Trindade, Inês A; Ferreira, Cláudia; Duarte, Cristiana; Pinto-Gouveia, José
The aim of this study was to examine the role of body image problems in the context of inflammatory bowel disease and to explore gender differences in these associations. A sample of inflammatory bowel disease patients (60 males and 140 females) was collected. Findings from a multi-group analysis show that inflammatory bowel disease symptomatology may impact on body image in both male and female patients through the effect of body-image-related cognitive fusion. Body image difficulties in the context of inflammatory bowel disease should not be a neglected dimension in research aiming at understanding the psychosocial effects of inflammatory bowel disease and by health professionals working with these patients.
Heijstra, Thamar M.; O'Connor, Pat; Rafnsdóttir, Gudbjörg Linda
This article examines the explanations offered by men and women, at different academic ranks, for the scarcity of women in full professorial positions in Icelandic universities. Data derive from interviews and a survey involving the total Icelandic academic population. We test three hypotheses: Firstly, academics will not see family…
Labriola, Merete; Holte, Kari Anne; Christensen, Karl Bang
40.2 years) was interviewed in 2000 regarding gender, age, family status, socio-economic position and psychosocial and physical work environment factors. The participants were followed for 18 months in order to assess their incidence of long-term sickness absence exceeding 8 consecutive weeks...... in psychosocial work environment exposures explained 32% of the differences in risk of long-term sickness absence between men and women, causing the effect of gender to become statistically insignificant. The combined effect of physical and psychosocial factors was similar, explaining 30% of the gender difference....... Conclusion Differences in psychosocial work environments in terms of emotional demands, reward at work, management quality and role conflicts, explained roughly 30% of women's excess long-term sickness absence risk. Assuming women and men had identical working conditions would leave the larger part...
Ruel, Erin; Hauser, Robert M
To assess and explain the United States' gender wealth gap, we use the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study to examine wealth accumulated by a single cohort over 50 years by gender, by marital status, and limited to the respondents who are their family's best financial reporters. We find large gender wealth gaps between currently married men and women, and between never-married men and women. The never-married accumulate less wealth than the currently married, and there is a marital disruption cost to wealth accumulation. The status-attainment model shows the most power in explaining gender wealth gaps between these groups explaining about one-third to one-half of the gap, followed by the human-capital explanation. In other words, a lifetime of lower earnings for women translates into greatly reduced wealth accumulation. After controlling for the full model, we find that a gender wealth gap remains between married men and women that we speculate may be related to gender differences in investment strategies and selection effects.
D'Souza, Gypsyamber; Cullen, Kevin; Bowie, Janice; Thorpe, Roland; Fakhry, Carole
This study explores whether gender, age and race differences in oral sexual behavior account for the demographic distribution of oral human papillomavirus infection (HPV) and HPV-positive oropharyngeal cancer (HPV-OSCC). This analysis included 2,116 men and 2,140 women from NHANES (2009-10) who answered a behavioral questionnaire and provided an oral-rinse sample for HPV detection. Weighted prevalence estimates and prevalence ratios (PR) were calculated for sexual behaviors and oral HPV infection by gender, age-cohort (20-29, 30-44, 45-59, 60-69), and race, and contrasted with incidence rate ratios (IRR) of OSCC from SEER 2009. Multivariate logistic regression was used to evaluate predictors of oral sexual behavior and oral HPV16 infection. Differences in oral sexual behavior were observed by gender, age-cohort and race. Most men (85.4%) and women (83.2%) had ever performed oral sex, but men had more lifetime oral and vaginal sexual partners and higher oral HPV16 prevalence than women (each pHPV16 prevalence was similar. Prevalence ratios (PR) of ever oral sex in men vs. women (PR = 1.03), and 45-59 vs. 30-44 year-old men (PR = 0.96) were modest relative to ratios for oral HPV16 infection (PRs = 1.3-6.8) and OSCC (IRR = 4.7-8.1). In multivariate analysis, gender, age-cohort, and race were significant predictors of oral sexual behavior. Oral sexual behavior was the primary predictor of oral HPV16 infection; once this behavior was adjusted for, age-cohort and race were no longer associated with oral HPV16. There are differences in oral sexual behaviors when considering gender, age-cohort and race which explain observed epidemiologic differences in oral HPV16 infection across these groups.
Full Text Available This study explores whether gender, age and race differences in oral sexual behavior account for the demographic distribution of oral human papillomavirus infection (HPV and HPV-positive oropharyngeal cancer (HPV-OSCC.This analysis included 2,116 men and 2,140 women from NHANES (2009-10 who answered a behavioral questionnaire and provided an oral-rinse sample for HPV detection. Weighted prevalence estimates and prevalence ratios (PR were calculated for sexual behaviors and oral HPV infection by gender, age-cohort (20-29, 30-44, 45-59, 60-69, and race, and contrasted with incidence rate ratios (IRR of OSCC from SEER 2009. Multivariate logistic regression was used to evaluate predictors of oral sexual behavior and oral HPV16 infection.Differences in oral sexual behavior were observed by gender, age-cohort and race. Most men (85.4% and women (83.2% had ever performed oral sex, but men had more lifetime oral and vaginal sexual partners and higher oral HPV16 prevalence than women (each p<0.001. 60-69 year olds (yo were less likely than 45-59 or 30-44 (yo to have performed oral sex (72.7%, 84.8%, and 90.3%, p<0.001, although oral HPV16 prevalence was similar. Prevalence ratios (PR of ever oral sex in men vs. women (PR = 1.03, and 45-59 vs. 30-44 year-old men (PR = 0.96 were modest relative to ratios for oral HPV16 infection (PRs = 1.3-6.8 and OSCC (IRR = 4.7-8.1. In multivariate analysis, gender, age-cohort, and race were significant predictors of oral sexual behavior. Oral sexual behavior was the primary predictor of oral HPV16 infection; once this behavior was adjusted for, age-cohort and race were no longer associated with oral HPV16.There are differences in oral sexual behaviors when considering gender, age-cohort and race which explain observed epidemiologic differences in oral HPV16 infection across these groups.
Compère, Laurie; Rari, Eirini; Gallarda, Thierry; Assens, Adèle; Nys, Marion; Coussinoux, Sandrine; Machefaux, Sébastien; Piolino, Pascale
A recently tested hypothesis suggests that inter-individual differences in episodic autobiographical memory (EAM) are better explained by individual identification of typical features of a gender identity than by sex. This study aimed to test this hypothesis by investigating sex and gender related differences not only in EAM but also during retrieval of more abstract self-knowledge (i.e., semantic autobiographical memory, SAM, and conceptual self, CS), and considering past and future perspectives. No sex-related differences were identified, but regardless of the sex, feminine gender identity was associated with clear differences in emotional aspects that were expressed in both episodic and more abstract forms of AM, and in the past and future perspectives, while masculine gender identity was associated with limited effects. In conclusion, our results support the hypothesis that inter-individual differences in AM are better explained by gender identity than by sex, extending this assumption to both episodic and semantic forms of AM and future thinking. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Manierre, Matthew J
Self-directed health information seeking has become increasingly common in recent years, yet there is a substantial body of evidence suggesting that females are more likely to engage in information seeking than males. Previous research has largely ignored the significance of this difference as both an empirical and a theoretical finding. The current study has two goals, seeking to track this sex gap over time and to test explanations for its existence. The three explanations tested are based in past findings of gendered division of childcare labor, gendered reactivity to illness, and gendered perceived risk of illness. These were tested using multiple dependent variables from both repeated cross sectional data and 2012 data from the Health Information Trends Survey (HINTS). Results show that females are significantly more likely to look for cancer information, information in general, and information over the Internet over time than males, though the gap may be closing in the case of cancer information. The three explanations also received little clear support though perceived risk of getting cancer acted as a mediator through which men may be less likely to look for cancer information. Based on this analysis it is clear that a sex gap in information seeking is present and theories of masculinity and health may hold promise in some contexts but additional explanations are needed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Dronkers, Jaap; Kornder, Nils
In this paper, we attempt to explain the differences between reading and math scores of migrants' children (8430 daughters and 8526 sons) in 17 OECD destination countries, coming from 45 origin countries or regions, using PISA 2009 data. In addition to the societal gender equality levels of the origin and destination countries (the gender…
Ruel, Erin; Hauser, Robert M.
To assess and explain the United States’ gender wealth gap, we use the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study to examine wealth accumulated by a single cohort over 50 years by gender, by marital status, and limited to the respondents who are their family’s best financial reporters. We find large gender wealth gaps between currently married men and women, and never-married men and women. The never-married accumulate less wealth than the currently married, and there is a marital disruption cost to wealth...
Skoog, Jessica; Midlöv, Patrik; Borgquist, Lars; Sundquist, Jan; Halling, Anders
It has been reported that there is a difference in drug prescription between males and females. Even after adjustment for multi-morbidity, females tend to use more prescription drugs compared to males. In this study, we wanted to analyse whether the gender difference in drug treatment could be explained by gender-related morbidity. Data was collected on all individuals 20 years and older in the county of Östergötland in Sweden. The Johns Hopkins ACG Case-Mix System was used to calculate individual level of multi-morbidity. A report from the Swedish National Institute of Public Health using the WHO term DALY was the basis for gender-related morbidity. Prescription drugs used to treat diseases that mainly affect females were excluded from the analyses. The odds of having prescription drugs for males, compared to females, increased from 0.45 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.44-0.46) to 0.82 (95% CI 0.81-0.83) after exclusion of prescription drugs that are used to treat diseases that mainly affect females. Gender-related morbidity and the use of anti-conception drugs may explain a large part of the difference in prescription drug use between males and females but still there remains a difference between the genders at 18%. This implicates that it is of importance to take the gender-related morbidity into consideration, and to exclude anti-conception drugs, when performing studies regarding difference in drug use between the genders.
Tellhed, Una; Bäckström, Martin; Björklund, Fredrik
Throughout the world, the labor market is clearly gender segregated. More research is needed to explain women's lower interest in STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics) majors and particularly to explain men's lower interest in HEED (Health care, Elementary Education, and the Domestic spheres) majors. We tested self-efficacy (competence beliefs) and social belongingness expectations (fitting in socially) as mediators of gender differences in interest in STEM and HEED majors in a representative sample of 1327 Swedish high school students. Gender differences in interest in STEM majors strongly related to women's lower self-efficacy for STEM careers and, to a lesser degree, to women's lower social belongingness expectations with students in STEM majors. Social belongingness expectations also partly explained men's lower interest in HEED majors, but self-efficacy was not an important mediator of gender differences in interest in HEED. These results imply that interventions designed to lessen gender segregation in the labor market need to focus more on the social belongingness of students in the gender minority. Further, to specifically increase women's interest in STEM majors, we need to counteract gender stereotypical competence beliefs and assure women that they have what it takes to handle STEM careers.
Donati, Maria Anna; Chiesi, Francesca; Primi, Caterina
This study aimed at testing a model in which cognitive, dispositional, and social factors were integrated into a single perspective as predictors of gambling behavior. We also aimed at providing further evidence of gender differences related to adolescent gambling. Participants were 994 Italian adolescents (64% Males; Mean age = 16.57).…
Hyde, Janet Shibley; Mezulis, Amy H.; Abramson, Lyn Y.
In adulthood, twice as many women as men are depressed, a pattern that holds in most nations. In childhood, girls are no more depressed than boys, but more girls than boys are depressed by ages 13 to 15. Although many influences on this emergent gender difference in depression have been proposed, a truly integrated, developmental model is lacking.…
Brase, Gary L; Adair, Lora; Monk, Kale
To the extent that sex differences are mediated by mechanisms such as sex-roles and beliefs, individual differences in these more proximate traits should account for significant portions of relevant sex differences. Differences between women and men in reactions to sexual and emotional infidelity were assessed in a large sample of participants (n = 477), and these target reactions were evaluated as a function of many potential proximate mediators (infidelity implications beliefs, gender-role beliefs, interpersonal trust, attachment style, sociosexuality, and culture of honor beliefs) and as a function of participant sex. Results found a consistent sex difference that was not mediated by any other variables, although a handful of other variables were related to male, but not female, individual differences. These findings suggest particularly promising directions for future research on integrating evolutionarily based sex differences and proximate individual differences.
Lipps, David B; Oh, Youkeun K; Ashton-Miller, James A; Wojtys, Edward M
Gender differences exist in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) cross-sectional area and lateral tibial slope. Biomechanical principles suggest that the direction of these gender differences should induce larger peak ACL strains in females under dynamic loading. Peak ACL relative strain during a simulated pivot landing is significantly greater in female ACLs than male ACLs. Controlled laboratory study. Twenty cadaveric knees from height- and weight-matched male and female cadavers were subjected to impulsive 3-dimensional test loads of 2 times body weight in compression, flexion, and internal tibial torque starting at 15° of flexion. Load cells measured the 3-dimensional forces and moments applied to the knee, and forces in the pretensioned quadriceps, hamstring, and gastrocnemius muscle equivalents. A novel, gender-specific, nonlinear spring simulated short-range and longer range quadriceps muscle tensile stiffness. Peak relative strain in the anteromedial bundle of the ACL (AM-ACL) was measured using a differential variable reluctance transducer, while ACL cross-sectional area and lateral tibial slope were measured using magnetic resonance imaging. A repeated-measures Mann-Whitney signed-rank test was used to test the hypothesis. Female knees exhibited 95% greater peak AM-ACL relative strain than male knees (6.37% [2.53%] vs 3.26% [1.89%]; P = .004). Anterior cruciate ligament cross-sectional area and lateral tibial slope were significant predictors of peak AM-ACL relative strain (R(2) = .59; P = .001). Peak AM-ACL relative strain was significantly greater in female than male knees from donors of the same height and weight. This gender difference is attributed to a smaller female ACL cross-sectional area and a greater lateral tibial slope. Since female ACLs are systematically exposed to greater strain than their male counterparts, training and injury prevention programs should take this fact into consideration.
Hyde, Janet Shibley
Whether men and women are fundamentally different or similar has been debated for more than a century. This review summarizes major theories designed to explain gender differences: evolutionary theories, cognitive social learning theory, sociocultural theory, and expectancy-value theory. The gender similarities hypothesis raises the possibility of theorizing gender similarities. Statistical methods for the analysis of gender differences and similarities are reviewed, including effect sizes, meta-analysis, taxometric analysis, and equivalence testing. Then, relying mainly on evidence from meta-analyses, gender differences are reviewed in cognitive performance (e.g., math performance), personality and social behaviors (e.g., temperament, emotions, aggression, and leadership), and psychological well-being. The evidence on gender differences in variance is summarized. The final sections explore applications of intersectionality and directions for future research.
This paper evaluates gender wage differentials in Georgia between 2000 and 2004. Using ordinary least squares, we find that the gender wage gap in Georgia is substantially higher than in other transition countries. Correcting for sample selection bias using the Heckman approach further increases the gender wage gap. The Blinder Oaxaca decomposition results suggest that most of the wage gap remains unexplained. The explained portion of the gap is almost entirely attributed to industrial variab...
Dronkers, J.; Kornder, N.
We try to explain the differences between the performance (in both reading and math) of 8430 15-year-old daughters and 8526 15-year-old sons in 17 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development destination countries across Europe and Oceania with the PISA 2009 data from 45 origin countries
Dronkers, J.; Kornder, N.
We try to explain the differences between the performance (in both reading and math) of 8430 15-year-old daughters and 8526 15-year-old sons in 17 Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development destination countries across Europe and Oceania with the PISA 2009 data from 45 origin countries or
Full Text Available BACKGROUND Gender equity theory in relation to fertility argues that very low fertility is the result of incoherence in the levels of gender equity in individually-oriented social institutions and family-oriented social institutions. The salience of gender to the fertility transition is strong in theory but not as strong in specification of testable hypotheses as has been pointed out in the literature. OBJECTIVE The paper aims to clarify the specification of gender equity theory through a discussion of the difference between equity and equality and to suggest methods that might be applied to test the theory. METHODS The theory is restated and further developed using literature from different disciplines. The method is described using a decomposition of fertility for women by human capital levels. RESULTS The clarification of the theory includes a reminder that the theory relates to differences in fertility between countries and not to differences in fertility between women in the same country. In comparisons between countries, higher gender equity leads to higher fertility. In comparisons of fertility across women in the same country, higher gender equity does not necessarily imply higher fertility. In relation to measurement, a specification is suggested that effectively compares women across countries controlling for their level of human capital. Simple graphics are used to indicate ways in which fertility between countries may vary. CONCLUSIONS The paper concludes that it is likely the gender equity theory can be tested more readily by examining the behaviour across countries of women with higher levels of human capital.
Obesity explains gender differences in the association between education level and metabolic syndrome in South Korea: the results from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010.
Ko, Ki Dong; Cho, BeLong; Lee, Won Chul; Lee, Hae Won; Lee, Hyun Ki; Oh, Bum Jo
This study aimed to examine the association of educational level with metabolic syndrome (MS) and its risk factors by gender in South Korea. A total of 6178 participants aged 20 years or older from The Fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were included in this study. A generalized linear model and adjusted proportion were used to identify educational disparities in MS, its components, and its risk factors (smoking, high-risk alcohol consumption, obesity, and stress). In women, a clearly inverse association between education level and MS were observed with significant trend, and the decreasing trends of all risk factors across education quartiles were in line with the inverse association. However, the association between education level and MS was not observed with a significant trend among men. An opposite trend of risk factors across education levels was shown in men, with an increasing trend for obesity and decreasing trends for smoking and high-risk alcohol consumption. These findings demonstrate that obesity can explain gender differences in the association between education level and MS in South Korea. © 2013 APJPH.
This study uses analysis of co-variance in order to determine which cognitive/learning (working memory, knowledge integration, epistemic belief of learning) or social/personality factors (test anxiety, performance-avoidance goals) might account for gender differences in SAT-V, SAT-M, and overall SAT scores. The results revealed that none of the cognitive/learning factors accounted for gender differences in SAT performance. However, the social/personality factors of test anxiety and performance-avoidance goals each separately accounted for all of the significant gender differences in SAT-V, SAT-M, and overall SAT performance. Furthermore, when the influences of both of these factors were statistically removed simultaneously, all non-significant gender differences reduced further to become trivial by Cohen's (1988) standards. Taken as a whole, these results suggest that gender differences in SAT-V, SAT-M, and overall SAT performance are a consequence of social/learning factors.
BACKGROUND Gender equity theory in relation to fertility argues that very low fertility is the result of incoherence in the levels of gender equity in individually-oriented social institutions and family-oriented social institutions. The salience of gender to the fertility transition is strong in theory but not as strong in specification of testable hypotheses as has been pointed out in the literature. OBJECTIVE The paper aims to clarify the specification of gender equity theory through a dis...
This paper examines gender differences in different types of social networks. One of the main concepts relevant for studying gender differences is homophily, which refers to the tendency of people to interact more with similar individuals. In this paper homophily is analysed within the structural perspective which explains that the structures of our networks depend primarily on opportunities for social interactions, i.e. the composition and dynamics of the social context in which these intera...
Buffel, V; Van de Velde, S; Bracke, P
This comparative study examines cross-national variation in gender differences in primary and specialized mental health care use in Europe. We investigate to what extent socioeconomic, family-related, and mental health factors explain the gender difference, and how the impact of these groups of determinants on gender differences in mental health care use varies between countries. Data from the Eurobarometer 248 (2005-2006) for 29 European countries is used and country-specific logistic regression analyses are performed. Gender differences in professional care seeking are largely need based. In almost one-third of the countries examined, the gender difference is mainly attributable to women's poorer mental health status. However, in some countries, family and socioeconomic characteristics also have an independent contribution to the gender difference in mental health care use. Women's higher likelihood of a lower socioeconomic position, might partly explain their higher primary care use, while in some countries, it restricts their specialized care use. In addition, some social conditions, as having children and being widowed, seem to function in a few countries as suppressors of women's care use. Our study has shown that the gender difference in mental health care use, with women having a higher care use, is not a consistent European phenomenon and is dependent on the type of care provider, with greater gender inequity in the use of primary health care. The social roles adopted by men and women have in some countries on top of the mental health status a relevant influence on the greater tendency among women to contact a care provider. How the socioeconomic and family characteristics moderate the relation between gender and mental health care use is not straightforward and country dependent.
Nunner-Winkler, Gertrud; Meyer-Nikele, Marion; Wohlrab, Doris
Moral gender differences have been discussed in terms of Kohlbergian stages and content of orientations and taken to correspond to universal stable male and female features. The present study instead focuses on moral motivation and explains differences in terms of role expectations. We assessed moral motivation in 203 adolescents by a newly…
This work presents an overview of the research on gender differences in leadership, examines the impact of sex stereotyping, looks at the organizational effects of various types of leadership, and argues for the acceptance of a diversity of non gender linked leadership styles. The topic of gender differences in leadership style has been of great interest to researchers in the fields of psychology, management, and sociology, especially in recent years, as women have begun to assume more leader...
Gender differences in health-related quality-of-life are partly explained by sociodemographic and socioeconomic variation between adult men and women in the US: evidence from four US nationally representative data sets.
Cherepanov, Dasha; Palta, Mari; Fryback, Dennis G; Robert, Stephanie A
The purpose of this study was to describe gender differences in self-reported health-related quality-of-life (HRQoL) and to examine whether differences are explained by sociodemographic and socioeconomic status (SES) differentials between men and women. Data were from four US nationally representative surveys: US Valuation of the EuroQol EQ-5D Health States Survey (USVEQ), Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS), National Health Measurement Study (NHMS) and Joint Canada/US Survey of Health (JCUSH). Gender differences were estimated with and without adjustment for sociodemographic and SES indicators using regression within and across data sets with SF-6D, EQ-5D, HUI2, HUI3 and QWB-SA scores as outcomes. Women have lower HRQoL scores than men on all indexes prior to adjustment. Adjusting for age, race, marital status, education and income reduced but did not remove the gender differences, except with HUI3. Adjusting for marital status or income had the largest impact on estimated gender differences. There are clear gender differences in HRQoL in the United States. These differences are partly explained by sociodemographic and SES differentials.
Full Text Available This study of female entrepreneurship traditionally has been inspired by gender equality issues. Female entrepreneurs were assumed to experience gender-related discrimination and to experience more difficulties when starting up and running a business than their male counterparts. Today research and policy have been more and more fuelled by the idea that female entrepreneurs are important for economic progress. Even when issues such as barriers and obstacles to female entrepreneurs are raised in the gender and entrepreneurship debate, this is usually done from the perspective that female entrepreneurs are an untapped resource and have potential to contribute to a country’s economic performance. Indeed, although gender equality is one of the arguments underlying the support for female entrepreneurs within the European Union, the argument that female entrepreneurs (have the potential tocontribute to economic performance continues to play a role here. The global growth of female entrepreneurship in the last decades has been accompanied by an increase in the number of studies on female entrepreneurship. Unlike most existing studies, which focus primarily upon female entrepreneurship in Western European countries, the present thesis investigates gender differences in entrepreneurship in the Eastern European countries. Different aspects of entrepreneurship are studied including the individual, the organization and the environment. A systematic distinction is made between direct and indirect gender effects on entrepreneurship to be able to disentangle ‘pure’ gender effects from effects of factors that are correlated with gender.
Christensen, Jakob; Kjeldsen, Marianne Juel; Andersen, Henning; Friis, Mogens Laue; Sidenius, Per
Purpose: The aim of this study was to look at gender differences in unselected populations of patients with epilepsy classified according to the 1989 International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) criteria. Methods...
We study the role of changes in the wage structure and expectations about marriage in explaining the college gender gap reversal. With strongly diminishing marginal utility of wealth and in the presence of a gender wage gap, single women have a greater incentive than single men to invest in
Swinkels, J.C.; van Tilburg, Theo G.; Verbakel, Ellen; Broese Van Groenou, M.I.
Objectives: We examine gender differences in the experienced burden of partner caregivers using the stress-appraisal model. Gender differences can be explained by differences in conditions of burden (primary stressors, help from others, hours of caregiving, and secondary stressors) and how strong
Depression is one of the most prevalent and debilitating diseases. In recent years there has been increased awareness of sex- and gender-specific issues in depression. This narrative review presents and discusses differences in prevalence, symptom profile, age at onset and course, comorbidity, biological and psychosocial factors, the impact of sexual stereotyping, help-seeking, emotion regulation and doctor-patient communication. Typically, women are diagnosed with depression twice as often as men, and their disease follows a more chronic course. Comorbid anxiety is more prevalent in women, whereas comorbid alcohol abuse is a major concern in men. Sucide rates for men are between three and five times higher compared with women. Although there are different symptom profiles in men and women, it is difficult to define a gender-specific symptom profile. Socially mediated gender roles have a significant impact on psychosocial factors associated with risk, sickness behavior and coping strategies. In general, too little attention has been paid to the definition and handling of depression and the gender-related requirements it makes on the healthcare system.
Jürgen Ergun, Selim
Full Text Available This paper reviews the experimental economics literature on gender differences concerning four salient subjects: risk aversion, trust, deception and leadership. We review both experiments conducted in a laboratory and field experiments. We summarize very briefly the main characteristics of the experiments we review and point out the main results related to gender differences. The vast majority of the articles we have revised document gender differences in behavior; differences which could be explained by sex-role stereotypes which could be formed even in early stages of life and/or hormonal differences such as the female hormone oxytocin or estrogen.
Este artículo revisa la literatura en el área de economía experimental sobre las diferencias de género en cuatro temas destacados: aversión al riesgo, confianza, engaño y liderazgo. Se revisan tanto experimentos realizados en laboratorios como experimentos de campo. Resumimos brevemente las principales características de los experimentos que consideramos y señalamos los principales resultados relacionados con las diferencias de género. La gran mayoría de los artículos que hemos revisado documentan diferencias de género en el comportamiento. Estas diferencias podrían explicarse por los estereotipos de roles sexuales que podrían formarse incluso en edades tempranas y / o diferencias hormonales como la hormona femenina oxitocina, o el estrógeno.
Full Text Available This paper examines gender differences in different types of social networks. One of the main concepts relevant for studying gender differences is homophily, which refers to the tendency of people to interact more with similar individuals. In this paper homophily is analysed within the structural perspective which explains that the structures of our networks depend primarily on opportunities for social interactions, i.e. the composition and dynamics of the social context in which these interactions are embedded. Homophily is evident among males and females as early as in childhood, only to be even more prominent in school and adult years. Sex segregation is probably the most evident in the organisational context, where it has detrimental effects on women's careers, as women are generally underrepresented in positions of power and authority. Research in the last two decades pointed to the facts: 1 that men and women have very different types of organisational networks, 2 that successful men and women adopt different strategies to reach similar career objectives and acquire similar resources, and 3 that organisations also need to be actively involved in solving these gender-related issues.
Schmitt, David P; Long, Audrey E; McPhearson, Allante; O'Brien, Kirby; Remmert, Brooke; Shah, Seema H
Men's and women's personalities appear to differ in several respects. Social role theories of development assume gender differences result primarily from perceived gender roles, gender socialization and sociostructural power differentials. As a consequence, social role theorists expect gender differences in personality to be smaller in cultures with more gender egalitarianism. Several large cross-cultural studies have generated sufficient data for evaluating these global personality predictions. Empirically, evidence suggests gender differences in most aspects of personality-Big Five traits, Dark Triad traits, self-esteem, subjective well-being, depression and values-are conspicuously larger in cultures with more egalitarian gender roles, gender socialization and sociopolitical gender equity. Similar patterns are evident when examining objectively measured attributes such as tested cognitive abilities and physical traits such as height and blood pressure. Social role theory appears inadequate for explaining some of the observed cultural variations in men's and women's personalities. Evolutionary theories regarding ecologically-evoked gender differences are described that may prove more useful in explaining global variation in human personality. © 2016 International Union of Psychological Science.
Angelica-Nicoleta NECULĂESEI (ONEA)
.... The same applies in the case of assigned/assumed roles in society based on gender. Cultural dimensions that reflect differences in gender roles, but also elements related to the ethics of sexual difference were highlighted by many researchers...
Arnett, Anne B.; Pennington, Bruce F.; Peterson, Robin L.; Willcutt, Erik G.; DeFries, John C.; Olson, Richard K.
Background: Males are diagnosed with dyslexia more frequently than females, even in epidemiological samples. This may be explained by greater variance in males' reading performance. Methods: We expand on previous research by rigorously testing the variance difference theory, and testing for mediation of the sex difference by cognitive correlates.…
Spierings, N.; Zaslove, A.S.
Empirical studies have demonstrated that compared to almost all other parties, populist radical right (PRR) parties draw more votes from men than from women. However, the two dominant explanations that are generally advanced to explain this disparity - gender differences regarding socio-economic
Buser, Thomas; Dreber, Anna; Mollerstrom, Johanna
Women are often less willing than men to compete, even in tasks where there is no gender gap in performance. Also, many people experience competitive contexts as stressful and previous research has documented that men and women sometimes react differently to acute stressors. We use two laboratory experiments to investigate whether factors related to stress can help explain the gender gap in competitiveness. Experiment 1 studies whether stress responses (measured with salivary cortisol and thr...
Logan, Sarah; Johnston, Rhona
Girls consistently outperform boys on tests of reading comprehension, although the reason for this is not clear. In this review, differences between boys and girls in areas relating to reading will be investigated as possible explanations for consistent gender differences in reading attainment. The review will examine gender differences within the…
Merlino, Luca Paolo; Parrotta, Pierpaolo; Pozzoli, Dario
In this paper, we investigate the sorting of workers in firms to understand gender gaps in labor market outcomes. Using Danish employer-employee matched data, we fiend strong evidence of glass ceilings in certain firms, especially after motherhood, preventing women from climbing the career ladder...
Merlino, L.P.; Parrotta, P.; Pozzoli, D.
In this paper, we investigate the sorting of workers in firms to understand gender gaps in labor market outcomes. Using Danish employer-employee matched data, we find strong evidence of glass ceilings in certain firms, especially after motherhood, preventing women from climbing the career ladder and
Brandt, Mark J; Henry, P J
Authoritarianism may be endorsed in part as a means of managing and buffering psychological threats (e.g., Duckitt & Fisher, 2003; Henry, 2011). Building on this research, the authors postulated that authoritarianism should be especially prevalent among women in societies with high levels of gender inequality because they especially face more psychological threats associated with stigma compared with men. After establishing that authoritarianism is, in part, a response to rejection, a psychological threat associated with stigma (Study 1), the authors used multilevel modeling to analyze data from 54 societies to find that women endorsed authoritarian values more than men, especially in individualistic societies with high levels of gender inequality (Study 2). Results show that the threats of stigma for women are not uniform across different cultures and that the degree of stigma is related to the degree of endorsement of psychologically protective attitudes such as authoritarianism.
Ardila, Alfredo; Rosselli, Monica; Matute, Esmeralda; Inozemtseva, Olga
The potential effect of gender on intellectual abilities remains controversial. The purpose of this research was to analyze gender differences in cognitive test performance among children from continuous age groups. For this purpose, the normative data from 7 domains of the newly developed neuropsychological test battery, the Evaluacion…
Mata, Jessieka; Ghavami, Negin; Wittig, Michele A.
Drawing on social dominance theory and the contact hypothesis, we developed and tested a two-mediator model for explaining gender differences in early adolescents' attitudes toward gay males and lesbians. Data from more than 400 ninth graders were analyzed. As predicted, gender differences in attitudes toward gay males were partially explained by…
Dulmen, A.M. van; Bensing, J.M.
The intimate nature of gynecological health problems requires the physician's specific attention. On the basis of previous findings in primary care, female gynecologists are expected to communicate more affectively than men. This study addressed gender differences in gynecologist communication
Angelica-Nicoleta NECULĂESEI (ONEA)
Culture influences thinking, language and human behaviour. The social environment, in which individuals are born and live, shapes their attitudinal, emotional and behavioural reactions and the perceptions about what is happening around. The same applies in the case of assigned/assumed roles in society based on gender. Cultural dimensions that reflect differences in gender roles, but also elements related to the ethics of sexual difference were highlighted by many researchers. The presentation...
Full Text Available Since the 1990s, several studies involving French centenarians have shown a gender paradox in old age. Even if women are more numerous in old age and live longer than men, men are in better physical and cognitive health, are higher functioning, and have superior vision. If better health should lead to a longer life, why are men not living longer than women? This paper proposes a hypothesis based on the differences in the generational habitus between men and women who were born at the beginning of the 20th century. The concept of generational habitus combines the generation theory of Mannheim with the habitus concept of Bourdieu based on the observation that there exists a way of being, thinking, and doing for each generation. We hypothesized that this habitus still influences many gender-linked behaviours in old age. Men, as “oaks,” seem able to delay the afflictions of old age until a breaking point, while women, as “reeds,” seem able to survive despite an accumulation of health deficits.
Richardson, Jen; Holdcroft, Anita
Subtle genetic and psychological variations are increasingly recognized to contribute to pain and analgesic efficacy and safety. The influence of sex on this relationship remains poorly understood, particularly in humans. The issue is complicated by the overlay of gender onto physical sex, and its associated stereotypes and expectations. Women appear to use more pain-relieving medications than men; however, it remains unclear whether these observations represent true differences in analgesic usage patterns, or reporting bias. Differences in analgesic efficacy relating to body composition, metabolism and hormonal profiles have been demonstrated. Psychological and social elements of gender have also been associated with altered pain experiences and analgesic use profiles, albeit with significant individual variations. Intra-group differences may ultimately prove more important than sex differences. Further research may unravel the various threads linking gender and sex effects on analgesia with the aim of individualizing analgesia to optimize pain relief.
I argue that the magnitude and nature of sex differences in aggression, their development, causation, and variability, can be better explained by sexual selection than by the alternative biosocial version of social role theory. Thus, sex differences in physical aggression increase with the degree of risk, occur early in life, peak in young adulthood, and are likely to be mediated by greater male impulsiveness, and greater female fear of physical danger. Male variability in physical aggression is consistent with an alternative life history perspective, and context-dependent variability with responses to reproductive competition, although some variability follows the internal and external influences of social roles. Other sex differences, in variance in reproductive output, threat displays, size and strength, maturation rates, and mortality and conception rates, all indicate that male aggression is part of a sexually selected adaptive complex. Physical aggression between partners can be explained using different evolutionary principles, arising from the conflicts of interest between males and females entering a reproductive alliance, combined with variability following differences in societal gender roles. In this case, social roles are particularly important since they enable both the relatively equality in physical aggression between partners from Western nations, and the considerable cross-national variability, to be explained.
Platt, Jonathan; Prins, Seth; Bates, Lisa; Keyes, Katherine
Mood disorders, such as depression and anxiety, are more prevalent among women than men. This disparity may be partially due to the effects of structural gender discrimination in the work force, which acts to perpetuate gender differences in opportunities and resources and may manifest as the gender wage gap. We sought to quantify and operationalize the wage gap in order to explain the gender disparity in depression and anxiety disorders, using data from a 2001–2002 US nationally representative survey of 22,581 working adults ages 30–65. Using established Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition methods to account for gender differences in individual-level productivity, our models reduced the wage gap in our sample by 13.5%, from 54% of men’s pay to 67.5% of men’s pay. We created a propensity-score matched sample of productivity indicators to test if the direction of the wage gap moderated the effects of gender on depression or anxiety. Where female income was less than the matched male counterpart, odds of both disorders were significantly higher among women versus men (major depressive disorder OR: 2.43, 95% CI: 1.95–3.04; generalized anxiety disorder OR: 4.11, 95% CI: 2.80–6.02). Where female income was greater than the matched male, the higher odds ratios for women for both disorders were significantly attenuated (Major Depressive Disorder OR: 1.20; 95% CI: 0.96–1.52) (Generalized Anxiety Disorder OR: 1.5; 95% CI: 1.04–2.29). The test for effect modification by sex and wage gap direction was statistically significant for both disorders. Structural forms of discrimination may explain mental health disparities at the population level. Beyond prohibiting overt gender discrimination, policies must be created to address embedded inequalities in procedures surrounding labor markets and compensation in the workplace. PMID:26689629
Platt, Jonathan; Prins, Seth; Bates, Lisa; Keyes, Katherine
Mood disorders, such as depression and anxiety, are more prevalent among women than men. This disparity may be partially due to the effects of structural gender discrimination in the work force, which acts to perpetuate gender differences in opportunities and resources and may manifest as the gender wage gap. We sought to quantify and operationalize the wage gap in order to explain the gender disparity in depression and anxiety disorders, using data from a 2001-2002 US nationally representative survey of 22,581 working adults ages 30-65. Using established Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition methods to account for gender differences in individual-level productivity, our models reduced the wage gap in our sample by 13.5%, from 54% of men's pay to 67.5% of men's pay. We created a propensity-score matched sample of productivity indicators to test if the direction of the wage gap moderated the effects of gender on depression or anxiety. Where female income was less than the matched male counterpart, odds of both disorders were significantly higher among women versus men (major depressive disorder OR: 2.43, 95% CI: 1.95-3.04; generalized anxiety disorder OR: 4.11, 95% CI: 2.80-6.02). Where female income was greater than the matched male, the higher odds ratios for women for both disorders were significantly attenuated (Major Depressive Disorder OR: 1.20; 95% CI: 0.96-1.52) (Generalized Anxiety Disorder OR: 1.5; 95% CI: 1.04-2.29). The test for effect modification by sex and wage gap direction was statistically significant for both disorders. Structural forms of discrimination may explain mental health disparities at the population level. Beyond prohibiting overt gender discrimination, policies must be created to address embedded inequalities in procedures surrounding labor markets and compensation in the workplace. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Baycan, T.; Masurel, E.; Nijkamp, P.
Gender-based differences are the most important topic of discussion in female entrepreneurship studies. While earlier studies focused on psychological and sociological characteristics of female entrepreneurs, assuming there were only a few differences between males and females, more recent studies
E. K. Skiba
The article analyzes the different theoretical approaches to clarifying the causes of inequality of gender identities. The opinion of scientists, following the theory of sex roles who think that gendered people acquire their gender identity from their birth and go with it to the outside world, in order to fill in a gender-neutral social institutions is considered. The article highlights the main tenets of the theory differentiating socialization that explain male dominance as a result of gend...
Yu, Kar-Ming; Wu, Alfred M.; Chan, Wai-Sum; Chou, Kee-Lee
Using a phone survey conducted in 2012, we examined whether there is a gender difference in financial literacy among Hong Kong workers; and if such a difference exists, whether it can be explained by gender differences in sociodemographic variables, social or psychological factors, and/or the outcomes of retirement planning. Results show a gender…
Full Text Available Using the National Science Foundation's SESTAT data, we examine the gender wage gap by race among those working in computer science, life sciences, physical sciences, and engineering. We find that in fields with a greater representation of women (the life and physical sciences, the gender wage gap can largely be explained by differences in observed characteristics between men and women working in those fields. In the fields with the lowest concentration of women (computer science and engineering, gender wage gaps persist even after controlling for observed characteristics. In assessing how this gap changes over time, we find evidence of a narrowing for more recent cohorts of college graduates in the life sciences and engineering. The computer sciences and physical sciences, however, show no clear pattern in the gap across cohorts of graduates.
Koellinger, P.; Minniti, M.; Schade, C.
Using data from representative population surveys in 17 countries, we find that the lower rate of female business ownership is primarily due to women's lower propensity to start businesses rather than to differences in survival rates across genders. We show that women are less confident in their
Ph.D. Koellinger (Philipp); M. Minniti (Maria); C. Schade (Christian)
textabstractUsing data from representative population surveys in 17 countries, we find that the lower rate of female business ownership is primarily due to women's lower propensity to start businesses rather than to differences in survival rates across genders. We show that women are less confident
Angelica-Nicoleta NECULĂESEI (ONEA
Full Text Available Culture influences thinking, language and human behaviour. The social environment, in which individuals are born and live, shapes their attitudinal, emotional and behavioural reactions and the perceptions about what is happening around. The same applies in the case of assigned/assumed roles in society based on gender. Cultural dimensions that reflect differences in gender roles, but also elements related to the ethics of sexual difference were highlighted by many researchers. The presentation of these issues from the interdisciplinary perspective is the subject of this article. Briefly, the article refers to: importance of communication in transmission of roles of those two sexes, cultural dimensions that reflect role differences invarious cultures, discrimination issues and ethics of sexual difference.
