system in which each of them is uniquely identified by its content (that which it measures) and its context (the conditions under which it is recorded). Two random variables are jointly distributed if and only if they share a context. In a canonical representation of a system, all random variables are binary, and every content-sharing pair of random variables has a unique maximal coupling (the joint distribution imposed on them so that they coincide with maximal possible probability). The system is contextual if these maximal couplings are incompatible with the joint distributions of the context-sharing random variables. We propose to represent any system of measurements in a canonical form and to consider the system contextual if and only if its canonical representation is contextual. As an illustration, we establish a criterion for contextuality of the canonical system consisting of all dichotomizations of a single pair of content-sharing categorical random variables. This article is part of the themed issue `Second quantum revolution: foundational questions'.

  7. Contextual Factors in Children's Social Information Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorsch, Andrea; Keane, Susan P.

    1994-01-01

    Two steps in the social information process model were assessed for socially accepted and rejected children by verbal responses to stories embedded in computer games. Attributions of intent and aggressive problem solutions were correlated with contextual factors (interpersonal context, outcome of game, and story type) and with sex and social…

  8. Individual Characteristics, Contextual Factors and Entrepreneurial Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Darnihamedani (Pourya)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractThis thesis is concerned with entrepreneurship in general, and innovative entrepreneurship in particular. It contributes to three main developments in the field of entrepreneurship: sub-groups of entrepreneurs, the role of start-up motivations and the role of contextual factors in

  9. A contextual information based scholary paper recommender ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A contextual information based scholary paper recommender system using big data platform. ... Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences ... For implementing the system it has been used hadoop bed and the parallel programming because the volume of data was a part of a big data and the time was also an important ...

  10. Contextual Factors for Finding Similar Experts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofmann, Katja; Balog, Krisztian; Bogers, Toine

    2010-01-01

    -seeking models, are rarely taken into account. In this article, we extend content-based expert-finding approaches with contextual factors that have been found to influence human expert finding. We focus on a task of science communicators in a knowledge-intensive environment, the task of finding similar experts...

  11. Accident prevention in a contextual approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyhrberg, Mette Bang

    2003-01-01

    of such a contextual approach is shortly described and demonstrated in relation to a Danish case on accident prevention. It is concluded that the approach presently offers a post-ante, descriptive analytical understanding, and it is argued that it can be developed to a frame of reference for planning actions...

  12. Perceptual grouping determines haptic contextual modulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overvliet, K.E.; Sayim, B.

    Since the early phenomenological demonstrations of Gestalt principles, one of the major challenges of Gestalt psychology has been to quantify these principles. Here, we show that contextual modulation, i.e. the influence of context on target perception, can be used as a tool to quantify perceptual

  13. Perceptual grouping determines haptic contextual modulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overvliet, K. E.; Sayim, B.

    2016-01-01

    Since the early phenomenological demonstrations of Gestalt principles, one of the major challenges of Gestalt psychology has been to quantify these principles. Here, we show that contextual modulation, i.e. the influence of context on target perception, can be used as a tool to quantify perceptual

  14. Exploring the role of leadership in enabling contextual ambidexterity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havermans, L.A.; Den Hartog, D.N.; Keegan, A.E.; Uhl-Bien, M.

    2015-01-01

    Sustainable success calls for contextually ambidextrous organizing. According to theory, this entails enabling simultaneous high levels of exploration and exploitation within a subsystem. The practices involved in enabling contextual ambidexterity form a major and relatively unexplored leadership

  15. Mobile Contextualized learning games for decision support training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klemke, Roland; Börner, Dirk; Suarez, Angel; Schneider, Jan; Antonaci, Alessandra

    2015-01-01

    This interactive workshop session introduces mobile serious games as situated, contextualized learning games. Example cases for mobile serious games for decision support training are introduced and discussed. Participants will get to know contextualization techniques used in modern mobile

  16. Mobile Contextualized learning games for decision support training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klemke, Roland

    2014-01-01

    This interactive workshop session introduces mobile serious games as situated, contextualized learning games. Example cases for mobile serious games for decision support training are introduced and discussed. Participants will get to know contextualization techniques used in modern mobile devices

  17. Testing a pedagogy for promoting historical contextualization in classrooms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijgen, Tim; Holthuis, Paul; van Boxtel, Carla; van de Grift, Wim

    2016-01-01

    This study describes the development and testing of a pedagogy aimed at promoting students’ ability to perform historical contextualization. Promoting historical contextualization was conceptualized as three different pedagogical principles: 1) the awareness of the consequences of a present-oriented

  18. Explaining climate danger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oreskes, N.

    2016-12-01

    The idea of `managing planet Earth' is traceable back at least to the 1970s. Recently, it has been reformulated in the idea of a "good Anthropocene": the idea that humans should and can try to manage our planet now that we have become a planetary force. Yet available evidence and experience suggests that our prior attempts to do so have been plagued by under-estimation of the scale of the problems and over-estimation of our capacities to address them. In any case, Earth is not at risk—our planet will survive despite what we do or fail to do. Global climate change, for example, is not a problem for the planet, it is a problem for us. As the UNFCCC articulated in the 1990s, climate change matters because it is dangerous. Yet many Americans still do not understand why this is the case. I suggest that scientists can profitably focus attention on explaining this danger—why climate represents a threat to our health, well-being, and lives—and on what kinds of steps can be taken to reduce the danger.

  19. The role of peripheral vision in implicit contextual cuing

    OpenAIRE

    Castelo-Branco, Miguel; van Asselen, Marieke

    2009-01-01

    Implicit contextual cuing refers to the ability to learn the association between contextual information of our environment and a specific target, which can be used to guide attention during visual search. It was recently suggested that the storage of a snapshot image of the local context of a target underlies implicit contextual cuing. To make such a snapshot, it is necessary to use peripheral vision. In order to test whether peripheral vision can underlie implicit contextual cuin...

  20. Contextual factors and clinical reasoning: differences in diagnostic and therapeutic reasoning in board certified versus resident physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBee, Elexis; Ratcliffe, Temple; Picho, Katherine; Schuwirth, Lambert; Artino, Anthony R; Yepes-Rios, Ana Monica; Masel, Jennifer; van der Vleuten, Cees; Durning, Steven J

    2017-11-15

    The impact of context on the complex process of clinical reasoning is not well understood. Using situated cognition as the theoretical framework and videos to provide the same contextual "stimulus" to all participants, we examined the relationship between specific contextual factors on diagnostic and therapeutic reasoning accuracy in board certified internists versus resident physicians. Each participant viewed three videotaped clinical encounters portraying common diagnoses in internal medicine. We explicitly modified the context to assess its impact on performance (patient and physician contextual factors). Patient contextual factors, including English as a second language and emotional volatility, were portrayed in the videos. Physician participant contextual factors were self-rated sleepiness and burnout.. The accuracy of diagnostic and therapeutic reasoning was compared with covariates using Fisher Exact, Mann-Whitney U tests and Spearman Rho's correlations as appropriate. Fifteen board certified internists and 10 resident physicians participated from 2013 to 2014. Accuracy of diagnostic and therapeutic reasoning did not differ between groups despite residents reporting significantly higher rates of sleepiness (mean rank 20.45 vs 8.03, U = 0.5, p diagnostic and therapeutic reasoning, although related, may not be interchangeable. This raises important questions about the impact that contextual factors have on clinical reasoning and provides insight into how clinical reasoning processes in more authentic settings may be explained by situated cognition theory.

  1. The Role of Goal Orientations and Goal Structures in Explaining Classroom Social and Affective Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polychroni, Fotini; Hatzichristou, Chryse; Sideridis, Georgios

    2012-01-01

    Examining motivational variables may prove to be particularly fruitful towards our understanding of classroom processes, student behaviors and school outcomes. The present study examined the role of personal and contextual goals (goals and goal structures) towards explaining social relationships (peer, teacher-student and home-school). 1493 fifth…

  2. Contextual influences on reverse knowledge transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søberg, Peder Veng

    2010-01-01

    Further development of theories about how contextual factors influence the beneficial reverse knowledge transfer from subsidiary to head quarters in disparate national country contexts, is the aim of our study. Earlier studies do not fully capture the different effects national country cultures can...... have on reverse knowledge transfer as opposed to their influence on primary knowledge transfer. The study is an in-depth, interview based, multiple case study in Scandinavia and China focusing on R&D transfer to China within two Scandinavia-based MNCs, which are leading within their industries....... A proposition model is developed where the dependent variable is beneficial reverse knowledge transfer. The independent variables are: higher relative knowledge level in subsidiaty than in HQ, authority respect, activity fit with contextual learning preference. The conclusion suggest that different contexts...

  3. The Christian Doppler Laboratory on Contextual Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grill, Thomas; Reitberger, Wolfgang; Obrist, Marianna; Meschtscherjakov, Alexander; Tscheligi, Manfred

    Contextual interfaces gain more and more importance within the last years. Numerous research programs that address the term context have been established, each focusing on context from their own point of view. The Christian Doppler Laboratory on Contextual Interfaces has been founded with different goals in mind. The first goal is to elaborate on the definitions and foundations of the term context to achieve a common understanding on how to use context and the terms related to context. Further we elaborate on the relation between context and user experience to tackle the complexity of the interrelations between both areas. The second goal is to apply the findings of the basic context research with two different context laboratories, each addressing a different application area. This allows to build a robust research basis that is applied to application oriented research.

  4. Application of Employability Skills and Contextual Performance Level of Employees in Government Agencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maripaz C. Abas

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The widespread practice of contractualization even in government institutions is a big challenge facing newly-hired employees in seeking a stable position.  Researchers have argued that the quality of practice of employability skills could help employees have better job performance, provide them better working condition or status, and consequently meet the higher expectations of employers. The present study employs descriptive research design to explain the extent of application of employability skills and contextual performance.  Based on The Conference Board of Canada’s Employability Skills 2000+ and Borman and Motowidlo’s Taxonomy of Contextual Performance, two sets of survey questionnaires were adopted to gather data from 220 respondents representing employers and employees from 25 government institutions. Data analysis showed that novice employees in public institutions applied their employability skills such as fundamental, personal management and teamwork skills to some extent. Moreover, results revealed that employees had satisfactory contextual performance.  Thus, this may suggest that the application of employability skills and contextual behaviors should be enhanced to meet the increasing and complex challenges of their respective government agencies.

  5. A PLATFORM FOR CONTEXTUAL MOBILE PRIVACY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    error rate over the existing system by four-fold. In parallel to this work, we developed a user interface. The theory behind the user interface is...then we proposed a user interface design to help users manage that system [17]. This work applies Nissenbaum’s theory of Privacy as Contextual...Instrumentation Changing developer options Opening/Closing security settings Changing security settings Enabling/ Disabling NFC Changing location mode

  6. Contextual-Analysis for Infrastructure Awareness Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramos, Juan David Hincapie; Tabard, Aurelien; Alt, Florian

    Infrastructures are persistent socio-technical systems used to deliver different kinds of services. Researchers have looked into how awareness of infrastructures in the areas of sustainability [6, 10] and software appropriation [11] can be provided. However, designing infrastructure-aware systems...... has specific requirements, which are often ignored. In this paper we explore the challenges when developing infrastructure awareness systems based on contextual analysis, and propose guidelines for enhancing the design process....

  7. Contextual Analysis of CT Scanned Pig Carcasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyckegaard, Allan; Larsen, Rasmus; Christensen, Lars Bager

    2006-01-01

    Knowledge of the weight of tissue types in pig carcasses is generally only available after manual dissection. The use of computed tomography (CT) has demonstrated to be a promising approach to gain knowledge on the lean meat weight (Romvari, 2005), but less effort has been put into gaining...... not consider the spatial context in CT scan. Applying contextual methods from the field of image analysis we hope to make a virtual dissection of pig carcasses....

  8. Viewpoint-independent contextual cueing effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    taiga etsuchiai

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We usually perceive things in our surroundings as unchanged despite viewpoint changes caused by self-motion. The visual system therefore must have a function to process objects independently of viewpoint. In this study, we examined whether viewpoint-independent spatial layout can be obtained implicitly. For this purpose, we used a contextual cueing effect, a learning effect of spatial layout in visual search displays known to be an implicit effect. We compared the transfer of the contextual cueing effect between cases with and without self-motion by using visual search displays for 3D objects, which changed according to the participant’s assumed location for viewing the stimuli. The contextual cueing effect was obtained with self-motion but disappeared when the display changed without self-motion. This indicates that there is an implicit learning effect in spatial coordinates and suggests that the spatial representation of object layouts or scenes can be obtained and updated implicitly. We also showed that binocular disparity play an important role in the layout representations.

  9. Contextuality supplies the 'magic' for quantum computation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Mark; Wallman, Joel; Veitch, Victor; Emerson, Joseph

    2014-06-19

    Quantum computers promise dramatic advantages over their classical counterparts, but the source of the power in quantum computing has remained elusive. Here we prove a remarkable equivalence between the onset of contextuality and the possibility of universal quantum computation via 'magic state' distillation, which is the leading model for experimentally realizing a fault-tolerant quantum computer. This is a conceptually satisfying link, because contextuality, which precludes a simple 'hidden variable' model of quantum mechanics, provides one of the fundamental characterizations of uniquely quantum phenomena. Furthermore, this connection suggests a unifying paradigm for the resources of quantum information: the non-locality of quantum theory is a particular kind of contextuality, and non-locality is already known to be a critical resource for achieving advantages with quantum communication. In addition to clarifying these fundamental issues, this work advances the resource framework for quantum computation, which has a number of practical applications, such as characterizing the efficiency and trade-offs between distinct theoretical and experimental schemes for achieving robust quantum computation, and putting bounds on the overhead cost for the classical simulation of quantum algorithms.

  10. Contrastive and contextual vowel nasalization in Ottawa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klopfenstein, Marie

    2005-09-01

    Ottawa is a Central Algonquian language that possesses the recent innovation of contrastive vowel nasalization. Most phonetic studies done to date on contrastive vowel nasalization have investigated Indo-European languages; therefore, a study of Ottawa could prove to be a valuable addition to the literature. To this end, a percentage of nasalization (nasal airflow/oral + nasal airflow) was measured during target vowels produced by native Ottawa speakers using a Nasometer 6200-3. Nasalized vowels in the target word set were either contrastively or contextually nasalized: candidates for contextual nasalization were either regressive or perserverative in word-initial and word-final syllables. Subjects were asked to read words containing target vowels in a carrier sentence. Mean, minimum, and maximum nasalance were obtained for each target vowel across its full duration. Target vowels were compared across context (regressive or perseverative and word-initial or word-final). In addition, contexts were compared to determine whether a significant difference existed between contrastive and contextual nasalization. Results for Ottawa will be compared with results for vowels in similar contexts in other languages including Hindi, Breton, Bengali, and French.

  11. [Relational frame theory - a theoretical framework for contextual behavioral science].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kensche, M; Schweiger, U

    2015-05-01

    Therapists have to deal with verbal systems and often work with verbal exchange. Therefore, a psychological theory is required, which teaches the therapist how to accomplish this task. The BRT is a theory of human language and cognition that explains how people use their verbal behavior as stimuli in their interrelations and how they act and react, based on the resulting relationships. This behavior is learned very early in the course of language acquisition and functions as a generalized operant. A prerequisite for this is the ability of people to undergo mental simulation. This enables them to construct diverse relational frameworks between individual stimuli. Without relational frameworks, people cannot function. The ability to establish a relational framework is a prerequisite for the formation of rule-governed behavior. Rule-governed behavior economizes complex decision processes, creates interpersonal security and enables dealing with events before they take place. On the other hand, the same properties that enable people to solve problems effectively can also contribute to rigid adherence to rules and experience avoidance. Relational frameworks, once established, outweigh other sources of behavioral regulation. Thus, it can become the basis of psychopathology. Poor contextual control makes it difficult for people to devote flexible, focused and voluntary attention to the present and align their actions with the immediate present. Contextual psychotherapy methods that are based on the BRT start precisely at this point: Targeted establishment of new contingencies in the therapeutic interaction through systematic strengthening of metacognitive mode and through the establishment of new rules that make possible a change in the rule-governed behavior enable undermining of dysfunctional rule-governed behavior and build up desirable behavior. This allows any therapeutic process to be more effective - regardless of the patient's expressed symptoms. © Georg Thieme

  12. Factor analysis of the contextual fine motor questionnaire in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chin-Kai; Meng, Ling-Fu; Yu, Ya-Wen; Chen, Che-Kuo; Li, Kuan-Hua

    2014-02-01

    Most studies treat fine motor as one subscale in a developmental test, hence, further factor analysis of fine motor has not been conducted. In fact, fine motor has been treated as a multi-dimensional domain from both clinical and theoretical perspectives, and therefore to know its factors would be valuable. The aim of this study is to analyze the internal consistency and factor validity of the Contextual Fine Motor Questionnaire (CFMQ). Based on the ecological observation and literature, the Contextual Fine Motor Questionnaire (CFMQ) was developed and includes 5 subscales: Pen Control, Tool Use During Handicraft Activities, the Use of Dining Utensils, Connecting and Separating during Dressing and Undressing, and Opening Containers. The main purpose of this study is to establish the factorial validity of the CFMQ through conducting this factor analysis study. Among 1208 questionnaires, 904 were successfully completed. Data from the children's CFMQ submitted by primary care providers was analyzed, including 485 females (53.6%) and 419 males (46.4%) from grades 1 to 5, ranging in age from 82 to 167 months (M=113.9, SD=16.3). Cronbach's alpha was used to measure internal consistency and explorative factor analysis was applied to test the five factor structures within the CFMQ. Results showed that Cronbach's alpha coefficient of the CFMQ for 5 subscales ranged from .77 to .92 and all item-total correlations with corresponding subscales were larger than .4 except one item. The factor loading of almost all items classified to their factor was larger than .5 except 3 items. There were five factors, explaining a total of 62.59% variance for the CFMQ. In conclusion, the remaining 24 items in the 5 subscales of the CFMQ had appropriate internal consistency, test-retest reliability and construct validity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Using the Contextual Hub Analysis Tool (CHAT) in Cytoscape to Identify Contextually Relevant Network Hubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muetze, Tanja; Lynn, David J

    2017-09-13

    Highly connected nodes in biological networks are called network hubs. Hubs are topologically important to the structure of the network and have been shown to be preferentially associated with a range of phenotypes of interest. The relative importance of a hub node, however, can change depending on the biological context. Here, we provide a step-by-step protocol for using the Contextual Hub Analysis Tool (CHAT), an application within Cytoscape 3, which enables users to easily construct and visualize a network of interactions from a gene or protein list of interest, integrate contextual information, such as gene or protein expression data, and identify hub nodes that are more highly connected to contextual nodes than expected by chance. © 2017 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  14. Contextual Hub Analysis Tool (CHAT): A Cytoscape app for identifying contextually relevant hubs in biological networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muetze, Tanja; Goenawan, Ivan H; Wiencko, Heather L; Bernal-Llinares, Manuel; Bryan, Kenneth; Lynn, David J

    2016-01-01

    Highly connected nodes (hubs) in biological networks are topologically important to the structure of the network and have also been shown to be preferentially associated with a range of phenotypes of interest. The relative importance of a hub node, however, can change depending on the biological context. Here, we report a Cytoscape app, the Contextual Hub Analysis Tool (CHAT), which enables users to easily construct and visualize a network of interactions from a gene or protein list of interest, integrate contextual information, such as gene expression or mass spectrometry data, and identify hub nodes that are more highly connected to contextual nodes (e.g. genes or proteins that are differentially expressed) than expected by chance. In a case study, we use CHAT to construct a network of genes that are differentially expressed in Dengue fever, a viral infection. CHAT was used to identify and compare contextual and degree-based hubs in this network. The top 20 degree-based hubs were enriched in pathways related to the cell cycle and cancer, which is likely due to the fact that proteins involved in these processes tend to be highly connected in general. In comparison, the top 20 contextual hubs were enriched in pathways commonly observed in a viral infection including pathways related to the immune response to viral infection. This analysis shows that such contextual hubs are considerably more biologically relevant than degree-based hubs and that analyses which rely on the identification of hubs solely based on their connectivity may be biased towards nodes that are highly connected in general rather than in the specific context of interest. CHAT is available for Cytoscape 3.0+ and can be installed via the Cytoscape App Store ( http://apps.cytoscape.org/apps/chat).

  15. Contextual Sensing: Integrating Contextual Information with Human and Technical Geo-Sensor Information for Smart Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Günther Sagl

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article we critically discuss the challenge of integrating contextual information, in particular spatiotemporal contextual information, with human and technical sensor information, which we approach from a geospatial perspective. We start by highlighting the significance of context in general and spatiotemporal context in particular and introduce a smart city model of interactions between humans, the environment, and technology, with context at the common interface. We then focus on both the intentional and the unintentional sensing capabilities of today’s technologies and discuss current technological trends that we consider have the ability to enrich human and technical geo-sensor information with contextual detail. The different types of sensors used to collect contextual information are analyzed and sorted into three groups on the basis of names considering frequently used related terms, and characteristic contextual parameters. These three groups, namely technical in situ sensors, technical remote sensors, and human sensors are analyzed and linked to three dimensions involved in sensing (data generation, geographic phenomena, and type of sensing. In contrast to other scientific publications, we found a large number of technologies and applications using in situ and mobile technical sensors within the context of smart cities, and surprisingly limited use of remote sensing approaches. In this article we further provide a critical discussion of possible impacts and influences of both technical and human sensing approaches on society, pointing out that a larger number of sensors, increased fusion of information, and the use of standardized data formats and interfaces will not necessarily result in any improvement in the quality of life of the citizens of a smart city. This article seeks to improve our understanding of technical and human geo-sensing capabilities, and to demonstrate that the use of such sensors can facilitate the

  16. Understanding Contextual and Social Meaning in Typically Developing Finnish-Speaking Four- To Eight-Year-Old Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loukusa Soile

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the development of social-pragmatic comprehension in 170 Finnish four- to eight-year-old children. The children were asked to respond to socially and contextually demanding questions targeting their social-pragmatic language processing, and to explain their correct answers in order to elicit their awareness of how they had derived the answers from the context. The results showed that the number of correct answers increased especially between the ages of four and seven years. We found that questions demanding contextual processing without mind-reading were the easiest to understand, followed by questions demanding processing of feelings of others and false beliefs. The questions demanding understanding of relevant language use and processing of contextual factors including mental states and intentions were the most challenging for the children. Between four and five years of age there was a remarkable developmental phase in children’s ability to give proper explanations.

  17. A Relevance-Extended Multi-dimensional Model for a Data Warehouse Contextualized with Documents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perez, Juan Manuel; Pedersen, Torben Bach; Berlanga, Rafael

    2005-01-01

    Current data warehouse and OLAP technologies can be applied to analyze the structured data that companies store in their databases. The circumstances that describe the context associated with these data can be found in other internal and external sources of documents. In this paper we propose...... to combine the traditional corporate data warehouse with a document warehouse, resulting in a contextualized warehouse. Thus, contextualized warehouses keep a historical record of the facts and their contexts as described by the documents. In this framework, the user selects an analysis context which...... with the documents that explain their circumstances. In this work we extend an existing multi-dimensional data model and algebra for representing the R-cubes....

  18. The effect of internal migration, individual and contextual characteristics on contraceptive use among Nigerian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinyemi, Joshua O; Odimegwu, Clifford O; Adebowale, Ayo S

    2017-10-01

    We investigated the relation of internal migration to contraceptive use and adjusted for individual and contextual (community) characteristics. Multilevel logistic regression models were fitted to nationally representative data of 28,876 women from 884 communities in Nigeria. Only about one out of every 10 women (10.4%) currently used a contraceptive method. Contraceptive prevalence according to the migration status were rural-urban (12.5%), urban-rural (13.8%), rural nonmigrants (6.2%) and urban nonmigrants (17.1%). The relationship between internal migration and contraceptive use was fully explained by individual and community characteristics. Programs aimed at increasing contraceptive prevalence should address contextual challenges alongside socioeconomic factors.

  19. Ethnic disparities in adolescent body mass index in the United States: the role of parental socioeconomic status and economic contextual factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Lisa M; Wada, Roy; Krauss, Ramona C; Wang, Youfa

    2012-08-01

    This paper examined the importance of household and economic contextual factors as determinants of ethnic disparities in adolescent body mass index (BMI). Individual-level data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 for the years 1997 through 2000 were combined with economic contextual data on food prices, outlet density and median household income. The Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition method was used to examine the factors that could help explain ethnic disparities in BMI. Ethnic differences in household demographic, parental socioeconomic status (SES), and economic contextual factors explained the majority of the male black-white (63%), male Hispanic-white (78%) and female Hispanic-white (62%) BMI gaps but less than one-half of the female black-white BMI gap (44%). We found that adding the economic contextual factors increased the explained portion of the ethnic BMI gap for both female and male adolescents: the economic contextual factors explained 28% and 38% of the black-white and Hispanic-white BMI gaps for males and 13% and 8% of the black-white and Hispanic-white BMI gaps for females, respectively. Parental SES was more important in explaining the Hispanic-white BMI gap than the black-white BMI gap for both genders, whereas neighborhood economic contextual factors were more important in explaining the male BMI gap than the female BMI gap for both black-white and Hispanic-white ethnic disparities. A significantly large portion of the ethnic BMI gap, however, remained unexplained between black and white female adolescents. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Contextual determinants of health behaviours in an aboriginal community in Canada: pilot project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Pamela; Davis, A Darlene; Miller, Ruby; Hill, Karen; McCarthy, Honey; Banerjee, Ananya; Chow, Clara; Mente, Andrew; Anand, Sonia S

    2012-11-07

    Rapid change in food intake, physical activity, and tobacco use in recent decades have contributed to the soaring rates of obesity, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in Aboriginal populations living in Canada. The nature and influence of contextual factors on Aboriginal health behaviours are not well characterized. To describe the contextual determinants of health behaviours associated with cardiovascular risk factors on the Six Nations reserve, including the built environment, access and affordability of healthy foods, and the use of tobacco.In this cross-sectional study, 63 adults from the Six Nations Reserve completed the modified Neighbourhood Environment Walkability Scale (NEWS), questionnaire assessing food access and availability, tobacco pricing and availability, and the Environmental Profile of Community Health (EPOCH) tool. The structured environment of Six Nations Reserve scored low for walkability, street connectivity, aesthetics, safety, and access to walking and cycling facilities. All participants purchased groceries off-reserve, although fresh fruits and vegetables were reported to be available and affordable both on and off-reserve. On average $151/week is spent on groceries per family. Ninety percent of individuals report tobacco use is a problem in the community. Tobacco is easily accessible for children and youth, and only three percent of community members would accept increased tobacco taxation as a strategy to reduce tobacco access. The built environment, access and affordability of healthy food and tobacco on the Six Nations Reserve are not perceived favourably. Modification of these contextual factors described here may reduce adverse health behaviours in the community.

  1. Contextual factors and clinical reasoning: differences in diagnostic and therapeutic reasoning in board certified versus resident physicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elexis McBee

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The impact of context on the complex process of clinical reasoning is not well understood. Using situated cognition as the theoretical framework and videos to provide the same contextual “stimulus” to all participants, we examined the relationship between specific contextual factors on diagnostic and therapeutic reasoning accuracy in board certified internists versus resident physicians. Methods Each participant viewed three videotaped clinical encounters portraying common diagnoses in internal medicine. We explicitly modified the context to assess its impact on performance (patient and physician contextual factors. Patient contextual factors, including English as a second language and emotional volatility, were portrayed in the videos. Physician participant contextual factors were self-rated sleepiness and burnout.. The accuracy of diagnostic and therapeutic reasoning was compared with covariates using Fisher Exact, Mann-Whitney U tests and Spearman Rho’s correlations as appropriate. Results Fifteen board certified internists and 10 resident physicians participated from 2013 to 2014. Accuracy of diagnostic and therapeutic reasoning did not differ between groups despite residents reporting significantly higher rates of sleepiness (mean rank 20.45 vs 8.03, U = 0.5, p < .001 and burnout (mean rank 20.50 vs 8.00, U = 0.0, p < .001. Accuracy of diagnosis and treatment were uncorrelated (r = 0.17, p = .65. In both groups, the proportion scoring correct responses for treatment was higher than the proportion scoring correct responses for diagnosis. Conclusions This study underscores that specific contextual factors appear to impact clinical reasoning performance. Further, the processes of diagnostic and therapeutic reasoning, although related, may not be interchangeable. This raises important questions about the impact that contextual factors have on clinical reasoning and provides insight into how clinical

  2. Behavior Modification in Coaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Annette Rutt; Stillman, Stephen M.

    1979-01-01

    An example of behavior modification used in athletic coaching is presented. The case study involves a member of a women's basketball team and details the use of behavior modification for both weight reduction and skill improvement. (JMF)

  3. Experimental Detection of Information Deficit in a Photonic Contextuality Scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Xiang; Kurzyński, Paweł; Kaszlikowski, Dagomir; Wang, Kunkun; Bian, Zhihao; Zhang, Yongsheng; Xue, Peng

    2017-12-01

    Contextuality is an essential characteristic of quantum theory, and supplies the power for many quantum information processes. Previous tests of contextuality focus mainly on the probability distribution of measurement results. However, a test of contextuality can be formulated in terms of entropic inequalities whose violations imply information deficit in the studied system. This information deficit has not been observed on a single local system. Here we report the first experimental detection of information deficit in an entropic test of quantum contextuality based on photonic setup. The corresponding inequality is violated with more than 13 standard deviations.

  4. Community mental health provider modifications to cognitive therapy: implications for sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiltsey Stirman, Shannon; Calloway, Amber; Toder, Katherine; Miller, Christopher J; Devito, Andrea K; Meisel, Samuel N; Xhezo, Regina; Evans, Arthur C; Beck, Aaron T; Crits-Christoph, Paul

    2013-10-01

    This study identified modifications to an evidence-based psychosocial treatment (cognitive therapy) within a community mental health system after clinicians had received intensive training and consultation. A coding system, consisting of four types of contextual modifications, 12 types of content-related modifications, seven levels at which modifications can occur, and a code for changes to training or evaluation processes, was applied to data from interviews with 27 clinicians who treat adult consumers within a mental health system. Nine of 12 content modifications were endorsed, and four (tailoring, integration into other therapeutic approaches, loosening structure, and drift) accounted for 65% of all modifications identified. Contextual modifications were rarely endorsed by clinicians in this sample. Modifications typically occurred at the client or clinician level. Clinicians in community mental health settings made several modifications to an evidence-based practice (EBP), often in an effort to improve the fit of the intervention to the client's needs or to the clinician's therapeutic style. These findings have implications for implementation and sustainability of EBPs in community settings, client-level outcomes, and training and consultation.

  5. Your Radiologist Explains CT Colonography

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Imaging Costs Video: Abdominal Ultrasound Video: Pelvic Ultrasound Radiology and You Sponsored by Image/Video Gallery Your ... Explains CT Colonography (Virtual colonoscopy) Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot org! Hi, I’m Dr. Elliot ...

  6. Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Imaging Costs Video: Abdominal Ultrasound Video: Pelvic Ultrasound Radiology and You Sponsored by Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot org Hello! I’m Dr. Ramji ...

  7. Your Radiologist Explains CT Colonography

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains CT Colonography (Virtual colonoscopy) Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot org! ... colonography or, as it is more commonly known, virtual colonoscopy. Virtual colonoscopy is a diagnostic imaging test ...

  8. Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... by Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot org Hello! ... d like to talk to you about nuclear medicine. Nuclear medicine offers the potential to identify disease ...

  9. Your Radiologist Explains CT Colonography

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and You Take our survey Sponsored by Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains CT Colonography (Virtual colonoscopy) ... Carotid Intima-Media Thickness Test Medical Imaging Costs Video: Abdominal Ultrasound Video: Pelvic Ultrasound Radiology and You ...

  10. Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and You Take our survey Sponsored by Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine Transcript Welcome ... Carotid Intima-Media Thickness Test Medical Imaging Costs Video: Abdominal Ultrasound Video: Pelvic Ultrasound Radiology and You ...

  11. Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Video: Pelvic Ultrasound Radiology and You Sponsored by Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine Transcript ... by a special camera and computer to create images of the inside of your body. If you’ ...

  12. Your Radiologist Explains CT Colonography

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Video: Pelvic Ultrasound Radiology and You Sponsored by Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains CT Colonography (Virtual ... to allow for inflation with air while CT images are being taken. If you’re scheduled for ...

  13. Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of Radiology (IDoR) Radiology and You Sponsored by Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine Transcript ... by a special camera and computer to create images of the inside of your body. If you’ ...

  14. Your Radiologist Explains CT Colonography

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Pelvic Ultrasound Radiology and You Sponsored by Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains CT Colonography (Virtual colonoscopy) ... asked to wear a gown. After the CT scan you can return to your normal diet and ...

  15. Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Sponsored by Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot org ... I’d like to talk to you about nuclear medicine. Nuclear medicine offers the potential to identify ...

  16. Post-Translational Modifications of TRP Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voolstra, Olaf; Huber, Armin

    2014-01-01

    Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels constitute an ancient family of cation channels that have been found in many eukaryotic organisms from yeast to human. TRP channels exert a multitude of physiological functions ranging from Ca2+ homeostasis in the kidney to pain reception and vision. These channels are activated by a wide range of stimuli and undergo covalent post-translational modifications that affect and modulate their subcellular targeting, their biophysical properties, or channel gating. These modifications include N-linked glycosylation, protein phosphorylation, and covalent attachment of chemicals that reversibly bind to specific cysteine residues. The latter modification represents an unusual activation mechanism of ligand-gated ion channels that is in contrast to the lock-and-key paradigm of receptor activation by its agonists. In this review, we summarize the post-translational modifications identified on TRP channels and, when available, explain their physiological role. PMID:24717323

  17. Post-Translational Modifications of TRP Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaf Voolstra

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Transient receptor potential (TRP channels constitute an ancient family of cation channels that have been found in many eukaryotic organisms from yeast to human. TRP channels exert a multitude of physiological functions ranging from Ca2+ homeostasis in the kidney to pain reception and vision. These channels are activated by a wide range of stimuli and undergo covalent post-translational modifications that affect and modulate their subcellular targeting, their biophysical properties, or channel gating. These modifications include N-linked glycosylation, protein phosphorylation, and covalent attachment of chemicals that reversibly bind to specific cysteine residues. The latter modification represents an unusual activation mechanism of ligand-gated ion channels that is in contrast to the lock-and-key paradigm of receptor activation by its agonists. In this review, we summarize the post-translational modifications identified on TRP channels and, when available, explain their physiological role.

  18. Focal Event, Contextualization, and Effective Communication in the Mathematics Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Per; Ryve, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this article is to develop analytical tools for studying mathematical communication in collaborative activities. The theoretical construct of contextualization is elaborated methodologically in order to study diversity in individual thinking in relation to effective communication. The construct of contextualization highlights issues of…

  19. An Integrative Model of Individual Predisposition and Contextual ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents a conceptual model of the relationships between individuals' dispositional and contextual factors in opportunity recognition. It argues that most literatures on entrepreneurial opportunity recognition focus on one or two contextual domains, thus ignoring the nature and dynamics of high-tech opportunity ...

  20. Effects of Normal Aging on Memory for Multiple Contextual Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Sylvain; Soulard, Kathleen; Brasgold, Melissa; Kreller, Joshua

    2007-01-01

    Twenty-four younger (18-35 years) and 24 older adult participants (65 or older) were exposed to three experimental conditions involving the memorization words and their associated contextual features, with contextual feature complexity increasing from Conditions 1 to 3. In Condition 1, words presented varied only on one binary feature (color,…

  1. Sensitive, Sensible Practicum Supervision: A Contextual Application in Saskatchewan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralph, Edwin G.

    1993-01-01

    In contextual supervision (CS) (an adaptation of situational leadership), the student teacher's (supervisee's) level of confidence and competence determines level of supervisory support and task orientation. CS also encourages a global view of all contextual variables. Observation of 49 untrained pairs of practicum students and cooperating…

  2. An Integrative Model of Individual Predisposition and Contextual ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Specifically, our integrative model makes connection between individuals' personality factor of openness and the contextual factors. The contextual factors reflect human capital of education and experience, motivational resources representing self-efficacy and initiative and networking behaviour influencing opportunity ...

  3. Is there contextuality in behavioural and social systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzhafarov, E N; Zhang, Ru; Kujala, Janne

    2016-01-13

    Most behavioural and social experiments aimed at revealing contextuality are confined to cyclic systems with binary outcomes. In quantum physics, this broad class of systems includes as special cases Klyachko-Can-Binicioglu-Shumovsky-type, Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-Bell-type and Suppes-Zanotti-Leggett-Garg-type systems. The theory of contextuality known as contextuality-by-default allows one to define and measure contextuality in all such systems, even if there are context-dependent errors in measurements, or if something in the contexts directly interacts with the measurements. This makes the theory especially suitable for behavioural and social systems, where direct interactions of 'everything with everything' are ubiquitous. For cyclic systems with binary outcomes, the theory provides necessary and sufficient conditions for non-contextuality, and these conditions are known to be breached in certain quantum systems. We review several behavioural and social datasets (from polls of public opinion to visual illusions to conjoint choices to word combinations to psychophysical matching), and none of these data provides any evidence for contextuality. Our working hypothesis is that this may be a broadly applicable rule: behavioural and social systems are non-contextual, i.e. all 'contextual effects' in them result from the ubiquitous dependence of response distributions on the elements of contexts other than the ones to which the response is presumably or normatively directed. © 2015 The Author(s).

  4. Contextual Stress and Health Risk Behaviors among African American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland-Linder, Nikeea; Lambert, Sharon F.; Chen, Yi-Fu; Ialongo, Nicholas S.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the longitudinal association between contextual stress and health risk behaviors and the role of protective factors in a community epidemiologically-defined sample of urban African American adolescents (N = 500; 46.4% female). Structural equation modeling was used to create a latent variable measuring contextual stress…

  5. Contextual Organization and Intentionality in Adults' Spatial Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddell, Kathryn J.; Rogoff, Barbara

    1987-01-01

    Study looks at whether spatial memory is automatic by examining the effects of intentionality and attention to contextual organization in spatial memory. The pattern of results demonstrated that reconstruction was enhanced by intentionality or by the goal-relevant activity of attending to contextual spatial relations. (Author/RWB)

  6. Stability of Recent and Remote Contextual Fear Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankland, Paul W.; Ding, Hoi-Ki; Takahashi, Eiki; Suzuki, Akinobu; Kida, Satoshi; Silva, Alcino J.

