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Sample records for expert policy delphi

  1. Characteristics and classification of nanoparticles: expert Delphi survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berube, David; Cummings, Christopher; Cacciatore, Michael; Scheufele, Dietram; Kalin, Jason

    2011-06-01

    Research needs assessment regarding environmental health and safety (EHS) of nanoparticles is problematic. Generating benchmark data to assess research and policy initiatives seems daunting. This study's findings present more granular and qualitative assessments of expert preferences and concerns. This three-round Delphi study elicits expert estimations of problematic nanoparticle characteristics and classifications from a sample of nanoscience experts in chemistry, EHS policy, engineering, environmental toxicology, and human toxicology (n = 18). The Delphi method is a forecasting tool designed for expert evaluation of events under high degrees of uncertainty. Results demonstrate high concordance indicating favorable consensus among the sample concerning characteristics and classifications of nanoparticles that are potentially or actually problematic to EHS. These findings establish a benchmark for future investigations of expert preferences and concerns.

  2. Setting priorities for non-regulatory animal health in Ireland: results from an expert Policy Delphi study and a farmer priority identification survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    More, Simon J; McKenzie, Ken; O'Flaherty, Joe; Doherty, Michael L; Cromie, Andrew R; Magan, Mike J

    2010-07-01

    Agriculture is a very important contributor to the Irish economy. In Ireland, national animal health services have been a government, rather than an industry, responsibility. In 2009, Animal Health Ireland (AHI) was established to provide a partnership approach to national leadership of non-regulatory animal health issues (those not subject to national and/or EU regulation). The objectives of this study were to elicit opinion from experts and farmers about non-regulatory animal health issues facing Irish livestock industries, including prioritisation of animal health issues and identification of opportunities to maximise the effective use of AHI resources. The study was conducted with experts using Policy Delphi methodology over three rounds, and with farmers using a priority identification survey. Non-regulatory bovine diseases/conditions were prioritised by both experts and farmers based on impact and international competitiveness. For each high-priority disease/condition, experts were asked to provide an assessment based on cost, impact, international perception, impediment to international market access and current resource usage effectiveness. Further information was also sought from experts about resource allocation preferences, methods to improve education and coordination, and innovative measures to improve prevention and management. There was close agreement between responses from experts and dairy farmers: each gave highest priority to 3 diseases with a biosecurity risk (subsequently termed 'biosecure diseases') (bovine viral diarrhoea [BVD], infectious bovine rhinotracheitis [IBR], paratuberculosis) and 4 diseases/conditions generally without a biosecurity risk ('non-biosecure diseases/conditions') (fertility, udder health/milk quality, lameness, calf health). Beef farmers also prioritised parasitic conditions and weanling pneumonia. The adverse impact of biosecure diseases is currently considered relatively minor by experts, but would increase

  3. Expert Perspectives on Using Mainstream Mobile Technology for School-Age Children Who Require Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC): A Policy Delphi Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Vinh-An

    2017-01-01

    Despite legislation in the U.S.A requiring the use of assistive technology in special education, there remains an underutilization of technology-based speech intervention for young students who require augmentative and alternative communication (AAC). The purpose of this Policy Delphi study was to address three guiding research questions that…

  4. Using the Delphi expert consensus method in mental health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorm, Anthony F

    2015-10-01

    The article gives an introductory overview of the use of the Delphi expert consensus method in mental health research. It explains the rationale for using the method, examines the range of uses to which it has been put in mental health research, and describes the stages of carrying out a Delphi study using examples from the literature. To ascertain the range of uses, a systematic search was carried out in PubMed. The article also examines the implications of 'wisdom of crowds' research for how to conduct Delphi studies. The Delphi method is a systematic way of determining expert consensus that is useful for answering questions that are not amenable to experimental and epidemiological methods. The validity of the approach is supported by 'wisdom of crowds' research showing that groups can make good judgements under certain conditions. In mental health research, the Delphi method has been used for making estimations where there is incomplete evidence (e.g. What is the global prevalence of dementia?), making predictions (e.g. What types of interactions with a person who is suicidal will reduce their chance of suicide?), determining collective values (e.g. What areas of research should be given greatest priority?) and defining foundational concepts (e.g. How should we define 'relapse'?). A range of experts have been used in Delphi research, including clinicians, researchers, consumers and caregivers. The Delphi method has a wide range of potential uses in mental health research. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  5. Application of Delphi expert panel in joint venture projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adnan, H.; Rosman, M. R.; Rashid, Z. Z. Ahmad; Mohamad Yusuwan, N.; Bakhary, N. A.

    2018-02-01

    This study was conducted with the aim to identify the application of the Delphi Technique in validating findings obtained from questionnaire surveys and interviews done in- depth on the subject of joint venture projects in Malaysia. The Delphi technique aims to achieve a consensus of opinion amongst expert panellist that were selected on the primary factors in JV projects. To achieve research objectives, a progressive series of questions was designed where a selected panel of expert to confirm and validate the final findings. The rationale, benefits, limitations and recommendations for the use of Delphi were given in this study. From the literature review done, twenty-one factors were identified as critical factors to the making any joint venture project successful. Detail information from contractors were obtained by using the questionnaire survey method and forty-three in-depth interviews were carried out. Trust between partners, mutual understanding, partner selection criteria, agreement of contract, objective compatibility, conflict, and commitment were confirmed by the Delphi panel to be the critical success factors besides another fourteen factors which were found to be the Failure Reduction Criteria. Delphi techniques has proven to successfully assist in recognising the main factors and would be beneficial in supplementing the success of joint venture arrangements application for construction projects in Malaysia.

  6. Evaluation of a Delphi technique based expert judgement method for LCA valuation - DELPHI II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Virtanen, Y.; Torkkeli, S. [VTT Chemical Technology, Espoo (Finland). Environmental Technology; Wilson, B. [Landbank Environmental Research and Consulting, London (United Kingdom)

    1999-07-01

    Because of the complexity and trade-offs between different points of the life cycles of the analysed systems, a method which measures the environmental damage caused by each intervention is needed in order to make a choice between the products. However, there is no commonly agreed methodology for this particular purpose. In most of the methods the valuation is implicitly or explicitly based on economic criteria. For various reasons, however, economically obtained criteria do not necessarily reflect ecological arguments correctly. Thus, there is a need for new, ecologically based valuation methods. One such approach is the expert judgement method, based on the Delphi technique, which rejects the economic basis in favour of the judgements of a group of environmental experts. However, it is not self evident that the expert judgement based environmental rating of interventions will be essentially more correct and certain than other methods. In this study the method was evaluated at different points of the procedure in order to obtain a picture of the quality of the indexes produced. The evaluation was based on an actual Delphi study made in 1995-1996 in Finland, Sweden and Norway. The main questions addressed were the significance of the results and the operational quality of the Delphi procedure. The results obtained by applying the expert method indexes were also compared with the results obtained with other valuation methods for the background life cycle inventory of the case study. Additional material included feedback data from panellists of the case study, collected with a questionnaire. The questionnaire data was analysed to identify major dimensions in the criteria for evaluating interventions and correlation of the final indexes of the Delphi I study with these dimensions. The rest of the questionnaire material was used to document panellists' opinions and experiences of the Delphi process, familiarity with the environmental impacts of various

  7. Evaluation of a Delphi technique based expert judgement method for LCA valuation - DELPHI II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Virtanen, Y.; Torkkeli, S.

    1999-01-01

    Because of the complexity and trade-offs between different points of the life cycles of the analysed systems, a method which measures the environmental damage caused by each intervention is needed in order to make a choice between the products. However, there is no commonly agreed methodology for this particular purpose. In most of the methods the valuation is implicitly or explicitly based on economic criteria. For various reasons, however, economically obtained criteria do not necessarily reflect ecological arguments correctly. Thus, there is a need for new, ecologically based valuation methods. One such approach is the expert judgement method, based on the Delphi technique, which rejects the economic basis in favour of the judgements of a group of environmental experts. However, it is not self evident that the expert judgement based environmental rating of interventions will be essentially more correct and certain than other methods. In this study the method was evaluated at different points of the procedure in order to obtain a picture of the quality of the indexes produced. The evaluation was based on an actual Delphi study made in 1995-1996 in Finland, Sweden and Norway. The main questions addressed were the significance of the results and the operational quality of the Delphi procedure. The results obtained by applying the expert method indexes were also compared with the results obtained with other valuation methods for the background life cycle inventory of the case study. Additional material included feedback data from panellists of the case study, collected with a questionnaire. The questionnaire data was analysed to identify major dimensions in the criteria for evaluating interventions and correlation of the final indexes of the Delphi I study with these dimensions. The rest of the questionnaire material was used to document panellists' opinions and experiences of the Delphi process, familiarity with the environmental impacts of various interventions

  8. Evaluation of a Delphi technique based expert judgement method for LCA valuation - DELPHI II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakala, S.; Wilson, B.