Díaz-Mesa, Eva M; García-Portilla, Paz; Fernández-Artamendi, Sergio; Sáiz, Pilar A; Bobes Bascarán, Teresa; Casares, María José; Fonseca, Eduardo; Al-Halabí, Susana; Bobes, Julio
Gender has been associated with substance use disorders (SUD). However, there are few studies that have evaluated gender differences in a global and a standardized way, and with a large sample of patients with SUD. Our goal is to analyze the role of gender in addiction severity throughout multiple life domains, using the Addiction Severity Index-6 (ASI-6). A naturalistic, multicenter and prospective study was conducted. A total of 221 patients with SUD (80.1% men) were interviewed with the ASI-6. Our results indicate that the Recent Summary Scores (RSSs) of men and women are similar, with the exception of Psychiatric and Partner- Problems, where women showed higher severity (p = .017 and p = .013, respectively). Statistically significant gender differences were found in certain aspects of the ASI-6 domains: men have more problems of physical health, legal issues, and alcohol and other substance use; and woman score higher in problems of mental health, social network, subjective evaluations of SUD consequences, and treatment needs. These results should be taken into account to improve the identification, prevention, and treatment of SUD.
Hoffman, Moshe; Gneezy, Uri; List, John A
Women remain significantly underrepresented in the science, engineering, and technology workforce. Some have argued that spatial ability differences, which represent the most persistent gender differences in the cognitive literature, are partly responsible for this gap(.) The underlying forces at work shaping the observed spatial ability differences revolve naturally around the relative roles of nature and nurture. Although these forces remain among the most hotly debated in all of the sciences, the evidence for nurture is tenuous, because it is difficult to compare gender differences among biologically similar groups with distinct nurture. In this study, we use a large-scale incentivized experiment with nearly 1,300 participants to show that the gender gap in spatial abilities, measured by time to solve a puzzle, disappears when we move from a patrilineal society to an adjoining matrilineal society. We also show that about one-third of the effect can be explained by differences in education. Given that none of our participants have experience with puzzle solving and that villagers from both societies have the same means of subsistence and shared genetic background, we argue that these results show the role of nurture in the gender gap in cognitive abilities.
Sasaki, Shoko; Yamagata, Shinji; Shikishima, Chizuru; Ozaki, Koken; Ando, Juko
This study investigated the possible effects of genetic and environmental gender differences in effect on individual differences by using the Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI) with twins. A sex/gender-limitation analysis, a behavior genetics methodology was used to the following: (a) effects of gender-specific genes, (b) gender differences in quantitative genetic effects, (c) effects of gender-specific shared environment, (d) gender differences of quantitative shared environment, and (e) gender differences of quantitative nonshared environment. Participants were adolescent and adult twins, including 111 identical male pairs, 241 identical female pairs, 36 fraternal male pairs, 65 fraternal female pairs, and 58 opposite-gender pairs. The results indicated that although masculinity and femininity were explained by genetic factors to some extent, there were no significant gender differences in the genetic factors. Moreover, because our data did not support a model which explained gender differences in the effects of specific common environment factors, no evidence was found to support the prenatal hormonal hypothesis or the existence of parenting which encouraged children's gender role personality.
Herrmann, Mariesa A.; Rockoff, Jonah E.
Ichino and Moretti (2009) find that menstruation may contribute to gender gaps in absenteeism and earnings, based on evidence that absences of young female Italian bank employees follow a 28-day cycle. We find this evidence is not robust to the correction of coding errors or small changes in specification, and we find no evidence of increased…
Juul, Kristian Vinter; Klein, Bjarke Mirner; Sandström, Rikard; Erichsen, Lars; Nørgaard, Jens Peter
Increased age and female gender are well-known risk factors for the development of desmopressin-induced hyponatremia. However, little focus has been on exploring gender differences in the antidiuretic response to desmopressin. Based on an exploratory analysis from three clinical trials, we report a significant gender difference in the effects of desmopressin on nocturnal urine volume that could not be explained by pharmacokinetic differences. Mean desmopressin concentration profiles were tested for covariates, and age and gender were not statistically significant and only weight was significant for log(C(max)) (P = 0.0183) and borderline significant for log(AUC) (P = 0.0571). The decrease in nocturnal urine volume in nocturia patients treated with desmopressin over 28 days was significantly larger for women at the lower desmopressin melt doses of 10 and 25 μg than for men. The ED(50) for men was modeled to be 43.2 μg and 16.1 μg for women, with the ED(50) men/women estimated to be 2.7 (1.3-8.1 95% CI), corresponding to significantly higher sensitivity to desmopressin in women. An increasing incidence of hyponatremia with increasing dose was found, and at the highest dose level of 100 μg decreases in serum sodium were approximately twofold greater in women over 50 yr of age than in men. A new dose recommendation stratified by gender is suggested in the treatment of nocturia: for men, 50- to 100-μg melt is an efficacious and safe dose, while for women a dose of 25 μg melt is recommended as efficacious with no observed incidences of hyponatremia. Areas for further research are proposed to uncover pathophysiological mechanism(s) behind these gender differences.
Full Text Available The degree of women’s underrepresentation varies by STEM fields. Women are now overrepresented in social sciences, yet only constitute a fraction of the engineering workforce. In the current study, we investigated the gender differences in interests, and used it to explain the differential distribution of women across sub-disciplines of STEM as well as the overall underrepresentation of women in STEM fields. Specifically, we meta-analytically reviewed norm data on basic interests from 52 samples in 33 interest inventories published between 1964 and 2007, with a total of 209,810 male and 223,268 female respondents. We found gender differences in interests to vary largely by STEM field, with the largest gender differences in interests favoring men observed in engineering disciplines (d = .83 to 1.21, and in contrast, gender differences in interests favoring women in social sciences and medical services (d = -.33 and -.40, respectively. Importantly, the gender composition (percentages of women in STEM fields reflects these gender differences in interests. The patterns of gender differences in interests and the actual gender composition in STEM fields were explained by the people-orientation and things-orientation of work environments, and were not associated with the level of quantitative ability required. These findings suggest potential interventions targeting interests in STEM education to facilitate individuals’ ability and career development and strategies to reform work environments to better attract and retain women in STEM occupations.
Eyal, Tal; Epley, Nicholas
Stereotypes are often presumed to exaggerate group differences, but empirical evidence is mixed. We suggest exaggeration is moderated by the accessibility of specific stereotype content. In particular, because the most accessible stereotype contents are attributes perceived to differ between groups, those attributes are most likely to exaggerate actual group differences due to regression to the mean. We tested this hypothesis using a highly accessible gender stereotype: that women are more socially sensitive than men. We confirmed that the most accessible stereotype content involves attributes perceived to differ between groups (pretest), and that these stereotypes contain some accuracy but significantly exaggerate actual gender differences (Experiment 1). We observe less exaggeration when judging less accessible stereotype content (Experiment 2), or when judging individual men and women (Experiment 3). Considering the accessibility of specific stereotype content may explain when stereotypes exaggerate actual group differences and when they do not.
Kurvers, R.H.J.M.; Eijkelenkamp, B.; Van Oers, K.; van Lith, B.; van Wieren, S.E.; Ydenberg, R.C.; Prins, H.H.T.
Personality in animal behaviour describes the observation that behavioural differences between individuals are consistent over time and context. Studies of group-living animals show that movement order among individuals is also consistent over time and context, suggesting that some individuals lead
Vörös, Viktor; Osváth, Péter; Fekete, Sándor
Gender-specific differences in suicidal behaviour have been analysed in a number of recent studies. According to these, several socioeconomic, demographic, psychiatric, familial, help-seeking differences can be identified in protective and risk factors between males and females. Gender is one of the most replicated predictors for suicide. In the framework of the WHO/EURO Multicentre Study on Suicidal Behaviour, more than fifty thousand suicide attempts have been registered so far. Until now data on more than 1200 monitored suicidal events have been collected in Pecs centre. In most countries male suicid rates are higher. In contrast to suicides, rates of suicide attempts are usually higher in females. Concerning the differences in methods, it is a recognised fact that males use violent methods of both suicide and attempted suicide more often than females. The summarised clinical impression suggests that compliance of male patients is poorer than that of females. According to our data, a typical male attempter is characterised as follows: unemployed, never married, lives alone. He tends to use violent methods; if he takes drugs, it is mostly meprobamate or carbamazepine. A lot of male attempters have alcohol problems or dependence. As for the females, we found high odds ratios in the following cases: divorced or widowed, economically inactive, depressive state in the anamnesis. Female attempters are mainly repeaters using the method of self-poisoning, mostly with benzodiazepines. As suicide is a multicausal phenomenon, its therapy and prevention should also be complex and gender differences should be taken into account in building up our helping strategies.
Christine R. Harris
Full Text Available Across many real-world domains, men engage in more risky behaviors than do women. To examine some of the beliefs and preferences that underlie this difference, 657 participants assessed their likelihood of engaging in various risky activities relating to four different domains (gambling, health, recreation, and social, and reported their perceptions of (1 probability of negative outcomes, (2 severity of potential negative outcomes, and (3 enjoyment expected from the risky activities. Women's greater perceived likelihood of negative outcomes and lesser expectation of enjoyment partially mediated their lower propensity toward risky choices in gambling, recreation, and health domains. Perceptions of severity of potential outcomes was a partial mediator in the gambling and health domains. The genders did not differ in their propensity towards taking social risks. A fifth domain of activities associated with high potential payoffs and fixed minor costs was also assessed. In contrast to other domains, women reported being more likely to engage in behaviors in this domain. This gender difference was partially mediated by women's more optimistic judgments of the probability of good outcomes and of
Fernández-Solà, Joaquim; Nicolás-Arfelis, Josep Maria
The incidence, presentation, clinical features, and evolution of several cardiomyopathies have clear gender-related differences. In general, women show a different response to noxious cardiac agents than men, and they differ in myocardial adaptation to a variety of cardiac insults. Specifically in alcohol-induced heart disease, women have shown different alcohol metabolism features and distinct pathophysiologic mechanisms leading to a higher sensitivity to alcohol-induced heart damage. In preclinical alcohol-induced ventricular dysfunction, women were more sensitive to the toxic effects of ethanol than men. In overt alcoholic cardiomyopathy, women showed about the same prevalence of cardiomyopathy as men, despite having consumed far less ethanol. This supports a greater female propensity to alcohol-induced cardiac damage.
Smeby, Lisbeth; Bruusgaard, Dag; Claussen, Bjørgulf
Women have more spells of sickness absence than men but the reasons for this are unknown. We wanted to see if occupation, working conditions, income, health and mental distress may explain this gender difference. In a health survey in 2000-01 of all Oslo inhabitants aged 40, 45, and 59/60 years, 11,072 (48.7%) participated. Survey data were linked to the National Insurance Administration and Statistics Norway for the 8,174 eligible for sickness pay in the next four years. Occupation, working conditions, general health and mental distress were self-reported, and income was from official statistics. Long-term sickness absence (>16 days) was calculated for 2001-04 as cumulative incidence and number of days reimbursed. Cumulative incidence was 50.1% for women and 34.7% for men in the four years after the survey. An age-adjusted female overweight of 48% was only reduced to 41% by adjusting for occupation, working conditions, income, self-reported health and mental distress. Duration of long-term sickness absence was 17 days more for women than for men, and was not influenced by adjustments. We have not explained why women have more sickness absence than men, either by work-related factors or by general health or mental distress. Factors explaining the gender divide should be sought elsewhere.
Shors, Tracey J; Millon, Emma M; Chang, Han Yan M; Olson, Ryan L; Alderman, Brandon L
It is generally accepted that women tend to ruminate more than men do and these thought patterns are often associated with depressive symptoms (Nolen-Hoeksema et al., ). Based on these findings, we considered whether the relationship between rumination and depression is stronger in women than in men and if so, whether this might explain the higher prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) in women and finally, whether the association can be disrupted through a mind/body intervention. Adult men and women, most of whom were clinically depressed, participated in an intervention known as MAP Training, which combines "mental" training with silent meditation and "physical" training with aerobic exercise (Shors et al., ). After eight weeks of training, both men and women reported significantly fewer symptoms of depression and fewer ruminative thoughts (Alderman et al., ). Statistical correlations between depressive symptoms and ruminative thoughts were strong and significant (rho > 0.50; p women before and after MAP Training. However, only in women did depressive symptoms relate to "reflective" ruminations, which involve analyses of past events, feelings, and behaviors. This is also the only relationship that dissipated after the intervention. In general, these analyses suggest that the strength of the relationship between depressive symptoms and rumination does not necessarily explain sex differences in depression; but because the relationship is strong, targeting rumination through intervention can reduce the incidence of MDD, which is more prevalent among women. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Swinkels, Joukje; Tilburg, Theo van; Verbakel, Ellen; Broese van Groenou, Marjolein
We examine gender differences in the experienced burden of partner caregivers using the stress-appraisal model. Gender differences can be explained by differences in conditions of burden (primary stressors, help from others, hours of caregiving, and secondary stressors) and how strong their effects are. The data are from the Netherlands' Older Persons and Informal Caregivers Survey-Minimum Data Set (N = 1,611 caregivers). We examine mediation and moderation effects using structural equation modeling. Women experience greater partner caregiver burden than men, which is related to women experiencing more secondary stressors (relational and financial problems, problems combining different tasks). For women and men alike, there is a positive association between burden and more primary stressors (partner's care need indicated by health impairment), help from other caregivers, and secondary stressors. For male caregivers, caregiving intensity also contributes to a greater burden. This study corroborates the structural impact of gender on the conditions of as well as their effects on the partner caregiver burden. Reducing the hours of caregiving for male caregivers in severe care situations and helping female and male caregivers deal emotionally with the caregiving situation can reduce the partner caregiver burden.
Frandsen, Tove Faber; Jacobsen, Rasmus Højbjerg; Wallin, Johan A
The aim of this study is to compare PhD students' performance with respect to gender using a number of matching methods. The data consists of fine-grained information about PhD-students at the Institute of Clinical Research at the University of Southern Denmark. Men and women are matched controll......The aim of this study is to compare PhD students' performance with respect to gender using a number of matching methods. The data consists of fine-grained information about PhD-students at the Institute of Clinical Research at the University of Southern Denmark. Men and women are matched...... reveals that there is a negligible difference between men and women in terms of published articles. A substantial proportion of women is on maternity leave during the time period analysed and thus we would expect their productivity to be considerably lower. Similarly, we have found very little difference...... between the citation impact of men and women.We find matching methods to be a promising set of methods for evaluating productivity and impact of individuals from various sub-fields, universities and time periods as we are able to discard some of the underlying factors determining the results of analyses...
PICCINELLI, MARCO; WILKINSON, GREG
.... To review putative risk factors leading to gender differences in depressive disorders. A critical review of the literature, dealing separately with artefactual and genuine determinants of gender differences in depressive disorders...
Taasoobshirazi, Gita; Carr, Martha
The purpose of this paper is to propose a new approach to research on gender differences in science that uses the work on expertise in science as a framework for understanding gender differences. Because gender differences in achievement and participation in the sciences are largest in physics, the focus of this review is on physics. The nature of…
Campanini, P; Punzi, Silvia; Carissimi, Emanuela; Gilioli, R
Despite the attention that international Agencies give to the gender issue in situations of workplace bullying, few investigations have been performed on this topic. The aim of the study is describe the gender differences in victims of workplace bullying observed in an Italian survey. A total of 243 subjects (124 males and 119 females) were examined at the Centre for Occupational Stress and Harassment of the "Clinica del Lavoro Luigi Devoto" (University of Milan and IRCCS Foundation); they were selected among patients who met the criteria for being considered victims of negative actions at work leading to workplace bullying. Data regarding the person, workplace and the workplace bullying situation were collected by means of an ad hoc questionnaire. Analysis of the data, compared with those of IS-TAT 2002, showed a higher prevalence of females subjected to negative actions at work. In women, the risk of being subjected to negative actions leading to workplace bullying was shown to increase in the 34-44 age range and to decrease in higher age ranges; in men the risk remained elevated also after 55 years of age. In general, women were victims of negative actions regarding personal values related to emotional-relational factors, while men were attacked on their work performance. Sexual harassment, may mark the onset of other types of psychological harassment or can be one of its components.
Hansen, Claus D.
to move as well as actual patterns of residential mobility among young people from two rural counties in Denmark. Questions raised are how big are the actual differences between the two gender and whether differences in educational aspirations can explain part of these. Data for the presentation are taken......Media stories in Denmark are regularly reporting that young women are moving away from rural areas of Denmark in order to obtain education while young men are more often staying behind. These gender differences are often portrayed as being the result of the young men having more traditional values...... and being more attached to the places they were brought up in rural areas. In addition, differences attitudes towards educational aspirations are prominent in the media discourses explaining these gender differences. In this presentation, we investigate gender differences in place attachment, intentions...
Grosch, Kerstin; Rau, Holger
This paper experimentally analyzes the determinants of the honesty norm in a lying game. The findings confirm common gender differences, i.e., men cheat significantly more than women. We detect a novel correlation between subjects' magnitude of concern they have for others (social value orientation) and their moral valuation of the norm honesty. The data suggest that individualistic subjects are less honest than prosocial ones. Interestingly, this difference can explain the gender differences...
Full Text Available This paper aims to highlight the differences between men and women regarding impressionformation. It is based on secondary analysis of the data gathered in two previous experiments withsimilar conditions. However, the hypotheses formulated within this study have not been testedbefore. The current analysis was conducted on 86 participants, 47 males and 39 females. Their agesranged between 15 and 32, as they were either high school or university students engaged in amaster’s program. Their task consisted of watching a 14 seconds long video of a female confederatereading a neutral text and then evaluating her using a semantic differential with four dimensions:sociability, ethics, power and activity. Based on previous studies, it was hypothesized that men andwomen will form different first impressions of the actor employed in the movie. More precisely, themajority of the studies undertaken in this area compare men and women’s accuracy scores of facialexpressions decoding, yielding mostly significant differences, with women achieving higheraccuracy. A small percentage has addressed other aspects of social perception like: personality traitsor socio-demographic characteristics, yielding similar results. However, the current experimentfailed to reveal any differences between men’s and women’s evaluations. Accuracy assessmentswere disregarded in this study, since establishing unequivocal criteria for personality traitsevaluation is yet to be achieved. The results are consistent with a small percentage of the studiesconducted on gender differences in social perception and allow multiple interpretations.
Jamie Emerson; Brian Hill
Gender differences in outcomes are often explained by gender differences in competitiveness. Using evidence from the outdoor World Championships and Olympics 1,500 meter event, this paper investigates whether gender differences exist in the behavior of runners. Results indicate that there are some gender differences in the competition. Where the gender differences exist, the evidence indicates that there is a difference in the relationship between ability and performance and between peer effe...
Kleinjans, Kristin J.
Occupational segregation by gender is prevalent and can explain some of the gender wage gap. I empirically investigate a possible explanation for this segregation: the gender difference in preferences for competition, which in recent experimental studies has been found to affect economic outcomes....... I find that women's greater distaste for competition decreases educational achievement. It can also explain part of the gender segregation in occupational fields. Specifically, accounting for distaste for competition reduces gender segregation in the fields of Law, Business & Management, Health...
Moon, Byongook; Morash, Merry
The present study of 659 Korean adolescents tests General Strain Theory's (GST) utility in explaining gender differences in delinquency causation. It models the effects of key strains, negative emotions, and a composite measure of several conditioning factors separately for boys and girls and for delinquency. Consistent with the theory, males and…
Dalen, Hanne Marit; Halvorsen, Bente
This report discusses gender differences in the data collected in the OECD household survey on environmental behaviour. The survey asked a sample of 10 000 respondents from 10 countries (Norway, Sweden, Canada, France, Italy, the Netherlands, the Czech Republic, Mexico, Australia and Korea) concerning household behaviour with respect to five areas: recycling, energy and water saving, organic food consumption and transportation. This report identifies and describes gender differences in behaviour, in underlying preferences and in household characteristics in this data. We use regression analyses to identify and test for significant gender differences in preferences, and we use differences in means to test for gender differences in background variables and the total effect of gender on behaviour. In our estimations, where we test for significant gender differences in preferences, we find many significant differences with respect to several of the explanatory variables affecting behaviour. However, there was no clear pattern for most of these gender differences. The only systematic gender difference we found in the estimations was that the belief that they can actually contribute to a better environment seems to be a more important motivator for environmental friendly behaviour for men than it is for women. There are also many significant differences between the genders in the distribution of key background variables, in particular with respect to income, car ownership, participation in the workforce, education and choice of residence. However, these gender differences in preferences and background variables only result in pronounced gender differences in behaviour to a small degree. The exception is transportation, where gender differences are large and significant. Men have a higher probability of owning a car or a motorcycle than women. And given that the respondent owns a car, men drive significantly more than women. For the rest of the behaviour measured in this
E. K. Skiba
Full Text Available The article analyzes the different theoretical approaches to clarifying the causes of inequality of gender identities. The opinion of scientists, following the theory of sex roles who think that gendered people acquire their gender identity from their birth and go with it to the outside world, in order to fill in a gender-neutral social institutions is considered. The article highlights the main tenets of the theory differentiating socialization that explain male dominance as a result of gender differences. We also investigate the vision of this problem by the representatives of the social construction theory, according to which gender is constructed at the same time both by a means of socialization of the entire system and the system of social roles of gender that circulate through all institutions of society and by the individual. As a result of analysis the article shows that the theory of gender roles, as well as differentiating socialization theory believe that a man and a woman are completely different beings, thus establishing and legitimizing dichotomy and hierarchy, while the social-constructionist approach argues that differences within a group of men, as well as within the group of women are greater and stronger than between men and women as a groups. The analysis defines that if the theory of sex roles and socialization theory differentiating believe that gender inequality is an inevitable consequence of gender difference and the difference is the cause of inequality, the social constructionist approach argues that gender inequality is not a natural state, and that the gender difference is the cornerstone which is the basis of justification and legitimization of gender inequalities in social institutions.
Gibb, Sheree J.; Fergusson, David M.; Horwood, L. John
Gender differences in educational achievement were examined in a cohort of 1265 individuals studied from birth to age 25. There was a small but pervasive tendency for females to score better than males on standardised tests and to achieve more school and post-school qualifications. The differences could not be explained by differences in cognitive…
Nowadays, the word sex and its related terms (sexual differences, sexual roles and stereotypes), so common not long ago, seems to have been replaced by gender and its related terms (gender differences, gender roles and stereotypes). We can sometimes find both sex and gender sharing the same space in scientific articles, although referring to different domains. In this paper, I try to explain the need for a model that can integrate both of these complex domains of sex and gender, leading to two independent, although complementary, disciplines: Sexology and Genderology. In both cases, I start from a functional standpoint, which will give meaning to both disciplines' specificities, as it is meant to link contributions from different fields of knowledge. This approach can have consequences for research, education, the experience of women, men, and ambiguous individuals, and therapy.
De Wit, Arjen; Bekkers, René
Women’s philanthropy has drawn much attention during recent years, mostly in studies from the United States or the United Kingdom. Relevant issues are to what extent gender differences in charitable giving exist in another national context and how these differences can be explained. In this study,
Moor, Irene; Lampert, Thomas; Rathmann, Katharina; Kuntz, Benjamin; Kolip, Petra; Spallek, Jacob; Richter, Matthias
There is little evidence on the explanation of health inequalities based on a gender sensitive perspective. The aim was to investigate to what extent health behaviours mediate the association between educational inequalities and life satisfaction of boys and girls. Data were derived from the German part of the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study 2010 (n = 5,005). Logistic regression models were conducted to investigate educational inequalities in life satisfaction among 11- to 15-year-old students and the relative impact of health behaviour in explaining these inequalities. Educational inequalities in life satisfaction were more pronounced in boys than in girls from lower educational tracks (OR 2.82, 95 % CI 1.97-4.05 and OR 2.30, 95 % CI 1.68-3.14). For adolescents belonging to the lowest educational track, behavioural factors contributed to 18 % (boys) and 39 % (girls) in the explanation of educational inequalities in life satisfaction. The relationship between educational track and life satisfaction is substantially mediated by health-related behaviours. To tackle inequalities in adolescent health, behavioural factors should be targeted at adolescents from lower educational tracks, with special focus on gender differences.
McDermott, Elizabeth; Roen, Katrina; Piela, Anna
This study investigates self-harm among young lesbian, gay, bisexual, and trans (LGBT) people. Using qualitative virtual methods, we examined online forums to explore young LGBT people's cybertalk about emotional distress and self-harming. We investigated how youth explained the relationship between self-harm and sexuality and gender. We found…
Syed, Javaid A.
The purpose of the present study was to test the Emotional Stability dimension of the Big Five factors of personality traits theory to predict or explain a relationship with Employee Organizational Commitment, when the relationship between Emotional Stability (ES) and Employee Organizational Commitment (EOC) was moderated by Gender and AgeGroup.…
Foote, Chandra J.
Very little research has been performed which examines gender differences in confidence in highly specified situations. More generalized studies consistently suggest that women are less confident than men (i.e. Sadker and Sadker, 1994). The few studies of gender differences in item-specific conditions indicate that men tend to be more confident in…
Johnson, R W; Sambamoorthi, U; Crystal, S
Information from pension providers was examined to investigate gender differences in pension wealth at midlife. For full-time wage and salary workers approaching retirement age who had pension coverage, median pension wealth on the current job was 76% greater for men than women. Differences in wages, years of job tenure, and industry between men and women accounted for most of the gender gap in pension wealth on the current job. Less than one third of the wealth difference could not be explained by gender differences in education, demographics, or job characteristics. The less-advantaged employment situation of working women currently in midlife carries over into worse retirement income prospects. However, the gender gap in pensions is likely to narrow in the future as married women's employment experiences increasingly resemble those of men.
Wiepking, Pamala; Maas, Ineke
In this paper we describe and explain country differences in the effect of gender on the risk of becoming poor, using data from the Luxembourg Income Study on 22 industrialized countries. Although in most countries women are more likely to become poor than men, this is not the case for all
Hubbard, William H. J.
A growing literature seeks to explain why so many more women than men now attend college. A commonly cited stylized fact is that the college wage premium is, and has been, higher for women than for men. After identifying and correcting a bias in estimates of college wage premiums, I find that there has been essentially no gender difference in the…
Wiepking, P.; Maas, W.A.F.
In this paper we describe and explain country differences in the effect of gender on the risk of becoming poor, using data from the Luxembourg Income Study on 22 industrialized countries. Although in most countries women are more likely to become poor than men, this is not the case for all
Mustard, C; Etches, J
Objectives: There is uncertainty about whether position in a socioeconomic hierarchy confers different mortality risks on men and women. The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic review of gender differences in socioeconomic inequality in risk of death.
Dubois, Pierre; Griffith, Rachel; Nevo, Aviv
Food purchases differ substantially across countries. We use detailed household level data from the US, France and the UK to (i) document these differences; (ii) esti- mate a demand system for food and nutrients, and (iii) simulate counterfactual choices if households faced prices and nutritional characteristics from other countries. We find that differences in prices and characteristics are important and can explain some difference (e.g., US-France difference in caloric intake), but generall...
Hallam, Susan; Rogers, Lynne; Creech, Andrea
Historically, there have been differences in the musical instruments played by boys and girls, with girls preferring smaller, higher-pitched instruments. This article explores whether these gender preferences have continued at a time when there is greater gender equality in most aspects of life in the UK. Data were collected from the 150 Music…
Merrill, Natalie; Gallo, Emily; Fivush, Robyn
Family dinnertime conversations are key settings where children learn behavior regulation, narrative skills, and knowledge about the world. In this context, parents may also model and socialize gender differences in language. The present study quantitatively examines gendered language use across a family dinnertime recorded with 37 broadly…
Koster, A.; Lajer, M.; Lindhardt, A.
In the description of 1 episode schizophrenia patients, female gender is associated with better social function and a higher degree of compliance, while males exhibit more negative symptoms and a higher degree of abuse. The question is raised whether gender specific differences exist which should...
Lee, Seungcheol Austin; Park, Hee Sun; Kim, Wonsun
As gender roles in the society are being rapidly redefined, female students today are showing outstanding academic prowess and pursuing higher education. The current study recruited Korean international students (n = 76) enrolled in universities in the US and examined gender differences in academic adjustment. The findings of the current study…
Semali, Ladislaus M.; Shakespeare, Elizabeth S.
In this article the authors contend that gender inequalities in occupational divisions of labor are better understood in reference to the concept of symbolic patriarchy. The conceptual framework is informed by social constructionist theories that view gender not merely in light of sexual or biological differences but as interwoven, fluid, and…
Averett, Susan L; Stacey, Nicholas; Wang, Yang
Using data from the National Income Dynamics Study, we document differentials in both underweight and obesity across race and gender in post-Apartheid South Africa. Using a nonlinear decomposition method, we decompose these differences across gender within race and then across race within gender. Less than one third of the differences in obesity and underweight across gender are explained by differences in covariates. In contrast, at least 70% of the obesity differences across race are explained by differences in covariates. Behavioral variables such as smoking and exercise explain the largest part of the bodyweight differentials across gender. For bodyweight differentials across race within gender, however, socioeconomic status and background variables have the largest explanatory power for obesity differentials, while background variables play the key role in explaining the underweight differentials. These results indicate that eradicating obesity and underweight differentials will require targeting policies to specific groups. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Grijalva, Emily; Newman, Daniel A; Tay, Louis; Donnellan, M Brent; Harms, P D; Robins, Richard W; Yan, Taiyi
Despite the widely held belief that men are more narcissistic than women, there has been no systematic review to establish the magnitude, variability across measures and settings, and stability over time of this gender difference. Drawing on the biosocial approach to social role theory, a meta-analysis performed for Study 1 found that men tended to be more narcissistic than women (d = .26; k = 355 studies; N = 470,846). This gender difference remained stable in U.S. college student cohorts over time (from 1990 to 2013) and across different age groups. Study 1 also investigated gender differences in three facets of the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI) to reveal that the narcissism gender difference is driven by the Exploitative/Entitlement facet (d = .29; k = 44 studies; N = 44,108) and Leadership/Authority facet (d = .20; k = 40 studies; N = 44,739); whereas the gender difference in Grandiose/Exhibitionism (d = .04; k = 39 studies; N = 42,460) was much smaller. We further investigated a less-studied form of narcissism called vulnerable narcissism-which is marked by low self-esteem, neuroticism, and introversion-to find that (in contrast to the more commonly studied form of narcissism found in the DSM and the NPI) men and women did not differ on vulnerable narcissism (d = -.04; k = 42 studies; N = 46,735). Study 2 used item response theory to rule out the possibility that measurement bias accounts for observed gender differences in the three facets of the NPI (N = 19,001). Results revealed that observed gender differences were not explained by measurement bias and thus can be interpreted as true sex differences. Discussion focuses on the implications for the biosocial construction model of gender differences, for the etiology of narcissism, for clinical applications, and for the role of narcissism in helping to explain gender differences in leadership and aggressive behavior. Readers are warned against overapplying small effect sizes to perpetuate gender
Radojka, Kraljević; Filipović, Zrinka
Millennial generation is considered the largest and best educated and therefore presents challenges to marketers. This paper aims to examine the gender differences in consumer behaviour of students - generation y. The study identifies gender differences in purchase behaviour, loyalty, price sensitivity and shopping habits. The empirical analysis is based on data obtained from a student survey (N=118; M= 40, 68 %, F= 59, 32 %). The data were analysed using chi-square test. Our findings suggest...
Nieken, Petra; Dato, Simon
We compare gender differences in lying under two incentive schemes that are widely used in companies: individual performance-pay and tournament incentives. While we do not observe significantly different behavior of males and females given individual performance-pay, females lie significantly less than males if the compensation scheme is switched to tournament incentives. This result is mainly driven by a decrease in the propensity to lie of females in a competitive environment. The gender ga...
Increasing evidence suggests that men and women differ in their responses to pain. Women report intense pain more often than men afflicted with similar ailments. A variety of psychological, cellular, and hormonal modulations have important roles in the experience of pain. The aims of this course are to update anesthesia providers about the differences between genders in pain sensitivity and treatment and to elucidate the complex aspects of the biology of such differences. Providers need to understand and anticipate gender as a potential factor in pain response and opioid requirements. Continued research in this area may someday provide gender-specific medications for pain treatment and a better understanding of certain prevalent pain conditions between genders.
Jeyapalan Kasipillai; Hijattulah Abdul Jabbar
The purpose of this study is to investigate whether gender and ethnicity differences occur in relation to tax compliance attitude and behavior. Prior studies on tax compliance have focused little on gender as a predictor of compliance. In Malaysia, ethnic background of a taxpayer could be a major determinant of tax compliance. A personal interview approach is used to obtain information from taxpayers in urban towns. A t-test suggests that males and females were found to have similar compliant...
Tomasi, Dardo; Volkow, Nora D.
The neural bases of gender differences in emotional, cognitive, and socials behaviors are largely unknown. Here, magnetic resonance imaging data from 336 women and 225 men revealed a gender dimorphism in the functional organization of the brain. Consistently across five research sites, women had 14% higher local functional connectivity density (lFCD) and up to 5% higher gray matter density than men in cortical and subcortical regions. The negative power scaling of the lFCD was steeper for men...
de Goede, M.
Spatial abilities, such as wayfinding and memorizing object locations, seem to be equally important for every individual. Yet both common belief and scientific literature claim that men and women differ in these abilities. Whereas ‘spatial ability’ used to be considered as a unitary capacity, on
Many drugs have act differently in women and men. Biological differences between women and men lead to sex differences in pharmacokinetics, i.e., in drug absorption, distribution in tissues, metabolism by liver enzymes, and excretion via the kidney and intestine. In addition there are sex differences in pharmacodynamics, leading to a different efficacy of drugs in women and men. The biological differences between women and men may be caused by sex-specific gene expression, by sex-specific epigenetic modifications, and finally by the effect of sex hormones. In addition, gender plays a role in drug efficacy as a sociocultural dimension that may lead to differences between women and men. Frequently drugs are only tested on animals of one sex and thereby optimized for one sex. This is based on the notion that sex differences are not important for clinical drug effects. Furthermore, to date, sex and gender differences have been underestimated in clinical studies, and phase III studies were not prospectively designed to assess sex differences in drug effects. In addition, women and men use drugs differently with respect to compliance, adherence, and self-medication with over-the-counter drugs. Further, it is known that male and female physicians treat women and men as patients differently. In conclusion, drug therapy is not yet optimized for both genders. However, there is increasing awareness that differences between women and men should be respected in order to provide optimal drugs in optimal doses for both genders.
Greene, Jessica; El-Banna, Majeda M; Briggs, Linda A; Park, Jeongyoung
While male nurses have been shown to earn considerably more than female nurses, there is less evidence on gender disparities in salary among nurse practitioners (NPs). This study examines whether the gender gap in NP salaries persists after controlling for differences in work setting and demographic factors. We analyzed the relationship between gender and salary (2011 pretax earnings) among 6591 NPs working as NPs at least 35 h per week, using the 2012 National Sample Survey of Nurse Practitioners. We first conducted bivariate regression analyses examining the relationship between gender and earnings, and then developed a multivariate model that controlled for individual differences in demographic and work characteristics. Male NPs earned $12,859 more than female NPs, after adjusting for individual differences in demographics and work characteristics. The gender gap was $7405 for recent NP graduates, and grew over time. Male NPs earned significantly more than female NPs across all clinical specialty areas. The gender disparities in NP salaries documented here regardless of professional seniority or clinical area should spark healthcare organizations to conduct pay equity assessments of their employees' salaries to identify and ameliorate pay inequality. ©2017 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.
Lusher, Lester; Yasenov, Vasil
Sleep studies suggest that girls go to sleep earlier, are more active in the morning, and cope with sleep deprivation better than boys. We provide the first causal evidence on how gender differences in sleep cycles can help explain the gender performance gap. We exploit over 240,000 assignment-level grades from a quasi-experiment with a community of middle and high schools where students' schedules alternated between morning and afternoon start times each month. Relative to girls, we find tha...
This paper analyses the extent to which gender differences in human capital contribute to explaining the observable wage differential in favour of men and its reduction since the mid-eighties among West German full-time employees in the private sector. Based on a simple analytical framework, the analysis shows that if a large part of the gender wage gap can be attributed to women?s relative deficit with respect to human capital endowment, an equally large part stems from the fact that female ...
Passig, David; Levin, Haya
This study of 90 kindergarten children examined gender differences in learning interest from different designs of multimedia interfaces. Results indicate a significant difference between boys and girls in the influence of the design of interactive multimedia stories on time on task and on level of satisfaction with the interfaces. (Author/LRW)
White, B B
This study examined conflict-resolution interactions of couples, and related marital satisfaction to sequential and nonsequential communication patterns. Couples' satisfaction with marriage has been differentiated on the basis of the degree of coercive versus affiliative communication between partners. Results of this study indicate that this pattern differs, however, for individuals within couples on the basis of gender. Females and males were found to demonstrate different styles of response to dissatisfaction in marriage; men assume a coercive stance toward their partners while women take an affiliative position. Drawing on systemic and gender-difference theoretical perspectives, these patterns are interpreted as attempts by individuals with different world views to resolve conflict. A view is discussed whereby systems and gender differences can be integrated into a unified conceptual formulation upon which to base future development in research and therapeutic interventions.
Demands involving the scheduling and interleaving of multiple activities have become increasingly prevalent, especially for women in both their paid and unpaid work hours. Despite the ubiquity of everyday requirements to multitask, individual and gender-related differences in multitasking have gained minimal attention in past research. In two experiments, participants completed a multitasking session with four gender-fair monitoring tasks and separate tasks measuring executive functioning (working memory updating) and spatial ability (mental rotation). In both experiments, males outperformed females in monitoring accuracy. Individual differences in executive functioning and spatial ability were independent predictors of monitoring accuracy, but only spatial ability mediated gender differences in multitasking. Menstrual changes accentuated these effects, such that gender differences in multitasking (and spatial ability) were eliminated between males and females who were in the menstrual phase of the menstrual cycle but not between males and females who were in the luteal phase. These findings suggest that multitasking involves spatiotemporal task coordination and that gender differences in multiple-task performance reflect differences in spatial ability.
Osborne, Jason W.
Steele's (1992, 1997) stereotype-threat theory attempts to explain underperformance of minority students in academic domains and of women in mathematics. Steele argues that situational self-relevance of negative group stereotypes in testing situations increases the anxiety these students experience and that these differential anxiety levels explain performance differences. Research shows that manipulation of stereotype threat can affect academic performance. However, there has been little research testing whether anxiety does at least partially explain the relationship between race and achievement. The goal of this study was to examine whether anxiety will explain racial differences in academic performance and gender differences in math performance in the context of a nationally representative sample of high school seniors. Partial mediation was observed, with anxiety explaining significant portions of the racial differences in academic performance. Anxiety also partially explained sex differences in math achievement, although the effect sizes were very small. These results provide general support for Steele's stereotype-threat hypothesis. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.
Down through history, biological arguments have often been used to legitimize a social gender order characterized by male supremacy. In the 1990's, a lively debate on the biological grounds of gender differences once again emerged in various fields. In the present article, the biological models used for explaining cognitive and behavioral gender differences are scrutinized, and recent research is discussed in light of history. These biological models emanate from theories about sex hormones, genetics and brain anatomy. Regarding the cognitive effects of sex hormones, no consensus has been reached, indicating a need for further research. Studies of relationships between genetics on the one hand and sexual orientation and behavior on the other are theoretically obscure and have thus far failed to prove a trustworthy connection. While there is indeed a difference in total brain size--men's brains are heavier than women's--it is not known whether this difference has any import beyond the fact that men have larger bodies. The existence of differences in brain lateralization and the size of the corpus callosum have been powerfully dismissed in several recent reviews. The design and interpretation of medical research in this field are still colored by gender-stereotyped preconceptions and expectations, which obstructs efforts to gain a solid understanding of the biological differences/similarities between men and women. The media's interest in publicizing research results on gender differences, irrespective of magnitude or practical significance, further alerts us to the importance of scientific reason. There exists a very real risk today that medical gender research may be reduced to research about differences. If this problem is not addressed, it might lead to the reinforcement of the gendered structures of society.
Few women major in Management Information Systems (MIS). The purpose of this paper is to examine the reasons for women's underrepresentation in MIS. In addition to examining gender differences, an important and novel goal of this study is to examine intra-gender differences in undergraduate students, i.e., differences among female MIS majors and…
Lowes, Susan; Lin, Peiyi; Kinghorn, Brian R. C.
Prior research has suggested that there may be differences in the ways that male and female students approach their online courses. Using data for 802 high school students enrolled in 14 online courses, this study explored gender differences in the interrelationships among online behaviors and course performance. The findings show that females…
Witt, Stephanie L.; Lovrich, Nicholas P.