    2006-01-01

    Following initial encoding, memories undergo a prolonged period of reorganization. While such reorganization may occur in many different memory systems, its purpose is not clear. Previously, we have shown that recall of recent contextual fear memories engages the dorsal hippocampus (dHPC). In contrast, recall of remote contextual fear memories…

  7. Webis at TREC 2014: Web, Session, and Contextual Suggestion Tracks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    much to improve the result ranking. 4. CONTEXTUAL SUGGESTION TRACK The research question we examine in the Contextual Sug- gestion track is whether a... gestions we build upon state-of-the-art tools. Our first run uses descriptions without explanations while an explanation is added in the second run

  8. Understanding the contributions of visual stimuli to contextual fear conditioning: A proof-of-concept study using LCD screens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murawski, Nathen J; Asok, Arun

    2017-01-10

    The precise contribution of visual information to contextual fear learning and discrimination has remained elusive. To better understand this contribution, we coupled the context pre-exposure facilitation effect (CPFE) fear conditioning paradigm with presentations of distinct visual scenes displayed on 4 LCD screens surrounding a conditioning chamber. Adult male Long-Evans rats received non-reinforced context pre-exposure on Day 1, an immediate 1.5mA foot shock on Day 2, and a non-reinforced context test on Day 3. Rats were pre-exposed to either digital Context (dCtx) A, dCtx B, a distinct Ctx C, or no context on Day 1. Digital context A and B were identical except for the visual image displayed on the LCD screens. Immediate shock and retention testing occurred in dCtx A. Rats pre-exposed dCtx A showed the CPFE with significantly higher levels of freezing compared to controls. Rats pre-exposed to Context B failed to show the CPFE, with freezing that did not highly differ from controls. These results suggest that visual information contributes to contextual fear learning and that visual components of the context can be manipulated via LCD screens. Our approach offers a simple modification to contextual fear conditioning paradigms whereby the visual features of a context can be manipulated to better understand the factors that contribute to contextual fear discrimination and generalization. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Liberalism and gender: a contextual persepctive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soledad Escalante Beltrán

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available This article contextually discusses the category of gender from a liberal perspective. The six sections of the study provide a deep criticism of the social sciences from a less rigid perspective in the handling of dichotomous and exclusionary categories such as masculine-feminine, rational-emotional, private-public, liberal-community, to mention some of the central issues raised by the various debates about gender. A comparative methodology is used to analyze authors such as Kolberg, Gilligan, Rawls and others. One of the principal conclusions reached in this study is that traditional theoretical schemes, still in use, impede achieving broader consensuses and delay the resolution of practical problems such as, in the Peruvian case, those resulting from the translation of the discourse of equity into actions and concrete daily practices that provide citizens true access to justice.

  10. IoT Contextual Factors on Healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalakis, Konstantinos; Caridakis, George

    2017-01-01

    With the emergence of the Internet of Things, new services in healthcare will be available and existing systems will be integrated in the IoT framework, providing automated medical supervision and efficient medical treatment. Context awareness plays a critical role in realizing the vision of the IoT, providing rich contextual information that can help the system act more efficiently. Since context in healthcare has its unique characteristics, it is necessary to define an appropriate context aware framework for healthcare IoT applications. We identify this context as perceived in healthcare applications and describe the context aware procedures. We also present an architecture that connects the sensors that measure biometric data with the sensory networks of the environment and the various IoT middleware that reside in the geographical area. Finally, we discuss the challenges for the realization of this vision.

  11. Contextual Effect of Wealth on Independence: An Examination through Regional Differences in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemura, Kosuke; Hamamura, Takeshi; Guan, Yanjun; Suzuki, Satoko

    2016-01-01

    The current study disentangled two different effects of wealth on psychological tendency toward independence: one is an effect exerted at the individual level (i.e., being rich) and the other one is a contextual effect (i.e., being surrounded by rich individuals). Past research has found a stronger tendency toward independence among people in economically developed societies. This association has often been explained as a result of a greater amount of choices, and thus more opportunities to express individuality that wealth affords individuals. In addition to this individual-level process, theories in cultural psychology imply that the wealth-independence link also reflects social processes-living in a rich society, regardless of one's own wealth, promotes independence (contextual effect of wealth on independence). Through a large-scale survey in China, using multilevel analyses, we found that wealth had both the individual-level effect and contextual effect on independence as well as related psychological tendencies (influence orientation and generalized trust), suggesting that individuals are more likely to be independent with greater personal wealth and when surrounded by wealthy others. Possible processes through which independence is promoted by liing in a wealthy area are discussed.

  12. Implicit motives, explicit traits, and task and contextual performance at work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Jonas W B; Zettler, Ingo; Ewen, Christian; Hülsheger, Ute R

    2012-11-01

    Personality psychologists have long argued that explicit traits (as measured by questionnaires) channel the expression of implicit motives (as measured by coding imaginative verbal behavior) such that both interact in the prediction of relevant life outcome variables. In the present research, we apply these ideas in the context of industrial and organizational psychology and propose that 2 explicit traits work as channels for the expression of 3 core implicit motives in task and contextual job performance (extraversion for implicit affiliation and implicit power; explicit achievement for implicit achievement). As a test of these theoretical ideas, we report a study in which employees (N = 241) filled out a questionnaire booklet and worked on an improved modern implicit motive measure, the operant motive test. Their supervisors rated their task and contextual performance. Results support 4 of the 6 theoretical predictions and show that interactions between implicit motives and explicit traits increase the explained criterion variance in both task and contextual performance. (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  13. Culture and personality disorder: from a fragmented literature to a contextually grounded alternative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, Andrew G; Sunohara, Momoka; Kirmayer, Laurence J

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this review is twofold: to review recent literature on personality disorders, published in 2013 and the first half of 2014; and to use recent theoretical work to argue for a contextually grounded approach to culture and personality disorder. Recent large-sample studies suggest that U.S. ethnoracial groups differ in personality disorder diagnostic rates, but also that minority groups are less likely to receive treatment for personality disorder. Most of these studies do not test explanations for these differences. However, two studies demonstrate that socioeconomic status partly explains group differences between African-Americans and European Americans. Several new studies test the psychometric properties of instruments relevant to personality disorder research in various non-Western samples. Ongoing theoretical work advocates much more attention to cultural context. Recent investigations of hikikomori, a Japanese social isolation syndrome with similarities to some aspects of personality disorder, are used to demonstrate approaches to contextually grounded personality disorder research. Studies of personality disorder must understand patients in sociocultural context considering the dynamic interactions between personality traits, developmental histories of adversity and current social context. Research examining these interactions can guide contextually grounded clinical work with patients with personality disorder.

  14. Confined contextuality in neutron interferometry: Observing the quantum pigeonhole effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waegell, Mordecai; Denkmayr, Tobias; Geppert, Hermann; Ebner, David; Jenke, Tobias; Hasegawa, Yuji; Sponar, Stephan; Dressel, Justin; Tollaksen, Jeff

    2017-11-01

    Previous experimental tests of quantum contextuality based on the Bell-Kochen-Specker (BKS) theorem have demonstrated that not all observables among a given set can be assigned noncontextual eigenvalue predictions, but have never identified which specific observables must fail such assignment. We now remedy this shortcoming by showing that BKS contextuality can be confined to particular observables by pre- and postselection, resulting in anomalous weak values that we measure using modern neutron interferometry. We construct a confined contextuality witness from weak values, which we measure experimentally to obtain a 5 σ average violation of the noncontextual bound, with one contributing term violating an independent bound by more than 99 σ . This weakly measured confined BKS contextuality also confirms the quantum pigeonhole effect, wherein eigenvalue assignments to contextual observables apparently violate the classical pigeonhole principle.

  15. Distinct Contributions of Median Raphe Nucleus to Contextual Fear Conditioning and Fear-Potentiated Startle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, R. C. B.; Cruz, A. P. M.; Avanzi, V.; Landeira-Fernandez, J.; Brandão, M. L.

    2002-01-01

    Ascending 5-HT projections from the median raphe nucleus (MRN), probably to the hippocampus, are implicated in the acquisition of contextual fear (background stimuli), as assessed by freezing behavior. Foreground cues like light, used as a conditioned stimulus (CS) in classical fear conditioning, also cause freezing through thalamic transmission to the amygdala. As the MRN projects to the hippocampus and amygdala, the role of this raphe nucleus in fear conditioning to explicit cues remains to be explained. Here we analyzed the behavior of rats with MRN electrolytic lesions in a contextual conditioning situation and in a fear-potentiated startle procedure. The animals received MRN electrolytic lesions either before or on the day after two consecutive training sessions in which they were submitted to 10 conditioning trials, each in an experimental chamber (same context) where they. received foot-shocks (0.6 mA, 1 sec) paired to a 4-sec light CS. Seven to ten days later, the animals were submitted to testing sessions for assessing conditioned fear when they were placed for five shocks, and the duration of contextual freezing was recorded. The animals were then submitted to a fear-potentiated startle in response to a 4-sec light-CS, followed by white noise (100 dB, 50 ms). Control rats (sham) tested in the same context showed more freezing than did rats with pre- or post-training MRN lesions. Startle was clearly potentiated in the presence of light CS in the sham-lesioned animals. Whereas pretraining lesions reduced both freezing and fear-potentiated startle, the post-training lesions reduced only freezing to context, without changing the fear-potentiated startle. In a second experiment, neurotoxic lesions of the MRN with local injections of N-methyl-D-aspartate or the activation of 5-HT1A somatodendritic auto-receptors of the MRN by microinjections of the 5-HT1A receptor agonist 8-hydroxy- 2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin (8-OH-DPAT) before the training sessions also

  16. Tyrosine Modifications in Aging

    OpenAIRE

    Feeney, Maria B.; Schöneich, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Significance: The understanding of physiological and pathological processes involving protein oxidation, particularly under conditions of aging and oxidative stress, can be aided by proteomic identification of proteins that accumulate oxidative post-translational modifications only if these detected modifications are connected to functional consequences. The modification of tyrosine (Tyr) residues can elicit significant changes in protein structure and function, which, in some cases, may cont...

  17. Individual and contextual factors related to binge drinking among adolescents in Spain: a multilevel approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixidó-Compañó, Ester; Sordo, Luis; Bosque-Prous, Marina; Puigcorbé, Susanna; Barrio, Gregorio; Brugal, M Teresa; Belza, María José J; Espelt, Albert

    2018-01-15

    The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of binge drinking by regions in Spain and assess the effect of individual and contextual factors related to this drinking pattern in adolescents. A cross-sectional study was performed with data from the 2014 Spanish School Survey on Drug Use (ESTUDES) in students aged 14-18 years (N = 34,259). The outcome was binge drinking in adolescents during the last 30 days. Individual independent variables were socioeconomic variables and variables related to access to alcohol and its availability. Contextual variables consisted of adult alcohol consumption, public policies on alcohol, and socioeconomic factors. Multilevel Poisson regression models with robust variance were estimated, obtaining prevalence ratios (PR) and their 95% confidence intervals.  The results showed that the prevalence of youth binge drinking by region of residence was similar for both sexes (r = 0.72). At the individual level, binge drinking was mainly associated with the perception of easy access to alcohol (PR: 1.38; 95% CI: 1.23-1.55), consumption in open areas [(PR: 3.82; 95% CI: 3.44-4.24) < once a month and (PR: 6.57; 95% CI: 5.85-7.37) ≥ once a month], at least one parent allowing alcohol consumption (PR: 1.42; 95% CI: 1.37-1.47), and receiving >30 euros weekly (PR :1.51; 95% CI: 1.37-1.67). Contextual variables were not associated with youth binge drinking when individual variables were considered. In conclusion, youth binge drinking was associated with individual variables related to high alcohol accessibility and availability, regardless of contextual variables. These variables explained the variability in binge drinking among Spanish regions.

  18. Explaining the disability paradox: a cross-sectional analysis of the Swiss general population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fellinghauer Bernd

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Disability can be broken down into difficulties in different components of functioning such as impairments and limitations in activities and participation (A&P. Previous studies have produced the seemingly surprising result that persons with severe impairments tend to report high quality of life (QoL including perceived health regardless of their condition; the so-called “disability paradox”. We aim to study the role of contextual factors (i.e. the personal and environmental situation in explaining the disability paradox. Methods The Swiss Health Survey provides information on the perceived health of 18,760 participants from the general population. We construct a conditional independence graph applying random forests and stability selection in order to represent the structure of impairment, A&P limitation, contextual factors, and perceived health. Results We find that impairment and A&P limitations are not directly related but only via a cluster of contextual factors. Similarly, impairment and perceived health are not directly related. On the other hand, perceived health is directly connected with A&P limitations. We hypothesize that contextual factors have a moderating and/or mediating effect on the relationship of impairment, A&P limitations, and perceived health. Conclusion The disability paradox seems to dissolve when contextual factors are put into consideration. Contextual factors may be responsible for some persons with impairments developing A&P limitations and others not. In turn, persons with impairments may only then perceive bad health when they experience A&P limitation. Political interventions at the level of the environment may reduce the number of persons who perceive bad health.

  19. Npas4 Is a Critical Regulator of Learning-Induced Plasticity at Mossy Fiber-CA3 Synapses during Contextual Memory Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weng, Feng-Ju; Garcia, Rodrigo I; Lutzu, Stefano

    2018-01-01

    Synaptic connections between hippocampal mossy fibers (MFs) and CA3 pyramidal neurons are essential for contextual memory encoding, but the molecular mechanisms regulating MF-CA3 synapses during memory formation and the exact nature of this regulation are poorly understood. Here we report...... that the activity-dependent transcription factor Npas4 selectively regulates the structure and strength of MF-CA3 synapses by restricting the number of their functional synaptic contacts without affecting the other synaptic inputs onto CA3 pyramidal neurons. Using an activity-dependent reporter, we identified CA3...... pyramidal cells that were activated by contextual learning and found that MF inputs on these cells were selectively strengthened. Deletion of Npas4 prevented both contextual memory formation and this learning-induced synaptic modification. We further show that Npas4 regulates MF-CA3 synapses by controlling...

  20. Explaining Errors in Children's Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Caroline F.

    2007-01-01

    The ability to explain the occurrence of errors in children's speech is an essential component of successful theories of language acquisition. The present study tested some generativist and constructivist predictions about error on the questions produced by ten English-learning children between 2 and 5 years of age. The analyses demonstrated that,…

  1. Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions ... Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot org Hello! I’m Dr. Ramji Rajendran, ...

  2. Your Radiologist Explains CT Colonography

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of Radiology (IDoR) Radiology and You Sponsored by Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains CT Colonography (Virtual ... to allow for inflation with air while CT images are being taken. If you’re scheduled for ...

  3. Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Radiology (IDoR) Radiology and You Sponsored by Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine Transcript Welcome ... Carotid Intima-Media Thickness Test Medical Imaging Costs Video: Abdominal Ultrasound Video: Pelvic Ultrasound November 8 is ...

  4. Your Radiologist Explains CT Colonography

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Radiology (IDoR) Radiology and You Sponsored by Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains CT Colonography (Virtual colonoscopy) ... Carotid Intima-Media Thickness Test Medical Imaging Costs Video: Abdominal Ultrasound Video: Pelvic Ultrasound November 8 is ...

  5. Structural dynamic modification

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... system, after some modifications are introduced into the sestem, is analysed using two different databases: the modal database and the frequency response function database. The limitaions of the modal database are discussed. Structural modifications that can be accounted for are lumped masses, springs, dampers and ...

  6. Permit application modifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    This document contains the Permit Application Modifications for the Y-12 Industrial Landfill V site on the Oak Ridge Reservation. These modifications include the assessment of stability of the proposed Landfill V under static and loading conditions. Analyses performed include the general slope stability, veneer stability of the bottom liner and cover system, and a liquefaction potential assessment of the foundation soils.

  7. Association between dental pain and caries: a multilevel analysis to evaluate the influence of contextual and individual factors in 34 843 adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardila, Carlos Martín; Agudelo-Suárez, Andrés A

    2016-11-01

    To evaluate the influence of the social context and individual factors on the relationship between oral pain and caries METHODS: Data from the 2007 National Public Health Survey in Colombia were collected. A multiple-stage stratified sampling was used. The influence of different factors in oral pain was investigated with logistic and multilevel regression analyses. A total of 34 843 individuals (individual level) in 32 states and one Capital District (contextual level) were studied. Dental pain was associated with caries in the logistic (odds ratios = 56.2, confidence interval 49.5-63.9) and multilevel (3.342 ± 0.073; P dental pain variance was still significant at individual and contextual levels; interestingly the variation in individual level was smaller (28%) than the variation among states (72%). In addition, individual-level variables explained 80% of the individual-level variance in dental pain, and contextual-level variables explained 35% of the community-level variance. All individual variables, including caries, had a significant association with dental pain. Low gross domestic product (GDP) and human development index (HDI) at contextual level were associated with dental pain. Dental pain associated strongly with caries and other individual factors were also significant, however, contextual factors, specifically low GDP and HDI affect dental pain significantly. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  8. Exhibition of Monogamy Relations between Entropic Non-contextuality Inequalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Feng; Zhang, Wei; Huang, Yi-Dong

    2017-06-01

    We exhibit the monogamy relation between two entropic non-contextuality inequalities in the scenario where compatible projectors are orthogonal. We show the monogamy relation can be exhibited by decomposing the orthogonality graph into perfect induced subgraphs. Then we find two entropic non-contextuality inequalities are monogamous while the KCBS-type non-contextuality inequalities are not if the orthogonality graphs of the observable sets are two odd cycles with two shared vertices. Supported by 973 Programs of China under Grant Nos. 2011CBA00303 and 2013CB328700, Basic Research Foundation of Tsinghua National Laboratory for Information Science and Technology (TNList)

  9. Quantum key distribution protocol based on contextuality monogamy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jaskaran; Bharti, Kishor; Arvind

    2017-06-01

    The security of quantum key distribution (QKD) protocols hinges upon features of physical systems that are uniquely quantum in nature. We explore the role of quantumness, as qualified by quantum contextuality, in a QKD scheme. A QKD protocol based on the Klyachko-Can-Binicioğlu-Shumovsky (KCBS) contextuality scenario using a three-level quantum system is presented. We explicitly show the unconditional security of the protocol by a generalized contextuality monogamy relationship based on the no-disturbance principle. This protocol provides a new framework for QKD which has conceptual and practical advantages over other protocols.

  10. Group adaptation, formal darwinism and contextual analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okasha, S; Paternotte, C

    2012-06-01

    We consider the question: under what circumstances can the concept of adaptation be applied to groups, rather than individuals? Gardner and Grafen (2009, J. Evol. Biol.22: 659-671) develop a novel approach to this question, building on Grafen's 'formal Darwinism' project, which defines adaptation in terms of links between evolutionary dynamics and optimization. They conclude that only clonal groups, and to a lesser extent groups in which reproductive competition is repressed, can be considered as adaptive units. We re-examine the conditions under which the selection-optimization links hold at the group level. We focus on an important distinction between two ways of understanding the links, which have different implications regarding group adaptationism. We show how the formal Darwinism approach can be reconciled with G.C. Williams' famous analysis of group adaptation, and we consider the relationships between group adaptation, the Price equation approach to multi-level selection, and the alternative approach based on contextual analysis. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2012 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  11. Embedding quantum into classical: contextualization vs conditionalization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehtibar N Dzhafarov

    Full Text Available We compare two approaches to embedding joint distributions of random variables recorded under different conditions (such as spins of entangled particles for different settings into the framework of classical, Kolmogorovian probability theory. In the contextualization approach each random variable is "automatically" labeled by all conditions under which it is recorded, and the random variables across a set of mutually exclusive conditions are probabilistically coupled (imposed a joint distribution upon. Analysis of all possible probabilistic couplings for a given set of random variables allows one to characterize various relations between their separate distributions (such as Bell-type inequalities or quantum-mechanical constraints. In the conditionalization approach one considers the conditions under which the random variables are recorded as if they were values of another random variable, so that the observed distributions are interpreted as conditional ones. This approach is uninformative with respect to relations between the distributions observed under different conditions because any set of such distributions is compatible with any distribution assigned to the conditions.

  12. Kontextualisierung von Queer Theory Contextualizing Queer Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Voigt

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Christine M. Klapeer legt in diesem Einführungsband dar, aus welchen politischen und theoretischen Kontexten heraus sich ‚queer‘ zu einem Begriff mit besonderem politischem und theoretischem Gehalt entwickelt hat. Wesentlich zielt sie dabei auf eine kritische Kontextualisierung von „queer theory”. Die Autorin geht zunächst auf das Gay Liberation Movement ein, grenzt die Queer Theory vom Poststrukturalismus, von feministischen Theorien und den Lesbian and Gay Studies ab, beleuchtet Eckpunkte queeren Denkens und zeichnet schließlich die Entwicklungen in Österreich sowohl politisch-rechtlich als auch bewegungsgeschichtlich und in der Wissenschaftslandschaft nach.Christine M. Klapeer’s introductory volume demonstrates the manner in which ‘queer’ grew out of various political and theoretical contexts to become a term with special political and theoretical content. She focuses primarily on a critical contextualization of “queer theory.” The author begins by approaching the Gay Liberation Movement and then distinguishes Queer Theory from poststructuralism, from feminist theories, and from Lesbian and Gay Studies. She continues on to illuminate the key aspects of queer thought and concludes by sketching the development in Austria in terms of politics and the law, the history of movements, and within the landscape of knowledge.

  13. Contextualized Language and Transferential Aspects of Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movahedi, Siamak

    2015-08-01

    The analytic process, in which the patient's and the analyst's internal characters struggle to create a script through the analysand's mouth and the analyst's pen, resembles Pirandello's Six Characters in Search of an Author (1921): different characters come together on the analytic stage to rehearse the analyst's role as coauthor of a play that depicts the ongoing analytic saga. To compose the text for the interplay of characters, the author must search for contexts that may confer meaning upon the words and actions of characters. This involves a search for a mise en scène (stage) that will assign mise en sens (meaning) to the actors' role-specific dialogue. Yet mise en scène, in the theatrical sense, is a set of iconic signs set with its own décor, props, and costumes. In contrast, the psychoanalytic scene is a symbolic stage for the play of words--words that may contain unconscious codes for switching into particular language games. A clinical case report describes a struggle with the contextual analysis of an aspect of a treatment that involved reported episodes of verbal indiscretions "taken out of context" with unwanted consequences. © 2015 by the American Psychoanalytic Association.

  14. Trophic interaction modifications: an empirical and theoretical framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, J Christopher D; Morris, Rebecca J; Bonsall, Michael B

    2017-10-01

    Consumer-resource interactions are often influenced by other species in the community. At present these 'trophic interaction modifications' are rarely included in ecological models despite demonstrations that they can drive system dynamics. Here, we advocate and extend an approach that has the potential to unite and represent this key group of non-trophic interactions by emphasising the change to trophic interactions induced by modifying species. We highlight the opportunities this approach brings in comparison to frameworks that coerce trophic interaction modifications into pairwise relationships. To establish common frames of reference and explore the value of the approach, we set out a range of metrics for the 'strength' of an interaction modification which incorporate increasing levels of contextual information about the system. Through demonstrations in three-species model systems, we establish that these metrics capture complimentary aspects of interaction modifications. We show how the approach can be used in a range of empirical contexts; we identify as specific gaps in current understanding experiments with multiple levels of modifier species and the distributions of modifications in networks. The trophic interaction modification approach we propose can motivate and unite empirical and theoretical studies of system dynamics, providing a route to confront ecological complexity. © 2017 The Authors. Ecology Letters published by CNRS and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Contextual factors associated with smoking among Brazilian adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giatti, Luana; Casado, Leticia; de Moura, Lenildo; Crespo, Claudio; Malta, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    Background Very few studies have examined the role of school, household and family contexts in youth smoking in middle-income countries. Methods This work describes smoking exposure among 59 992 high school students who took part in the Brazilian Survey of School Health and investigates contextual factors associated with regular smoking, defined as smoking cigarettes at least once in the past 30 days. The explaining variables were grouped into: socio-demographic characteristics, school context, household context and family rapport. Variables independently associated with smoking in each context were identified by multiple logistic regression analysis. Results 53% of the total sample were girls, 89% were aged 13–15 years. 24% had already experimented with cigarettes, 50% before the age of 12 years. The prevalence of regular smoking was 6.3% (95% CI 5.87 to 6.74), with no sex variation. Smoking was not associated with either the mother's education or the index of household assets. In the multivariable analysis, studying at a private school, the possibility of purchasing cigarettes at school and skipping of classes without parents' consent increased the chances of smoking. In the household context, living with both parents was negatively associated with smoking, while having smoking parents and exposure to other people's smoking was positively related to smoking. In the family context, parental unawareness of what the adolescent was doing increased smoking, but having meals with the mother one or more days per week and parents' negative reactions to adolescent smoking reduced the chances of smoking. Conclusion The results reinforce the role of school, household and family contexts in youth smoking behaviours and will help improve public health policies aimed at preventing smoking and health promotion in adolescents. PMID:21471139

  16. Individual and contextual factors associated with verbal bullying among Brazilian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azeredo, Catarina Machado; Levy, Renata Bertazzi; Araya, Ricardo; Menezes, Paulo Rossi

    2015-05-01

    Few studies have been carried out in low- middle-income countries assessing contextual characteristics associated with bullying. This study aimed to assess the relative importance of contextual (school and city) and individual-level factors to explain the variance in verbal bullying among a nationally representative sample of Brazilian adolescents. 59,348 students from 1,453 schools and 26 state capitals and the Federal District participated in the National Survey of School Health among 9th Grade Students (PeNSE, 2009). We performed multilevel logistic regression in a three level model (individual, school and city). The 30-day prevalence of verbal bullying among these students was 14.2%. We found that 1.8% and 0.3% of the total variance in bullying occurred at school-level and city-level, respectively, and 97.9% at individual-level. At city-level, all factors included failed to demonstrate a significant association with bullying (p bullying than public schools (OR = 1.17, CI 1.04-1.31). At individual-level, male gender, younger age, not living with both parents, exposed to domestic violence, under or overweight were all associated with bullying. All socioeconomic indicators assessed contributed little to explain the variance in bullying at individual, school or city-level. Population subgroups at risk identified according to their individual profile could be targeted in future interventions in Brazil.

  17. Team learning and context; assessing the relationship between team-learning activities and contextual factors of team-learning environment and team-configurations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denekens J

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Olaf Timmermans1, Roland Van Linge2, Peter Van Petegem3, Joke Denekens4 1Faculty of Medicine, Nursing and Midwifery Science, University of Antwerp, Belgium; 2University Medical Centre Utrecht, Department of Nursing Sciences, Utrecht University, The Netherlands; 3Institute of Education and Information Sciences, University of Antwerp, Belgium; 4Department General Practice, University of Antwerp, Belgium Background: The prevalence of team-learning activities in nursing teams is influenced by contextual factors. Although team learning is important for nursing teams to perform, there is a paucity of research exploring the relationship between team-learning activities and contextual factors in nursing teams. The aim of this study was to study the relationship between team learning and contextual factors of the nursing team. Methodology: Correlation and multiple regression analyses were used to study the relationship between team learning and five contextual variables. One contextual variable represented the overall environment for learning, and the other four contextual variables characterized basic configurations of organizational characteristics of nursing teams. An interrelation between the contextual variables was expected, so multiple regression models were tested for multicollinearity by regression commonality analysis to detect unique and common contributions of each independent variable. Findings: Results of this study indicate that team-learning activities in nursing teams can be enhanced by contextual factors such as: (1 strengthening stimulation of the psychological safety, (2 openness, (3 shared goals, and (4 an open, external-oriented view. Multiple regressions yielded three models that explain 76%, 81%, and 83% of the variance in team learning. Commonality analyses showed the importance of interrelationships between the contextual factors. Practical implications: Nurses undertake team-learning activities to process information needed to

  18. A Co-contextual Type Checker for Featherweight Java

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuci, Edlira; Erdweg, S.T.; Bračevac, Oliver; Bejleri, Andi; Mezini, Mira; Müller, Peter

    2017-01-01

    This paper addresses compositional and incremental type checking for object-oriented programming languages. Recent work achieved incremental type checking for structurally typed functional languages through co-contextual typing rules, a constraint-based formulation that removes any context

  19. Using mobile phone contextual information to facilitate managing image collections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jakob Eg; Luniewski, Maciej

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a prototype application that utilizes the embedded sensors in advanced mobile phones to infer meaningful contextual information, with the potential to support the users in managing their personal information. Contextual information such as time, location, movement......, surrounding networks, devices, people, and application data is used to semi-automatically annotate information in our current proof-of-concept prototype. The application allows the derived contextual information to be annotated as tags to available content and thereby facilitating the processes involved...... in personal information management. We hypothesize that information inferred from embedded mobile phone sensors can offer useful contextual information for managing personal information, including the domain of interest here, namely image collections. This has potential for individuals as well as groups...

  20. Literary Autozoographies: Contextualizing Species Life in German Animal Autobiography

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Frederike Middelhoff

    2017-01-01

    .... These texts are discussed exemplarily in relation to the parameters of fictional autobiographies, before they are contextualized with historical discourses regarding horses in natural history and so-called ‘horse-science...

  1. Organizational justice and health: Contextual determinants and psychobiological consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herr, R.M.

    2015-01-01

    The research presented in this thesis entitled "Organizational Justice and Health: Contextual Determinants and Psychobiological Consequences" aimed to investigate associations between organizational justice and employee health and biological functioning. Organizational justice is an occupational

  2. Anterior prefrontal involvement in implicit contextual change detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Pollmann

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Anterior prefrontal cortex is usually associated with high level executive functions. Here, we show that the frontal pole, specifically left lateral frontopolar cortex, is involved in signaling change in implicitly learned spatial contexts, in the absence of conscious change detection. In a variant of the contextual cueing paradigm, participants first learned implicitly contingencies between distractor contexts and target locations. After learning, repeated distractor contexts were paired with new target locations. Left lateral frontopolar (BA10 and superior frontal (BA9 cortices showed selective signal increase for this target location change in repeated displays in an event-related fMRI experiment, which was most pronounced in participants with high contextual facilitation before the change. The data support the view that left lateral frontopolar cortex is involved in signaling contextual change to posterior brain areas as a precondition for adaptive changes of attentional resource allocation. This signaling occurs in the absence of awareness of learned contingencies or contextual change.

  3. Awareness for Contextualized Digital Contents in Ubiquitous Learning Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Börner, Dirk

    2010-01-01

    Börner, D. (2009). Awareness for Contextualized Digital Contents in Ubiquitous Learning Environments. Presented at the Doctoral Consortium of the Fourth European Conference on Technology Enhanced Learning (EC-TEL 2009). September, 29-October, 2, 2009, Nice, France.

  4. Explaining mirror-touch synesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Jamie; Banissy, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Mirror-touch synesthesia (MTS) is the conscious experience of tactile sensations induced by seeing someone else touched. This paper considers two different, although not mutually exclusive, theoretical explanations and, in the final section, considers the relation between MTS and other forms of synesthesia and also other kinds of vicarious perception (e.g., contagious yawning). The Threshold Theory explains MTS in terms of hyper-activity within a mirror system for touch and/or pain. This offers a good account for some of the evidence (e.g., from fMRI) but fails to explain the whole pattern (e.g., structural brain differences outside of this system; performance on some tests of social cognition). The Self-Other Theory explains MTS in terms of disturbances in the ability to distinguish the self from others. This can be construed in terms of over-extension of the bodily self in to others, or as difficulties in the control of body-based self-other representations. In this account, MTS is a symptom of a broader cognitive profile. We suggest this meets the criteria for synesthesia, despite the proximal causal mechanisms remaining largely unknown, and that the tendency to localize vicarious sensory experiences distinguishes it from other kinds of seemingly related phenomena (e.g., non-localized affective responses to observing pain).

  5. Explaining the gender wealth gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruel, Erin; Hauser, Robert M

    2013-08-01

    To assess and explain the United States' gender wealth gap, we use the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study to examine wealth accumulated by a single cohort over 50 years by gender, by marital status, and limited to the respondents who are their family's best financial reporters. We find large gender wealth gaps between currently married men and women, and between never-married men and women. The never-married accumulate less wealth than the currently married, and there is a marital disruption cost to wealth accumulation. The status-attainment model shows the most power in explaining gender wealth gaps between these groups explaining about one-third to one-half of the gap, followed by the human-capital explanation. In other words, a lifetime of lower earnings for women translates into greatly reduced wealth accumulation. After controlling for the full model, we find that a gender wealth gap remains between married men and women that we speculate may be related to gender differences in investment strategies and selection effects.

  6. Contextual determinants of health behaviours in an aboriginal community in Canada: pilot project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Pamela

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rapid change in food intake, physical activity, and tobacco use in recent decades have contributed to the soaring rates of obesity, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD in Aboriginal populations living in Canada. The nature and influence of contextual factors on Aboriginal health behaviours are not well characterized. Methods To describe the contextual determinants of health behaviours associated with cardiovascular risk factors on the Six Nations reserve, including the built environment, access and affordability of healthy foods, and the use of tobacco. In this cross-sectional study, 63 adults from the Six Nations Reserve completed the modified Neighbourhood Environment Walkability Scale (NEWS, questionnaire assessing food access and availability, tobacco pricing and availability, and the Environmental Profile of Community Health (EPOCH tool. Results The structured environment of Six Nations Reserve scored low for walkability, street connectivity, aesthetics, safety, and access to walking and cycling facilities. All participants purchased groceries off-reserve, although fresh fruits and vegetables were reported to be available and affordable both on and off-reserve. On average $151/week is spent on groceries per family. Ninety percent of individuals report tobacco use is a problem in the community. Tobacco is easily accessible for children and youth, and only three percent of community members would accept increased tobacco taxation as a strategy to reduce tobacco access. Conclusions The built environment, access and affordability of healthy food and tobacco on the Six Nations Reserve are not perceived favourably. Modification of these contextual factors described here may reduce adverse health behaviours in the community.

  7. Neural mechanisms of contextual influences during social perceptual decisions

    OpenAIRE

    El Zein, Marwa

    2015-01-01

    Everyday social decisions require the combination of multiple sources of information and therefore build upon abundant contextual elements such as the social cues of emitters (e.g., gaze direction, emotion, gesture), the attentional focus of observers, their mood and their past experience. The work conducted during this Ph.D. (including three main studies in healthy human subjects) aimed at characterizing the cognitive and neural mechanisms of contextual influences in social settings. The fir...

  8. Contextual factors influencing HIV risk behavior in Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolak, Alex

    2010-01-01

    Central Asia has experienced a rapid increase in HIV. HIV interventions and prevention programmes are needed that adequately appreciate and account for the ways that ongoing cultural, political, and economic changes in this region affect HIV risk reduction efforts. Drawing on relevant literature, this paper provides a contextual foundation to better understand the impact of context on HIV risk behaviour in the countries of Central Asia and to begin the conversation on the contextual factors of Islam and polygamy. PMID:20301020

  9. A Rule-Based System for Contextualized Information Delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, B.; Hidders, A.J.H.; De Lignie, M.; Cimiano, P.

    2011-01-01

    When carrying out tasks, police officers need up-to-date information contextualized to their current situation to support them in decision making. The results of a previous user study with the aim of capturing the information requirements of police officers have led to the implementation of a rule-based system for contextualized information delivery. In this paper, we present the overall system and discuss how the various sources of information are modelled using ontologies. Our focus is on t...

  10. THE EFFECTS OF CONTEXTUAL MEANING ASPECTS ON READING COMPREHENSION

    OpenAIRE

    Akhmad Ali Mirza

    2011-01-01

    The study is aimed at investigating the effects of contextual meaning aspects on reading comprehension, and finding out whether or not there is effect of reading proficiency, consists of low and high, on reading comprehension and effect of contextual meaning aspects together with reading proficiency on reading comprehension. It was used experimental design in this study. The data were processed and analyzed according to these steps: giving the treatment, checking and scoring, tabulating, anal...

  11. CONTEXTUAL TEACHING AND LEARNING APPROACH TO TEACHING WRITING

    OpenAIRE

    Intan Satriani; Emi Emilia; Handi Gunawan

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: This article reports a study on the implementation of contextual teaching and learning approach to teaching English writing to second graders of a Junior High Shool in Bandung. The study aims to investigate the strategies of Contextual Teaching and Learning (CTL) (as adapted from Crawford, 2001) and the advantages of using CTL approach. The study employed a qualitative case study research design. The data were obtained from several instruments, namely class observations, students’ i...

  12. Understanding contextual influences of community reintegration among injured servicemembers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Brent L; McGuire, Francis A; Linder, Sandra M; Britt, Thomas W

    2015-01-01

    As part of a larger mixed-methods research project investigating the influence of contextual factors on community reintegration (CR), this qualitative study sought to understand the subjective experiences of injured servicemembers and their perception of how contextual factors influenced their CR. More specifically, this article addresses how the influences of contextual factors differ between injured servicemembers with different levels of CR. Using a phenomenological framework, semistructured interviews were conducted with nine injured, community-dwelling servicemembers with low, moderate, and high levels of CR (three per category). Participants provided in-depth descriptions of the contextual barriers and facilitators of CR. Thematic analysis indicated the importance of social support and personal factors (e.g., self-efficacy, personal motivation) as the primary means for being reintegrated into their homes and communities. Other themes indicated factors that had an indirect but important influence on CR, including adapted sports, recreation, and other social programs; rehabilitation programs and therapists; school, work, and volunteering; and organizations and policies in developing social supports and personal factors. Comparisons between servicemembers indicated participants with low CR described many more contextual barriers and far fewer contextual facilitators to reintegration than those with high CR. Those with moderate CR were unique in that they described many facilitators and barriers to reintegration.

  13. Contextualization of Physics and Astronomy Through Nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Yasemin; Gurel, Z.

    2010-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the need for enriched learning environments in science education through the integrated setting of a physics course that is included in the training program for physics teachers. The participants are researchers, prospective physics teachers, civil defence volunteers and astronomers as collaborators. In this course an approach is adopted to incorporate indoor and outdoor settings in the same process to support one another with the purpose of contextualizing physics through nature. In the heart of the course is experience and observation, particularly in nature, in the form of a residential camp. Nature is a setting where students are faced with the sky and a telescope and do sky observations throughout the night. The part of the course involving astronomy is based on this engagement with the problems that arise from the topic of sky and telescope and are brought into the class in ill-structured form as a result of experience and observation. Within this thesis, the data gathered in two consecutive years, 2008 and 2009, are evaluated qualitatively. The problems were formed around a core experience but with the same core experience, problems varied from year to year depending on the human factor within the experience, namely the different characteristics of different people in different conditions, and environmental factors; geography and weather conditions, and the increasing experience of the researchers. Furthermore IYA2009 was also effective on the program of the course in 2009. Through this thesis prospective physics teachers’ participation in astronomy was broadened and it resulted in the formation of new knowledge, better understanding and led to the advancement of the use of astronomy in physics education. It is consistent with the inclusion of astronomy in new secondary and high school physics curriculum in our country as well.

  14. Contextual specificity in perception and action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proffitt, Dennis R.