    1999-01-01

    Transparency and certainty are essential qualities for an acceptable and trusted valuation method. Based on the evaluation of the expert judgement method developed in the Delphi I study both of these criteria may be only partially accomplished by such a method. As for the technical procedure the method is well documented and transparency is good. Argumentation of the judgements, however, should be increased. The quality of the valuation indexes is explicitly available, but their certainty is very low for most interventions. The opinions of the experts differ much from each other. How much this depends on different values and how much on differences in knowledge etc. is impossible to assess. Also, how much the technique used and the statistical handling of the expert answers may have impacted the eventual scores of different interventions is difficult to assess. However, application of the expert judgement by means of the Delphi-technique to LCA valuation is a new idea, and, consequently, the method is still very much under development, far from maturity. This should be taken into account when considering the results out of the evaluation of the case study, which was the third of the kind in Europe

  9. Delphy study `98: Experts forecast the future; Delphi-Studie 98: 2000 Experten aeussern sich zur Zukunft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1998-05-01

    In ancient Greece, a single priestess was sufficient to predict the future. In contrast, the `98 Delphy study comprises forecasts made by more than 2000 experts from the fields of research and economy. (orig./GL) [Deutsch] Waehrend vor ca. 2 500 Jahren im alten Griechenland eine einzige Priesterin ausreichte, die Zukunft vorherzusagen, sind fuer die Delphi-Studie 98 zur Zukunft Deutschlands die Prognosen von mehr als 2 000 Fachleuten aus Forschung und Wirtschaft zusammengefasst. (orig./GL)

  10. Factors influencing continuing professional development : A Delphi study among nursing experts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brekelmans, G.B.; Poell, R.F.; van Wijk, K.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this paper is to present an inventory of expert opinions on the factors that influence the participation of registered nurses in continuing professional development (CPD) activities. Design/methodology/approach A Delphi study was conducted among 38 Dutch experts (nursing

  11. Which Dimensions of Patient-Centeredness Matter? - Results of a Web-Based Expert Delphi Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jördis M Zill

    Full Text Available Present models and definitions of patient-centeredness revealed a lack of conceptual clarity. Based on a prior systematic literature review, we developed an integrative model with 15 dimensions of patient-centeredness. The aims of this study were to 1 validate, and 2 prioritize these dimensions.A two-round web-based Delphi study was conducted. 297 international experts were invited to participate. In round one they were asked to 1 give an individual rating on a nine-point-scale on relevance and clarity of the dimensions, 2 add missing dimensions, and 3 prioritize the dimensions. In round two, experts received feedback about the results of round one and were asked to reflect and re-rate their own results. The cut-off for the validation of a dimension was a median < 7 on one of the criteria.105 experts participated in round one and 71 in round two. In round one, one new dimension was suggested and included for discussion in round two. In round two, this dimension did not reach sufficient ratings to be included in the model. Eleven dimensions reached a median ≥ 7 on both criteria (relevance and clarity. Four dimensions had a median < 7 on one or both criteria. The five dimensions rated as most important were: patient as a unique person, patient involvement in care, patient information, clinician-patient communication and patient empowerment.11 out of the 15 dimensions have been validated through experts' ratings. Further research on the four dimensions that received insufficient ratings is recommended. The priority order of the dimensions can help researchers and clinicians to focus on the most important dimensions of patient-centeredness. Overall, the model provides a useful framework that can be used in the development of measures, interventions, and medical education curricula, as well as the adoption of a new perspective in health policy.

  12. A Delphi survey on expert opinion on key signs for clinical diagnosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Delphi survey on expert opinion on key signs for clinical diagnosis of bovine trypanosomosis, tick-borne diseases and helminthoses. ... For theileriosis, they included lymph node enlargement, pyrexia, age, breed and reduced milk yield. For trypanosomosis, they included, anaemia, weightloss, staring coat, lymph node ...

  13. The future of organization development: A delphi study among Dutch experts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korten, F.; de Caluwe, L.I.A.; Geurts, J.

    2010-01-01

    From this Delphi study among Dutch experts, the future of organization development (OD) emerges as a loosely coupled community of practice, linking very diverse members, professionals as well as scholars. One finds different priorities and values in this community, some of them even dilemmatic. The

  14. Future of the Korea national parks: a preliminary Delphi study of key experts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byung-kyu Lee; Wilbur F. LaPage

    2002-01-01

    A preliminary Delphi survey of a panel of key experts who are very knowledgeable of Korean national parks was conducted between February and March in 2001. Park professionals, environmental NGO directors, interested citizens, and retirees identified issues facing the Korean park system (Wave1). Findings from wave I of the survey provided the baseline for a series of...

  15. Future scenarios of Korea national parks: Delphi survey of Korean parks of experts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byung-kyu Lee; Wilbur F. LaPage

    2003-01-01

    A three-wave Delphi survey of a panel of 40 key experts very knowledgeable of Korean national parks was conducted between February 2001 and March in 2002. In Wave 1, park professionals, environmental Nongovernmental Organizations (NGOs) managers, and a retiree identified the issues the Korean park system is facing. Findings from Wave 1 of the survey were analyzed and...

  16. Expert consensus building using e-Delphi for necrotizing enterocolitis risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gephart, Sheila M; Effken, Judith A; McGrath, Jacqueline M; Reed, Pamela G

    2013-01-01

    To confirm content validity of GutCheck(NEC) , a risk index for necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) and to determine the level of agreement among experts about NEC risk factors in premature infants. Electronic Delphi method (e-Delphi). Online electronic surveys and e-mail communication supported by an interactive study website. Nurses and physicians (N = 35) from four countries and across the United States who rated themselves as at least moderately expert about NEC risk. e-Delphi involved three rounds of surveys and qualitative thematic analysis of experts' comments. Surveys continued until criteria for consensus and/or stability were met. Of 64 initial items, 43 were retained representing 33 risk factors (final GutCheck(NEC) Content Validity Index [CVI] = .77). Two broad themes about NEC risk emerged from 242 comments: the impact of individual physiologic vulnerability and variation in neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) clinicians' practices. Controversy arose over the impact of treatments on NEC, including probiotics, packed red blood cell (PRBC) transfusions, and patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) management using indomethacin. GutCheck(NEC) achieved borderline content validity for a new scale. The e-Delphi process yielded a broad perspective on areas in which experts share and lack consensus on NEC risk. Future testing is underway to reduce the number of risk items to the most parsimonious set for a clinically useful risk tool and test reliability. © 2013 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  17. DELPHI expert panel evaluation of Hanford high level waste tank failure modes and release quantities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunford, G.L.; Han, F.C.

    1996-09-30

    The Failure Modes and Release Quantities of the Hanford High Level Waste Tanks due to postulated accident loads were established by a DELPHI Expert Panel consisting of both on-site and off-site experts in the field of Structure and Release. The Report presents the evaluation process, accident loads, tank structural failure conclusion reached by the panel during the two-day meeting.

  18. Appropriate Urban Livability Indicators for Metropolitan Johor, Malaysia via Expert-Stakeholder Approach: a Delphi technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Gallares Pampanga

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Metro Johor is one of the fast emerging metropolitan urban centers where its current progress and spatial transformation have made it a key player in the economic growth of Malaysia. The recent creation of the Iskandar Malaysia, an economic strategy which aims to be a global player as potential destination for high-value investments, has certainly added social, environmental and economic stress to its urban citizens. This paper intends to develop urban livability indicators for Metropolitan Johor anchored on the changing urban complexion in the face of climate change, economic, governance, social and cultural dynamics, among others. The urban livability conundrum of Metro Johor illustrates that indicators are imperative, especially policy-based indicators, which would aid to scale-up the desired progress according to urban livability metrics. The study involves iterative 3-rounds of Delphi blind survey with Likert scale’s degree of agreement, and finally assigning weightings to each sub-indicator. Thus, with the expert-stakeholders involvement, constituting broad-sectoral community representation, a robust and appropriate urban livability index for Metro Johor was generated - a comprehensive framework yet prospective benchmark in appropriating timely policy decisions that would redound to the benefit of urban citizens ensuring a livable Metropolitan Johor.

  19. Global priorities for research and the relative importance of different research outcomes: an international Delphi survey of malaria research experts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Jo-Ann; Conteh, Lesong

    2016-12-06

    As global research investment increases, attention inevitably turns to assessing and measuring the outcomes and impact from research programmes. Research can have many different outcomes such as producing advances in scientific knowledge, building research capacity and, ultimately, health and broader societal benefits. The aim of this study was to test the use of a Delphi methodology as a way of gathering views from malaria research experts on research priorities and eliciting relative valuations of the different types of health research impact. An international Delphi survey of 60 malaria research experts was used to understand views on research outcomes and priorities within malaria and across global health more widely. The study demonstrated the application of the Delphi technique to eliciting views on malaria specific research priorities, wider global health research priorities and the values assigned to different types of research impact. In terms of the most important past research successes, the development of new anti-malarial drugs and insecticide-treated bed nets were rated as the most important. When asked about research priorities for future funding, respondents ranked tackling emerging drug and insecticide resistance the highest. With respect to research impact, the panel valued research that focuses on health and health sector benefits and informing policy and product development. Contributions to scientific knowledge, although highly valued, came lower down the ranking, suggesting that efforts to move research discoveries to health products and services are valued more highly than pure advances in scientific knowledge. Although the Delphi technique has been used to elicit views on research questions in global health this was the first time it has been used to assess how a group of research experts value or rank different types of research impact. The results suggest it is feasible to inject the views of a key stakeholder group into the research

  20. Predictors of massive blood transfusion: a Delphi Study to examine the views of experts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mclennan, Jacqueline V; Mackway-Jones, K C; Horne, S T; Body, R