A study testing hypotheses in the literature about faculty gender differences in reaction to work-related stress found that female faculty experience more stress in general than male faculty, particularly through overly high self-expectation and different management of time constraints. (Author/MSE)
female leadership . Consultants tried to teach male managers to relinquish the command-and-control mode. For women it was different : it just came......3. DATES COVERED (FROM - TO) xx-xx-1997 to xx-xx-1997 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Gender Differences and Leadership A Study Unclassified 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER
Full Text Available We examine factors contributing to the gender gap in employment in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM among men and women with bachelor’s degrees in computer science and engineering, the two largest and most male-dominated STEM fields. Data come from the National Science Foundation’s (NSF Scientists and Engineers Statistical Data System (SESTAT from 1995 to 2008. Different factors are associated with persistence in STEM jobs among computer science and engineering degree holders. Conditional on receiving a degree in computer science, women are 14 percentage points less likely to work in STEM than their male counterparts. Controlling for demographic and family characteristics did little to change this gender gap. Women with degrees in engineering are approximately 8 percentage points less likely to work in STEM than men, although about half of this gap is explained by observed differences between men and women. We document a widening gender gap in STEM employment in computer science, but this gender gap narrows across college cohorts among those with degrees in engineering. Among recent computer science graduates, the gender gap in STEM employment for white, Hispanic, and black women relative to white men is even larger than for older graduates. Gender and race gaps in STEM employment for recent cohorts of engineering graduates are generally small, though younger Asian women and men no longer have an employment advantage relative to white men. Our results suggest that a one-size-fits-all approach to increasing women’s representation in the most male-dominated STEM fields may not work.
Claussen, Bjørgulf; Dalgard, Odd Steffen
We aimed to test the hypothesis that gender divide in disability pensioning is attributable to differences in health, mental distress, occupation, and income. In a health survey between 2000 and 2001, a total of 11,072 (48.7%) of all Oslo inhabitants aged 40, 45, 59, and 60 years participated. Survey data were linked to data from the National Insurance Administration and Statistics Norway for 10,421 of the participants, and 9,195 of those were eligible to receive disability pension at the end of 2000. Occupation, general health, and mental distress were self-reported, while income was obtained from official statistics. Approximately 5% of the eligible sample received a disability pension during the four years following the health survey. The age-adjusted odds of receiving disability pension for women was greater (odds ratio = 1.41) than for men. Self-reported health significantly contributed to the risk of receiving a pension, and seemed to reduce the imbalance in disability rates between the genders, as did adjusting for level of mental distress. Further adjustment for occupation and working conditions reduced the gender divide to an insignificant level, and the inclusion of income level (income three years prior to pensioning) completely eliminated any gender difference in risk of receiving a pension. Gender differences in disability pensioning in Oslo are attributable to women's poorer self-reported health, greater levels of mental distress, lower wages, and more unfavourable working conditions such as job strain and less control over work.
Holmvang, L.; Mickley, H.
PCI is effective for reducing symptoms in patients with stable angina pectoris but does not improve prognosis. In earlier trials PCI has been associated with more procedure related complications in women than men, but this difference between genders has been less pronounced in more recent studies....... In acute coronary syndromes there is no evidence of gender differences regarding the benefit of primary PCI for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. However, several trials of unstable angina and non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction indicate that women do not have the similar benefit...
Matud, M Pilar; Bethencourt, Juan M; Ibáñez, Ignacio
Epidemiological and community-based surveys consistently report gender differences in mental health. This study examines gender differences in psychological distress by analyzing the relevance of stress, coping styles, social support and the time use. Psychological tests were administered to a convenience sample of 1,337 men and 1,251 women from the Spanish general population, aged between 18 and 65 and with different socio-demographic characteristics, although both the women and men groups had similar age and educational levels. Women had more psychological distress than men. Although psychological distress in the women and men groups have some common correlates such as more stress, more emotional and less rational coping and less social support, we find some gender differences. Work role dissatisfaction was more associated with distress in the men than in the women group. In addition, women's distress was associated with more daily time devoted to childcare and less to activities they enjoy, and men's distress was associated with more time devoted to housework and less to physical exercise. Social roles traditionally attributed to women and men - and the differences in the use of time that such roles entail - are relevant in gender differences in psychological distress. © The Author(s) 2014.
Stoberock, Konstanze; Debus, Eike Sebastian; Atlihan, Gülsen; Daum, Günter; Larena-Avellaneda, Axel; Eifert, Sandra; Wipper, Sabine
This overview analyses gender differences in prevalence, epidemiology, risk factors and therapy in patients with carotid stenosis in a systematic review. Ischemic stroke is a leading cause of death in Western society, where about 20% of cases are triggered by a carotid stenosis or occlusion, which occurs more frequently in men than in women. The stroke-protective effect of carotid endarterectomy is greater in men. Men have lower peri-procedural stroke and death rates. Particularly men with carotid stenosis and a life expectancy of at least 5 years benefit from surgical treatment. Also, the recurrence rate of ipsilateral stroke 5 years after initial surgery is lower in men than in women. It is not yet fully clarified whether there are significant gender differences regarding the outcome after endovascular versus surgical treatment. Gender differences in the outcome of carotid artery repair may be caused by biological, anatomical (smaller vessel diameter in women) or hormonal differences as well as a protracted development of atherosclerotic changes in women and different plaque morphology. Moreover, women are on average older at the time of surgery and their surgical treatment is often delayed. To reduce the risk of stroke and to improve treatment outcome especially for women, further research on gender differences and their causes is mandatory and promising.
Iyoho, Anthony E; Ng, Laurel J; MacFadden, Lisa
In January 2013, the Department of Defense lifted a ban that had prevented women from holding combat positions in the military. However, innate differences in physical traits and physiology between men and women likely will result in differences in physical performance. Sex differences in thermoregulation is a key area that needs to be examined due to the potential impact on physical performance. Therefore, we expanded our previously developed thermoregulation model (TRM) to include the effects of gender. Women have been found to have a lower sweat output in heat stress and lesser shivering in cold stress than men; therefore, the equations for sweat mass loss rate and shivering heat generation were modified for women accordingly. The updated TRM showed good agreement with female data collected from exercise in cool to hot conditions, cold air exposure, and cold water immersion. Gender differences in sweat evaporation appear minimal except for sufficiently high exercise-heat combinations. Gender differences in core temperature and heat generation during cold stress are significant. The expanded TRM can be used to assess gender-specific thermal response with future application to predicting performance differences and optimizing warfighter effectiveness for a wide range of military relevant tasks. Reprint & Copyright © 2017 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.
Solange Muglia Wechsler
Full Text Available This study aimed to determine whether performance on tests of crystallized intelligence is affected by gender and to ascertain whether differential item parameters could account for the gender disparities. The sample comprised 1.191 individuals (55% women between the ages of 16 and 77 years old (M=22; SD=9.5. The participants were primarily college students (58.3% living in four Brazilian states. Four verbal tests measuring crystallized intelligence (vocabulary, synonyms, antonyms and verbal analogies were constructed and administered in a group setting. An analysis of variance revealed no significant differences in the overall performance between men and women. However, a differential item functioning analysis indicated significant differences on 8.7% of the items, which indicates the existence of gender bias. Because bias can limit women’s access to social opportunities, the results obtained indicate the importance of reducing item bias in cognitive measures to ensure the accuracy of test results
Smits, Fransje; Huijts, Tim
This study describes differences between 63 countries in treatment for depression and explores explanations for these differences. Treatment for depression is measured as the overall chance that an individual receives treatment, plus as the chance to receive treatment given the presence of depressive symptoms. Using the World Health Survey (2002-2004, N=249,116), we find strong cross-national variation in the chance to receive treatment for depression. Additionally, multilevel regression analyses reveal that urbanization, employment status, marital status, level of education, gender, age, and national wealth all partly explain cross-national differences in the chance to receive treatment for depression. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wang, Mei-Ling; Hsieh, Yi-Hua
Workplace bullying has become an omnipresent problem in most organizations. Gender differences have recently received increasing attention in the workplace bullying domain. Integrating social dominance theory with gender role theory, this study explores whether male minority and supervisor gender are related to the incidence of workplace bullying. Data from 501 public servants employed in the tax administration institute of Taiwan was collected via a questionnaire and analyzed using hierarchical regression. Male minority reported more workplace bullying than did the female majority. Subordinates working with male supervisors had more exposure to bullying than those working with female supervisors. However, male supervisors did not exacerbate the relationship between male minority and workplace bullying, while females exposure to workplace bullying was attenuated when working with male supervisors. These findings confirm the important role of gender differences when predicting bullying at work and support the view that gender is not merely an individual antecedent of bullying, but rather acts as a social factor to influence the incidence of workplace bullying.
Fleischmann, Fenella; de Haas, Annabel
Ethnic minority parents are often less involved with their children's schooling, and this may hamper their children's academic success, thus contributing to ethnic educational inequality. The authors aim to explain differences in parental involvement, using nationally representative survey data from
Bailey, Kimberlyn; Nanthakumar, Ampalavanar; Preston, Scott; Ilie, Carolina C.
Recent research has proposed that the gender gap in academia is caused by differing perceptions of how much talent is needed to succeed in various fields. It was found that, across the STEM/non-STEM divide, the more that graduate students and faculty see success in their own field as requiring as requiring talent, the fewer women participate in that field. This research examines whether undergraduate students share these attitudes. If these attitudes trickle down to the undergraduate population to influence students to choose different fields of study, then undergraduate beliefs should reflect those of graduate students and faculty. Using a large survey of undergraduates across the country, this study aims to characterize undergraduate attitudes and to determine variables that explain the differences between the attitudes of these two populations. Our findings suggest that the two populations have similar beliefs, but that undergraduate beliefs are strongly influenced by information about the gender ratio in each field and that this strong influence greatly differs between STEM and non-STEM fields. These findings seek to help direct future research to ask the right questions and propose plausible hypotheses about gender the imbalance in academia.
Hoffman, Moshe; Gneezy, Uri; List, John A.
Women remain significantly underrepresented in the science, engineering, and technology workforce. Some have argued that spatial ability differences, which represent the most persistent gender differences in the cognitive literature, are partly responsible for this gap. The underlying forces at work shaping the observed spatial ability differences revolve naturally around the relative roles of nature and nurture. Although these forces remain among the most hotly debated in all of the sciences...
Physical activity (PA) is an important part of a healthy lifestyle and reduces risk of certain chronic diseases. Many youth do not currently meet PA guidelines; evidence suggests that girls are less active than boys are at all ages. PA differences need to be understood, so that gender-specific inter...
The purpose of this study therefore is to explore gender differences in adolescents' career aspirations and career development barriers among secondary school students in Kisumu municipality, Kenya. The study was conducted on 348 form four secondary school students. The major findings of this study show that there ...
Thompson, Michael D.
Gender differences among contributing student leadership development resources were examined within the context of theory-based perspectives of leadership-related attributes. The findings suggest that students' increased engagement with institutional constituencies cultivates an environment conducive to students' cognitive development toward…
Chen, Yining; Zhao, Qin
The authors use expectancy theory to evaluate gender differences in key factors that motivate faculty to conduct research. Using faculty survey data collected from 320 faculty members at 10 business schools, they found that faculty members, both men and women, who displayed higher motivation were more productive in research. Among them, pretenured…
Fivush, Robyn; Bohanek, Jennifer G.; Zaman, Widaad; Grapin, Sally
In this study, the authors examined gender differences in narratives of positive and negative life experiences during middle adolescence, a critical period for the development of identity and a life narrative (Habermas & Bluck, 2000; McAdams, 2001). Examining a wider variety of narrative meaning-making devices than previous research, they found…
Lim, Vivien K G
The aim of this research is two-fold. First, it examined individuals' attitudes towards homosexuals in Singapore. Second, it also investigated whether gender differences in attitudes towards homosexuals exist. Respondents comprised 365 students and data were collected through the use of questionnaires. Results generally suggested that respondents harboured negative attitudes towards homosexuals. The prevalence of such ambivalent attitudes seemed to suggest that respondents were still generally quite conservative in their attitudes towards gender roles and homosexuality. Our findings also revealed that, generally, women reported that they were more comfortable in working closely with male homosexuals while the reverse was true for men. Implications of our findings were discussed.
Gardner, Philip D.; Jackson, Linda A.
This study was conducted to investigate the pay expectations of graduating seniors, and specifically, the relationship between gender and pay expectations for one's self and others. The main purpose of the study was to determine if women and men differed in their initial pay expectations. Surveys were received from 447 college seniors, including…
Buser, T.; Dreber, A.; Mollerstrom, J.
Women are often less willing than men to compete, even in tasks where there is no gender gap in performance. Also, many people experience competitive contexts as stressful and previous research has documented that men and women sometimes react differently to acute stressors. We use two laboratory
Eleonore H.M. Smalle
Full Text Available In three experiments, we investigated Hebb repetition learning (HRL differences between children and adults, as a function of the type of item (lexical vs. sub-lexical and the level of item-overlap between sequences. In a first experiment, it was shown that when non-repeating and repeating (Hebb sequences of words were all permutations of the same words, HRL was slower than when the sequences shared no words. This item-overlap effect was observed in both children and adults. In a second experiment, we used syllable sequences and we observed reduced HRL due to item-overlap only in children. The findings are explained within a chunking account of the HRL effect on the basis of which we hypothesize that children, compared with adults, chunk syllable sequences in smaller units. By hypothesis, small chunks are more prone to interference from anagram representations included in the filler sequences, potentially explaining the item-overlap effect in children. This hypothesis was tested in a third experiment with adults where we experimentally manipulated the chunk size by embedding pauses in the syllable sequences. Interestingly, we showed that imposing a small chunk size caused adults to show the same behavioral effects as those observed in children. Departing from the analogy between verbal HRL and lexical development, the results are discussed in light of the less-is-more hypothesis of age-related differences in language acquisition.
Smalle, Eleonore H M; Bogaerts, Louisa; Simonis, Morgane; Duyck, Wouter; Page, Michael P A; Edwards, Martin G; Szmalec, Arnaud
In three experiments, we investigated Hebb repetition learning (HRL) differences between children and adults, as a function of the type of item (lexical vs. sub-lexical) and the level of item-overlap between sequences. In a first experiment, it was shown that when non-repeating and repeating (Hebb) sequences of words were all permutations of the same words, HRL was slower than when the sequences shared no words. This item-overlap effect was observed in both children and adults. In a second experiment, we used syllable sequences and we observed reduced HRL due to item-overlap only in children. The findings are explained within a chunking account of the HRL effect on the basis of which we hypothesize that children, compared with adults, chunk syllable sequences in smaller units. By hypothesis, small chunks are more prone to interference from anagram representations included in the filler sequences, potentially explaining the item-overlap effect in children. This hypothesis was tested in a third experiment with adults where we experimentally manipulated the chunk size by embedding pauses in the syllable sequences. Interestingly, we showed that imposing a small chunk size caused adults to show the same behavioral effects as those observed in children. Departing from the analogy between verbal HRL and lexical development, the results are discussed in light of the less-is-more hypothesis of age-related differences in language acquisition.
Masson, A M; Cadot, M; Ansseau, M
explanation of the high rate of male dropouts and failure in the first year at the university of Liège; also a factor explaining the female domination at the university. In the same way the first choice of studies is moving towards shorter and less difficult orientation (46). In case of failure the model is very similar according to gender: SOP (self oriented perfectionism) and T1 (anxiety) are directly connected; SOP and SPP are in this case better correlated by boys but the path between SPP, sense of incompetence and anxiety is less significant than in girls. In conclusion, providing some modifications according to semantics, the choice of a four factor solution allows for confirmation of the original structure of MPS and for internal consistency. The different components of MPS vary according to gender: SOP and more OOP discriminate men and women; SPP allows for differentiating women with failure. A structural model enhances the role of perfectionism in the cognitive and behavioural contexts; for instance it clarifies its action on fear of failure and success rates according to gender.
Moses, Ikupa; Admiraal, Wilfried F.; Berry, Amanda K.
Low commitment to teaching amongst teachers is a problem facing the teaching profession in many countries. Gender might be an important factor in explaining what kinds of prospective teachers are attracted to teaching. This empirical study examined the relationship between student-teachers' gender, gender roles and commitment to teaching within…
Rhodes, Anne E; Boyle, Michael H; Bridge, Jeffrey A; Sinyor, Mark; Links, Paul S; Tonmyr, Lil; Skinner, Robin; Bethell, Jennifer M; Carlisle, Corine; Goodday, Sarah; Hottes, Travis Salway; Newton, Amanda; Bennett, Kathryn; Sundar, Purnima; Cheung, Amy H; Szatmari, Peter
Suicide is the second leading cause of death in youth globally; however, there is uncertainty about how best to intervene. Suicide rates are typically higher in males than females, while the converse is true for suicide attempts. We review this "gender paradox" in youth, and in particular, the age-dependency of these sex/gender differences and the developmental mechanisms that may explain them. Epidemiologic, genetic, neurodevelopmental and psychopathological research have identified suicidal behaviour risks arising from genetic vulnerabilities and sex/gender differences in early adverse environments, neurodevelopment, mental disorder and their complex interconnections. Further, evolving sex-/gender-defined social expectations and norms have been thought to influence suicide risk. In particular, how youth perceive and cope with threats and losses (including conforming to others' or one's own expectations of sex/gender identity) and adapt to pain (through substance use and help-seeking behaviours). Taken together, considering brain plasticity over the lifespan, these proposed antecedents to youth suicide highlight the importance of interventions that alter early environment(s) (e.g., childhood maltreatment) and/or one's ability to adapt to them. Further, such interventions may have more enduring protective effects, for the individual and for future generations, if implemented in youth.
Pang, Raina D; Zvolensky, Michael J; Schmidt, Norman B; Leventhal, Adam M
Previous research suggests that females may be more motivated to smoke for negative reinforcement (NR) than males. However, it remains unclear whether gender differences in smoking outcome expectancies for negative smoking reinforcement-an important theoretical and clinical target defined as beliefs that smoking alleviates negative affect-exist above and beyond gender differences in depression and/or other outcome expectancies. Relations between gender and negative smoking reinforcement expectancies were examined in two independent samples. Sample 1 consisted of non-treatment seeking daily smokers (Male n = 188; Female n = 91) recruited from Southern California (49.5% Black, 32.2% Caucasian, and 18.3% other race/ethnicity). Sample 2 consisted of treatment seeking daily smokers (Male n = 257; Female n = 237) in Northern Florida and Vermont (10.7% Black, 82.9% Caucasian, and 6.4% other). Females (vs. males) reported stronger NR smoking expectancies with and without statistically controlling for nicotine dependence, other smoking expectancies, and anxiety and depression in both samples (βs = .06 to .14, ps = .06 to gender-specific etiological process disproportionately prominent in women. Enhancing ability to cope with negative affect without smoking or challenge NR expectancies may be particularly important for cessation treatment in women. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Song, Xin; Tabák, Adam G; Zethelius, Björn; Yudkin, John S; Söderberg, Stefan; Laatikainen, Tiina; Stehouwer, Coen D A; Dankner, Rachel; Jousilahti, Pekka; Onat, Altan; Nilsson, Peter M; Satman, Ilhan; Vaccaro, Olga; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Qiao, Qing
To estimate cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality in relation to obesity and gender. Data from 11 prospective cohorts from four European countries including 23 629 men and 21 965 women, aged 24 to 99 years, with a median follow-up of 7.9 years were analyzed. Hazards ratios (HR) for CVD mortality in relation to baseline body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models with age as the timescale. Men had higher CVD mortality than women in all four BMI categories (obesity defined by WC, WHR or WHtR. The gender difference was slightly smaller in obese than in non-obese individuals; but the interaction was statistically significant only between gender and WC (p = 0.02), and WHtR (p = 0.01). None of the interaction terms was significant among non-diabetic individuals. Men had higher CVD mortality than women across categories of anthropometric measures of obesity. The gender difference was attenuated in obese individuals, which warrants further investigation.
Silander, Kaisa; Alanne, Mervi; Kristiansson, Kati; Saarela, Olli; Ripatti, Samuli; Auro, Kirsi; Karvanen, Juha; Kulathinal, Sangita; Niemelä, Matti; Ellonen, Pekka; Vartiainen, Erkki; Jousilahti, Pekka; Saarela, Janna; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Evans, Alun; Perola, Markus; Salomaa, Veikko; Peltonen, Leena
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) incidence, complications and burden differ markedly between women and men. Although there is variation in the distribution of lifestyle factors between the genders, they do not fully explain the differences in CVD incidence and suggest the existence of gender-specific genetic risk factors. We aimed to estimate whether the genetic risk profiles of coronary heart disease (CHD), ischemic stroke and the composite end-point of CVD differ between the genders. We studied in two Finnish population cohorts, using the case-cohort design the association between common variation in 46 candidate genes and CHD, ischemic stroke, CVD, and CVD-related quantitative risk factors. We analyzed men and women jointly and also conducted genotype-gender interaction analysis. Several allelic variants conferred disease risk for men and women jointly, including rs1801020 in coagulation factor XII (HR = 1.31 (1.08-1.60) for CVD, uncorrected p = 0.006 multiplicative model). Variant rs11673407 in the fucosyltransferase 3 gene was strongly associated with waist/hip ratio (uncorrected p = 0.00005) in joint analysis. In interaction analysis we found statistical evidence of variant-gender interaction conferring risk of CHD and CVD: rs3742264 in the carboxypeptidase B2 gene, p(interaction) = 0.009 for CHD, and rs2774279 in the upstream stimulatory factor 1 gene, p(interaction) = 0.007 for CHD and CVD, showed strong association in women but not in men, while rs2069840 in interleukin 6 gene, p(interaction) = 0.004 for CVD, showed strong association in men but not in women (uncorrected p-values). Also, two variants in the selenoprotein S gene conferred risk for ischemic stroke in women, p(interaction) = 0.003 and 0.007. Importantly, we identified a larger number of gender-specific effects for women than for men. A false discovery rate analysis suggests that we may expect half of the reported findings for combined gender analysis to be true positives, while at least third of
Topcu, Cigdem; Erdur-Baker, Ozgur
Gender differences in bullying behavior among adolescents have been observed, but the reasons for the discrepancy in males' and females' bullying experiences has been the focus of few studies. This study examined the role of the cognitive and affective empathy in explaining gender differences in bullying through multiple mediation analysis. The…
Huang, Po-Sheng; Chen, Hsueh-Chih
The main purpose of this study was to examine possible gender differences in how junior high school students integrate printed texts and diagrams while solving science problems. We proposed the response style hypothesis and the spatial working memory hypothesis to explain possible gender differences in the integration process. Eye-tracking…
Ginther, Donna K.; Hayes, Karen J.
From the humanities sample of the Survey of Doctoral Recipients 1977-95, a cross-sectional sample of tenured/tenure-track faculty and a longitudinal sample of doctoral recipients 1975-89 were studied. Gender salary differences were largely explained by rank. Substantial gender differences in tenure were found, with a slight decline in the gap for…
van Beek, Yolanda; Hessen, David J.; Hutteman, Roos; Verhulp, Esmee E.; van Leuven, Mirande
Background: Since developmental psychologists are interested in explaining age and gender differences in depression across adolescence, it is important to investigate to what extent these observed differences can be attributed to measurement bias. Measurement bias may arise when the phenomenology of depression varies with age or gender, i.e., when…
Full Text Available Millennial generation is considered the largest and best educated and therefore presents challenges to marketers. This paper aims to examine the gender differences in consumer behaviour of students - generation y. The study identifies gender differences in purchase behaviour, loyalty, price sensitivity and shopping habits. The empirical analysis is based on data obtained from a student survey (N=118; M=40, 68%, F=59, 32%. The data were analysed using chi-square test. Our findings suggest that women are more sensitive to price than men. They also belong more to the loyalty programs and use more loyalty awards schemes. Although the millennial generation has the reputation for being digital our study shows that they actually like visiting the stores instead of shopping online although the statistically significant difference is not found.
Full Text Available The approach to research on gender differences in an evolutionary context has always been complex. Many factors, from those initially linked to preliminary considerations about the differences between the sexes in different historical and cultural moments have often influenced studies of this type. Gender Medicine, consolidated in the United States as a research field since the 1980s, studies the way in which membership in gender, male or female, affects the development and impact of disease and response to therapy. We can say that this is a new, transverse dimension of Medicine that assesses gender differences in physiology and pathophysiology of many clinical diseases, with the aim of reaching treatment decisions based on evidence in both men and women. In an historical moment focused on the individualization/personalization of care, among the objectives that modern health care has been given, there is this research aimed at identifying as early as possible gender-related diseases with the aim of identifying causes and possible methods of intervention. It leads to defining a kind of Medicine, a recent branch of biomedical science, that focuses on recognizing and analyzing the differences arising from the belonging to a gender, male or female, from several aspects: organic, functional, psychological, pharmacological, social and cultural. A gender approach to Medicine can reduce the level of error in medical practice, promote therapeutic appropriateness, improve and customize therapies and generate savings for healthcare systems. These effects have been demonstrated for adults and need to be confirmed during infancy and childhood. The purpose of this discipline is to innovate and guarantee everyone, man or woman, newborn and children, the best possible treatment based on scientific evidence.
Chung, Wilson C.J.; Auger, Anthony P.
Summary The concept that the brain differs in make-up between males and females is not new. For example, it is well-established that anatomists in the nineteenth century found sex differences in human brain weight. The importance of sex differences in the organization of the brain cannot be overstated as they may directly affect cognitive functions, such as verbal skills and visio-spatial tasks in a sex-dependent fashion. Moreover, the incidence of neurological and psychiatric diseases is also highly dependent on sex. These clinical observations reiterate the importance that gender must be taken into account as a relevant possible contributing factor in order to understand the pathogenesis of neurological and psychiatric disorders. Gender-dependent differentiation of the brain has been detected at every levels of organization: morphological, neurochemical, and functional, and have been shown to be primarily controlled by sex differences in gonadal steroid hormone levels during perinatal development. In this review, we discuss how the gonadal steroid hormone testosterone and its metabolites, affect downstream signaling cascades, including gonadal steroid receptor activation, and epigenetic events in order to differentiate the brain in a gender-dependent fashion. PMID:23503727
Pedrelli, P.; Collado, A.; Shapero, B. G.; Brill, C.; MacPherson, L.
Objectives Comprehensive models elucidating the intricate associations of depressive symptoms, coping motives, alcohol use, alcohol-related problems (ARP) and gender among young adults have been scarcely examined. This study investigated relationships among these variables and the effect of gender on these pathways. Methods College students (N = 163; 49.7% female) completed self-report measures on alcohol consumption, depressive symptoms, coping motives, and ARPs. Results Structural equation modeling showed that the association between depressive symptoms and ARPs was mediated by coping motives in both females and males. However, frequency of heavy alcohol use mediated the association between depressive symptoms and ARPs in females but not in males. Conclusions Different models explain the association between depressive symptoms and ARPs in male and female college students. Prevention programs aimed at reducing ARPs should focus on increasing alcohol screening among students with depressive symptoms, teaching coping skills, and emphasizing moderation in alcohol consumption. PMID:27219280
Pedrelli, Paola; Collado, Anahi; Shapero, Benjamin G; Brill, Charlotte; MacPherson, Laura
Comprehensive models elucidating the intricate associations of depressive symptoms, coping motives, alcohol use, alcohol-related problems (ARPs), and gender among young adults have been scarcely examined. This study investigated relationships among these variables and the effect of gender on these pathways. College students (N = 163; 49.7% female) completed self-report measures on alcohol consumption, depressive symptoms, coping motives, and ARPs. Structural equation modeling showed that the association between depressive symptoms and ARPs was mediated by coping motives in both females and males. However, frequency of heavy alcohol use mediated the association between depressive symptoms and ARPs in females but not in males. Different models explain the association between depressive symptoms and ARPs in male and female college students. Prevention programs aimed at reducing ARPs should focus on increasing alcohol screening among students with depressive symptoms, teaching coping skills, and emphasizing moderation in alcohol consumption.
Álvarez-García, David; Barreiro-Collazo, Alejandra; Núñez, José-Carlos
The objective of the present work is to analyse the prevalence of cyber-aggression and cyber-victimization among adolescents in Asturias (Spain) and to identify possible gender differences. To this end, 3,175 adolescents aged 12 to 18 years were randomly selected from the student population attending compulsory secondary education in Asturias and assessed. They completed three self-reported tests: an ad hoc questionnaire on sociodemographic data and communication technologies management; the ...
Lasrado, Reena A; Chantler, Khatidja; Jasani, Rubina; Young, Alys
This paper examines the social structures, culture, gendered roles, and their implications for suicidal behavior in South India. Exploring the cultural process within the structures of family and society to understand suicide and attempted suicide from the perspectives of survivors, mental health professionals, and traditional healers has not been achieved in the existing suicide-related research studies conducted in India to date. This study aimed to explore the cultural implications of attempted suicide by examining the survivors' life stories, their perceptions, and service providers' interpretations of problem situation. A qualitative design was used drawing on constant comparison method and thematic analysis. The analysis was underpinned by the theoretical concepts of Bourdieu's work. In-depth interviews were conducted with 15 survivors of attempted suicide, eight mental health professionals, and eight traditional healers from Southern India. The study found interactions among visible and invisible fields such as faith, power, control, culture, family, religion, and social systems to have strengthened the disparities in gender and role structures within families and societies and to have impacted survivors' dispositions to situations. The role of culture in causing suicide and attempted suicide is explained by unraveling the negative impact of interacting cultural and structural mechanisms.
Full Text Available The principal object of this paper is to study the effects of extremist propensity, exposure to extremist moral settings and their interaction effect on political violence in sub groups by gender and immigrant background. The situational action theory, as outlined by Wikström is used as a framework. Although previous studies have found empirical evidence for this interaction effect in the light of general offending, no study so far has applied SAT to the study of violent extremism. In doing so, we will also address the stability of the interaction effect by gender and immigrant background. The present study is based on a large web survey on self-reported political violence as a measure for violent extremism. Strong support is found for the hypothesis that the effect of exposure to violent extremist moral settings is depending on the strength or weakness of individual violent extremist propensity. This indicates that exposure to violent extremist moral settings has the strongest effect on political violence for individuals with a high propensity to violent extremism. These results imply that SAT can be used to as a framework to explain individual violent extremism. This pattern is found for boys and girls of both native (Belgian and immigrant background.
Full Text Available Background. Many neurological diseases show differences between genders. We studied gender differences in childhood Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB in an endemic area of Lyme borreliosis in Norway. Methods. In a population based study, all children (<14 years of age with symptoms suspicious of LNB, including all children with acute facial nerve palsy, were evaluated for LNB by medical history, clinical examination, blood tests, and lumbar puncture. LNB was diagnosed according to international criteria. Results. 142 children were diagnosed with LNB during 2001–2009. Facial nerve palsy was more common in girls (86% than in boys (62% p<0.001, but headache and/or neck stiffness as the only symptom was more common in boys (30% than in girls (10% p=0.003. The girls were younger than boys and had a shorter duration of symptoms, but boys had a higher level of pleocytosis than girls. In a multivariate analysis, both gender and having headache and neck stiffness were associated with a higher level of pleocytosis. Conclusion. Girls and boys have different clinical presentations of LNB, and boys have a higher level of inflammation than girls independent of the clinical presentation.
Liu, Ou Lydia; Wilson, Mark; Paek, Insu
Since the 1970s, much attention has been devoted to the male advantage in standardized mathematics tests in the United States. Although girls are found to perform equally well as boys in math classes, they are consistently outperformed on standardized math tests. This study compared the males and females in the United States, all 15-year-olds, by their performance on the PISA 2003 mathematics assessment. A multidimensional Rasch model was used for item calibration and ability estimation on the basis of four math domains: Space and Shape, Change and Relationships, Quantity, and Uncertainty. Results showed that the effect sizes of performance differences are small, all below .20, but consistent, in favor of boys. Space and Shape displayed the largest gender gap, which supports the findings from many previous studies. Quantity showed the least amount of gender difference, which may be explained by the hypothesis that girls perform better on tasks that they are familiar with through classroom practice.
I. V. Ostrova
Full Text Available Objective: to reveal gender differences in brain structural changes after clinical death and to assess the neuroprotective properties of the hormonal agent Gynodian Depot. Materials and methods. The brain neuronal populations were morphometrical-ly studied in adult albino rats of both sexes which had sustained 10-minute cardiac arrest. At minute 30 after resuscitation, oil solution of estradiol with dehydroepiandrosterone was intramuscularly injected into the study group animals in doses of 0.1 and 5 mg/100 g. The comparison group of animals received the equivalent volumes of saline. Gender- and age-matched intact rats served as a control. An image analysis system of cresyl violet-stained paraffin brain sections was used to determine the density and composition of highly ischemia-perfusion-sensitive populations of pyramidal neurons of Layer V of the sensomo-tor cortex, the CA1 and CA4 hippocampal sectors, and Purkinje cells in the lateral cerebellum. Results. It has been established that there are gender differences in brain morphology in health, which are detectable in the postresuscitative period. The site of lesions has been found to be different in resuscitated rats of different gender. At the same time, male brain lesions are more extensive, i.e. these involve to this or that extent all the examined regions: the cerebellum and CA4 hippocamplal sector exhibit neuronal death; the cortex and CA1 hippocampal sector show dystrophic changes in the nerve cells. In the females, neuronal shedding processes were observed in the CA1 hippocampal sector only. Estradiol + dehydroepiandrosterone treatment has been ascertained to prevent nerve cell death only in the males and to fail to affect the density and composition of the neuronal populations under study in the females. Conclusion. The findings suggest that it is important to identify the structural bases of sexual dimorphism in the body’s reaction to ischemic exposure and that it is necessary to
Riegle-Crumb, Catherine; King, Barbara; Grodsky, Eric; Muller, Chandra
This article investigates the empirical basis for often-repeated arguments that gender differences in entrance into science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) majors are largely explained by disparities in prior achievement. Analyses use data from three national cohorts of college matriculates across three decades to consider…
Petrucci, Alessandra; Salvini, Silvana
Climate and society evolve together in a manner that could place already vulnerable areas and their population at a greater risk to extreme weather events. While efforts have been devoted to better planning preparedness and responses to weather extremes, the interactions among various stakeholders who deal with hazard mitigation and response, and the community members, also related with gender and age differences, are not completely understood. In contrast to physical vulnerability, which arises from the potential for environmental extremes to create adverse physiological changes, social vulnerability arises from the potential for these extreme events to cause changes in people's behavior. People can vary in their potential for injury to themselves and their families. They also vary in the potential for destruction of their homes and workplaces, as well as the destruction of the transportation systems and locations for shopping and recreation they use in their daily activities. It is important to recognize that social vulnerability is not randomly distributed either demographically or geographically. In particular, the social vulnerability arising from a lack of psychological resilience, social network integration, economic assets, and political power vary across demographic groups. Some of these components of social vulnerability can be predicted by demographic characteristics such as gender, age, education, income, and ethnicity. This review explores the gender and social difference dimensions of vulnerability and adaptive capacity in relation to climate change.
Cotton, Sue M; Lambert, Martin; Berk, Michael; Schimmelmann, Benno G; Butselaar, Felicity J; McGorry, Patrick D; Conus, Philippe
The aim of this paper was to delineate the impact of gender on premorbid history, onset, and 18 month outcomes of first episode psychotic mania (FEPM) patients. Medical file audit assessment of 118 (male = 71; female = 47) patients with FEPM aged 15 to 29 years was undertaken on clinical and functional measures. Males with FEPM had increased likelihood of substance use (OR = 13.41, p forensic issues (OR = 4.71, p = .008), whereas females were more likely to have history of sexual abuse trauma (OR = 7.12, p = .001). At service entry, males were more likely to be using substances, especially cannabis (OR = 2.15, p = .047), had more severe illness (OR = 1.72, p = .037), and poorer functioning (OR = 0.96, p = .045). During treatment males were more likely to decrease substance use (OR = 5.34, p = .008) and were more likely to be living with family (OR = 4.30, p = .009). There were no gender differences in age of onset, psychopathology or functioning at discharge. Clinically meaningful gender differences in FEPM were driven by risk factors possibly associated with poor outcome. For males, substance use might be associated with poorer clinical presentation and functioning. In females with FEPM, the impact of sexual trauma on illness course warrants further consideration.
Sofiani, D.; Maulida, A. S.; Fadhillah, N.; Sihite, D. Y.
This study investigated the students’ attitude towards science and the effect of gender on students’ attitude. A total of 77 secondary school students participated in this study that were selected randomly in cluster, from various schools of Bandung, Indonesia. The attitude questionnaire consisted of 23 items related to four dimensions: enjoyment, self-confidence, value and motivation. Data collected by questionnaire were converted into interval scale using Method of Successive Interval (MSI) and further analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS). The use of MSI for analyzing the questionnaire data is still fairly new. Results showed that students’ positive attitude towards science was at medium level and there was no significant difference in attitude towards science between the female and male students. The study is of great significance to science teachers in order not to be gender biased when teaching science learning.
Carlé, Allan; Pedersen, Inge Bülow; Knudsen, Nils
OBJECTIVES: We examined the gender-specific symptom prevalences in hypothyroidism and in healthy controls and explored the extent to which symptoms indicative of thyroid status may be different in women and men. DESIGN AND METHODS: Patients newly diagnosed with overt autoimmune hypothyroidism (n...... of questionnaires. The gender-specific distribution of 13 hypothyroidism-associated symptoms and a simple combined score (0-13) was explored in conditional uni- and multivariate models taking into account a broad spectrum of possible confounders. Diagnostic odds ratios (DORs) were calculated as measures...... for the association between participant status (case vs control) and presence of symptoms (yes vs no). RESULTS: In overt autoimmune hypothyroidism, 94·9% of women and 91·3% of men (P = 0·62) reported at least one of the hypothyroidism-associated symptoms, with tiredness as the most common symptom followed by dry skin...
Marks, Harry M
Between 1900 and 1940, at least 100,000 individuals in the southern United States died of pellagra, a dietary deficiency disease. Although half of these pellagra victims were African-American and more than two-thirds were women, contemporary observers paid little attention to these gender and racial differences in their analyses of disease. This article reviews the classic epidemiological studies of Joseph Goldberger and Edgar Sydenstricker, who argued that pellagra was deeply rooted in the political economy of cotton monoculture in the South. The methods that Sydenstricker brought to epidemiology from early work on political economy obscured the role of gender inequalities in pellagra, and his focus on economic underdevelopment led him to ignore the prominent role of African-Americans as pellagra's principal victims. Research methods and traditions, no less than more overt ideologies, played a role in maintaining the subordinate social position of women and African-Americans in the southern United States.