    1991-01-01

    The visually guided control of helicopter flight is a human achievement, and, thus, understanding this skill is, in part, a psychological problem. The abilities of skilled pilots are impressive, and yet it is of concern that pilots' performance is less than ideal: they suffer from workload constraints, make occasional errors, and are subject to such debilities as simulator sickness. Remedying such deficiencies is both an engineering and a psychological problem. When studying the psychological aspects of this problem, it is desirable to simplify the problem as much as possible, and thereby, sidestep as many intractable psychological issues as possible. Simply stated, we do not want to have to resolve such polemics as the mind-body problem in order to contribute to the design of more effective helicopter systems. On the other hand, the study of human behavior is a psychological endeavor and certain problems cannot be evaded. Four related issues that are of psychological significance in understanding the visually guided control of helicopter flight are discussed. First, a selected discussion of the nature of descriptive levels in analyzing human perception and performance is presented. It is argued that the appropriate level of description for perception is kinematical, and for performance, it is procedural. Second, it is argued that investigations into pilot performance cannot ignore the nature of pilots' phenomenal experience. The conscious control of actions is not based upon environmental states of affairs, nor upon the optical information that specifies them. Actions are coupled to perceptions. Third, the acquisition of skilled actions in the context of inherent misperceptions is discussed. Such skills may be error prone in some situations, but not in others. Finally, I discuss the contextual relativity of human errors. Each of these four issues relates to a common theme: the control of action is mediated by phenomenal experience, the veracity of which is context

  15. Human Parsing with Contextualized Convolutional Neural Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xiaodan; Xu, Chunyan; Shen, Xiaohui; Yang, Jianchao; Tang, Jinhui; Lin, Liang; Yan, Shuicheng

    2016-03-02

    In this work, we address the human parsing task with a novel Contextualized Convolutional Neural Network (Co-CNN) architecture, which well integrates the cross-layer context, global image-level context, semantic edge context, within-super-pixel context and cross-super-pixel neighborhood context into a unified network. Given an input human image, Co-CNN produces the pixel-wise categorization in an end-to-end way. First, the cross-layer context is captured by our basic local-to-global-to-local structure, which hierarchically combines the global semantic information and the local fine details across different convolutional layers. Second, the global image-level label prediction is used as an auxiliary objective in the intermediate layer of the Co-CNN, and its outputs are further used for guiding the feature learning in subsequent convolutional layers to leverage the global imagelevel context. Third, semantic edge context is further incorporated into Co-CNN, where the high-level semantic boundaries are leveraged to guide pixel-wise labeling. Finally, to further utilize the local super-pixel contexts, the within-super-pixel smoothing and cross-super-pixel neighbourhood voting are formulated as natural sub-components of the Co-CNN to achieve the local label consistency in both training and testing process. Comprehensive evaluations on two public datasets well demonstrate the significant superiority of our Co-CNN over other state-of-the-arts for human parsing. In particular, the F-1 score on the large dataset [1] reaches 81:72% by Co-CNN, significantly higher than 62:81% and 64:38% by the state-of-the-art algorithms, MCNN [2] and ATR [1], respectively. By utilizing our newly collected large dataset for training, our Co-CNN can achieve 85:36% in F-1 score.

  16. Status hierarchy, attractiveness hierarchy and sex ratio : Three contextual factors explaining the status-aggression link among adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwaan, Michiel; Dijkstra, Jan; Veenstra, René

    The moderating effects of three specific conditions (status hierarchy, attractiveness hierarchy and sex ratio) on the link between status (popularity) and physical and relational aggression were examined in a large sample of adolescent boys (N = 1,665) and girls (N = 1,637) (M age = 13.60). In line

  17. Analysis of False Positive Errors of an Acute Respiratory Infection Text Classifier due to Contextual Features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    South, Brett R; Shen, Shuying; Chapman, Wendy W; Delisle, Sylvain; Samore, Matthew H; Gundlapalli, Adi V

    2010-03-01

    Text classifiers have been used for biosurveillance tasks to identify patients with diseases or conditions of interest. When compared to a clinical reference standard of 280 cases of Acute Respiratory Infection (ARI), a text classifier consisting of simple rules and NegEx plus string matching for specific concepts of interest produced 569 (4%) false positive (FP) cases. Using instance level manual annotation we estimate the prevalence of contextual attributes and error types leading to FP cases. Errors were due to (1) Deletion errors from abbreviations, spelling mistakes and missing synonyms (57%); (2) Insertion errors from templated document structures such as check boxes, and lists of signs and symptoms (36%) and; (3) Substitution errors from irrelevant concepts and alternate meanings for the same word (6%). We demonstrate that specific concept attributes contribute to false positive cases. These results will inform modifications and adaptations to improve text classifier performance.

  18. The effect of sleep deprivation on the encoding of contextual and non-contextual aspects of emotional memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tempesta, Daniela; Socci, Valentina; Coppo, Martina; Dello Ioio, Giada; Nepa, Valeria; De Gennaro, Luigi; Ferrara, Michele

    2016-05-01

    Sleep loss affects emotional memory, but the specific effects on its contextual and non-contextual aspects are unknown. In this study we investigated the possible differential influence of one night of sleep deprivation on the encoding and subsequent recall of these two aspects of emotional information. Forty-eight healthy subjects, divided in a sleep deprivation (SD) and a well-rested group (WR), completed two testing sessions: the encoding session took place after one night of sleep for the WR and after one night of sleep deprivation for the SD group; the recall session after two nights of recovery sleep for both groups. During the encoding session, 6 clips of films of different valence (2 positive, 2 neutral and 2 negative) were presented to the participants. During the recall session, the non-contextual emotional memory was assessed by a recognition task, while the contextual emotional memory was evaluated by a temporal order task. The SD group showed a worst non-contextual recognition of positive and neutral events compared to WR subjects, while recognition of negative items was similar in the two groups. Instead, the encoding of the temporal order resulted deteriorated in the SD participants, independent of the emotional valence of the items. These results indicate that sleep deprivation severely impairs the encoding of both contextual and non-contextual aspects of memory, resulting in significantly worse retention two days later. However, the preserved recognition of negative non-contextual events in sleep deprived subjects suggests that the encoding of negative stimuli is more "resistant" to the disruptive effects of sleep deprivation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Explaining the Evolution of Poverty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Hussain, Azhar; Jones, Edward Samuel

    2012-01-01

    We provide a comprehensive approach for analyzing the evolution of poverty using Mozambique as a case study. Bringing together data from disparate sources, we develop a novel “back-casting” framework that links a dynamic computable general equilibrium model to a micro-simulation poverty module....... This framework provides a new approach to explaining and decomposing the evolution of poverty, as well as to examining rigorously the coherence between poverty, economic growth, and inequality outcomes. Finally, various simple but useful and rarely-applied approaches to considering regional changes in poverty...

  20. Explaining (Missing) Regulator Paradigm Shifts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wigger, Angela; Buch-Hansen, Hubert

    2014-01-01

    of competition regulation is heaving into sight. It sets out to explain this from the vantage point of a critical political economy perspective, which identifies the circumstances under which a crisis can result in a regulatory paradigm shift. Contrasting the current situation with the shift in EC/EU competition...... capitalism; the social power configuration underpinning the neoliberal order remains unaltered; no clear counter-project has surfaced; the European Commission has been (and remains) in a position to oppose radical changes; and finally, there are no signs of a wider paradigm shift in the EU's regulatory...

  1. Explaining the Gender Wealth Gap

    OpenAIRE

    Ruel, Erin; Hauser, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    To assess and explain the United States’ gender wealth gap, we use the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study to examine wealth accumulated by a single cohort over 50 years by gender, by marital status, and limited to the respondents who are their family’s best financial reporters. We find large gender wealth gaps between currently married men and women, and never-married men and women. The never-married accumulate less wealth than the currently married, and there is a marital disruption cost to wealth...

  2. Tyrosine modifications in aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeney, Maria B; Schöneich, Christian

    2012-12-01

    The understanding of physiological and pathological processes involving protein oxidation, particularly under conditions of aging and oxidative stress, can be aided by proteomic identification of proteins that accumulate oxidative post-translational modifications only if these detected modifications are connected to functional consequences. The modification of tyrosine (Tyr) residues can elicit significant changes in protein structure and function, which, in some cases, may contribute to biological aging and age-related pathologies, such as atherosclerosis, neurodegeneration, and cataracts. Studies characterizing proteins in which Tyr has been modified to 3-nitrotyrosine, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine, 3,3'-dityrosine and other cross-links, or 3-chlorotyrosine are reviewed, with an emphasis on structural and functional consequences. Distinguishing between inconsequential modifications and functionally significant ones requires careful biochemical and biophysical analysis of target proteins, as well as innovative methods for isolating the effects of the multiple modifications that often occur under oxidizing conditions. The labor-intensive task of isolating and characterizing individual modified proteins must continue, especially given the expanding list of known modifications. Emerging approaches, such as genetic and metabolic incorporation of unnatural amino acids, hold promise for additional focused studies of this kind.

  3. Concentration- and age-dependent effects of chronic caffeine on contextual fear conditioning in C57BL/6J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Rachel L; Braak, David; Gould, Thomas J

    2016-02-01

    Chronic caffeine exerts negligible effects on learning and memory in normal adults, but it is unknown whether this is also true for children and adolescents. The hippocampus, a brain region important for learning and memory, undergoes extensive structural and functional modifications during pre-adolescence and adolescence. As a result, chronic caffeine may have differential effects on hippocampus-dependent learning in pre-adolescents and adolescents compared with adults. Here, we characterized the effects of chronic caffeine and withdrawal from chronic caffeine on hippocampus-dependent (contextual) and hippocampus-independent (cued) fear conditioning in pre-adolescent, adolescent, and adult mice. The results indicate that chronic exposure to caffeine during pre-adolescence and adolescence enhances or impairs contextual conditioning depending on concentration, yet has no effect on cued conditioning. In contrast, withdrawal from chronic caffeine impairs contextual conditioning in pre-adolescent mice only. No changes in learning were seen for adult mice for either the chronic caffeine or withdrawal conditions. These findings support the hypothesis that chronic exposure to caffeine during pre-adolescence and adolescence can alter learning and memory and as changes were only seen in hippocampus-dependent learning, which suggests that the developing hippocampus may be sensitive to the effects of caffeine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. 30 CFR 18.81 - Field modification of approved (permissible) equipment; application for approval of modification...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) equipment; application for approval of modification; approval of plans for modification before modification... Machines Assembled With Certified or Explosion-Proof Components, Field Modifications of Approved Machines...) equipment; application for approval of modification; approval of plans for modification before modification...

  5. Histone modification profiles characterize function-specific gene regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Inkyung; Kim, Dongsup

    2012-10-07

    Chromatin modification is ubiquitous in gene regulation. Despite much effort, a systematic investigation is needed to understand whether each modification has a unique property depending on the function of its associated genes. Here, we show that consideration of function-specific histone modification profiles is important for accurate prediction of gene expression levels, and is maintained across cell types. The performance improvement is thought to originate from the association between modifications and gene expression levels for each biological function. The varying relationship between histone modifications and gene expression levels can be partly explained by considering function-specific PolII recruitment mechanisms, and is supported by more accurate predictions of PolII occupancies with function-specific modification profiles. We suggest that the function-specific binding of transcription factors and chromatin regulators may explain similar gene regulatory mechanisms, such as function-specific PolII recruitment, in each functional gene set. Our study demonstrates that each histone modification has a different characteristic according to the function of its associated genes; thus, different combinations of histone modification profiles characterize function-specific gene regulation. The current analysis is available on our web server (biodb.kaist.ac.kr/impohis). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. What explains consciousness? Or…What consciousness explains?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulany, Donelson E

    2014-01-01

    In this invited commentary I focus on the topic addressed in three papers: De Sousa's (2013[1617]) Toward an Integrative Theory of Consciousness, a monograph with Parts 1 & 2, as well as commentaries by Pereira (2013a[59]) and Hirstein (2013[42]). All three are impressively scholarly and can stand-and shout-on their own. But theory of consciousness? My aim is to slice that topic into the two fundamentally different kinds of theories of consciousness, say what appears to be an ideology, out of behaviourism into cognitivism, now also influencing the quest for an "explanation of consciousness" in cognitive neuroscience. I will then say what can be expected given what we know of the complexity of brain structure, the richness of a conscious "vocabulary", and current technological limits of brain imaging. This will then turn to the strategy for examining "what consciousness explains"-metatheory, theories, mappings, and a methodology of competitive support, a methodology especially important where there are competing commitments. There are also increasingly common identifications of methodological bias in, along with failures to replicate, studies reporting unconscious controls in decision, social priming-as there have been in perception, learning, problem solving, etc. The literature critique has provided evidence taken as reducing, and in some cases eliminating, a role for conscious controls-a position consistent with that ideology out of behaviourism into cognitivism. It is an ideological position that fails to recognize the fundamental distinction between theoretical and metaphysical assertions.

  7. Contextual diversity facilitates learning new words in the classroom.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Rosa

    Full Text Available In the field of word recognition and reading, it is commonly assumed that frequently repeated words create more accessible memory traces than infrequently repeated words, thus capturing the word-frequency effect. Nevertheless, recent research has shown that a seemingly related factor, contextual diversity (defined as the number of different contexts [e.g., films] in which a word appears, is a better predictor than word-frequency in word recognition and sentence reading experiments. Recent research has shown that contextual diversity plays an important role when learning new words in a laboratory setting with adult readers. In the current experiment, we directly manipulated contextual diversity in a very ecological scenario: at school, when Grade 3 children were learning words in the classroom. The new words appeared in different contexts/topics (high-contextual diversity or only in one of them (low-contextual diversity. Results showed that words encountered in different contexts were learned and remembered more effectively than those presented in redundant contexts. We discuss the practical (educational [e.g., curriculum design] and theoretical (models of word recognition implications of these findings.

  8. Contextualization of drug-mediator relations using evidence networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Hai Joey; Speyer, Gil; Kiefer, Jeff; Kim, Seungchan

    2017-05-31

    Genomic analysis of drug response can provide unique insights into therapies that can be used to match the "right drug to the right patient." However, the process of discovering such therapeutic insights using genomic data is not straightforward and represents an area of active investigation. EDDY (Evaluation of Differential DependencY), a statistical test to detect differential statistical dependencies, is one method that leverages genomic data to identify differential genetic dependencies. EDDY has been used in conjunction with the Cancer Therapeutics Response Portal (CTRP), a dataset with drug-response measurements for more than 400 small molecules, and RNAseq data of cell lines in the Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia (CCLE) to find potential drug-mediator pairs. Mediators were identified as genes that showed significant change in genetic statistical dependencies within annotated pathways between drug sensitive and drug non-sensitive cell lines, and the results are presented as a public web-portal (EDDY-CTRP). However, the interpretability of drug-mediator pairs currently hinders further exploration of these potentially valuable results. In this study, we address this challenge by constructing evidence networks built with protein and drug interactions from the STITCH and STRING interaction databases. STITCH and STRING are sister databases that catalog known and predicted drug-protein interactions and protein-protein interactions, respectively. Using these two databases, we have developed a method to construct evidence networks to "explain" the relation between a drug and a mediator.  RESULTS: We applied this approach to drug-mediator relations discovered in EDDY-CTRP analysis and identified evidence networks for ~70% of drug-mediator pairs where most mediators were not known direct targets for the drug. Constructed evidence networks enable researchers to contextualize the drug-mediator pair with current research and knowledge. Using evidence networks, we were

  9. Contextual insensitivity in schizophrenic language processing: evidence from lexical ambiguity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titone, D; Levy, D L; Holzman, P S

    2000-11-01

    The authors investigated whether contextual failures in schizophrenia are due to deficits in the detection of context or the inhibition of contextually irrelevant information. Eighteen schizophrenia patients and 24 nonpsychiatric controls were tested via a cross-modal semantic priming task. Participants heard sentences containing homonyms and made lexical decisions about visual targets related to the homonyms' dominant or subordinate meanings. When sentences moderately biased subordinate meanings (e.g., the animal enclosure meaning of pen), schizophrenia patients showed priming of dominant targets (e.g., paper) and subordinate targets (e.g., pig). In contrast, controls showed priming only of subordinate targets. When contexts strongly biased subordinate meanings, both groups showed priming only of subordinate targets. The results suggest that inhibitory deficits rather than context detection deficits underlie contextual failures in schizophrenia.

  10. Continuity of the robustness of contextuality of empirical models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, HuiXian; Cao, HuaiXin; Wang, WenHua; Chen, Liang; Fan, Yajing

    2016-10-01

    Recently, the robustness of contextuality (RoC) of an empirical model was discussed in [Sci. China-Phys. Mech. Astron. 59, 640303 (2016)], many important properties of the RoC have been proved except for its boundedness and continuity. The aim of this paper is to find an upper bound for the RoC over all of empirical models and prove that the RoC is a continuous function on the set of all empirical models. Lastly, a relationship between the RoC and the extent of violating the noncontextual inequalities is established for an n-cycle contextual box. This relationship implies that the RoC can be used to quantify the contextuality of n-cycle boxes.

  11. A Contextual Risk Model for the Ellsberg Paradox

    CERN Document Server

    Aerts, Diederik

    2011-01-01

    The Allais and Ellsberg paradoxes show that the expected utility hypothesis and Savage's Sure-Thing Principle are violated in real life decisions. The popular explanation in terms of 'ambiguity aversion' is not completely accepted. On the other hand, we have recently introduced a notion of 'contextual risk' to mathematically capture what is known as 'ambiguity' in the economics literature. Situations in which contextual risk occurs cannot be modeled by Kolmogorovian classical probabilistic structures, but a non-Kolmogorovian framework with a quantum-like structure is needed. We prove in this paper that the contextual risk approach can be applied to the Ellsberg paradox, and elaborate a 'sphere model' within our 'hidden measurement formalism' which reveals that it is the overall conceptual landscape that is responsible of the disagreement between actual human decisions and the predictions of expected utility theory, which generates the paradox. This result points to the presence of a 'quantum conceptual layer'...

  12. The effects of organizational contextual factors on physicians' attitude toward adoption of Electronic Medical Records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdekhoda, Mohammadhiwa; Ahmadi, Maryam; Gohari, Mahmodreza; Noruzi, Alireza

    2015-02-01

    Physicians' adoption seems to be a significant issue when comprehensive implementation of Electronic Medical Records (EMR) is considered. This study was conducted to determine the organizational contextual factors affecting physicians' adoption of EMR. This was a descriptive-analytical study in which a sample of 330 physicians working in hospitals affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences was selected. Physicians' attitudes toward EMRs' adoption have been assessed by a conceptual path model of Technology Acceptance model (TAM) and organizational context variables. Collected data were analyzed by SPSS16 using regression analysis. The final model was tested by structural equation modeling (SEM) and represented by SPSS-AMOS, structural equation modeling software. The results suggest that modified proposed conceptual path model explains about 56% of the variance of EMRs' adoption. The findings also evidenced that perceived usefulness (PU), perceived ease of use (PEOU), management support; physicians' involvement, physicians' autonomy, and the doctor-patient relationship have direct and significant effect on physicians' attitudes toward EMRs' adoption. However, training showed to have no significant effect on PU and PEOU. The present study acknowledged that considerable part of physicians' attitude toward EMRs' adoption is controlled by organizational contextual factors. These factors should be subsequently the major concern of health organizations and health policy makers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Reduced Contextual Discrimination following Alcohol Consumption or MDMA Administration in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Emily M.; García-Gutiérrez, María S.; Moscoso-Castro, María; Manzanares, Jorge; Valverde, Olga

    2015-01-01

    The recreational drugs, alcohol and 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, “Ecstasy”) have both been shown to cause immune activation in vivo, and they are linked to cognitive impairment and anxiety-like behaviors in rodents. The neuronal effects of these drugs in the hippocampal area, an area that has been a focus of studies aiming to explain the mechanisms underlying anxiety related-disorders, remains poorly understood. Therefore we investigated the specific inflammatory impact of alcohol and MDMA on this area of the brain and on a hippocampal-related behavioral task. We centered our study on two inflammatory factors linked to anxiety-related disorders, namely Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). We subjected drug-consuming mice to a battery of behavioral tests to evaluate general activity, anxiety-like and depressive-live behaviors. We then introduced them to a contextual fear discrimination task and immune-related effects were examined by immunohistochemical and biochemical studies. Our results suggest that there is a relationship between the induction of immune activated pathways by voluntary alcohol consumption and a high-dose MDMA. Furthermore, the ability of mice to perform a contextual fear discrimination task was impaired by drug consumption and we report long term inflammatory alterations in the hippocampus even several weeks after drug intake. This information will be helpful for discovering new selective drug targets, and to develop treatments and preventive approaches for patients with anxiety-related disorders. PMID:26566284

  14. Children with Physical Disabilities at School and Home: Physical Activity and Contextual Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ru; Sit, Cindy Hui-Ping; Yu, Jane Jie; Sum, Raymond Kim-Wai; Wong, Stephen Heung-Sang; Cheng, Kenneth Chik-Chi; McKenzie, Thomas L

    2017-06-25

    The purpose of this study was to assess the physical activity (PA) of children with physical disabilities (PD) in school and home settings and to simultaneously examine selected contextual characteristics in relation to PA in those settings. Children with PD (N = 35; Mean age = 15.67 ± 4.30 years; 26 boys) were systematically observed using BEACHES (Behaviors of Eating and Activity for Children's Health: Evaluation System) at school (before school, recess, lunch break, after class) and at home (before dinner) during four normal school days. The children spent most of their time in all five settings being physically inactive, but had slightly more PA during recess and lunch break periods. Hierarchical multiple regression revealed that selected contextual characteristics explained 18.9-56.0% (p school and the presence of fathers and fathers being motivators at home. This study highlights how little PA that children with PD receive and identifies the importance of the provision of prompts for PA at both school and home with this special population.

  15. Children with Physical Disabilities at School and Home: Physical Activity and Contextual Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ru Li

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess the physical activity (PA of children with physical disabilities (PD in school and home settings and to simultaneously examine selected contextual characteristics in relation to PA in those settings. Children with PD (N = 35; Mean age = 15.67 ± 4.30 years; 26 boys were systematically observed using BEACHES (Behaviors of Eating and Activity for Children’s Health: Evaluation System at school (before school, recess, lunch break, after class and at home (before dinner during four normal school days. The children spent most of their time in all five settings being physically inactive, but had slightly more PA during recess and lunch break periods. Hierarchical multiple regression revealed that selected contextual characteristics explained 18.9–56.0% (p < 0.01 of the variance predicting moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA after controlling for demographic variables. Prompts to be active were positively associated with MVPA at school and the presence of fathers and fathers being motivators at home. This study highlights how little PA that children with PD receive and identifies the importance of the provision of prompts for PA at both school and home with this special population.

  16. Unconditioned freezing is enhanced in an appetitive context: implications for the contextual dependency of unconditioned fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, Dayan; Fitzpatrick, Christopher J; George, Sophie A; Abelson, James L; Liberzon, Israel

    2012-05-01

    It has been well established that expression of conditioned fear is context independent, but the context dependency of unconditioned fear expression has rarely been explored. A recent study reported that unconditioned freezing in rats is enhanced in a familiar context, which suggests that unconditioned fear expression can be modulated by contextual processing. In order to further explore this possibility we examined unconditioned freezing in novel, familiar, and appetitive contexts; and attempted to identify brain regions critical for context-related changes in unconditioned freezing by measuring c-Fos mRNA levels in emotional circuits. Unconditioned freezing was enhanced in the appetitive context, and this enhancement was accompanied by increased c-Fos mRNA expression in the medial amygdala and hippocampus, but attenuated expression in the medial prefrontal cortex. In the appetitive context, expectation of a reward coupled with detection of threat may have enhanced unconditioned fear expression, which suggests that unconditioned fear expression can be modulated by contextual factors. Context-related expectancy mismatch may explain the enhancement of unconditioned fear expression seen in this study and warrants further examination. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Contextualization processes and the initial education of physics teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Cândida de Macedo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Contextualization of school contents has been seen as a possibility of facilitating students’ learning, since it makes the educative process more significant to them. However, there is no agreement as to the meaning and the forms of applying such processes. Particularly in the area of Science teaching, the creation of thematic projects has been seen as a way of contextualizing school contents. It is noteworthy that the experience with the education of Physics teachers shows that the creation and execution of such projects brings many difficulties to teachers, the main obstacle being the understanding of what contextualized educative processes are. Having this in mind, a project has been elaborated with the objective of analyzing the comprehension Physics teachers that are going through teacher education courses have of the processes of contextualization. The data for this investigation has been obtained from students who attended a course of the Physics Teacher Education module at the Federal University of Itajubá. It is significant to mention that in this course students are asked to create three versions of a thematic project. In order to analyze the data, the procedure of Thematic Content and Category Analysis was adopted. This research shows that Physics teachers to be incorporate the discourses of the educative ideas throughout the course. However, there is a series of obstacles they face as they attempt to understand and carry out contextualized educative processes. Those difficulties are connected to their experience with this kind of educative process throughout the years they spend at school and in the teacher education course. We conclude thus that it is essential that contextualized educative activities be part of the reality of teacher education programs.

  18. Social and Contextual Constraints on Embodied Perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnall, Simone

    2017-03-01

    A number of papers have challenged research on physiological and psychological influences on perception by claiming to show that such findings can be explained by nonperceptual factors such as demand characteristics. Relatedly, calls for separating perception from judgment have been issued. However, such efforts fail to consider key processes known to shape judgment processes: people's inability to report accurately on their judgments, conversational dynamics of experimental research contexts, and misattribution and discounting processes. Indeed, the fact that initially observed effects of embodied influences disappear is predicted by an extensive amount of literature on judgments studied within social psychology. Thus, findings from such studies suggest that the initially presumed underlying processes are at work-namely, functional considerations that are informative in the context of preparing the body for action. In this article, I provide suggestions on how to conduct research on perception within the social constraints of experimental contexts.

  19. Gender Affirmation and Body Modification Among Transgender Persons in Bogotá, Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Aguayo-Romero, Rodrigo A.; Reisen, Carol A.; Zea, Maria Cecilia; Bianchi, Fernanda T.; Poppen, Paul J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper examined structural, social, and personal characteristics that shape the processes of gender affirmation and body modification among transgender persons (assigned male at birth) in Bogotá, Colombia. Qualitative data from life-history interviews (N=14) and a focus group (N=11) explored research questions concerning the ways in which the internal psychological and external contextual processes influence individuals' decisions and behaviors concerning hormonal treatment, injections, o...

  20. Race Essentialism and Social Contextual Differences in Children’s Racial Stereotyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauker, Kristin; Xu, Yiyuan; Williams, Amanda; Biddle, Ashley Morris

    2016-01-01

    The authors explored the differential emergence and correlates of racial stereotyping in 136 children ages 4–11 years across two broad social contexts: Hawai‘i and Massachusetts. Children completed measures assessing race salience, race essentialism, and in-group and out-group stereotyping. Results indicated that the type of racial stereotypes emerging with age was context dependent. In both contexts in-group stereotyping increased with age. By contrast, there was only an age-related increase in out-group stereotyping in Massachusetts. Older children in Massachusetts reported more essentialist thinking (i.e., believing that race cannot change) than their counterparts in Hawai’i, which explained their higher out-group stereotyping. These results provide insight into the factors that may shape contextual differences in racial stereotyping. PMID:27684395

  1. The contextual researcher: celebrating 'experiential alertness' in grounded theory in prison research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Stephan

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, Stephan Kirby demonstrates and explores an approach to grounded theory research within the segregation unit of a high secure prison. The paper illustrates how he used 'experiential alertness' (EA) to promote the effective use of grounded theory. Experiential alertness is a term created to explain and explore the positive use and application of contextually developed experience and how this impacts dynamically on the research process being undertaken. In this sense it is considered to be experience and knowledge derived from and combined with the effects of a specific environment and context. The paper also explores how EA supports and complements Strauss and Corbin's approach to grounded theory. As such, EA conforms to Annells's (1996) belief that Strauss and Corbin's techniques encourage the use of one's own experience and acquired knowledge to advantage, rather than seeing it as an obstruction, although caution is advised that it should not block out seeing what is significant in the data.

  2. Digital Stratigraphy: Contextual Analysis of File System Traces in Forensic Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Eoghan

    2017-12-28

    This work introduces novel methods for conducting forensic analysis of file allocation traces, collectively called digital stratigraphy. These in-depth forensic analysis methods can provide insight into the origin, composition, distribution, and time frame of strata within storage media. Using case examples and empirical studies, this paper illuminates the successes, challenges, and limitations of digital stratigraphy. This study also shows how understanding file allocation methods can provide insight into concealment activities and how real-world computer usage can complicate digital stratigraphy. Furthermore, this work explains how forensic analysts have misinterpreted traces of normal file system behavior as indications of concealment activities. This work raises awareness of the value of taking the overall context into account when analyzing file system traces. This work calls for further research in this area and for forensic tools to provide necessary information for such contextual analysis, such as highlighting mass deletion, mass copying, and potential backdating. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  3. The socialization of dominance: peer group contextual effects on homophobic and dominance attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poteat, V Paul; Espelage, Dorothy L; Green, Harold D

    2007-06-01

    Using the framework of social dominance theory, the current investigation tested for the contextual effects of adolescent peer groups on individuals' homophobic and social dominance attitudes. Results from multilevel models indicated that significant differences existed across peer groups on homophobic attitudes. In addition, these differences were accounted for on the basis of the hierarchy-enhancing or -attenuating climate of the group. A group socialization effect on individuals' social dominance attitudes over time was also observed. Furthermore, the social climate of the peer group moderated the stability of individuals' social dominance attitudes. Findings support the need to examine more proximal and informal group affiliations and earlier developmental periods in efforts to build more comprehensive theoretical models explaining when and how prejudiced and dominance attitudes are formed and the way in which they are perpetuated. (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved.

  4. Patronage, Contextual Flexibility, and Organisational Innovation in Lebanese Protected Areas Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mads Solberg

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Lebanese Shouf Biosphere Reserve (SBR counts among the most successful Middle Eastern conservation projects today. This article describes the evolution and contemporary management of conservation in Shouf. Using SBR as the empirical foci it argues that mobilisation of customary political hierarchies to secure environmental protection is not bound to impede conservation agendas as suggested by Kingston (2001, but rather provided the SBR with managerial flexibility under a weak state. The case study shows how new environmental agendas articulated with traditional political regimes in building novel, stable institutions. From these emerged contextually flexible solutions for mediating resources and negotiating nature. The Shouf′s particular clientelist political structure gave rise to networks simultaneously civic and part of the Lebanese state. Explaining the apparent stability of conservation practice in Shouf requires shifting analytical frames away from polarised debates either for or against the roles of state, civil society, and patronage in conservation.

  5. Sport education and extracurricular sport participation: an examination using the trans-contextual model of motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallhead, Tristan L; Hagger, Martin; Smith, Derek T

    2010-12-01

    In this study, we used the trans-contextual model of motivation (TCM) to examine the effect of Sport Education (SE) on students' participation in a voluntary lunch recess sport club. A total of 192 participants (ages 9-14 years) completed measures of the TCM constructs before and after a 12-week SE intervention period. Participants had the opportunity to participate in weekly, voluntary lunch recess sport club sessions during the intervention period. SE elicited a moderate increase in autonomous motives in physical education. The TCM accounted for a significant proportion of the explained variance in lunch recess sport club intention and participation. Autonomy-supportive curricular models, such as SE, may have the potential to facilitate transfer of motivation and participation in physical activity from a physical education to an extracurricular context.

  6. Historical Perspective and Risk of Multiple Neglected Tropical Diseases in Coastal Tanzania: Compositional and Contextual Determinants of Disease Risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick Ato Armah

    Full Text Available In the past decade, research on neglected tropical diseases (NTDs has intensified in response to the need to enhance community participation in health delivery, establish monitoring and surveillance systems, and integrate existing disease-specific treatment programs to control overlapping NTD burdens and detrimental effects. In this paper, we evaluated the geographical distribution of NTDs in coastal Tanzania.We also assessed the collective (compositional and contextual factors that currently determine risks to multiple NTDs using a cross sectional survey of 1253 individuals in coastal Tanzania. The results show that the effect size in decreasing order of magnitude for non-binary predictors of NTD risks is as follows: NTD comorbidities > poverty > educational attainment > self-reported household quality of life > ethnicity. The multivariate analysis explained 95% of the variance in the relationship between NTD risks and the theoretically-relevant covariates. Compositional (biosocial and sociocultural factors explained more variance at the neighbourhood level than at the regional level, whereas contextual factors, such as access to health services and household quality, in districts explained a large proportion of variance at the regional level but individually had modest statistical significance, demonstrating the complex interactions between compositional and contextual factors in generating NTD risks.NTD risks were inequitably distributed over geographic space, which has several important policy implications. First, it suggests that localities of high burden of NTDs are likely to diminish within statistical averages at higher (regional or national levels. Second, it indicates that curative or preventive interventions will become more efficient provided they can be focused on the localities, particularly as populations in these localities are likely to be burdened by several NTDs simultaneously, further increasing the imperative of multi

  7. Students' Views on Contextual Vocabulary Teaching: A Constructivist View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosun, Bahadir Cahit

    2016-01-01

    The current study is a quantitative research that aims to throw light on the place of students' views on contextual vocabulary teaching in conformity with Constructivism (CVTC) in the field of foreign language teaching. Hence, the study investigates whether any significant correlation exists between the fourth year university students' attitudes…

  8. Comparative Effectiveness of Contextual and Structural Method of Teaching Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behlol, Malik; Kaini, Mohammad Munir

    2011-01-01

    The study was conducted to find out effectiveness of contextual an, structural method of teaching vocabulary in English at secondary level. It was an experimental study in which the pretest posttest design was used. The population of the study was the students of secondary classes studying in Government secondary schools of Rawalpindi District.…

  9. Contextualizing the Impacts of Homelessness on Academic Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlakis, Alexandra E.; Goff, Peter; Miller, Peter M.

    2017-01-01

    Background/Context: Students experiencing homelessness are also often living in poverty and may share many of the same characteristics and experiences with children in low-income housing. Scholars aim to understand the impacts of homelessness above and beyond the effects of poverty, but studies are mixed. Contextual factors--such as the localized…

  10. Contextual Compression of Large-Scale Wind Turbine Array Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruchalla, Kenny M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Brunhart-Lupo, Nicholas J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Potter, Kristin C [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Clyne, John [National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR)

    2017-12-04

    Data sizes are becoming a critical issue particularly for HPC applications. We have developed a user-driven lossy wavelet-based storage model to facilitate the analysis and visualization of large-scale wind turbine array simulations. The model stores data as heterogeneous blocks of wavelet coefficients, providing high-fidelity access to user-defined data regions believed the most salient, while providing lower-fidelity access to less salient regions on a block-by-block basis. In practice, by retaining the wavelet coefficients as a function of feature saliency, we have seen data reductions in excess of 94 percent, while retaining lossless information in the turbine-wake regions most critical to analysis and providing enough (low-fidelity) contextual information in the upper atmosphere to track incoming coherent turbulent structures. Our contextual wavelet compression approach has allowed us to deliver interative visual analysis while providing the user control over where data loss, and thus reduction in accuracy, in the analysis occurs. We argue this reduced but contextualized representation is a valid approach and encourages contextual data management.

  11. Contextual Innovation, Growth And Income In Garment Micro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper explores the link between contextual innovation, business growth and income for garment micro-businesses based on survey data collected from Dar es Salaam, Morogoro, Iringa and Mbeya Regions. The survey (on which the paper is based ) intended to find out the role of information in the promotion of micro- ...

  12. Contextual influences on spoken-word processing : an electrophysiological approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brink, D. van den

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to gain more insight into spoken-word comprehension and the influence of sentence-contextual information on these processes using ERPs. By manipulating critical words in semantically constraining sententes, in semantic or syntactic sense, and examining the consequences in

  13. Sociological education: cultural and contextual aspects of modernization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Kuropjatnik

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the cultural and social aspects of modernization of contemporary sociological education in Russia. Its update is done in the logic of the transition from tradition to modernity and post-modernity caused by contextual and discrete changes as manifestations of globalization.

  14. A Molecular Dissociation between Cued and Contextual Appetitive Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheirbek, Mazen A.; Beeler, Jeff A.; Chi, Wanhao; Ishikawa, Yoshihiro; Zhuang, Xiaoxi

    2010-01-01

    In appetitive Pavlovian learning, animals learn to associate discrete cues or environmental contexts with rewarding outcomes, and these cues and/or contexts can potentiate an ongoing instrumental response for reward. Although anatomical substrates underlying cued and contextual learning have been proposed, it remains unknown whether specific…

  15. Individual and Contextual Inhibitors of Sexual Harassment Training Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Benjamin M.; Bauerle, Timothy J.; Magley, Vicki J.

    2013-01-01

    Studies have evaluated the outcomes of sexual harassment training, but considerably less research has focused on variables that influence sexual harassment training effectiveness. To address this need, we developed and tested a model of individual and contextual inhibitors of sexual harassment training motivation to learn. Survey data collected…

  16. Contextual neural gas for spatial clustering and analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagenauer, J.; Helbich, M.

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to introduce contextual Neural Gas (CNG), a variant of the Neural Gas algorithm, which explicitly accounts for spatial dependencies within spatial data. The main idea of the CNG is to map spatially close observations to neurons, which are close with respect to their rank distance.

  17. Contextuality in multipartite pseudo-telepathy graph games

    OpenAIRE

    Anshu, Anurag; Hoyer, Peter; Mhalla, Mehdi; Perdrix, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Analyzing pseudo-telepathy graph games, we propose a way to build contextuality scenarios exhibiting the quantum supremacy using graph states. We consider the combinatorial structures that generate equivalent scenarios. We introduce a new tool called multipartiteness width to investigate which scenarios are harder to decompose and show that there exist graphs generating scenarios with a linear multipartiteness width.

  18. Contextual Influences on Korean College Students' Vocational Identity Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Bora; Kim, Dae Won; Lee, Ki-Hak

    2016-01-01

    This study observed the effect of contextual factors on vocational identity (VI) level in each VI status, originated by Marcia ("Handbook of adolescent psychology." Wiley, New York, 1980)'s identity status. This is an attempt to integrate status approach and dimension approach of VI development by finding within-status difference of…

  19. Inhibition and enhancement of contextual fear memory destabilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan L C Lee

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The reactivation of a memory can result in its destabilization, necessitating a process of memory reconsolidation to maintain its persistence. Here we show that the destabilization of a contextual fear memory is potentiated by the cannabinoid CB1 receptor agonist ACEA. Co-infusion of ACEA and the IKK inhibitor sulfasalazine into the dorsal hippocampus impaired contextual fear memory reconsolidation. This observation was achieved under behavioural conditions that, by themselves, did not result in either a reconsolidation impairment by sulfasalazine alone or reactivation-induced upregulation of Zif268 expression. Moreover, we show that the destabilization of a contextual fear memory is dependent upon neuronal activity in the dorsal hippocampus, but not memory expression per se. The effect on contextual fear memory destabilization of intra-hippocampal ACEA was replicated by systemic injections, allowing an amnestic effect of MK-801. These results indicate that memory expression and destabilization, while being independent from one another, are both dependent upon memory reactivation. Moreover, memory destabilization can be enhanced pharmacologically, which may be of therapeutic potential.