    2017-08-01

    Trauma patients requiring massive blood transfusion (MBT) have high morbidity and mortality: early and aggressive use of blood products during immediate resuscitation may improve survival. There is currently a lack of evidence to guide initial identification of these patients which is especially important in areas where plasma may need to be thawed. In the absence of this evidence, this study aimed to robustly evaluate expert opinion by using a Delphi process to identify predictors of massive transfusion. This process can be used to ensure that decision rules include variables that have clinical validity, which may improve translation of rules into clinical practice. An international panel of 35 experts was identified through expert advice against specific criteria. Military and civilian experts from the fields of emergency medicine, critical care, anaesthesia, prehospital care, haematology and general/trauma surgery were included. The Delphi Study was carried out over three rounds. Consensus level was predefined at 80%. 195 statements were generated by the panel of which 97 (49.7%) achieved consensus at the 80% level by the end of round 3. Strikingly no clinical observations reached consensus individually. Metabolic acidosis of a base excess of -5.0 or worse, lactate >5 mmol/L and a low haematocrit on arrival were all considered predictive. Some patterns of injury, but few mechanisms of injury, were considered highly predictive of the need of MBT. This Delphi process has produced a list of parameters that expert clinicians felt were predictive for MBT. This list can be used to inform the generation of decision rules. It is of note that many factors used in current decision rules were not valued by clinical experts-this may be a cause for poor uptake of those rules. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  1. Delphi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    At CERN's new LEP electronpositron collider, the initial year of data-taking by the four big experiments - Aleph, Delphi, L3 and Opal, comes as the result of some ten years of careful preparation. This is the first in a series of four articles which looks at the history and aspirations of each of these mighty collaborations

  2. Clinical classification criteria for nonspecific low back pain: A Delphi-survey of clinical experts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewitte, Vincent; De Pauw, Robby; De Meulemeester, Kayleigh; Peersman, Wim; Danneels, Lieven; Bouche, Katie; Roets, Arne; Cagnie, Barbara

    2018-04-01

    Nonspecific low back pain (NSLBP) is a common problem. Attempts have been made to classify NSLBP patients into homogenous subgroups. Classification systems based on identifying the underlying mechanism(s) driving the disorder are clinically useful to guide specific interventions. To establish consensus among experts regarding clinical criteria suggestive of a dominance of 'articular', 'myofascial', 'neural', 'central', and 'sensorimotor control' dysfunction patterns (DPs) in NSLBP patients. A 2-phase sequential design of a focus group and Delphi-study. A focus group with 10 academic experts was organized to elaborate on the different DPs discernible in LBP patients. Consecutively, a 3-round online Delphi-survey was designed to obtain consensual symptoms and physical examination findings for the 5 DPs resulting from the focus group. Fifteen musculoskeletal physical therapists from Belgium and the Netherlands experienced in assessing and treating LBP patients completed the Delphi-survey. Respectively, 34 (response rate, 100.0%), 20 (58.8%) and 15 (44.12%) respondents replied to rounds 1, 2 and 3. Twenty-two 'articular', 20 'myofascial', 21 'neural', 18 'central' and 11 'sensorimotor control' criteria reached a predefined ≥80% consensus level. For example, after round 2, 85.0% of the Delphi-experts agreed to identify 'referred pain below the knee' as a subjective examination criterion suggestive for a predominant 'neural DP'. These indicators suggestive of a clinical dominance of the proposed DPs could help clinicians to assess and diagnose NSLBP patients. Future reliability and validity testing is needed to determine how these criteria may help to improve physical therapy outcome for NSLBP patients. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A DELPHI STUDY OF RISK FACTORS FOR ACHILLES TENDINOPATHY- OPINIONS OF WORLD TENDON EXPERTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Paul J.; Barry, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose Achilles tendinopathy can be a debilitating chronic condition for both active and inactive individuals. The identification of risk facors is important both in preventing but also treating tendinopathy, many factors have been proposed but there is a lack of primary epidemiological data. The purpose of this study was to develop a statement of expert consensus on risk factors for Achilles tendinopathy in active and sedentary patient populations to inform a primary epidemiological study. Study design Delphi study Methods and Measures An online Delphi study was completed inviting participation from world tendon experts. The consensus was developed using three rounds of the Delphi technique. The first round developed a complete list of potential risk factors, the second round refined this list but also separated the factors into two population groups – active/athletic and inactive/sedentary. The third round ranked this list in order of perceived importance. Results Forty-four experts were invited to participate, 16 participated in the first round (response rate 40%) and two dropped out in the second round (resulting in a response rate of 35%). A total of 27 intrinsic and eight extrinsic risk factors were identified during round one. During round two only 12 intrinsic and five extrinsic risk factors were identified as important in active/athletic tendinopathy while 14 intrinsic and three extrinsic factors were identified as important for inactive/sedentary tendinopathy. Conclusions Risk factors for Achilles tendinopathy were identified based on expert consensus, and these factors provide a basis for primary epidemiological studies. Plantarflexor strength was identified as the primary modifiable factor in the active/athletic group while systemic factors were identified as important in the inactive/sedentary group, many of the potential factors suggested for either group were non-modifiable. Non-modifiable factors include: previous tendinopathy

  4. Expert Opinion Is Necessary: Delphi Panel Methodology Facilitates a Scientific Approach to Consensus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohmann, Erik; Brand, Jefferson C; Rossi, Michael J; Lubowitz, James H

    2018-02-01

    Our current trend and focus on evidence-based medicine is biased in favor of randomized controlled trials, which are ranked highest in the hierarchy of evidence while devaluing expert opinion, which is ranked lowest in the hierarchy. However, randomized controlled trials have weaknesses as well as strengths, and no research method is flawless. Moreover, stringent application of scientific research techniques, such as the Delphi Panel methodology, allows survey of experts in a high quality and scientific manner. Level V evidence (expert opinion) remains a necessary component in the armamentarium used to determine the answer to a clinical question. Copyright © 2017 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. International recommendations for national patient safety incident reporting systems: an expert Delphi consensus-building process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Ann-Marie; Burns, Elaine M; Hull, Louise; Mayer, Erik; Sevdalis, Nick; Darzi, Ara

    2017-02-01

    Patient safety incident reporting systems (PSRS) have been established for over a decade, but uncertainty remains regarding the role that they can and ought to play in quantifying healthcare-related harm and improving care. To establish international, expert consensus on the purpose of PSRS regarding monitoring and learning from incidents and developing recommendations for their future role. After a scoping review of the literature, semi-structured interviews with experts in PSRS were conducted. Based on these findings, a survey-based questionnaire was developed and subsequently completed by a larger expert panel. Using a Delphi approach, consensus was reached regarding the ideal role of PSRSs. Recommendations for best practice were devised. Forty recommendations emerged from the Delphi procedure on the role and use of PSRS. Experts agreed reporting system should not be used as an epidemiological tool to monitor the rate of harm over time or to appraise the relative safety of hospitals. They agreed reporting is a valuable mechanism for identifying organisational safety needs. The benefit of a national system was clear with respect to medication error, device failures, hospital-acquired infections and never events as these problems often require solutions at a national level. Experts recommended training for senior healthcare professionals in incident investigation. Consensus recommendation was for hospitals to take responsibility for creating safety solutions locally that could be shared nationally. We obtained reasonable consensus among experts on aims and specifications of PSRS. This information can be used to reflect on existing and future PSRS, and their role within the wider patient safety landscape. The role of PSRS as instruments for learning needs to be elaborated and developed further internationally. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  6. Modified Policy-Delphi study for exploring obesity prevention priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Emily; Palermo, Claire; Reidlinger, Dianne P

    2016-09-06

    Until now, industry and government stakeholders have dominated public discourse about policy options for obesity. While consumer involvement in health service delivery and research has been embraced, methods which engage consumers in health policy development are lacking. Conflicting priorities have generated ethical concern around obesity policy. The concept of 'intrusiveness' has been applied to policy decisions in the UK, whereby ethical implications are considered through level of intrusiveness to choice; however, the concept has also been used to avert government regulation to address obesity. The concept of intrusiveness has not been explored from a stakeholder's perspective. The aim is to investigate the relevance of intrusiveness and autonomy to health policy development, and to explore consensus on obesity policy priorities of under-represented stakeholders. The Policy-Delphi technique will be modified using the James Lind Alliance approach to collaborative priority setting. A total of 60 participants will be recruited to represent three stakeholder groups in the Australian context: consumers, public health practitioners and policymakers. A three-round online Policy-Delphi survey will be undertaken. Participants will prioritise options informed by submissions to the 2009 Australian Government Inquiry into Obesity, and rate the intrusiveness of those proposed. An additional round will use qualitative methods in a face-to-face discussion group to explore stakeholder perceptions of the intrusiveness of options. The novelty of this methodology will redress the balance by bringing the consumer voice forward to identify ethically acceptable obesity policy options. Ethical approval was granted by the Bond University Health Research Ethics Committee. The findings will inform development of a conceptual framework for analysing and prioritising obesity policy options, which will be relevant internationally and to ethical considerations of wider public health issues

  7. Key Features of Academic Detailing: Development of an Expert Consensus Using the Delphi Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, James S; Van Hoof, Thomas J; Fischer, Michael A

    2016-02-01

    Academic detailing is an outreach education technique that combines the direct social marketing traditionally used by pharmaceutical representatives with unbiased content summarizing the best evidence for a given clinical issue. Academic detailing is conducted with clinicians to encourage evidence-based practice in order to improve the quality of care and patient outcomes. The adoption of academic detailing has increased substantially since the original studies in the 1980s. However, the lack of standard agreement on its implementation makes the evaluation of academic detailing outcomes challenging. To identify consensus on the key elements of academic detailing among a group of experts with varying experiences in academic detailing. This study is based on an online survey of 20 experts with experience in academic detailing. We used the Delphi process, an iterative and systematic method of developing consensus within a group. We conducted 3 rounds of online surveys, which addressed 72 individual items derived from a previous literature review of 5 features of academic detailing, including (1) content, (2) communication process, (3) clinicians targeted, (4) change agents delivering intervention, and (5) context for intervention. Nonrespondents were removed from later rounds of the surveys. For most questions, a 4-point ordinal scale was used for responses. We defined consensus agreement as 70% of respondents for a single rating category or 80% for dichotomized ratings. The overall survey response rate was 95% (54 of 57 surveys) and nearly 92% consensus agreement on the survey items (66 of 72 items) by the end of the Delphi exercise. The experts' responses suggested that (1) focused clinician education offering support for clinical decision-making is a key component of academic detailing, (2) detailing messages need to be tailored and provide feasible strategies and solutions to challenging cases, and (3) academic detailers need to develop specific skill sets