Gili, Margarita; Castro, Adoración; Navarro, Capilla; Molina, Rosa; Magallón, Rosa; García-Toro, Mauro; Roca, Miquel
Depression is one of the most common disorders in primary care and the fourth most disabling medical condition worldwide. Although gender differences in the prevalence of depression are well established, the little available data on gender-related differences in disabilities among depression patients gives controversial results. This study aims to analyse whether there are gender differences in the disabilities experienced by patients with depression. A cross-sectional, multicentre, nationwide epidemiological study was conducted, with 1226 patients. A Case Report Form was used to collect sociodemographic data and the 12-item version of the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule II (WHO-DAS-II) was used to assess functioning. Depression severity was assessed using the Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS). Non-statistically significant differences in functioning were found between males and females. An item-by-item analysis of the WHO-DAS-II shows significant differences between both sexes in specific areas. Women obtained higher scores than men for standing for long periods and walking a long distance. Males scored higher than women in dealing with people you did not know well and maintaining a friendship. Given the descriptive and cross-sectional nature of the study, the results are limited, highlighting the need for further research. Also, other variables that might influence disability, such as medical illnesses, were not considered. The effect of depression on disability is similar for both sexes but not uniform in terms of the impact on different aspects of the quality of life. These findings could be an important factor in the assessment of functioning and management of depression. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Fleischmann, Fenella; de Haas, Annabel
Ethnic minority parents are often less involved with their children's schooling, and this may hamper their children's academic success, thus contributing to ethnic educational inequality. The authors aim to explain differences in parental involvement, using nationally representative survey data from the Netherlands of parents of primary…
Abramo, Joseph Michael
In this case study, the author investigated how students' gender affected their participation in a secondary popular music class in which participants wrote and performed original music. Three same-gendered rock groups and two mixed-gendered rock groups were observed. Would students of different genders rehearse and compose differently? How would…
Full Text Available Abstract Background Schools have the potential to influence their pupils' behaviour through the school's social organisation and culture (non-formal school characteristics, as well as through the formal curriculum. This paper examines whether these school characteristics (which include a measure of quality of social relationships can account for school differences in smoking rates. Methods This study uses a longitudinal survey involving 5,092 pupils in 24 Scottish schools. Pupils' smoking (at age 15/16, cognitive measures, attitude to school and pupils' rating of teacher pupil relationships (at age 13/14 were linked to school level data comprising teacher assessed quality of pupil-staff relationships, school level deprivation, staying on rates and attendance. Analysis involved multi-level modelling. Results Overall, 25% of males and 39% of females reported smoking, with rates by school ranging from 8% to 33% for males and from 28% to 49% for females. When individual socio-economic and socio-cultural factors were controlled for there was still a large school effect for males and a smaller (but correlated school effect for females at 15/16 years. For girls their school effect was explained by their rating of teacher-pupil relationships and attitude to school. These variables were also significant in predicting smoking among boys. However, the school effect for boys was most radically attenuated and became insignificant when the interaction between poor quality of teacher – pupil relationships and school level affluence was fitted, explaining 82% of the variance between schools. In addition, researchers' rating of the schools' focus on caring and inclusiveness was also significantly associated with both male and female smoking rates. Conclusion School-level characteristics have an impact on male and female pupils' rates of smoking up to 15/16 years of age. The size of the school effect is greater for males at this age. The social environment of
Charbonneau, Anna M.; Mezulis, Amy H.; Hyde, Janet Shibley
In this longitudinal study, we examined whether certain types of stressful events and how individuals respond to these events would explain gender differences in depressive symptoms among adolescents. We hypothesized that certain stressful events would mediate the relationship between gender and depressive symptoms. We also hypothesized that…
Nawka, Alexander; Kalisova, Lucie; Raboch, Jiri; Giacco, Domenico; Cihal, Libor; Onchev, Georgi; Karastergiou, Anastasia; Solomon, Zahava; Fiorillo, Andrea; Del Vecchio, Valeria; Dembinskas, Algirdas; Kiejna, Andrzej; Nawka, Petr; Torres-Gonzales, Francisco; Priebe, Stefan; Kjellin, Lars; Kallert, Thomas W
Despite the recent increase of research interest in involuntary treatment and the use of coercive measures, gender differences among coerced schizophrenia patients still remain understudied. It is well recognized that there are gender differences both in biological correlates and clinical presentations in schizophrenia, which is one of the most common diagnoses among patients who are treated against their will. The extent to which these differences may result in a difference in the use of coercive measures for men and women during the acute phase of the disease has not been studied. 291 male and 231 female coerced patients with schizophrenia were included in this study, which utilized data gathered by the EUNOMIA project (European Evaluation of Coercion in Psychiatry and Harmonization of Best Clinical Practice) and was carried out as a multi-centre prospective cohort study at 13 centers in 12 European countries. Sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, social functioning and aggressive behavior in patients who received any form of coercive measure (seclusion and/or forced medication and/or physical restraint) during their hospital stay were assessed. When compared to the non-coerced inpatient population, there was no difference in sociodemographic or clinical characteristics across either gender. However coerced female patients did show a worse social functioning than their coerced male counterparts, a finding which contrasts with the non-coerced inpatient population. Moreover, patterns of aggressive behavior were different between men and women, such that women exhibited aggressive behavior more frequently, but men committed severe aggressive acts more frequently. Staff used forced medication in women more frequently and physical restraint and seclusion more frequently with men. Results of this study point towards a higher threshold of aggressive behavior the treatment of women with coercive measures. This may be because less serious aggressive actions
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate whether gender and ethnicity differences occur in relation to tax compliance attitude and behavior. Prior studies on tax compliance have focused little on gender as a predictor of compliance. In Malaysia, ethnic background of a taxpayer could be a major determinant of tax compliance. A personal interview approach is used to obtain information from taxpayers in urban towns. A t-test suggests that males and females were found to have similar compliant attitude. As for ethnicity, asimilar result was observed. Results of a regression analysis indicate that gender, academic qualification, and the person preparing tax return were statistically significant as determinants of non-compliant attitude. In terms of compliant behavior, a regression analysis revealed that "attitude towards non-compliance" and "receipt of cash income" were two significant explanatory variables of tax non-compliance behavior of understating income knowingly. The findings of this study are useful for policyimplications in identifying groups that require additional attention to increase voluntary tax compliance.
Full Text Available Comprehensive models of learning disorders have to consider both isolated learning disorders that affect one learning domain only, as well as comorbidity between learning disorders. However, empirical evidence on comorbidity rates including all three learning disorders as defined by DSM-5 (deficits in reading, writing, and mathematics is scarce. The current study assessed prevalence rates and gender ratios for isolated as well as comorbid learning disorders in a representative sample of 1633 German speaking children in 3rd and 4th Grade. Prevalence rates were analysed for isolated as well as combined learning disorders and for different deficit criteria, including a criterion for normal performance. Comorbid learning disorders occurred as frequently as isolated learning disorders, even when stricter cutoff criteria were applied. The relative proportion of isolated and combined disorders did not change when including a criterion for normal performance. Reading and spelling deficits differed with respect to their association with arithmetic problems: Deficits in arithmetic co-occurred more often with deficits in spelling than with deficits in reading. In addition, comorbidity rates for arithmetic and reading decreased when applying stricter deficit criteria, but stayed high for arithmetic and spelling irrespective of the chosen deficit criterion. These findings suggest that the processes underlying the relationship between arithmetic and reading might differ from those underlying the relationship between arithmetic and spelling. With respect to gender ratios, more boys than girls showed spelling deficits, while more girls were impaired in arithmetic. No gender differences were observed for isolated reading problems and for the combination of all three learning disorders. Implications of these findings for assessment and intervention of learning disorders are discussed.
Zimmermann, Friederike; Sieverding, Monika
This study focused on young adults' alcohol consumption in social contexts. A dual-process model (including reasoned action and social reaction) was applied by combining the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) and the prototype/willingness model. A key question was whether willingness and actor and abstainer prototype variables would augment the TPB by increasing explained variance. Participants completed questionnaires prior to spending an evening socializing over the weekend (Time 1). Behavioural data were obtained by telephone interviews a few days after the social drinking occasion (Time 2). N=300 people (mean age 25 years) took part in the study. The outcome measure of pure alcohol in grams was calculated based on participants' reports about their consumed drinks. Multigroup path analyses were conducted because of sex differences on behavioural and psychological variables. The TPB explained 35% of the variance in men's and 41% in women's alcohol consumption. Augmentation with prototype perception and willingness contributed significantly to the prediction of intention (DeltaR(2)=.07) and alcohol consumption for men (DeltaR(2)=.14). A significant interaction implied that willingness led to heavy drinking particularly among those men who made negative evaluations of the abstainer prototype. Women's alcohol consumption is explained by TPB variables via a more controlled reasoned-action path only, whereas additional processes (e.g., pursuing the actor image intentionally, rejecting the abstainer image more intuitively) are important for men. The moderating role of gender is discussed in light of traditional gender roles and recent trends in alcohol consumption.
Little investigation has been made to explain why women are less likely than are men to support democracy in Sub-Saharan Africa. This gender difference in politics has been found in numerous studies and may hinder the much needed legitimation of democracy in this region. This paper addresses the question of whether this observed gender gap is due to the omission of social institutions related to gender inequality, something that affects women's daily life and deprives them of autonomy at home...
Simon, Richard M
The relationship between gender, knowledge of biotechnology, attitudes toward biotechnology, and various socio-demographic variables was investigated using the Eurobarometer 52.1. It was found that neither socio-demographics, nor differing levels of scientific knowledge could explain females' greater probability of being pessimistic toward biotechnology. After running separate models for males and females, it was discovered that, for males, more knowledge of biotechnology decreased their probability of being pessimistic about science, but for females more knowledge of biotechnology actually lead to a greater probability of being pessimistic. Further, a gender-education interaction was discovered that revealed that, for males, education and knowledge of biotechnology have independent effects on attitudes, but for females education has no effect on attitudes towards biotechnology when knowledge is controlled. The results for females complicate the deficit model of social support for science, which posits that more knowledge of science always leads to more positive attitudes.
Golan, Yitzhak; Gavriel, Haim; Lazarovich, Tzila; Eviatar, Ephraim
Evaluating gender differences in pathogens involving sinonasal tract disease in patients undergoing nasal surgery for chronic and recurrent rhinosinusitis (C/R RS). Retrospective analysis of 164 positive sinonasal swab cultures taken during endoscopic sinonasal surgery between the years 2006 and 2013. Study population included 79 (48.8%) female patients and 84 (51/2%) males with a mean age of 47.3 (13-88) years. Positive Staphylococcal growth was found in 38 (23.2%) patients, positive anaerobic growth in 25 (15.2%) patients and 67 (40.9%) patients had polymicrobial growth. Staphylococcal growth in the male population was significantly higher compared to the female population (p = 0.04). Odds ratio for a polymicrobial infection in males over 60 years old compared to females was 2.17 (CI 0.63-8.08, 95%). Anaerobes were found to be more frequent in males (17.9%) than in females (12.5%). Species of Streptococci showed no difference between gender and age groups. The results obtained suggest a difference between the causing pathogens in C/R RS between females and males. In the male population, staphylococcal species were found to be significantly more common with a greater tendency to polymicrobial pathogens and higher rates of anaerobes. These results might suggest different management protocols perioperatively in males and females.
Schulte-Rüther, Martin; Markowitsch, Hans J; Shah, N Jon; Fink, Gereon R; Piefke, Martina
Females frequently score higher on standard tests of empathy, social sensitivity, and emotion recognition than do males. It remains to be clarified, however, whether these gender differences are associated with gender specific neural mechanisms of emotional social cognition. We investigated gender differences in an emotion attribution task using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Subjects either focused on their own emotional response to emotion expressing faces (SELF-task) or evaluated the emotional state expressed by the faces (OTHER-task). Behaviorally, females rated SELF-related emotions significantly stronger than males. Across the sexes, SELF- and OTHER-related processing of facial expressions activated a network of medial and lateral prefrontal, temporal, and parietal brain regions involved in emotional perspective taking. During SELF-related processing, females recruited the right inferior frontal cortex and superior temporal sulcus stronger than males. In contrast, there was increased neural activity in the left temporoparietal junction in males (relative to females). When performing the OTHER-task, females showed increased activation of the right inferior frontal cortex while there were no differential activations in males. The data suggest that females recruit areas containing mirror neurons to a higher degree than males during both SELF- and OTHER-related processing in empathic face-to-face interactions. This may underlie facilitated emotional "contagion" in females. Together with the observation that males differentially rely on the left temporoparietal junction (an area mediating the distinction between the SELF and OTHERS) the data suggest that females and males rely on different strategies when assessing their own emotions in response to other people.
Kaartinen, N M; Kananen, K M; Rodriguez-Wallberg, K A; Tomás, C M; Huhtala, H Sa; Tinkanen, H I
Does extended embryo culture have a different effect on the birthweight of girls and boys? The mean birthweight of boys born after fresh and frozen-thawed blastocyst transfer was increased compared with those born after cleavage stage embryo transfer. This effect was not detected among girls. Previous studies indicate that newborns from frozen-thawed cleavage stage embryos may present with a higher weight than newborns from fresh embryo transfers. With regard to fresh embryos, newborns after a blastocyst transfer have been reported as having higher birthweights than newborns from cleavage stage embryos. Retrospective multicentre case-control cohort study. All IVF/ICSI treatments were performed in the time-period from January 2008 to March 2014. Birthweight of singletons born at full-term (≥37 weeks), after fresh or frozen blastocyst embryo transfers (n = 277), were compared with weights of children born after fresh or frozen cleavage stage embryo transfers (Day 2-3) (n = 277). The cases and controls were matched by delivery week, and by gender. Data of IVF/ICSI treatments, and the treatments' outcomes were collected and analysed. The birthweight after a fresh blastocyst transfer was significantly higher (mean 3530.6 g) than that after a transfer of cleavage stage embryos (mean 3418.8 g; weight difference 111.8 g, P = 0.047). The weights of newborns after frozen-thawed blastocyst transfers (mean 3647.5 g) and the frozen-thawed cleavage stage embryo transfers (mean 3650.9 g), were similar (weight difference 3.4 g, P = 0.95). The boys born after transfer of frozen-thawed blastocysts had a significantly higher birthweight (mean 3767.9 g) than girls (3525.2 g; weight difference 242.7 g, P = 0.002), whereas the difference of birthweights between genders was only 13.5 g in cleavage stage (P = 0.863). The same effect was seen after fresh blastocyst transfers (weight difference 211.5 g, P = 0.011), but not after fresh Day 2-3 embryo transfers (weight difference 53.6 g, P
Häkkänen-Nyholm, Helinä; Putkonen, Hanna; Lindberg, Nina; Holi, Matti; Rovamo, Tuija; Weizmann-Henelius, Ghitta
Approximately 10% of the homicides in Finland are committed by females. This study was designed to compare offence circumstances and crime scene behaviour among female and male homicide offenders. The forensic examination reports and crime reports of all female offenders prosecuted for a homicide between 1995 and 2004 were collected and content analysed (n=91). A sample of male offenders was selected for a comparison group. In addition to several bivariate analyses, two multidimensional scaling analyses were conducted to identify the underlying structure of the offence characteristics-related variables in male and female offenders. The results showed that family members were the victims of female offenders more frequently than of male offenders. Child victims were almost always killed by females. No significant difference emerged between the gender groups in the proportion of victims being former intimate partners. The results also showed that different offence characteristics relate to offender gender and type of victim. In male offenders, covering the body relates to moving and hiding an acquaintance victim's body, while in females it relates to emotional detachment and family member victim. For females, post-offence behaviours that relate to seek for help and regret were more frequent than for males. There were only marginal differences in the use of violence between females and males.
Shafer, Kevin; Pace, Garrett T
Prior research has focused on the relationship between parenthood and psychological well-being, with mixed results. Some studies have also addressed potential gender differences in this relationship, again yielding varied findings. One reason may be methodological choices pursued in these studies, including the lack of focus on combined parental roles (for example, biological parent and stepparent). The authors used data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1979 (N = 6,276) and multinomial treatment models to address how combined roles influence depressive symptoms in mothers and fathers. Further, they explored potential gender differences. Their results indicated that having multiple parental roles is negatively associated with psychological well-being for both men and women, whereas childlessness is more negative for women, and specific parental role combinations affect mothers and fathers differently. Within the context of changing family structure in the United States, these results have important implications for social workers and other mental health professionals-particularly with regard to screening for depression among parents, who are less likely to seek mental health counseling than childless adults.
Luo, Lingling; Zhou, Chunfang; Zhang, Song
in Mainland China and 703 students in Taiwan. Based on data analysis, we find common characteristics, gender differences, and regional differences in the creativity of female postgraduate students. The female students in both regions are less confident in their abilities in scientific research and innovative......This article aims to study both similarities and differences in female students’ creativity between Mainland China and Taiwan. As two main aspects influencing creativity, playfulness and humor are especially focused on in this comparative study. Empirical data were collected from 831 students...... behavior than males. The female students in Mainland China are less confident in playfulness, humor, and creative life experience than their counterparts. The female students in Taiwan are more masculine than their counterparts in Mainland China....
Minna Maria Pöysti
Full Text Available The proportion of male caregivers is rapidly increasing. However, there are few large scale studies exploring gender differences in the burden or coping with caregiving. We investigated this among caregivers of patients with dementia. The study cohort consisted of 335 dyads of wife-husband couples from two studies including dementia patients and their spousal caregivers. Baseline mini-mental state examination (MMSE, clinical dementia rating scale (CDR, neuropsychiatric inventory (NPI, cornell depression scale and charlson comorbidity index (CCI were used to describe patients with dementia, Zarit burden scale and geriatric depression scale were used to measure experienced burden and depression of caregivers. Mean age of caregivers was 78 years. There were no differences in depression, satisfaction with life, or loneliness according to caregivers' gender. Male caregivers had more comorbidities than females (CCI 1.9 versus 1.1, P<0.001, and the wives of male caregivers had a more severe stage of dementia than husbands of female caregivers (CDR, P=0.048; MMSE14.0 versus 17.7, P<0.001. However, the mean Zarit burden scale was significantly lower among male than female caregivers (31.5 versus 37.5; P<0.001. Lower education of male caregivers tended to be associated with less experienced burden. In conclusion, male caregivers of dementia experienced lower burden than female caregivers despite care recipients' more severe disease.
Kwan, Rita O; Cureton, Elizabeth L; Dozier, Kristopher C; Victorino, Gregory P
Gender differences among trauma recidivist patients are not well-understood. We hypothesized that males are more likely to be repeatedly involved in the trauma system and have a shorter time to recurrence between repeat episodes of injury compared with females. A retrospective analysis of trauma patients treated at an urban university-based trauma center was performed. Variables including gender, race, insurance status, age, mechanism of injury, outcomes, and injury secondary to domestic violence were compared. Differences were compared using χ(2) tests and log-rank (Mantel-Cox) Kaplan-Meier cumulative event curves. We identified 689 trauma recidivist patients (4.0% of all trauma visits) over a 10-y period. Compared to single-visit patients, recidivist patients were more likely to be male (87% versus 73%), uninsured (78% versus 66%), and have injuries secondary to assaults (54% versus 37%) (P trauma visit was shorter for females compared with males (23 ± 2.5 versus 30 ± 1.2 mo, P trauma than were male recidivists (69% versus 43%, P trauma patients have a much shorter time to recurrence for a second traumatic injury than do males. Female recidivists have a high likelihood of assault-associated injuries and domestic violence. Trauma centers should screen for domestic violence among trauma patients to aid in preventing further repeat episodes of injury. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Over the last three decades, topics relating to young peoples leisure time have become increasingly more present in academic literature. Among the numerous studies that delve into this subject, results point towards a relationship between the way teenagers spend their leisure time and their gender. In this study we wanted to answer the question if gender differences were evident in the way secondary school students in Serbia spent their leisure time. This problem was not looked into in more detail among secondary school students in Serbia. We conducted a survey on a sample of 922 secondary school teenagers from the 1st to 4th grade(ages 15–19 from nine Serbian towns. Research in this field commonly uses the rating scale. In this paper we have constructed an instrument that represents a methodological innovation in approaching a particular set of problems. It was a questionnaire. The task was to name all the activities they participated in, and the time frame in which the activities took place, over the course of one weekday and the Saturday of the previous week. The activities which best differentiate these two groups of surveyed teenagers are: sports, studying, computer use, spending time at friends’ homes and grooming. We did not discover differences in participating in creative activities while foreign studies show that such activities are more typical for girls.
Kaushanskaya, Margarita; Marian, Viorica; Yoo, Jeewon
In prior work, women were found to outperform men on short-term verbal memory tasks. The goal of the present work was to examine whether gender differences on short-term memory tasks are tied to the involvement of long-term memory in the learning process. In Experiment 1, men and women were compared on their ability to remember phonologically-familiar novel words and phonologically-unfamiliar novel words. Learning of phonologically-familiar novel words (but not of phonologically-unfamiliar novel words) can be supported by long-term phonological knowledge. Results revealed that women outperformed men on phonologically-familiar novel words, but not on phonologically-unfamiliar novel words. In Experiment 2, we replicated Experiment 1 using a within-subjects design, and confirmed gender differences on phonologically-familiar, but not on phonologically-unfamiliar stimuli. These findings are interpreted to suggest that women are more likely than men to recruit native-language phonological knowledge during novel word-learning. 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Solange Muglia Wechsler; Tatiana de Cassia Nakano; Simone Ferreira da Silva Domingues; Helena Rinaldi Rosa; Roselaine Berenice Ferreira da Silva; José Humberto da Silva-Filho; Carla Alexandra da Silva Moita Minervino
This study aimed to determine whether performance on tests of crystallized intelligence is affected by gender and to ascertain whether differential item parameters could account for the gender disparities...
Delaney, Liam; Harmon, Colm; Remond, Cathy
Despite the increasing coverage and prevalence of equality legislation and the general alignment of key determining characteristics such as educational attainment, gender differentials continue to persist in labour market outcomes, including earnings. Recently, evidence has been found supporting the role of typically unobserved non-cognitive factors in explaining these gender differentials. We contribute to this literature by testing whether gender gaps in the earnings expectations of a repre...
Huy Van Nguyen
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In Vietnam, as doctor of medicine is socially considered a special career, both men and women who are enrolled in medical universities often study topics of medicine seriously. However, as culturally expected, women often perform better than men. Because of this, teaching leadership and management skill (LMS to develop academic planning activity (APA for female medical students would also be expected to be more effective than male counterparts. This research aimed to compare by gender the effect of teaching LMS on increasing APA, using propensity score matching (PSM. METHODS: In a cross-sectional survey utilizing a self-reported structured questionnaire on a systematic random sample of 421 male and female medical students in Hanoi Medical University, this study adopted first regression techniques to construct a fit model, then PSM to create a matched control group in order to allow for evaluating the effect of LMS education. RESULTS: There were several interesting gender differences. First, while for females LMS education had both direct and indirect effects on APA, it had only direct effect on males' APA. Second, after PSM to adjust for the possible confounders to balance statistically two groups - with and without LMS education, there is statistically a significant difference in APA between male and female students, making a net difference of 11% (p<.01, equivalent to 173 students. The difference in APA between exposed and matched control group in males and females was 9% and 20%, respectively. These estimates of 9.0 and 20.0 percentage point increase can be translated into the practice of APA by 142 males and 315 females, respectively, in the population. These numbers of APA among male and female students can be explained by LMS education. CONCLUSIONS: Gender appears to be a factor explaining in part academic planning activity.
Ross, John A.; Scott, Garth; Bruce, Catherine D.
Recent research demonstrates that in many countries gender differences in mathematics achievement have virtually disappeared. Expectancy-value theory and social cognition theory both predict that if gender differences in achievement have declined there should be a similar decline in gender differences in self-beliefs. Extant literature is…
Grant, Kathryn; Marsh, Patricia; Syniar, Gina; Williams, Megan; Addlesperger, Elisa; Kinzler, Mi Hyon; Cowman, Shaun
Two studies tested for gender differences in rates of depression among undergraduates using three conceptualizations of depression. Results provide no evidence of gender differences in rates of depressed mood in either sample. However, in both samples, gender differences in rates of depressive disorder were found, with male students more likely…
Full Text Available The subject matter of this paper is an analysis of stereotypical social reactions to women’s alcoholism in the micro and macro social and cultural environment. The social stigma and blame that female alcohol abusers are exposed to have become part of deeply rooted gender-related labels. In a broader social context, they lead to discrimination and social exclusion. In the contemporary society, female alcoholism is turning into a growing social and health problem and because of that it is essential to make the social environment more sensitive to the issue of female alcoholism in order to eliminate the causes of female alcoholism and fully support women’s medical treatment,. It would have a preventive effect in suppressing female alcoholism and it would significantly reduce victimization of women who are, in such circumstances, much more vulnerable and exposed to physical and sexual violence. The aim of this paper is to point out to the basic phenomenological and etiological feature of female alcoholism, prejudices and stereotypical attitudes they are exposed to, social and cultural implications of female alcoholism, which is perceived as a predisposition for women’s victimization and exposure to violence, so as to promote a different social approach to female alcoholism and advocate for instituting social and educational policy based on the concept of gender equality and support of social control measures.
Full Text Available This study takes part of the project Women and entrepreneurship from a competence perspective and aims to investigate the role of skills and abilities in explaining the women entrepreneurship. In this sense, it works on the idea that women entrepreneurs have specific competences, understood as the sum of skills and abilities, that characterize and determine the type of female entrepreneurship (typology, sector, size, innovation, creativity. Methodologically, it worked from a qualitative approach, supported by conducting semi-structured interviews of men and women from different socio-economic and business profiles. From an inductive and interpretive discursive analysis, it can be concluded that businessmen and businesswomen agree to grant several skills and abilities to women entrepreneurs, although there are significant differences between the perceptions of women and men, subsisting some gender stereotypes in defining the profile of women entrepreneurs.
Riley, Elizabeth; Okabe, Hidefusa; Germine, Laura; Wilmer, Jeremy; Esterman, Michael; DeGutis, Joseph
Sustained attentional control is critical for everyday tasks and success in school and employment. Understanding gender differences in sustained attentional control, and their potential sources, is an important goal of psychology and neuroscience and of great relevance to society. We used a large web-based sample (n = 21,484, from testmybrain.org) to examine gender differences in sustained attentional control. Our sample included participants from 41 countries, allowing us to examine how gender differences in each country relate to national indices of gender equality. We found significant gender differences in certain aspects of sustained attentional control. Using indices of gender equality, we found that overall sustained attentional control performance was lower in countries with less equality and that there were greater gender differences in performance in countries with less equality. These findings suggest that creating sociocultural conditions which value women and men equally can improve a component of sustained attention and reduce gender disparities in cognition.
Leblanc, Vicky; Bégin, Catherine; Corneau, Louise; Dodin-Dewailly, Sylvie
Background : Differences between men and women with respect to dietary intakes and eating behaviours have been reported and could be explained by gender differences in motivational variables associated with the regulation of food intake. The main objectives of the present study were to identify gender differences in dietary intakes, eating behaviours and motivational variables and to determine how motivational variables were associated with dietary intakes and eating behaviours in men and wom...
Ndum, Edwin; Allen, Jeff; Way, Jason; Casillas, Alex
We examined the role of six psychosocial factors (PSFs) in explaining gender gaps in English Composition (n = 8,633) and College Algebra (n = 2,261) using data of first-year female (55%) and male students from 42 colleges. Using a multilevel model and controlling for prior achievement, we found that PSFs mediated between 3% and 41% of the gender…
Immerzeel, Tim; Coffe, Hilde; van der Lippe, Tanja
It is common wisdom in radical right research that men are over-represented among the radical right electorate. We explore whether a radical right gender gap exists across 12 Western European countries and examine how this gap may be explained. Using the European Values Study (2010), we find a
Matias García Terán
Full Text Available Different authors claim that the differences found in the social skills repertoire of men and women could be explained by gender orientation. The purpose of this study is to determine if there are gender differences in social skills in university students from Córdoba (Argentina. The Social Skills Questionnaire for College Students (SSQ-C (Morán, Olaz & Del Prette, in preparation was applied to a sample of 1076 university students of both sexes, aged between 18 and 25 years old, from 56 undergraduate programs distributed on five public and private universities of the city of Córdoba, Argentina. A multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA was conducted to analyze the existence of differences between men and women. We found differences in favour of men in social skills for affective and sexual approach, and in favour of women in conversational skills, refusal assertiveness and empathic skills and expression of positive feelings; there were no differences in social skills for academic and workplace settings. The results and their possible practical implications are discussed.
Ilayperuma, Isurani; Nanayakkara, B G; Hasan, R; Uluwitiya, S M; Palahepitiya, K N
Coracobrachialis (CBM) is a complex muscle with a wide range of variations in its morphology and innervation. The goal of this study was to elucidate the morphology, morphometry, gender differences of CBM and precise anatomical position of the musculocutaneous nerve (MCN) with reference to surrounding anatomical landmarks in an adult Sri Lankan population. Cadaveric upper limbs (n = 312) were examined for the proximal and distal attachments, length, width, thickness of CBM and its relationship with the MCN. The CBM originated from the tip of the coracoid process of the scapula and lateral, posterior and medial aspects of the tendon of short head of biceps brachii. Gender differences were observed in all morphometrical parameters of CBM. In 83.33 %, MCN perforated the CBM. In 50 % the MCN pierced the middle one-third of CBM while none pierced the lower one-third. The distance from the coracoid process to the point of entry of MCN into CBM (distance P) was 50.62 mm. A positive correlation was observed between the arm length and distance P indicating that arm length provides an accurate and reliable means of gauging the distance P of an individual. The present study provides new evidence pertaining to the origin of CBM. Further, it was revealed that the predicted distance P of any upper extremity can be calculated by dividing the arm length by 5. Precise anatomical location of MCN in relation to CBM using unequivocal and well-defined anatomical landmarks will be imperative in modern surgical procedures.
Kurtz-Costes, Beth; Copping, Kristine E.; Rowley, Stephanie J.; Kinlaw, C. Ryan
We measured age and gender differences in children's awareness and endorsement of gender stereotypes about math, science, and verbal abilities in 463 fourth, sixth, and eighth graders. Children reported their perceptions of adults' beliefs and their own stereotypes about gender differences in academic abilities. Consistent with study…
Kosiara-Pedersen, Karina; Hansen, Kasper Møller
Is there a relationship between party leader gender and voters' assessments? Yes, according to theses on gender identity and stereotyping. A voter survey during the 2011 Danish general election allows for a comprehensive analysis of a less likely case with four male and four female party leaders...... positive towards party leaders of their own gender than voters with less education. Also, the relationship between gender and voters’ assessments is not stronger prior to the election campaign than immediately after the election. Hence, in sum, gender identity does not seem to require a higher level...... of gender does not increase with age, actually, the opposite is the case among men since younger male voters have smaller sympathy for female party leaders. Furthermore, there is no support for the expectation that voters with more education or with higher levels of political interest and knowledge are more...
Elba Mauleón; Cinzia Daraio; Maria Bordons
The under-representation of women in science and technology is a matter of current great concern. Obtaining patent-based indicators by gender is crucial to analyse the situation of women in innovation, identify potential cases of gender inequalities, and support policy measures to promote gender balance. In this article we analyse men and women involvement in Spanish patents applied to the European Patent Office during 1990--2004. At least one female inventor is present in 18% of the patents;...
Endendijk, Joyce J; Groeneveld, Marleen G; van der Pol, Lotte D; van Berkel, Sheila R; Hallers-Haalboom, Elizabeth T; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; Mesman, Judi
This longitudinal study examines the association between child gender and child aggression via parents' physical control, moderated by parents' gender-role stereotypes in a sample of 299 two-parent families with a 3-year-old child in the Netherlands. Fathers with strong stereotypical gender-role attitudes and mothers were observed to use more physical control strategies with boys than with girls, whereas fathers with strong counterstereotypical attitudes toward gender roles used more physical control with girls than with boys. Moreover, when fathers had strong attitudes toward gender roles (stereotypical or counterstereotypical), their differential treatment of boys and girls completely accounted for the gender differences in children's aggressive behavior a year later. Mothers' gender-differentiated parenting practices were unrelated to gender differences in child aggression. © 2016 The Authors. Child Development © 2016 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.
Campanelli, Francesco; Landoni, Giovanni; Cabrini, Luca; Zangrillo, Alberto
The world population is mostly male at birth, although there is a shift in predominance over 55 years of age with more females than males. Male gender was recently hypothesized to be a risk factor for sepsis and septic shock; the reasons and the consequences of this odd discrepancy are yet a matter of debate. We investigated the percentage of males and females in a large number of trials performed on septic adult patients admitted to Intensive Care Units. We analysed all the multicentre randomized controlled trials ever published in peer-reviewed Journals reporting a significant effect on mortality in intensive care unit septic adult patients; furthermore, we retrieved all the manuscripts dealing with sepsis or septic shock patients published in the last 3 years in the three medical Journals with the highest impact factor. We analysed data from 12 multicentre randomized controlled trials (for a total of 5080 patients, 61% males) and from further 22 trials published in the New England Journal of Medicine, the Lancet, and the Journal of the American Medical Association (for a total of 493,066 patients, 54% males). Data on gender ratio in survivors were not available. Data from 34 large studies on 498,146 septic adult patients clearly showed a prevalence of males despite the expected female predominance. Further studies are required to explain the reasons, to evaluate if a difference is present in survival rate, and to identify gender-tailored preventive measures and treatments.
Faro, Mònica; Sàez-Francás, Naia; Castro-Marrero, Jesús; Aliste, Luisa; Fernández de Sevilla, Tomás; Alegre, José
Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a chronic condition that predominantly affects women. To date, there are few epidemiologic studies on CFS in men. The objective of the study was to assess whether there are gender-related differences in CFS, and to define a clinical phenotype in men. A prospective, cross-sectional cohort study was conducted including CFS patients at the time of diagnosis. Sociodemographic data, clinical variables, comorbid phenomena, fatigue, pain, anxiety/depression, and health quality of life, were assessed in the CFS population. A comparative study was also conducted between genders. The study included 1309 CFS patients, of which 119 (9.1%) were men. The mean age and symptoms onset were lower in men than women. The subjects included 30% single men vs. 15% single women, and 32% of men had specialist work vs. 20% of women. The most common triggering factor was an infection. Widespread pain, muscle spasms, dizziness, sexual dysfunction, Raynaud's phenomenon, morning stiffness, migratory arthralgias, drug and metals allergy, and facial oedema were less frequent in men. Fibromyalgia was present in 29% of men vs. 58% in women. The scores on physical function, physical role, and overall physical health of the SF-36 were higher in men. The sensory and affective dimensions of pain were lower in men. The clinical phenotype of the men with CFS was young, single, skilled worker, and infection as the main triggering agent. Men had less pain and less muscle and immune symptoms, fewer comorbid phenomena, and a better quality of life. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights reserved.
In addition, individual semi-structured interviews and focus group interviews were conducted with 8 students (male = 4; female = 4) from the 2009 cohort of grade 6 students. The findings in the study revealed a gender gap in mathematics achievement in favour of girls. Key factors associated with the gender gap included the ...
Rask, Kevin; Tiefenthaler, Jill
There is a gender imbalance in undergraduate economics departments with most departments educating a strong majority of young men. This imbalance has led many economists to ponder the question of why relatively few women choose to take courses and major in economics. Our hypothesis is that the gender imbalance in undergraduate economics,…
Jagsi, Reshma; Griffith, Kent A; Stewart, Abigail; Sambuco, Dana; DeCastro, Rochelle; Ubel, Peter A
It is unclear whether male and female physician researchers who perform similar work are currently paid equally. To determine whether salaries differ by gender in a relatively homogeneous cohort of physician researchers and, if so, to determine if these differences are explained by differences in specialization, productivity, or other factors. A US nationwide postal survey was sent in 2009-2010 to assess the salary and other characteristics of a relatively homogeneous population of physicians. From all 1853 recipients of National Institutes of Health (NIH) K08 and K23 awards in 2000-2003, we contacted the 1729 who were alive and for whom we could identify a mailing address. The survey achieved a 71% response rate. Eligibility for the present analysis was limited to the 800 physicians who continued to practice at US academic institutions and reported their current annual salary. A linear regression model of self-reported current annual salary was constructed considering the following characteristics: gender, age, race, marital status, parental status, additional graduate degree, academic rank, leadership position, specialty, institution type, region, institution NIH funding rank, change of institution since K award, K award type, K award funding institute, years since K award, grant funding, publications, work hours, and time spent in research. The mean salary within our cohort was $167,669 (95% CI, $158,417-$176,922) for women and $200,433 (95% CI, $194,249-$206,617) for men. Male gender was associated with higher salary (+$13,399; P = .001) even after adjustment in the final model for specialty, academic rank, leadership positions, publications, and research time. Peters-Belson analysis (use of coefficients derived from regression model for men applied to women) indicated that the expected mean salary for women, if they retained their other measured characteristics but their gender was male, would be $12,194 higher than observed. Gender differences in salary exist
Motivated by theoretical arguments (see e.g. Romer (2010) and Mokyr (2008)) that assert a positive impact of institutions on R&D, this paper aims to provide some empirical analysis on the relationship between the two variables. In particular, using a core sample of 98 countries over the period 19....... This paper has also found evidence that the effect of institutions varies in different economies characterized by different levels of financial development and human capital accumulation, but stays relatively unchanged across countries with different levels of trade openness....
Lokshin, Michael; Mroz, Thomas A.
The authors study complex interactions between gender and poverty in postwar Bosnia and Herzegovina. The goal of their analysis is to uncover how a spectrum of gender differentials at different parts of the life cycle varies across income groups. Using the data from the 2001 Bosnia and Herzegovina Living Standards Measurement Study, the authors find strong gender-poverty interaction in the...
Tesch-Romer, Clemens; Motel-Klingebiel, Andreas; Tomasik, Martin J.
These analyses explore the relationship between gender inequality and subjective well-being. The hypothesis was tested as to whether societal gender inequality is related to the size of gender differences in subjective well-being in various societies. Results come from comparative data sets (World Values Survey, involving 57 countries; OASIS…
Vahokoski, Juha; Martinez, Silvia Muñico; Ignatev, Alexander; Lepper, Simone; Frischknecht, Friedrich; Sidén-Kiamos, Inga; Sachse, Carsten; Kursula, Inari
Actins are highly conserved proteins and key players in central processes in all eukaryotic cells. The two actins of the malaria parasite are among the most divergent eukaryotic actins and also differ from each other more than isoforms in any other species. Microfilaments have not been directly observed in Plasmodium and are presumed to be short and highly dynamic. We show that actin I cannot complement actin II in male gametogenesis, suggesting critical structural differences. Cryo-EM reveals that Plasmodium actin I has a unique filament structure, whereas actin II filaments resemble canonical F-actin. Both Plasmodium actins hydrolyze ATP more efficiently than α-actin, and unlike any other actin, both parasite actins rapidly form short oligomers induced by ADP. Crystal structures of both isoforms pinpoint several structural changes in the monomers causing the unique polymerization properties. Inserting the canonical D-loop to Plasmodium actin I leads to the formation of long filaments in vitro. In vivo, this chimera restores gametogenesis in parasites lacking actin II, suggesting that stable filaments are required for exflagellation. Together, these data underline the divergence of eukaryotic actins and demonstrate how structural differences in the monomers translate into filaments with different properties, implying that even eukaryotic actins have faced different evolutionary pressures and followed different paths for developing their polymerization properties. PMID:24743229
... thus explores gender differences in pretend play in children between the ages of 3 and 5 years, in the pre-school section of a local primary school in Durban, KwazuluNatal, regarding gender influences on pretend play. The paper further examines the implications of the findings for child-care and gender role socialization
Gender Differences in Communication Patterns of Females... want to know how things work, why they speak and work the way they do. What then is the meaning of gender? Gender is a social and cultural constructs which describes roles, status, expectation, relationship and obligations for males and females based on their ...
Aamod Dhoj Shrestha
Conclusions: The result of this study provided evidence that there are gender differences in reporting of symptoms, mode of diagnosis and certain self-management behaviors. Therefore there is a need to design gender specific behavior change communication strategies for better management of type 2 diabetes. Keywords: diabetes care; gender; self-efficacy; self-management.
... that gender differences arise from institutionalised social structures that influence the personal values of small business owners. It is therefore recommended that the socialisation processes both boys and girls go through in Ghana are made gender-neutral. Keywords: Gender, Personal Value Systems, Small Businesses ...
Individual differences in gender role perceptions have been described copiously in the psychological literature. The effects of education and gender have been established cross-culturally. The joint effects of education and gender have not however been discussed adequately, especially among African populations where ...
Holm, Claus; Steenholdt, Niels
In this paper we use a learner perspective on learning outcomes which reflects that some students taking accounting classes are also provided with on-the-job training in accounting firms. Hence knowledge about learning outcomes for different groups of students is essential information for educators...... as well as the accounting profession. This paper extends prior research on the role of declarative and procedural knowledge in performing auditing tasks. Measuring learning outcomes is a complex matter requiring sensible measures for both declarative knowledge (ability to verbalize pertinent facts...... or processes) and procedural knowledge (intellectual skills). The performance of 75 graduate accounting students representing both types of schema is examined. The findings suggest that differences in learning outcomes may be attributed to differences in student background and prior knowledge (auditing...
Holm, Claus; Steenholdt, Niels
In this paper we use a learner perspective on learning outcomes which reflects that some students taking accounting classes are also provided with on-the-job training in accounting firms. Hence knowledge about learning outcomes for different groups of students is essential information for educators...... as well as the accounting profession. This paper extends prior research on the role of declarative and procedural knowledge in performing auditing tasks. Measuring learning outcomes is a complex matter requiring sensible measures for both declarative knowledge (ability to verbalize pertinent facts...... or processes) and procedural knowledge (intellectual skills). The performance of 75 graduate accounting students representing both types of schema is examined. The findings suggest that differences in learning outcomes may be attributed to differences in student background and prior knowledge (auditing...