  20. Negotiating Academic Teacher Identity Shifts during Higher Education Contextual Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNaughton, Susan Maree; Billot, Jennie

    2016-01-01

    Higher education teachers' roles and identities are constantly shifting in response to contextual change. Pedagogy, values, and professional and personal narratives of self are all affected, particularly by technological change. This paper explores the role and identity shifts of academics during the introduction of large-class videoconferencing.…

  1. A Privacy-by-Design Contextual Suggestion System for Tourism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Efraimidis, Pavlos; Drosatos, George; Arampatzis, Avi; Stamatelatos, Giorgos; Athanasiadis, Ioannis

    2016-01-01

    We focus on personal data generated by the sensors and through the everyday usage of smart devices and take advantage of these data to build a non-invasive contextual suggestion system for tourism. The system, which we call Pythia, exploits the computational capabilities of modern smart devices to

  2. Towards Computational Fronesis: Verifying Contextual Appropriateness of Emotions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ptaszynski, Michal; Dybala, Pawel; Mazur, Michal; Rzepka, Rafal; Araki, Kenji; Momouchi, Yoshio

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents research in Contextual Affect Analysis (CAA) for the need of future application in intelligent agents, such as conversational agents or artificial tutors. The authors propose a new term, Computational Fronesis (CF), to embrace the tasks included in CAA applied to development of conversational agents such as artificial tutors.…

  3. Enhancing Argumentative Writing Skill through Contextual Teaching and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasani, Aceng

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to describe the influence of contextual learning model and critical thinking ability toward argumentative writing skill on university students. The population of the research was 147 university students, and 52 university students were used as sample with multi stage sampling. The results of the research indicate that; group of…

  4. Parenting during toddlerhood: Contributions of parental, contextual and child characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, M.; Junger, M.; van Aken, C.; Deković, M.; van Aken, M.A.G.

    2007-01-01

    The present study examines the contribution of parental, contextual, and child characteristics to parenting behavior during toddlerhood in 111 two-parent families with a 17-month-old son (M = 16.9 months, SD = 0.57). Parenting was conceptualized in terms of five dimensions: support, structure,

  5. Deriving Contextual Defining Information for Technical Terms from a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Deriving Contextual Defining Information for Technical Terms from a Specialized Corpus - The Case of Kiswahili Health Care Terminology. ... research project into developing domain specific publications that can be used by non-experts in the understanding of technical terms as applied in everyday swahili language.

  6. Contextualizing South Africa's participation in the SITES 2006 module

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The goal was to understand the pedagogical use of ICTs in schools in 22 education systems. We aim to contextualize South Africa's participation in SITES 2006 on four levels: (i) the nature and structure of the South African education system, (ii) a review of South Africa's participation in SITES 2006, (iii) ICT infrastructure, ...

  7. Demographic and contextual infl uences in injury risk among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A travel time of more than 30 minutes to and from school was also associated with increased rates of injury (RRR = 1.61; CI = 1.13–2.29). Conclusions: Injuries are an important source of morbidity among school-attending adolescents in Dar es Salaam. The findings support more research into the contextual factors that ...

  8. Demographic and contextual influences in injury risk among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    opperwjj

    From the survey question: “During the past 7 days, on how many days did you walk or ride a bicycle to and from .... sectional design of the study does not allow for the determination of causal relationships. ... multilevel designs may help to clarify relevant contextual factors that predispose adolescents to injury in the region.

  9. Modeling Contextual Determinants of HIV/AIDS Prevalence in South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AIDS prevalence in South Africa. In this paper, two models of contextual behavioral risk factors of HIV/AIDS prevalence were developed so that policy makers can be alerted to the key variables in order to help curb the spread of the disease.

  10. Mathematical Critical Thinking Ability through Contextual Teaching and Learning Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurniati; Kusumah, Yaya S.; Sabandar, Jozua; Herman, Tatang

    2015-01-01

    This research aimed to examine the effect of the application of contextual teaching and learning (CTL) approach to the enhance of mathematical critical thinking ability (MCTA) of Primary School Teacher Students (PSTS). This research is an experimental study with the population of all students PSTS who took algebra subject matter of one university…

  11. Contextual snowflake modelling for pattern warehouse logical design

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Sadhana; Volume 40; Issue 1. Contextual snowflake modelling for pattern warehouse logical design. Vivek Tiwari Ramjeevan ... In the present work, we focus on conceptual and logical design of pattern warehouse, by introducing a context and 'kind of knowledge' hierarchy to this end. For the simplicity ...

  12. Contextual Influences on Distress Intolerance: Priming Effects on Behavioral Persistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szuhany, Kristin L; Otto, Michael W

    2015-08-01

    Distress intolerance (DI), the inability to tolerate stressful experiences, has been linked to multiple psychiatric conditions and maladaptive coping patterns. Although DI is often considered a trait-like variable, evidence indicates that self-report and behavioral indices of DI can be manipulated by contextual factors. Understanding such contextual influences is important given evidence of unexpected variability in these presumed trait-like measures over brief intervals. The current study examined the influence of context (manipulated by priming concepts of "Interminability" and "Brevity") in predicting behavioral persistence, in relation to self-reported DI. Results indicated that priming Brevity was associated with terminating a cold-pressor task more quickly. Self-reported DI was linked to earlier termination, but there was no interaction between self-reported DI and priming condition. Results indicate that contextual cues modulate performance on behavioral measures of DI. Hence, models of DI should consider both trait-like and contextual factors in understanding variability in DI measures.

  13. Neural Correlates of the Encoding of Multimodal Contextual Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, Lauren J.; Wong, Jenny; de Chastelaine, Marianne; Rugg, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was employed to identify neural regions engaged during the encoding of contextual features belonging to different modalities. Subjects studied objects that were presented to the left or right of fixation. Each object was paired with its name, spoken in either a male or a female voice. The test…

  14. Contextualizing Intergroup Contact: Do Political Party Cues Enhance Contact Effects?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sønderskov, Kim Mannemar; Thomsen, Jens Peter Frølund

    2015-01-01

    This article examines intergroup contact effects in different political contexts. We expand on previous efforts of social psychologists by incorporating the messages of political parties as a contextual trigger of group membership awareness in contact situations. We argue that the focus among pol...

  15. Widening Participation and Contextual Entry Policy in Accounting and Finance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowbottom, N.

    2017-01-01

    The paper examines the performance of accounting and finance students entering university via a "widening participation" scheme that seeks to attract students who have been historically under-represented in higher education. Focus is placed on the policy of providing contextual entry offers that recognise that academic qualifications be…

  16. Contextual segment-based classification of airborne laser scanner data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vosselman, George; Coenen, Maximilian; Rottensteiner, Franz

    2017-01-01

    Classification of point clouds is needed as a first step in the extraction of various types of geo-information from point clouds. We present a new approach to contextual classification of segmented airborne laser scanning data. Potential advantages of segment-based classification are easily offset

  17. Supporting mobile applications developer through Java IDE using contextual inquiry

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Samuel, OO

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Contextual Inquiry (CI) is a method developed by Beyer and Holtzblatt for grounding design in the context of work being performed by user(s). This paper is about identifying ways of improving the usability of Java Integrated Development Environments...

  18. The personal and contextual contributors to school belongingness among primary school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, Sharmila; Falkmer, Marita; Ciccarelli, Marina; Passmore, Anne; Parsons, Richard; Tan, Tele; Falkmer, Torbjorn

    2015-01-01

    School belongingness has gained currency among educators and school health professionals as an important determinant of adolescent health. The current cross-sectional study presents the 15 most significant personal and contextual factors that collectively explain 66.4% (two-thirds) of the variability in 12-year old students' perceptions of belongingness in primary school. The study is part of a larger longitudinal study investigating the factors associated with student adjustment in the transition from primary to secondary school. The study found that girls and students with disabilities had higher school belongingness scores than boys, and their typically developing counterparts respectively; and explained 2.5% of the variability in school belongingness. The majority (47.1% out of 66.4%) of the variability in school belongingness was explained by student personal factors, such as social acceptance, physical appearance competence, coping skills, and social affiliation motivation; followed by parental expectations (3% out of 66.4%), and school-based factors (13.9% out of 66.4%) such as, classroom involvement, task-goal structure, autonomy provision, cultural pluralism, and absence of bullying. Each of the identified contributors of primary school belongingness can be shaped through interventions, system changes, or policy reforms.

  19. The personal and contextual contributors to school belongingness among primary school students.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharmila Vaz

    Full Text Available School belongingness has gained currency among educators and school health professionals as an important determinant of adolescent health. The current cross-sectional study presents the 15 most significant personal and contextual factors that collectively explain 66.4% (two-thirds of the variability in 12-year old students' perceptions of belongingness in primary school. The study is part of a larger longitudinal study investigating the factors associated with student adjustment in the transition from primary to secondary school. The study found that girls and students with disabilities had higher school belongingness scores than boys, and their typically developing counterparts respectively; and explained 2.5% of the variability in school belongingness. The majority (47.1% out of 66.4% of the variability in school belongingness was explained by student personal factors, such as social acceptance, physical appearance competence, coping skills, and social affiliation motivation; followed by parental expectations (3% out of 66.4%, and school-based factors (13.9% out of 66.4% such as, classroom involvement, task-goal structure, autonomy provision, cultural pluralism, and absence of bullying. Each of the identified contributors of primary school belongingness can be shaped through interventions, system changes, or policy reforms.

  20. Enzymatic modification of starch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Susanne Langgård

    In the food industry approaches for using bioengineering are investigated as alternatives to conventional chemical and physical starch modification techniques in development of starches with specific properties. Enzyme-assisted post-harvest modification is an interesting approach to this, since...... it is considered a clean and energy saving technology. This thesis aimed to investigate the effect of using reaction conditions, simulating an industrial process, for enzymatic treatment of starch with branching enzyme (BE) from Rhodothermus obamensis. Thus treatements were conducted at 70°C using very high...... of the obtained products and were correlated to properties of the starch substrates. It was found that the obtained products differed depending on both the conditions used and the properties of the starch. Products of starch from certain origins completely lost their granular structure during the enzyme treatment...

  1. Geometrically Consistent Mesh Modification

    KAUST Repository

    Bonito, A.

    2010-01-01

    A new paradigm of adaptivity is to execute refinement, coarsening, and smoothing of meshes on manifolds with incomplete information about their geometry and yet preserve position and curvature accuracy. We refer to this collectively as geometrically consistent (GC) mesh modification. We discuss the concept of discrete GC, show the failure of naive approaches, and propose and analyze a simple algorithm that is GC and accuracy preserving. © 2010 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

  2. End Group Modification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jahnsen, Rasmus O; Sandberg-Schaal, Anne; Frimodt-Møller, Niels

    2015-01-01

    modification with hydrophobic moieties led to increased activity towards the Gram-negative Acinetobacter baumannii. Despite increased cytotoxicity against murine fibroblasts and human umbilical vein endothelial cells, the optimized peptide analogues exhibited significantly improved cell selectivity. Overall......, the most favorable hydrophobic activity-inducing moieties were found to be cyclohexylacetyl and pentafluorophenylacetyl groups, while the presence of a short PEG-like chain had no significant effect on activity. Introduction of cationic moieties conferred no effect or merely a moderate activity...

  3. Contextual learning theory: Concrete form and a software prototype to improve early education.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooij, Ton

    2016-01-01

    In 'contextual learning theory' three types of contextual conditions (differentiation of learning procedures and materials, integrated ICT support, and improvement of development and learning progress) are related to four aspects of the learning process (diagnostic, instructional, managerial, and

  4. Synchronous contextual irregularities affect early scene processing: replication and extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudrik, Liad; Shalgi, Shani; Lamy, Dominique; Deouell, Leon Y

    2014-04-01

    Whether contextual regularities facilitate perceptual stages of scene processing is widely debated, and empirical evidence is still inconclusive. Specifically, it was recently suggested that contextual violations affect early processing of a scene only when the incongruent object and the scene are presented a-synchronously, creating expectations. We compared event-related potentials (ERPs) evoked by scenes that depicted a person performing an action using either a congruent or an incongruent object (e.g., a man shaving with a razor or with a fork) when scene and object were presented simultaneously. We also explored the role of attention in contextual processing by using a pre-cue to direct subjects׳ attention towards or away from the congruent/incongruent object. Subjects׳ task was to determine how many hands the person in the picture used in order to perform the action. We replicated our previous findings of frontocentral negativity for incongruent scenes that started ~ 210 ms post stimulus presentation, even earlier than previously found. Surprisingly, this incongruency ERP effect was negatively correlated with the reaction times cost on incongruent scenes. The results did not allow us to draw conclusions about the role of attention in detecting the regularity, due to a weak attention manipulation. By replicating the 200-300 ms incongruity effect with a new group of subjects at even earlier latencies than previously reported, the results strengthen the evidence for contextual processing during this time window even when simultaneous presentation of the scene and object prevent the formation of prior expectations. We discuss possible methodological limitations that may account for previous failures to find this an effect, and conclude that contextual information affects object model selection processes prior to full object identification, with semantic knowledge activation stages unfolding only later on. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The effects of acute nicotine on contextual safety discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutlu, Munir G; Oliver, Chicora; Gould, Thomas J

    2014-11-01

    Anxiety disorders, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), may be related to an inability to distinguish safe versus threatening environments and to extinguish fear memories. Given the high rate of cigarette smoking in patients with PTSD, as well as the recent finding that an acute dose of nicotine impairs extinction of contextual fear memory, we conducted a series of experiments to investigate the effect of acute nicotine in an animal model of contextual safety discrimination. Following saline or nicotine (at 0.0275, 0.045, 0.09 and 0.18 mg/kg) administration, C57BL/6J mice were trained in a contextual discrimination paradigm, in which the subjects received presentations of conditioned stimuli (CS) that co-terminated with a foot-shock in one context (context A (CXA)) and only CS presentations without foot-shock in a different context (context B (CXB)). Therefore, CXA was designated as the 'dangerous context', whereas CXB was designated as the 'safe context'. Our results suggested that saline-treated animals showed a strong discrimination between dangerous and safe contexts, while acute nicotine dose-dependently impaired contextual safety discrimination (Experiment 1). Furthermore, our results demonstrate that nicotine-induced impairment of contextual safety discrimination learning was not a result of increased generalized freezing (Experiment 2) or contingent on the common CS presentations in both contexts (Experiment 3). Finally, our results show that increasing the temporal gap between CXA and CXB during training abolished the impairing effects of nicotine (Experiment 4). The findings of this study may help link nicotine exposure to the safety learning deficits seen in anxiety disorder and PTSD patients. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. Contextual and individual inequalities of multimorbidity in Brazilian adults: a cross-sectional national-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Bruno P; Chiavegatto Filho, Alexandre D P; Pati, Sanghamitra; Cruz Teixeira, Doralice S; Flores, Thaynã R; Camargo-Figuera, Fabio A; Munhoz, Tiago N; Thumé, Elaine; Facchini, Luiz A; Rodrigues Batista, Sandro R

    2017-06-09

    The study aims to evaluate the magnitude of multimorbidity in Brazilian adults, as well to measure their association with individual and contextual factors stratified by Brazilian states and regions. A national-based cross-sectional study was carried out in 2013 with Brazilian adults. Multimorbidity was evaluated by a list of 22 physical and mental morbidities (based on self-reported medical diagnosis and Patient Health Questionnaire-9 for depression). The outcome was analysed taking ≥2 and ≥3 diseases as cut-off points. Factor analysis (FA) was used to identify disease patterns and multilevel models were used to test association with individual and contextual variables. The sample comprised 60 202 individuals. Multimorbidity frequency was 22.2% (95% CI 21.5 to 22.9) for ≥2 morbidities and 10.2% (95% CI 9.7 to 10.7) for ≥3 morbidities. In the multilevel adjusted models, females, older people, those living with a partner and having less schooling presented more multiple diseases. No linear association was found according to wealth index but greater outcome frequency was found in individuals with midrange wealth index. Living in states with higher levels of education and wealthier states was associated with greater multimorbidity. Two patterns of morbidities (cardiometabolic problems and respiratory/mental/muscle-skeletal disorders) explained 92% of total variance. The relationship of disease patterns with individual and contextual variables was similar to the overall multimorbidity, with differences among Brazilian regions. In Brazil, at least 19 million adults had multimorbidity. Frequency is similar to that found in other Low and and Middle Income Countries. Contextual and individual social inequalities were observed. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  7. Behavior Modification in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitman, Mryon; Whitman, Joan

    1971-01-01

    This article presents the theoretical rationale for behavior modification, principally through its comparison with traditional psychotherapies, and suggests some behavior modification techniques for the classroom management of maladaptive behavior. (Author)

  8. The Coming Challenge: Are Community Colleges Ready for the New Wave of Contextual Learners?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Dan; Souders, John C., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    Defines contextual learning, or presenting new information to students in familiar contexts. Argues that community colleges must be ready for an anticipated increase in contextual learners due to its use in tech prep programs. Describes elements of contextual learning, its application in the classroom, and ways that colleges can prepare for…

  9. The Role of the Basal Ganglia in Implicit Contextual Learning: A Study of Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Asselen, Marieke; Almeida, Ines; Andre, Rui; Januario, Cristina; Goncalves, Antonio Freire; Castelo-Branco, Miguel

    2009-01-01

    Implicit contextual learning refers to the ability to memorize contextual information from our environment. This contextual information can then be used to guide our attention to a specific location. Although the medial temporal lobe is important for this type of learning, the basal ganglia might also be involved considering its role in many…

  10. Impact of Contextuality on Mobile Learning Acceptance: An Empirical Study Based on a Language Learning App

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhm, Stephan; Constantine, Georges Philip

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to focus on contextualized features for mobile language learning apps. The scope of this paper is to explore students' perceptions of contextualized mobile language learning. Design/Methodology/Approach: An extended Technology Acceptance Model was developed to analyze the effect of contextual app features on students'…

  11. A contextual approach to research on AIDS prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulfert, E; Biglan, A

    1994-01-01

    The acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a disease that is transmitted almost entirely through behavioral factors. In the absence of a cure or vaccine, the modification of AIDS-risk behavior presents a unique challenge to behavioral scientists and should be taken as a clear imperative by behavior analysts. This paper discusses the currently dominant social-cognitive theories (the health belief model, the theory of reasoned action, and self-efficacy theory) that have been widely used to predict and understand AIDS-risk behavior. Although these theories have generated a voluminous literature on the cognitive, attitudinal, and demographic correlates of AIDS-risk behavior, they have not resulted in specific intervention strategies to influence risky behavior, most likely because they fail to specify manipulable variables. As an alternative to social-cognitive theories, this paper evaluates the usefulness of a behavior-analytic approach to stem the spread of HIV infection. It examines some of the philosophical differences underlying cognitive and behavioral approaches that are embedded in mechanistic versus functional contextualistic principles. It explores the theoretical and practical implications of adopting either predicting and explaining behavior or predicting and influencing behavior as the goals of science. To illustrate the value of adopting the goal of prediction and influence, behavior-analytic research on the social context of risky sexual behavior in adolescents is described. The paper argues that in order to alter the future course of the AIDS epidemic, the behavioral sciences must move beyond describing cognitive and attitudinal correlates of risky behavior and focus on the social context of the behavior of individuals. In addition, population-wide changes in AIDS-risk behavior can be accomplished only if research focuses on how to influence larger social systems, including the media, school systems, and community organizations.

  12. Genetic modification and genetic determinism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnik, David B; Vorhaus, Daniel B

    2006-01-01

    In this article we examine four objections to the genetic modification of human beings: the freedom argument, the giftedness argument, the authenticity argument, and the uniqueness argument. We then demonstrate that each of these arguments against genetic modification assumes a strong version of genetic determinism. Since these strong deterministic assumptions are false, the arguments against genetic modification, which assume and depend upon these assumptions, are therefore unsound. Serious discussion of the morality of genetic modification, and the development of sound science policy, should be driven by arguments that address the actual consequences of genetic modification for individuals and society, not by ones propped up by false or misleading biological assumptions. PMID:16800884

  13. Genetic modification and genetic determinism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnik, David B; Vorhaus, Daniel B

    2006-06-26

    In this article we examine four objections to the genetic modification of human beings: the freedom argument, the giftedness argument, the authenticity argument, and the uniqueness argument. We then demonstrate that each of these arguments against genetic modification assumes a strong version of genetic determinism. Since these strong deterministic assumptions are false, the arguments against genetic modification, which assume and depend upon these assumptions, are therefore unsound. Serious discussion of the morality of genetic modification, and the development of sound science policy, should be driven by arguments that address the actual consequences of genetic modification for individuals and society, not by ones propped up by false or misleading biological assumptions.

  14. Posttranslational Modification of Sodium Channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Zifan; Pan, Yanling; Cummins, Theodore R

    2017-10-26

    Voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) are critical determinants of excitability. The properties of VGSCs are thought to be tightly controlled. However, VGSCs are also subjected to extensive modifications. Multiple posttranslational modifications that covalently modify VGSCs in neurons and muscle have been identified. These include, but are not limited to, phosphorylation, ubiquitination, palmitoylation, nitrosylation, glycosylation, and SUMOylation. Posttranslational modifications of VGSCs can have profound impact on cellular excitability, contributing to normal and abnormal physiology. Despite four decades of research, the complexity of VGSC modulation is still being determined. While some modifications have similar effects on the various VGSC isoforms, others have isoform-specific interactions. In addition, while much has been learned about how individual modifications can impact VGSC function, there is still more to be learned about how different modifications can interact. Here we review what is known about VGSC posttranslational modifications with a focus on the breadth and complexity of the regulatory mechanisms that impact VGSC properties.

  15. Intragenic modification of maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeraya, Erika V; Sánchez-de-Jiménez, Estela

    2016-11-20

    The discovery of plant DNA recombination techniques triggered the development of a wide range of genetically modified crops. The transgenics were the first generation of modified plants; however, these crops were quickly questioned due to the artificial combination of DNA between different species. As a result, the second generation of modified plants known as cisgenic and/or intragenic crops arose as an alternative to genetic plant engineering. Cisgenic and/or intragenic crops development establishes the combination of DNA from the plant itself or related species avoiding the introduction of foreign genetic material, such as selection markers and/or reporter genes. Nowadays it has been made successful cisgenic and/or intragenic modifications in crops such as potato and apple. The present study shows the possibility of reaching similar approach in corn plants. This research was focused on achieve intragenic overexpression of the maize Rubisco activase (Rca) protein. The results were compared with changes in the expression of the same protein, in maize plants grown after 23 cycles of conventional selection and open field planting. Experimental evidence shows that maize intragenic modification is possible for increasing specific gene expression, preserving plant genome free of foreign DNA and achieving further significant savings in time and man labor for crop improvement. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Contextual modulation of value signals in reward and punishment learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palminteri, Stefano; Khamassi, Mehdi; Joffily, Mateus; Coricelli, Giorgio

    2015-08-25

    Compared with reward seeking, punishment avoidance learning is less clearly understood at both the computational and neurobiological levels. Here we demonstrate, using computational modelling and fMRI in humans, that learning option values in a relative--context-dependent--scale offers a simple computational solution for avoidance learning. The context (or state) value sets the reference point to which an outcome should be compared before updating the option value. Consequently, in contexts with an overall negative expected value, successful punishment avoidance acquires a positive value, thus reinforcing the response. As revealed by post-learning assessment of options values, contextual influences are enhanced when subjects are informed about the result of the forgone alternative (counterfactual information). This is mirrored at the neural level by a shift in negative outcome encoding from the anterior insula to the ventral striatum, suggesting that value contextualization also limits the need to mobilize an opponent punishment learning system.

  17. Contextual modulation of hippocampal activity during picture naming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorens, A; Dubarry, A-S; Trébuchon, A; Chauvel, P; Alario, F-X; Liégeois-Chauvel, C

    2016-08-01

    Picture naming is a standard task used to probe language processes in healthy and impaired speakers. It recruits a broad neural network of language related areas, among which the hippocampus is rarely included. However, the hippocampus could play a role during picture naming, subtending, for example, implicit learning of the links between pictured objects and their names. To test this hypothesis, we recorded hippocampal activity during plain picture naming, without memorization requirement; we further assessed whether this activity was modulated by contextual factors such as repetition priming and semantic interference. Local field potentials recorded from intracerebral electrodes implanted in the healthy hippocampi of epileptic patients revealed a specific and reliable pattern of activity, markedly modulated by repetition priming and semantic context. These results indicate that the hippocampus is recruited during picture naming, presumably in relation to implicit learning, with contextual factors promoting differential hippocampal processes, possibly subtended by different sub-circuitries. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Contextualization in hypermedia news report: narrative and immersion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Canavilhas

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The mobile journalism and, particularly, hypermedia stories get new possibilities for making narratives, boosted by the mobility itself, and also by the use of touchable screens, accelerometer, GPS receiver and permanent connection to the internet. Due to these potentials, tablets, smartphones and wearables reconfigure processes and journalistic narratives for the web. From this premise, the article focuses the research in hypermedia storytelling for mobile devices, aiming to observe how the hypertext resources are used in the contextualization of journalistic narratives published at mobile devices (tablets and smartphones. To achieve this aim, we realized a systematic analysis from newspaper editions of Globo A Mais journal for two months. This was done by selecting a case exemplifying the way the hypertext features can serve the contextualization.

  19. Recognition of Arabic handwritten words using contextual character models

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Hajj, Ramy; Mokbel, Chafic; Likforman-Sulem, Laurence

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we present a system for the off-line recognition of cursive Arabic handwritten words. This system in an enhanced version of our reference system presented in [El-Hajj et al., 05] which is based on Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) and uses a sliding window approach. The enhanced version proposed here uses contextual character models. This approach is motivated by the fact that the set of Arabic characters includes a lot of ascending and descending strokes which overlap with one or two neighboring characters. Additional character models are constructed according to characters in their left or right neighborhood. Our experiments on images of the benchmark IFN/ENIT database of handwritten villages/towns names show that using contextual character models improves recognition. For a lexicon of 306 name classes, accuracy is increased by 0.6% in absolute value which corresponds to a 7.8% reduction in error rate.

  20. Adolescent Offending and the Segregation of Poverty in Urban Neighbourhoods and Schools: An Assessment of Contextual Effects from the Standpoint of Situational Action Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lieven Pauwels

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Contextual research on adolescent offending is primarily based on the idea that residential areas provide a major ecological setting that (indirectly shapes observed differences in adolescent offending. The social disorganisation/collective efficacy perspective has tried to explain why structural disadvantage of residential areas affects residents' involvement in offending. On the other hand, contextual research has also been conducted within the school setting. This separate contextual approach is problematic as it does not reflect the reality of adolescents' lives. Adolescents are exposed to different ecological settings. They are also exposed to many other settings that may provide opportunities to offend, as outlined in the situational action theory (SAT of crime causation. This study contributes to the literature on the urban context of offending in three ways. First, the effects of adolescents' residential neighbourhood and school context on adolescent offending are assessed simultaneously. Second, this study elaborates on SAT from a cross-level point of view. Third, this contribution makes use of non-hierarchical multilevel modelling, which is a statistically correct method of testing hypotheses that involve multiple contexts. Our study revealed the existence of small contextual effects of school-level disadvantage, whereas the effect of neighbourhood-level disadvantage is entirely due to neighbourhood composition.

  1. Acceptance of lean redesigns in primary care: A contextual analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Dorothy; Gray, Caroline; Martinez, Meghan; Schmittdiel, Julie; Harrison, Michael I

    Lean is a leading change strategy used in health care to achieve short-term efficiency and quality improvement while promising longer-term system transformation. Most research examines Lean intervention to address isolated problems, rather than to achieve broader systemic changes to care delivery. Moreover, no studies examine contextual influences on system-wide Lean implementation efforts in primary care. The aim of this study was to identify contextual factors most critical to implementing and scaling Lean redesigns across all primary care clinics in a large, ambulatory care delivery system. Over 100 interviews and focus groups were conducted with frontline physicians, clinical staff, and operational leaders. Data analysis was guided by a modified Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR), a popular implementation science framework. On the basis of expert recommendations, the modified framework targets factors influencing the implementation of process redesigns. This modified framework, the CFIR-PR, informed our identification of contextual factors that most impacted Lean acceptance among frontline physicians and staff. Several domains identified by the CFIR-PR were critical to acceptance of Lean redesigns. Regarding the implementation process acceptance was influenced by time and intensity of exposure to changes, "top-down" versus "bottom-up" implementation styles, and degrees of employee engagement in developing new workflows. Important factors in the inner setting were the clinic's culture and style of leadership, along with availability of information about Lean's effectiveness. Last, implementation efforts were impacted by individual and team characteristics regarding changed work roles and related issues of professional identity, authority, and autonomy. This study underscores the need for change leaders to consider the contextual factors that surround efforts to implement Lean in primary care. As Lean redesigns are scaled across a system

  2. Overview of the TREC 2014 Contextual Suggestion Track

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Section 6 which contains the results . 1.2 Task Description The contextual suggestion track investigates search techniques for complex information needs...split into two files: examples2014.csv, profiles2014-70.csv, and profiles2014-100.csv. exam - ples2014.csv contains a list of 100 suggestions which each...Chamber Music Festival Description Santa Fe Chamber Music Festival is music that moves you, played by artists who astound and dazzle you with their

  3. Belief Expansion, Contextual Fit and the Reliability of Information Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Hartmann, Stephan; Bovens, L

    2001-01-01

    We develop a probabilistic criterion for belief expansion that is sensitive to the degree of contextual fit of the new information to our belief set as well as to the reliability of our information source. We contrast our approach with the success postulate in AGM-style belief revision and show how the idealizations in our approach can be relaxed by invoking Bayesian-Network models.Article

  4. Influence of affective meaning on memory for contextual information

    OpenAIRE

    D?Argembeau, Arnaud; Van Der Linden, Martial

    2004-01-01

    In 4 experiments, the authors investigated the influence of the affective meaning of words on memory for 2 kinds of contextual features that differ in the amount of effortful processes they require to be encoded in memory (i.e., color and spatial location). The main results showed that memory for color, in which words were typed, was better for emotional than for neutral words, but only when color information was learned incidentally. In contrast, spatial location of the words was better reme...

  5. The Impact of Contextual Clue Selection on Inference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Barati

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Linguistic information can be conveyed in the form of speech and written text, but it is the content of the message that is ultimately essential for higher-level processes in language comprehension, such as making inferences and associations between text information and knowledge about the world. Linguistically, inference is the shovel that allows receivers to dig meaning out from the text with selecting different embedded contextual clues. Naturally, people with different world experiences infer similar contextual situations differently. Lack of contextual knowledge of the target language can present an obstacle to comprehension (Anderson & Lynch, 2003. This paper tries to investigate how true contextual clue selection from the text can influence listener’s inference. In the present study 60 male and female teenagers (13-19 and 60 male and female young adults (20-26 were selected randomly based on Oxford Placement Test (OPT. During the study two fiction and two non-fiction passages were read to the participants in the experimental and control groups respectively and they were given scores according to Lexile’s Score (LS[1] based on their correct inference and logical thinking ability. In general the results show that participants’ clue selection based on their personal schematic references and background knowledge differ between teenagers and young adults and influence inference and listening comprehension. [1]- This is a framework for reading and listening which matches the appropriate score to each text based on degree of difficulty of text and each text was given a Lexile score from zero to four.

  6. Contextualizing South Africa's participation in the SITES 2006 module

    OpenAIRE

    Seugnet Blignaut; Christo Els; Sarah Howie

    2010-01-01

    The International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA) initiated the Second International Technology in Education Study (SITES 2006) - a large-scale comparative survey on the use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) in schools. The goal was to understand the pedagogical use of ICTs in schools in 22 education systems. We aim to contextualize South Africa's participation in SITES 2006 on four levels: (i) the nature and structure of the South African ed...

  7. It from Qubit: How to Draw Quantum Contextuality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Planat

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Wheeler’s observer-participancy and the related it from bit credo refer to quantum non-locality and contextuality. The mystery of these concepts slightly starts unveiling if one encodes the (incompatibilities between qubit observables in the relevant finite geometries. The main objective of this treatise is to outline another conceptual step forward by employing Grothendieck’s dessins d’enfants to reveal the topological and (nonalgebraic machinery underlying the measurement acts and their information content.

  8. On the advantages of word frequency and contextual diversity measures extracted from subtitles: The case of Portuguese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Ana Paula; Machado, João; Costa, Ana; Iriarte, Álvaro; Simões, Alberto; de Almeida, José João; Comesaña, Montserrat; Perea, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    We examined the potential advantage of the lexical databases using subtitles and present SUBTLEX-PT, a new lexical database for 132,710 Portuguese words obtained from a 78 million corpus based on film and television series subtitles, offering word frequency and contextual diversity measures. Additionally we validated SUBTLEX-PT with a lexical decision study involving 1920 Portuguese words (and 1920 nonwords) with different lengths in letters (M = 6.89, SD = 2.10) and syllables (M = 2.99, SD = 0.94). Multiple regression analyses on latency and accuracy data were conducted to compare the proportion of variance explained by the Portuguese subtitle word frequency measures with that accounted by the recent written-word frequency database (Procura-PALavras; P-PAL; Soares, Iriarte, et al., 2014 ). As its international counterparts, SUBTLEX-PT explains approximately 15% more of the variance in the lexical decision performance of young adults than the P-PAL database. Moreover, in line with recent studies, contextual diversity accounted for approximately 2% more of the variance in participants' reading performance than the raw frequency counts obtained from subtitles. SUBTLEX-PT is freely available for research purposes (at http://p-pal.di.uminho.pt/about/databases ).

  9. Influence of benzodiazepine binding site ligands on fear-conditioned contextual memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLorey, T M; Lin, R C; McBrady, B; He, X; Cook, J M; Lameh, J; Loew, G H

    2001-08-24

    Eight compounds that bind to the benzodiazepine binding site on the gamma-amino butyric acid(A) (GABA(A)) receptor were assessed for their influence on contextual memory, an aspect of memory affected in various cognitive disorders including Alzheimer's disease. Using a Pavlovian fear-conditioning paradigm, each ligand was evaluated in C57Bl/6 mice in regards to its direct affect on contextual memory and whether the ligand could attenuate scopolamine-induced contextual memory impairment. Of the eight ligands tested, one impaired contextual memory (agonist), six attenuated scopolamine-induced contextual memory impairment (inverse agonists), and one antagonized the ability of an inverse agonist to attenuate scopolamine-induced contextual memory impairment. Hence, further demonstrating the bi-directional influence benzodiazepine binding site ligands are able to exert on memory modulation. This study serves as an initial starting point in the development of pharmacological tools to be used in deciphering how GABA(A) receptors influence contextual memory.

  10. Social Salience Discriminates Learnability of Contextual Cues in an Artificial Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rácz, Péter; Hay, Jennifer B; Pierrehumbert, Janet B

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the learning of contextual meaning by adults in an artificial language. Contextual meaning here refers to the non-denotative contextual information that speakers attach to a linguistic construction. Through a series of short games, played online, we test how well adults can learn different contextual meanings for a word-formation pattern in an artificial language. We look at whether learning contextual meanings depends on the social salience of the context, whether our players interpret these contexts generally, and whether the learned meaning is generalized to new words. Our results show that adults are capable of learning contextual meaning if the context is socially salient, coherent, and interpretable. Once a contextual meaning is recognized, it is readily generalized to related forms and contexts.

  11. Social Salience Discriminates Learnability of Contextual Cues in an Artificial Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rácz, Péter; Hay, Jennifer B.; Pierrehumbert, Janet B.

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the learning of contextual meaning by adults in an artificial language. Contextual meaning here refers to the non-denotative contextual information that speakers attach to a linguistic construction. Through a series of short games, played online, we test how well adults can learn different contextual meanings for a word-formation pattern in an artificial language. We look at whether learning contextual meanings depends on the social salience of the context, whether our players interpret these contexts generally, and whether the learned meaning is generalized to new words. Our results show that adults are capable of learning contextual meaning if the context is socially salient, coherent, and interpretable. Once a contextual meaning is recognized, it is readily generalized to related forms and contexts. PMID:28194122

  12. CONTEXTUAL TEACHING AND LEARNING APPROACH TO TEACHING WRITING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Intan Satriani

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This article reports a study on the implementation of contextual teaching and learning approach to teaching English writing to second graders of a Junior High Shool in Bandung. The study aims to investigate the strategies of Contextual Teaching and Learning (CTL (as adapted from Crawford, 2001 and the advantages of using CTL approach. The study employed a qualitative case study research design. The data were obtained from several instruments, namely class observations, students’ interview and students’ writing products which were then analyzed using writing assessment criteria taken from Rose (2007, as cited by Emilia, 2011, p. 151. The findings revealed that the teaching writing program was successful to improve students’ recount writing skill. Specifically, they showed some improvement on schematic structure, grammar roles, and graphic features. Moreover, the data from observation, interview, and documentation of students’ text showed some benefits of CTL. These include: (1 engaging students in the writing activity; (2 increasing students’ motivation to participate actively in the writing class; (3 helping students to construct their writing; (4 helping students to solve their problems; (5 providing ways for students to discuss or interact with their friends; and (6 helping the students to summarize and reflect the lesson. Based on these findings, it is recommended that CTL be implemented in teaching writing.   Keywords: contextual teaching and learning, teaching writing

  13. Contextual risks linking parents' adolescent marijuana use to offspring onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, David C R; Tiberio, Stacey S; Capaldi, Deborah M

    2015-09-01

    We studied the extent to which parent marijuana use in adolescence is associated with marijuana use onset in offspring through contextual family and peer risks. Fathers assessed (n=93) since childhood, their 146 offspring (n=83 girls), and offspring's mothers (n=85) participated in a longitudinal study. Using discrete-time survival analysis, fathers' (prospectively measured) and mothers' (retrospective) adolescent marijuana use was used to predict offspring marijuana use onset through age 19 years. Parental monitoring, child exposure to marijuana use, peer deviance, peer marijuana use, and perceptions of parent disapproval of child use were measured before or concurrent with onset. Parents' adolescent marijuana use was significantly associated with less monitoring, offspring alcohol use, the peer behaviors, exposure to adult marijuana use, and perceptions of less parent disapproval. Male gender and the two peer behaviors were positively associated with children's marijuana use onset, controlling for their alcohol use. Parents' adolescent marijuana use had a significant indirect effect on child onset through children's deviant peer affiliations and a composite contextual risk score. Parents' histories of marijuana use may contribute indirectly to children's marijuana use onset through their influence on the social environments children encounter; specifically, those characterized by more liberal use norms, exposure to marijuana use and deviant and marijuana-using peers, and less adult supervision. Given that alcohol use onset was controlled, findings suggest that the contextual factors identified here confer unique risk for child marijuana use onset. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A Privacy-by-Design Contextual Suggestion System for Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlos S. Efraimidis

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We focus on personal data generated by the sensors and through the everyday usage of smart devices and take advantage of these data to build a non-invasive contextual suggestion system for tourism. The system, which we call Pythia, exploits the computational capabilities of modern smart devices to offer high quality personalized POI (point of interest recommendations. To protect user privacy, we apply a privacy by design approach within all of the steps of creating Pythia. The outcome is a system that comprises important architectural and operational innovations. The system is designed to process sensitive personal data, such as location traces, browsing history and web searches (query logs, to automatically infer user preferences and build corresponding POI-based user profiles. These profiles are then used by a contextual suggestion engine to anticipate user choices and make POI recommendations for tourists. Privacy leaks are minimized by implementing an important part of the system functionality at the user side, either as a mobile app or as a client-side web application, and by taking additional precautions, like data generalization, wherever necessary. As a proof of concept, we present a prototype that implements the aforementioned mechanisms on the Android platform accompanied with certain web applications. Even though the current prototype focuses only on location data, the results from the evaluation of the contextual suggestion algorithms and the user experience feedback from volunteers who used the prototype are very positive.