  8. Expert validation of a teamwork assessment rubric: A modified Delphi study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parratt, Jenny A; Fahy, Kathleen M; Hutchinson, Marie; Lohmann, Gui; Hastie, Carolyn R; Chaseling, Marilyn; O'Brien, Kylie

    2016-01-01

    Teamwork is a 'soft skill' employability competence desired by employers. Poor teamwork skills in healthcare have an impact on adverse outcomes. Teamwork skills are rarely the focus of teaching and assessment in undergraduate courses. The TeamUP Rubric is a tool used to teach and evaluate undergraduate students' teamwork skills. Students also use the rubric to give anonymised peer feedback during team-based academic assignments. The rubric's five domains focus on planning, environment, facilitation, conflict management and individual contribution; each domain is grounded in relevant theory. Students earn marks for their teamwork skills; validity of the assessment rubric is critical. To what extent do experts agree that the TeamUP Rubric is a valid assessment of 'teamwork skills'? Modified Delphi technique incorporating Feminist Collaborative Conversations. A heterogeneous panel of 35 professionals with recognised expertise in communications and/or teamwork. Three Delphi rounds using a survey that included the rubric were conducted either face-to-face, by telephone or online. Quantitative analysis yielded item content validity indices (I-CVI); minimum consensus was pre-set at 70%. An average of the I-CVI also yielded sub-scale (domain) (D-CVI/Ave) and scale content validity indices (S-CVI/Ave). After each Delphi round, qualitative data were analysed and interpreted; Feminist Collaborative Conversations by the research team aimed to clarify and confirm consensus about the wording of items on the rubric. Consensus (at 70%) was obtained for all but one behavioural descriptor of the rubric. We modified that descriptor to address expert concerns. The TeamUP Rubric (Version 4) can be considered to be well validated at that level of consensus. The final rubric reflects underpinning theory, with no areas of conceptual overlap between rubric domains. The final TeamUP Rubric arising from this study validly measures individual student teamwork skills and can be used with

  9. Identifying research priorities for patient safety in mental health: an international expert Delphi study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Kevin; Thibaut, Bethan; Ramtale, Sonny Christian; Adam, Sheila; Darzi, Ara; Archer, Stephanie

    2018-01-01

    Objective Physical healthcare has dominated the patient safety field; research in mental healthcare is not as extensive but findings from physical healthcare cannot be applied to mental healthcare because it delivers specialised care that faces unique challenges. Therefore, a clearer focus and recognition of patient safety in mental health as a distinct research area is still needed. The study aim is to identify future research priorities in the field of patient safety in mental health. Design Semistructured interviews were conducted with the experts to ascertain their views on research priorities in patient safety in mental health. A three-round online Delphi study was used to ascertain consensus on 117 research priority statements. Setting and participants Academic and service user experts from the USA, UK, Switzerland, Netherlands, Ireland, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Sweden, Australia, New Zealand and Singapore were included. Main outcome measures Agreement in research priorities on a five-point scale. Results Seventy-nine statements achieved consensus (>70%). Three out of the top six research priorities were patient driven; experts agreed that understanding the patient perspective on safety planning, on self-harm and on medication was important. Conclusions This is the first international Delphi study to identify research priorities in safety in the mental field as determined by expert academic and service user perspectives. A reasonable consensus was obtained from international perspectives on future research priorities in patient safety in mental health; however, the patient perspective on their mental healthcare is a priority. The research agenda for patient safety in mental health identified here should be informed by patient safety science more broadly and used to further establish this area as a priority in its own right. The safety of mental health patients must have parity with that of physical health patients to achieve this. PMID:29502096

  10. Expert opinion on detecting and treating depression in palliative care: A Delphi study

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    Hotopf Matthew

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a dearth of data regarding the optimal method of detecting and treating depression in palliative care. This study applied the Delphi method to evaluate expert opinion on choice of screening tool, choice of antidepressant and choice of psychological therapy. The aim was to inform the development of best practice recommendations for the European Palliative Care Research Collaborative clinical practice guideline on managing depression in palliative care. Methods 18 members of an international, multi-professional expert group completed a structured questionnaire in two rounds, rating their agreement with proposed items on a scale from 0-10 and annotating with additional comments. The median and range were calculated to give a statistical average of the experts' ratings. Results There was contention regarding the benefits of screening, with 'routine informal asking' (median 8.5 (0-10 rated more highly than formal screening tools such as the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (median 7.0 (1-10. Mirtazapine (median 9 (7-10 and citalopram (median 9 (5-10 were the considered the best choice of antidepressant and cognitive behavioural therapy (median 9.0 (3-10 the best choice of psychological therapy. Conclusions The range of expert ratings was broad, indicating discordance in the views of experts. Direct comparative data from randomised controlled trials are needed to strengthen the evidence-base and achieve clarity on how best to detect and treat depression in this setting.

  11. Developing Policy Scenarios for Sustainable Urban Growth Management: A Delphi Approach

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    Sajida Perveen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In many parts of the world, a rapid urbanization process is taking place at an unprecedented scale, and its drastic impacts on societies and the environment are evident. To combat the externalities of such rapid, and to a degree uncontrolled, development, many cities around the globe introduced various urban growth management policies. However, policy making—to provide sustainable outcomes, while generating growth opportunities—has been a daunting task for urban administrators. To ease the task, scenario-based planning methods are introduced to produce alternative visions for managing urban growth in sustainable ways by incorporating various socio-environmental issues. However, even though modelling urban growth and associated impacts based on these scenarios have emerged to strengthen and quantify the future of urban policies and related planning actions, this process has a number of glitches. Major issues include the uncertainties associated with the selection of suitable methods to generate scenarios, identify indicators to be used to assess scenarios, evaluate scenarios to prioritize for policy formulation, and assess the impacts of policy scenarios. This paper aims to address the challenge of developing suitable policy scenarios for sustainable urban growth. As for the methodological approach, the study undertakes a thorough review of the literature and current practices, and conducts a two-round Delphi survey—involving experts from public, private and academic sectors specialized in the fields of urban planning, environmental planning, social planning, transportation modelling, and economic development. The expert driven policy scenarios are validated in a local context by comparing findings against the policy options as proposed in the South East Queensland Regional Plan 2017 (Australia. The findings offer valuable guidelines for planners, modellers, and policy makers in adopting suitable methods, indicators, and policy priorities

  12. An international Delphi study examining health promotion and health education in nursing practice, education and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Dean

    2008-04-01

    To arrive at an expert consensus in relation to health promotion and health education constructs as they apply to nursing practice, education and policy. Nursing has often been maligned and criticized, both inside and outside of the profession, for its ability to understand and conduct effective health promotion and health education-related activities. In the absence of an expert-based consensus, nurses may find it difficult to progress beyond the current situation. In the absence of any previously published nursing-related consensus research, this study seeks to fill that knowledge-gap. A two-round Delphi technique via email correspondence. A first-round qualitative questionnaire used open-ended questions for defining health promotion and health education. This was both in general terms and as participants believed these concepts related to the clinical, theoretical (academic/educational) and the policy (political) setting in nursing. Line-by-line qualitative content and thematic analysis of the first-round data generated 13 specific categories. These categories contained 134 statement items. The second-round questionnaire comprised the identified 134 statements. Using a five-point Likert scale (ranging from 1 = strongly disagree to 5 = strongly agree) participants scored and rated their level of agreement/disagreement against the listed items. Data from the second-round was descriptively analysed according to distribution and central tendency measures. An expert consensus was reached on 65 of the original 134 statements. While some minor contradiction was demonstrated, strong consensus emerged around the issues of defining health promotion and health education and the emergence of a wider health promotion and health education role for nursing. No consensus was reached on only one of the 13 identified topic categories - that of 'nurses working with other disciplines and agencies in a health education and health promotion role.' This study provides a hitherto

  13. Essential Concepts of Nanoscale Science and Technology for High School Students Based on a Delphi Study by the Expert Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakhnini, Sohair; Blonder, Ron

    2015-01-01

    Nanoscale science and technology (NST) is an important new field in modern science. In the current study, we seek to answer the question: "What are the essential concepts of NST that should be taught in high school"? A 3-round Delphi study methodology was applied based on 2 communities of experts in nanotechnology research and science…

  14. Combination treatment of neuropathic pain: Danish expert recommendations based on a Delphi process

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    Holbech JV

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Jakob Vormstrup Holbech,1 Anne Jung,2 Torsten Jonsson,3 Mette Wanning,4 Claus Bredahl,5 Flemming W Bach6 1Department of Neurology, Odense University Hospital, Odense, 2Medicinsk Fælles Ambulatorium, Holbaek Hospital, 3Aleris-Hamlet Hospitaler Ringsted, 4The Private Pain Clinic, Herlev, 5Clinic Acute Orthopedic Surgical Anesthesia Section, Aalborg Universitetshospital, Aalborg, 6Department of Neurology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark Background: Current Danish treatment algorithms for pharmacological treatment of neuropathic pain (NeP are tricyclic antidepressants (TCA, gabapentin and pregabalin as first-line treatment for the most common NeP conditions. Many patients have insufficient pain relief on monotherapy, but combination therapy had not been included in guidelines until recently. Based on clinical empiricism and scientific evidence, a Delphi consensus process provided a consolidated guidance on pharmacological combination treatment of NeP.Methods: A two-round virtual internet-based Delphi process with 6 Danish pain specialists was undertaken. In the first round, questions were answered individually and anonymously, whereas in the second round, the panel openly discussed first round’s summary of outcomes. Combinations of pharmacological pain treatments, that is, pregabalin/gabapentin, TCAs, serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, opioids, other antiepileptics and cutaneous patches, were assessed based on both scientific and clinical practice experiences. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC grading system was used for evidence rating.Results: Combination of pregabalin/gabapentin with TCA is useful in patients who do not gain sufficient pain relief or tolerate either drug in high doses, or to improve sleep disturbance. Also, combination of pregabalin/gabapentin and SNRIs is reasonably well documented and experienced by some experts to result in sufficient

  15. A Non-Parametric Delphi Approach to Foster Innovation Policy Debate in Spain

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    Juan Carlos Salazar-Elena

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to identify some changes needed in Spain’s innovation policy to fill the gap between its innovation results and those of other European countries in lieu of sustainable leadership. To do this we apply the Delphi methodology to experts from academia, business, and government. To overcome the shortcomings of traditional descriptive methods, we develop an inferential analysis by following a non-parametric bootstrap method which enables us to identify important changes that should be implemented. Particularly interesting is the support found for improving the interconnections among the relevant agents of the innovation system (instead of focusing exclusively in the provision of knowledge and technological inputs through R and D activities, or the support found for “soft” policy instruments aimed at providing a homogeneous framework to assess the innovation capabilities of firms (e.g., for funding purposes. Attention to potential innovators among small and medium enterprises (SMEs and traditional industries is particularly encouraged by experts.