Coffé, Hilde; Bolzendahl, Catherine
We investigate gender gaps in political participation with 2004 ISSP data for 18 advanced Western democracies (N: 20,359) using linear and logistic regression models. Controlling for socio-economic characteristics and political attitudes reveals that women are more likely than men to have voted and engaged in 'private' activism, while men are more likely to have engaged in direct contact, collective types of actions and be (more active) members of political parties. Our analysis indicates that demographic and attitudinal characteristics influence participation differently among men and among women, as well as across types of participation. These results highlight the need to move toward a view of women engaging in differing types of participation and based on different characteristics.
Goldrick-Rab, Sara; Pfeffer, Fabian T.
Reducing socioeconomic differences in college transfer requires understanding how and why parental education, occupational class, and family income are associated with changing colleges. Building on prior studies of traditional community college transfer, the authors explore relationships between those factors and two types of transfer among…
van Eeden-Moorefield, Brad; Pasley, Kay; Crosbie-Burnett, Margaret; King, Erin
This Internet-based study used data from a convenience sample of 176 gay men in current partnerships to examine differences in outness, cohesion, and relationship quality between three types of gay male couples: first cohabiting partnerships, repartnerships, and gay stepfamilies. Also, we tested whether relationship quality mediated the link…
Kok, Renske; Avendano, Mauricio; d'Uva, Teresa Bago; Mackenbach, Johan
Depression is one of the leading causes of disability in the developed world. Previous studies have shown varying depression prevalence rates between European countries, and also within countries, between socioeconomic groups. However, it is unclear whether these differences reflect true variations in prevalence or whether they are attributable to…
Kaushanskaya, Margarita; Gross, Megan; Buac, Milijana
In prior work with adults, women were found to outperform men on a paired-associates word-learning task, but only when learning phonologically-familiar novel words. The goal of the present work was to examine whether similar gender differences in word learning would be observed in children. In addition to manipulating phonological familiarity, referent familiarity was also manipulated. Children between the ages of 5 and 7 learned phonologically-familiar or phonologically-unfamiliar novel words in association with pictures of familiar referents (animals) or unfamiliar referents (aliens). Retention was tested via a forced-choice recognition measure administered immediately after the learning phase. Analyses of retention data revealed stronger phonological and referent familiarity effects in girls than in boys. Moreover, girls outperformed boys only when learning phonologically-familiar novel words and when learning novel words in association with familiar referents. These findings are interpreted to suggest that females are more likely than males to recruit native-language phonological and semantic knowledge during novel word learning.
Kaushanskaya, Margarita; Gross, Megan; Buac, Milijana
In prior work with adults, women were found to outperform men on a paired-associates word-learning task, but only when learning phonologically-familiar novel words. The goal of the present work was to examine whether similar gender differences in word learning would be observed in children. In addition to manipulating phonological familiarity, referent familiarity was also manipulated. Children between the ages of 5 and 7 learned phonologically-familiar or phonologically-unfamiliar novel words in association with pictures of familiar referents (animals) or unfamiliar referents (aliens). Retention was tested via a forced-choice recognition measure administered immediately after the learning phase. Analyses of retention data revealed stronger phonological and referent familiarity effects in girls than in boys. Moreover, girls outperformed boys only when learning phonologically-familiar novel words and when learning novel words in association with familiar referents. These findings are interpreted to suggest that females are more likely than males to recruit native-language phonological and semantic knowledge during novel word learning. PMID:24039377
Wight Daniel; Ecob Russell; Henderson Marion; Abraham Charles
Abstract Background Schools have the potential to influence their pupils' behaviour through the school's social organisation and culture (non-formal school characteristics), as well as through the formal curriculum. This paper examines whether these school characteristics (which include a measure of quality of social relationships) can account for school differences in smoking rates. Methods This study uses a longitudinal survey involving 5,092 pupils in 24 Scottish schools. Pupils' smoking (...
Hwang, Jee-In; Chang, Hyejung
Personnel in public hospitals had relatively low job satisfaction despite of tenure employment. High turnover rates degrade hospital image and incur additional costs related to recruitment and training. The purposes of this study were to describe the occupational differences and to identify factors affecting turnover intention among public hospital personnel. A questionnaire survey was conducted as part of Administrative Services Quality Evaluation Program by Seoul metropolitan municipality from 1 November to 1 December in 2003. The subjects were 1251 entire hospital personnel in four hospitals. The questionnaire was designed to measure job satisfaction, organizational commitment, turnover intention, and demographic characteristics. Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine factors influencing turnover intention. There were significant differences in job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and turnover intention according to the occupations. The turnover intention rates were highest among physicians, followed by paramedicals and nursing staffs and then administrators. The significant factors affecting turnover intention were involvement and loyalty among physicians, hospital type, satisfaction with systems and loyalty among nursing staffs, satisfaction with relationship and loyalty among administrators, and loyalty among paramedicals. There were different moderators that influence turnover intentions of hospital personnel. Loyalty had the most important effect upon turnover intention in all occupations. 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd
Hallam, Jessica; Boswell, Rebecca G; DeVito, Elise E; Kober, Hedy
Food craving is often defined as a strong desire to eat. Much work has shown that it consistently and prospectively predicts eating and weight-related outcomes, contributing to the growing obesity epidemic. Although there are clear gender differences in the prevalence and health consequences of obesity, relatively little recent work has investigated gender differences in craving, or any sex-hormone-based differences as they relate to phases of the menstrual cycle. Here, we propose that gender-related differences in food craving contribute to gender-related differences in obesity. Drawing on findings in the addiction literature, we highlight ways to incorporate gender-based differences in food craving into treatment approaches, potentially improving the efficacy of obesity and weight loss treatment. Overall, this review aims to emphasize the importance of investigating gender differences in food craving, with a view towards informing the development of more effective treatments for obesity and weight loss.
Sia, Drissa; Onadja, Yentéma; Hajizadeh, Mohammad; Heymann, S Jody; Brewer, Timothy F; Nandi, Arijit
Women are disproportionally affected by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). The determinants of gender inequality in HIV/AIDS may vary across countries and require country-specific interventions to address them. This study aimed to identify the socio-demographic and behavioral characteristics underlying gender inequalities in HIV/AIDS in 21 SSA countries. We applied an extension of the Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition approach to data from Demographic and Health Surveys and AIDS Indicator Surveys to quantify the differences in HIV/AIDS prevalence between women and men attributable to socio-demographic factors, sexual behaviours, and awareness of HIV/AIDS. We decomposed gender inequalities into two components: the percentage attributable to different levels of the risk factors between women and men (the "composition effect") and the percentage attributable to risk factors having differential effects on HIV/AIDS prevalence in women and men (the "response effect"). Descriptive analyses showed that the difference between women and men in HIV/AIDS prevalence varied from a low of 0.68 % (P = 0.008) in Liberia to a high of 11.5 % (P HIV/AIDS among women in Uganda and Ghana, respectively, was explained by the different distributions of HIV/AIDS risk factors, particularly age at first sex between women and men. In the majority of countries, however, observed gender inequalities in HIV/AIDS were chiefly explained by differences in the responses to risk factors; the differential effects of age, marital status and occupation on prevalence of HIV/AIDS for women and men were among the significant contributors to this component. In Cameroon, Guinea, Malawi and Swaziland, a combination of the composition and response effects explained gender inequalities in HIV/AIDS prevalence. The factors that explain gender inequality in HIV/AIDS in SSA vary by country, suggesting that country-specific interventions are
Full Text Available There is a well documented health disparity between several European countries and the United States. This health gap remains even after controlling for socioeconomic status and risk factors. At the same time, we note that the U.S. market structure is characterized by significantly more large corporations and "super-sized" retail outlets than Europe. Because big business is hierarchical in nature and has been reported to engender urban sprawl, inferior work environments, and loss of social capital, all identified as correlates of poor health, we suggest that differences in market structure may help account for some of the unexplained differences in health across Europe and North America. Using national level data, this study explores the relationship between market structure and health. We investigate whether individuals who live in countries with proportionately more small business are healthier than those who do not. We use two measures of national health: life expectancy at birth, and age-standardized estimates of diabetes rates. Results from ordinary least squares regressions suggest that, there is a large and statistically significant association between market structure (the ratio of small to total businesses and health, even after controlling income, public percent of health expenditure, and obesity rates. This association is robust to additional controls such as insufficient physical activity, smoking, alcohol disease, and air pollution.
Endendijk, J. J.; Groeneveld, M.G.; Van der Pol, L.D.; van Berkel, S. R.; Hallers-Haalboom, E.T.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J.; Mesman, J.
This longitudinal study examines the association between child gender and child aggression via parents’ physical control, moderated by parents’ gender-role stereotypes in a sample of 299 two-parent families with a 3-year-old child in the Netherlands. Fathers with strong stereotypical gender-role
Bessem, Bram; de Bruijn, Matthijs C.; Nieuwland, Wybe
Objectives: Gender-related differences are frequently used in medicine. Electrocardiograms are also subject to such differences. This study evaluated gender differences in ECG parameters of young athletes, discussing the possible implications of these differences for ECG criteria used in the
Full Text Available Recent studies from the Gulf region suggest that compared to men, women have a greater risk of developing metabolic syndrome (MeS. Objective. To investigate gender differences in body composition, adipokines, inflammatory markers, and aerobic fitness in a cohort of healthy Qatari adults. Participants. Healthy Qatari (n=58 were matched for age, gender, and body mass index. Methods. Body composition and regional fat distribution were determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and computerized tomography. Laboratory assessments included serum levels of fasting glucose, insulin, lipid profile analysis, adipokines, and inflammatory markers. Subjects were also evaluated for aerobic fitness. Results. Women had more adipose tissue in the total abdominal (P=0.04 and abdominal subcutaneous (P=0.07 regions compared to men. Waist circumference and indices of insulin sensitivity were similar; however, women had a more favourable lipid profile than men. Serum adiponectin and leptin levels were significantly higher in women, whereas inflammatory profiles were not different between men and women. Aerobic fitness was lower in women and was associated with abdominal fat accumulation. Conclusion. In premenopausal women, higher levels of adiponectin may support maintenance of insulin sensitivity and normolipidemia despite greater adiposity. However, poor aerobic fitness combined with abdominal fat accumulation may explain their greater future risk of MeS compared with men.
Full Text Available Despite the growing importance of EU regulatory agencies in European decision-making, academic literature is missing a systematic explanation of how regulatory agencies actually contend with their core tasks of providing scientific advice to EU institutions. The article contributes to the theoretical explanation of when and under what conditions different uses of scientific expertise prevail. In particular, it focuses on theoretical explanations leading to strategic substantiating use of expertise followed by an empirical analysis of single case research. Substantiating expertise use refers to those practices in which an organisation seeks to promote and justify its predetermined preferences, which are based on certain values, political or economic interests. Empirical findings are discussed in the light of the theoretical expectations derived by streamlining and combining the main arguments of classical organisational and institutional theories and recent academic research. Process-tracing techniques are applied to investigate the process by which an EU regulation restricting the use of neonicotinoid pesticides (European Commission, 2013 was developed. The empirical analysis combines a variety of data sources including official documents, press releases, scientific outputs, and semi-structured interviews with the academic and industry experts involved in the process. The study finds that the interaction between high external pressure and high internal capacity leads to the strategic substantiating use of expertise, in which scientific evidence is used to promote the inclinations of actors upon which the agency depends most.
Szymanowicz, Agata; Furnham, Adrian
This study examined participant gender and gender role differences in estimates of multiple intelligences for self, partner, and various hypothetical, stereotypical, and counter-stereotypical target persons. A general population sample of 261 British participants completed one of four questionnaires that required them to estimate their own and others' multiple intelligences and personality traits. Males estimated their general IQ slightly, but mathematic IQ significantly higher than females, who rated their social and emotional intelligence higher than males. Masculine individuals awarded themselves somewhat higher verbal and practical IQ scores than did female participants. Both participant gender and gender role differences in IQ estimates were found, with gender effects stronger in cognitive and gender role than in "personal" ability estimates. There was a significant effect of gender role on hypothetical persons' intelligence evaluations, with masculine targets receiving significantly higher intelligence estimates compared to feminine targets. More intelligent hypothetical figures were judged as more masculine and less feminine than less intelligent ones.
This study examined participant gender and gender role differences in estimates of multiple intelligences for self, partner, and various hypothetical, stereotypical, and counter-stereotypical target persons. A general population sample of 261 British participants completed one of four questionnaires that required them to estimate their own and others’ multiple intelligences and personality traits. Males estimated their general IQ slightly, but mathematic IQ significantly higher than females, who rated their social and emotional intelligence higher than males. Masculine individuals awarded themselves somewhat higher verbal and practical IQ scores than did female participants. Both participant gender and gender role differences in IQ estimates were found, with gender effects stronger in cognitive and gender role than in “personal” ability estimates. There was a significant effect of gender role on hypothetical persons’ intelligence evaluations, with masculine targets receiving significantly higher intelligence estimates compared to feminine targets. More intelligent hypothetical figures were judged as more masculine and less feminine than less intelligent ones. PMID:23951949
Jason C. Bond
Full Text Available This multi-national study hypothesized that higher levels of country-level gender equality would predict smaller differences in the frequency of women’s compared to men’s drinking in public (like bars and restaurants settings and possibly private (home or party settings. GENACIS project survey data with drinking contexts included 22 countries in Europe (8; the Americas (7; Asia (3; Australasia (2, and Africa (2, analyzed using hierarchical linear models (individuals nested within country. Age, gender and marital status were individual predictors; country-level gender equality as well as equality in economic participation, education, and political participation, and reproductive autonomy and context of violence against women measures were country-level variables. In separate models, more reproductive autonomy, economic participation, and educational attainment and less violence against women predicted smaller differences in drinking in public settings. Once controlling for country-level economic status, only equality in economic participation predicted the size of the gender difference. Most country-level variables did not explain the gender difference in frequency of drinking in private settings. Where gender equality predicted this difference, the direction of the findings was opposite from the direction in public settings, with more equality predicting a larger gender difference, although this relationship was no longer significant after controlling for country-level economic status. Findings suggest that country-level gender equality may influence gender differences in drinking. However, the effects of gender equality on drinking may depend on the specific alcohol measure, in this case drinking context, as well as on the aspect of gender equality considered. Similar studies that use only global measures of gender equality may miss key relationships. We consider potential implications for alcohol related consequences, policy and public
Bond, Jason C; Roberts, Sarah C M; Greenfield, Thomas K; Korcha, Rachael; Ye, Yu; Nayak, Madhabika B
This multi-national study hypothesized that higher levels of country-level gender equality would predict smaller differences in the frequency of women's compared to men's drinking in public (like bars and restaurants) settings and possibly private (home or party) settings. GENACIS project survey data with drinking contexts included 22 countries in Europe (8); the Americas (7); Asia (3); Australasia (2), and Africa (2), analyzed using hierarchical linear models (individuals nested within country). Age, gender and marital status were individual predictors; country-level gender equality as well as equality in economic participation, education, and political participation, and reproductive autonomy and context of violence against women measures were country-level variables. In separate models, more reproductive autonomy, economic participation, and educational attainment and less violence against women predicted smaller differences in drinking in public settings. Once controlling for country-level economic status, only equality in economic participation predicted the size of the gender difference. Most country-level variables did not explain the gender difference in frequency of drinking in private settings. Where gender equality predicted this difference, the direction of the findings was opposite from the direction in public settings, with more equality predicting a larger gender difference, although this relationship was no longer significant after controlling for country-level economic status. Findings suggest that country-level gender equality may influence gender differences in drinking. However, the effects of gender equality on drinking may depend on the specific alcohol measure, in this case drinking context, as well as on the aspect of gender equality considered. Similar studies that use only global measures of gender equality may miss key relationships. We consider potential implications for alcohol related consequences, policy and public health.
Ching, Terence H.?W.; Tang, Catherine S.; Wu, Anise; Yan, Elsie
Background and aims The addictive nature of compulsive buying implies that mood disturbances, stress, and cognitive biases that underlie compulsive buying might operate in ways similar in both genders. In the current study, we aimed to test hypothetical pathways of mood compensation and irrational cognitions, which may explain compulsive buying tendencies. We also examined potential gender differences in these pathways. Methods Two-hundred and thirty-two male (age: M?=?20.30, SD?=?1.74) and 3...
Benito, Begoña; Sarkozy, Andrea; Mont, Lluis; Henkens, Stephan; Berruezo, Antonio; Tamborero, David; Arzamendi, Dabit; Berne, Paola; Brugada, Pedro; Brugada, Josep; Brugada, Ramon
.... A male predominance has been reported in the Brugada syndrome. No specific data are available, however, concerning gender differences in the clinical manifestations and their role in prognosis...
A meta-analysis of 187 studies containing 247 independent studies (N = 68,429) on gender differences in academic self-efficacy identified an overall effect size of 0.08, with a small difference favoring males. Moderator analysis demonstrated that content domain was a significant moderator in explaining effect size variation. Females displayed…
Reyns, Bradford W; Henson, Billy; Fisher, Bonnie S; Fox, Kathleen A; Nobles, Matt R
Research into stalking victimization has proliferated over the last two decades, but several research questions related to victimization risk remain unanswered. Accordingly, the present study utilized a lifestyle-routine activity theoretical perspective to identify risk factors for victimization. Gender-based theoretical models also were estimated to assess the possible moderating effects of gender on the relationship between lifestyle-routine activity concepts and victimization risk. Based on an analysis of a representative sample of more than 15,000 residents of Canada from the Canadian General Social Survey (GSS), results suggested conditional support for lifestyle-routine activity theory and for the hypothesis that predictors of stalking victimization may be gender based. © The Author(s) 2015.
"Building on arguments made by Grasmuck and Pessar (1991), Hardy-Fanta (1993), and Hondagneu-Sotelo (1994), among others, this article makes the case for a gendered understanding of immigrant political socialization. Looking at recent Latin American immigrants to New York City, the article argues that immigrant Latino men are more likely to favor continuity in patterns of socialization and organization, and immigrant Latinas are more likely to favor change. This finding helps bridge theoretical and empirical literatures in immigration studies, applying the logic of gender-differentiated decisionmaking to the area of immigrant political socialization and behavior." excerpt
The findings of the study revealed that there was no significant difference in Job Ability Perception among professionals (both male and female) in male dominated professions; while, there was a significant gender difference in tasks given to the Engineers and Estate Managers but no significant gender difference in the ...
This study presents a gender analysis of labour market participation across different sectors of employment in Kenya using survey data. It tests the hypothesis that gender differences in labour market participation are influenced by differences in education attainment and assets among other individual characteristics. We use ...
Jørgensen, Jeanette Therming; Andersen, John Sahl; Tjønneland, Anne
model, women had 47% higher rate of GP visits than men (incidence rate ratio: 1.47; 95% Confidence Interval: 1.45-1.50), which remained unchanged after adjustment for lifestyle, socio-demographic and medical factors, but attenuated to 18% (1.18; 1.13-1.24) after adjustment for female factors (gravidity...... and post-menopausal HT. In a fully adjusted model, subjects with hypertension (1.63; 1.59-1.67), mental illness (1.63; 1.61-1.66), diabetes (1.56; 1.47-1.65), angina pectoris (1.28; 1.21-1.34), and unemployed persons (1.19; 1.18-1.21) had highest rates of GP visits. CONCLUSIONS: Gravidity and HT use...... explain a large proportion, but not all of the gender difference in GP utilization. Medical conditions (somatic and mental) and unemployment are the main determinants of GP utilization in men and women, while lifestyle has minor effect. Key points: Female gender remained a dominant determinant of GP...
Stoller, S.; Nielsen, C.
One of the most fundamental premises of feminist philosophy is the assumption of an invidious asymmetry between the genders that has to be overcome. Parallel to this negative account of asymmetry we also find a positive account, developed in particular within the context of so-called feminist
N.J. Breet (Nicoline); M.A. Sluman (Maayke); M.A.J.P.J. van Berkel; J.W. van Werkum (Jochem); H.J. Bouman (Heleen); A.M. Harmsze (Ankie); J.C. Kelder (Johannes); F. Zijlstra (Felix); C.M. Hackeng (Christian); J.M. ten Berg (Jurrien)
textabstractBackground Previous studies have suggested that women do not accrue equal therapeutic benefit from antiplatelet medication as compared with men. The physiological mechanism and clinical implications behind this gender disparity have yet to be established. Methods On-treatment platelet
van Beek, Jenny H D A; de Moor, Marleen H M; Geels, Lot M; Willemsen, Gonneke; Boomsma, Dorret I
The current study aimed to describe what proportion of variation in adult alcohol intake is attributable to genetic differences among individuals and what proportion to differences in environmental experiences individuals have been exposed to. Effects of age, gender, spousal resemblance, and cultural transmission of alcohol intake from parents to offspring were taken into account. In a twin-family design, the effects of genetic and cultural transmission and shared and nonshared environment on alcohol intake were estimated with genetic structural equation models. Data originated from adult twins, their siblings, parents (n = 12,587), and spouses (n = 429) registered with the population-based Netherlands Twin Register (63.5% female; ages 18-97 years). Alcohol intake (grams per day) was higher among men than women and increased with age. Broad-sense heritability estimates were similar across sex and age (53%). Spousal resemblance was observed (r = .39) but did not significantly affect the heritability estimates. No effects of cultural transmission were detected. In total, 23% of the variation in alcohol intake was explained by additive genetic effects, 30% by dominant (nonadditive) gene action, and 47% by environmental effects that were not shared among family members. Individual differences in adult alcohol intake are explained by genetic and individual-specific environmental effects. The same genes are expressed in males and females and in younger and older participants. A substantial part of the heritability of alcohol intake is attributable to nonadditive gene action. Effects of cultural transmission that have been reported in adolescence are not present in adulthood.
Nielsen, Glen; Pfister, Gertrud Ursula; Andersen, Lars Bo
at pre-school and later at third grade. The study showed that boys were generally more physically active than girls (18% at age 6–7, and 16% at age 9–10, both p two genders. These findings are in accordance with numerous other......The purpose of this study was to explore the daily physical activities of Danish children with a focus on describing and explaining gender differences. Accelerometer measurements of physical activity in different contexts, as well as questionnaire data, were collected from more than 500 children...... studies in Denmark as well as internationally. However, this study adds to this knowledge by showing that the gender difference in total amounts of activity was mainly due to large gender differences in the amounts of self-organized physical activity such as after-school day care (difference at age 6...
Franke, G R; Crown, D F; Spake, D F
This study presents a meta-analysis of research on gender differences in perceptions of ethical decision making. Data from more than 20,000 respondents in 66 samples show that women are more likely than men to perceive specific hypothetical business practices as unethical. As suggested by social role theory (A. H. Eagly, 1987), the gender difference observed in precareer (student) samples declines as the work experience of samples increases. Social role theory also accounts for greater gender differences in nonmonetary issues than in monetary issues. T. M. Jones's (1991) issue-contingent model of moral intensity helps explain why gender differences vary across types of behavior. Contrary to expectations, differences are not influenced by the sex of the actor or the target of the behavior and do not depend on whether the behavior involves personal relationships or action vs. inaction.
Robert John Wilson
Full Text Available The North Atlantic copepods Calanus finmarchicus and C. helgolandicus are moving north in response to rising temperatures. Understanding the drivers of their relative geographic distributions is required in order to anticipate future changes. To explore this, we created a new spatially explicit stage-structured model of their populations throughout the North Atlantic. Recent advances in understanding Calanus biology, including U-shaped relationships between growth and fecundity and temperature, and a new model of diapause duration are incorporated in the model. Equations were identical for both species, but some parameters were species-specific. The model was parameterized using Continuous Plankton Recorder Survey data and tested using time series of abundance and fecundity. The geographic distributions of both species were reproduced by assuming that only known interspecific differences and a difference in the temperature influence on mortality exist. We show that differences in diapause capability are not necessary to explain why C. helgolandicus is restricted to the continental shelf. Smaller body size and higher overwinter temperatures likely make true diapause implausible for C. helgolandicus. Known differences were incapable of explaining why only C. helgolandicus exists southwest of the British Isles. Further, the fecundity of C. helgolandicus in the English Channel is much lower than we predict. We hypothesize that food quality is a key influence on the population dynamics of these species. The modelling framework presented can potentially be extended to further Calanus species.
Menvielle, G; Kunst, A E; Stirbu, I; Strand, B H; Borrell, C; Regidor, E; Leclerc, A; Esnaola, S; Bopp, M; Lundberg, O; Artnik, B; Costa, G; Deboosere, P; Martikainen, P; Mackenbach, J P
We used longitudinal mortality data sets for the 1990s to compare socioeconomic inequalities in total cancer mortality between women and men aged 30–74 in 12 different European populations (Madrid, Basque region, Barcelona, Slovenia, Turin, Switzerland, France, Belgium, Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Finland) and to investigate which cancer sites explain the differences found. We measured socioeconomic status using educational level and computed relative indices of inequality (RII). We observed large variations within Europe for educational differences in total cancer mortality among men and women. Three patterns were observed: Denmark, Norway and Sweden (significant RII around 1.3–1.4 among both men and women); France, Switzerland, Belgium and Finland (significant RII around 1.7–1.8 among men and around 1.2 among women); Spanish populations, Slovenia and Turin (significant RII from 1.29 to 1.88 among men; no differences among women except in the Basque region, where RII is significantly lower than 1). Lung, upper aerodigestive tract and breast cancers explained most of the variations between gender and populations in the magnitude of inequalities in total cancer mortality. Given time trends in cancer mortality, the gap in the magnitude of socioeconomic inequalities in cancer mortality between gender and between European populations will probably decrease in the future. PMID:18283307
Vantieghem, Wendelien; Van Houtte, Mieke
Despite boys' educational underachievement, gender differences in study motivation have received little research attention. Guided by self-determination theory and the identity-based motivation model, this study investigates differences in study motivation between boys and girls, as well as within each gender. To adequately consider these…
McGeown, Sarah; Goodwin, Hannah; Henderson, Nikola; Wright, Penelope
This study examined sex differences in reading skill and reading motivation, investigating whether these differences could be better accounted for by sex, or by gender identity. One hundred and eighty-two primary school children (98 males) aged 8-11 completed a reading comprehension assessment, reading motivation questionnaire and a gender role…
The rapid decrease in gender inequality in education over the past several decades in China has drawn significant attention in the existing literature. Several factors have been proposed or examined to explain this decrease. However, few studies have examined this topic from the perspective of the changing job structure and skill requirements in…
Battle, Juan; Lemelle, Anthony J., Jr.
Used data from the 1993 National Black Politics Study to examine the way gender worked in explaining African American attitudes toward gay men. Results indicated that African American females expressed more positive attitudes toward homosexual men than did African American males, and of the variables examined (including age, church attendance,…
Sipes, Megan; Matson, Johnny L.; Worley, Julie A.; Kozlowski, Alison M.
Gender differences in symptoms representing the triad of impairments of Autism Spectrum Disorders remain unclear. To date, the majority of research conducted on this topic has utilized samples of older children. Thus, the purpose of the current study was to utilize a sample of toddlers to investigate gender differences in symptom endorsements of…
Villumsen, Morten; Madeleine, Pascal; Jørgensen, Marie Birk
The variability pattern is highly relevant in the analysis of occupational physical exposures. It is hypothesized that gender differences exist in the variability pattern of forward bending between work and leisure.......The variability pattern is highly relevant in the analysis of occupational physical exposures. It is hypothesized that gender differences exist in the variability pattern of forward bending between work and leisure....
Lin, Chien-Huang; Yu, Shu-Fen
The purpose of this study was to explore gender differences in adolescent Internet accessibility, motives for use, and online activities in Taiwan; 629 5th and 6th graders were surveyed. Findings revealed that the gap in gender differences with regard to Internet use has decreased in this generation. Even though the Internet is the most recent…
Bugler, Myfanwy; McGeown, Sarah P.; St Clair-Thompson, Helen
The present study investigated gender differences in adolescents' academic motivation and classroom behaviour and gender differences in the extent to which motivation was associated with, and predicted, classroom behaviour. Seven hundred and fifty students (384 boys and 366 girls) aged 11--16 (M age?=?14.0, 1.59 SD) completed a questionnaire…
Borman, Kathryn M.; Kurdek, Lawrence A.
This study investigated school, grade, and gender differences associated with a range of factors related to participation in varsity soccer among 65 students attending two high schools (one emphasizing achievement, the other emphasizing competitive sports). Gender differences were found. (Author/LMO)
Wassenburg, Stephanie I.; de Koning, Björn B.; de Vries, Meinou H.; Boonstra, A. Marije; van der Schoot, Menno
Text comprehension requires readers to mentally simulate the described situation by reactivating previously acquired sensory and motor information from (episodic) memory. Drawing upon research demonstrating gender differences, favouring girls, in tasks involving episodic memory retrieval, the present study explores whether gender differences exist…
Grittner, Ulrike; Mäkelä, Pia; Gmel, Gerhard
drinking. Differences between genders were often smaller than average in northern Europe. Gender ratios did not show systematic changes by age, with the exception that young men and women differed less than older men and women in the frequency of heavy episodic drinking. The results on beverage preferences...
Berninger, Virginia W.; Nielsen, Kathleen H.; Abbott, Robert D.; Wijsman, Ellen; Raskind, Wendy
Gender differences in mean level of reading and writing skills were examined in 122 children (80 boys and 42 girls) and 200 adults (115 fathers and 85 mothers) who showed behavioral markers of dyslexia in a family genetics study. Gender differences were found in writing and replicated prior results for typically developing children: Boys and men…
The study examined gender differences on the perceived effectiveness of physical punishment among selected secondary school students in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. This was with the view of investigating and evaluating gender differences on the effects of physical punishment in encouraging or discouraging effective and ...
Sereetrakul, Wilailuk; Wongveeravuti, Siriwan; Likitapiwat, Tanakorn
Since males and females are raised differently by their parents (Thorne, 2003), gender roles may affect the saving and spending behaviours of male and female teenagers. The objective of this research was to study the gender differences in saving and spending behaviours of Thai students. This was an exploratory study where a questionnaire was used…
Lighthall, Nichole R.; Sakaki, Michiko; Vasunilashorn, Sarinnapha; Nga, Lin; Somayajula, Sangeetha; Chen, Eric Y.; Samii, Nicole; Mather, Mara
Recent research indicates gender differences in the impact of stress on decision behavior, but little is known about the brain mechanisms involved in these gender-specific stress effects. The current study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to determine whether induced stress resulted in gender-specific patterns of brain activation during a decision task involving monetary reward. Specifically, we manipulated physiological stress levels using a cold pressor task, prior to a ris...
Mathis,Maria Alice de; Alvarenga,Pedro de; Funaro,Guilherme; Torresan,Ricardo Cezar; Moraes,Ivanil; Torres,Albina Rodrigues; Zilberman,Monica L; Hounie,Ana Gabriela
INTRODUCTION: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a heterogeneous condition, in which subtypes have been proposed. Previous studies suggested that gender plays a relevant role in OCD phenotypic expression. This study aimed to review the literature on gender differences in clinical, genetic or familial aspects of OCD. METHOD: A conventional review was conducted, including all papers that investigated demographic, clinical, and genetic aspects of OCD according to gender. The search was based...
Gaspard, Hanna; Dicke, Anna-Lena; Flunger, Barbara; Schreier, Brigitte; Häfner, Isabelle; Trautwein, Ulrich; Nagengast, Benjamin
Expectancy-value theory (Eccles et al., 1983) is a prominent approach to explaining gender differences in math-related academic choices, with value beliefs acting as an important explanatory factor. Expectancy-value theory defines 4 value components: intrinsic value, attainment value, utility value, and cost. The present study followed up on…
Little investigation has been made to explain why women are less likely than are men to support democracy in Sub-Saharan Africa. This gender difference in politics has been found in numerous studies and may hinder the much needed legitimation of democracy in this region. This paper addresses the
This study investigated whether girls' and boys' perceptions of their teacher may explain gender-related difference in academic motivation. One hundred and twenty-nine ninth-grade Israeli students (67 males and 62 females) completed a questionnaire designed to assess their motivation to learn, their affect while studying in school, and their…
Bensing, J.M.; Hulsman, R.L.; Schreurs, K.M.G.
Background: fatigue is a common problem, which is found more frequently among women than men. To date, neither the etiology of fatigue nor the factors that explain the gender difference in its incidence are still fully understood. Methods: in a sample of men (n=4,681) and women (n=4,698)(age range,
Full Text Available Suicide attempt denotes activities directed towards one's own death which do not end in death. The ratio between attempted and realized suicides is expressed by the index called hazard ratio. Risk factors which contribute to suicidal behavior are: various emotional conditions, personality traits, stressful life events, substance misuse etc. The purpose of the study was to explore the frequencies and epidemiological and demographic characteristics of suicide attempts separately in men and women. The study sample involved 56 patients with the diagnosis suicide attempt (Tentamen suicidii treated on the Psychiatric department of the Clinical Center Priština, Gračanica. The data have been analyzed in respect to gender, age, profession/employment, mental disorder diagnosis, motivation (reason and the way of performing a suicide attempt. Results: suicide has been attempted by 42 women (75% and 14 men (25% of the sample. The prevalent age group of our sample (26.8% represents the patients below 20. The most prevalent are also unemployed patients, 33.3% of women and 50% of men. The most prevalent diagnosis is anxiety disorder (61.9% of women and 57.1% of men. The prevailing reason for attempting suicide in women was couple conflict (54.8% and existential problems in men (50%. Fifty one patients of the sample (91.1% have attempted suicide by intoxication with sedative drugs (anxiolytics. The majority of suicide attempts happened during afternoon and evening hours, i.e. in the period 12-24h. Conclusion: women have attempted suicide more frequently than men (ratio 3:1. Unemployment has been the prevailing professional characteristic in both genders. The most prevailing diagnosis is anxiety disorder. The chief motive in women is couple conflict and in men existential difficulties. In both genders the most frequent way of attempting suicide is poisoning, mostly in the period 12-24h.
Full Text Available Purpose: To identify factors that explain differences in HPV vaccination rates for male and female adolescents and to determine self-reported barriers by parents affecting vaccination decisions. Methods: The sample included adolescents 13–17 years old with a vaccination record documented in the 2012 and 2013 National Immunization Survey-Teen dataset. A logistic regression model was developed with 13 socio-demographic factors and survey year, along with significant interaction pairs with gender. Results: Subjects included 20,355 and 18,350 adolescent boys and girls, respectively. About half of the females (56% received at least one dose of HPV vaccine, compared to 28% of males. Several factors differed between males and females, including higher vaccination rates among non-Hispanic Black males and lower vaccination rates for non-Hispanic Black females compared to Whites; and a stronger association with health care provider recommendation among males. The most common parental reasons for not vaccinating their children included ‘not recommended by a health care provider’ for males (24%, and ‘unnecessary’ for females (18%. Conclusion: We found a significant gender interaction with several socio-demographic variables in predicting vaccination uptake. These gender differences may be partially an artifact of timing, because male vaccination became routine approximately five years after female vaccination. Keywords: Human papillomavirus, Adolescent health, Vaccination, NIS-Teen, Gender interaction
Studied three different criteria of within-sex, gender-related individual differences taken from three studies. Data showed that items displaying large sex differences tended also to correlate most strongly with independent gender-related criteria within the sexes. Discusses assessment implications for gender-related and other group-related…
Norma Constanza Durán
Full Text Available This article aims to describe a case study which explores teacher and students` conceptions about gender in an EFL setting and the way they are manifested in their discourse patterns. This exploratory case study was carried out with a group of eleventh grade students and an English teacher at Liceo de la Universidad Católica high school in Bogotá Colombia. The data collected included direct observation of classroom interaction, audio and video recording of the teacher and students` interactions and interviews on the teacher’s and students` discourse. The analysis of the data revealed that in fact there are imbalances in relation to boys` and girls` participation during interaction, made manifest by verbal and nonverbal attitudes. There is also sound evidence of girls’ low self esteem in response to the lack of value and respect granted to their opinions by their male peers. Stereotypes are part of teachers’ and students’ conceptions regarding gender and thus they are maintained to a great extent. The teacher’s attitude in the classroom with respect to boys and girls also appeared to show inequality that favoured boys. The girls showed evidence of awareness of the teacher’s conscious or unconscious indifference towards them, which seemed to affect their autonomy and confidence as English language learners.
van Someren Gréve, Hans; Almeda, Rodrigo; Lindegren, Martin
copepods, particularly in ambush feeders, where the males must sacrifice feeding for mate searching. We conducted gender-specific functional feeding response experiments using prey of different size and motility. In most cases, gender-specific maximum ingestion and clearance rates were largely explained......Planktonic copepods have sexually dimorphic behaviors, which can cause differences in feeding efficiency between genders. Copepod feeding rates have been studied extensively but most studies have focused only on females. In this study, we experimentally quantified feeding rates of males and females...... in copepods with different feeding behavior: ambush feeding (Oithona nana), feeding-current feeding (Temora longicornis) and cruising feeding (Centropages hamatus). We hypothesize that carbon-specific maximum ingestion rates are similar between genders, but that maximum clearance rates are lower for male...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Translational power is the cellular rate of protein synthesis normalized to the biomass invested in translational machinery. Published data suggest a previously unrecognized pattern: translational power is higher among rapidly growing microbes, and lower among slowly growing microbes. One factor known to affect translational power is biased use of synonymous codons. The correlation within an organism between expression level and degree of codon bias among genes of Escherichia coli and other bacteria capable of rapid growth is commonly attributed to selection for high translational power. Conversely, the absence of such a correlation in some slowly growing microbes has been interpreted as the absence of selection for translational power. Because codon bias caused by translational selection varies between rapidly growing and slowly growing microbes, we investigated whether observed differences in translational power among microbes could be explained entirely by differences in the degree of codon bias. Although the data are not available to estimate the effect of codon bias in other species, we developed an empirically-based mathematical model to compare the translation rate of E. coli to the translation rate of a hypothetical strain which differs from E. coli only by lacking codon bias. Results Our reanalysis of data from the scientific literature suggests that translational power can differ by a factor of 5 or more between E. coli and slowly growing microbial species. Using empirical codon-specific in vivo translation rates for 29 codons, and several scenarios for extrapolating from these data to estimates over all codons, we find that codon bias cannot account for more than a doubling of the translation rate in E. coli, even with unrealistic simplifying assumptions that exaggerate the effect of codon bias. With more realistic assumptions, our best estimate is that codon bias accelerates translation in E. coli by no more than
Hardy, Jay H., III; Gibson, Carter
Despite significant scholarly attention, the literature on the existence and direction of gender differences in creativity has produced inconsistent findings. In the present paper, we argue that this lack of consensus may be attributable, at least in part, to gender-specific inconsistencies in the measurement of creative problem-solving. To…
Rienzi, Beth M.; And Others
To investigate gender differences in acceptance of substance abuse behavior among adolescents, 968 students were administered a questionnaire to assess their perceptions. Results show that both genders felt that boys would be more approving of teenage substance abuse. Most students were disapproving of a teenager driving after drinking. Other…
Schoonheim, M.M.; Hulst, H.E.; Landi, D.; Ciccarelli, O.; Roosendaal, S.D.; Sanz-Arigita, E.J.; Vrenken, H.; Polman, C.H.; Stam, C.J.; Barkhof, F.; Geurts, J.J.G.
Background: Gender effects are strong in multiple sclerosis (MS), with male patients showing a worse clinical outcome than female patients. Functional reorganization of neural activity may contribute to limit disability, and possible gender differences in this process may have important clinical
aren't you), posture and gaze due to status differences from the larger society. In other words, the concept of gendered communication and interaction among individuals or group of individuals in school setting recognized differential gender manipulations in the way people speak, communicate and relate with each other.
Holmberg, K; Hellsten, I.
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to present a study about gender differences in the climate change communication on Twitter and in the use of affordances on Twitter. Design/methodology/approach – The data set consists of about 250,000 tweets and retweets for which the authors’ gender was
Addresses the role of comparison processes in the persistence of the gender wage gap, its toleration by those disadvantaged by it, and resistance to comparable worth as a corrective strategy. Argues that gender segregation and undercompensation for women's jobs leads women to use different comparison standards when evaluating what they deserve.…
Huber, Brad R.; Scaglion, Richard
Describes a time allocation study that was designed to determine how two types of teachers spent their time regarding gender differences in a primary school computer laboratory in Costa Rica. Topics include the sociocultural context of gender roles in Costa Rica, hypothesis testing, and the domination of boys in computer labs. Contains 101…
exercise, and the similarities of the subjects. It was concluded that there are no significant gender and postural differences in cardiovascular response to hand grip testing exercise among elderly normotensives. It was thus recommended that irrespective of gender, the sitting or lying position can be used for hand grip.