  15. Drinking games and contextual factors of 21st birthday drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neighbors, Clayton; Rodriguez, Lindsey M; Rinker, Dipali V; DiBello, Angelo M; Young, Chelsie M; Chen, Chun-Han

    2014-09-01

    21st birthday celebrations are among the highest risks for alcohol use throughout emerging adulthood and celebrants often experience a range of alcohol-related consequences. The present research considered what happens when drinking games are paired with an already high-risk event (i.e., 21st birthday celebrations) and how drinking games compare with other contextual factors on 21st birthdays. Approximately four days after turning 21, 1124 college students (55% women) completed an online survey assessing alcohol use and related consequences experienced during their birthday celebrations. Participants were also asked whether drinking games and other contextual factors were associated with their celebrations. Overall, 18% of participants reported playing drinking games during their 21st birthday celebrations. These individuals reported consuming more alcohol, had higher estimated BACs, and experienced more negative consequences than those who did not play drinking games. The association between playing drinking games and alcohol use and negative consequences was stronger for men. The effect of drinking games on negative consequences was mediated through elevated BAC levels. Receiving bar specials, having drinks purchased, playing drinking games, and loud music were uniquely and significantly associated with all alcohol outcomes. Together, these results suggest that drinking games are part of a larger context of risk contributing to extreme drinking on 21st birthdays. Furthermore, these results will help to facilitate interventions that are more individually tailored to target specific contextual risks, behaviors, and events.

  16. MULTI-DIMENSIONAL PATTERN DISCOVERY OF TRAJECTORIES USING CONTEXTUAL INFORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sharif

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Movement of point objects are highly sensitive to the underlying situations and conditions during the movement, which are known as contexts. Analyzing movement patterns, while accounting the contextual information, helps to better understand how point objects behave in various contexts and how contexts affect their trajectories. One potential solution for discovering moving objects patterns is analyzing the similarities of their trajectories. This article, therefore, contextualizes the similarity measure of trajectories by not only their spatial footprints but also a notion of internal and external contexts. The dynamic time warping (DTW method is employed to assess the multi-dimensional similarities of trajectories. Then, the results of similarity searches are utilized in discovering the relative movement patterns of the moving point objects. Several experiments are conducted on real datasets that were obtained from commercial airplanes and the weather information during the flights. The results yielded the robustness of DTW method in quantifying the commonalities of trajectories and discovering movement patterns with 80 % accuracy. Moreover, the results revealed the importance of exploiting contextual information because it can enhance and restrict movements.

  17. Multi-Dimensional Pattern Discovery of Trajectories Using Contextual Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, M.; Alesheikh, A. A.

    2017-10-01

    Movement of point objects are highly sensitive to the underlying situations and conditions during the movement, which are known as contexts. Analyzing movement patterns, while accounting the contextual information, helps to better understand how point objects behave in various contexts and how contexts affect their trajectories. One potential solution for discovering moving objects patterns is analyzing the similarities of their trajectories. This article, therefore, contextualizes the similarity measure of trajectories by not only their spatial footprints but also a notion of internal and external contexts. The dynamic time warping (DTW) method is employed to assess the multi-dimensional similarities of trajectories. Then, the results of similarity searches are utilized in discovering the relative movement patterns of the moving point objects. Several experiments are conducted on real datasets that were obtained from commercial airplanes and the weather information during the flights. The results yielded the robustness of DTW method in quantifying the commonalities of trajectories and discovering movement patterns with 80 % accuracy. Moreover, the results revealed the importance of exploiting contextual information because it can enhance and restrict movements.

  18. Representing idioms: syntactic and contextual effects on idiom processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holsinger, Edward

    2013-09-01

    Recent work on the processing of idiomatic expressions argues against the idea that idioms are simply big words. For example, hybrid models of idiom representation, originally investigated in the context of idiom production, propose a priority of literal computation, and a principled relationship between the conceptual meaning of an idiom, its literal lemmas and its syntactic structure. We examined the predictions of the hybrid representation hypothesis in the domain of idiom comprehension. We conducted two experiments to examine the role of syntactic, lexical and contextual factors on the interpretation of idiomatic expressions. Experiment I examines the role of syntactic compatibility and lexical compatibility on the real-time processing of potentially idiomatic strings. Experiment 2 examines the role of contextual information on idiom processing and how context interacts with lexical information during processing. We find evidence that literal computation plays a causal role in the retrieval of idiomatic meaning and that contextual, lexical and structural information influence the processing of idiomatic strings at early stages during processing, which provide support for the hybrid model of idiom representation in the domain of idiom comprehension.

  19. Neural correlates of the encoding of multimodal contextual features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, Lauren J.; Wong, Jenny; de Chastelaine, Marianne; Rugg, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was employed to identify neural regions engaged during the encoding of contextual features belonging to different modalities. Subjects studied objects that were presented to the left or right of fixation. Each object was paired with its name, spoken in either a male or a female voice. The test requirement was to discriminate studied from unstudied pictures and, for each picture judged old, to retrieve its study location and the gender of the voice that spoke its name. Study trials associated with accurate rather than inaccurate location memory demonstrated enhanced activity in the fusiform and parahippocampal cortex and the hippocampus and reduced activity (a negative subsequent memory effect) in the medial occipital cortex. Successful encoding of voice information was associated with enhanced study activity in the right middle superior temporal sulcus and activity reduction in the right superior frontal cortex. These findings support the proposal that encoding of a contextual feature is associated with enhanced activity in regions engaged during its online processing. In addition, they indicate that negative subsequent memory effects can also demonstrate feature-selectivity. Relative to other classes of study trials, trials for which both contextual features were later retrieved demonstrated enhanced activity in the lateral occipital complex and reduced activity in the temporo-parietal junction. These findings suggest that multifeatural encoding was facilitated when the study item was processed efficiently and study processing was not interrupted by redirection of attention toward extraneous events. PMID:23166292

  20. Contextual Influences on Eating Behaviors: Heuristic Processing and Dietary Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Deborah A.; Babey, Susan H.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews some of the evidence that dietary behaviors are, in large part, the consequence of automatic responses to contextual food cues, many of which lead to increased caloric consumption and poor dietary choices. We describe studies that illustrate how these automatic mechanisms underlie eating behaviors, as well as evidence that individuals are subject to inherent cognitive limitations, and mostly lack the capacity to consistently recognize, ignore or resist contextual cues that encourage eating. Restaurants and grocery stores are the primary settings from which people obtain food. These settings are often designed to maximize sales of food by strategically placing and promoting items to encourage impulse purchases. Although a great deal of marketing research is proprietary, this paper describes some of the published studies that indicate that changes in superficial characteristics of food products, including packaging and portion sizes, design, salience, health claims, and labeling strongly influence food choices and consumption in ways for which people generally lack insight. We discuss whether contextual influences might be considered environmental risk factors from which individuals may need the kinds of protections that fall under the mission of public health. PMID:22551473

  1. FALCON: a toolbox for the fast contextualization of logical networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Landtsheer, Sébastien; Trairatphisan, Panuwat; Lucarelli, Philippe; Sauter, Thomas

    2017-11-01

    Mathematical modelling of regulatory networks allows for the discovery of knowledge at the system level. However, existing modelling tools are often computation-heavy and do not offer intuitive ways to explore the model, to test hypotheses or to interpret the results biologically. We have developed a computational approach to contextualize logical models of regulatory networks with biological measurements based on a probabilistic description of rule-based interactions between the different molecules. Here, we propose a Matlab toolbox, FALCON, to automatically and efficiently build and contextualize networks, which includes a pipeline for conducting parameter analysis, knockouts and easy and fast model investigation. The contextualized models could then provide qualitative and quantitative information about the network and suggest hypotheses about biological processes. FALCON is freely available for non-commercial users on GitHub under the GPLv3 licence. The toolbox, installation instructions, full documentation and test datasets are available at https://github.com/sysbiolux/FALCON. FALCON runs under Matlab (MathWorks) and requires the Optimization Toolbox. thomas.sauter@uni.lu. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  2. Contextual social cognition impairments in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baez, Sandra; Herrera, Eduar; Villarin, Lilian; Theil, Donna; Gonzalez-Gadea, María Luz; Gomez, Pedro; Mosquera, Marcela; Huepe, David; Strejilevich, Sergio; Vigliecca, Nora Silvana; Matthäus, Franziska; Decety, Jean; Manes, Facundo; Ibañez, Agustín M

    2013-01-01

    The ability to integrate contextual information with social cues to generate social meaning is a key aspect of social cognition. It is widely accepted that patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorders have deficits in social cognition; however, previous studies on these disorders did not use tasks that replicate everyday situations. This study evaluates the performance of patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorders on social cognition tasks (emotional processing, empathy, and social norms knowledge) that incorporate different levels of contextual dependence and involvement of real-life scenarios. Furthermore, we explored the association between social cognition measures, clinical symptoms and executive functions. Using a logistic regression analysis, we explored whether the involvement of more basic skills in emotional processing predicted performance on empathy tasks. The results showed that both patient groups exhibited deficits in social cognition tasks with greater context sensitivity and involvement of real-life scenarios. These deficits were more severe in schizophrenic than in bipolar patients. Patients did not differ from controls in tasks involving explicit knowledge. Moreover, schizophrenic patients' depression levels were negatively correlated with performance on empathy tasks. Overall performance on emotion recognition predicted performance on intentionality attribution during the more ambiguous situations of the empathy task. These results suggest that social cognition deficits could be related to a general impairment in the capacity to implicitly integrate contextual cues. Important implications for the assessment and treatment of individuals with schizophrenia and bipolar disorders, as well as for neurocognitive models of these pathologies are discussed.

  3. From applied ethics to empirical ethics to contextual ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmaster, Barry

    2017-12-27

    Bioethics became applied ethics when it was assimilated to moral philosophy. Because deduction is the rationality of moral philosophy, subsuming facts under moral principles to deduce conclusions about what ought to be done became the prescribed reasoning of bioethics, and bioethics became a theory comprised of moral principles. Bioethicists now realize that applied ethics is too abstract and spare to apprehend the specificity, particularity, complexity and contingency of real moral issues. Empirical ethics and contextual ethics are needed to incorporate these features into morality, not just bioethics. The relevant facts and features of problems have to be identified, investigated and framed coherently, and potential resolutions have to be constructed and assessed. Moreover, these tasks are pursued and melded within manifold contexts, for example, families, work and health care systems, as well as societal, economic, legal and political backgrounds and encompassing worldviews. This naturalist orientation and both empirical ethics and contextual ethics require judgment, but how can judgment be rational? Rationality, fortunately, is more expansive than deductive reasoning. Judgment is rational when it emanates from a rational process of deliberation, and a process of deliberation is rational when it uses the resources of non-formal reason: observation, creative construction, formal and informal reasoning methods and systematic critical assessment. Empirical ethics and contextual ethics recognize that finite, fallible human beings live in complex, dynamic, contingent worlds, and they foster creative, critical deliberation and employ non-formal reason to make rational moral judgments. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Contextual effects and psychological features influencing decoy options: A review and research agenda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Gonzalez-Prieto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to develop future research proposals aiming to contribute the extant theory which explains decoy effects.Design/methodology/approach: Firstly, a review of the existing literature about decoy options and its interactions with contextual effects that could affect their performance is presented. Next, two research proposals are presented: the introduction of a double decoy choice set and the evaluation of decoy effect under different levels of cognitive effort in a purchasing process.Findings and Originality/value: For the research proposal concerning double decoy choice sets, different hypothesis are introduced based on the different theories aiming to explain the effect of simple decoy choice sets. This hypothesis predict different outcomes for the same experimental design, fact that could provide further support for at least one of the current explanations for decoy effects. Regarding the effect of decoy options under different levels of cognitive effort, implications for experimental design for sequential purchasing process are expected. Especially for those designed with complex options, with many steps or high number of options.Originality/value: Two new research proposal approaches are presented in order enhance the current theory. Moreover, both have managerial implications concerning the real usage of decoy options in reduced choice sets as well as in sequential purchasing processes.

  5. Assessing the impact of the tableware and other contextual variables on multisensory flavour perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spence Charles

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Currently little is known about how the non-edible items associated with eating and drinking (tableware items such as the plates, bowls, cutlery, glasses, bottles, condiment containers, etc., or even environmental factors (such as the lighting and/or background music, affect people’s perception of foodstuffs. Here, we review the latest evidence demonstrating the importance of these contextual variables on the consumer’s behavioural and hedonic response to, and sensory perception of, a variety of food and drink items. These effects are explained by a combination of psychological factors (high level attributes, such as perceived quality, that may be mediating the effects under consideration, perceptual factors (such as the Ebbinghaus-Titchener size-contrast illusion and colour contrast in the case of the colour of the plateware affecting taste/flavour perception, and physiological-chemical factors (such as differences in the release of volatile organic compounds from differently-shaped wine glasses. Together, these factors help to explain the growing body of evidence demonstrating that both the tableware and the environment can have a profound effect on our perception of food and drink.

  6. A contextual perspective on talented female participants and their development in extracurricular STEM programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoeger, Heidrun; Schirner, Sigrun; Laemmle, Lena; Obergriesser, Stefanie; Heilemann, Michael; Ziegler, Albert

    2016-08-01

    We advocate a more contextual perspective in giftedness research. In our view, doing so opens up three particularly interesting research areas, which we refer to as the participation issue, the effectiveness issue, and the interaction issue. To illustrate their utility, we examined characteristics of females participating in German high achiever-track secondary education who had applied for participation in a 1-year extracurricular e-mentoring program in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) (n = 1237). Their characteristics were compared with male and female random-sample control groups. We assessed the effectiveness of the mentoring program by comparing the developmental trajectories of program participants with those of three control groups: applicants who were randomly chosen for later participation (waiting-list control group) and a female and a male control group. Finally, we examined whether differences in program effectiveness could be partially explained by characteristics of the interaction with the domain. Program applicants possessed more advantageous individual characteristics but, unexpectedly, less advantageous home and school environments than female and male members of the control groups. Program participation affected positive changes in certainty about career goals (independent of STEM) and in the number of STEM activities. The amount of STEM communication partially explained differences in program effectiveness. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.

  7. [Relational Frame Theory--A Theoretical Framework for Contextual Behavioral Science].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kensche, M; Schweiger, U

    2015-07-01

    Therapists have to deal with verbal systems and often work with verbal exchange. Therefore, a psychological theory is required, which teaches the therapist how to accomplish this task. The BRT is a theory of human language and cognition that explains how people use their verbal behavior as stimuli in their interrelations and how they act and react, based on the resulting relationships. This behavior is learned very early in the course of language acquisition and functions as a generalized operant. A prerequisite for this is the ability of people to undergo mental simulation. This enables them to construct diverse relational frameworks between individual stimuli. Without relational frameworks, people cannot function. The ability to establish a relational framework is a prerequisite for the formation of rule-governed behavior. Rule-governed behavior economizes complex decision processes, creates interpersonal security and enables dealing with events before they take place. On the other hand, the same properties that enable people to solve problems effectively can also contribute to rigid adherence to rules and experience avoidance. Relational frameworks, once established, outweigh other sources of behavioral regulation. Thus, it can become the basis of psychopathology. Poor contextual control makes it difficult for people to devote flexible, focused and voluntary attention to the present and align their actions with the immediate present. Contextual psychotherapy methods that are based on the BRT start precisely at this point: Targeted establishment of new contingencies in the therapeutic interaction through systematic strengthening of metacognitive mode and through the establishment of new rules that make possible a change in the rule-governed behavior enable undermining of dysfunctional rule-governed behavior and build up desirable behavior. This allows any therapeutic process to be more effective--regardless of the patient's expressed symptoms. © Georg Thieme

  8. Abnormal contextual modulation of visual contour detection in patients with schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael-Paul Schallmo

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia patients demonstrate perceptual deficits consistent with broad dysfunction in visual context processing. These include poor integration of segments forming visual contours, and reduced visual contrast effects (e.g. weaker orientation-dependent surround suppression, ODSS. Background image context can influence contour perception, as stimuli near the contour affect detection accuracy. Because of ODSS, this contextual modulation depends on the relative orientation between the contour and flanking elements, with parallel flankers impairing contour perception. However in schizophrenia, the impact of abnormal ODSS during contour perception is not clear. It is also unknown whether deficient contour perception marks genetic liability for schizophrenia, or is strictly associated with clinical expression of this disorder. We examined contour detection in 25 adults with schizophrenia, 13 unaffected first-degree biological relatives of schizophrenia patients, and 28 healthy controls. Subjects performed a psychophysics experiment designed to quantify the effect of flanker orientation during contour detection. Overall, patients with schizophrenia showed poorer contour detection performance than relatives or controls. Parallel flankers suppressed and orthogonal flankers enhanced contour detection performance for all groups, but parallel suppression was relatively weaker for schizophrenia patients than healthy controls. Relatives of patients showed equivalent performance with controls. Computational modeling suggested that abnormal contextual modulation in schizophrenia may be explained by suppression that is more broadly tuned for orientation. Abnormal flanker suppression in schizophrenia is consistent with weaker ODSS and/or broader orientation tuning. This work provides the first evidence that such perceptual abnormalities may not be associated with a genetic liability for schizophrenia.

  9. LEXICAL AND CONTEXTUAL VARIABILITY OF IDIOMATIC PHRASAL VERBS IN HARRY POTTER AND THE DEATHLY HALLOWS MOVIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghofar Romli

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The popularity of Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows (HPDH as a novel is almost accentuated in the movie version. However, the fascination of watching the movies may be interrupted by the problems arising from the use of some problematic expressions in the original language, especially idiomatic phrasal verbs (IPVs. The Indonesian viewers who happen to be learners of English as a Foreign Language (EFL will not have the fullest understanding of the story/text/sentence of the movies when they translate idiom lexically as the meaning of an idiom cannot be predicted from its individual constituents (Langlotz, 2006:4. This paper undergoes some procedures of the analysis starting from the process of data collection, progressing to selection, filtering, and labeling. It extracts PVs in HPDH (97 in HPDH part one and 70 in part two using linguistic concepts of PV. Later by limiting the PVs under conventional and characteristics modelling function of idioms, IPVs can be identified and served as the primary data. The final phase of the analysis wants to see how lexical interpretation, relying on Oxford Advanced Learner‘s Dictionary 8th Edition (OALD 8th ed, and Halidayan contextual variability (field, tenor and mode help classifying and explaining the meanings of the IPVs. Finally it is expected that this paper can offer appropriate logical and contextual interpretations of the IPVs. This way, by watching the HPDH, learners of English can gain better understanding of the movies and, more importantly, better knowledge of IPVs as inseparable part of their competence of EFL.

  10. Genetic modification in floriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Stephen F; Brugliera, Filippa

    2011-02-01

    Micro-propagation, embryo rescue, mutagenesis via chemical or irradiation means and in vitro inter-specific hybridisation methods have been used by breeders in the floriculture industry for many years. In the past 20 years these enabling technologies have been supplemented by genetic modification methods. Though many genes of potential utility to the floricultural industry have been identified, and much has been learnt of the genetic factors and molecular mechanisms underlying phenotypes of great importance to the industry, there are only flower colour modified varieties of carnation and rose in the marketplace. To a large extent this is due to unique financial barriers to market entry for genetically modified varieties of flower crops, including use of technology fees and costs of regulatory approval.

  11. Plasma modification of starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Fan

    2017-10-01

    Plasma is a medium of unbound negative and positive particles with the overall electrical charge being roughly zero. Non-thermal plasma processing is an emerging green technology with great potential to improve the quality and microbial safety of various food materials. Starch is a major component of many food products and is an important ingredient for food and other industries. There has been increasing interest in utilizing plasma to modify the functionalities of starch through interactions with reactive species. This mini-review summarises the impact of plasma on composition, chemical and granular structures, physicochemical properties, and uses of starch. Structure-function relationships of starch components as affected by plasma modifications are discussed. Effect of plasma on the properties of wheat flour, which is a typical example of starch based complex food systems, is also reviewed. Future research directions on how to better utilise plasma to improve the functionalities of starch are suggested. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Modification with SUMO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verger, Alexis; Perdomo, José; Crossley, Merlin

    2003-01-01

    Small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO) is a protein moiety that is ligated to lysine residues in a variety of target proteins. The addition of SUMO can modulate the ability of proteins to interact with their partners, alter their patterns of subcellular localization and control their stability. It is clear that SUMO influences many different biological processes, but recent data suggest that it is particularly important in the regulation of transcription. Indeed, several transcription factors, such as Sp3, c-Jun, c-Myb and various nuclear receptors, have recently been shown to be subject to sumoylation and, although this modification can have a positive influence, a growing body of evidence highlights its role in the negative regulation of transcription. This review summarizes recent experiments focusing on sumoylation and transcriptional repression. PMID:12612601

  13. Contextual variation in young children’s observed disruptive behavior on the DB-DOS: implications for early identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petitclerc, Amélie; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J.; Estabrook, Ryne; Burns, James L.; Anderson, Erica L.; McCarthy, Kimberly J.; Wakschlag, Lauren S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Contextual variation in child disruptive behavior is well documented but remains poorly understood. We first examine how variation in observed disruptive behavior across interactional contexts is associated with maternal reports of contextual variation in oppositional-defiant behavior and functional impairment. Second, we test whether child inhibitory control explains the magnitude of contextual variation in observed disruptive behavior. Methods Participants are 497 young children (mean age = 4 years, 11 months) from a subsample of the MAPS, a sociodemographically diverse pediatric sample, enriched for risk of disruptive behavior. Observed anger modulation and behavioral regulation problems were coded on the Disruptive Behavior Diagnostic Observation Schedule (DB-DOS) during interactions with parent and examiner. Oppositional-defiant behavior, and impairment in relationships, with parents and nonparental adults, were measured with the Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment (PAPA) interview with the mother. Functional impairment in the home and out-and-about was assessed with the Family Life Impairment Scale (FLIS), and expulsion from child care/school was measured with the baseline survey and FLIS. Results Observed disruptive behavior on the DB-DOS Parent Context was associated with oppositional-defiant behavior with parents, and with impairment at home and out-and-about. Observed disruptive behavior with the Examiner was associated with oppositional-defiant behavior with both parents and nonparental adults, impairment in relationships with nonparental adults, and child care/school expulsion. Differences in observed disruptive behavior in the Parent versus Examiner Contexts was related to the differences in maternal reports of oppositional-defiant behavior with parents versus nonparental adults. Children with larger decreases in disruptive behavior from Parent to Examiner Context had better inhibitory control and fewer attention

  14. Contextual variation in young children's observed disruptive behavior on the DB-DOS: implications for early identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petitclerc, Amélie; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J; Estabrook, Ryne; Burns, James L; Anderson, Erica L; McCarthy, Kimberly J; Wakschlag, Lauren S

    2015-09-01

    Contextual variation in child disruptive behavior is well documented but remains poorly understood. We first examine how variation in observed disruptive behavior across interactional contexts is associated with maternal reports of contextual variation in oppositional-defiant behavior and functional impairment. Second, we test whether child inhibitory control explains the magnitude of contextual variation in observed disruptive behavior. Participants are 497 young children (mean age = 4 years, 11 months) from a subsample of the MAPS, a sociodemographically diverse pediatric sample, enriched for risk of disruptive behavior. Observed anger modulation and behavioral regulation problems were coded on the Disruptive Behavior Diagnostic Observation Schedule (DB-DOS) during interactions with parent and examiner. Oppositional-defiant behavior, and impairment in relationships, with parents and nonparental adults, were measured with the Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment (PAPA) interview with the mother. Functional impairment in the home and out-and-about was assessed with the Family Life Impairment Scale (FLIS), and expulsion from child care/school was measured with the baseline survey and FLIS. Observed disruptive behavior on the DB-DOS Parent Context was associated with oppositional-defiant behavior with parents, and with impairment at home and out-and-about. Observed disruptive behavior with the Examiner was associated with oppositional-defiant behavior with both parents and nonparental adults, impairment in relationships with nonparental adults, and child care/school expulsion. Differences in observed disruptive behavior in the Parent versus Examiner Contexts was related to the differences in maternal reports of oppositional-defiant behavior with parents versus nonparental adults. Children with larger decreases in disruptive behavior from Parent to Examiner Context had better inhibitory control and fewer attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms. The DB

  15. CONTEXTUAL APPROACH TO LITERARY CRITICISM: DOSTOEVSKY AND PSYCHOANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Kalashnikov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to demonstrate the possibilities of application of the contextual approach, developed in pedagogy and psychology, in the process of literary analysis. Initially contextual approach was developed by A. A. Verbitsky as a methodology of education. A key category of this approach was the context, interpreted A. A. Verbitsky as a psychological phenomenon. Accordingly, in this paper on the basis of later research context is understood as a psychological mechanism of semantic, objectified in external forms of test patches, social and communicative situations, etc. Now contextual approach became general psychological methodology, which led to the possibility of its application in various fields of the humanities in particular – in psycholinguistic literary studies, where the notion of «context » is used in-depth psychological interpretation. Methods. The contextual approach developed by A. A. Verbitsky as the main component of methodology of education became the main instrument of the research stated in the publication. Besides a field of the general education, this approach is applicable to various private spheres – to educational aspect of education, and also to methodology of teaching various subject matters – mathematicians, biology, foreign languages, etc. The contextual approach at the level of allpsychological methodology has allowed to apply it in various fields of humanitarian knowledge, in particular in literary researches with a strongly pronounced psychological perspective. The contextual analysis corresponding to approach has been chosen as a method of work.Results. Based on A. A. Verbitsky’s interpretation and results of the latest researches the author shows that the context is a semantic mechanism, objectified in external forms of test fragments, social and communicative situations, etc. The following types of contexts are allocated: microcontext of a personality and works of an author, a mesocontext

  16. Independence of long-term contextual memory and short-term perceptual hypotheses: Evidence from contextual cueing of interrupted search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlagbauer, Bernhard; Mink, Maurice; Müller, Hermann J; Geyer, Thomas

    2017-02-01

    Observers are able to resume an interrupted search trial faster relative to responding to a new, unseen display. This finding of rapid resumption is attributed to short-term perceptual hypotheses generated on the current look and confirmed upon subsequent looks at the same display. It has been suggested that the contents of perceptual hypotheses are similar to those of other forms of memory acquired long-term through repeated exposure to the same search displays over the course of several trials, that is, the memory supporting "contextual cueing." In three experiments, we investigated the relationship between short-term perceptual hypotheses and long-term contextual memory. The results indicated that long-term, contextual memory of repeated displays neither affected the generation nor the confirmation of short-term perceptual hypotheses for these displays. Furthermore, the analysis of eye movements suggests that long-term memory provides an initial benefit in guiding attention to the target, whereas in subsequent looks guidance is entirely based on short-term perceptual hypotheses. Overall, the results reveal a picture of both long- and short-term memory contributing to reliable performance gains in interrupted search, while exerting their effects in an independent manner.

  17. Explaining the Allocation of Regional Structural Funds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charron, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    What regional factors can explain the heterogeneity in Structural Funds distribution to European Union regions? Past studies have shown that aside from the level of economic development and rates of unemployment, other political, and economic factors systematically explain why certain European...

  18. Explaining Biological Functionality: Is Control Theory Enough ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is generally agreed that organisms are Complex Adaptive Systems. Since the rise of Cybernetics in the middle of the last century ideas from information theory and control theory have been applied to the adaptations of biological organisms in order to explain how they work. This does not, however, explain functionality, ...

  19. SnapShot: histone modifications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Huang, He; Sabari, Benjamin R; Garcia, Benjamin A; Allis, C David; Zhao, Yingming

    2014-01-01

    Histone proteins are decorated by a variety of protein posttranslational modifications called histone marks that modulate chromatin structure and function, contributing to the cellular gene expression program...

  20. Object-based implicit learning in visual search: perceptual segmentation constrains contextual cueing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conci, Markus; Müller, Hermann J; von Mühlenen, Adrian

    2013-07-09

    In visual search, detection of a target is faster when it is presented within a spatial layout of repeatedly encountered nontarget items, indicating that contextual invariances can guide selective attention (contextual cueing; Chun & Jiang, 1998). However, perceptual regularities may interfere with contextual learning; for instance, no contextual facilitation occurs when four nontargets form a square-shaped grouping, even though the square location predicts the target location (Conci & von Mühlenen, 2009). Here, we further investigated potential causes for this interference-effect: We show that contextual cueing can reliably occur for targets located within the region of a segmented object, but not for targets presented outside of the object's boundaries. Four experiments demonstrate an object-based facilitation in contextual cueing, with a modulation of context-based learning by relatively subtle grouping cues including closure, symmetry, and spatial regularity. Moreover, the lack of contextual cueing for targets located outside the segmented region was due to an absence of (latent) learning of contextual layouts, rather than due to an attentional bias towards the grouped region. Taken together, these results indicate that perceptual segmentation provides a basic structure within which contextual scene regularities are acquired. This in turn argues that contextual learning is constrained by object-based selection.

  1. Contextual Social Cognition Impairments in Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarin, Lilian; Theil, Donna; Gonzalez-Gadea, María Luz; Gomez, Pedro; Mosquera, Marcela; Huepe, David; Strejilevich, Sergio; Vigliecca, Nora Silvana; Matthäus, Franziska; Decety, Jean; Manes, Facundo; Ibañez, Agustín M.

    2013-01-01

    Background The ability to integrate contextual information with social cues to generate social meaning is a key aspect of social cognition. It is widely accepted that patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorders have deficits in social cognition; however, previous studies on these disorders did not use tasks that replicate everyday situations. Methodology/Principal Findings This study evaluates the performance of patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorders on social cognition tasks (emotional processing, empathy, and social norms knowledge) that incorporate different levels of contextual dependence and involvement of real-life scenarios. Furthermore, we explored the association between social cognition measures, clinical symptoms and executive functions. Using a logistic regression analysis, we explored whether the involvement of more basic skills in emotional processing predicted performance on empathy tasks. The results showed that both patient groups exhibited deficits in social cognition tasks with greater context sensitivity and involvement of real-life scenarios. These deficits were more severe in schizophrenic than in bipolar patients. Patients did not differ from controls in tasks involving explicit knowledge. Moreover, schizophrenic patients’ depression levels were negatively correlated with performance on empathy tasks. Conclusions/Significance Overall performance on emotion recognition predicted performance on intentionality attribution during the more ambiguous situations of the empathy task. These results suggest that social cognition deficits could be related to a general impairment in the capacity to implicitly integrate contextual cues. Important implications for the assessment and treatment of individuals with schizophrenia and bipolar disorders, as well as for neurocognitive models of these pathologies are discussed. PMID:23520477

  2. Remote temporal camouflage: contextual flicker disrupts perceived visual temporal order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cass, John; Van der Burg, Erik

    2014-10-01

    Correctly perceiving the temporal order of events is essential to many tasks. Despite this, the factors constraining our ability to make timing judgments remain largely unspecified. Here we present a new phenomenon demonstrating that perceived timing of visual events may be profoundly impaired by the mere presence of irrelevant events elsewhere in the visual field. Human observers saw two abrupt luminance events presented across a range of onset asynchronies. Temporal order judgment (TOJ) just noticeable differences (JNDs) provided a behavioural index of temporal precision. When target events were presented in isolation or in static distractor environments temporal resolution was very precise (JNDs ∼20ms). However, when surrounded by dynamic distractor events, performance deteriorated more than a factor of four. This contextual effect we refer to as Remote Temporal Camouflage (RTC) operates across large spatial and temporal distances and possesses a unique spatial distribution conforming to neither the predictions of attentional capture by transient events, nor by stimulus dependencies associated with other contextual phenomena such as surround suppression, crowding, object-substitution masking or motion-induced blindness. We propose that RTC is a consequence of motion-related masking whereby irrelevant motion signals evoked by dynamic distractors interfere with TOJ-relevant target-related apparent motion. Consistent with this we also show that dynamic visual distractors do not interfere with audio-visual TOJs. Not only is RTC the most spatially extensive contextual effect ever reported, it offers vision science a new technique with which to investigate temporal order performance, free of motion-related sensory contributions. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Contextual social cognition impairments in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Baez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The ability to integrate contextual information with social cues to generate social meaning is a key aspect of social cognition. It is widely accepted that patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorders have deficits in social cognition; however, previous studies on these disorders did not use tasks that replicate everyday situations. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This study evaluates the performance of patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorders on social cognition tasks (emotional processing, empathy, and social norms knowledge that incorporate different levels of contextual dependence and involvement of real-life scenarios. Furthermore, we explored the association between social cognition measures, clinical symptoms and executive functions. Using a logistic regression analysis, we explored whether the involvement of more basic skills in emotional processing predicted performance on empathy tasks. The results showed that both patient groups exhibited deficits in social cognition tasks with greater context sensitivity and involvement of real-life scenarios. These deficits were more severe in schizophrenic than in bipolar patients. Patients did not differ from controls in tasks involving explicit knowledge. Moreover, schizophrenic patients' depression levels were negatively correlated with performance on empathy tasks. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Overall performance on emotion recognition predicted performance on intentionality attribution during the more ambiguous situations of the empathy task. These results suggest that social cognition deficits could be related to a general impairment in the capacity to implicitly integrate contextual cues. Important implications for the assessment and treatment of individuals with schizophrenia and bipolar disorders, as well as for neurocognitive models of these pathologies are discussed.

  4. Contextualizing Cave Maps as Geospatial Information: Case Study of Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhart, H.

    2017-12-01

    Caves are the result of solution processes. Because they are happened from geochemical and tectonic activity, they can be considered as geosphere phenomena. As one of the geosphere phenomena, especially at karst landform, caves have spatial dimensions and aspects. Cave’s utilizations and developments are increasing in many sectors such as hydrology, earth science, and tourism industry. However, spatial aspects of caves are poorly concerned dues to the lack of recognition toward cave maps. Many stakeholders have not known significances and importance of cave maps in determining development of a cave. Less information can be considered as the cause. Therefore, it is strongly necessary to put cave maps into the right context in order to make stakeholders realize the significance of it. Also, cave maps will be officially regarded as tools related to policy, development, and conservation act of caves hence they will have regulation in the usages and applications. This paper aims to make the contextualization of cave maps toward legal act. The act which is used is Act Number 4 Year 2011 About Geospatial Information. The contextualization is done by scrutinizing every articles and clauses related to cave maps and seek the contextual elements from both of them. The results are that cave maps can be regarded as geospatial information and classified as thematic geospatial information. The usages of them can be regulated through the Act Number 4 Year 2011. The regulations comprised by data acquisition, database, authorities, surveyor, and the obligation of providing cave maps in planning cave’s development and the environment surrounding.

  5. BEHAVIOR MODIFICATION--A BIBLIOGRAPHY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BARNARD, JAMES W.; ORLANDO, ROBERT

    INTENDED FOR PERSONS HAVING DIRECT RESPONSIBILITY FOR BEHAVIOR MANAGEMENT IN EDUCATIONAL AND CLINICAL SETTINGS, THE BIBLIOGRAPHY LISTS 866 ENTRIES ON BEHAVIOR MODIFICATION. EACH ITEM LISTED DESCRIBES OR ILLUSTRATES SPECIFIC METHODS OF BEHAVIOR MODIFICATION AND IS CONCEIVED WITHIN SOME LEARNING FRAMEWORK THEORY. ARRANGED ALPHABETICALLY BY AUTHOR,…

  6. Modification of smoothing in 4253H[T

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmi, Nurul Nisa'Khairol; Adam, Mohd Bakri; Shitan, Mahendran; Ali, Norhaslinda Mohd

    2017-05-01

    Some modified non-linear smoothers particularly 4253H[T] are explained in this paper. The modifications are focused on estimating the middle point of running median for even span by applying the following types of means; geometric, harmonic, quadratic and contraharmonic. The performance of the techniques is assessed by applying it to daily price index of a bank in Malaysia that issues sukuk for funding in Islamic banking and financial business. The results show that 4253H[T] with geometric mean modification is better than others in preserving variation and curve fitting.

  7. Nuclear modification factor using Tsallis non-extensive statistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tripathy, Sushanta; Garg, Prakhar; Kumar, Prateek; Sahoo, Raghunath [Indian Institute of Technology Indore, Discipline of Physics, School of Basic Sciences, Simrol (India); Bhattacharyya, Trambak; Cleymans, Jean [University of Cape Town, UCT-CERN Research Centre and Department of Physics, Rondebosch (South Africa)

    2016-09-15

    The nuclear modification factor is derived using Tsallis non-extensive statistics in relaxation time approximation. The variation of the nuclear modification factor with transverse momentum for different values of the non-extensive parameter, q, is also observed. The experimental data from RHIC and LHC are analysed in the framework of Tsallis non-extensive statistics in a relaxation time approximation. It is shown that the proposed approach explains the R{sub AA} of all particles over a wide range of transverse momentum but does not seem to describe the rise in R{sub AA} at very high transverse momenta. (orig.)

  8. Infrared Modifications Of Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Rombouts, J

    2005-01-01

    In this thesis, we study theories that modify gravity at very large distances. Motivated by recent observations in cosmology, such as the dimming of type Ia supernovae and flattening of rotation curves of galaxies, we study two classes of theories that attempt to explain these observations as due to a change in the laws of gravity at large distances rather than due to the presence of new forms of exotic energy and matter. The first class of theories is massive gravity, obtained by adding a mass term to the action for the gravitational fluctuation in Einstein's general relativity. The second class of models we study are braneworlds that provide infrared modified gravity, in specific the Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati model and its extension to higher codimensional branes. We stress in our discussion the field theoretical consistency, both classically and quantum-mechanically, of these models.

  9. Entrepreneurship and its analysis in Colombia: A contextualized literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Rodríguez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a literature review contextualized through the different stages of Colombian industrial history up to the first decade of the XXI century, when an attempt is made to organize the growing interest in the topic of entrepreneurship. We find a tight connection between public policy agenda setting and the definition of the research agenda of the topic. We also find a dualistic approach in the research of the topic, with universities and think-tanks leading the investigation on accumulative / innovative entrepreneurship, and a consultancy-bias group dedicated to the study of subsistence entrepreneurship.

  10. Teaching a neuromedical-contextual approach to psychosomatic medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Xavier F; Azzam, Pierre N; Gopalan, Priya

    2015-04-01

    The practice of psychosomatic medicine in the general hospital setting can be challenging, particularly for the inexperienced trainee. Guidance for how to approach a psychiatric consultation can be nonspecific or lacking altogether. In response, we offer a pedagogical model that emphasizes patient-specific neurological, medical, and contextual variables. A stepwise, "ABC" approach to psychiatric consultation is elaborated, beginning with collection of critical history ("Admission, Background, Consultation Question"), followed by both patient encounter ("Appearance, Behavior, Context") and actual patient examination ("Arousal, Brain/Body, Cognitive Assessment"), ultimately informing any given case formulation. Multiple clinical vignettes illustrate this approach and are offered for educational purposes in dissemination to trainees.