  16. Nurses' expert opinions of workplace interventions for a healthy working environment: a Delphi survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, Diane; Clarke, Sean; Hayes, Laureen; Nincic, Vera

    2014-09-01

    Much has been written about interventions to improve the nursing work environment, yet little is known about their effectiveness. A Delphi survey of nurse experts was conducted to explore perceptions about workplace interventions in terms of feasibility and likelihood of positive impact on nurse outcomes such as job satisfaction and nurse retention. The interventions that received the highest ratings for likelihood of positive impact included: bedside handover to improve communication at shift report and promote patient-centred care; training program for nurses in dealing with violent or aggressive behaviour; development of charge nurse leadership team; training program focused on creating peer-supportive atmospheres and group cohesion; and schedule that recognizes work balance and family demands. The overall findings are consistent with the literature that highlights the importance of communication and teamwork, nurse health and safety, staffing and scheduling practices, professional development and leadership and mentorship. Nursing researchers and decision-makers should work in collaboration to implement and evaluate interventions for promoting practice environments characterized by effective communication and teamwork, professional growth and adequate support for the health and well-being of nurses.

  17. Towards a definition of refractory neuropathic pain for epidemiological research. An international Delphi survey of experts

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    Smith Blair H

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Best current estimates of neuropathic pain (NeuP prevalence come from studies using various screening detecting pain with probable neuropathic features; the proportion experiencing significant, long-term NeuP, and the proportion not responding to standard treatment are unknown. These “refractory” cases are the most clinically important to detect, being the most severe, requiring specialist treatment. Methods We report an international Delphi survey of experts in NeuP, aiming for consensus on the features required to define, for epidemiological research: (1 neuropathic pain; and (2 when NeuP is “refractory”. A web-based questionnaire was developed and data collected from three rounds of questionnaires from nineteen experts. Results There was good consensus on essential inclusion of six items to identify NeuP (“prickling, tingling, pins & needles”, “pain evoked by light touch”, “electric shocks or shooting pain”, “hot or burning” pain, “brush allodynia on self-examination”, and “relevant history” and on some items that were non-essential. Consensus was also reached on components of a “refractory NeuP” definition: minimum duration (one year; number of trials of drugs of known effectiveness (four; adequate duration of these trials (three months / maximum tolerated; outcomes of treatment (pain severity, quality of life. Further work needs to validate these proposed criteria in general population research. Conclusions This paper presents an international consensus on measuring the epidemiology of refractory neuropathic pain. This will be valuable in reaching an agreed estimate of the prevalence of neuropathic pain, and the first estimate of refractory neuropathic pain prevalence.

  18. Delphi in Criminal Justice Policy: A Case Study on Judgmental Forecasting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loyens, Kim; Maesschalck, Jeroen; Bouckaert, Geert

    2011-01-01

    This article provides an in-depth case study analysis of a pilot project organized by the section “Strategic Analysis” of the Belgian Federal Police. Using the Delphi method, which is a judgmental forecasting technique, a panel of experts was questioned about future developments of crime, based on

  19. Delphi in Criminal Justice Policy: A Case Study on Judgmental Forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loyens, Kim; Maesschalck, Jeroen; Bouckaert, Geert

    2011-01-01

    This article provides an in-depth case study analysis of a pilot project organized by the section "Strategic Analysis" of the Belgian Federal Police. Using the Delphi method, which is a judgmental forecasting technique, a panel of experts was questioned about future developments of crime, based on their expertise in criminal or social…

  20. Diagnostic needs for rare diseases and shared prediagnostic phenomena: Results of a German-wide expert Delphi survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blöß, Susanne; Klemann, Christian; Rother, Ann-Katrin; Mehmecke, Sandra; Schumacher, Ulrike; Mücke, Urs; Mücke, Martin; Stieber, Christiane; Klawonn, Frank; Kortum, Xiaowei; Lechner, Werner; Grigull, Lorenz

    2017-01-01

    Worldwide approximately 7,000 rare diseases have been identified. Accordingly, 4 million individuals live with a rare disease in Germany. The mean time to diagnosis is about 6 years and patients receive several incorrect diagnoses during this time. A multiplicity of factors renders diagnosing a rare disease extremely difficult. Detection of shared phenomena among individuals with different rare diseases could assist the diagnostic process. In order to explore the demand for diagnostic support and to obtain the commonalities among patients, a nationwide Delphi survey of centers for rare diseases and patient groups was conducted. A two-step Delphi survey was conducted using web-based technologies in all centers for rare diseases in Germany. Moreover, the leading patient support group, the German foundation for rare diseases (ACHSE), was contacted to involve patients as experts in their disease. In the survey the experts were invited to name rare diseases with special need for diagnostic improvement. Secondly, communal experiences of affected individuals were collected. 166 of 474 contacted experts (35%) participated in the first round of the Delphi process and 95 of 166 (57%) participated in the second round. Metabolic (n = 74) and autoimmune diseases (n = 39) were ranked the highest for need for diagnostic support. For three diseases (i.e. scleroderma, Pompe's disease, and pulmonary arterial hypertension), a crucial need for diagnostic support was explicitly stated. A typical experience of individuals with a rare disease was stigmatization of having psychological or psychosomatic problems. In addition, most experts endured an 'odyssey' of seeing many different medical specialists before a correct diagnosis (n = 38) was confirmed. There is need for improving the diagnostic process in individuals with rare diseases. Shared experiences in individuals with a rare disease were observed, which could possibly be utilized for diagnostic support in the future.

  1. Defining nurse regulation and regulatory body performance: a policy Delphi study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benton, D C; González-Jurado, M A; Beneit-Montesinos, J V

    2013-09-01

    Professional self-regulation is a privilege and needs to deliver against the underpinning social contract between the professional and citizens who are receiving care and services. The aims of this study were to generate, international consensus on a contemporary definition of professional nurse regulation; and to articulate the key features of a highly performing regulatory body, and postulate which regulatory model and administrative arrangements are best suited to attain the key features. A highly diverse and globally recruited random stratified sample of 75 experts was approached to participate in a classic three-round policy Delphi study. Quantitative and qualitative data were generated and subjected to thematic and statistical analysis. Both non-parametric and descriptive statistical techniques were used in relation to quantitative data. Consensus on a revision of the current International Council of Nurses definition of professional nurse regulation was developed and a set of 47 key features of high-performing regulatory bodies was agreed. Although a strong preference for the delegated self-regulatory model (43%) and single-board administrative approach (48%) was expressed the underlying rationale for such a preference was unclear. The research makes an important contribution to an underdeveloped field of study. The case for conducting more quantitative investigations to ascertain the best regulatory model and associated administrative approach has been made. © 2013 The Authors. International Nursing Review © 2013 International Council of Nurses.

  2. Helping someone with problem drinking: Mental health first aid guidelines - a Delphi expert consensus study

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    Hart Laura M

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol is a leading risk factor for avoidable disease burden. Research suggests that a drinker's social network can play an integral role in addressing hazardous (i.e., high-risk or problem drinking. Often however, social networks do not have adequate mental health literacy (i.e., knowledge about mental health problems, like problem drinking, or how to treat them. This is a concern as the response that a drinker receives from their social network can have a substantial impact on their willingness to seek help. This paper describes the development of mental health first aid guidelines that inform community members on how to help someone who may have, or may be developing, a drinking problem (i.e., alcohol abuse or dependence. Methods A systematic review of the research and lay literature was conducted to develop a 285-item survey containing strategies on how to help someone who may have, or may be developing, a drinking problem. Two panels of experts (consumers/carers and clinicians individually rated survey items, using a Delphi process. Surveys were completed online or via postal mail. Participants were 99 consumers, carers and clinicians with experience or expertise in problem drinking from Australia, Canada, Ireland, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Items that reached consensus on importance were retained and written into guidelines. Results The overall response rate across all three rounds was 68.7% (67.6% consumers/carers, 69.2% clinicians, with 184 first aid strategies rated as essential or important by ≥80% of panel members. The endorsed guidelines provide guidance on how to: recognize problem drinking; approach someone if there is concern about their drinking; support the person to change their drinking; respond if they are unwilling to change their drinking; facilitate professional help seeking and respond if professional help is refused; and manage an alcohol-related medical emergency