Therefore affirmative action plan is recommended at all levels of mine work planning that will ensure inclusion of such feminine virtues to impact profitably and propel growth of the mining industry in Ghana. Keywords: Enrolment Regimes, Gender Differences, Gender-Equity Discourse, University of Mines and Technology, ...
The negligible gender difference in spatial ability among senior secondary school students in Nigeria is partly attributed to the promotion of gender equality, which encourages the girl-child to take the 'back seat' no more. The result confirmed the second hypothesis; students who preferred the use of left-hand solved the ...
Social and health determinants of gender differences in functional disability among older adults in Indonesia. ... Gender and Behaviour ... This study aims to investigate social and health determinants of disability among individuals 50 years and older in a national probability sample who participated in the Indonesia Family ...
Adams, Eve M.; Betz, Nancy E.
Examined extent to which offender's, victim's, and counselor's gender were related to 111 counselors' attributions about and attitudes toward cases of incest. Found no significant differences as function of either victim or offender gender. Female counselors had broader definitions of incest than did male counselors and were less likely to view…
Holmila, Marja; Raitasalo, Kirsimarja
The paper discusses the kinds of reasoning that have been presented as possible mechanisms and reasons for gender differences in alcohol consumption. An overview of the existing literature from different countries is presented. The existing studies provide a picture of great cultural variance in patterns of alcohol use among men and women. The gender differences in drinking behaviour have been shown to be linked with many aspects of biological differences between men and women leading to women's greater vulnerability to alcohol, of women's and men's differing needs, reasons and motivations in relation to drinking, of gender-specific roles in other areas of life and of ways in which societies regulate peoples' behaviour, often giving women the role of warden or moderator of others' drinking. The gender differences in drinking behaviour continue to be considerable and are found in all cultures studied so far. Several studies have argued for reasons underlying these differences, but they still remain largely unexplained.
Ching, Terence H W; Tang, Catherine S; Wu, Anise; Yan, Elsie
Background and aims The addictive nature of compulsive buying implies that mood disturbances, stress, and cognitive biases that underlie compulsive buying might operate in ways similar in both genders. In the current study, we aimed to test hypothetical pathways of mood compensation and irrational cognitions, which may explain compulsive buying tendencies. We also examined potential gender differences in these pathways. Methods Two-hundred and thirty-two male (age: M = 20.30, SD = 1.74) and 373 female Chinese college students (age: M = 19.97, SD = 1.74) in Hong Kong and Macau completed measures assessing compulsive buying, psychological distress, avoidance coping, materialism, and buying-related cognitions. Mediation analyses via a structural equation modeling approach explained by Cheung (2007, 2009) were conducted, with gender as a grouping variable. Results There was a gender difference in the mood compensation pathway; avoidance coping partially mediated the link between psychological distress and compulsive buying severity in females only. On the other hand, the irrational cognitive pathway, in which irrational buying-related cognitions fully mediated the link between materialism and compulsive buying severity, was supported for both genders. There was no gender difference in the extent of mediation within the irrational cognitive pathway, and the mediation effect within the irrational cognitive pathway was larger than that within the mood compensation pathway for both genders. Conclusions Mood compensation processes in compulsive buying might be female specific, and secondary to irrational cognitions, which were gender invariant. Gender-dependent mechanisms and irrational cognitions should be emphasized in compulsive buying treatment.
Ching, Terence H. W.; Tang, Catherine S.; Wu, Anise; Yan, Elsie
Background and aims The addictive nature of compulsive buying implies that mood disturbances, stress, and cognitive biases that underlie compulsive buying might operate in ways similar in both genders. In the current study, we aimed to test hypothetical pathways of mood compensation and irrational cognitions, which may explain compulsive buying tendencies. We also examined potential gender differences in these pathways. Methods Two-hundred and thirty-two male (age: M = 20.30, SD = 1.74) and 373 female Chinese college students (age: M = 19.97, SD = 1.74) in Hong Kong and Macau completed measures assessing compulsive buying, psychological distress, avoidance coping, materialism, and buying-related cognitions. Mediation analyses via a structural equation modeling approach explained by Cheung (2007, 2009) were conducted, with gender as a grouping variable. Results There was a gender difference in the mood compensation pathway; avoidance coping partially mediated the link between psychological distress and compulsive buying severity in females only. On the other hand, the irrational cognitive pathway, in which irrational buying-related cognitions fully mediated the link between materialism and compulsive buying severity, was supported for both genders. There was no gender difference in the extent of mediation within the irrational cognitive pathway, and the mediation effect within the irrational cognitive pathway was larger than that within the mood compensation pathway for both genders. Conclusions Mood compensation processes in compulsive buying might be female specific, and secondary to irrational cognitions, which were gender invariant. Gender-dependent mechanisms and irrational cognitions should be emphasized in compulsive buying treatment. PMID:27156378
NEEDHAM, BELINDA L.; DIEZ ROUX, ANA V.; BIRD, CHLOE E.; BRADLEY, RYAN; FITZPATRICK, ANNETTE L.; JACOBS, DAVID R.; OUYANG, PAMELA; SEEMAN, TERESA E.; THURSTON, REBECCA C.; VAIDYA, DHANANJAY; WANG, STEVEN
The purpose of this study was to examine biological and behavioral explanations for gender differences in leukocyte telomere length (LTL), a biomarker of cell aging that has been hypothesized to contribute to women’s greater longevity. Data are from a subsample (n = 851) of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, a population-based study of women and men aged 45 to 84. Mediation models were used to examine study hypotheses. We found that women had longer LTL than men, but the gender difference was smaller at older ages. Gender differences in smoking and processed meat consumption partially mediated gender differences in telomere length, whereas gender differences in estradiol, total testosterone, oxidative stress, and body mass index did not. Neither behavioral nor biological factors explained why the gender difference in LTL was smaller at older ages. Longitudinal studies are needed to assess gender differences in the rate of change in LTL over time; to identify the biological, behavioral, and psychosocial factors that contribute to these differences throughout the life course; and to determine whether gender differences in LTL explain the gender gap in longevity. PMID:25343364
Needham, Belinda L; Diez Roux, Ana V; Bird, Chloe E; Bradley, Ryan; Fitzpatrick, Annette L; Jacobs, David R; Ouyang, Pamela; Seeman, Teresa E; Thurston, Rebecca C; Vaidya, Dhananjay; Wang, Steven
The purpose of this study was to examine biological and behavioral explanations for gender differences in leukocyte telomere length (LTL), a biomarker of cell aging that has been hypothesized to contribute to women's greater longevity. Data are from a subsample (n = 851) of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, a population-based study of women and men aged 45 to 84. Mediation models were used to examine study hypotheses. We found that women had longer LTL than men, but the gender difference was smaller at older ages. Gender differences in smoking and processed meat consumption partially mediated gender differences in telomere length, whereas gender differences in estradiol, total testosterone, oxidative stress, and body mass index did not. Neither behavioral nor biological factors explained why the gender difference in LTL was smaller at older ages. Longitudinal studies are needed to assess gender differences in the rate of change in LTL over time; to identify the biological, behavioral, and psychosocial factors that contribute to these differences throughout the life course; and to determine whether gender differences in LTL explain the gender gap in longevity.
McGeown, S.; Goodwin, H.; Henderson, Nikola; Wright, Penelope
This study examined sex differences in reading skill and reading motivation, investigating whether these differences could be better accounted for by sex, or by gender identity. One hundred and eighty-two primary school children (98 males) aged 8-11 completed a reading comprehension assessment, reading motivation questionnaire and a gender role questionnaire. While there were no sex differences in reading skill or extrinsic reading motivation, girls had significantly higher intrinsic reading ...
Wanke, Eileen M; Arendt, Michael; Mill, Helmgard; Groneberg, David A
Classical dance comprises gender specific movement tasks. There is a lack of studies which investigate work related traumatic injuries in terms of gender specific differences in detail. To define gender related differences of occupational accidents. Basis for the evaluation were occupational injuries of professional dancers from three (n = 785; f: n = 358, m: n = 427) state theatres. The incidence rate (0.36 per year) was higher in males (m: 0.45, f: 0.29). There were gender specific differences as to the localizations of injuries, particularly the spine region (m: 17.3%, f: 9.8%, p = 0.05) and ankle joint (m: 23.7%, f: 35.5%, p = 0.003). Compared to male dancers, females sustained more injuries resulting from extrinsic factors. Significant differences could specifically be observed with dance floors (m: 8.8%, f: 15.1%, p = 0.02). There were also significant gender differences observed with movement vocabulary. The clearly defined gender specific movement activities in classical dance are reflected in occupational accidents sustained. Organisational structures as well as work environment represent a burden likewise to male and female dancers. The presented differences support the development of gender specific injury prevention measures.
to recognize this may potentially lead to statistical discrimination. Three important empirical results are obtained from the analysis. First, women have higher unconditional job separation probabilities. Second, there are no gender differences in job separation probabilities for employees working in similar......I analyze the job separation process to learn about gender differences in job separation rates and employment stability. An essential finding is that employer-employee data are required to identify gender differences in job separation probabilities because of labor market segregation. Failure...
Kristoffersen, Jannie H. Grøne; Obel, Carsten; Smith, Nina
with extensive register data on parental background and student outcomes. Our findings show a large negative association between indicators of externalizing behavioral and school outcomes. Only a minor percentage of the gender difference in average reading and math test scores, however, can be attributed......This study analyzes gender differences in behavioral problems and school outcomes. The study is based on teacher and parent evaluations using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire for approximately 6000 Danish children 10–12 years of age who were born in 1990–1992. The sample has been merged...... to gender differences in the prevalence of low-scoring individuals with behavioral problems....
Dorak, M. Tevfik; Karpuzoglu, Ebru
The gender difference in cancer susceptibility is one of the most consistent findings in cancer epidemiology. Hematologic malignancies are generally more common in males and this can be generalized to most other cancers. Similar gender differences in non-malignant diseases including autoimmunity, are attributed to hormonal or behavioral differences. Even in early childhood, however, where these differences would not apply, there are differences in cancer incidence between males and females. In childhood, few cancers are more common in females, but overall, males have higher susceptibility. In Hodgkin lymphoma, the gender ratio reverses toward adolescence. The pattern that autoimmune disorders are more common in females, but cancer and infections in males suggests that the known differences in immunity may be responsible for this dichotomy. Besides immune surveillance, genome surveillance mechanisms also differ in efficiency between males and females. Other obvious differences include hormonal ones and the number of X chromosomes. Some of the differences may even originate from exposures during prenatal development. This review will summarize well-documented examples of gender effect in cancer susceptibility, discuss methodological issues in exploration of gender differences, and present documented or speculated mechanisms. The gender differential in susceptibility can give important clues for the etiology of cancers and should be examined in all genetic and non-genetic association studies. PMID:23226157
This article is both a review of, and an intervention in, the literature on gender and the globalization of production. Via a discussion of six key texts analyzing export-oriented manufacturing, ranging from Maria Mies's Lace Makers of Narsapur to Melissa Wright's Disposable Women and Other Myths of Global Capitalism, I show that, over time, the focus has shifted from an emphasis on the feminization of manufacturing as a defining feature of globalization to an appreciation of the diverse and contingent ways in which gender matters for offshore production. While this recent scholarship highlights variability in gendered labor regimes at the global-local nexus, I argue that it is also critically important to ask what is similar about the many locations on the global assembly line that have been studied. Specifically, we must look to how gender, as a set of context-specific meanings and practices, works within the macrostructure of the global economy and its systemic logic of capital accumulation. In other words, while capitalism does not determine the concrete modalities of gender that exist in a given locale, it is essential for explaining the gendered dimension of transnational production as a patterned regularity of contemporary globalization.
Smith, Tess E; DeSantis, Alan D; Martel, Michelle M
In order to better understand the recent rise in nonprescribed use of psychostimulants on college campuses, motives, outcomes, and acceptability of nonprescribed psychostimulants have been evaluated. Despite knowledge that students use nonprescribed medical stimulants for improved academic performance and recreational use, gender differences in these motives have not been examined, despite the fact that the social construction of gender may well affect motives for use. The goal of the present study was to examine gender differences in motives, outcomes, and acceptability of nonprescribed psychostimulant use. 2716 undergraduates (1448 male) between the ages of 17 and 57 years (M = 19.43 years, SD = 1.7 years) completed an online survey examining subjective motives of nonprescribed psychostimulant use, as well as behaviors after use and moral views of nonprescribed use. Consistent with hypotheses and known gender differences in social motivation, results suggested that while females are more likely to use nonprescribed psychostimulants for reasons related to schoolwork, males are typically more likely to use psychostimulants for reasons related to partying and socializing. Additional gender differences were that males are more likely to take part in other risky behaviors after use of psychostimulants, as well as view nonprescribed use as more moral and less physically dangerous than females. Conclusions/Importance: This work suggests that there are striking gender differences in motivation and outcomes of use of nonprescribed psychostimulants, which may have implications for personalized approaches for prevention of nonprescribed psychostimulant use on campuses based on gender.
Yury P. Zinchenko
Full Text Available Background. This study addresses a current problem relating to trust and the identification of gender differences in trust/mistrust manifestation. Gender identity is associated with cultural stereotypes and social roles, which facilitate the formation of trust in people. It acts as a significant integral meaning-based component of an individual’s “I”- conception, which contributes to the formation of trust in himself and the world around him. Objective. To study features of trust/mistrust towards others in young people with different gender identities. Design. The cross-gender-typical sample consisted of 179 representatives, 83 males and 96 females, ages 17 to 23 (M = 19.34 and SD = 1.79. The techniques for collecting data included the MMPI, the Sex-Role Inventory by S. Bem, and the Trust/Mistrust towards Others questionnaire by A. Kupreychenko. The results were processed via the Mann-Whitney U Test, the Kruskal-Wallis H criterion, and cluster analysis. Results. Criteria of trust/mistrust among the youth with different gender identities were identified, and basic types of trust — categoric, irrational–emotional, ambivalent– contradictory, and non-differentiated — were singled out. Irrespective of biological sex, bearers of different gender identities do not exhibit the same criteria to determine trust/ mistrust. Conclusion. This study makes it possible to enrich our understanding of the role of social gender in the formation of interpersonal trust and differences in the foundations of trust toward others, in people with different gender identities. The empirical typology of trust in youth with different gender identities allows for using the typology in organizing psychological diagnostics, and for support and improvement of their interpersonal relations.
Avison, W R; Mcalpine, D D
In this paper, we examine sources of gender differences in depressive symptoms among adolescents. Using data collected from a self-administered survey of 306 high school students, we examine differences in the impact of life events, psychosocial resources, and parent-child relationships on levels of psychological distress. Our results confirm a substantial gender difference in level of psychological distress. Moreover, analyses indicate that this gender difference may be due largely to higher levels of self-esteem among males and a tendency for adolescents to perceive their fathers to be overprotective. There is, however, also evidence that other psychosocial resources and parent-child relationships are implicated in this gender difference. We also present analyses to support our contention that parent-child relationships have important effects on the development of psychosocial resources of adolescents that, in turn, influence levels of depressive symptoms.
Möller-Leimkühler, Anne Maria
Although gender is increasingly perceived as a key determinant in health and illness, systematic gender studies in medicine are still lacking. For a long time, cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been seen as a "male" disease, due to men's higher absolute risk compared with women, but the relative risk in women of CVD morbidity and mortality is actually higher. Current knowledge points to important gender differences in age of onset, symptom presentation, management, and outcome, as well as traditional and psychosocial risk factors. Compared with men, CVD risk in women is increased to a greater extent by some traditional factors (e.g., diabetes, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, obesity), and socioeconomic and psychosocial factors also seem to have a higher impact on CVD in women. With respect to differences in CVD management, a gender bias in favor of men has to be taken into account, in spite of greater age and higher comorbidity in women, possibly contributing to a poorer outcome. Depression has been shown to be an independent risk factor and consequence of CVD; however, concerning gender differences, the results have been inconsistent. Current evidence suggests that depression causes a greater increase in CVD incidence in women, and that female CVD patients experience higher levels of depression than men. Gender aspects should be more intensively considered, both in further research on gender differences in comorbid depression, and in cardiac treatment and rehabilitation, with the goal of making secondary prevention more effective.
Coffé, H.R.; Bolzendahl, C.
We investigate gender gaps in political participation with 2004 ISSP data for 18 advanced Western democracies (N: 20,359) using linear and logistic regression models. Controlling for socio-economic characteristics and political attitudes reveals that women are more likely than men to have voted and
Clinical Psychology Unit, Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi. Nweke, C. C.. Department of ... Keywords: Career choice differences, Gender, BVII, Vocational counseling, Nigeria. Introduction ..... advertisement artists), political/ leadership careers (like ministers, ambassadors, CEOs) and communications ...
Burger, J.; Gochfeld, M.
Investigates gender differences in smoking behavior by observing 292 men and 648 women smoking in a university workplace. Finds that men take longer breaks, smoke more cigarettes, and inhale more often than women. (MW)
Saadoon F. Alazmy
Sep 7, 2011 ... Gender differences in knowledge and attitude of medical staff about domestic vio- ... of wives by their husbands if there was a good reason more than males. ... covered the individual characteristics of perpetrator, two cov-.
Toussaint, Loren; Webb, Jon R
Much research has shown that women are more empathic than men. Yet, women and men are equally forgiving. However, it is not clear whether empathy is more important to forgiveness for men or for women. The purpose of the present study was to examine gender differences in levels of empathy and forgiveness and the extent to which the association of empathy and forgiveness differed by gender. Participants were 127 community residents who completed self-report measures of empathy and forgiveness. The present results showed that women were more empathic than men, but no gender difference for forgiveness was apparent. However, the association between empathy and forgiveness did differ by gender. Empathy was associated with forgiveness in men--but not in women.
Hald, Gert Martin
a representative sample of 688 young heterosexual Danish adult men and women. The study found large gender differences in prevalence rates of pornography consumption and consumption patterns. Compared to women, men were exposed to pornography at a younger age, consumed more pornography as measured by time......The aims of the study were (1) to investigate gender differences in pornography consumption among Danish adults aged 18-30 and (2) to examine gender differences in situational, interpersonal, and behavioral characteristics of pornography consumption. A national survey study was conducted using...... or with friends (non-sexual partners) than women. For both men and women, the usual place of use was home and no significant gender difference was found in this regard. Men and women were found to vary in their preferences in pornographic materials, with men both preferring a wider range of hardcore pornography...
Gender Differences in Proactive, and No Inference Conditions. ... Journal Home > Vol 8, No 2 (2010) >. Log in or ... generates differential recall for men and women, with women showing superior recall ability under the interference conditions.
Krumsiek, Jan; Mittelstrass, Kirstin; Do, Kieu Trinh; Stückler, Ferdinand; Ried, Janina; Adamski, Jerzy; Peters, Annette; Illig, Thomas; Kronenberg, Florian; Friedrich, Nele; Nauck, Matthias; Pietzner, Maik; Mook-Kanamori, Dennis O; Suhre, Karsten; Gieger, Christian; Grallert, Harald; Theis, Fabian J; Kastenmüller, Gabi
The susceptibility for various diseases as well as the response to treatments differ considerably between men and women. As a basis for a gender-specific personalized healthcare, an extensive characterization of the molecular differences between the two genders is required. In the present study, we conducted a large-scale metabolomics analysis of 507 metabolic markers measured in serum of 1756 participants from the German KORA F4 study (903 females and 853 males). One-third of the metabolites show significant differences between males and females. A pathway analysis revealed strong differences in steroid metabolism, fatty acids and further lipids, a large fraction of amino acids, oxidative phosphorylation, purine metabolism and gamma-glutamyl dipeptides. We then extended this analysis by a network-based clustering approach. Metabolite interactions were estimated using Gaussian graphical models to get an unbiased, fully data-driven metabolic network representation. This approach is not limited to possibly arbitrary pathway boundaries and can even include poorly or uncharacterized metabolites. The network analysis revealed several strongly gender-regulated submodules across different pathways. Finally, a gender-stratified genome-wide association study was performed to determine whether the observed gender differences are caused by dimorphisms in the effects of genetic polymorphisms on the metabolome. With only a single genome-wide significant hit, our results suggest that this scenario is not the case. In summary, we report an extensive characterization and interpretation of gender-specific differences of the human serum metabolome, providing a broad basis for future analyses.
Shields, Stephanie A.; Dicicco, Elaine C.
The social psychology of gender has grown to become a thriving, scientifically sound research theme that encompasses a wide variety of topics and questions. The story of how this came to be has been told from a number of perspectives (e.g., Crawford & Marecek, 1989; Deaux, 1999; Rutherford, Vaughn-Blount, & Ball, 2010; Unger, 1998). In this…
Schepis, Ty S.; Desai, Rani A.; Cavallo, Dana A.; Smith, Anne E.; McFetridge, Amanda; Liss, Thomas B.; Marc N Potenza; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra
Marijuana use in adolescents is associated with many adverse outcomes, including neurobiological and health consequences. Despite this, little is known about gender differences in the correlates of adolescent marijuana use. This study attempted to fill this gap by examining gender differences in the correlates of lifetime and past 30-day marijuana use. Data from a cross-sectional statewide survey of adolescent risk behavior participation in Connecticut were analyzed using chi-square and hiera...
TOUSSAINT, LOREN; WEBB, JON R.
Much research has shown that women are more empathic than men. Yet, women and men are equally forgiving. However, it is not clear whether empathy is more important to forgiveness for men or for women. The purpose of the present study was to examine gender differences in levels of empathy and forgiveness and the extent to which the association of empathy and forgiveness differed by gender. Participants were 127 community residents who completed self-report measures of empathy and forgiveness. ...
Lahelma, E; Martikainen, P; Rahkonen, O; Silventoinen, K
The common wisdom about gender differences in illhealth has been encapsulated in the phrase "women are sicker, but men die quicker". Recently this wisdom has been increasingly questioned. The purpose of this study is first to analyse the patterns and magnitude of gender differences across various indicators of illhealth; second to examine changes over time in these differences and third to assess whether sociodemographic and socioeconomic, family status and social network determinants have any bearing on the differences. The data derive from nationally representative 1986 and 1994 Surveys on Living Conditions in Finland. Women showed poorer health for five out of eight indicators analysed; that is somatic symptoms, mental symptoms, disability among those 50 years or older, long-standing illness and limiting long-standing illness were more prevalent among women than men. Male excess was found for perceived health below good and extremely limiting long-standing illness among those 50 years or older. However, the male excess was statistically significant only for poor perceived health among those 50 years or older. Adjusting for a number of suggested determinants of health had a negligible effect on gender differences. Further analyses showed that gender differences in illhealth remained largely stable over the eight year study period which saw a steep increase of unemployment for both genders. Only in the case of mental and somatic symptoms have gender differences declined, with a simultaneous increase in the prevalence of such symptoms. Otherwise gender differences in illhealth turned out to be resistant to the deep labour market crisis over this relatively short period of time. Although women had poorer health than men for a number of health indicators, we also find gender equality and even male excess for some indicators. Furthermore, the results suggest that a male excess in illhealth is likely to be found with more severe domains of illhealth among elderly
Kangasniemi, Mari; Kauhanen, Antti
We study the impact of performance-related pay (PRP) on gender wage differences using Finnish linked employer-employee panel data. Controlling for unobserved person and firm effects, we find that bonuses increase women's earnings slightly less than men's, but the economic significance of the difference is negligible. Piece rates and reward rates, however, tend to increase gender wage differentials. Thus, the nature of a performance related pay plan is important for gauging the impact of PRP o...
Somaye Hamdi asl
Full Text Available Studies regarding gender differences in EFL context have been done for many years. However, it seems that writing, which is a vital skill in academic issues, has gained much less attention in this area. In addition, not having enough knowledge of gender differences for teachers is one of the main barriers of language learning. The current study examines gender differences in Iranian EFL students’ letter writing in terms of 13 linguistic features mentioned in Mulac, Bradac, & Gibbons (2001. The results of this study showed significant differences toward the use of some linguistic features. Female participants tended to use more “I” references, references to quantity, references to emotions, uncertainty verbs, sentence initial adverbials and judgmental adjectives. In addition, the results showed than women tended to be wordier than men in terms of total number of words. Men, on the other hand, exceeded women on a number of linguistic dimensions including locatives, mean length sentence and dependent clauses. Moreover, elliptical sentences were not used by female participants at all and few male participants used them in their letters. Therefore, this study demonstrated gender differences in Iranian EFL students’ letter writing. These dissimilarities between genders in EFL can be contributed to many aspects such as educational instructions, teachers, and cultural differences. It also illustrated teachers’ perspectives of gender regarding students’ writing.
Ali, Amir; Subhi, Yousif; Ringsted, Charlotte
females, one-on-one training and instructor feedback worked better on females and were able to help the acquisition of surgical skills at a level that negated measurable gender differences. Female physicians possess the required physical strength for surgical procedures, but may face gender......BACKGROUND: Females are less attracted than males to surgical specialties, which may be due to differences in the acquisition of skills. The aim of this study was to systematically review studies that investigate gender differences in the acquisition of surgical skills. METHODS: We performed...... a comprehensive database search using relevant search phrases and MeSH terms. We included studies that investigated the role of gender in the acquisition of surgical skills. RESULTS: Our search yielded 247 studies, 18 of which were found to be eligible and were therefore included. These studies included a total...
Koester, Benjamin P; McKay, Timothy A
Grades provide students with their primary performance feedback: signals which affect academic choices. Variations in grading practice among courses impose grade penalties (and bonuses) on students who take them. These grade penalties are sometimes gendered. Using extensive data from the University of Michigan, we report on patterns of grade penalty and gendered performance difference across 116 large courses. We find that significant gendered performance differences are ubiquitous in large introductory STEM lecture courses. They are largely absent in both STEM labs and in lecture courses in other disciplines. Exploring the features of these courses, we hypothesize that evaluation methods used in STEM lecture courses interact with stereotype threat to create these gendered performance differences.
Polo-Kantola, Päivi; Laine, Antti; Kronholm, Erkki; Saarinen, Maiju M; Rautava, Päivi; Aromaa, Minna; Sillanpää, Matti
Sufficient sleep is essential for health and working capacity. Shorter sleep duration on workdays is often compensated by sleeping longer during leisure days. Gender dissimilarities in sleep quality are acknowledged. Our aim was to study the less known gender differences in sleep duration. A population based study with a total of 1049 middle-aged regularly working women (n=524) and men (n=525). A questionnaire of sleep durations on workdays and leisure days, preferred sleep duration, with health-related quality of life and health behavior. Women slept 14min longer on workdays (psleep duration (psleep duration and again, with more extensive difference in women (gender-interaction psleep time did not differ between genders (p=0.346). None of the explanatory variables explained the gender differences in sleep durations. Sleep loss on workdays is presumably more pronounced in women, since despite their longer sleep on workdays, the gender differences persist in both sleep duration on leisure days and in preferred sleep duration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Edleson, Jeffrey L.; Brygger, Mary Pat
Examined difference between male and female reports of violence and threats directed by the man toward the woman. In many categories, significantly more women were found at intake to report more threats and violence than their male partners. After extensive intervention these differences were not found in the more severe categories of violence.…
Full Text Available The aim of this research is to understand whether there are gender differences in the symptoms of stress post-traumatic stress disorder. Many researches that have been made in this area have reached the conclusion that there are gender differences in the symptoms of stress posttraumatic stress disorder. To investigate this issue is to select a sample of 100 respondents, the selection of whom is done at random, with people who we have met in the street the library, the faculties of other public sites. The research was of the type quantitative – where the data are collected through the application of questionnaires. The results from this survey show that there are gender differences in the symptoms of stress post-traumatic stress disorder. So, women survive with the many symptoms of stress post-traumatic stress disorder than men. The results are processed with the Analysis of data ,with the program SPSS.- krostabulim (crosstabulation Gender with questions. The aim of this research is to understand whether there are gender differences in the symptoms of stress post-traumatic stress disorder. Many researches that have been made in this area have reached the conclusion that there are gender differences in the symptoms of stress post-traumatic stress disorder. To investigate this issue is to select a sample of 100 respondents, the selection of whom is done at random, with people who we have met in the street the library, the faculties of other public sites. The research was of the type quantitative – where the data are collected through the application of questionnaires. The results from this survey show that there are gender differences in the symptoms of stress post-traumatic stress disorder. So, women perjetojnë with the many symptoms of stress post-traumatic stress disorder than men. The results are processed with the Analysis of data ,with the program SPSS.- krostabulim (crosstabulation Gender with questions.
Kamphorst, Jan C.; Hofman, W.H. Adriaan; Jansen, Ellen P.W.A.; Terlouw, Cees
Background In Dutch engineering education, female students outperform male students. Using an interactionalist framework, this study explores factors that contribute to this gender-based difference. Purpose This study aims to answer two questions: Do female and male students differ in background
Chen, Allshine; Krebs, Nicolle M; Zhu, Junjia; Sun, Dongxiao; Stennett, Andrea; Muscat, Joshua E
This study was conducted to determine sex/gender differences in smoke exposure and to quantify the role of potential predictors including puffing behaviors, nicotine dependence, and non-nicotinic factors. The Pennsylvania Adult Smoking Study (PASS) of 332 adult cigarette smokers utilized portable handheld topography devices to capture the smokers' profiles in a naturalistic environment. Sex/gender differences in salivary biomarkers were modeled using ANCOVA to account for measures of dependence (Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence, nicotine metabolite ratio [3-hydroxycotinine/cotinine]), and nondependence covariates including anthropomorphic factors and stress. The Blinder-Oaxaca method was used to decompose the sex/gender differences in nicotine uptake due to covariates. Men had significantly higher cotinine levels (313.5 ng/mL vs. 255.8 ng/mL, p differ between men and women (p = 0.24). Women had a higher mean Hooked on Tobacco Checklist score than men (7.64 vs. 6.87, p different by sex. Decomposition results show that ten predictors can explain 83% of the sex/gender differences in cotinine uptake. Height was the greatest contributor to these differences, followed by average puff volume. Conclusion and Impact: The higher levels of nicotine metabolites in men, compared to women, can be explained by height, weight, puff volume, and nicotine metabolism.
Pajares, Frank; Valiante, Giovanni
The aim of this study was to determine whether gender differences in the writing motivation and achievement of middle school students (N = 497) are a function of gender-stereotypic beliefs rather than of gender. Girls reported stronger writing self-efficacy, writing self-concept, self-efficacy for self-regulation, value of writing, and task goals, and they received higher grades in language arts. Boys reported stronger performance-approach goals. All gender differences favoring girls in writing motivation and achievement were rendered nonsignificant when feminine orientation beliefs were controlled. Findings suggest that a feminine orientation is adaptive in the area of writing, whereas a masculine orientation is beneficial when escorted by a feminine orientation. Results are interpreted from the perspective of A. Bandura's (1986) social cognitive theory. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.
Maas, A.H.E.M; Appelman, Y.E.A
...’ against cardiovascular disease. The under-recognition of heart disease and differences in clinical presentation in women lead to less aggressive treatment strategies and a lower representation of women in clinical trials...
Möller-Leimkühler, Anne Maria
Although gender is increasingly perceived as a key determinant in health and illness, systematic gender studies in medicine are still lacking. For a long time, cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been seen as a “male” disease, due to men's higher absolute risk compared with women, but the relative risk in women of CVD morbidity and mortality is actually higher: Current knowledge points to important gender differences in age of onset, symptom presentation, management, and outcome, as well as traditional and psychosocial risk factors. Compared with men, CVD risk in women is increased to a greater extent by some traditional factors (eg, diabetes, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, obesity,) and socioeconomic and psychosocial factors also seem to have a higher impact on CVD in women. With respect la differences in CVD management, a gender bias in favor of men has to be taken into account, in spite of greater age and higher comorbidity in women, possibly contributing to a poorer outcome. Depression has been shown to be an independent risk factor and consequence of CVD; however, concerning gender differences, The results have been inconsistent. Current evidence suggests that depression causes a greater increase in CVD incidence in women, and that female CVD patients experience higher levels of depression than men. Gensier aspects should be more intensively considered, both in further research on gender differences in comorbid depresion, and in cardiac treatment and rehabilitation, with the goal of making secondary prevention more effective. PMID:17506227
Price, Marilyn; Recupero, Patricia R; Strong, David R; Gutheil, Thomas G
In the past 25 years, the number of female forensic psychiatrists has increased dramatically. To assess whether there are gender differences in the practice patterns of forensic psychiatry experts, members of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law were surveyed during an annual business meeting. Women in the sample were shown to perform fewer categories of evaluation than men. Women were less likely than men to do criminal work, civil commitment/involuntary medication evaluations, and testamentary capacity evaluations, but there was no significant difference in the percentage of those performing some personal injury/disability/fitness for duty, custody, sexual harassment, or malpractice evaluations. Gender was not a significant factor in determining hourly rate. When subjects were asked to comment on whether they thought that gender was a factor in the selection of a forensic expert, 80 percent of the women, but only 41 percent of the men, believed that gender was a consideration.
Mirjam eWeis; Tobias eHeikamp; Gisela eTrommsdorff
This study examined whether different aspects of self-regulation (i.e., emotion and behavior regulation) account for gender differences in German and mathematics achievement. Specifically, we investigated whether higher school achievement by girls in comparison to boys can be explained by self-regulation. German and mathematics achievement were assessed in a sample of 53 German fifth graders (19 boys, 34 girls) using formal academic performance tests (i.e., reading, writing, mathematics) and ...
Opwis, Mareile; Schmidt, Jennifer; Martin, Alexandra; Salewski, Christel
Rumination is a maladaptive emotion regulation strategy which contributes to psychopathology and is more frequently used by women than men. It has been found to mediate the relationship between gender and the occurrence of anxiety disorders or depression. Since gender differences also appear in dysfunctional eating, the aim of the study is to test, whether rumination mediates the association between gender and several facets of eating pathology. A total of 295 participants (205 women) completed an online-questionnaire including the assessment of different facets of dysfunctional eating and rumination. Mediation analyses were conducted with PROCESS. Women reported significantly higher levels in both, rumination and eating pathology. Moreover, rumination mediated the relationship between gender and all assessed aspects of dysfunctional eating. The present study extends findings on the mediating role of rumination accounting for gender differences in psychopathology to eating pathology in a community sample. Results suggest that cognitive factors play a substantial role in explaining gender differences in eating pathology which tend to be reduced to biologicals factors and beauty ideals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Studies support the idea of differences between men and women managers regarding leadership style, are quite hard to find because almost all research in this direction have been made in terms of groups of male managers. If there was evidence in the sense similarity between the leadership style of men and women managers this problem would not exist. There have been some studies, mostly in the U.S., which dealt with the nature of leadership and demonstrated that there are many differences betwe...
There is an increasing incidence of multiple sclerosis (MS) in women in Denmark and Danish women's risk of developing MS has more than doubled in 25 years, while it has remained virtually unchanged for men. The explanation for these epidemiological changes should be sought in the environment, as genetics only explain a small part of the MS risk as the changes are too rapid to be explained by gene alterations. The rapid increase of MS incidence likely reflects unidentified changes in the environment and probably gene-environmental interactions. My PhD thesis work was conceived and designed to investigate the relevant exposures in different periods of life that may have contributed to the increasing female to male ratio of cases of multiple sclerosis in Denmark. To study this, we investigated the effect of numerous biological, social, physical and chemical environmental factors available from population-based registries in a case-control approach. Pregnancy may have a biological protective effect against developing MS in women, lasting for about five years. The protective effect is probably due to the modulation of the immune system by pregnancy. Our data on social behaviour changes regarding educational level, income, and relationship stability did not indicate reversed causality as a significant contributor to the lower number of childbirths in the five years before onset. Fewer pregnancies are one possible explanation we found for the increasing incidence of MS in women in our study. The trend towards fewer childbirths in the female population over decades may contribute to the increasing sex ratio and female incidence of MS. Socio-economic status and lifestyle expressed in educational level and the sanitary conditions in youth are not associated with the risk of MS, and cannot contribute to the increasing epidemiological disparity between the genders over the last decades. A greater likelihood to be exposed to common infections did not show any effect on the MS
Takahashi, Ana Maria; 高橋, 新吾
By using unique data about academic economists in Japanese universities, we conduct the first detailed study of gender salary differences within Japanese academia. Despite the common belief among Japanese academics that there cannot be a gender salary gap within the Japanese academia, our empirical results show that female academic economists earn 7% less than comparable males, after controlling for rank and detailed personal, job, institutional and human capital characteristics. The coeffici...
Junhem, Sanna; Adolfsson, Sophie
Background - Celebrity endorsement is not a new phenomenon and it can be seen in advertisements around the world. Since the content of an advertisement easily can be screened out, it is important to target the right consumer. There has to be a fit between the consumer, the endorser and the product. Since gender plays a crucial part when understanding consumer behavior, knowledge about gender differences needs to be taken into account when creating a marketing strategy. Purpose - Consumer...
Zinchenko, Yury P.; Olga Yu. Zotova; Lyudmila V. Tarasova
Background. This study addresses a current problem relating to trust and the identification of gender differences in trust/mistrust manifestation. Gender identity is associated with cultural stereotypes and social roles, which facilitate the formation of trust in people. It acts as a significant integral meaning-based component of an individual’s “I”- conception, which contributes to the formation of trust in himself and the world around him. Objective. To study features of trust/mistrus...
A more recent approach, situational leadership , implies that the leader should use whatever sort of leadership style fits the occasion. That...reflect the difference in the way women use power. An open door would encourage information sharing. E. ANDROGYNY The theory of situational leadership suggests
Sunny, Cijy Elizabeth; Taasoobshirazi, Gita; Clark, Lauren; Marchand, Gwen
Stereotype threat theory (STT) offers one explanation for achievement differences in math and science for both women and minority students. Specifically, STT posits that the perceived risk of confirming a negative stereotype about an individual's identity group acts as a psychological burden that negatively impacts performance. This study examined…
Worldwide, many research has been performed to investigate differences between men and women with type 2 diabetes (T2D) (the most common type of diabetes). These studies showed that the negative impact of T2D on health is higher among women compared to men. However, whether this phenomenon holds
Mazman, S. Guzin; Usluel, Yasemin Kocak
The purpose of this study is to determine individuals' usage purposes of social networks with a focus on the possible differences between females and males. Facebook, which is one the most popular and being most widely used social network, is investigated in this study. The study group consisted of 870 Facebook users who responded to an online…
Buser, T.; Peter, N.
We examine how multitasking affects performance and check whether women are indeed better at multitasking. Subjects in our experiment perform two different tasks according to three treatments: one where they perform the tasks sequentially, one where they are forced to multitask, and one where they
Magnusson, Charlotta; Nermo, Magnus
Using data from the Swedish Level of Living Survey (2000, 2010), we investigate how the gender wage gap varies with occupational prestige and family status and also examine the extent to which this gap is explained by time-consuming working conditions. In addition, we investigate whether there is an association between parenthood, job characteristics and wage (as differentiated by gender). The analyses indicate that there are gender differences regarding prestige-based pay-offs among parents that are partly explained by fathers' greater access to employment characterized by time-consuming conditions. Separate analyses for men and women demonstrate the presence of a marriage wage premium for both genders, although only men have a parenthood wage premium. This fatherhood premium is however only present in high-prestigious occupations. Compared with childless men, fathers are also more advantaged in terms of access to jobs with time-consuming working conditions, but the wage gap between fathers and childless men is not explained by differences in access to such working conditions.
Mathis, Maria Alice de; Alvarenga, Pedro de; Funaro, Guilherme; Torresan, Ricardo Cezar; Moraes, Ivanil; Torres, Albina Rodrigues; Zilberman, Monica L; Hounie, Ana Gabriela
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a heterogeneous condition, in which subtypes have been proposed. Previous studies suggested that gender plays a relevant role in OCD phenotypic expression. This study aimed to review the literature on gender differences in clinical, genetic or familial aspects of OCD. A conventional review was conducted, including all papers that investigated demographic, clinical, and genetic aspects of OCD according to gender. The search was based on data available in Medline and PsycINFO databases in the last 20 years, using as keywords: obsessive-compulsive disorder; and: gender, sex, male, female, demographic characteristics, clinical features, clinical characteristics, genetic, genes, genetics gender OCD, genes OCD, genes OCD males, genes OCD females. Sixty three of 487 phenotypical and genetics studies were selected. Most studies indicate that male patients are more likely than females to be single, present early onset of symptoms and chronic course of the disorder, greater social impairment, more sexual-religious and aggressive symptoms, and greater comorbidity with tic and substance use disorders. Female patients present more contamination/cleaning symptoms and greater comorbidity with eating and impulse-control disorders. Genetic and family studies are inconclusive, but suggest that gender may play a role in the disease expression. Gender is a relevant factor that should be taken into account when evaluating OCD patients. More studies are necessary to determine whether in fact it defines a homogeneous and particular group in OCD.