  11. Contextual biases in the interpretation of auditory evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Nick D; Thomas, Rick P; Dana, Jason; Dawes, Robyn M

    2011-06-01

    Noisy recordings of dialogue often serve as evidence in criminal proceedings. The present article explores the ability of two types of contextual information, currently present in the legal system, to bias subjective interpretations of such evidence. The present experiments demonstrate that the general context of the legal system and the presence of transcripts of the recorded speech are both able to bias interpretations of degraded & benign recordings into interpretable & incriminating. Furthermore we demonstrate a curse of knowledge whereby people become miscalibrated to the true quality of degraded recordings when provided transcripts. Current methods of dealing with auditory evidence are insufficient to mollify the effects of biasing information within the criminal justice system.

  12. Preface to the Special Issue – Contextual effects in Psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanec, Dragutin

    2010-01-01

    What do contextual effects mean in psychology? Reber (1985) wrote: “A cover term for those behavioral effects that result from the particular context within which a stimulus is presented or a response is made. No behavior, no thoughts, no dreams – in short, nothing any organism can ever do – can take place in a physical or psychic vacuum. Context effects are necessarily ubiquitous. This is at once a most trivial and most profound statement; ignoring its obvious truth has led more than a few w...

  13. Genetic modification and genetic determinism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vorhaus Daniel B

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this article we examine four objections to the genetic modification of human beings: the freedom argument, the giftedness argument, the authenticity argument, and the uniqueness argument. We then demonstrate that each of these arguments against genetic modification assumes a strong version of genetic determinism. Since these strong deterministic assumptions are false, the arguments against genetic modification, which assume and depend upon these assumptions, are therefore unsound. Serious discussion of the morality of genetic modification, and the development of sound science policy, should be driven by arguments that address the actual consequences of genetic modification for individuals and society, not by ones propped up by false or misleading biological assumptions.

  14. Contextualizing the self: the emergence of a biographical understanding in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habermas, Tilmann; Hatiboğlu, Neşe

    2014-01-01

    In adolescence, remembering the personal past and understanding what kind of person one is intertwine to form a story of one's life as the most extant, informative, and flexible form of self-representation. In adolescence, the striving for self-coherence translates into a quest for global coherence of the life story. We suggest that contextualizing is a fifth means for creating global coherence in life narratives besides the cultural concept of biography, temporal, causal-motivational, and thematic coherence. We present three kinds of contextualizing in life narratives, the temporal macrostructure, sociohistorical contextualizing of one's life, and hierarchical and linear segmenting of the text and life. These three forms of contextualizing in life narratives by their authors are complemented by three forms of contextual influences on life narratives analyzed by researchers, namely the historical, personal, and communicative situation in which they are recounted. Contextualizing is exemplified by the life narrative of a young migrant. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Your Radiologist Explains Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Imaging Costs Video: Abdominal Ultrasound Video: Pelvic Ultrasound Radiology and You Sponsored by Image/Video Gallery Your ... Explains Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA) Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot org Hello, I’m Dr. Elliot ...

  16. Your Radiologist Explains Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Lung Cancer Awareness Month Recently posted: Carotid Intima-Media Thickness Test Medical Imaging Costs Video: Abdominal Ultrasound Video: Pelvic Ultrasound Radiology and You Sponsored by Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Magnetic Resonance Angiography ( ...

  17. Your Radiologist Explains Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Video: Pelvic Ultrasound Radiology and You Sponsored by Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Magnetic Resonance Angiography ( ... pictures of the major blood vessels throughout your body. It may be performed with or without contrast ...

  18. Topology Explains Why Automobile Sunshades Fold Oddly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feist, Curtis; Naimi, Ramin

    2009-01-01

    Automobile sunshades always fold into an "odd" number of loops. The explanation why involves elementary topology (braid theory and linking number, both explained in detail here with definitions and examples), and an elementary fact from algebra about symmetric group.

  19. Your Radiologist Explains Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... by Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA) Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot ... d like to talk with you about magnetic resonance angiography, or as it’s commonly known, MRA. MRA ...

  20. Explorers Presentation: Explaining the Tides to Children

    OpenAIRE

    Institute, Marine

    2015-01-01

    Explaining the tides to children Presentation includes information about: Orbits of the Earth, Moon and Sun; Moon phases and the lunar cycle; Gravity; Gravity and the tide; Types of tides; The tides and me!; Tide tables; Extra insight

  1. Your Radiologist Explains Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and You Take our survey Sponsored by Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA) ... Carotid Intima-Media Thickness Test Medical Imaging Costs Video: Abdominal Ultrasound Video: Pelvic Ultrasound Radiology and You ...

  2. Your Radiologist Explains Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Index A-Z Spotlight Recently posted: Carotid Intima-Media Thickness Test Medical Imaging Costs Video: Abdominal Ultrasound Video: Pelvic Ultrasound Radiology and You Sponsored by Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Magnetic Resonance Angiography ( ...

  3. Your Radiologist Explains Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of Radiology (IDoR) Radiology and You Sponsored by Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Magnetic Resonance Angiography ( ... pictures of the major blood vessels throughout your body. It may be performed with or without contrast ...

  4. A New Approach to Contextual Suggestions Based on Word2Vec

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    A New Approach to Contextual Suggestions Based on Word2Vec Yongqiang Chen1, Zhenjun Tang 1, Xiaozhao Zhao 1, D.Song1,2,P.Zhang1,2 Tianjin Key...model according the users’ personal preference. Keywords: Contextual Suggestions, Word2Vec ,user model 1 Introduction The contextual suggestion tracktrac [2...attractions and user contexts in the continuous vector space learnt by neural network language models (NNML [1])as input layer. We use word2vec [3] to

  5. Validating Domains of Patient Contextual Factors Essential to Preventing Contextual Errors: A Qualitative Study Conducted at Chicago Area Veterans Health Administration Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binns-Calvey, Amy E; Malhiot, Alex; Kostovich, Carol T; LaVela, Sherri L; Stroupe, Kevin; Gerber, Ben S; Burkhart, Lisa; Weiner, Saul J; Weaver, Frances M

    2017-09-01

    "Patient context" indicates patient circumstances and characteristics or states that are essential to address when planning patient care. Specific patient "contextual factors," if overlooked, result in an inappropriate plan of care, a medical error termed a "contextual error." The myriad contextual factors that constitute patient context have been grouped into broad domains to create a taxonomy of challenges to consider when planning care. This study sought to validate a previously identified list of contextual domains. This qualitative study used directed content analysis. In 2014, 19 Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) providers (84% female) and 49 patients (86% male) from two VA medical centers and four outpatient clinics in the Chicago area participated in semistructured interviews and focus groups. Topics included patient-specific, community, and resource-related factors that affect patients' abilities to manage their care. Transcripts were analyzed with a previously identified list of contextual domains as a framework. Analysis of responses revealed that patients and providers identified the same 10 domains previously published, plus 3 additional ones. Based on comments made by patients and providers, the authors created a revised list of 12 domains from themes that emerged. Six pertain to patient circumstances such as access to care and financial situation, and 6 to patient characteristics/states including skills, abilities, and knowledge. Contextual factors in patients' lives may be essential to address for effective care planning. The rubric developed can serve as a "contextual differential" for clinicians to consider when addressing challenges patients face when planning their care.

  6. A Kantian argument against comparatively advantageous genetic modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, David

    2011-08-01

    The genetic modification of children is becoming a more likely possibility given our rapid progress in medical technologies. I argue, from a broadly Kantian point of view, that at least one kind of such modification-modification by a parent for the sake of a child's comparative advantage-is not rationally justified. To argue this, I first characterize a necessary condition on reasons and rational justification: what is a reason for an agent to do an action in one set of circumstances must be a reason for any in those circumstances to do the action. I then show that comparatively advantageous genetic modification violates this principle since a child's "getting ahead" through genetic modification cannot be rationally justified unless other children also could receive the modification, thus rendering the advantage useless. Finally, I consider the major objection to this it seems to disallow all cases of a parent's helping a child get ahead, something that parents normally engage in with their children. I argue that typical practices of developing a comparative advantage in a child, as well as practices of societal competition in general, do not conflict because they involve circumstances that mitigate the universal character of reasons. Many ordinary cases of competitive advantage that we think of as unjust, in fact, can be explained by my argument.

  7. Contextualized Network Analysis: Theory and Methods for Networks with Node Covariates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binkiewicz, Norbert M.

    Biological and social systems consist of myriad interacting units. The interactions can be intuitively represented in the form of a graph or network. Measurements of these graphs can reveal the underlying structure of these interactions, which provides insight into the systems that generated the graphs. Moreover, in applications such as neuroconnectomics, social networks, and genomics, graph data is accompanied by contextualizing measures on each node. We leverage these node covariates to help uncover latent communities, using a modification of spectral clustering. Statistical guarantees are provided under a joint mixture model called the node contextualized stochastic blockmodel, including a bound on the mis-clustering rate. For most simulated conditions, covariate assisted spectral clustering yields superior results relative to both regularized spectral clustering without node covariates and an adaptation of canonical correlation analysis. We apply covariate assisted spectral clustering to large brain graphs derived from diffusion MRI, using the node locations or neurological regions as covariates. In both cases, covariate assisted spectral clustering yields clusters that are easier to interpret neurologically. A low rank update algorithm is developed to reduce the computational cost of determining the tuning parameter for covariate assisted spectral clustering. As simulations demonstrate, the low rank update algorithm increases the speed of covariate assisted spectral clustering up to ten-fold, while practically matching the clustering performance of the standard algorithm. Graphs with node attributes are sometimes accompanied by ground truth labels that align closely with the latent communities in the graph. We consider the example of a mouse retina neuron network accompanied by the neuron spatial location and neuronal cell types. In this example, the neuronal cell type is considered a ground truth label. Current approaches for defining neuronal cell type vary

  8. Contextual Factors Affecting the Innovation Performance of Manufacturing SMEs in Korea: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ye Seul Choi; Up Lim

    2017-01-01

    This study empirically explores the relationship between innovation performance and the internal and contextual factors driving technological innovation in manufacturing small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs...

  9. Sparse Contextual Activation for Efficient Visual Re-Ranking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Song; Bai, Xiang

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we propose an extremely efficient algorithm for visual re-ranking. By considering the original pairwise distance in the contextual space, we develop a feature vector called sparse contextual activation (SCA) that encodes the local distribution of an image. Hence, re-ranking task can be simply accomplished by vector comparison under the generalized Jaccard metric, which has its theoretical meaning in the fuzzy set theory. In order to improve the time efficiency of re-ranking procedure, inverted index is successfully introduced to speed up the computation of generalized Jaccard metric. As a result, the average time cost of re-ranking for a certain query can be controlled within 1 ms. Furthermore, inspired by query expansion, we also develop an additional method called local consistency enhancement on the proposed SCA to improve the retrieval performance in an unsupervised manner. On the other hand, the retrieval performance using a single feature may not be satisfactory enough, which inspires us to fuse multiple complementary features for accurate retrieval. Based on SCA, a robust feature fusion algorithm is exploited that also preserves the characteristic of high time efficiency. We assess our proposed method in various visual re-ranking tasks. Experimental results on Princeton shape benchmark (3D object), WM-SRHEC07 (3D competition), YAEL data set B (face), MPEG-7 data set (shape), and Ukbench data set (image) manifest the effectiveness and efficiency of SCA.

  10. Bidirectional effects of cannabidiol on contextual fear memory extinction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenchen Song

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Cannabidiol (CBD has been established to have both acute and long-lasting effects to reduce fear memory expression. The long-lasting impact might be mediated by an enhancement of memory extinction or an impairment of memory reconsolidation. Here, we directly compared the effects of i.p. injections of cannabidiol (10 mg/kg with those of the NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 (0.1 mg/kg and partial agonist D-cycloserine (DCS; 15 mg/kg in order to determine the mnemonic basis of long-term fear reduction. We showed that under conditions of strong fear conditioning, CBD reduced contextual fear memory expression both acutely during the extinction session as well as later at a fear retention test. The latter test reduction was replicated by DCS, but MK-801 instead elevated test freezing. In contrast, when initial conditioning was weaker, CBD and MK-801 had similar effects to increase freezing at the fear retention test relative to vehicle controls, whereas DCS had no observable impact. This pattern of results is consistent with CBD enhancing contextual fear memory extinction when the initial conditioning is strong, but impairing extinction when conditioning is weak. This bidirectional effect of CBD may be related to stress levels induced by conditioning and evoked at retrieval during extinction, rather than the strength of the memory per se.

  11. Social media: A contextual framework to guide research and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Lynn A; Ployhart, Robert E

    2015-11-01

    Social media are a broad collection of digital platforms that have radically changed the way people interact and communicate. However, we argue that social media are not simply a technology but actually represent a context that differs in important ways from traditional (e.g., face-to-face) and other digital (e.g., email) ways of interacting and communicating. As a result, social media is a relatively unexamined type of context that may affect the cognition, affect, and behavior of individuals within organizations. We propose a contextual framework that identifies the discrete and ambient stimuli that distinguish social media contexts from digital communication media (e.g., email) and physical (e.g., face-to-face) contexts. We then use this contextual framework to demonstrate how it changes more person-centered theories of organizational behavior (e.g., social exchange, social contagion, and social network theories). These theoretical insights are also used to identify a number of practical implications for individuals and organizations. This study's major contribution is creating a theoretical understanding of social media features so that future research may proceed in a theory-based, rather than platform-based, manner. Overall, we intend for this article to stimulate and broadly shape the direction of research on this ubiquitous, but poorly understood, phenomenon. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. THE IMPLEMENTATION OF CONTEXTUAL TEACHING AND LEARNING IN TEACHING ENGLISH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arianto Arianto

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The main purposes of this study are (1 to describe the implementation of contextual teaching and learning (CTL in teaching English, and (2 to investigate the teacher’s difficulties in implementing CTL in teaching English at the seventh grade students of SMPN-1 Palangka Raya. It was used qualitative method. The subject of this study was an English teacher of SMPN-1 Palangka Raya. It was used observation, interview and documentation to collect the data, and for data analysis it was used data reduction, data display, and conclusion. The findings show that (1 the implementation of CTL implemented by the teacher was through some components of CTL which were applied more frequently than others. The questioning, learning community, and modeling were frequently applied. (2 The problems faced by the teacher were the condition of the students who still made some noise, the large amount of students in the class, little attention from the students, and the shyness from the students to speak up. Keywords: Contextual Teaching and Learning, Teaching English

  13. User Adoption Tendency Modeling for Social Contextual Recommendation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Zhisheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Most of studies on the existing recommender system for Netflix-style sites (scenarios with explicit user feedback focus on rating prediction, but few have systematically analyzed users’ motivations to make decisions on which items to rate. In this paper, the authors study the difficult and challenging task Item Adoption Prediction (IAP for predicting the items users will rate or interact with. It is not only an important supplement to previous works, but also a more realistic requirement of recommendation in this scenario. To recommend the items with high Adoption Tendency, the authors develop a unified model UATM based on the findings of Marketing and Consumer Behavior. The novelty of the model in this paper includes: First, the authors propose a more creative and effective optimization method to tackle One-Class Problem where only the positive feedback is available; second, the authors systematically and conveniently integrate the user adoption information (both explicit and implicit feedbacks included and the social contextual information with quantitatively characterizing different users’ personal sensitivity to various social contextual influences.

  14. Time to Tango: expertise and contextual anticipation during action observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoruso, Lucía; Sedeño, Lucas; Huepe, David; Tomio, Ailin; Kamienkowski, Juan; Hurtado, Esteban; Cardona, Juan Felipe; Álvarez González, Miguel Ángel; Rieznik, Andrés; Sigman, Mariano; Manes, Facundo; Ibáñez, Agustín

    2014-09-01

    Predictive theories of action observation propose that we use our own motor system as a guide for anticipating and understanding other people's actions through the generation of context-based expectations. According to this view, people should be better in predicting and interpreting those actions that are present in their own motor repertoire compared to those that are not. We recorded high-density event-related potentials (ERPs: P300, N400 and Slow Wave, SW) and source estimation in 80 subjects separated by their level of expertise (experts, beginners and naïves) as they observed realistic videos of Tango steps with different degrees of execution correctness. We also performed path analysis to infer causal relationships between ongoing anticipatory brain activity, evoked semantic responses, expertise measures and behavioral performance. We found that anticipatory activity, with sources in a fronto-parieto-occipital network, early discriminated between groups according to their level of expertise. Furthermore, this early activity significantly predicted subsequent semantic integration indexed by semantic responses (N400 and SW, sourced in temporal and motor regions) which also predicted motor expertise. In addition, motor expertise was a good predictor of behavioral performance. Our results show that neural and temporal dynamics underlying contextual action anticipation and comprehension can be interpreted in terms of successive levels of contextual prediction that are significantly modulated by subject's prior experience. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Personal and contextual determinants of attitudes towards immigrants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Boban

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The issues of immigrants and attitudes towards immigrants are an important social issue in our country, and in recent years these issues have become more topical due to the large number of immigrants from the Middle East and Africa who pass through Serbia. This research was aimed at identifying the determinants of social attitudes towards immigrants. Contextual determinants, first of all, economic security and life in a multiethnic environment, as well as individual determinants, operationalized through the HEXACO model of personality, were examined. The research was conducted on the convenience sample of 540 participants. The results have shown that economic security has no direct effect on the attitudes towards immigrants, while the multiethnic environment is an important determinant of these attitudes. Personality traits, especially Openness, as well as Honesty- Humility, have better predictive power than the contextual variables. The factors of economic security are significant moderators of the relationship between personality and attitudes towards immigrants. The importance of the obtained results for understanding the formation of attitudes towards immigrants is discussed, as well as the methodological framework for future studies of attitudes towards immigrants and other social groups.

  16. Contextual object understanding through geospatial analysis and reasoning (COUGAR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Joel; Antone, Matthew; Coggins, James; Rhodes, Bradley J.; Sobel, Erik; Stolle, Frank; Vinciguerra, Lori; Zandipour, Majid; Zhong, Yu

    2009-05-01

    Military operations in urban areas often require detailed knowledge of the location and identity of commonly occurring objects and spatial features. The ability to rapidly acquire and reason over urban scenes is critically important to such tasks as mission and route planning, visibility prediction, communications simulation, target recognition, and inference of higher-level form and function. Under DARPA's Urban Reasoning and Geospatial ExploitatioN Technology (URGENT) Program, the BAE Systems team has developed a system that combines a suite of complementary feature extraction and matching algorithms with higher-level inference and contextual reasoning to detect, segment, and classify urban entities of interest in a fully automated fashion. Our system operates solely on colored 3D point clouds, and considers object categories with a wide range of specificity (fire hydrants, windows, parking lots), scale (street lights, roads, buildings, forests), and shape (compact shapes, extended regions, terrain). As no single method can recognize the diverse set of categories under consideration, we have integrated multiple state-of-the-art technologies that couple hierarchical associative reasoning with robust computer vision and machine learning techniques. Our solution leverages contextual cues and evidence propagation from features to objects to scenes in order to exploit the combined descriptive power of 3D shape, appearance, and learned inter-object spatial relationships. The result is a set of tools designed to significantly enhance the productivity of analysts in exploiting emerging 3D data sources.

  17. MATHEMATICAL CRITICAL THINKING ABILITY THROUGH CONTEXTUAL TEACHING AND LEARNING APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurniati Kurniati

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to examine the effect of the application of contextual teaching and learning (CTL approach to the enhance of mathematical critical thinking ability (MCTA of Primary School Teacher Students (PSTS. This research is an experimental study with the population of all students PSTS who took algebra subject matter of one  university in the city of Bogor. The results showed: (1 the increase of MCTA of student who receive CTL better than students who receive TTL; (2 There are differences in the increase MCTA between students in groups of high MPA, medium MPA, and low MPA, both the student who received the CTL and TTL; and (3 There is no interaction between learning factors (CTL and TTL with MPA (high, medium and low toward the enhance of MCTA.Keywords: Critical Thinking Ability in Mathematics, Contextual Teaching and Learning Approach, Prior Mathematical Ability DOI: dx.doi.org/10.22342/jme.61.53

  18. Contextual Teaching and Learning (CTL dalam Pembelajaran PAI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Iwan Abdi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Contextual teaching learning (CTL is an educational process that aims to help students see meaning in academic material they are learning by connecting academic subjects with the context of their daily, which is related to personal circumstances, social, and cultural development. In Contextual teaching and learning (CTL takes an approach that is more empowering students with the expectations of students able to construct knowledge in their minds, rather than memorizing facts. Besides, students learn through experience rather than memorize, given knowledge of the facts and not a concept readily accepted but something that must be constructed by the students. To achieve this goal include the eight components of the system, the following: making meaningful connections, doing meaningful work, conduct self-regulated learning, collaborate, think critically and creatively, helping individuals to grow and develop, achieving high standards , and using authentic assessment. In learning PAI, CTL developed by focusing on moral or affective touch protege acquired through personal experience that photographing their daily environment. This touch your heart and thoughts will inspire students to practice it.

  19. Grouping of contextual elements that affect vernier thresholds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malania, Maka; Herzog, Michael H; Westheimer, Gerald

    2007-01-29

    To reveal the mechanisms of spatial interference in the fovea, we examined the capacity of a variety of lateral flanking configurations to interfere with alignment thresholds of a vertical vernier. A single line on each side of the vernier, at the optimal separation of 2-3 arcmin, raises thresholds threefold or more and masks most effectively when its length equals that of the vernier. For an array of equal lines whose length differs from that of the vernier, masking is reduced but not when vernier and flanks have the same length. The reduction for shorter and longer flanks can be reversed by inserting a gap in the row of flanks. By comparing the masking effect of arrays of mixed line lengths, we show that when a pair of flanks, which by itself masks strongly, becomes a component of a coherent contextual configuration, it loses much of its effectiveness to interact. Observers' ranking of the conspicuity of the vernier test pattern among the flanking elements is negatively correlated with the threshold elevation. We conclude that clustering of contextual patterns influences their capacity to mask. Discrimination of a target deteriorates when the target is grouped within an array of surrounding elements.

  20. Testing an extended theoretical framework to explain variance in use of a public health information system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangia, Victoria

    2012-01-01

    This study examined determinants of using an immunization registry, explaining the variance in use. The technology acceptance model (TAM) was extended with contextual factors (contextualized TAM) to test hypotheses about immunization registry usage. Commitment to change, perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, job-task changes, subjective norm, computer self-efficacy and system interface characteristics were hypothesized to affect usage. The quantitative study was a prospective design of immunization registry end-users in a state in the United States. Questionnaires were administered 100 end-users after training and system usage. The results showed that perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, subjective norm and job-tasks change influenced usage of the immunization registry directly, while computer self-efficacy and system interface characteristics influenced usage indirectly through perceived ease of use. Perceived ease of use also influenced usage indirectly through perceived usefulness. The effect of commitment to change on immunization registry usage was insignificant. Understanding the variables that impact information system use in the context of public health can increase the likelihood that a system will be successfully implemented and used, consequently, positively impacting the health of the public. Variables studied should be adequate to provide sufficient information about the acceptance of a specified technology by end users.

  1. Informant Discrepancies in Adult Social Anxiety Disorder Assessments: Links With Contextual Variations in Observed Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Los Reyes, Andres; Bunnell, Brian E.; Beidel, Deborah C.

    2017-01-01

    Multi-informant assessments of adult psychopathology often result in discrepancies among informants’ reports. Among 157 adults meeting criteria for either the generalized (n = 106) or nongeneralized (n = 51) social anxiety disorder (SAD) subtype, we examined whether discrepancies between patients’ and clinicians’ reports of patients’ symptoms related to variations in both SAD subtype and expressions of social skills deficits across multiple social interaction tasks. Latent class analyses revealed two behavioral patterns: (a) context-specific social skills deficits and (b) cross-context social skills deficits. Similarly, patients’ symptom reports could be characterized by concordance or discordance with clinicians’ reports. Patient–clinician concordance on relatively high levels of patients’ symptoms related to an increased likelihood of the patient meeting criteria for the generalized relative to nongeneralized subtype. Further, patient–clinician concordance on relatively high levels of patients’ symptoms related to an increased likelihood of consistently exhibiting social skills deficits across social interaction tasks (relative to context-specific social skills deficits). These relations were robust in accounting for patient age, clinical severity, and Axis I and II comorbidity. Further, clinical severity did not completely explain variability in patients’ behavior on laboratory tasks or discrepancies between patient and clinician reports. Findings provide the first laboratory-based support for the ability of informant discrepancies to indicate cross-contextual variability in clinical adult assessments, and the first of any developmental period to indicate this for SAD assessments. These findings have important implications for clinical assessment and developmental psychopathology research. PMID:23421526

  2. Personal characteristics and contextual factors that determine "helping," "joining in," and "doing nothing" when witnessing cyberbullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Cleemput, Katrien; Vandebosch, Heidi; Pabian, Sara

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we investigated several determinants of bystanders' reactive behaviors when confronted with cyberbullying using self-reported data from 2,333 Flemish 9-16 year olds. Structural equation modeling showed that adolescents that had joined in on the cyberbullying were older, had lower levels of empathy and were more likely to have been involved in cyberbullying or traditional bullying as perpetrators. Adolescents who had helped the victim were younger, had higher levels of empathy and were more likely to have been a victim of cyberbullying or traditional bullying in the past months. Adolescents that did nothing when they witnessed cyberbullying, were also older, showed lower levels of empathy and were less likely to have been a victim of traditional bullying. Social anxiety was not related to joining in, helping and remaining passive. In the second part of the analysis, we found that bystanders' passive behavior could be explained in more detail by moral disengagement theory and other contextual factors. In the discussion, the implications of the findings for research on cyberbullying are addressed. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. The influence of visual contextual information on the emergence of the especial skill in basketball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöckel, Tino; Breslin, Gavin

    2013-10-01

    We examined whether basketball throwing performance in general and motor skill specificity from the free throw distance in particular are influenced by visual contextual information. Experienced basketball players (N = 36) performed basketball set shots at five distances from the basket. Of particular interest was the performance from the free throw distance (4.23 m), at which experienced basketball players are expected to show superior performance compared with nearby locations as a result of massive amounts of practice. Whereas a control group performed the shots on a regular basketball court, the distance between the rim and the free throw line was either increased or decreased by 30 cm in two experimental groups. Findings showed that only the control group had a superior performance from the free throw distance, and the experimental groups did not. Moreover, all groups performed more accurately from the perceived free throw line (independent of its location) compared with nearby locations. The findings suggest that visual context information influences the presence of specificity effects in experienced performers. The findings have theoretical implications for explaining the memory representation underlying the especial skill effect in basketball.

  4. Intrapersonal, interpersonal, and contextual risk factors for overprovision of partner support in marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, Rebecca L; Lawrence, Erika

    2014-02-01

    Recent research indicates that receiving too much support from one's spouse (i.e., overprovision of support) is actually more detrimental to marriage than not receiving enough support. The principal goal of the present study was to develop a novel framework for explaining the pathways through which couples experience overprovision of support in their marriages. Intrapersonal factors (anxious and avoidant attachment), interpersonal factors (conflict management and emotional intimacy), and contextual factors (stress originating outside of the marriage) were assessed during the transition into marriage as potential risk factors for experiencing higher levels of support overprovision during the first 5 years of marriage in a sample of 103 couples using growth curve analytic techniques. To the extent that (a) husbands were higher in avoidant attachment, (b) husbands reported greater chronic role strain, and (c) couples had lower levels of emotional intimacy, support overprovision was greater for both husbands and wives. In addition, emotional intimacy (lower levels) was a partial pathway through which husband avoidant attachment contributed to support overprovision. Finally, factors placing couples at risk for support overprovision in their marriages appear to be distinct from those increasing the risk for support underprovision. The potential for results to inform contemporary marital theories and marital preparation programs is discussed.

  5. Quantifying Contextual Interference and Its Effect on Skill Transfer in Skilled Youth Tennis Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Buszard

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The contextual interference effect is a well-established motor learning phenomenon. Most of the contextual interference effect literature has addressed simple skills, while less is known about the role of contextual interference in complex sport skill practice, particularly with respect to skilled performers. The purpose of this study was to assess contextual interference when practicing the tennis serve. Study 1 evaluated tennis serve practice of nine skilled youth tennis players using a novel statistical metric developed specifically to measure between-skill and within-skill variability as sources of contextual interference. This metric highlighted that skilled tennis players typically engaged in serve practice that featured low contextual interference. In Study 2, 16 skilled youth tennis players participated in 10 practice sessions that aimed to improve serving “down the T.” Participants were stratified into a low contextual interference practice group (Low CI and a moderate contextual interference practice group (Moderate CI. Pre- and post-tests were conducted 1 week before and 1 week after the practice period. Testing involved a skill test, which assessed serving performance in a closed setting, and a transfer test, which assessed serving performance in a match-play setting. No significant contextual interference differences were observed with respect to practice performance. However, analysis of pre- and post-test serve performance revealed significant Group × Time interactions. The Moderate CI group showed no change in serving performance (service displacement from the T from pre- to post-test in the skill test, but did display improvements in the transfer test. Conversely, the Low CI group improved serving performance (service displacement from the T in the skill test but not the transfer test. Results suggest that the typical contextual interference effect is less clear when practicing a complex motor skill, at least with the

  6. Quantifying Contextual Interference and Its Effect on Skill Transfer in Skilled Youth Tennis Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buszard, Tim; Reid, Machar; Krause, Lyndon; Kovalchik, Stephanie; Farrow, Damian

    2017-01-01

    The contextual interference effect is a well-established motor learning phenomenon. Most of the contextual interference effect literature has addressed simple skills, while less is known about the role of contextual interference in complex sport skill practice, particularly with respect to skilled performers. The purpose of this study was to assess contextual interference when practicing the tennis serve. Study 1 evaluated tennis serve practice of nine skilled youth tennis players using a novel statistical metric developed specifically to measure between-skill and within-skill variability as sources of contextual interference. This metric highlighted that skilled tennis players typically engaged in serve practice that featured low contextual interference. In Study 2, 16 skilled youth tennis players participated in 10 practice sessions that aimed to improve serving "down the T." Participants were stratified into a low contextual interference practice group (Low CI) and a moderate contextual interference practice group (Moderate CI). Pre- and post-tests were conducted 1 week before and 1 week after the practice period. Testing involved a skill test, which assessed serving performance in a closed setting, and a transfer test, which assessed serving performance in a match-play setting. No significant contextual interference differences were observed with respect to practice performance. However, analysis of pre- and post-test serve performance revealed significant Group × Time interactions. The Moderate CI group showed no change in serving performance (service displacement from the T) from pre- to post-test in the skill test, but did display improvements in the transfer test. Conversely, the Low CI group improved serving performance (service displacement from the T) in the skill test but not the transfer test. Results suggest that the typical contextual interference effect is less clear when practicing a complex motor skill, at least with the tennis serve skill

  7. Explaining religiosity: towards a unified theoretical model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolz, Jörg

    2009-06-01

    The article presents a unified theoretical model, explaining differences in Christian and 'alternative' religiosity at individual and collective levels. The model reconstructs and integrates the most important theories explaining religiosity (deprivation, regulation, socialization, cultural production, and ethnicity) as complementary causal mechanisms in a rational-action based framework. It is maintained that the mechanisms of the various theories are not exclusive, but complementary, and that integration into the general model is both theoretically and empirically beneficial. The model is tested on representative data from Switzerland. Substantively, I find for the Swiss case that Christian religiosity can be best explained by a religious socialization mechanism. The most important mechanisms accounting for alternative religiosity involve deprivation, gender, and age.

  8. Dental Treatment in a State-Funded Primary Dental Care Facility: Contextual and Individual Predictors of Treatment Need?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina L Wanyonyi

    of residence; adults from the most deprived quintile were more likely to receive 'tooth extraction' when compared with least deprived, and less likely to receive preventive 'instruction and advice' (p = 0.01.This is the first study to model patient management data from a state-funded dental service and show that individual and contextual factors predict common treatments received. Implications of this research include the importance of making provision for our aging population and ensuring that preventative care is available to all. Further research is required to explain the interaction of organisational and system policies, practitioner and patient perspectives on care and, thus, inform effective commissioning and provision of dental services.

  9. Contextual Learning Induces Dendritic Spine Clustering in Retrosplenial Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam C Frank

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Molecular and electrophysiological studies find convergent evidence suggesting that plasticity within a dendritic tree is not randomly dispersed, but rather clustered into functional groups. Further, results from in silico neuronal modeling show that clustered plasticity is able to increase storage capacity 45 times compared to dispersed plasticity. Recent in vivo work utilizing chronic 2-photon microscopy tested the clustering hypothesis and showed that repetitive motor learning is able to induce clustered addition of new dendritic spines on apical dendrites of L5 neurons in primary motor cortex; moreover, clustered spines were found to be more stable than non-clustered spines, suggesting a physiological role for spine clustering. To further test this hypothesis we used in vivo 2-photon imaging in Thy1-YFP-H mice to chronically examine dendritic spine dynamics in retrosplenial cortex (RSC during spatial learning. RSC is a key component of an extended spatial learning and memory circuit that includes hippocampus and entorhinal cortex. Importantly, RSC is known from both lesion and immediate early gene studies to be critically involved in spatial learning and more specifically in contextual fear conditioning. We utilized a modified contextual fear conditioning protocol wherein animals received a mild foot shock each day for five days; this protocol induces gradual increases in context freezing over several days before the animals reach a behavioral plateau. We coupled behavioral training with four separate in vivo imaging sessions, two before training begins, one early in training, and a final session after training is complete. This allowed us to image spine dynamics before training as well as early in learning and after animals had reached behavioral asymptote. We find that this contextual learning protocol induces a statistically significant increase in the formation of clusters of new dendritic spines in trained animals when compared to home

  10. Contextual and individual determinants of dental pain in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira-Júnior, Osmar Martins; Freire, Maria do Carmo Matias; Moreira, Rafael da Silveira; Costa, Luciane Rezende

    2015-08-01

    Despite growing interest on dental pain in children, there are very few studies on its prevalence and determinants among preschool children. The objective of this study was to assess prevalence of dental pain and associated individual and contextual factors in 5 year-old Brazilian children. This cross-sectional study used primary data from the 2010 National Survey of Oral Health, carried out in capital cities and a sample of country towns. Participants were 7280 5-year-olds, who were examined in their homes and whose parents answered a questionnaire. Dependent variable was report of dental pain in the last 6 months. Independent variables were contextual (city level) socioeconomic factors, and individual (child) sociodemographic and oral health-related variables. Data analysis included hierarchized Poisson regression models, using a multilevel approach and prevalence rate (PR) estimates. The prevalence of dental pain was 22.0% (95% CI 19.1-25.2). It was higher among those living in cities with lower human development index (PR 0.07; 95% CI 0.02-0.22) and with a higher percentage of their population with an incomplete primary education (PR 1.03; 95% CI 1.01-1.06). Indigenous children had prevalence of dental pain 1.97 times higher (95% CI 1.19-3.26) than those of white colour. Families with monthly incomes of U$ 218.00 or less and between U$ 219.00 and U$ 656.00 had, respectively, a prevalence of dental pain 2.67 (95% CI 1.33-5.32) and 2.11 (95% CI 1.03-4.32) times higher than families with highest income level. For each unit increase in the number of dwellers per bedroom, there was a 14% increase in the probability of having pain. Children with caries experience had a 3.45 (95% CI 2.58-4.62) higher prevalence of pain than caries-free individuals. Dental pain prevalence in Brazilian preschool children was high and influenced by contextual and individual factors. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Life Stress, Strain, and Deviance Across Schools: Testing the Contextual Version of General Strain Theory in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinwu; Liu, Jianhong; Wang, Xin; Zou, Anquan

    2017-08-01

    General Strain Theory delineates different types of strain and intervening processes from strain to deviance and crime. In addition to explaining individual strain-crime relationship, a contextualized version of general strain theory, which is called the Macro General Strain Theory, has been used to analyze how aggregate variables influence aggregate and individual deviance and crime. Using a sample of 1,852 students (Level 1) nested in 52 schools (Level 2), the current study tests the Macro General Strain Theory using Chinese data. The results revealed that aggregate life stress and strain have influences on aggregate and individual deviance, and reinforce the individual stress-deviance association. The current study contributes by providing the first Macro General Strain Theory test based on Chinese data and offering empirical evidence for the multilevel intervening processes from strain to deviance. Limitations and future research directions are discussed.

  12. From Research to Practice: A Framework for Contextualizing Teaching and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrose, Valerie K.; Davis, C. Amelia; Ziegler, Mary F.

    2013-01-01

    Developmental reading instructors are increasingly pressured to include real-world content in their curriculum to bring contextualized teaching and learning to life. The purpose of this practitioner-focused article is to tie knowledge about contextualized teaching and learning with classroom application techniques. We present a framework that…

  13. Control by Contextual Stimuli in Novel Second-Order Conditional Discriminations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Gonzalez, Luis Antonio; Martinez, Hector

    2007-01-01

    Eighteen undergraduates participated in studies designed to examine the factors that produce transfer of contextual functions to novel stimuli in second-order conditional discriminations. In Study 1, participants selected comparison B1 given sample A1 and comparison B2 given sample A2 in a matching-to-sample procedure. Contextual stimuli X1 or X2…

  14. Evidence for Hippocampus-Dependent Contextual Learning at Postnatal Day 17 in the Rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Jennifer A.; Burman, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    Long-term memory for fear of an environment (contextual fear conditioning) emerges later in development (postnatal day; PD 23) than long-term memory for fear of discrete stimuli (PD 17). As contextual, but not explicit cue, fear conditioning relies on the hippocampus; this has been interpreted as evidence that the hippocampus is not fully…

  15. Functional Contextualism: An Ideal Framework for Theory in Instructional Design and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reigeluth, Charles M.; An, Yun-Jo

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors comment on Eric Fox's description of functional contextualism which makes several contributions to instructional design and technology (IDT). They agree that functional contextualism does indeed provide some "theoretical clarity and philosophical cohesion," not just for constructivism, but also for understanding…

  16. Pembelajaran Materi Luas Permukaan Balok Dan Kubus Dengan Pendekatan Contextual Teaching and Learning (Ctl)

    OpenAIRE

    Farhatin, Dian

    2012-01-01

    Salah satu pendekatan pembelajaran yang dapat diterapkan dalam pembelajaran matematika adalah pendekatan contextual teaching learning (CTL). Pendekatan contextual teaching learning (CTL) mempunyai ciri-ciri diantaranya menggunakan masalah kontekstual, dengan menggunakan permasalahan kegiatan sehari-hari sebagai contoh, sehingga dapat memudahkan siswa dalam memecahkan permasalahan matematika untuk mendapatkan jawaban dari permasalahan yang ada. Dengan harapan siswa dapat lebih mengingat konsep...