  3. Helping someone with problem drinking: mental health first aid guidelines - a Delphi expert consensus study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingston, Anna H; Jorm, Anthony F; Kitchener, Betty A; Hides, Leanne; Kelly, Claire M; Morgan, Amy J; Hart, Laura M; Lubman, Dan I

    2009-12-07

    Alcohol is a leading risk factor for avoidable disease burden. Research suggests that a drinker's social network can play an integral role in addressing hazardous (i.e., high-risk) or problem drinking. Often however, social networks do not have adequate mental health literacy (i.e., knowledge about mental health problems, like problem drinking, or how to treat them). This is a concern as the response that a drinker receives from their social network can have a substantial impact on their willingness to seek help. This paper describes the development of mental health first aid guidelines that inform community members on how to help someone who may have, or may be developing, a drinking problem (i.e., alcohol abuse or dependence). A systematic review of the research and lay literature was conducted to develop a 285-item survey containing strategies on how to help someone who may have, or may be developing, a drinking problem. Two panels of experts (consumers/carers and clinicians) individually rated survey items, using a Delphi process. Surveys were completed online or via postal mail. Participants were 99 consumers, carers and clinicians with experience or expertise in problem drinking from Australia, Canada, Ireland, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Items that reached consensus on importance were retained and written into guidelines. The overall response rate across all three rounds was 68.7% (67.6% consumers/carers, 69.2% clinicians), with 184 first aid strategies rated as essential or important by > or =80% of panel members. The endorsed guidelines provide guidance on how to: recognize problem drinking; approach someone if there is concern about their drinking; support the person to change their drinking; respond if they are unwilling to change their drinking; facilitate professional help seeking and respond if professional help is refused; and manage an alcohol-related medical emergency. The guidelines provide a consensus-based resource

  4. Building expert agreement on the importance and feasibility of workplace health promotion interventions for nurses and midwives: A modified Delphi consultation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Lin; Nicholls, Rachel; Duffield, Christine; Gallagher, Robyn

    2017-11-01

    To use a Delphi panel to determine the relative importance and feasibility of workplace health promotion interventions to promote and support the health of the Australian nursing and midwifery workforce. The nursing workforce experiences rates of ill health above that of other workforces, yet there is little investment in workplace health promotion. The study used a modified Delphi design conducted between September and November 2015. Eleven of 19 purposively selected expert panellists discussed, rated and provided feedback through two rounds of an electronic questionnaire about the relative importance and feasibility of 46 workplace health promotion interventions and processes for nurses and midwives. Scores for importance and feasibility were calculated and ranked and a composite score of importance multiplied by feasibility. Mental health strategies were prioritized as the most important and feasible of the intervention topics, followed closely by healthy eating and physical activity interventions; smoking cessation ranked lowest. The most highly ranked interventions targeted healthy eating, stress management and resilience training. Highest ranked processes to support development of a healthy work environment included intersectoral collaboration and employee wellness groups. Study findings prompt consideration of health promotion opportunities to support nurses' health and well-being. Findings identified key workplace health promotion priorities and provide direction for policy makers and managers to promote nursing and midwifery workforce health. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Expert agreed standards for the selection and development of cancer support group leaders: an online reactive Delphi study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomery, Amanda; Schofield, Penelope; Xhilaga, Miranda; Gough, Karla

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop pragmatic, consensus-based minimum standards for the role of a cancer support group leader. Secondly, to produce a structured interview designed to assess the knowledge, skills and attributes of the individuals who seek to undertake the role. An expert panel of 73 academics, health professionals, cancer agency workers and cancer support group leaders were invited to participate in a reactive online Delphi study involving three online questionnaire rounds. Participants determined and ranked requisite knowledge, skills and attributes (KSA) for cancer support group leaders, differentiated ideal from required KSA to establish minimum standards, and agreed on a method of rating KSA to determine suitability and readiness. Forty-five experts (62%) participated in round 1, 36 (49%) in round 2 and 23 (31%) in round 3. In round 1, experts confirmed 59 KSA identified via a systemic review and identified a further 55 KSA. In round 2, using agreement ≥75%, 52 KSA emerged as minimum standards for support group leaders. In round 3, consensus was reached on almost every aspect of the content and structure of a structured interview. Panel member comments guided refinement of wording, re-ordering of questions and improvement of probing questions. Alongside a novel structured interview, the first consensus-based minimum standards have been developed for cancer support group leaders, incorporating expert consensus and pragmatic considerations. Pilot and field testing will be used to appraise aspects of clinical utility and establish a rational scoring model for the structured interview.

  6. Feasibility of multi-sector policy measures that create activity-friendly environments for children: results of a Delphi study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aarts Marie-Jeanne

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although multi-sector policy is a promising strategy to create environments that stimulate physical activity among children, little is known about the feasibility of such a multi-sector policy approach. The aims of this study were: to identify a set of tangible (multi-sector policy measures at the local level that address environmental characteristics related to physical activity among children; and to assess the feasibility of these measures, as perceived by local policy makers. Methods In four Dutch municipalities, a Delphi study was conducted among local policy makers of different policy sectors (public health, sports, youth and education, spatial planning/public space, traffic and transportation, and safety. In the first Delphi round, respondents generated a list of possible policy measures addressing three environmental correlates of physical activity among children (social cohesion, accessibility of facilities, and traffic safety. In the second Delphi round, policy makers weighted different feasibility aspects (political feasibility, cultural/community acceptability, technical feasibility, cost feasibility, and legal feasibility and assessed the feasibility of the policy measures derived from the first round. The third Delphi round was aimed at reaching consensus by feedback of group results. Finally, one overall feasibility score was calculated for each policy measure. Results Cultural/community acceptability, political feasibility, and cost feasibility were considered most important feasibility aspects. The Delphi studies yielded 16 feasible policy measures aimed at physical and social environmental correlates of physical activity among children. Less drastic policy measures were considered more feasible, whereas environmental policy measures were considered less feasible. Conclusions This study showed that the Delphi technique can be a useful tool in reaching consensus about feasible multi-sector policy measures. The

  7. The DELPHI expert process of the German umbrella project AUGE as basis for recommendations to CO2 storage in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilz, Peter; Schoebel, Birgit; Liebscher, Axel

    2016-04-01

    Within the GEOTECHNOLOGIEN funding scheme for geological CO2 storage by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) in Germany 33 projects (135 subprojects) have been funded with a total budget of 58 Mio € (excluding industry funds) from 2005 to 2014. In 2012, the German parliament passed the transposition of the EU CCS Directive 2009/31/EG into the national "Carbon Dioxide Storage Law" (KSpG). Annex 1 of the KSpG provides a description of criteria for the characterization and assessment of a potential CO2 storage site. Annex 2 describes the expected monitoring system of a CO2 storage site. The criteria given in the appendices are of general nature, which reflects (1) that the CO2 storage technology is still being developed and (2) that site specific aspects needs to be considered. In 2012 an umbrella project called AUGE has been launched in order to compile and summarize the results of the GEOTECHNOLOGIEN projects to underpin the two Annexes scientifically. By integration of the individual project results AUGE aims at derive recommendations for the review and implementation of the KSpG. The recommendations shall be drafted based on a common ground of science, public authorities and industry. Therefore, the AUGE project includes a Delphi expert process as an essential part. It is realized in cooperation with the company COMPARE Consulting, Göppingen. The implementation of the Delphi-Process is organized in three steps: • After the technical preparation of a standardized questionnaire (2014/2015) it was sent to 129 experts from science, industry and public authorities in Germany. After a few weeks of consideration time, 40 persons (30 %) had decided to participate actively in this inquiry. • Following the results of the first interrogation campaign, the second survey campaign started at the end of 2015. The same list of questions was used, complemented with the results of the first inquiry campaign. The intention is reduce the variance of the

  8. An Automated Policy Refinement Process Supported by Expert Knowledge

    OpenAIRE

    Rochaeli, Taufiq

    2009-01-01

    In a policy-based system management, a policy refinement process is required to translate abstract policies, which are specified by human, into enforceable policies, which are enforced by machine. However, a manual policy refinement process imposes some problems. The first problem is that it requires expert knowledge to perform the policy refinement process. The second problem is that refining policies for complex systems is a tedious task. Manual refinement process may cause some negative co...

  9. Delphi survey of international pharmacology experts: an attempt to derive international recommendations for use of medicine in breastfeeding women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir, Lisa H; Ryan, Kath; Barnett, Clare

    2015-04-01

    There are currently no common guidelines used by health professionals to aid decision-making around the use of medicines during breastfeeding. Several specialized books, Web sites, and drug information services exist; however, all use slightly different criteria to derive their "safety hierarchy." The aim of this study was to build consensus among international experts in pharmacology and breastfeeding to develop an agreed-upon classification system for safety of medicine use in breastfeeding women. A three-round Web-based Delphi qualitative research design was used. Seventeen experts in pharmacy/pharmacology and breastfeeding identified 15 key parameters that are used to inform decisions about medicines and breastfeeding. The most important parameters about the infant were the age and health of the child, and those of the medicine were the safety profile and experience of use in infants. The experts had a clear understanding of the complexity of decision-making when prescribing for breastfeeding women. Although the current number or letter classification systems do not incorporate important considerations such as infant age, a longer "descriptive text" incorporating all considerations may be impractical in busy clinical practice. Although clinicians and lay people would appreciate a simple classification scheme, in practice, decision-making about the safety of medicines for breastfeeding women is complex.