In the early twentieth century in the United States and other Western countries, women were much less likely than men to smoke cigarettes, due in part to widespread social disapproval of women's smoking. During the mid-twentieth century, growing social acceptance of women's smoking contributed to increased smoking adoption by women. Increased social acceptance of women's smoking was part of a general liberalization of norms concerning women's behavior, reflecting increasing equality between the sexes. These historical trends were due in part to increases in women's employment. However, in the contemporary period employment appears to have little or no effect on women's smoking. Sex role norms and general expectations concerning gender-appropriate behavior have had a variety of effects on gender differences in smoking. First, general characteristics of traditional sex roles, including men's greater social power and generally greater restrictions on women's behavior, contributed to widespread social pressures against women's smoking. Second, traditional sex role norms and expectations have fostered gender differences in personal characteristics and experiences which influence smoking adoption. For example, rebelliousness has been more expected and accepted for males, and greater rebelliousness among adolescent males has contributed to greater smoking adoption by males. Finally, certain aspects of sex roles have contributed to gender differences in appraisal of the costs and benefits of smoking. For example, physical attractiveness is emphasized more for females and the contemporary beauty ideal is very slender, so females are more likely to view weight control as a benefit of smoking. Several other hypotheses concerning the causes of gender differences in smoking are not supported by the available evidence. For example, it appears that women's generally greater concern with health has not contributed significantly to gender differences in the prevalence of smoking
Peek, Monica E
Diabetes is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States, with much of the economic and social costs related to macrovascular and microvascular complications, such as myocardial infarctions, renal failure, and lower extremity amputations. While racial/ethnic differences in diabetes are well documented, less attention has been given to differences in diabetes outcomes by gender. Does gender influence the rate of diabetes-related lower extremity amputations and/or the rate of mortality after amputation? I reviewed the literature utilizing peer-reviewed publications found through MEDLINE searches. WHERE ARE WE NOW?: Major complex gender differences exist in diabetes-related lower extremity amputations: men are more likely to undergo lower extremity amputations, but women apparently have higher mortality related to these procedures. The reasons for such differences are not entirely clear, but it appears biologic factors may play important roles (increased rates of peripheral vascular disease and peripheral neuropathy in men, interaction between gender and cardiac mortality in women). WHERE DO WE NEED TO GO?: More research is warranted to confirm gender differences in diabetes-related lower extremity amputation mortality and explore underlying mechanisms for the gender differences in lower extremity amputations and its associated mortality. HOW DO WE GET THERE?: Exploring gender disparities in diabetes-related outcomes, such as lower extremity amputations, will need to become a national priority from a research (eg, National Institutes of Health) and policy (eg, Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services) perspective. Only when we have a better understanding of the causes of such differences can we begin to make strides in addressing them.
Oliveira, Telma Sobral; Valente, Ana Tentúgal; Caetano, Cristina Guerreiro; Garagarza, Cristina Antunes
Malnutrition is common in patients undergoing haemodialysis (HD). Several studies have described different nutritional parameters as mortality predictors but few have studied whether there are differences between genders. This study aimed to evaluate which nutrition parameters may be associated with mortality in patients undergoing long-term HD depending on their gender. Longitudinal prospective multicentre study with 12 months of follow-up. Anthropometric and laboratory measures were obtained from 697 patients. Men who died were older, had lower dry weight, body mass index, potassium, phosphorus and albumin, compared with male patients who survived. Female patients who died had lower albumin and nPCR compared with survivors. Kaplan-Meier analysis displayed a significantly worse survival in patients with albumin genders and with body mass index genders. Associations between albumin, body mass index and mortality risk continued to be significant after adjustments for age, length of time on dialysis and diabetes for males. However, in women, only albumin persisted as an independent predictor of death. Depending on the gender, different parameters such as protein intake, potassium, phosphorus, body mass index and albumin are associated with mortality in patients undergoing HD. Albumin genders, whereas a body mass index <23 kg/m(2) is an independent predictor of death, but only in men. © 2017 European Dialysis and Transplant Nurses Association/European Renal Care Association.
Carl, John D.
As a parent, sociologist, and educator, the author often seems to see the world differently from others. While some see a public policy debate as a football game between winners and losers, he sees it as a vital way to create a good society. While some see education as a means to an end, he sees it as a goal in and of itself. Some see gender…
Buser, Thomas; Peter, Noemi
We examine how multitasking affects performance and check whether women are indeed better at multitasking. Subjects in our experiment perform two different tasks according to three treatments: one where they perform the tasks sequentially, one where they are forced to multitask, and one where they can freely organize their work. Subjects who are forced to multitask perform significantly worse than those forced to work sequentially. Surprisingly, subjects who can freely organize their own sche...
Hajj, Mandana; Panizza, Ugo
This paper uses individual-level data and a differences-in-differences estimation strategy to test whether the education gender gap of Muslims is different from that of Christians. In particular, the paper uses data for young Lebanese and shows that, other things equal, girls (both Muslim and Christian) tend to receive more education than boys and…
Understanding the nature and biological basis of gender-determined differences in risk of and outcome from infection might identify new therapeutic targets, allow more individualised treatment, and facilitate better risk prediction and application of healthcare resources. Gender differences in behaviours, comorbidities, access to healthcare and biology may result in differences in acquiring infection, or in response to infection once acquired. Some studies have reported higher male susceptibility to infection, and higher risk of death with sepsis, but others have found the opposite effect. The explanation for this disagreement is probably that different studies have included patients at different stages on the continuum from infectious agent exposure to death or recovery. Studying sufficient patient numbers to explore this entire continuum while accounting for heterogeneity in type of infection and comorbidity is difficult because of the number of patients required. However, if true gender effects can be identified, examination of their biological or psychosocial causes will be warranted. PMID:21888682
Karreman, A.; Laceulle, O.M.; Hanser, W.E.; Vingerhoets, A.J.J.M.
This experimental study examined if emotional experience can be manipulated by applying an emotion regulation strategy during music listening and if individual differences in effects of strategies can be explained by person characteristics. Adults (N = 466) completed questionnaires and rated
Karreman, A.; Laceulle, O.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/364227885; Hanser, Waldie; vingerhoets, ad
This experimental study examined if emotional experience can be manipulated by applying an emotion regulation strategy during music listening and if individual differences in effects of strategies can be explained by person characteristics. Adults (N = 466) completed questionnaires and rated
Arjun Sekhar P M; J. Parameswari
A gender stereotype is a kind of over generalization about characteristics, attributes and differences on the basis of gender. Gender stereotypes construct certain gender roles. A gender role is a behavior learned by a person as desirable, acceptable appropriate, to their gender, determined by the prevailing cultural norms. In society, the gender role continues through generation. There are certain factors which help to transmit these roles. This conceptual paper will try to explain the role ...
Full Text Available Using the lens of expectation states theory, which we formalize in Bayesian terms, this article examines the influences of national performance and self-assessment contexts on gender differences in the rate of aspiring to science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM occupations. We demonstrate that girls hold themselves to a higher performance standard than do boys before forming STEM orientations, and this gender "standards gap" grows with the strength of a country’s performance environment. We also demonstrate that a repeatedly observed paradox in this literature—namely, that the STEM gender gap increases with a more strongly gender-egalitarian national culture—vanishes when the national performance culture is taken into account. Whereas other research has proposed theories to explain the apparent paradox as an empirical reality, we demonstrate that the empirical relationship is as expected; net of the performance environment, countries with a more gender-egalitarian culture have a smaller gender gap in STEM orientations. We also find, consistent with our theory, that the proportion of high-performing girls among STEM aspirants grows with the strength of the national performance environment even as the overall gender gap in STEM orientations grows because of offsetting behavior by students at the lower end of the performance distribution.
Jackson, Simon A.; Kleitman, Sabina; Howie, Pauline; Stankov, Lazar
In this paper, we investigate whether individual differences in performance on heuristic and biases tasks can be explained by cognitive abilities, monitoring confidence, and control thresholds. Current theories explain individual differences in these tasks by the ability to detect errors and override automatic but biased judgments, and deliberative cognitive abilities that help to construct the correct response. Here we retain cognitive abilities but disentangle error detection, proposing tha...
Simon Anthony Jackson; Sabina Kleitman; Pauline Howie; Lazar Stankov
In this paper, we investigate whether individual differences in performance on heuristic and biases tasks can be explained by cognitive abilities, monitoring confidence and control thresholds. Current theories explain individual differences in these tasks by the ability to detect errors and override automatic but biased judgements, and deliberative cognitive abilities that help to construct the correct response. Here we retain cognitive abilities but disentangle error detection, proposing tha...
Bilal, Usama; Beltrán, Paula; Fernández, Esteve; Navas-Acien, Ana; Bolumar, Francisco; Franco, Manuel
The intersection between gender and class can aid in understanding gender differences in smoking. To analyse how changes in gender inequality relate to differences in smoking prevalence by gender, education and birth cohort in Spain over the past five decades (1960-2010). The Gender Inequality Index (GII) was calculated in 5-year intervals from 1960 to 2010. GII ranges from 0 to 1 (1=highest inequality) and encompasses three dimensions: reproductive health, empowerment and labour market. Estimates of female and male smoking prevalence were reconstructed from representative National Health Surveys and stratified by birth cohort and level of education. We calculated female-to-male smoking ratios from 1960 to 2010 stratified by education and birth cohort. Gender inequality in Spain decreased from 0.65 to 0.09 over the past 50 years. This rapid decline was inversely correlated (r=-0.99) to a rising female-to-male smoking ratio. The youngest birth cohort of the study (born 1980-1990) and women with high education levels had similar smoking prevalences compared with men. Women with high levels of education were also the first to show a reduction in smoking prevalence, compared with less educated women. Gender inequality fell significantly in Spain over the past 50 years. This process was accompanied by converging trends in smoking prevalence for men and women. Smoking prevalence patterns varied greatly by birth cohort and education levels. Countries in earlier stages of the tobacco epidemic should consider gender-sensitive tobacco control measures and policies. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Goldman, Amy D.; Penner, Andrew M.
This study provides an international perspective on mathematics by examnnng mathematics self-concept, achievement, and the desire to enter a career involving mathematics among eighth graders in 49 countries. Using data from the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study, this study shows that self-concept in mathematics is more closely related to the desire to enter a career using mathematics than achievement is. Further, while gender differences in mathematics self-concept are smaller in more egalitarian countries, both girls and boys have lower mathematics self-concepts and less interest in mathematics careers in these countries. These findings reveal a policy paradox: policies aimed at training the next generation of STEM professionals often highlight the need to close the gender gap, but countries with smaller gender gaps have fewer boys and girls interested in mathematics-intensive careers. We conclude by highlighting the importance of disentangling instrumental and expressive aspects of gender inequality in STEM fields. PMID:27840545
Research on recovery from mental illness and the influence of compulsory psychiatric institutional care has revealed the complexity of this concept. There is also limited knowledge regarding the impact of gender-role expectations in these contexts, and how such expectations may influence both the care and individuals' recovery processes. To explore women's and men's perceptions of the impact of compulsory inpatient care on recovery from severe mental illness. Grounded theory was used to analyse 30 first-person accounts of recovery from mental illness, elicited via interviews with individuals who had been compulsorily treated in hospital and diagnosed with a severe mental illness. Inpatient care at an early stage was crucial for the informants' recovery. However, there was ambivalence in their perceptions of the impact of compulsory inpatient care. The narratives confirmed gender differences as well as gender stereotypes. The results have implications for recovery research, in that they emphasise the importance of understanding recovery as a gender-influenced process.
Hildebrandt, Malene Grubbe; Steyerberg, Ewout Willem; Stage, Kurt Bjerregaard
/day), and moclobemide (400 mg/day). Assessments were performed by using the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and the Udvalg for Kliniske Undersøgelser Side Effect Rating Scale. In a subgroup of 110 patients, weekly measurements of clomipramine plasma concentrations were obtained. Nonparametric statistical tests....... The plasma concentrations of clomipramine were significantly higher for female than for male patients. No gender differences were found in posttreatment Hamilton depression scale scores, nor did the therapeutic effects of treatment depend on gender. Rates of dropout and side effects were similar for men...... and women. No relationship between plasma concentrations, gender, and therapeutic outcome was found. CONCLUSIONS: In a group of patients with major and predominantly melancholic depression, differentiation according to gender was not important in treatment with common antidepressants. Women appeared to have...
Comorbidities play an important role in the course and therapy of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Sex-specific aspects are observed with regard to prevalence and manifestation of RA-related comorbidities. A summary of current insights into sex and gender-related aspects of frequent comorbidities in RA is given. National data were analyzed and literature findings from meta-analyses, observational studies and reviews with regard to gender and RA-associated comorbidities are presented. There are gender-specific differences in the prevalence of comorbidities of RA. Depression, fibromyalgia and hypothyroidism are more frequent in women than in men, whereas cardiovascular diseases and diabetes are more common in men. Osteoarthritis and osteoporosis are frequent in both sexes. Sex and gender-specific aspects should be taken into consideration in the diagnostics and treatment of RA-related comorbidities.
Ferrari, Manuela; Flora, Nina; Anderson, Kelly K; Haughton, Asante; Tuck, Andrew; Archie, Suzanne; Kidd, Sean; McKenzie, Kwame
Gender is a critical demographic determinant in first-episode psychosis research. We used data from the ACE Pathways to Care Project, which examined pathways to care in African-origin, Caribbean-origin and European-origin participants, to investigate the role of gender in pathways to early intervention programmes. A qualitative approach was used to examine gender differences in the routes to care. We conducted four focus groups and four individual in-depth interviews with 25 service users of early intervention services from African-origin, Caribbean-origin and European-origin populations. Gender stereotypes negatively influence the first service contact for women, and the early phase of the help seeking process for men. Women reported trying to seek care. However, family members and service providers often questioned their calls for help. Men described having difficulties in talking about their symptoms, as the act of seeking help was perceived as a sign of weakness by peers. The findings of this study suggest that gender stereotypes shape the journey to specialized care in different ways for men and women. Awareness of the impact that gender stereotypes have when a young person is seeking care for psychosis could help to promote a shift in attitudes among health-care providers and the provision of more compassionate and patient-centred care during this critical time. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
Deng, Yaling; Chang, Lei; Yang, Meng; Huo, Meng
The present study investigated gender differences in both emotional experience and expressivity. Heart rate (HR) was recorded as an indicator of emotional experience while the participants watched 16 video clips that induced eight types of emotion (sadness, anger, horror, disgust, neutrality, amusement, surprise, and pleasure). We also asked the participants to report valence, arousal, and motivation as indicators of emotional expressivity. Overall, the results revealed gender differences in emotional experience and emotional expressivity. When watching videos that induced anger, amusement, and pleasure, men showed larger decreases in HR, whereas women reported higher levels of arousal. There was no gender difference in HR when the participants watched videos that induced horror and disgust, but women reported lower valence, higher arousal, and stronger avoidance motivation than did men. Finally, no gender difference was observed in sadness or surprise, although there was one exception—women reported higher arousal when watching videos that induced sadness. The findings suggest that, when watching videos that induce an emotional response, men often have more intense emotional experiences, whereas women have higher emotional expressivity, particularly for negative emotions. In addition, gender differences depend on the specific emotion type but not the valence. PMID:27362361
Berninger, Virginia W; Nielsen, Kathleen H; Abbott, Robert D; Wijsman, Ellen; Raskind, Wendy
Gender differences in mean level of reading and writing skills were examined in 122 children (80 boys and 42 girls) and 200 adults (115 fathers and 85 mothers) who showed behavioral markers of dyslexia in a family genetics study. Gender differences were found in writing and replicated prior results for typically developing children: Boys and men were more impaired in handwriting and composing than were girls and women, but men, who were more impaired in those writing skills, were also more impaired in spelling than women. Men were more impaired than women in accuracy and rate of reading passages orally, but boys were not more impaired than girls on any of the reading measures. Males were consistently more impaired than females in orthographic skills, which may be the source of gender differences in writing, but not motor skills. Population-based studies that report gender differences in reading in children with dyslexia may be confounding reading and writing disorders--the latter being the true source of gender differences in both children and adults with dyslexia.
Deng, Yaling; Chang, Lei; Yang, Meng; Huo, Meng; Zhou, Renlai
The present study investigated gender differences in both emotional experience and expressivity. Heart rate (HR) was recorded as an indicator of emotional experience while the participants watched 16 video clips that induced eight types of emotion (sadness, anger, horror, disgust, neutrality, amusement, surprise, and pleasure). We also asked the participants to report valence, arousal, and motivation as indicators of emotional expressivity. Overall, the results revealed gender differences in emotional experience and emotional expressivity. When watching videos that induced anger, amusement, and pleasure, men showed larger decreases in HR, whereas women reported higher levels of arousal. There was no gender difference in HR when the participants watched videos that induced horror and disgust, but women reported lower valence, higher arousal, and stronger avoidance motivation than did men. Finally, no gender difference was observed in sadness or surprise, although there was one exception-women reported higher arousal when watching videos that induced sadness. The findings suggest that, when watching videos that induce an emotional response, men often have more intense emotional experiences, whereas women have higher emotional expressivity, particularly for negative emotions. In addition, gender differences depend on the specific emotion type but not the valence.
Full Text Available The present study investigated gender differences in both emotional experience and expressivity. Heart rate (HR was recorded as an indicator of emotional experience while the participants watched 16 video clips that induced eight types of emotion (sadness, anger, horror, disgust, neutrality, amusement, surprise, and pleasure. We also asked the participants to report valence, arousal, and motivation as indicators of emotional expressivity. Overall, the results revealed gender differences in emotional experience and emotional expressivity. When watching videos that induced anger, amusement, and pleasure, men showed larger decreases in HR, whereas women reported higher levels of arousal. There was no gender difference in HR when the participants watched videos that induced horror and disgust, but women reported lower valence, higher arousal, and stronger avoidance motivation than did men. Finally, no gender difference was observed in sadness or surprise, although there was one exception-women reported higher arousal when watching videos that induced sadness. The findings suggest that, when watching videos that induce an emotional response, men often have more intense emotional experiences, whereas women have higher emotional expressivity, particularly for negative emotions. In addition, gender differences depend on the specific emotion type but not the valence.
Full Text Available Epidemiological studies report higher prevalence rates of stress-related disorders such as acute stress disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD in women than in men following exposure to trauma. It is still not clear whether this greater prevalence in woman reflects a greater vulnerability to stress-related psychopathology. A number of individual and trauma-related characteristics have been hypothesized to contribute to these gender differences in physiological and psychological responses to trauma, differences in appraisal, interpretation or experience of threat, coping style or social support. In this context, the use of an animal model for PTSD to analyze some of these gender-related differences may be of particular utility. Animal models of PTSD offer the opportunity to distinguish between biological and socio-cultural factors, which so often enter the discussion about gender differences in PTSD prevalence.
Because of the social meaning smoking has acquired and because of different trends in male and female initiation rates, it is reasonable to suspect that different psychosocial factors predict smoking in teen-age boys and girls. A literature review revealed external pressures such as peer and parental smoking are important for both boys and girls though their influence may be moderated differentially by age and type of smoking behavior assessed. Some data support the hypothesis that female smoking is associated with self-confidence, social experience, and rebellion, whereas male smoking is associated with social insecurity. Overall, group differences such as gender and socioeconomic status are well-documented in terms of smoking prevalence but underexplored in the area of psychosocial predictors. In this review, gender differences have been documented with sufficient frequency to warrant further attention to develop gender specific components of smoking prevention programs.
Leuven, E.; Oosterbeek, H.; van Ophem, H.
This paper explores the hypothesis that wage differentials between skill groups across countries are consistent with a demand and supply framework. Using micro data from 15 countries we find that about one third of the variation in relative wages between skill groups across countries is explained by
Schuch, J.J.J.; Roest, A.M.; Nolen, W.A.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; de Jonge, P.
Background Although an overall gender difference in prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) has been well established, several questions concerning gender differences in the clinical manifestation of depression remain. This study aims to identify gender differences in psychopathology,
Schuch, Jerome J. J.; Roest, Annelieke M.; Nolen, Willem A.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; de Jonge, Peter
Background: Although an overall gender difference in prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) has been well established, several questions concerning gender differences in the clinical manifestation of depression remain. This study aims to identify gender differences in psychopathology,
Vitkova, Marianna; Rosenberger, Jaroslav; Gdovinova, Zuzana; Szilasiova, Jarmila; Mikula, Pavol; Groothoff, Johan W; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; van Dijk, Jitse P
Most of the psychological and physical factors associated with poor sleep quality in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) have a different prevalence in women and men, but whether or not these factors contribute differently to sleep quality in women and men with MS remains unclear. The aim of this study was to identify possible gender differences in factors related to poor sleep quality in MS patients. We collected data from 153 patients with MS. Patients filled out the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and one item of the Short Form-36 regarding pain. The best model of predictors of poor sleep quality consisting of gender, depression, anxiety, pain, and the interaction between gender and pain showed that the only variable interacting with gender, which was significantly associated with poor sleep quality was pain (odds ratio [OR] for interaction of pain with male gender was 15.4, 95% CI: 2.4; 39.5). Separate models for men and women consisting of pain, depression, anxiety, after adjustment for age, disease duration, and disability showed that pain was the only variable associated with poor sleep quality in men (OR = 12.7, 95% CI: 1.9; 29.6), whereas depression (OR = 4.1, 95% CI: 1.3; 13.2) and anxiety (OR = 6.8, 95% CI: 2.4; 19.1) were in women. Factors contributing to poor sleep quality in MS patients differ by gender. Depression and anxiety are associated with poor sleep quality in women, whereas pain is in men. This highlights the need to apply gender-specific approaches to the treatment of sleep disorders.
Lim, Jung-won; Paek, Min-so; Shon, En-jung
Individuals with cancer and their partners often experience communication difficulties. However, questions still remain regarding the influence of gender and role in cancer survivor-partner communication within couples. The current study intended to examine the communication patterns in breast, colorectal, and prostate cancer survivor-partner couples during cancer survivorship and whether gender and role differences in couples communication exist. The dominant-less dominant method of sequential mixed design was used. Ten couples who were recruited from the University Hospital registry in Cleveland, Ohio, participated in both mail surveys and individual interviews. Family and cancer-related communication was assessed in the quantitative phase. Both male survivors and partners demonstrated better family communication scores compared with their female counterparts, whereas there were no gender differences in the cancer-related communication scores. In the qualitative phase, 3 major themes were identified: (1) selective sharing of cancer-related issues, (2) initiation of cancer-related communication, and (3) emotional reaction in communication. The patterns associated with these themes differed between the male survivor-female partner and female survivor-male partner couples. This study provides new knowledge about family and cancer-related communication. Our findings highlight the importance of understanding different perspectives in the quality of communication by gender and role. Exploring couples' communication patterns by gender and role stimulates the research and the development of effective consumer-centered communication interventions. The findings provide assessment tools to inform dyadic communication patterns for clinical and scientific purposes.
Jacobs-Lawson, Joy M; Schumacher, Mitzi M; Hughes, Travonia; Arnold, Susanne
Although biologically based sex differences in the smoking patterns, epidemiology, biomedical markers, and survival rates associated with lung cancer are well documented, examinations of psychosocial gender differences are scarce. This cross-sectional study examined gender differences in psychosocial factors that are important in the medical management of lung cancer. A convenience sample of patients who were attending a multidisciplinary lung cancer treatment center (Markey Cancer Center, Lexington, Kentucky) were invited to complete a psychosocial needs assessment. Eligibility criteria included primary diagnosis of lung cancer, age > or =18 years, and being cognitively intact. Measures focused on psychosocial resources, treatment decision-making, social consequences of treatments, and treatment outcomes. Data were collected between the fall of 2005 and the summer of 2006. A total of 47 women and 53 men (mean [SD] age, 62.81 [12.01] years; 95% white) completed the needs assessment. Gender was not found to be associated with demographic characteristics, time until diagnosis, treatment, or survival rate. Smoking histories differed significantly in the proportion of women and men who smoked or were former smokers (P = 0.01) as well as the age when they began to smoke (P = 0.02). There were no significant gender differences in social support networks, general coping, information needs, treatment decision satisfaction, functional health, life satisfaction, financial impact, or service needs. However, significant gender differences did indicate that women favored spiritual practices (P = 0.02) and religious coping (P = 0.04), and were more likely to endorse having a life mission (P = 0.03) and being part of a divine plan (P = 0.01). Previous research has found that religiousness and spirituality improved depressive symptoms and may ease end-of-life despair. In the present study of patients with lung cancer, gender differences in religiousness and spirituality suggest
Assari, Shervin; Lankarani, Maryam Moghani; Piette, John D; Aikens, James E
Although some studies have shown a link between self-rated health (SRH) and glycemic control in type 2 diabetes (DM), other studies have failed to support this association. The purpose of this study was to determine whether these equivocal findings can be explained by specific interactions between gender, race, and SRH, as suggested by the intersectionality literature. This cross-sectional study included 287 patients with DM (85 Black men, 78 Black women, 64 White men, and 60 White women). After adjusting for demographic and medical factors, we regressed HbA1c on SRH with and without interactions between gender, race, and SRH. We conducted additional subgroup analyses to further characterize gender by race group differences. Although there was no main effect of SRH upon HbA1c (b = .16, 95% CI: .08-.39), we found a significant interaction between gender and SRH on HbA1c (b = -.50, 95% CI: -.97 to -.03). In race by gender-stratified models, SRH (b = .53, 95% CI: .00-1.07) was associated with HbA1c in Black men. SRH was not associated with HbA1c in White men, White women, or Black women. Combined race and gender differences may exist in the link between SRH and glycemic control in DM. Specifically, Black men with DM may be more attuned to the relationship between their overall health and their glycemic control.
Broekhuizen, T.L.J.; Delre, S.A.; Torres, A.
This paper uses a mixed method approach to show how cross-cultural differences in social influences can explain differences in distributions of market shares in different markets. First, we develop a realistic agent-based model that mimics the behavior of movie visitors and incorporates the social
Weerman, F.M.; Hoeve, M.
In this article, we investigate sex differences in the relationship between peers and delinquency. We analyse to what extent peers have different effects on delinquency among girls and boys, and to what extent sex differences in the level of delinquency can be explained by differential exposure or
Bonnard, Claire; Giret, Jean-Francois
Gender differences in wage expectations may affect investment in human capital and increase inequalities in the labour market. Our research based on a survey of first-year students at a French university aims to focus on expectations at the beginning of the career. Our results show that anticipated earnings differ significantly between men and…
Ragasa, Catherine; Berhane, Guush; Tadesse, Fanaye; Taffesse, Alemayehu Seyoum
Purpose: This article contributes new empirical evidence and nuanced analysis on the gender difference in access to extension services and how this translates to observed differences in technology adoption and agricultural productivity. Approach: It looks at the case of Ethiopia, where substantial investments in the extension system have been…
This paper investigated gender difference and students problem solving skills in mathematics probability by senior secondary school students with a view to determining differences in operational steps and levels of achievers. A total of 300 male and female students were randomly selected from 10 schools in the three ...
This study aimed at investigating gender differences in attitudes toward science. It also attempted to study developmental differences in attitudes toward science between Junior Secondary School Year One (JSS1) and Junior Secondary School Year Three (JSS3) students. A stratified random sample (N=596) was obtained ...
Burke, Penny Jane
This paper draws attention to gendered inequalities in relation to pedagogic participation, the politics of difference and the concept of "shame." I use the term "pedagogic participation" to illuminate the relationship between formations of difference, policy concerns to improve "equity" and higher education…
Sakellariou, Chris N.; Patrinos, Harry A.
Uses data from the 1986 Canadian labor market activity survey file to derive estimates of residual gender wage gap differences. Investigates these estimates' dependence on experimental design and on assumptions about discrimination-free wage structures. Residual differences persist, even after restricting the sample to a group of highly motivated,…
Silverman, Irwin W.
Used meta analysis to test predictions from psychoanalytic, parental investment, and differential socialization theories regarding gender differences in ability to resist temptation. Found that although females showed more restraint than males with a very small effect size, there were appreciable differences on forbidden-object tasks and very…
This exploratory study investigated gender differences in Internet identification and Internet anxiety. A sample of 231 students (138 females and 93 males) from four different schools participated in the study. A structured interview schedule was used to collect data. Factor analysis was carried out to test for construct validity.
Fritz, Robert L.
Secondary marketing students (n=144) completed the Group Embedded Figures Test and Educational Style Preference Inventory. Gender differences were found in information processing strategies and on 12 of 19 conative variables representing the way moods and emotions act as filters to produce selective attention. These differences could be most…
Langen, A.M.L. van; Bosker, R.J.; Dekkers, H.P.J.M.
Although the participation rates of females in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (or STEM) education is poor in most Western countries, considerable differences across countries exist as well. This may be due to differences in the so-called gender achievement gaps, that is, delays of
and parental leave in the work place, the article explores some of the challenges and complexities involved when researching gender as a social category of difference, which produces inequalities in organizations. Furthermore, the article demonstrates and discusses how applying and combining different methods...
Stapley, Janice C.; Haviland, Jeannette M.
This study investigates the status of depression among sex-related emotional differences in adolescents and examines the organizational properties of emotion relative to other life experience. Fifth-, seventh-, ninth-, and eleventh-grade students reported on experience and situational dynamics of 12 emotions. Gender differences in adolescent…
Struik, Laura L.; O'Loughlin, Erin K.; Dugas, Erika N.; Bottorff, Joan L.; O'Loughlin, Jennifer L.
It is well established that many adolescents who smoke want to quit, but little is known about why adolescents want to quit and if reasons to quit differ across gender. The objective of this study was to determine if reasons to quit smoking differ in boys and girls. Data on the Adolescent Reasons for Quitting (ARFQ) scale were collected in mailed…
Jeon, Gyeong-Suk; Jang, Soong-Nang; Rhee, Seon-Ja; Kawachi, Ichiro; Cho, Sung-Il
. This study examined the differential impact of social roles and socioeconomic resources on the mental health of Korean men and women aged 65 years or older. The study sample was a weighted population of 930 people (905 survey samples) aged 65 years or older who had responded to the health behavior survey of the 2001 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We observed striking gender differences in the correlates of poor mental health. Living alone was significantly associated with depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation in men but not in women. Living in a multigenerational family without a spouse and having a lower household income were significantly associated with poor mental health in both men and women. We discuss the intriguing evidence of gender differences in the correlates of mental health within the context of traditional Asian society and suggest further research on social components of gender differences in mental health across diverse cultures.
Full Text Available In view of the fact that learner-centered instruction is the standpoint in education in new trends, teachers must be aware of students’ characteristics in order to tailor their teaching to needs of learners. One of the areas which is closely related to characteristics and performance of language learners is the role of gender on language learning in general and writing performance in particular. Although various studies have been conducted to examine gender difference regarding different aspects of language learning, the results reveal inconsistencies. This paper attempts to consider the gender differences in writing performance and has some implications for policy makers who are to develop a curriculum compatible with the needs of language learners.
Bukh, Jens D; Bock, Camilla; Vinberg, Maj
BACKGROUND: Studies on gender differences in depression have usually included a mixture of patients with first-episode, chronic and recurrent depression. Consequently, the results might be confounded by the history of depression among participants. The present study evaluated gender differences...... in sociodemographic, clinical and treatment variables among patients suffering exclusively from single-episode depression. METHOD: Systematic recruitment of 301 participants via the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register and assessment by means of questionnaires and interviews regarding psychiatric diagnoses......, personality traits and disorders, stressful life events, family history, and treatment response. RESULTS: Female patients showed a higher level of neuroticism and more residual anxiety symptoms after treatment of the depression. There were no gender differences in severity of depression, psychiatric co...
Grant, Kathryn; Marsh, Patricia; Syniar, Gina; Williams, Megan; Addlesperger, Elisa; Kinzler, Mi Hyon; Cowman, Shaun
Two studies tested for gender differences in rates of depression among undergraduates using three conceptualizations of depression (mood, syndrome, disorder). The first sample consisted of 325 non-referred undergraduate students, who completed pencil-and-paper measures of depressed mood, depressive syndrome and a depressive disorder analogue. The second sample consisted of 894 undergraduate students seeking counselling services, who participated in clinical intake interviews assessing depressed mood and depressive disorder. Results of analyses provide no evidence of gender differences in rates of depressed mood in either samples or of depressive syndrome in the non-referred sample. However, in both samples, gender differences in rates of depressive disorder were found, with male students more likely than female students to be depressed. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.
Otero Dadín, C; Rodríguez Salgado, D; Andrade Fernández, E
To analyze gender differences in memory and the influence of the natural sex hormone cycles on it. A total of 20 men and 19 women were assessed with memory tests two times coinciding with two hormonal phases of the diurnal cycle of testosterone in men or menstrual cycle in women. It was observed that women perform better than men in delayed verbal memory as well as in immediate and delayed object recall, and men in digit span. It was also found that there was a significant effect of the hormonal cycles on verbal working memory, immediate object recall and on the spatial component of visuoconstructive memory. Finally, hormonal cycles determine the existence and direction of gender differences in verbal working memory, delayed object recall and in the spatial component of visuoconstructive memory. Natural sex hormone cycles seem to influence gender differences in some measurements of memory.
Full Text Available Recently, the diffusion of the Internet as a retail and distribution channel has undergone a great growth. This paper presents an empirical investigation on the effects of gender differences on online buying. The study explored gender differences among 13 factors concerning the internet buyer. With regard to factors and consistent with Hypothesis and sub hypothesis, differences were detected across genders using t-student tests and the findings were in alignment with the ANOVA test. For data collection and final testing of the E-SAT model a questionnaire was designed and distributed among 100 randomly people who resided in Iran. The analysis show that merchandising, security and company items gained more scores for men than women in online shopping.
Kushnir, Vladyslav; Godinho, Alexandra; Hodgins, David C; Hendershot, Christian S; Cunningham, John A
Considerable gender differences have been previously noted in the prevalence, etiology, and clinical features of problem gambling. While differences in affective states between men and women in particular, may explain differential experiences in the process of gambling, the role of affect in motivations for quitting gambling and recovery has not been thoroughly explored. The aim of this study was to examine gender differences within a sample of problem gamblers motivated to quit with or without formal treatment, and further, to explore the interactions between gender, shame and guilt-proneness, and autonomous versus controlled reasons for change. Motivation for change and self-conscious emotional traits were analyzed for 207 adult problem gamblers with an interest in quitting or reducing their gambling (96.6 % not receiving treatment). Overall, gender differences were not observed in clinical and demographic characteristics. However, women exhibited greater shame [F(1,204) = 12.11, p = 0.001] and guilt proneness [F(1,204) = 14.16, p motivation for change was associated with higher guilt-proneness, greater problem gambling severity, and the preparation stage of change; whereas controlled forms of motivation were significantly associated with higher shame-proneness and greater problem gambling severity. No gender effects were observed for either motivation for change. These findings suggest that the process of change can be different for shame-prone and guilt-prone problem gamblers, which may impact behavioral outcomes.
Shin, Jongho; Lee, Hyunjoo; McCarthy-Donovan, Alexander; Hwang, Hyeyoung; Yim, Sonyoung; Seo, EunJin
The purpose of the study was to examine whether gender differences exist in the mean levels of and relations between adolescents' home environments (parents' view of science, socio-economic status (SES)), motivations (intrinsic and instrumental motivations, self-beliefs), and pursuit of science careers. For the purpose, the Programmed for International Student Assessment 2006 data of Korean 15-year-old students were analysed. The results of the study showed that girls had lower levels of science intrinsic and instrumental motivations, self-beliefs, and science-career pursuit (SCP) as well as their parents' values in science less than boys. Gender similarities, rather than gender differences, existed in patterns of causal relationship among home environments, motivations, and SCP. The results showed positive effects for parents' higher value in science and SES on motivations, SCP, and for intrinsic and instrumental motivations on SCP for girls and boys. These results provide implications for educational interventions to decrease gender differences in science motivations and SCP, and to decrease adolescents' gender stereotypes.
J Alberto Molina
Full Text Available The emergence of cooperation among unrelated human subjects is a long-standing conundrum that has been amply studied both theoretically and experimentally. Within the question, a less explored issue relates to the gender dependence of cooperation, which can be traced back to Darwin, who stated that "women are less selfish but men are more competitive". Indeed, gender has been shown to be relevant in several game theoretical paradigms of social cooperativeness, including prisoner's dilemma, snowdrift and ultimatum/dictator games, but there is no consensus as to which gender is more cooperative. We here contribute to this literature by analyzing the role of gender in a repeated Prisoners' Dilemma played by Spanish high-school students in both a square lattice and a heterogeneous network. While the experiment was conducted to shed light on the influence of networks on the emergence of cooperation, we benefit from the availability of a large dataset of more 1200 participants. We applied different standard econometric techniques to this dataset, including Ordinary Least Squares and Linear Probability models including random effects. All our analyses indicate that being male is negatively associated with the level of cooperation, this association being statistically significant at standard levels. We also obtain a gender difference in the level of cooperation when we control for the unobserved heterogeneity of individuals, which indicates that the gender gap in cooperation favoring female students is present after netting out this effect from other socio-demographics factors not controlled for in the experiment, and from gender differences in risk, social and competitive preferences.
Molina, J Alberto; Giménez-Nadal, J Ignacio; Cuesta, José A; Gracia-Lazaro, Carlos; Moreno, Yamir; Sanchez, Angel
The emergence of cooperation among unrelated human subjects is a long-standing conundrum that has been amply studied both theoretically and experimentally. Within the question, a less explored issue relates to the gender dependence of cooperation, which can be traced back to Darwin, who stated that "women are less selfish but men are more competitive". Indeed, gender has been shown to be relevant in several game theoretical paradigms of social cooperativeness, including prisoner's dilemma, snowdrift and ultimatum/dictator games, but there is no consensus as to which gender is more cooperative. We here contribute to this literature by analyzing the role of gender in a repeated Prisoners' Dilemma played by Spanish high-school students in both a square lattice and a heterogeneous network. While the experiment was conducted to shed light on the influence of networks on the emergence of cooperation, we benefit from the availability of a large dataset of more 1200 participants. We applied different standard econometric techniques to this dataset, including Ordinary Least Squares and Linear Probability models including random effects. All our analyses indicate that being male is negatively associated with the level of cooperation, this association being statistically significant at standard levels. We also obtain a gender difference in the level of cooperation when we control for the unobserved heterogeneity of individuals, which indicates that the gender gap in cooperation favoring female students is present after netting out this effect from other socio-demographics factors not controlled for in the experiment, and from gender differences in risk, social and competitive preferences.
Failla, Kim Reina; Connelly, Cynthia D
Contributors to disparities in sepsis management have been attributed to genetic susceptibility, differences in clinical presentation, and healthcare delivery. The influence of gender on survival or mortality of patients with sepsis-related diagnoses is unclear. The purpose of the current study was to systematically review published research to identify factors and outcomes associated with sepsis management and outcomes based on gender differences. Covering a period from 2006 to 2016, a literature search was conducted on four electronic data bases including the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), EBSCO, MedlinePlus, and PubMed. Content analysis of each article was performed independently by two authors. The guidelines outlined in the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) Statement was the method used to assess the quality of evidence of the articles in this review. A full review was completed on a total of 452 identified potentially relevant publications, and 7 publications met inclusion criteria. The methodological approaches included prospective and retrospective observational studies, and prospective and historical cohort studies. The aim of these studies was to identify if gender differences exist related to sepsis-related mortality, completion of Surviving Sepsis Campaign resuscitation bundle elements, sepsis-related care processes, and sepsis-related incidence and source. Clinical sepsis studies evaluating gender and sepsis-related management and mortality are inconclusive and complex. Three different outcomes exist: no difference, higher risk in females, or higher risk in males. Further studies are needed to support the presence of gender disparities on sepsis-related healthcare outcomes. Providers should understand the importance of adhering to sepsis protocols and minimizing treatment disparities including gender differences. © 2017 Sigma Theta Tau International.