  17. Comparison of Oral Reading Errors between Contextual Sentences and Random Words among Schoolchildren

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalid, Nursyairah Mohd; Buari, Noor Halilah; Chen, Ai-Hong

    2017-01-01

    This paper compares the oral reading errors between the contextual sentences and random words among schoolchildren. Two sets of reading materials were developed to test the oral reading errors in 30 schoolchildren (10.00±1.44 years). Set A was comprised contextual sentences while Set B encompassed random words. The schoolchildren were asked to…

  18. Post-Training Unilateral Amygdala Lesions Selectively Impair Contextual Fear Memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flavell, Charlotte R.; Lee, Jonathan L. C.

    2012-01-01

    The basolateral amygdala (BLA) and the dorsal hippocampus (dHPC) are both structures with key roles in contextual fear conditioning. During fear conditioning, it is postulated that contextual representations of the environment are formed in the hippocampus, which are then associated with foot shock in the amygdala. However, it is not known to what…

  19. Health, Quality of Life and Population Density: A Preliminary Study on "Contextualized" Quality of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassio, Omar; Rollero, Chiara; De Piccoli, Norma

    2013-01-01

    Quality of life concerns individual (physical and psychological health), interpersonal (social relationships) and contextual (environment) aspects, which are both subjective and objective. In considering contextual characteristics, empirical findings have demonstrated that people's relation to their living environment is a key issue for their…

  20. Leisure-Time Physical Activity in Elementary Schools: Analysis of Contextual Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Thomas L.; Crespo, Noe C.; Baquero, Barbara; Elder, John P.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Little is known about children's leisure-time physical activity (PA) at school and how it is associated with contextual variables. The purpose of this study was to objectively assess children's voluntary PA during 3 daily periods and examine modifiable contextual factors. Methods: We conducted SOPLAY (System for Observing Play and…

  1. A Pilot Study of a Functional Contextual Treatment for Bulimia Nervosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Drew A.; Simmons, Angela M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the initial development of a treatment for bulimia nervosa using a functional contextual treatment approach. Seven women (6 with a diagnosis of bulimia nervosa and 1 with a diagnosis of eating disorder not otherwise specified) completed 12 sessions of functional contextual treatment. Participants were assessed with the Eating…

  2. The Use of Contextual Learning to Teach Biochemistry to Dietetic Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macaulay, J. O.; Van Damme, M. -P.; Walker, K. Z.

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the use of contextualized and "blended" learning to teach biochemistry to dietetic students during the second year of their professional training in a 4-year undergraduate degree (Bachelor of Nutrition and Dietetics). Contextualized content was used to engage students and motivate them to learn biochemistry, which many…

  3. Personal and Contextual Influences on Township School Learners' Motivation and Self-Regulated Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geduld, Bernadette

    2017-01-01

    Learners' self-regulation, which includes motivational variables, is influenced by personal variables within learners themselves, as well as by contextual factors. A great deal of research has focused on personal variables in learners that influence their self-regulated behaviours; yet contextual influences that operate outside of formal schooling…

  4. Perceived Best Friend Delinquency Moderates the Link between Contextual Risk Factors and Juvenile Delinquency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fite, Paula; Preddy, Teresa; Vitulano, Michael; Elkins, Sara; Grassetti, Stevie; Wimsatt, Amber

    2012-01-01

    The current study evaluated the effects of contextual risk factors (i.e., negative life events and neighborhood problems) and perceived best friend delinquency on child self-reported delinquency. More specifically, the present study extended the literature by evaluating whether best friend delinquency moderated the effects of contextual risk…

  5. Multi-Level Model of Contextual Factors and Teachers' Assessment Practices: An Integrative Review of Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulmer, Gavin W.; Lee, Iris C. H.; Tan, Kelvin H. K.

    2015-01-01

    We present a multi-level model of contextual factors that may influence teachers' assessment practices, and use this model in a selected review of existing literature on teachers' assessment knowledge, views and conceptions with respect to these contextual factors. Adapting Kozma's model, we distinguish three levels of influence on teachers'…

  6. Differential Involvement of the Medial Prefrontal Cortex across Variants of Contextual Fear Conditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heroux, Nicholas A.; Robinson-Drummer, Patrese A.; Sanders, Hollie R.; Rosen, Jeffrey B.; Stanton, Mark E.

    2017-01-01

    The context preexposure facilitation effect (CPFE) is a contextual fear conditioning paradigm in which learning about the context, acquiring the context-shock association, and retrieving/expressing contextual fear are temporally dissociated into three distinct phases. In contrast, learning about the context and the context-shock association…

  7. Correlates of Parental Differential Treatment: Parental and Contextual Factors during Middle Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atzaba-Poria, Naama; Pike, Alison

    2008-01-01

    The current study examined whether parental and contextual risk factors contribute to mothers' and fathers' differential treatment (MDT/FDT) when accounting for sibling dyad characteristics. Also explored was whether family type (single mothers vs. 2 parents) moderated the links between the parental and contextual correlates and MDT. One hundred…

  8. The Formation of Conservation-Based Behaviour of Mechanical Engineering Students through Contextual Learning Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudarman; Djuniadi; Sutopo, Yeri

    2017-01-01

    This study was aimed to figure out: (1) the implementation of contextual learning approaches; (2) the learning outcome of conservation education using contextual approach on the internship program preparation class; (3) the conservation-based behaviour of the internship program participants; (4) the contribution of conservation education results…

  9. A Contextual Factors Framework to Inform Implementation and Evaluation of Public Health Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderkruik, Rachel; McPherson, Marianne E.

    2017-01-01

    Evaluating initiatives implemented across multiple settings can elucidate how various contextual factors may influence both implementation and outcomes. Understanding context is especially critical when the same program has varying levels of success across settings. We present a framework for evaluating contextual factors affecting an initiative…

  10. Chasing Moby Dick Across Every Sea and Ocean? Contextual Choices in Fighting Corruption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mungiu-Pippidi, Alina; Jensen, Mette Frisk

    2011-01-01

    Draft report commissioned by Norad, c/o ANKOR (the Anti-corruption Project) in cooperation with the Evaluation Department ("Contextual Choices for Results in Fighting Corruption", Referende number 1001232)......Draft report commissioned by Norad, c/o ANKOR (the Anti-corruption Project) in cooperation with the Evaluation Department ("Contextual Choices for Results in Fighting Corruption", Referende number 1001232)...

  11. Explaining dysfunctional effects of lexicographical communication

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Explaining Dysfunctional Effects of Lexicographical Communication. 61 part of the aim.El propositions relate directly to the observability and measur- ability of aim.El. They can be taken from education theory, for instance Bloom's revised taxonomy of educational objectives (cf. Anderson and Krathwohl. 2001).21. It is now ...

  12. Your Radiologist Explains Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Sponsored by Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA) Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info ... I’d like to talk with you about magnetic resonance angiography, or as it’s commonly known, MRA. ...

  13. Your Radiologist Explains Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Recently posted: Carotid Intima-Media Thickness Test Medical Imaging Costs Video: Abdominal Ultrasound Video: Pelvic Ultrasound Radiology and You Take our survey Sponsored by Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA) Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot ...

  14. Your Radiologist Explains Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Sponsored by Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA) Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot org ... I’d like to talk with you about magnetic resonance angiography, or as it’s commonly known, MRA. MRA is ...

  15. Your Radiologist Explains Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sponsored by Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA) Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot org ... I’d like to talk with you about magnetic resonance angiography, or as it’s commonly known, MRA. MRA is ...

  16. Explaining Violence in Sierra Leone's Civil War

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Explaining the violence of civil war is never a simple task for the scholar. In the case of the Sierra Leone, paradoxically, the task has in some ways been rendered more difficult by the sheer variety of compelling scholarship on the question. This paper seeks to identify the most useful of the explanations offered thus far, and ...

  17. Explaining the Sex Difference in Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnett, Anne B.; Pennington, Bruce F.; Peterson, Robin L.; Willcutt, Erik G.; DeFries, John C.; Olson, Richard K.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Males are diagnosed with dyslexia more frequently than females, even in epidemiological samples. This may be explained by greater variance in males' reading performance. Methods: We expand on previous research by rigorously testing the variance difference theory, and testing for mediation of the sex difference by cognitive correlates.…

  18. Explaining the VET Applied Research Developmental Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Linda; Beddie, Francesca M.

    2017-01-01

    This document explains the VET Applied Research Developmental Framework, created as part of a project that explored how the vocational education and training (VET) sector could broaden its engagement in Australia's research and development (R&D) and innovation systems. Achieving this engagement will rely significantly on building the…

  19. How Employees Remain Happy: Explaining a Paradox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutton, Dorothy M.; Atkinson, Barbara; Judd, Priya; Darling, Julie; Tran, Linh; Cummins, Robert A.

    2004-01-01

    This paper draws on subjective quality of life theory to explain findings from three studies of quality of work life. The studies were conducted with 346 regional process workers, metropolitan employment officers and nurses. The results support the adoption of the theory of homeostasis as an explanation for findings on subjective wellbeing at work…

  20. Explaining convergence of oecd welfare states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmitt, C.; Starke, Peter

    2011-01-01

    of conditional convergence helps to both better describe and explain the phenomenon. By applying error correction models, we examine conditional convergence of various types of social expenditure in 21 OECD countries between 1980 and 2005. Our empirical findings go beyond the existing literature in two respects...

  1. Measuring and explaining house price developments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vries, P.

    2010-01-01

    This study discusses ways of measuring and explaining the development of house prices. The goal of the research underpinning this dissertation was to develop a methodological framework for studying these developments. This framework relates, first, to correcting for changes in the composition of

  2. Explaining quality of life with crisis theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sprangers, M.A.G.; van den Heuvel, W.J.A.; de Haes, H.C.J.M.

    2002-01-01

    Based on the premises of crisis theory. we expected cancer patients in-crisis to report a poorer quality of life (QL) and cancer patients post-crisis to report a similar level of overall QL in comparison to healthy individuals. To explain these hypothesized findings, we expected the coping resources

  3. Your Radiologist Explains Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Radiology (IDoR) Radiology and You Sponsored by Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA) ... Carotid Intima-Media Thickness Test Medical Imaging Costs Video: Abdominal Ultrasound Video: Pelvic Ultrasound November 8 is ...

  4. Compositional and contextual predictors for emotional problems among adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meilstrup, Charlotte; Ersbøll, Annette Kjær; Nielsen, Line

    years from a random sample of Danish schools. Students answered a questionnaire including mental health and the classroom environment. The outcome measure emotional problems was defined as daily presence of at least one of four symptoms: feeling low; irritable or bad tempered; feeling nervous and having......Background A large proportion of adolescents suffer from emotional problems and great variation is observed across schools. To what degree these variations are caused by compositional or contextual predictors is unknown. Objectives The objectives of this presentation is to identify factors...... and conditions at the individual-, classroom- and school level that are associated with students´ experiences of emotional problems. Methods Data come from the Danish contribution to the international Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study in 2010 and include 4,922 students aged 11, 13 and 15...

  5. Environmental and contextual influences on school violence and its prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culley, Marci R; Conkling, Martha; Emshoff, James; Blakely, Craig; Gorman, Dennis

    2006-05-01

    School violence has received unprecedented attention in recent years, particularly since the infamous events unfolded in Littleton, Colorado at Columbine High School. For many Americans, such events were not imagined possible while for others, they confirmed the need for urgent and careful examination of the nature and scope of school violence. It appears, however, that school violence research has been relegated to the individual level of analysis. In this introduction to the special issue about the environmental and contextual factors related to school violence, the authors examine what we know about school violence, how school violence has been addressed, and argue that environmental factors must be part of research and intervention in this area. Finally, the contributions of the articles included in this special issue are discussed.

  6. Geospatial and Contextual Approaches to Energy Balance and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrigan, David; Hipp, J Aaron; Hurvitz, Philip M; James, Peter; Jankowska, Marta M; Kerr, Jacqueline; Laden, Francine; Leonard, Tammy; McKinnon, Robin A; Powell-Wiley, Tiffany M; Tarlov, Elizabeth; Zenk, Shannon N

    In the past 15 years, a major research enterprise has emerged that is aimed at understanding associations between geographic and contextual features of the environment (especially the built environment) and elements of human energy balance, including diet, weight, and physical activity. Here we highlight aspects of this research area with a particular focus on research and opportunities in the United States as an example. We address four main areas: 1) The importance of valid and comparable data concerning behavior across geographies, 2) The ongoing need to identify and explore new environmental variables, 3) The challenge of identifying the causally relevant context, and 4) The pressing need for stronger study designs and analytical methods. Additionally, we discuss existing sources of geo-referenced health data which might be exploited by interdisciplinary research teams, personnel challenges and some aspects of funding for geospatial research by the US National Institutes of Health in the past decade, including funding for international collaboration and training opportunities.

  7. Arguing for a Contextual Approach to European Media Education Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Martens

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we focus on how various historical, contextual, and idiosyncratic factors shape the aims and methods of current European media educational practice. We start by briefly situating the history of European media education research and policymaking. We then discuss in more detail three important strands of media literacy initiatives within the Flemish Community (Belgium. While each of these diverging types of media education partly mirrors broader trends in European media research and policymaking, their aims and instructional methods also reveal the specificity of the Flemish media literacy context. In our discussion, we draw upon these findings to pinpoint a number of key determinants which may help to better understand similarities and differences within the European Union.

  8. Pharmacognosy in the digital era: shifting to contextualized metabolomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allard, Pierre-Marie; Bisson, Jonathan; Azzollini, Antonio; Pauli, Guido F; Cordell, Geoffrey A; Wolfender, Jean-Luc

    2018-02-27

    Humans have co-evolved alongside numerous other organisms, some having a profound effect on health and nutrition. As the earliest pharmaceutical subject, pharmacognosy has evolved into a meta-discipline devoted to natural biomedical agents and their functional properties. While the acquisition of expanding data volumes is ongoing, contextualization is lagging. Thus, we assert that the establishment of an integrated and open databases ecosystem will nurture the discipline. After proposing an epistemological framework of knowledge acquisition in pharmacognosy, this study focuses on recent computational and analytical approaches. It then elaborates on the flux of research data, where good practices could foster the implementation of more integrated systems, which will in turn help shaping the future of pharmacognosy and determine its constitutional societal relevance. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Ego boundary as process: a systemic-contextual approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polster, S

    1983-08-01

    This paper examines the ego boundary construct, outlining its origin and development within psychoanalytic theory and demonstrating the ways in which its interpretation and use have been affected and circumscribed by the structural model upon which psychoanalytic theory is based. In particular, I will discuss the sequence of reasoning by which the construct boundary became synonymous with barrier at the expense of consideration of its role in maintaining contact and exchange with the world. The contributions and limitations of the mathematical model of Kurt Lewin are also discussed. An alternative systemic-contextual model is proposed, a model which describes boundary not as barrier but as dialectical processes of separation and inclusion which mediate a person's complex relationship with the world.

  10. Contextualizing the sacred in the Hellenistic and Roman Near East

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    literary tradition, but when seen through the lens of contextualization, the material and textual evidence brings forward new narratives about the great variations in worship, myths, and identities, as well as the different religious systems of the region and of the people inhabiting it. The contributions......The study of religion and religious identities in the Hellenistic and Roman Near East has been a focus within archaeology and ancient history for centuries. Yet the transition between the Hellenistic and Roman period remains difficult to grasp from the archaeological and epigraphic evidence....... This volume brings together contributions by leading scholars working on religious identity and religion in the Hellenistic and Roman periods in the Roman Near East. For this volume they have been asked to address a variety of questions concerning religion, religious development, and religious identities from...

  11. Contextual Teaching and Learning Approach of Mathematics in Primary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvianiresa, D.; Prabawanto, S.

    2017-09-01

    The Contextual Teaching and Learning (CTL) approach is an approach involving active students in the learning process to discover the concepts learned through to knowledge and experience of the students. Similar to Piaget’s opinion that learning gives students an actives trying to do new things by relating their experiences and building their own minds. When students to connecting mathematics with real life, then students can looking between a conceptual to be learned with a concept that has been studied. So that, students can developing of mathematical connection ability. This research is quasi experiment with a primary school in the city of Kuningan. The result showed that CTL learning can be successful, when learning used a collaborative interaction with students, a high level of activity in the lesson, a connection to real-world contexts, and an integration of science content with other content and skill areas. Therefore, CTL learning can be applied by techer to mathematics learning in primary schools.

  12. Contextual factors and challenges to e-health literacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolanle A. Olaniran

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We live in a digital world or digital era. Hence, People will argue that not only do information communication technologies (ICTs make e-health possible but rather that it is an innovation advance whose time has come. Notwithstanding, e-health while hoping to create well needed improvement in health care, it is rife with certain challenges which are not limited to e-health literacy. However, this paper looks specifically at e-health literacy. The paper, in particular overviews e-health while addressing the impacts of key contextual factors that impacts e-health and e-health literacy regarding the propensity to adopt and use e-health in LEDCs.

  13. The complete Heyting algebra of subsystems and contextuality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vourdas, A. [Department of Computing, University of Bradford, Bradford BD7 1DP (United Kingdom)

    2013-08-15

    The finite set of subsystems of a finite quantum system with variables in Z(n), is studied as a Heyting algebra. The physical meaning of the logical connectives is discussed. It is shown that disjunction of subsystems is more general concept than superposition. Consequently, the quantum probabilities related to commuting projectors in the subsystems, are incompatible with associativity of the join in the Heyting algebra, unless if the variables belong to the same chain. This leads to contextuality, which in the present formalism has as contexts, the chains in the Heyting algebra. Logical Bell inequalities, which contain “Heyting factors,” are discussed. The formalism is also applied to the infinite set of all finite quantum systems, which is appropriately enlarged in order to become a complete Heyting algebra.

  14. Mathematical Critical Thinking Ability Through Contextual Teaching And Learning Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurniati

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to examine the effect of the application of contextual teaching and learning (CTL approach to the enhance of mathematical critical thinking ability (MCTA of Primary School Teacher Students (PSTS. This research is an experimental study with the population of all students PSTS who took algebra subject matter of one university in the city of Bogor. The results showed: (1 the increase of MCTA of student who receive CTL better than students who receive TTL; (2 There are differences in the increase MCTA between students in groups of high MPA, medium MPA, and low MPA, both the student who received the CTL and TTL; and (3 There is no interaction between learning factors (CTL and TTL with MPA (high, medium and low toward the enhance of MCTA.

  15. DC circuits: I. Evidence for fine grained contextual dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, lgnatius; Allie, Saalih

    2017-01-01

    This is the first part of a broader study, exploring the contextual variations of the responses of 149 first year (non-physics major) university students at two South African universities in Cape Town. The data analysis was done in terms of the (i) forced choice responses (FCR), (ii) free written responses and (iii) personal interviews. This paper presents the development of the instrument (aspects of circuits questionnaire, or ACQ) used in the exploratory study and the results obtained from the FCR analysis of 60 students. The results showed that the student responses are triggered by the context framed by the questions and the results obtained from investigations using light bulbs cannot be generalised and may be reinterpreted. This article was extracted from the PhD thesis submitted to Faculty of Science, University of Cape Town.

  16. Construction of state-independent proofs for quantum contextuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Weidong; Yu, Sixia

    2017-12-01

    Since the enlightening proofs of quantum contextuality first established by Kochen and Specker, and also by Bell, various simplified proofs have been constructed to exclude the noncontextual hidden variable theory of our nature at the microscopic scale. The conflict between the noncontextual hidden variable theory and quantum mechanics is commonly revealed by Kochen-Specker sets of yes-no tests, represented by projectors (or rays), via either logical contradictions or noncontextuality inequalities in a state-(in)dependent manner. Here we propose a systematic and programmable construction of a state-independent proof from a given set of nonspecific rays in C3 according to their Gram matrix. This approach brings us a greater convenience in the experimental arrangements. Besides, our proofs in C3 can also be generalized to any higher-dimensional systems by a recursive method.

  17. Contextual Aspects of Smart City Energy Systems Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thellufsen, Jakob Zinck

    The thesis defines the concept of smart city energy systems. The thesis emphasises the need to investigate the smart city energy system and two contextual aspects. The system integration context and the geographical context. The system integration context emphasises that increased interrelation...... between the different energy sectors increases the efficiency of the system. However, it also impacts the implementation of single technologies in the smart city energy system. The thesis discusses methods and tools to assess the system integration context. Smart cities, and other concepts for urban...... development, often strives towards some sort of sustainability target. However, to consider a city and the smart city energy system sustainable, they cannot limit other energy systems from becoming sustainable. It is therefore necessary to investigate the geographical context. This thesis develops tools...

  18. Geospatial and Contextual Approaches to Energy Balance and Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrigan, David; Hipp, J. Aaron; Hurvitz, Philip M.; James, Peter; Jankowska, Marta M.; Kerr, Jacqueline; Laden, Francine; Leonard, Tammy; McKinnon, Robin A.; Powell-Wiley, Tiffany M.; Tarlov, Elizabeth; Zenk, Shannon N.

    2016-01-01

    In the past 15 years, a major research enterprise has emerged that is aimed at understanding associations between geographic and contextual features of the environment (especially the built environment) and elements of human energy balance, including diet, weight, and physical activity. Here we highlight aspects of this research area with a particular focus on research and opportunities in the United States as an example. We address four main areas: 1) The importance of valid and comparable data concerning behavior across geographies, 2) The ongoing need to identify and explore new environmental variables, 3) The challenge of identifying the causally relevant context, and 4) The pressing need for stronger study designs and analytical methods. Additionally, we discuss existing sources of geo-referenced health data which might be exploited by interdisciplinary research teams, personnel challenges and some aspects of funding for geospatial research by the US National Institutes of Health in the past decade, including funding for international collaboration and training opportunities. PMID:27076868

  19. Contextualizing group rape in post-apartheid South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Kate

    2005-01-01

    Collective male sexual violence is part of a continuum of sexual coercion in South Africa. This paper is based on long-term ethnographic work in an urban township in the former Transkei region. Drawing on intensive participant observation and interviews with young men in particular, it attempts to make sense of emergent narratives relating to streamlining, a local term for a not uncommon form of collective sexual coercion involving a group of male friends and one or more women. The paper begins with an overview of existing anthropological literature on collective male sexual violence, going onto elaborate the different scenarios associated with group sexual violence in the fieldsite. It seeks to provide a multi-layered contextualization of the phenomenon by considering prevailing gender discourses, subcultural issues pertaining to the urban tsotsi phenomenon, the rural practice of ukuthwala (bride capture), young working-class Africans' experiences of marginalization, and the complex links between political economy and violence in this setting.

  20. Contextualizing Informal Labeling Effect on Adolescent Recidivism in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jonathan

    2017-08-01

    Symbolic interactionism argues that the effect of informal labeling by general others, such as family and friends, on behavior depends on the social context under which labeling takes place. Despite abundant research on informal labeling, little effort has been made to contextualize its impact on adolescent reoffending. Also, compared with other theories, only a few studies have been conducted among youths in Asian population. Using three consecutive waves of self-reported survey data from a nationally representative sample of 2,406 Korean adolescents, this study examined an interactional model for the informal labeling effect. Findings suggest that informal labeling, as well as school commitment and delinquent peer association, has an independent effect on delinquency. Also supported is the symbolic interactionist hypothesis that adolescents with greater involvement in delinquent subcultures were less susceptible to informal labeling. Implications of the findings are discussed.

  1. Explaining attitudes about homosexuality in Confucian and non-Confucian nations: is there a 'cultural' influence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, Amy; Cheng, Yen-hsin Alice

    2015-05-01

    The majority of research on attitudes about homosexuality has concentrated on the global North and on Christian and Muslim majority nations. Little research attention has been given to the factors that shape tolerance in societies with a Confucian heritage. Residents of Confucian counties are less tolerant than Europeans and Americans. One reason given for this difference is the emphasis on Confucian values in many Asian societies. Using data from the World Values Survey, we examine whether values that could be described as Confucian influence attitudes in Confucian and non-Confucian nations. We find a unique Confucian cultural effect, which can partially be explained with concerns about keeping the family intact. Conversely, in Confucian societies values related to obedience, conformity, and filial piety are unrelated to attitudes. There is also a small Buddhist contextual effect, resulting in more tolerant attitudes, and the Confucian influence cannot be reduced to an Asian regional effect. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. A comparative perspective on intermarriage: explaining differences among national-origin groups in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmijn, Matthijs; van Tubergen, Frank

    2010-05-01

    Little is known about the validity of group-level theories of ethnic intermarriage despite the fact that such theories are often invoked in explaining why certain ethnic groups are "closed," whereas others are relatively "open." We develop a comparative perspective by analyzing the marriage choices of 94 national-origin groups in the United States, using pooled data from the Current Population Surveys, 1994-2006, and multilevel models in which individual and contextual determinants of intermarriage are included simultaneously. Our analyses show large differences in endogamy across groups. After taking compositional effects into account, we find that both structural and cultural group-level factors have significant effects on endogamy. Cultural explanations (which focus on the role of norms and preferences) play a more important role than structural explanations (which focus on meeting and mating opportunities). Our results reinforce the common but untested interpretation of endogamy in terms of group boundaries.

  3. Contextualizing critical care family needs through triangulation: an Australian study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burr, G

    1998-08-01

    Family needs and concerns within the critical care context have been thoroughly explored from the quantitative perspective utilizing the Critical Care Family Needs Inventory (CCFNI). Nursing interventions have been designed on the basis of the findings from these studies. However, while the CCFNI would seem to encompass all the possible needs of families with a critically ill loved one, at no time were the family members themselves consulted at length in regard to the development of the instrument, or in any subsequent validation studies. Individual reality generates the variables that are measured in a needs analysis, and the family member experiences encompass dimensions that are not easily assessed by quantification. In fact the unique experiences of family members underpin their perception of need. Methodological triangulation formed the basis for this study to determine the degree of confirmation (or otherwise) between family member respondents to the CCFNI (n = 105) and those participating in an interview (n = 26) designed to explore needs and experiences. The qualitative data served the purpose of completeness by providing a more contextual representation of needs and therefore greater depth of understanding of the whole construct. The results indicate that, while there were many areas of convergence between the two samples, there were also areas of diveregence. Two major needs emerged from the interviews that are not represented on the CCFNI: the need of family members to provide reassurance and support to the patient; and their need to protect (others as well as the patient). A more complete understanding of family needs was obtained through the contextualization of their experiences.

  4. Individual and contextual factors associated to smoking on school premises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galán, Iñaki; Díez-Gañán, Lucía; Mata, Nelva; Gandarillas, Ana; Cantero, José Luis; Durbán, María

    2012-04-01

    Despite regulations, tobacco consumption in schools is still very common. The objective was to evaluate the relationship of personal, family, and school-level contextual factors with smoking on school premises. A representative survey was undertaken of students in the 4th year of secondary education in the Madrid region (Spain), including 79 schools and 3,622 individuals. The student questionnaire gathered information about personal and family variables. The contextual factors were type of school, perception of compliance with the law, smoking policy, existence of complaints against smoking, and undertaking of educational activities regarding smoking. Analysis was carried out in the smoking population (n = 1,179) using multilevel logistic regression models. During the last 30 days, 50.6% of smokers had smoked on school premises. Having a father with a university education (in comparison with fathers who have not attained any educational level) reduces this probability (odds ratio [OR]: 0.43; 95% CI: 0.19-0.96), whereas smoking a larger number of cigarettes (p probability is reduced when there is no parental permission to smoke (OR: 0.66; 95% CI: 0.43-1.01) and is lower both in nonsubsidized private schools (OR: 0.29; 95% CI: 0.12-0.67) and in state subsidized private schools (OR: 0.17; 95% CI: 0.09-0.34) than in public schools. A very low level of educational attainment by the father, smoking a higher number of cigarettes, as well as illicit drug consumption, low academic achievement, having parental permission to smoke, and attending public schools are all related to a higher probability of smoking on school premises.

  5. Contextual assessment in science education: Background, issues, and policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klassen, Stephen

    2006-09-01

    Contemporary assessment practices in science education have undergone significant changes in recent decades. The basis for these changes and the resulting new assessment practices are the subject of this two-part paper. Part 1 considers the basis of assessment that, more than 25 years ago, was driven by the assumptions of decomposability and decontextualization of knowledge, resulting in a low-inference testing system, often described as traditional. This assessment model was replaced not on account of direct criticism, but rather on account of a larger revolution - the change from behavioral to cognitive psychology, developments in the philosophy of science, and the rise of constructivism. Most notably, the study of the active cognitive processes of the individual resulted in a major emphasis on context in learning and assessment. These changes gave rise to the development of various contextual assessment methodologies in science education, for example, concept mapping assessment, performance assessment, and portfolio assessment. In Part 2, the literature relating to the assessment methods identified in Part 1 is reviewed, revealing that there is not much research that supports their validity and reliability. However, encouraging new work on selected-response tests is forming the basis for reconsideration of past criticisms of this technique. Despite the major developments in contextual assessment methodologies in science education, two important questions remain unanswered, namely, whether grades can be considered as genuine numeric quantities and whether the individual student is the appropriate unit of assessment in public accountability. Given these issues and the requirement for science assessment to satisfy the goals of the individual, the classroom, and the society, tentative recommendations are put forward addressing these parallel needs in the assessment of science learning.

  6. Contextual body image and athletes' disordered eating: the contribution of athletic body image to disordered eating in high performance women athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruin, A P Karin; Oudejans, Raôul R D; Bakker, Frank C; Woertman, Liesbeth

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated the contribution of a contextual body image perspective to understanding disordered eating in high performance women athletes. Because existing questionnaires were not suitable for measuring body image in the contexts of sport and daily life, we developed the 'Contextual Body Image Questionnaire for Athletes' (CBIQA) in which body image is divided into 'appearance', 'muscularity', 'thin-fat self-evaluations' and 'thin-fat perceived opinions of others', in both contexts. In Study 1, the internal validity and reliability of this questionnaire was established in a general, heterogeneous sample of female sport participants and exercisers. In Study 2, the external validity was determined in a sample of 52 high performance women athletes who mainly participated in aesthetic or endurance sports, 19 of which were classified with and 33 without disordered eating. The results of Study 2 showed that both 'thin-fat self' and 'thin-fat opinions of others' in sport made significant unique contributions to explaining eating disorder variance, indicating the important role of athletic body image. In conclusion, the contextual body image approach seems to be a promising framework for a better understanding of athletes' disordered eating. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  7. The impact of invisible illness on identity and contextual age across the life span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundrat, Amanda L; Nussbaum, Jon F

    2003-01-01

    This study explored the impact invisible illness has on identity, specifically contextual age, throughout the life span. It was grounded in the assumption that an individual's identity is formed through communicative interaction. Using social identity theory (Tajfel & Turner, 1986) as a framework, individuals' identities after disclosure of invisible illness were explored. Rubin and Rubin's (1986) Contextual Age Questionnaire was used to determine self-perceived as well as other-perceived contextual age. Invisibly ill individuals reported significantly "higher" contextual age scores than did same chronologically aged, matched non-ill individuals. In addition, the friends of invisibly ill individuals reported "higher" contextual age scores for the invisibly ill individuals than the self-reported scores of the same chronologically aged non-ill individuals. Interviews further revealed that illness instilled insight and that disclosure of illness provoked comments from others that led invisibly ill individuals to identify with older individuals. Future directions and limitations of this study are also discussed.

  8. Identifying Contextual Factors of Employee Satisfaction of Performance Management at a Thai State Enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molraudee Saratun

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Although there has been an increase in Performance Management (PM literature over the years arguing that PM perceptions are likely to be a function of PM process components and contextual factors, the actual relationship between the contextual factors and employee satisfaction of PM remains little explored. Extending previous research, this study examines relationships between contextual factors and employees’ PM satisfaction. Derived from the literature, these contextual factors are motivation and empowerment of employees, role conflict, role ambiguity, perceived or- ganisational support, procedural justice and distributive justice. Seven directional hypotheses are tested accordingly through a series of regression analyses. This article finds that these contextual factors, with the exception of role conflict, are directly predictive of enhanced employees’ PM satis- faction at the Thai state enterprise.

  9. What Explains Child Malnutrition of Indigenous People of Northeast India?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinachandra Singh, Konsam; Alagarajan, Manoj; Ladusingh, Laishram

    2015-01-01

    Household risk factors affecting child health, particularly malnutrition, are mainly basic amenities like drinking water, toilet facility, housing and fuel used for cooking. This paper considered the collective impact of basic amenities measured by an index specially constructed as the contextual factor of child malnutrition. The contextual factor operates at both the macro and micro levels namely the state level and the household level. The importance of local contextual factors is especially important when studying the nutritional status of children of indigenous people living in remote and inaccessible regions. This study has shown the contextual factors as potential factors of malnutrition among children in northeast India, which is home to the largest number of tribes in the country. In terms of macro level contextual factor it has been found that 8.9 per cent, 3.7 per cent and 3.6 per cent of children in high, medium and low risk households respectively, are severely wasted. Lower micro level household health risks, literate household heads, and scheduled tribe households have a negating effect on child malnutrition. Children who received colostrum feeding at the time of birth and those who were vaccinated against measles are also less subject to wasting compared to other children, and these differences are statistically significant.

  10. What Explains Child Malnutrition of Indigenous People of Northeast India?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konsam Dinachandra Singh

    Full Text Available Household risk factors affecting child health, particularly malnutrition, are mainly basic amenities like drinking water, toilet facility, housing and fuel used for cooking. This paper considered the collective impact of basic amenities measured by an index specially constructed as the contextual factor of child malnutrition. The contextual factor operates at both the macro and micro levels namely the state level and the household level. The importance of local contextual factors is especially important when studying the nutritional status of children of indigenous people living in remote and inaccessible regions. This study has shown the contextual factors as potential factors of malnutrition among children in northeast India, which is home to the largest number of tribes in the country. In terms of macro level contextual factor it has been found that 8.9 per cent, 3.7 per cent and 3.6 per cent of children in high, medium and low risk households respectively, are severely wasted. Lower micro level household health risks, literate household heads, and scheduled tribe households have a negating effect on child malnutrition. Children who received colostrum feeding at the time of birth and those who were vaccinated against measles are also less subject to wasting compared to other children, and these differences are statistically significant.

  11. Contextualization and interdisciplinarity in chemistry teaching in Brazil

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Brazil, a new law dedicated to the establishment of the policy and bases of national education (law 9.394/1996) was published in 1996. Then with the publication, in 1999, of the National Curricular Parameters for High School Teaching in Brazil, modifications in the chemistry teaching that should be promoted by a ...

  12. Theory derivation: adaptation of a contextual model of health related quality of life to rural cancer survivors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pedro, Leli

    2010-01-01

    ...) in rural cancer survivors has not emerged. In this paper, Walker and Avant's theory derivation procedures are used to adapt Ashing-Giwa's Contextual Model of HRQOL, the parent Model, to incorporate rurality into the Model's contextual dimensions...

  13. A Model of How Different Biology Experts Explain Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Caleb M.; Anderson, Trevor R.; Pelaez, Nancy J.

    2015-01-01

    Constructing explanations is an essential skill for all science learners. The goal of this project was to model the key components of expert explanation of molecular and cellular mechanisms. As such, we asked: What is an appropriate model of the components of explanation used by biology experts to explain molecular and cellular mechanisms? Do explanations made by experts from different biology subdisciplines at a university support the validity of this model? Guided by the modeling framework of R. S. Justi and J. K. Gilbert, the validity of an initial model was tested by asking seven biologists to explain a molecular mechanism of their choice. Data were collected from interviews, artifacts, and drawings, and then subjected to thematic analysis. We found that biologists explained the specific activities and organization of entities of the mechanism. In addition, they contextualized explanations according to their biological and social significance; integrated explanations with methods, instruments, and measurements; and used analogies and narrated stories. The derived methods, analogies, context, and how themes informed the development of our final MACH model of mechanistic explanations. Future research will test the potential of the MACH model as a guiding framework for instruction to enhance the quality of student explanations. PMID:25999313

  14. Epigenetic Modifications and Diabetic Retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renu A. Kowluru

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic retinopathy remains one of the most debilitating chronic complications, but despite extensive research in the field, the exact mechanism(s responsible for how retina is damaged in diabetes remains ambiguous. Many metabolic pathways have been implicated in its development, and genes associated with these pathways are altered. Diabetic environment also facilitates epigenetics modifications, which can alter the gene expression without permanent changes in DNA sequence. The role of epigenetics in diabetic retinopathy is now an emerging area, and recent work has shown that genes encoding mitochondrial superoxide dismutase (Sod2 and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9 are epigenetically modified, activates of epigenetic modification enzymes, histone lysine demethylase 1 (LSD1, and DNA methyltransferase are increased, and the micro RNAs responsible for regulating nuclear transcriptional factor and VEGF are upregulated. With the growing evidence of epigenetic modifications in diabetic retinopathy, better understanding of these modifications has potential to identify novel targets to inhibit this devastating disease. Fortunately, the inhibitors and mimics targeted towards histone modification, DNA methylation, and miRNAs are now being tried for cancer and other chronic diseases, and better understanding of the role of epigenetics in diabetic retinopathy will open the door for their possible use in combating this blinding disease.

  15. From 'bio-what?' to 'bio-watt'. Contextual influences on the formation of attitudes towards novel energy technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van den Hoogen, W.M.

    2007-06-27

    Seven experiments are presented in which the contextual influences on the evaluation of the use of biomass for the generation of electricity are investigated. People's evaluations of novel objects are likely to be influenced by attitudes towards other, related, objects and are susceptible to associations accessible at the time of evaluation of these novel objects. Importantly, the sensitivity to such temporarily activated information has been found to depend on the strength of the attitudes. Strong attitudes are therefore expected to be less susceptible to temporarily activated information than weak attitudes. In Chapter 2 the question whether attitude strength moderates the contextual influence on the evaluation of biomass is addressed. In Chapters 3, 4, and 5 the processes influencing the direction of context effects are explained. In Chapter 3 two experiments are described in which the influence of perceived similarity between the context and target on the direction of context effects is investigated. In Chapter 4 two experiments are described that were conducted to investigate the effects of distinctness of the contextual information on the direction of context effects. In addition, the dependency of the processes underlying assimilation and contrast on cognitive capacity are investigated. In Chapter 5 two experiments are described in which the processes that influence the direction of context effects on the evaluation of novel objects are further investigated. These experiments were set up to distinguish between correction and comparison processes as both of which have previously been found to result in contrast. Finally, in Chapter 6 the findings of the experiments are discussed, as well as the implications of the findings for the assumed processes underlying contextual influences on the evaluation of novel objects. Additionally, the implications of our findings for the acceptance of innovations are discussed.

  16. Children's Theories and the Drive to Explain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwitzgebel, Eric

    Debate has been growing in developmental psychology over how much the cognitive development of children is like theory change in science. Useful debate on this topic requires a clear understanding of what it would be for a child to have a theory. I argue that existing accounts of theories within philosophy of science and developmental psychology either are less precise than is ideal for the task or cannot capture everyday theorizing of the sort that children, if they theorize, must do. I then propose an account of theories that ties theories and explanation very closely together, treating theories primarily as products of a drive to explain. I clarify some of the positions people have taken regarding the theory theory of development, and I conclude by proposing that psychologists interested in the ''theory theory'' look for patterns of affect and arousal in development that would accompany the existence of a drive to explain.