  10. A Delphi survey of leadership attributes necessary for national nurse leaders' participation in health policy development: an East African perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jivraj Shariff, Nilufa

    2015-01-01

    Nurses' involvement in health policy development ensures that health services are: safe, effective, available and inexpensive. Nursing history reveals several legendary nurse leaders who have influenced policy and the course of nursing and health care. In the recent times there have been concerns regarding the availability of effective leaders physically, symbolically and functionally at clinical, organizational and national levels, who can effectively influence health policy. Exerting influence in the policy arena requires that nurse leaders acquire attributes that enable them to be effective in policy development activity. This paper reports part of a larger study whose purpose included: "build consensus on leadership attributes necessary for nurse leaders' participation in health policy development in East Africa". A Delphi survey was utilized and included the following criteria: expert panelists, three iterative rounds, qualitative and quantitative analysis, and building consensus. The study included purposively selected sample of national nurse leaders (expert panelists) from the three East African countries of Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda. The study was conducted in three iterative rounds. Seventy eight (78) expert panelists were invited to participate in the study and 37 (47%) participated in the first round of these; 24 (64.8%) participated in the second round and all invited in the third round 24 (100%) participated. Data collection was done using questionnaires and collected qualitative and quantitative data. Data analysis was done utilizing the principles of qualitative analysis in the first round and descriptive statistics in the second and third rounds. The study achieved consensus on the essential leadership attributes for nurse leaders' participation in health policy and include being able to: influence; communicate effectively; build relationships; feel empowered and demonstrate professional credibility. For nursing to participate in influencing the

  11. [Expert survey for Chinese medicine syndrome characteristics of different clinical types of coronary artery disease based on the Delphi method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Ying-fei; Mao, Jing-yuan; Wang, Xian-liang; Li, Bin; Hou, Ya-zhu; Zhao, Zhi-qiang; Ge, Yong-bin; Zhao, Gui-feng

    2014-10-01

    To carry out expert survey for traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) syndrome characteristics of different clinical types of coronary artery disease (CAD). By using Delphi method, we carried out two rounds of nationwide expert surveys for modern TCM characteristics of syndrome elements and syndrome types of CAD. Based on expert consensus, qi deficiency, blood stasis, phlegm turbidity, qi deficiency blood stasis, and intermingled phlegm and blood stasis are common TCM syndromes for different clinical types of CAD. Of them, qi stagnation, blood stasis, phlegm turbidity, heat accumulation, cold coagulation, yang deficiency, deficiency of both qi and yang were more often seen in patients with unstable angina than in those with stable angina. Qi deficiency, yin deficiency, and deficiency of both qi and yin were less seen. We could see more excess syndrome and less deficiency syndrome (such as qi deficiency, yin deficiency, etc.) in acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) than acute non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI). Qi deficiency, blood stasis, water retention, yang deficiency, phlegm turbidity, yin deficiency, Xin-qi deficiency, and qi deficiency blood stasis induced water retention are the most common TCM syndrome types of CAD heart failure (HF). Blood deficiency, yin deficiency, heat accumulation, deficiency of both Xin and Pi, deficiency of both qi and blood, deficiency of both qi and yin, yin deficiency and fire hyperactivity were more often seen in CAD arrhythmias. TCM syndrome distributions of different clinical types of CAD have common laws and individual characteristics. Results based on the expert consensus supplied evidence and support for clinical diagnosis and treatment of CAD.

  12. Engaging communication experts in a Delphi process to identify patient behaviors that could enhance communication in medical encounters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Jaya K; Anderson, Lynda A; Sukumar, Bhuvana; Beauchesne, Danielle A; Stein, Terry; Frankel, Richard M

    2010-04-19

    The communication literature currently focuses primarily on improving physicians' verbal and non-verbal behaviors during the medical interview. The Four Habits Model is a teaching and research framework for physician communication that is based on evidence linking specific communication behaviors with processes and outcomes of care. The Model conceptualizes basic communication tasks as "Habits" and describes the sequence of physician communication behaviors during the clinical encounter associated with improved outcomes. Using the Four Habits Model as a starting point, we asked communication experts to identify the verbal communication behaviors of patients that are important in outpatient encounters. We conducted a 4-round Delphi process with 17 international experts in communication research, medical education, and health care delivery. All rounds were conducted via the internet. In round 1, experts reviewed a list of proposed patient verbal communication behaviors within the Four Habits Model framework. The proposed patient verbal communication behaviors were identified based on a review of the communication literature. The experts could: approve the proposed list; add new behaviors; or modify behaviors. In rounds 2, 3, and 4, they rated each behavior for its fit (agree or disagree) with a particular habit. After each round, we calculated the percent agreement for each behavior and provided these data in the next round. Behaviors receiving more than 70% of experts' votes (either agree or disagree) were considered as achieving consensus. Of the 14 originally-proposed patient verbal communication behaviors, the experts modified all but 2, and they added 20 behaviors to the Model in round 1. In round 2, they were presented with 59 behaviors and 14 options to remove specific behaviors for rating. After 3 rounds of rating, the experts retained 22 behaviors. This set included behaviors such as asking questions, expressing preferences, and summarizing information. The

  13. Engaging communication experts in a Delphi process to identify patient behaviors that could enhance communication in medical encounters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stein Terry

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The communication literature currently focuses primarily on improving physicians' verbal and non-verbal behaviors during the medical interview. The Four Habits Model is a teaching and research framework for physician communication that is based on evidence linking specific communication behaviors with processes and outcomes of care. The Model conceptualizes basic communication tasks as "Habits" and describes the sequence of physician communication behaviors during the clinical encounter associated with improved outcomes. Using the Four Habits Model as a starting point, we asked communication experts to identify the verbal communication behaviors of patients that are important in outpatient encounters. Methods We conducted a 4-round Delphi process with 17 international experts in communication research, medical education, and health care delivery. All rounds were conducted via the internet. In round 1, experts reviewed a list of proposed patient verbal communication behaviors within the Four Habits Model framework. The proposed patient verbal communication behaviors were identified based on a review of the communication literature. The experts could: approve the proposed list; add new behaviors; or modify behaviors. In rounds 2, 3, and 4, they rated each behavior for its fit (agree or disagree with a particular habit. After each round, we calculated the percent agreement for each behavior and provided these data in the next round. Behaviors receiving more than 70% of experts' votes (either agree or disagree were considered as achieving consensus. Results Of the 14 originally-proposed patient verbal communication behaviors, the experts modified all but 2, and they added 20 behaviors to the Model in round 1. In round 2, they were presented with 59 behaviors and 14 options to remove specific behaviors for rating. After 3 rounds of rating, the experts retained 22 behaviors. This set included behaviors such as asking questions

  14. Strategies for the prevention of MP3-induced hearing loss among adolescents: expert opinions from a Delphi study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Ineke; Brug, Johannes; van der Ploeg, Catharina P B; Raat, Hein

    2009-05-01

    To identify parties involved in the prevention of MP3-induced hearing loss among adolescents and potentially effective prevention strategies and interventions. Thirty experts in fields such as scientific research, medical practice, community health professions, education, youth work, music entertainment, and enforcement authorities participated in a qualitative, electronic, 3-round, Web-based Delphi study. Multiple parties involved in the prevention of MP3-induced hearing loss among adolescents were identified; the most relevant are the adolescents themselves, their parents, manufacturers of MP3 players and earphones, and the authorities. The experts did not expect that adolescents in general would perform the necessary protective behaviors to prevent MP3-induced hearing loss. Two environmental health protection measures were identified as both relevant and feasible to be implemented (ie, authorities encourage manufacturers to produce safer products, and public health campaigns will be held to improve knowledge of the risks of high-volume music, possible protective measures, and consequences of hearing loss). Authorities, the music industry in general, and especially manufacturers of MP3 players and earphones should recognize their responsibility and create a safer MP3-listening environment by taking measures to protect today's youth from the dangers of listening to high-volume music on MP3 players.

  15. Different roles of electromagnetic field experts when giving policy advice: an expert consultation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruijt, Pita; Knol, Anne B; Petersen, Arthur C; Lebret, Erik

    2015-01-21

    The overall evidence for adverse health effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF) at levels of exposure normally experienced by the public is generally considered weak. However, whether long-term health effects arise remains uncertain and scientific policy advice is therefore given against a background of uncertainty. Several theories exist about different roles that experts may take when they provide advice on complex issues such as EMF. To provide empirical evidence for these theories, we conducted an expert consultation with as main research question: What are the different roles of EMF experts when they provide policy advice? Q methodology was used to empirically test theoretical notions on the existence and determinants of different expert roles and to analyze which roles actually play out in the domain of EMF. Experts were selected based on a structured nominee process. In total 32 international EMF experts participated. Responses were analyzed using Principal Component Analysis and for the open questions we used Atlas.ti. Four expert roles were found. Most striking differences between the four roles are whether experts consider current EMF policies adequate or not, whether additional -precautionary- measures are needed, and how experts view their position vis-à-vis policymakers and/or other stakeholders. This empirical study provides support for the so far mainly theoretical debate about the existence of different roles of experts when they give policy advice. The experts' assessment of the degree of uncertainty of the issue turned out to be highly associated with their role. We argue that part of the controversy that exists in the debate regarding scientific policy advice on EMF is about different values and roles.