Full Text Available The issue of wage disparity between men and women belongs to the current and widely discussed topics. The attention given to this subject also reflects the fact that the issue of the equality between women and men and non-discrimination by gender is incorporated in the law of the European Union. A number of studies are devoted to the gender wage disparities and the root cause of wage differences in the Czech Republic, however, only few of these deal with the gender wage differentials in the public sector. It is exactly this issue, which is discussed in this article, its aim being to identify the extent of the gender pay gap in the selected Czech public sector company. The article concentrates on finding the main causes for the existence of wage differences between men and women and determining whether the company inclines to wage discrimination against women. The Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition is used to define, which part of the gender pay gap can be attributed to the different characteristics of men and women and which part stays unexplained. It is this unexplained part that can be the result of wage discrimination against women.
Voyer, Daniel; Postma, Albert; Brake, Brandy; Imperato-McGinley, Julianne
The goal of the present study was to quantify the magnitude of gender differences in object location memory tasks. A total of 123 effect sizes (d) drawn from 36 studies were included in a meta-analysis using a hierarchical approach. Object identity memory (37 effect sizes) and object location memory (86 effect sizes) tasks were analyzed separately. Object identity memory task showed significant gender differences that were homogeneous and in favor of women. For the object location memory tasks, effect sizes had to be partitioned by age (younger than 13, between 13 and 18, older than 18), object type (common, uncommon, gender neutral, geometric, masculine, feminine), scoring method (accuracy, time, distance), and type of measure (recall, recognition) to achieve homogeneity. Significant gender differences in favor of females were obtained in all clusters above the age of 13, with the exception of feminine, uncommon, and gender-neutral objects. Masculine objects and measures of distance produced significant effects in favor of males. Implications of these results for future work and for theoretical interpretations are discussed.
ABSTRACT Background: Women have a two to three times higher risk of developing post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) compared to men. Several factors are involved explaining this difference (Christiansen & Hansen, 2015). Both psychosocial and biological explanations (e.g. oxytocin related) have been suggested and will be reviewed in this paper. To date, we are still behind in gender- and sex-sensitive research and reporting. Prevalence and type of trauma: The lifetime prevalence of PTSD is ab...
Alicia Rodriguez Guirao; Carolina Lopez Nicolas; Harry Bouwman
By stating that the antecedents of customersÂ´ intentions to use mobile services should be studied across service categories and gender differences, the purpose of this article is to investigate the validity and differential predictive power of a model that explain acceptance of several mobile services across male and female customers. This study contributes to the emerging but limited body of research on consumer adoption of advanced mobile services by addressing several critical issues. Fir...
Era Wati, Susi Endang; Suparno, Suparno; Yunita, Rosana Dewi
The aim of this research is to know the difference of work satisfaction based on gender leadership. The participants of this research is 48 teachers from SMP Negeri 2 Kartasura and SMP Negeri 3 Kartasura. The result of this research shows t-test about 3,348 (p < 0.01). It tells us about the difference of work satisfaction based on gender leadership which is the empiric mean for male leadership around 143,652 and for female leadership around 128,990. This result shows that teacher work satisfa...
Full Text Available The choice of university studies is one of the most important decisions which has an impact on future life quality of a person. This decision should be well-thought-out and well-founded. However, the choice of future profession depends on gender. Different social roles, social attitude, norms and stereotypes are strong attributes of social environment. The article is based on survey data and deals with a problem of future university studies choice of high school pupils and differences depending on gender. The thesis of the article is based on a statement that both techers and pupils segment the professions into “feminine” and “masculine”.
The aim of this research is to understand whether there are gender differences in the symptoms of stress post-traumatic stress disorder. Many researches that have been made in this area have reached the conclusion that there are gender differences in the symptoms of stress posttraumatic stress disorder. To investigate this issue is to select a sample of 100 respondents, the selection of whom is done at random, with people who we have met in the street the library, the faculties of other publi...
Silbernagel, Karin Gravare; Nilsson-Helander, Katarin; Olsson, Nicklas; Brorsson, Annelie; Eriksson, Bengt I; Karlsson, Jon
Objectives: There is an indication in the literature that there is a difference in tendon healing between genders. However comparisons in outcome are often not possible due to the small sample size of women with an acute Achilles tendon rupture. In most studies on patients with Achilles tendon rupture the women only account for less then 20% of the patients. The objective of this study was to evaluate if there are any differences in outcome between genders when combining the data from two lar...
Clemens, Benjamin; Junger, Jessica; Pauly, Katharina; Neulen, Josef; Neuschaefer-Rube, Christiane; Frölich, Dirk; Mingoia, Gianluca; Derntl, Birgit; Habel, Ute
Recent research found gender-related differences in resting-state functional connectivity (rs-FC) measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). To the best of our knowledge, there are no studies examining the differences in rs-FC between men, women, and individuals who report a discrepancy between their anatomical sex and their gender identity, i.e. gender dysphoria (GD). To address this important issue, we present the first fMRI study systematically investigating the differences in typical resting-state networks (RSNs) and hormonal treatment effects in 26 male-to-female GD individuals (MtFs) compared with 19 men and 20 women. Differences between male and female control groups were found only in the auditory RSN, whereas differences between both control groups and MtFs were found in the auditory and fronto-parietal RSNs, including both primary sensory areas (e.g. calcarine gyrus) and higher order cognitive areas such as the middle and posterior cingulate and dorsomedial prefrontal cortex. Overall, differences in MtFs compared with men and women were more pronounced before cross-sex hormonal treatment. Interestingly, rs-FC between MtFs and women did not differ significantly after treatment. When comparing hormonally untreated and treated MtFs, we found differences in connectivity of the calcarine gyrus and thalamus in the context of the auditory network, as well as the inferior frontal gyrus in context of the fronto-parietal network. Our results provide first evidence that MtFs exhibit patterns of rs-FC which are different from both their assigned and their aspired gender, indicating an intermediate position between the two sexes. We suggest that the present study constitutes a starting point for future research designed to clarify whether the brains of individuals with GD are more similar to their assigned or their aspired gender.
Drawing on a four-year research project on Canadian primary caregiving fathers, as well two recent projects on the first year of parenting, this article highlights several theoretical and substantive issues in the study of gender equality and gender differences in parenting. First, I call for shifts from a focus on domestic tasks toward domestic and community-based responsibilities. Second, I argue that the political terrain underpinning the study of mothering and fathering calls for clarity on how researchers interpret the constant interplay between equality and differences. Third, while there has been some change over time, parental responsibilities remain gendered because they are deeply rooted in habitus and embodiment across specific spatial and temporal contexts.
McPherson, Andrew; Martin, Colin R
To investigate gender differences in locus of control in an alcohol-dependent population. Locus of control helps to explain behaviour in terms of internal (the individual is responsible) or external (outside forces, such as significant other people or chance, are responsible) elements. Past research on gender differences in locus of control in relation to alcohol dependence has shown mixed results. There is a need then to examine gender and locus of control in relation to alcohol dependence to ascertain the veracity of any locus of control differences as a function of gender. The Multidimensional Health Locus of Control form-C was administered to clients from alcohol dependence treatment centres in the West of Scotland. Independent t-tests were carried out to assess gender differences in alcohol dependence severity and internal/external aspects of locus of control. One hundred and eighty-eight (53% females) participants were recruited from a variety of alcohol dependence treatment centres. The majority of participants (72%) came from Alcoholics Anonymous groups. Women revealed a greater internal locus of control compared with men. Women also had a greater 'significant others' locus of control score than men. Men were more reliant on 'chance' and 'doctors' than women. All these trends were not, however, statistically significant. Gender differences in relation to locus of control and alcohol dependence from past studies are ambiguous. This study also found no clear statistically significant differences in locus of control orientation as a function of gender. This article helps nurses to contextualise health behaviours as a result of internal or external forces. It also helps nursing staff to better understand alcohol dependence treatment in relation to self-efficacy and control. Moreover, it highlights an important concept in health education theory. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
The issue of female underrespresentation in science, mathematics, engineering, and technology careers and courses has been well researched over the last several decades. However, as gender gaps in achievement close and representation becomes more equitable in certain academic domains, research has turned to social and cultural factors to explain why fewer women persist in STEM studies and careers than men. The purpose of this study was to examine gender differences in science and math attitudes and interests from elementary school, to middle school, to high school. To examine possible gender-specific shifts in students' interest and attitudes in science and math, 136 students from a suburban, public school district were surveyed at the elementary school level (N=31), middle school level (N=54), and high school level (N=51) and various constructs were used to assess the responses in accordance with expectancy-value theory. Utilizing a mixed-methods approach, a random sample of students from each grade level then participated in focus groups, and corollary themes were identified. Results from a logistical regression analysis and Mann-Whitney Test indicated that significant gender differences exist for interest, efficacy, expectancy, and value within science domains (p<.05), although these differences are not the same at each grade level or for each scientific discipline. Significant gender differences in mathematics are present only at the elementary school level.
Askovic, Branka; Kirchengast, Sylvia
The current study aimed to determine gender differences in nutritional habits, eating behaviour, weight status, body image and weight control practices during early and late adolescence. 677 Viennese pupils (253 boys and 424 girls) between the ages 10 and 18 years (x = 14.1 yrs; +/- 2.2) were enrolled in the study. Weight status was determined by means of body mass index percentiles. To assess eating behavior, food preferences, body image and weight control practices, a 48 item questionnaire was developed. Significant gender differences in weight status were observable during late adolescence only. Girls are significantly less satisfied with their body weight. Furthermore, girls practice dieting and weight control to avoid any weight gain more frequently than boys. Gender differences in eating behavior intensified from early to late adolescence. From early to late adolescence, meal size decreased among girls, while it remains stabile or increased among boys. Boys eat generally more than girls. Furthermore, boys preferred meat and fast food while girls consumed fruits, vegetables and healthy food significantly more frequently. These gender differences are explained by gender specific energetic demands and culture typical beauty ideals.
Sprecher, S; Sullivan, Q; Hatfield, E
Social psychologists have devoted considerable theoretical and empirical attention to studying gender differences in traits desired in a mate. Most of the studies on mate preferences, however, have been conducted with small, nonrepresentative samples. In this study, we analyzed data collected from single adults in a national probability sample, the National Survey of Families and Households. Respondents were asked to consider 12 possible assets or liabilities in a marriage partner and to indicate their willingness to marry someone possessing each of these traits. These data extended previous research by comparing men's and women's mate preferences in a heterogeneous sample of the national population and by comparing gender differences in different sociodemographic groups. The gender differences found in this study were consistent with those secured in previous research (e.g., youth and physical attractiveness were found to be more important for men than for women; earning potential was found to be less important for men than for women) and were quite consistent across age groups and races. However, the various sociodemographic groups differed slightly in the magnitude of gender differences for some of the mate preferences.
Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj; Munch, Jakob Roland; Schroll, Sanne
In this paper, we use data from the first two rounds of the European Social Survey to analyze the extent to which differences in average attitudes towards immigration across the EU-15 countries may be explained by differences in socioeconomic characteristics and individually perceived consequences...... of immigration, using an extension of a decomposition technique developed by Fairlie (2005). We find that despite the significant effects of socioeconomic characteristics on attitudes, differences in the distributions of these characteristics can only explain a modest share of the cross-country variation...... in average attitudes. A larger part can be explained by differences in perceived consequences of immigration, but the main part is still left unexplained. Apart from providing useful input for policy makers working in the area of immigration policy, this raises a number of questions for further research...
Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj; Munch, Jakob Roland; Skaksen, Jan Rose
In this paper, we use data from the first two rounds of the European Social Survey to analyse the extent to which differences in average attitudes towards immigration across the EU-15 countries may be explained by differences in socioeconomic characteristics and individually perceived consequences...... of immigration, using an extension of a decomposition technique developed by Fairlie (2005). We find that despite the significant effects of socioeconomic characteristics on attitudes, differences in the distributions of these characteristics can only explain a modest share of the cross-country variation...... in average attitudes. A larger part can be explained by differences in perceived consequences of immigration, but the main part is still left unexplained. Apart from providing useful input for policy makers working in the area of immigration policy, this raises a number of questions for further research...
Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj; Munch, Jakob Roland; Schroll, Sanne
In this paper, we use data from the first two rounds of the European Social Survey to analyze the extent to which differences in average attitudes towards immigration across the EU-15 countries may be explained by differences in socioeconomic characteristics and individually perceived consequences...... of immigration, using an extension of a decomposition technique developed by Fairlie (2005). We find that despite the significant effects of socioeconomic characteristics on attitudes, differences in the distributions of these characteristics can only explain a modest share of the cross-country variation...... in average attitudes. A larger part can be explained by differences in perceived consequences of immigration, but the main part is still left unexplained. Apart from providing useful input for policy makers working in the area of immigration policy, this raises a number of questions for further research...
The thesis has a theoretical and empirical nature. It focuses on issues of gender´s differences in interactive styles of Primary school´s teachers during teaching. The theoretical part describes three topical circuits: gender, communication and leading of the class. The first part is focused on gender, describes individual theories of gender, socialization of gender, gender differences and gender in the society and at school. In the second part, focused on the communication, is attention devo...
Cazzato, Valentina; Basso, Demis; Cutini, Simone; Bisiacchi, Patrizia
Gender studies report a male advantage in several visuospatial abilities. Only few studies however, have evaluated differences in visuospatial planning behaviour with regard to gender. This study was aimed at exploring whether gender may affect the choice of cognitive strategies in a visuospatial planning task and, if oculomotor measures could assist in disentangling the cognitive processes involved. A computerised task based on the travelling salesperson problem paradigm, the Maps test, was used to investigate these issues. Participants were required to optimise time and space of a path travelling among a set of sub-goals in a spatially constrained environment. Behavioural results suggest that there are no gender differences in the initial visual processing of the stimuli, but rather during the execution of the plan, with males showing a shorter execution time and a higher path length optimisation than females. Males often showed changes of heuristics during the execution while females seemed to prefer a constant strategy. Moreover, a better performance in behavioural and oculomotor measures seemed to suggest that males are more able than females in either the optimisation of spatial features or the realisation of the planned scheme. Despite inconclusive findings, the results support previous research and provide insight into the level of cognitive processing involved in navigation and planning tasks, with regard to the influence of gender.
Seamans, Marissa J; Robinson, Whitney R; Thorpe, Roland J; Cole, Stephen R; LaVeist, Thomas A
To investigate whether the gender gap in obesity prevalence is greater among U.S. blacks than whites in a study designed to account for racial differences in socioeconomic and environmental conditions. We estimated age-adjusted, race-stratified gender gaps in obesity (% female obese - % male obese, defined as body mass index ≥30 kg/m(2)) in the National Health Interview Survey 2003 and the Exploring Health Disparities in Integrated Communities-Southwest Baltimore 2003 study (EHDIC-SWB). EHDIC-SWB is a population-based survey of 1381 adults living in two urban, low-income, racially integrated census tracts with no race difference in income. In the National Health Interview Survey, the obesity gender gap was larger in blacks than whites as follows: 7.7 percentage points (ppts; 95% confidence interval (CI): 3.4-11.9) in blacks versus -1.5 ppts (95% CI: -2.8 to -0.2) in whites. In EHDIC-SWB, the gender gap was similarly large for blacks and whites as follows: 15.3 ppts (95% CI: 8.6-22.0) in blacks versus 14.0 ppts (95% CI: 7.1-20.9) in whites. In a racially integrated, low-income urban community, gender gaps in obesity prevalence were similar for blacks and whites. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Garawi, F; Devries, K; Thorogood, N; Uauy, R
In most populations the prevalence of obesity is greater in women than in men; however, the magnitude of the difference between the sexes varies significantly by country. We considered the role of gender inequality in explaining these disparities. We undertook an ecological analysis of internationally comparable obesity prevalence data to examine the association between indicators of gender inequality and the differences between men and women in obesity prevalence. Gender inequality was assessed using three measures: the Gender Inequality Index, the Global Gender Gap Index and the Social Institutions and Gender Index. We fitted multiple regression models to examine the association. We found that the prevalence of obesity across countries shows gendered patterning with greater prevalence and greater heterogeneity in women than in men (Pgender inequality were significantly associated with the sex differences in obesity prevalence across countries. The patterning of obesity across countries is gendered. However, the association between global measures of gender inequality and the sex gap in obesity is dependent on the measure used. Further research is needed to investigate the mechanisms that underpin the gendered nature of obesity prevalence.
Song, Yan; Bian, Ying
Differences between women and men in education, employment, political and economic empowerment have been well-documented in China due to the long traditional culture that male is superior to female. This study is to explore whether the similar gender differences exist in the use of health care by analyzing hospital admission, duration of hospitalization and medical expense of both genders in a Chinese hospital. This cross-sectional study evaluated the gender differences in clinical and epidemiologic characteristics of patients who were admitted for any reason to hospital in Zhuhai Special Economic Zone, Southern China, from January 1, 2003, through December 31, 2009. Chi-square test was used to calculate differences between proportions and the t test was used to test differences between means. A total of 156,887 patients were recruited in the analysis, with a male/female ratio of 1.1:1.0. The average age and the duration of hospitalization were significantly greater among men (p expense per inpatient indicated important differences between genders, with higher expenditures observed among men (p expense for five common conditions respectively and most differences favoring men were significant (p 0.05). Among all the self-paid patients, men were also superior in all investigating variables compared with women. Gender differences in the use of health care do occur in China. Despite of demographic factors, the differences between female and male can be in part explained by social power relations. China should increase attention to gender and equity in health.
Wijnhoven, Hanneke A H; de Vet, Henrica C W; Picavet, H. Susan J
Many studies report a female predominance in the prevalence of chronic musculoskeletal pain (CMP) but the mechanisms explaining these sex differences are poorly understood. Data from a random postal questionnaire survey in the Dutch general population were used to examine whether sex differences in
Wijnhoven, Hanneke A H; Vet, Henrica C W de; Picavet, H Susan J
Many studies report a female predominance in the prevalence of chronic musculoskeletal pain (CMP) but the mechanisms explaining these sex differences are poorly understood. Data from a random postal questionnaire survey in the Dutch general population were used to examine whether sex differences in
Deschepper, Reginald; Grigoryan, Larissa; Lundborg, Cecilia Stalsby; Hofstede, Geert; Cohen, Joachim; Van Der Kelen, Greta; Deliens, Luc; Haaijer-Ruskamp, Flora M.
Background: Antibiotics are widely-used medicines for which a more prudent use has been advocated to minimize development of resistance. There are considerable cross-national differences that can only partially be explained by epidemiological difference and variations in health care structure. The
Scholtens, Salome; Brunekreef, Bert; Smit, Henriette A.; Gast, Gerrie-Cor M.; Hoekstra, Maarten O.; De Jongste, Johan C.; Postma, Dirkje S.; Gerritsen, Jorrit; Seidell, Jaap C.; Wijga, Alet H.
Breastfeeding has been associated with a reduced risk of overweight later in life. This study investigates whether differences in diet and lifestyle at 7 years of age between breastfed and formula-fed children can explain the difference in overweight prevalence at 8 years of age. We studied 2,043
Lash, Steven Joseph
Previous research suggests that sex differences in cardiovascular reactivity (CVR) are a function of differences in cognitive appraisal of stressors as masculine-relevant or feminine-relevant tasks. Two studies were conducted to examine the role of the appraised gender relevance of stressors as a mediator of sex differences in CVR. In the first study the CVR of male and female college students (N = 95) to the cold-pressor test (CPT) was compared under masculine-relevan...
Farenga, Stephen J.; Joyce, Beverly A.
This study examined young students' perceptions of gender-appropriate science courses. The sample consisted of 427 students in grades 4, 5, and 6, between the ages of 9 and 13. Students completed the Course Selection Sheet (CSS) to choose courses for themselves and members of the opposite gender. A psychosocial framework was offered to explain the differential course selection patterns between young boys and girls. The study reveals a strong gender effect pointing toward stereotypical perceptions of selected science courses for oneself (p 0.01). When students selected science courses for the opposite gender, the evidence of gender-role stereotypes was even greater (p menu. These findings question the auspiciousness of programs designed to ameliorate gender differences in science during junior or senior high school years. Suggestions for school curriculum development and the importance of informal science experiences were examined.
Shin, Jongho; Lee, Hyunjoo; McCarthy-Donovan, Alexander; Hwang, Hyeyoung; Yim, Sonyoung; Seo, EunJin
The purpose of the study was to examine whether gender differences exist in the mean levels of and relations between adolescents' home environments (parents' view of science, socio-economic status (SES)), motivations (intrinsic and instrumental motivations, self-beliefs), and pursuit of science careers. For the purpose, the Programmed for…
This paper focuses on cross-national differences in patterns of gender economic inequality, revealing their affinity to both welfare state policies and prevailing conceptions of gender equality. By mapping multiple aspects of inequality and assembling them into distinctive profiles, the paper shows that each pattern of state intervention is accompanied by an uneven record of achievements and failures in promoting gender equality. These tradeoffs can best be understood by placing them in the i...
Schepis, Ty S; Desai, Rani A; Cavallo, Dana A; Smith, Anne E; McFetridge, Amanda; Liss, Thomas B; Potenza, Marc N; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra
Marijuana use in adolescents is associated with many adverse outcomes, including neurobiological and health consequences. Despite this, little is known about gender differences in the correlates of adolescent marijuana use. This study attempted to fill this gap by examining gender differences in the correlates of lifetime and past 30-day marijuana use. Data from a cross-sectional statewide survey of adolescent risk behavior participation in Connecticut were analyzed using χ and hierarchical logistic regression methodologies to examine the demographic, psychosocial, and risk behavior correlates of adolescent marijuana use. Gender-by-trait interactions were tested with hierarchical logistic regression. Of the 4523 participants (51.8% females, 75.8% white), 40.4% endorsed lifetime marijuana use and 24.5% endorsed past 30-day marijuana use. Risk behavior participation, particularly other substance use, had the most robust associations with lifetime and past 30-day adolescent marijuana use; participation in extracurricular activities seemed protective. Gender interactions were observed for African American, Asian, or other race and participation in extracurricular activities; in these 3 cases, males had a greater likelihood of use. They were also observed for having a job (lifetime use only), with females having elevated odds, and past 30-day cigarette smoking (past 30-day use only), with males having elevated odds. Finally, there was preliminary evidence of a faster transition from initiation of marijuana use to regular use in females, when compared with males. These results indicate important gender differences in the correlates of marijuana use in adolescents, and these findings may facilitate the development of gender-informed prevention and early intervention programs for adolescent marijuana use.
Hart, Joseph M; Garrison, J Craig; Palmieri-Smith, Riann; Kerrigan, D Casey; Ingersoll, Christopher D
Lower extremity kinetics while performing a single-leg forward jump landing may help explain gender biased risk for noncontact anterior cruciate ligament injury. Gender comparison of lower extremity joint angles and moments. Static groups comparison. Motion analysis laboratory. 8 male and 8 female varsity, collegiate soccer athletes. 5 single-leg landings from a 100cm forward jump. Peak and initial contact external joint moments and joint angles of the ankle, knee, and hip. At initial heel contact, males exhibited a adduction moment whereas females exhibited a abduction moment at the hip. Females also had significantly less peak hip extension moment and significantly less peak hip internal rotation moment than males had. Females exhibited greater knee adduction and hip internal rotation angles than men did. When decelerating from a forward jump, gender differences exist in forces acting at the hip.
Full Text Available The aim of this study is to estimate the unexplained gender pay gap in individual departments of a Czech hospital, to find out whether this gap varies between departments and, if so, to identify the possible causes of these differences. To estimate the unexplained part of the gender pay gap, we use the average treatment effect on the treated (ATT, and to identify the causes behind differences in the unexplained gender pay gap we use a linear regression model. We find that the ATT varies significantly between departments. To explain these differences, we use selected characteristics of the departments: the department’s size, the proportion of women in the department, and the gender of the departmental head. We come to the conclusion that women’s wages increase relative to male wages as the proportion of female employees grows. On the other hand, the unexplained gender wage gap is not proven to be lower in smaller or female-led departments.
Hernandez, Elaine M; Margolis, Rachel; Hummer, Robert A
Hypertension represents a gateway diagnosis to more serious health problems that occur as people age. We examine educational differences in three health behavior changes people often make after receiving this diagnosis in middle or older age, and test whether these educational differences depend on (a) the complexity of the health behavior change and (b) gender. We use data from the Health and Retirement Study and conduct logistic regression analysis to examine the likelihood of modifying health behaviors post diagnosis. We find educational differences in three behavior changes-antihypertensive medication use, smoking cessation, and physical activity initiation-after a hypertension diagnosis. These educational differences in health behaviors were stronger among women compared with men. Upon receiving a hypertension diagnosis, education is a more important predictor of behavior changes for women compared with men, which may help explain gender differences in the socioeconomic gradient in health in the United States.
Robinson, Michael E; Wise, Emily A; Gagnon, Christine; Fillingim, Roger B; Price, Donald D
Previous research has consistently shown moderate to large differences between pain reports of men and women undergoing experimental pain testing. These differences have been shown for a variety of types of stimulation. However, only recently have sex differences been demonstrated for temporal summation of second pain. This study examined sex differences in response to temporal summation of second pain elicited by thermal stimulation of the skin. The relative influences of state anxiety and gender role expectations on temporal summation were investigated. Asymptomatic undergraduates (37 women and 30 men) underwent thermal testing of the thenar surface of the hand in a temporal summation protocol. Our results replicated those of Fillingim et al indicating that women showed increased temporal summation compared to men. We extended those findings to demonstrate that temporal summation is influenced by anxiety and gender role stereotypes about pain responding. When anxiety and gender role stereotypes are taken into account, sex is no longer a significant predictor of temporal summation. These findings highlight the contribution of social learning factors in the differences between sexes' pain perception. Results of this study demonstrate that psychosocial variables influence pain mechanisms. Temporal summation was related to gender role expectations of pain and anxiety. These variables explain a significant portion of the differences between men and women's pain processing, and may be related to differences in clinical presentation.
Buzzetti, Elena; Parikh, Pathik M; Gerussi, Alessio; Tsochatzis, Emmanuel
Although gender-based medicine is a relatively recent concept, it is now emerging as an important field of research, supported by the finding that many diseases manifest differently in men and women and therefore, might require a different treatment. Sex-related differences regarding the epidemiology, progression and treatment strategies of certain liver diseases have long been known, but most of the epidemiological and clinical trials still report results only about one sex, with consequent different rate of response and adverse reactions to treatment between men and women in clinical practice. This review reports the data found in the literature concerning the gender-related differences for the most representative hepatic diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Discusses how English-as-Second/Foreign-Language teachers, equipped with a good syllabus and methodology, should be able to engineer aspects that create equal opportunities for both males and females in all areas of classroom interaction. Suggests that more research is needed on the origins of gender differences and its effect on second-language…
Oliver, Mary Beth; Green, Stephen
Examined gender differences in children's responses to animated scenes from action adventure and sad films and to animated previews of a prototypical male versus female movie. Girls were more likely than boys to report and express sadness regarding sad segments. Intensities of sadness increased with age. Emotional responses to action adventure…
Romer, Natalie; Ravitch, N. Kathryn; Tom, Karalyn; Merrell, Kenneth W.; Wesley, Katherine L.
We investigated gender differences of children and adolescents on positive social and emotional competencies using a new strength-based measure of positive social-emotional attributes and resilience--the Social-Emotional Assets and Resilience Scales (SEARS) cross-informant system. Caregivers, teachers, and students in grades kindergarten through…
Male students reported higher level of HIV/AIDS knowledge than their female counterparts did. Television emerged as the most prominent source of information for both male and female students. Gender did not predict differences in adolescents' attitude and practices on HIV/AIDS although female students showed greater ...
In the present study gender differences in psychological adjustment of Spinal Cord Injured (SCI) patients was studied. The sample of 70 SCI patients (35 male and 35 female) was selected from the National Institute of Rehabilitation Medicine (NIRM) Islamabad, Bagh and Muzafrabad, (Azad & Jammu Kashmir AJK).
Lopez, J. Derek
This study examines the changes in self-efficacy among Latinos during the freshman year in a highly selective institution. Results indicate that gender differences exist during this period. Males rate themselves high in self-efficacy at the beginning of the year, while females rate themselves low. An interaction effect occurs at the end of the…
The study assessed gender differences in practice of HIV voluntary counselling among secondary school adolescents in Edo State. One hypothesis guided the study. This was a descriptive study based on survey research design. One thousand, nine hundred and eighty eight (1988) secondary school adolescents were ...
Cahan, Sorel; Barneron, Meir; Kassim, Suhad
Relying on the results of the achievement tests in mathematics, science, native language (Hebrew/Arabic) and English, administered to 1430 5th-grade co-educational classes in Israel, this study examines the between-class variability of the within-class mean score gender differences and its class and school correlates. The four main results of the…
Clinton, Virginia; Seipel, Ben; Broek, Paul; McMaster, Kristen L.; Kendeou, Panayiota; Carlson, Sarah E.; Rapp, David N.
The purpose of this study was to determine if there are gender differences among elementary school-aged students in regard to the inferences they generate during reading. Fourth-grade students (130 females; 126 males) completed think-aloud tasks while reading one practice and one experimental narrative text. Females generated a larger number and a…
Stewart, Christie; Root, Melissa M.; Koriakin, Taylor; Choi, Dowon; Luria, Sarah R.; Bray, Melissa A.; Sassu, Kari; Maykel, Cheryl; O'Rourke, Patricia; Courville, Troy
This study investigated developmental gender differences in mathematics achievement, using the child and adolescent portion (ages 6-19 years) of the Kaufman Test of Educational Achievement-Third Edition (KTEA-3). Participants were divided into two age categories: 6 to 11 and 12 to 19. Error categories within the Math Concepts & Applications…
Chew, Irene Keng-Howe; Halim, Hendrick; Matsui, Tamao
Measures of career self-efficacy and work activity self-efficacy were completed by 405 male and 346 female Singaporean university students. Men had significantly higher self-efficacy in realistic and enterprising occupations, women in artistic, investigative, and social occupations. Gender differences in career self-efficacy were predicted by…
It also attempted to study developmental differences in attitudes toward science between pupils when they were in grade 7 and when they got to grade 9 two years after. A stratified random sample (N=248) was obtained and studied using gender and grade level variables as independent ones and the attitude to science as ...
The widespread belief that males outperform females has been of interest not only to the social researcher but to the general public as well. It is in this view that the researchers decided to investigate if there is a significance difference in mathematics performance by gender at least at the tertiary level. Data was obtained ...
Aziz, Fakhra; Kalsoom, Qudsia; Quraishi, Uzma; Hasan, Sibte
This descriptive, qualitative study aimed at identifying disparities in perceptions of males and females regarding gender-based differences in educational leadership. Data were gathered purposively from 20 renowned male and female educationists having a long experience of leadership in various institutes of Pakistan. An open-ended questionnaire…
This study investigated gender differences in Egyptian adolescents' perception of parental involvement practices when controlling for the effect of adolescents' prior academic achievement and level of educational aspiration. Subjects of this study included 187 first-year students enrolled in four high schools in El-Minia city in ...
Harb, Jibrel; Abu Bakar, Nadzrah; Krish, Pramela
This paper reports a quantitative study on gender differences in attitudes when learning oral skills via technology. The study was conducted at Tafila Technical University, Jordan, with 70 female and 30 male students, to find out if female students are better and faster in learning a language than male. Specifically, it seeks to investigate…
The study was aimed at determining the gender differences in computer usage among students in Nigeria. The study was a survey and was conducted using forty male and forty female business education students from the four tertiary institutions in Anambra State. Three research questions and three null hypotheses tested ...
Abstract. The study was aimed at determining the gender differences in computer usage among students in Nigeria. The study was a survey and was conducted using forty male and forty female business education students from the four tertiary institutions in Anambra State. Three research questions and three.
Wang, Hsiu-Yuan; Wang, Yi-Shun
With the proliferation of online games, understanding users' intention to play online games has become a new issue for academics and practitioners. Prior studies have investigated the factors affecting behavioural intention to play online games. However, little research has been conducted to investigate the gender differences in the acceptance of…
A study investigated gender differences in the anticipation of difficulties in finding employment among 232 final-year undergraduate students at the University of Botswana. Compared to their male counterparts, female students worried significantly more that they might not find a job (p=0.005) and that this might cause other ...
Calikusu, Celal; Kucukgoncu, Suat; Tecer, Ozlem; Bestepe, Emrem
The aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence, characteristics, triggers, and consequences of skin picking (SP) in a sample of Turkish university students, with an emphasis on gender differences. A total of 245 students from two universities in Turkey were assessed by using the Skin Picking Inventory. In total, 87.8% of the students…
The purpose of this study was to examine gender differences in relation to students' perceptions of school guidance and counselling (G&C) services in Mberengwa district, Zimbabwe. The convergent parallel design was used in the study. A total of 114 students (68 males and 76 females) randomly selected students ...
Wilson, Kate; Low, David; Verdon, Matthew; Verdon, Alix
We have investigated gender differences in performance over the past eight years on the Australian Science Olympiad Exam (ASOE) for physics,which is taken by nearly 1000 high school students each year. The ASOE, run by Australian Science Innovations (ASI), is the initial stage of the process of selection of teams to represent Australia at the…
Kackar, Hayal Z.; Shumow, Lee; Schmidt, Jennifer A.; Grzetich, Janel
Extant data collected through the Experience Sampling Method were analyzed to describe adolescents' subjective experiences of homework. Analyses explored age and gender differences in the time adolescents spend doing homework, and the situational variations (location and companions) in adolescents' reported concentration, effort, interest,…
This study was undertaken in order to determine gender differences in anaerobic power of undergraduate physical education students. An attempt was also made to assess the relationship between selected anthropometric variables and indices of anaerobic power: peak power (PP), Mean power (MP), and fatigue index (FI) ...
Sarouphim, Ketty M.; Chartouny, Madona
The purpose of this study was to investigate gender differences in students' mathematics achievement and in their attitudes toward mathematics. Another purpose was to examine mathematics teachers' beliefs and their perceptions of their male and female students' ability. The sample consisted of 692 students (353 girls, 339 boys) between the ages of…
Mjaavatn, Per Egil; Frostad, Per; Pijl, Sip Jan
Based on a survey of 123 Norwegian students aged 14-15 (grade 10) this article will discuss possible gender differences in peer relations, social position and friendship criteria. The students filled in a questionnaire that included sociometry and questions on friendship criteria, self-esteem and social support. We found significant gender…
The study investigated gender differences in decisions on student disciplinary behaviours by selected Kenyan secondary school disciplinary panels which may be due to composition of disciplinary panels, perceptions of students presenting with disciplinary behaviours and behaviour expectations of students on the basis of ...
The study determined gender differences among students in the utilization of electronic information resources in Ramat Library, University of Maiduguri. One objective,with corresponding hypotheses guided the study. The survey research method was used. The population for the study comprised 13,995 (thirteen thousand, ...
van Kesteren, Marlieke T. R.; Wierslnca-Post, J. Esther C.
Purpose: Several studies on auditory temporal-order processing showed gender differences. Women needed longer inter-stimulus intervals than men when indicating the temporal order of two clicks presented to the left and right ear. In this study, we examined whether we could reproduce these results in
Response frequencies were calculated. Significant gender differences were observed in the prevalence of smoking, perceived benefits of smoking and methods for reducing smoking. More males than females smoked cigarettes. Males believed that smoking prevents tooth decay while females thought that it reduced obesity ...
The study examined gender differences in self esteem and perceived social support of street children in Ibadan, Nigeria. A survey research design was employed where the participants were purposively sampled in the study. One hundred and forty eight (N=148) children of the street comprising of 129 males and 19 females ...
This study was a survey designed to assess the role of personality type and gender differences in compliance with safety work behaviour in a sample of 189 employees drawn from Dangote Cement Company Plc located in Gboko, Benue State. The participants consisted of 156 males and 37 females. Their ages ranged ...
Background: Despite the global growing concern about adolescent cigarette smoking, there has been no attention paid to the attractiveness and trendiness of smoking among this vulnerable group in Nigeria. Objectives: This study determined gender differences in subjective attractiveness (SA) (the individual's personal ...
Yeo, S.; Rosen, B.; Bosch, M.P.C.; Noort, M.W.M.L. van den; Lim, S.
Objective: To examine gender differences and similarities in the psychophysical and brain responses to acupuncture at GB34, a point that is frequently used to treat motor function issues in Traditional Chinese Medicine. Methods: Functional MRI (fMRI) was used to measure brain activation in response
Two research hypotheses were posed and tested using t-test statistic. The results indicated that there were no significant gender differences in the participants‟ attitudinal disposition to using mediation process to resolving conflict (t-cal =2.76; t-cri =1.96; df =253, P>0.05) and in their preference to resolving only conflict ...
Eby, Lillian T.; Buch, Kimberly
Corporate restructuring has resulted in involuntary job loss for a significant number of white collar workers. This study investigated gender differences in reaction to involuntary job loss and tested a model of career gorwth through job loss. Former clients, 456 males and 62 females, of a nationwide outplacement firm completed a questionnaire…
Rogers, Lynne; Hallam, Susan
This study explored gender differences in perceptions of studying for the General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE). The sample comprised 644 pupils drawn from eight schools in Outer London, UK. The schools encompassed pupils who could be regarded as high, middle and low achievers drawn from co-educational and single-sex schools. Pupils…
McNeely, Andrea; Knox, David; Zusman, Marty
Three-hundred-and-twenty six undergraduates at a large south-eastern university completed a confidential anonymous 74-item questionnaire designed to assess beliefs about men, women, and relationships held by university students. This study focused on the data regarding gender differences in beliefs about women. Men were significantly more likely…
Arens, A. Katrin; Watermann, Rainer
The present study focuses on political efficacy in terms of students' competence self-perceptions related to the domain of politics. The investigation addresses the mean level development and longitudinal relations to outcome variables including gender differences. Drawing on a sample of N = 2,504 German students, political efficacy, along with…
... them to learn South African languages fast in order to conceal their foreign identity. Women's child-care roles and ostracism of those who migrated alone were also used to discourage them from migrating to South Africa. Keywords: Female migrants, teacher migration, Zimbabwean crisis, brain drain, gender differences ...
This paper investigates gender differences in spatial mobility with respect to participation in off-farm employment in rural Tanzania. The mobility issue arises because the recent increase in women participation in off-farm employment is likely to saturate the local labor market/off-farm opportunities and dampen the rural ...
Abstract: This study investigated gender differences in Job Ability Perception and Task. Performance among professionals in male dominated professions. The study was a descriptive survey research design. Four professions from the male dominated professions were randomly selected from Lagos and Rivers States.
The study examined age and gender differences in the premarital sexual attitudes exhibited by adolescents and young adults. A cross-sectional design was employed. A total of 1044 participants in four age categories were drawn from 4 secondary schools and 4 universities all located within three states of South-West ...
Schonert-Reichl, Kimberly A.
This study examined the relationship between adolescent egocentrism and depressive symptomatology in Canadian adolescents. Major findings were adolescent females regard themselves higher in uniqueness and self-consciousness than adolescent males; social class relates significantly to adolescent egocentrism; and gender differences emerge with…
The General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) is frequently used as a measure of mental well-being. A consistent pattern across countries is that women report lower levels of mental well-being, as measured by the GHQ. This paper applies decomposition techniques to Irish data for 1994 and 2000 to examine the factors lying behind the gender differences in…
Denham, Susanne A.; Bassett, Hideko Hamada; Wyatt, Todd M.
Preschoolers' socialization of emotion and its contribution to emotional competence is likely to be highly gendered. In their work, the authors have found that mothers often take on the role of emotional gatekeeper in the family, and fathers act as loving playmates, but that parents' styles of socialization of emotion do not usually differ for…
Abstract. Background. There is currently a dearth of knowledge on gender differences in mortality among patients on ART in Africa. Methods. Using data from the national ART monitoring and evaluation system, a survival analysis of all healthcare workers, teachers, and police/army personnel who accessed ART in Malawi ...
Background: Recognizing patient satisfaction and expectation is considered as important components of assessing quality of care. Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the gender difference on the patient satisfaction with psychiatrists and explore their expectation from physicians to mental health care needs. Design: ...
This paper presents findings of a study conducted in Kumasi, Ghana, on the gender differences of psychosocial distress that victims of sexual abuse experience. Using a cross sectional design, data was collected from 141 victims, similar to the extant literature the male victims in this study were less than 20%.
This study therefore determined whether differences in age, gender and school factors influenced Ghanaian senior secondary school students' aspirations for entrepreneurial careers. The descriptive research design was adopted for this study. A total of 2,000 students were selected from Forms 3 and 4 for the study.