  17. Explaining money creation by commercial banks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Ib

    2015-01-01

    Educators and economists concerned with monetary reform face the extraordinary challenge of explaining to the public and its elected representatives not only what a reformed system would look like, but also how the current system works. Centrally, the point that in a modern economy money is largely...... created by commercial banks, as explained by the Bank of England recently (McLeay, Radia & Thomas, 2014b), is often met with incredulity: “What do you mean, created?” This paper introduces five easy-to-grasp analogies that educators and reformers may use to convey key money-creation concepts to a lay...... audience. The analogies offered include (1) money as patches in an expandable patchwork quilt that covers a nation’s real assets, (2) the money supply as water in a bathtub with a faucet and a drain, (3) money understood as debt in a model economy run by schoolchildren, (4) the misleading concept of a bank...

  18. Drug detoxification dynamics explain the postantibiotic effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srimani, Jaydeep K; Huang, Shuqiang; Lopatkin, Allison J; You, Lingchong

    2017-10-23

    The postantibiotic effect (PAE) refers to the temporary suppression of bacterial growth following transient antibiotic treatment. This effect has been observed for decades for a wide variety of antibiotics and microbial species. However, despite empirical observations, a mechanistic understanding of this phenomenon is lacking. Using a combination of modeling and quantitative experiments, we show that the PAE can be explained by the temporal dynamics of drug detoxification in individual cells after an antibiotic is removed from the extracellular environment. These dynamics are dictated by both the export of the antibiotic and the intracellular titration of the antibiotic by its target. This mechanism is generally applicable for antibiotics with different modes of action. We further show that efflux inhibition is effective against certain antibiotic motifs, which may help explain mixed cotreatment success. © 2017 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  19. John Watson's paradoxical struggle to explain Freud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rilling, M

    2000-03-01

    John Watson was fascinated by the discoveries of psychoanalysis, but he rejected Freud's central concept of the unconscious as incompatible with behaviorism. After failing to explain psychoanalysis in terms of William James's concept of habit, Watson borrowed concepts from classical conditioning to explain Freud's discoveries. Watson's famous experiment with Little Albert is interpreted not only in the context of Pavlovian conditioning but also as a psychoanalytically inspired attempt to capture simplified analogues of adult phobic behavior, including the "transference" of emotion in an infant. Watson used his behavioristic concept of conditioned emotional responses to compete with Freud's concepts of displacement and the unconscious transference of emotion. Behind a mask of anti-Freudian bias, Watson surprisingly emerges as a psychologist who popularized Freud and pioneered the scientific appraisal of his ideas in the laboratory.

  20. Explaining Underrepresentation: A Theory of Precluded Interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheryan, Sapna; Plaut, Victoria C

    2010-10-01

    What processes best explain women's underrepresentation in science, math, and engineering fields in the U.S.? Do they also explain men's underrepresentation in the humanities? Two survey studies across two U.S. West Coast universities (N = 62; N = 614) addressed these questions in the context of two fields: one male-dominated (computer science) and the other female-dominated (English). Among a set of social predictors-including perceived similarity to the people in the field, social identity threats, and expectations of success-the best mediator of women's lower interest in computer science and men's lower interest in English was perceived similarity. Thus, changing students' social perceptions of how they relate to those in the field may help to diversify academic fields.

  1. IEE wiring regulations explained and illustrated

    CERN Document Server

    Scaddan, Brian

    2013-01-01

    The IEE Wiring Regulations Explained and Illustrated, Second Edition discusses the recommendations of the IEE Regulations for the Electrical Equipment of Buildings for the safe selection or erection of wiring installations. The book emphasizes earthing, bonding, protection, and circuit design of electrical wirings. The text reviews the fundamental requirements for safety, earthing systems, the earth fault loop impedance, and supplementary bonding. The book also describes the different types of protection, such as protection against mechanical damage, overcurrent, under voltage (which prevents

  2. Explaining the Slowdown in Global Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Jarkko Jaaskela; Thomas Mathews

    2015-01-01

    Following the global financial crisis, global trade contracted sharply and, after an initial recovery, grew at an unusually slow pace relative to global GDP. This article reviews cyclical and structural explanations for this phenomenon, and finds econometric evidence that cyclical factors – namely shifts in the composition of aggregate demand toward less import-intensive components and heightened economic uncertainty – can explain most of the slowdown in trade in a panel of advanced economies...

  3. "Explaining the Gender Wage Gap in Georgia"

    OpenAIRE

    Khitarishvili, Tamar

    2009-01-01

    This paper evaluates gender wage differentials in Georgia between 2000 and 2004. Using ordinary least squares, we find that the gender wage gap in Georgia is substantially higher than in other transition countries. Correcting for sample selection bias using the Heckman approach further increases the gender wage gap. The Blinder Oaxaca decomposition results suggest that most of the wage gap remains unexplained. The explained portion of the gap is almost entirely attributed to industrial variab...

  4. Explaining the variety of human sexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    FitzGerald, W A

    2000-11-01

    In this paper, the author formulates a theory to explain why human sexual orientation seems to run amok. The 'psychic instrument', as he terms it, is the baby's dreaming mind which interprets or misinterprets input from its sociocultural sexual environment. The baby, already born an omnisexual being, then develops a fantasy life with socially sanctioned or unsanctioned fetishes which are likely to be expressed when certain triggering situations arise.

  5. Infrastructure features outperform environmental variables explaining rabbit abundance around motorways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planillo, Aimara; Malo, Juan E

    2018-01-01

    Human disturbance is widespread across landscapes in the form of roads that alter wildlife populations. Knowing which road features are responsible for the species response and their relevance in comparison with environmental variables will provide useful information for effective conservation measures. We sampled relative abundance of European rabbits, a very widespread species, in motorway verges at regional scale, in an area with large variability in environmental and infrastructure conditions. Environmental variables included vegetation structure, plant productivity, distance to water sources, and altitude. Infrastructure characteristics were the type of vegetation in verges, verge width, traffic volume, and the presence of embankments. We performed a variance partitioning analysis to determine the relative importance of two sets of variables on rabbit abundance. Additionally, we identified the most important variables and their effects model averaging after model selection by AICc on hypothesis-based models. As a group, infrastructure features explained four times more variability in rabbit abundance than environmental variables, being the effects of the former critical in motorway stretches located in altered landscapes with no available habitat for rabbits, such as agricultural fields. Model selection and Akaike weights showed that verge width and traffic volume are the most important variables explaining rabbit abundance index, with positive and negative effects, respectively. In the light of these results, the response of species to the infrastructure can be modulated through the modification of motorway features, being some of them manageable in the design phase. The identification of such features leads to suggestions for improvement through low-cost corrective measures and conservation plans. As a general indication, keeping motorway verges less than 10 m wide will prevent high densities of rabbits and avoid the unwanted effects that rabbit populations

  6. Drug Addiction and DNA Modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Amber N; Feng, Jian

    2017-01-01

    Drug addiction is a complex disorder which can be influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. Research has shown that epigenetic modifications can translate environmental signals into changes in gene expression, suggesting that epigenetic changes may underlie the causes and possibly treatment of substance use disorders. This chapter will focus on epigenetic modifications to DNA, which include DNA methylation and several recently defined additional DNA epigenetic changes. We will discuss the functions of DNA modifications and methods for detecting them, followed by a description of the research investigating the function and consequences of drug-induced changes in DNA methylation patterns. Understanding these epigenetic changes may provide us translational tools for the diagnosis and treatment of addiction in the future.

  7. Contextual Approach with Guided Discovery Learning and Brain Based Learning in Geometry Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartikaningtyas, V.; Kusmayadi, T. A.; Riyadi

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to combine the contextual approach with Guided Discovery Learning (GDL) and Brain Based Learning (BBL) in geometry learning of junior high school. Furthermore, this study analysed the effect of contextual approach with GDL and BBL in geometry learning. GDL-contextual and BBL-contextual was built from the steps of GDL and BBL that combined with the principles of contextual approach. To validate the models, it uses quasi experiment which used two experiment groups. The sample had been chosen by stratified cluster random sampling. The sample was 150 students of grade 8th in junior high school. The data were collected through the student’s mathematics achievement test that given after the treatment of each group. The data analysed by using one way ANOVA with different cell. The result shows that GDL-contextual has not different effect than BBL-contextual on mathematics achievement in geometry learning. It means both the two models could be used in mathematics learning as the innovative way in geometry learning.

  8. The problem of contextuality and the impossibility of experimental metaphysics thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermens, Ronnie

    Recently a new impulse has been given to the experimental investigation of contextuality. In this paper we show that for a widely used definition of contextuality there can be no decisive experiment on the existence of contextuality. To this end, we give a clear presentation of the hidden variable models due to Meyer, Kent and Clifton (MKC), which would supposedly nullify the Kochen-Specker theorem. Although we disagree with this last statement, the models do play a significant role in the discussion on the meaning of contextuality. In fact, we introduce a specific MKC-model of which we show that it is non-contextual and completely in agreement with quantum mechanical predictions. We also investigate the possibility of other definitions of non-contextuality-with an emphasis on operational definitions-and argue that any useful definition relies on the specification of a theoretical framework. It is therefore concluded that no experimental test can yield any conclusions about contextuality on a metaphysical level.

  9. The impact of signal-to-noise ratio on contextual cueing in children and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yingying; Merrill, Edward C

    2015-04-01

    Contextual cueing refers to a form of implicit spatial learning where participants incidentally learn to associate a target location with its repeated spatial context. Successful contextual learning produces an efficient visual search through familiar environments. Despite the fact that children exhibit the basic ability of implicit spatial learning, their general effectiveness in this form of learning can be compromised by other development-dependent factors. Learning to extract useful information (signal) in the presence of various amounts of irrelevant or distracting information (noise) characterizes one of the most important changes that occur with cognitive development. This research investigated whether signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) affects contextual cueing differently in children and adults. S/N was operationally defined as the ratio of repeated versus new displays encountered over time. Three ratio conditions were created: high (100%), medium (67%), and low (33%) conditions. Results suggested no difference in the acquisition of contextual learning effects in the high and medium conditions across three age groups (6- to 8-year-olds, 10- to 12-year-olds, and young adults). However, a significant developmental difference emerged in the low S/N condition. As predicted, adults exhibited significant contextual cueing effects, whereas older children showed marginally significant contextual cueing and younger children did not show cueing effects. Group differences in the ability to exhibit implicit contextual learning under low S/N conditions and the implications of this difference are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Differential roles of the dorsal and ventral hippocampus in predator odor contextual fear conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Melissa E; Fraize, Nicolas P; Yin, Linda; Yuan, Robin K; Petsagourakis, Despina; Wann, Ellen G; Muzzio, Isabel A

    2013-06-01

    The study of fear memory is important for understanding various anxiety disorders in which patients experience persistent recollections of traumatic events. These memories often involve associations of contextual cues with aversive events; consequently, Pavlovian classical conditioning is commonly used to study contextual fear learning. The use of predator odor as a fearful stimulus in contextual fear conditioning has become increasingly important as an animal model of anxiety disorders. Innate fear responses to predator odors are well characterized and reliable; however, attempts to use these odors as unconditioned stimuli in fear conditioning paradigms have proven inconsistent. Here we characterize a contextual fear conditioning paradigm using coyote urine as the unconditioned stimulus. We found that contextual conditioning induced by exposure to coyote urine produces long-term freezing, a stereotypic response to fear observed in mice. This paradigm is context-specific and parallels shock-induced contextual conditioning in that it is responsive to extinction training and manipulations of predator odor intensity. Region-specific lesions of the dorsal and ventral hippocampus indicate that both areas are independently required for the long-term expression of learned fear. These results in conjunction with c-fos immunostaining data suggest that while both the dorsal and ventral hippocampus are required for forming a contextual representation, the ventral region also modulates defensive behaviors associated with predators. This study provides information about the individual contributions of the dorsal and ventral hippocampus to ethologically relevant fear learning. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. A contextual approach to research on AIDS prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Wulfert, Edelgard; Biglan, Anthony

    1994-01-01

    The acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a disease that is transmitted almost entirely through behavioral factors. In the absence of a cure or vaccine, the modification of AIDS-risk behavior presents a unique challenge to behavioral scientists and should be taken as a clear imperative by behavior analysts. This paper discusses the currently dominant social-cognitive theories (the health belief model, the theory of reasoned action, and self-efficacy theory) that have been widely used ...

  12. Dissipative dark matter explains rotation curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foot, R.

    2015-06-01

    Dissipative dark matter, where dark matter particles interact with a massless (or very light) boson, is studied. Such dark matter can arise in simple hidden sector gauge models, including those featuring an unbroken U (1 )' gauge symmetry, leading to a dark photon. Previous work has shown that such models can not only explain the large scale structure and cosmic microwave background, but potentially also dark matter phenomena on small scales, such as the inferred cored structure of dark matter halos. In this picture, dark matter halos of disk galaxies not only cool via dissipative interactions but are also heated via ordinary supernovae (facilitated by an assumed photon-dark photon kinetic mixing interaction). This interaction between the dark matter halo and ordinary baryons, a very special feature of these types of models, plays a critical role in governing the physical properties of the dark matter halo. Here, we further study the implications of this type of dissipative dark matter for disk galaxies. Building on earlier work, we develop a simple formalism which aims to describe the effects of dissipative dark matter in a fairly model independent way. This formalism is then applied to generic disk galaxies. We also consider specific examples, including NGC 1560 and a sample of dwarf galaxies from the LITTLE THINGS survey. We find that dissipative dark matter, as developed here, does a fairly good job accounting for the rotation curves of the galaxies considered. Not only does dissipative dark matter explain the linear rise of the rotational velocity of dwarf galaxies at small radii, but it can also explain the observed wiggles in rotation curves which are known to be correlated with corresponding features in the disk gas distribution.

  13. Contextual Mobile Learning for professionals working in the “Smart City”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rene Chalon

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we propose an innovative approach using the “Contextual Mobile Learning System” based on the “Electronic Performance Support System” (EPSS to support efficient just-in-time learning for professionals working in the “Smart city”. In this paper, we present the principle and the structure of our contextual mobile learning system, which uses a search engine to find appropriate learning units in relation with working activities and conditions and the user’s / worker’s profile. We further discuss the proposed system structure, supportive process and context-driven engine. Finally, we describe a scenario using our contextual mobile learning system.

  14. Contextual errors and failures in individualizing patient care: a multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Saul J; Schwartz, Alan; Weaver, Frances; Goldberg, Julie; Yudkowsky, Rachel; Sharma, Gunjan; Binns-Calvey, Amy; Preyss, Ben; Schapira, Marilyn M; Persell, Stephen D; Jacobs, Elizabeth; Abrams, Richard I

    2010-07-20

    A contextual error occurs when a physician overlooks elements of a patient's environment or behavior that are essential to planning appropriate care. In contrast to biomedical errors, which are not patient-specific, contextual errors represent a failure to individualize care. To explore the frequency and circumstances under which physicians probe contextual and biomedical red flags and avoid treatment error by incorporating what they learn from these probes. An incomplete randomized block design in which unannounced, standardized patients visited 111 internal medicine attending physicians between April 2007 and April 2009 and presented variants of 4 scenarios. In all scenarios, patients presented both a contextual and a biomedical red flag. Responses to probing about flags varied in whether they revealed an underlying complicating biomedical or contextual factor (or both) that would lead to errors in management if overlooked. 14 practices, including 2 academic clinics, 2 community-based primary care networks with multiple sites, a core safety net provider, and 3 U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs facilities. Primary outcomes were the proportion of visits in which physicians probed for contextual and biomedical factors in response to hints or red flags and the proportion of visits that resulted in error-free treatment plans. Physicians probed fewer contextual red flags (51%) than biomedical red flags (63%). Probing for contextual or biomedical information in response to red flags was usually necessary but not sufficient for an error-free plan of care. Physicians provided error-free care in 73% of the uncomplicated encounters, 38% of the biomedically complicated encounters, 22% of the contextually complicated encounters, and 9% of the combined biomedically and contextually complicated encounters. Only 4 case scenarios were used. The study assessed physicians' propensity to make errors when every encounter provided an opportunity to do so and did not measure actual

  15. word2vec Parameter Learning Explained

    OpenAIRE

    Rong, Xin

    2014-01-01

    The word2vec model and application by Mikolov et al. have attracted a great amount of attention in recent two years. The vector representations of words learned by word2vec models have been shown to carry semantic meanings and are useful in various NLP tasks. As an increasing number of researchers would like to experiment with word2vec or similar techniques, I notice that there lacks a material that comprehensively explains the parameter learning process of word embedding models in details, t...

  16. Chromosome congression explained by nanoscale electrostatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagliardi, L John; Shain, Daniel H

    2014-02-24

    Nanoscale electrostatic microtubule disassembly forces between positively charged molecules in kinetochores and negative charges on plus ends of microtubules have been implicated in poleward chromosome motions and may also contribute to antipoleward chromosome movements. We propose that chromosome congression can be understood in terms of antipoleward nanoscale electrostatic microtubule assembly forces between negatively charged microtubule plus ends and like-charged chromosome arms, acting in conjunction with poleward microtubule disassembly forces. Several other aspects of post-attachment prometaphase chromosome motions, as well as metaphase oscillations, are consistently explained within this framework.

  17. Explaining perceptions of the unemployed in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Vlandas, Tim

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the determinants of the perceptions of the unemployed in 29 European countries along three dimensions: whether people see the unemployed as the ‘government’s responsibility’; whether they believe the unemployed do not ‘try hard to find a job’; and whether they think that the standard of living of the unemployed is ‘bad’. I derive a number of expectations from the political economy literature on policy preferences and test whether these expectations explain variation in t...

  18. SOME THEORETICAL MODELS EXPLAINING ADVERTISING EFFECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilica Magdalena SOMEŞFĂLEAN

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Persuade clients is still the main focus of the companies, using a set of methods and techniques designed to influence their behavior, in order to obtain better results (profits over a longer period of time. Since the late nineteenth - early twentieth century, the american E.St.Elmo Lewis, considered a pioneer in advertising and sales, developed the first theory, AIDA model, later used by marketers and advertisers to develop a marketing communications strategy. Later studies have developed other models that are the main subject of this research, which explains how and why persuasive communication works, to understand why some approaches are effective and others are not.

  19. Structural dynamic modifications via models

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    consuming and expensive intuitive cut-and-try prototype testing including those cases where FEM has limitations. Accordingly it is desirable to devise methods by which proto- type modification cycles/design development time can be reduced. This is achieved in. SDM by first predicting accurately and quickly at computer ...

  20. A NEW "PROCESSABLE" POLYACETYLENE MODIFICATION

    OpenAIRE

    Hocker, J.; Schneider, G.

    1983-01-01

    Using a special catalyst on the Ziegler-Natta basis and special reaction conditions it is possible to polymerize acetylene for obtaining a new polyacetylene modification with burr- or fibre-shaped particles which can be processed to foils, non-wovens and coatings.

  1. Structural dynamic modifications via models

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Structural dynamic modification techniques attempt to reduce dynamic design time and can be implemented beginning with spatial models of structures, dynamic test data or updated models. The models assumed in this discussion are mathematical models, namely mass, stiffness, and damping matrices of the equations of ...

  2. Synthesis and Modification of Clinoptilolite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlina Ambrozova

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Clinoptilolite is a natural mineral with exceptional physical characteristics resulting from its special crystal structure, mainstreamed into a large zeolite group called heulandites. An overall view of the research related to the synthesis, modification and application of synthetic clinoptilolite is presented. A single phase of clinoptilolite can be hydrothermally synthesized for 1–10 days in an autoclave from various silica, alumina, and alkali sources with initial Si/Al ratio from 3.0 to 5.0 at a temperature range from 120 to 195 °C. Crystallization rate and crystallinity of clinoptilolite can be improved by seeding. The modification of clinoptilolite has received noticeable attention from the research community, since modified forms have specific properties and therefore their area of application has been broadening. This paper provides a review of the use of organic compounds such as quarter alkyl ammonium, polymer, amine and inorganic species used in the modification process, discusses the processes and mechanisms of clinoptilolite modification, and identifies research gaps and new perspectives.

  3. Developmental systems theory: what does it explain, and how does it explain it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Paul E; Tabery, James

    2013-01-01

    We examine developmental systems theory (DST) with two questions in mind: What does DST explain? How does DST explain it? To answer these questions, we start by reviewing major contributions to the origins of DST: the introduction of the idea of a "developmental system", the idea of probabilistic epigenesis, the attention to the role of information in the developmental system, and finally the explicit identification of a DST. We then consider what DST is not, contrasting it with two approaches that have been foils for DST: behavioral genetics and nativist cognitive psychology. Third, we distill out two core concepts that have defined DSTthroughout its history: epigenesis and developmental dynamics. Finally, we turn to how DST explains, arguing that it explains by elucidating mechanisms.

  4. Spatial factors as contextual qualifiers of information seeking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Savolainen

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This paper investigates the ways in which spatial factors have been approached in information seeking studies. The main attention was focused on studies discussing information seeking on the level of source selection and use. Method. Conceptual analysis of about 100 articles and books thematizing spatial issues of information seeking. Due to research economy, the main attention was paid to studies on everyday life information seeking. Results. Three major viewpoints were identified with regard to the degree of objectivity of spatial factors. The objectifying approach conceives of spatial factors as external and entity-like qualifiers that primarly constrain information seeking. The realistic-pragmatic approach emphasizes the ways in which the availabilty of information sources in different places such as daily work environments orient information seeking. The perspectivist approach focuses on how people subjectively assess the significance of various sources by means of spatial constructs such as information horizons. Conclusion. Spatial factors are centrally important contextual qualifiers of information seeking. There is a need to further explore the potential of the above viewpoints by relating the spatial and temporal factors of information seeking.

  5. Moral parochialism and contextual contingency across seven societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fessler, Daniel M T; Barrett, H Clark; Kanovsky, Martin; Stich, Stephen; Holbrook, Colin; Henrich, Joseph; Bolyanatz, Alexander H; Gervais, Matthew M; Gurven, Michael; Kushnick, Geoff; Pisor, Anne C; von Rueden, Christopher; Laurence, Stephen

    2015-08-22

    Human moral judgement may have evolved to maximize the individual's welfare given parochial culturally constructed moral systems. If so, then moral condemnation should be more severe when transgressions are recent and local, and should be sensitive to the pronouncements of authority figures (who are often arbiters of moral norms), as the fitness pay-offs of moral disapproval will primarily derive from the ramifications of condemning actions that occur within the immediate social arena. Correspondingly, moral transgressions should be viewed as less objectionable if they occur in other places or times, or if local authorities deem them acceptable. These predictions contrast markedly with those derived from prevailing non-evolutionary perspectives on moral judgement. Both classes of theories predict purportedly species-typical patterns, yet to our knowledge, no study to date has investigated moral judgement across a diverse set of societies, including a range of small-scale communities that differ substantially from large highly urbanized nations. We tested these predictions in five small-scale societies and two large-scale societies, finding substantial evidence of moral parochialism and contextual contingency in adults' moral judgements. Results reveal an overarching pattern in which moral condemnation reflects a concern with immediate local considerations, a pattern consistent with a variety of evolutionary accounts of moral judgement. © 2015 The Authors.

  6. Contextual social cognition and the behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibañez, Agustin; Manes, Facundo

    2012-04-24

    The significance of social situations is commonly context-embedded. Although the role of context has been extensively studied in basic sensory processing or simple stimulus-response settings, its relevance for social cognition is unknown. We propose the social context network model (SCNM), a fronto-insular-temporal network responsible for processing social contextual effects. The SCNM may 1) update the context and use it to make predictions, 2) coordinate internal and external milieus, and 3) consolidate context-target associative learning. We suggest the behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) as a specific disorder in which the reported deficits in social cognition (e.g., facial recognition, empathy, decision-making, figurative language, theory of mind) can be described as context impairments due to deficits in the SCNM. Disruption of orbitofrontal-amygdala circuit, as well as the frontal, temporal, and insular atrophy in bVFTD, suggests a relationship between context-sensitive social cognition and SCNM. In considering context as an intrinsic part of social cognition, we highlight the need for a situated cognition approach in social cognition research as opposed to an abstract, universal, and decontextualized approach. The assessment of context-dependent social cognition paradigms, the SCNM, and their possible application to neuropsychiatric disorders may provide new insight into bvFTD and other related frontal disorders.

  7. Seeking feasible reconciliation: A transdisciplinary contextual approach to reconciliation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoffel H. Thesnaar

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In South Africa scholars in the broad field of practical theology are currently faced with a daunting challenge: to rethink the reconciling role of the institutional church in the light of continued challenges facing reconciliation within post-apartheid and post-Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC South Africa. This contribution investigates whether the transdisciplinary, region-centred scientific research approach with a focus on the Hölderlin perspective on reconciliation could assist scholars in practical theology to address reconciliation in a post-apartheid and post-TRC society. The article proposes a contextual and constructive approach to reconciliation in order to assist South African scholars in the field of practical theology and the institutional church to address the challenges of reconciliation in a post-apartheid and post-TRC society. The contribution confirms that this approach does indeed assist the field of practical theology to contribute to reconciliation without the risk of speaking a language that nobody beyond theology can understand.

  8. The influence of contextual diversity on word learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, Brendan T; Dye, Melody; Jones, Michael N

    2016-08-01

    In a series of analyses over mega datasets, Jones, Johns, and Recchia (Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, 66(2), 115-124, 2012) and Johns et al. (Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 132:2, EL74-EL80, 2012) found that a measure of contextual diversity that takes into account the semantic variability of a word's contexts provided a better fit to both visual and spoken word recognition data than traditional measures, such as word frequency or raw context counts. This measure was empirically validated with an artificial language experiment (Jones et al.). The present study extends the empirical results with a unique natural language learning paradigm, which allows for an examination of the semantic representations that are acquired as semantic diversity is varied. Subjects were incidentally exposed to novel words as they rated short selections from articles, books, and newspapers. When novel words were encountered across distinct discourse contexts, subjects were both faster and more accurate at recognizing them than when they were seen in redundant contexts. However, learning across redundant contexts promoted the development of more stable semantic representations. These findings are predicted by a distributional learning model trained on the same materials as our subjects.

  9. Contextual assessment of maintenance culture at Olkiluoto and Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiman, T.; Oedewald, P. [VTT Industrial Systems (Finland); Rollenhagen, C.; Eriksson, I. [Maelardalen University (Sweden)

    2004-04-01

    The study aims to characterise, assess and develop the organisational cultures of participating nuclear power companies' maintenance units. The assessment is made by the means of maintenance core task modelling that has already been started in previous studies. The theoretical core task model is used in evaluating the characteristics of the organisational culture. We aim to identify what are the strengths and weaknesses of the case organisation's culture in relation to its core task. The study also aims to validate the methodology for contextual assessment of organisational culture. In addition to case specific results, the study acts as a benchmark between the participating companies and gives a chance to compare the different culture profiles between the companies. Similarities and differences between the organisational cultures at the maintenance units were identified. The purpose is not however to evaluate which organisation is better, but to raise issues that require attention at the organisations. When evaluative statements are made, the criteria are formed on the basis of the core task model: Even though the practices differ, from the perspective of the maintenance core task they might both be as effective. (au)

  10. Accurate image search using the contextual dissimilarity measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jegou, Hervé; Schmid, Cordelia; Harzallah, Hedi; Verbeek, Jakob

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces the contextual dissimilarity measure, which significantly improves the accuracy of bag-of-features-based image search. Our measure takes into account the local distribution of the vectors and iteratively estimates distance update terms in the spirit of Sinkhorn's scaling algorithm, thereby modifying the neighborhood structure. Experimental results show that our approach gives significantly better results than a standard distance and outperforms the state of the art in terms of accuracy on the Nistér-Stewénius and Lola data sets. This paper also evaluates the impact of a large number of parameters, including the number of descriptors, the clustering method, the visual vocabulary size, and the distance measure. The optimal parameter choice is shown to be quite context-dependent. In particular, using a large number of descriptors is interesting only when using our dissimilarity measure. We have also evaluated two novel variants: multiple assignment and rank aggregation. They are shown to further improve accuracy at the cost of higher memory usage and lower efficiency.

  11. How contextual issues can distort shared decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartlehner, Gerald; Matyas, Nina

    2016-12-01

    Shared decision making in medicine has become a widely promoted approach. The goal is for patients and physicians to reach a mutual, informed decision by taking into consideration scientific evidence, clinical experience, and the patient's personal values or preferences. Shared decision making, however, is not a straightforward process. In practice, it might fall short of what it promises and might even be misused to whitewash monetary motives. In this article, which summarizes a presentation given at the 17(th) Annual Conference of the German Network Evidence-based Medicine on March 4(th), 2016 in Cologne, Germany, we discuss three contextual factors that in our opinion can have a tremendous impact on any informed decision making: 1) opinions and convictions of physicians or other clinicians; 2) uncertainty of the evidence regarding benefits and harms; 3) uncertainty of patients about their own values and preferences. But despite barriers and shortcomings, modern medicine currently does not have an alternative to shared decision making. Shared decision making has become a central theme in good quality health care because it has a strong ethical component. Advocates of shared decision making, however, must realize that not all patients prefer to participate in decision making. For those who do, however, we must ensure that shared decisions can be made in a neutral environment as free of biases and conflicts of interest as possible. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  12. Growth Models of Maternal Smoking Behavior: Individual and Contextual Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumford, Elizabeth A; Liu, Weiwei

    2015-01-01

    Persistent maternal smoking during pregnancy, reduction or cessation during pregnancy, and smoking initiation or resumption postpartum impel further research to understand these behavioral patterns and opportunities for intervention. We investigated heterogenous longitudinal patterns of smoking quantity to determine if these patterns vary across three maternal age groups, and whether the influence of individual and contextual risk factors varies by maternal age. Separate general growth mixture models were estimated for mothers ages 15-25, 26-35, and 36+, allowing different empirical patterns of an ordinal measure of smoking behavior at six time points, from preconception through child entry to kindergarten. We identify five classes for mothers ages 15-25, four classes for ages 26-35, and three classes for ages 36+. Each age group presents classes of nonsmokers and persistent heavy smokers. Intermediate to these ends of the spectrum, each age group exhibited its own smoking classes characterized by the extent of pregnancy smoking reductions and postpartum behavior. In all three age groups, class membership can be distinguished by individual sociodemographic and behavioral characteristics. Co-resident smokers predicted nearly all smoking classifications across age groups, and selected neighborhood characteristics predicted classification of younger (15-25) and older (36+) mothers. The design, timing, and delivery of smoking prevention and cessation services, for women seeking to become pregnant and for women presenting for prenatal or pediatric care, are best guided by individual characteristics, particularly maternal age, preconception alcohol consumption, and postpartum depression, but neighborhood characteristics merit further attention for mothers at different ages.

  13. John Cage's Aria viewed through the prism of contextual determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovanović Bojana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analysis the three contextual layers of creating John Cage's Aria for solo voice performed by Cathy Berberia at the 'big stage' of musical neo-avant-garde in Darmstadt. The layers in question are: (1 the socio-political context of Germany after World War II, where the denazification process was started at the time, (2 the artistic context of neo-avant-garde musical milieu which was being formed in Darmstadt in that period, and (3 the context of a new epoch in the history of vocal art. The thesis presented here is that an encounter occurred between American experimental and European avant-garde musical practice during the accelerated denazification and liberalisation of German society and the establishment of the Cold War relationship between the East and the West. The piece Aria represents an example of a collaborative work between American and European artists, which turned to be an important step in the history of extended vocal techniques in musical performing and composing.

  14. Redesigning of Contextual Items of Iranian State Portals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirous Alidousti

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Web sites represent the most important springboard for development of E-government, as/ bacause they serve as a link between the government and the citizens. These websites serve different functions during the various stages of E-government development. Primary function is to offer government information and to secure communication between the government and its audience. If developed independently without any coordination, setting up websites for government agencies would present the risk of facing an asymmetrical and unbalanced collection of such sites over the course of time that not only prove of limited functionality but would not have the performance commensurate with the investment. In a type of websites, known as State or Provincial Portals, such coordination was promulgated through issuance of the directive “Subject Headings for State Information Portals and Minimum Software Requirements and Qualifications”. The directive was issued in 2004 by the now defunct Management and Planning Organization. The present paper reports the research outcome of a project that compared the status of existing state portals with the subject headings indicated in the above directives. Following a detailed study, it provides pointers regarding the revision of contextual and information items in the said portal through literature survey and comparative study of similar E-government portals in three developed using as well as the Delphi method.

  15. Microdevelopment of Complex Featural and Spatial Integration with Contextual Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela L. Hirsch

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Complex spatial decisions involve the ability to combine featural and spatial information in a scene. In the present work, 4- through 9-year-old children completed a complex map-scene correspondence task under baseline and supported conditions. Children compared a photographed scene with a correct map and with map-foils that made salient an object feature or spatial property. Map-scene matches were analyzed for the effects of age and featural-spatial information on children’s selections. In both conditions children significantly favored maps that highlighted object detail and object perspective rather than color, landmark, and metric elements. Children’s correct performance did not differ by age and was suboptimal, but their ability to choose correct maps improved significantly when contextual support was provided. Strategy variability was prominent for all age groups, but at age 9 with support children were more likely to give up their focus on features and transition to the use of spatial strategies. These findings suggest the possibility of a U-shaped curve for children’s development of geometric knowledge: geometric coding is predominant early on, diminishes for a time in middle childhood in favor of a preference for features, and then reemerges along with the more advanced abilities to combine featural and spatial information.

  16. Contextual Multi-armed Bandits under Feature Uncertainty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Seyoung [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Nam, Jun Hyun [Korea Advanced Inst. Science and Technology (KAIST), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Mo, Sangwoo [Korea Advanced Inst. Science and Technology (KAIST), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Jinwoo [Korea Advanced Inst. Science and Technology (KAIST), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-03

    We study contextual multi-armed bandit problems under linear realizability on rewards and uncertainty (or noise) on features. For the case of identical noise on features across actions, we propose an algorithm, coined NLinRel, having O(T⁷/₈(log(dT)+K√d)) regret bound for T rounds, K actions, and d-dimensional feature vectors. Next, for the case of non-identical noise, we observe that popular linear hypotheses including NLinRel are impossible to achieve such sub-linear regret. Instead, under assumption of Gaussian feature vectors, we prove that a greedy algorithm has O(T²/₃√log d)regret bound with respect to the optimal linear hypothesis. Utilizing our theoretical understanding on the Gaussian case, we also design a practical variant of NLinRel, coined Universal-NLinRel, for arbitrary feature distributions. It first runs NLinRel for finding the ‘true’ coefficient vector using feature uncertainties and then adjust it to minimize its regret using the statistical feature information. We justify the performance of Universal-NLinRel on both synthetic and real-world datasets.

  17. The Trans-Contextual Model of Autonomous Motivation in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagger, Martin S.; Chatzisarantis, Nikos L. D.

    2015-01-01

    The trans-contextual model outlines the processes by which autonomous motivation toward activities in a physical education context predicts autonomous motivation toward physical activity outside of school, and beliefs about, intentions toward, and actual engagement in, out-of-school physical activity. In the present article, we clarify the fundamental propositions of the model and resolve some outstanding conceptual issues, including its generalizability across multiple educational domains, criteria for its rejection or failed replication, the role of belief-based antecedents of intentions, and the causal ordering of its constructs. We also evaluate the consistency of model relationships in previous tests of the model using path-analytic meta-analysis. The analysis supported model hypotheses but identified substantial heterogeneity in the hypothesized relationships across studies unattributed to sampling and measurement error. Based on our meta-analysis, future research needs to provide further replications of the model in diverse educational settings beyond physical education and test model hypotheses using experimental methods. PMID:27274585

  18. Contextualizing the Policy and Pragmatics of Reintegrating Sex Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Kathryn J

    2017-02-01

    As sanctions for those convicted of sex offenses have increased over recent years, the risk for reoffense presented by social isolation increases. Because most jurisdictions struggle with how best to manage and reintegrate sex offenders, this study analyzes bureaucratic and contextual issues with arranging community-based reintegration programs. Specifically, this qualitative, process-oriented study examines and compares Circles of Support & Accountability (CoSA) programs from the United States (specifically, Vermont) and New Zealand. CoSAs provide support for medium- to high-risk sex offenders as they are released to communities. The programs are compared with regard to their structures, the relationship to Corrections, the role of communities, and core members' reentry challenges. The implications of each configuration are explored. As most of the existing research on CoSAs is focused on recidivism, and as the U.S. federal government is expanding the use of CoSA, this article fills a void in our understanding of the role that communities can play in reintegrating sexual offenders and how program structures shape reentry.

  19. Contextual Factors and Sexual Risk Behaviors Among Young, Black Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jamal; Salazar, Laura F; Crosby, Richard

    2017-05-01

    Young Black men (YBM), aged 13 to 24 years, face a disproportionate burden of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). STI acquisition among YBM is due to incorrect and inconsistent condom use and is exacerbated by multiple sexual partners. Sexual and reproductive health is influenced by a complex interaction of biological, psychological, and social determinants that contribute to increased risk for STI acquisition. However, there are key social determinants of sexual health that play a major role in adolescent sexual risk-taking behaviors: gender norms, environment, peers, and families as well as a desire to impregnate a woman. Associations between contextual factors (risky environmental context, desire to impregnate a woman, and peer norms supportive of unsafe sex) and sexual risk behaviors were examined among a sample of YBM attending adolescent health clinics. This study used baseline data from a randomized controlled trial ( N = 702). Parental monitoring was also examined as an effect modifier of those associations. Sexual risk behaviors were the frequency of condomless vaginal sex, number of sexual partners within the previous 2 months, and lifetime number of sexual partners. Mean age was 19.7. In the adjusted model, peer norms was the only significant predictor for all sexual risk outcomes ( p effect modifier for the perceived peer norms and lifetime sexual partners association ( p = .053) where the effect of peer norms on lifetime sexual partners was lower for participants with higher levels of perceived parental monitoring.

  20. Seeking feasible reconciliation: A transdisciplinary contextual approach to reconciliation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoffel H. Thesnaar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In South Africa scholars in the broad field of practical theology are currently faced with a daunting challenge: to rethink the reconciling role of the institutional church in the light of continued challenges facing reconciliation within post-apartheid and post-Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC South Africa. This contribution investigates whether the transdisciplinary, region-centred scientific research approach with a focus on the Hölderlin perspective on reconciliation could assist scholars in practical theology to address reconciliation in a post-apartheid and post-TRC society. The article proposes a contextual and constructive approach to reconciliation in order to assist South African scholars in the field of practical theology and the institutional church to address the challenges of reconciliation in a post-apartheid and post-TRC society. The contribution confirms that this approach does indeed assist the field of practical theology to contribute to reconciliation without the risk of speaking a language that nobody beyond theology can understand.