  16. Current issues and areas for improvement in the Korean Dental Hygienist National Licensing Examination: an expert Delphi survey among dental hygienists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon-Sook Hwang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose This study aimed to investigate current issues and areas for improvement in the Korean Dental Hygienist National Licensing Examination (KDHNLE through an expert Delphi survey. Methods A Delphi survey was conducted from May through August 2016 in Korea. This Delphi survey included 20 persons representing the field of dental hygiene (7 groups from various dental hygiene-related organizations. The Delphi survey was administered through e-mail as 3 rounds of questionnaire surveys regarding the issues facing the KDHNLE and potential solutions to those challenges. The primary Delphi survey was an open questionnaire. In each round, subjects’ responses were categorized according to the detailed themes of their responses. The minimum value of the content validity ratio of the survey results was determined by the number of panels participating in the Delphi survey. Results Issues facing the KDHNLE were identified from the results of the Delphi survey. The following 4 items had an average importance score of 4.0 or higher and were considered as important by over 85% of the panels: the failure of the practical test to reflect actual clinical settings, the focus of the practical test on dental scaling, the gap between the items evaluated on the national examination and actual practical work, and insufficiency in strengthening the expertise of licensed dental hygienists. The following items were suggested for improvement: more rigorous rater training, adjustment of the difficulty of the licensing examination, the introduction of a specialized dental hygienist system, and more rigorous refresher training for licensed dental hygienists. Conclusion Based on the above results, the KDHNLE should be improved according to the core competencies of dental hygienists, including on-site clinical practice experience.

  17. What ideas-about-science should be taught in school science? A Delphi study of the expert community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Jonathan; Collins, Sue; Ratcliffe, Mary; Millar, Robin; Duschl, Rick

    2003-09-01

    Recent arguments in science education have proposed that school science should pay more attention to teaching the nature of science and its social practices. However, unlike the content of science, for which there is well-established consensus, there would appear to be much less unanimity within the academic community about which ideas-about-science are essential elements that should be included in the contemporary school science curriculum. Hence, this study sought to determine empirically the extent of any consensus using a three stage Delphi questionnaire with 23 participants drawn from the communities of leading and acknowledged international experts of science educators; scientists; historians, philosophers, and sociologists of science; experts engaged in work to improve the public understanding of science; and expert science teachers. The outcome of the research was a set of nine themes encapsulating key ideas about the nature of science for which there was consensus and which were considered to be an essential component of school science curriculum. Together with extensive comments provided by the participants, these data give some measure of the existing level of agreement in the community engaged in science education and science communication about the salient features of a vulgarized account of the nature of science. Although some of the themes are already a feature of existing school science curricula, many others are not. The findings of this research, therefore, challenge (a) whether the picture of science represented in the school science curriculum is sufficiently comprehensive, and (b) whether there balance in the curriculum between teaching about the content of science and the nature of science is appropriate.

  18. Clinical rationale for administering fentanyl to cancer pain patients: two Delphi surveys of pain management experts in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Ramune; Møldrup, Claus; Christrup, Lona

    2008-01-01

    To describe the rationale behind the choice of fentanyl administration forms as reported by Danish nurses and physicians specializing in pain management. Sixty nurses and 60 physicians specializing in pain management in Denmark were contacted via an Internet survey system to perform two Delphi surveys. In the brainstorming phase, the main reasons for administering and not administering fentanyl patches and oral transmucosal fentanyl citrate (OTFC) were identified. In the second phase, the nursing and medical experts rated the importance of these reasons on an 11-point Numerical Rating Scale. Responses from 10 pain nurses and 14 pain doctors were used for the final analysis. Impossible or difficult oral intake of analgesia was the most important reason to administer fenantyl patches, whereas patients' dermatological problems and neuropathic pain origin were the most important reasons for not administering fenantyl patches in both panels. OTFC was presented as an alternative or second choice administration form for breakthrough cancer pain by both nurses and doctors. A damaged mouth, the high cost, and energy required for administration of this medication were reported as the main reasons why OTFC was only rarely prescribed to cancer pain patients in Denmark. The reasons for administering fentanyl in different administration forms reported by Danish pain nurses and pain specialists partly differed from those derived from the literature. Studies of pain management traditions could improve the understanding of the reasons for analgesic administration.

  19. Selection Input Output by Restriction Using DEA Models Based on a Fuzzy Delphi Approach and Expert Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsad, Roslah; Nasir Abdullah, Mohammad; Alias, Suriana; Isa, Zaidi

    2017-09-01

    Stock evaluation has always been an interesting problem for investors. In this paper, a comparison regarding the efficiency stocks of listed companies in Bursa Malaysia were made through the application of estimation method of Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). One of the interesting research subjects in DEA is the selection of appropriate input and output parameter. In this study, DEA was used to measure efficiency of stocks of listed companies in Bursa Malaysia in terms of the financial ratio to evaluate performance of stocks. Based on previous studies and Fuzzy Delphi Method (FDM), the most important financial ratio was selected. The results indicated that return on equity, return on assets, net profit margin, operating profit margin, earnings per share, price to earnings and debt to equity were the most important ratios. Using expert information, all the parameter were clarified as inputs and outputs. The main objectives were to identify most critical financial ratio, clarify them based on expert information and compute the relative efficiency scores of stocks as well as rank them in the construction industry and material completely. The methods of analysis using Alirezaee and Afsharian’s model were employed in this study, where the originality of Charnes, Cooper and Rhodes (CCR) with the assumption of Constant Return to Scale (CSR) still holds. This method of ranking relative efficiency of decision making units (DMUs) was value-added by the Balance Index. The interested data was made for year 2015 and the population of the research includes accepted companies in stock markets in the construction industry and material (63 companies). According to the ranking, the proposed model can rank completely for 63 companies using selected financial ratio.

  20. Delphi report 1995 on developments in science and technology. Mini Delphi; Delphi-Bericht 1995 zur Entwicklung von Wissenschaft und Technik. Mini-Delphi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    In August 1993 the first German `Delphi Report on Developments in Science and Technology` was published. It was elaborated by the Fraunhofer Institute for System Engineering and Innovation Research (FhG-ISI) in cooperation with the Japanese National Institute of Science and Technology Policy (NISTEP). The `MINI-DELPHI` now completed by FhG-ISI, again in cooperation with NISTEP, is a further development of the Delphi approach in that it is more differentiated in its questions and assessment criteria than its predecessors. `MINI-DELPHI` is not intended as a comprehensive forecast on technology in general but rather focusses on key topics. Its emphasis is on technology demand and the relevance of technologies to social issues. Although the Mini-Delphi study was primarily aimed at further refining the methodology employed, it nevertheless contains a wealth of information and details on circumscript questions. The requisite database is provided by tables on the results of two inquiry rounds among Japanese and German experts. (orig./RHM) [Deutsch] Im August 1993 wurde der erste deutsche `Delphi-Bericht zur Entwicklung von Wissenschaft und Technik` veroeffentlicht. Er war vom Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Systemtechnik und Innovationsforschung (FhG-ISI) in Zusammenarbeit mit dem japanischen National Institute of Science and Technology Policy (NISTEP) erarbeitet worden. Mit dem jetzt vorliegenden `MINI-DELPHI` hat das FhG-ISI - wieder in Zusammenarbeit mit dem NISTEP - den Delphi-Ansatz fortentwickelt und sowohl hinsichtlich der Fragen als auch der Beurteilungskriterien weiter ausdifferenziert. `MINI-DELPHI` bezweckt keine umfassende Technologievorausschau, sondern konzentriert sich auf Schluesselthemen. Im Vordergrund steht der Gedanke des Technikbedarfs und die Relevanz fuer gesellschaftliche Fragestellungen. Obwohl die Mini-Delphi-Studie vorrangig der Weiterentwicklung der Methodik dient, enthaelt sich eine Fuelle von Informationen und Details zu Einzelfragen. Die im Bericht

  1. Health care for immigrants in Europe: Is there still consensus among country experts about principles of good practice? A Delphi study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background European Member States are facing a challenge to provide accessible and effective health care services for immigrants. It remains unclear how best to achieve this and what characterises good practice in increasingly multicultural societies across Europe. This study assessed the views and values of professionals working in different health care contexts and in different European countries as to what constitutes good practice in health care for immigrants. Methods A total of 134 experts in 16 EU Member States participated in a three-round Delphi process. The experts represented four different fields: academia, Non-Governmental Organisations, policy-making and health care practice. For each country, the process aimed to produce a national consensus list of the most important factors characterising good practice in health care for migrants. Results The scoring procedures resulted in 10 to 16 factors being identified as the most important for each participating country. All 186 factors were aggregated into 9 themes: (1) easy and equal access to health care, (2) empowerment of migrants, (3) culturally sensitive health care services, (4) quality of care, (5) patient/health care provider communication, (6) respect towards migrants, (7) networking in and outside health services, (8) targeted outreach activities, and (9) availability of data about specificities in migrant health care and prevention. Although local political debate, level of immigration and the nature of local health care systems influenced the selection and rating of factors within each country, there was a broad European consensus on most factors. Yet, discordance remained both within countries, e.g. on the need for prioritising cultural differences, and between countries, e.g. on the need for more consistent governance of health care services for immigrants. Conclusions Experts across Europe asserted the right to culturally sensitive health care for all immigrants. There is a broad consensus

  2. Health care for immigrants in Europe: is there still consensus among country experts about principles of good practice? A Delphi study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Devillé, Walter; Greacen, Tim; Bogic, Marija

    2011-01-01

    and values of professionals working in different health care contexts and in different European countries as to what constitutes good practice in health care for immigrants. Methods: A total of 134 experts in 16 EU Member States participated in a three-round Delphi process. The experts represented four...... communication, (6) respect towards migrants, (7) networking in and outside health services, (8) targeted outreach activities, and (9) availability of data about specificities in migrant health care and prevention. Although local political debate, level of immigration and the nature of local health care systems...... care services for immigrants. Conclusions: Experts across Europe asserted the right to culturally sensitive health care for all immigrants. There is a broad consensus among experts about the major principles of good practice that need to be implemented across Europe. However, there also is some...

  3. Greenhouse Facility Management Experts Identification of Competencies and Teaching Methods to Support Secondary Agricultural Education Instructors: A Modified Delphi Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Edward A.

    2011-01-01

    In this study the Delphi technique has been used to develop a list of educational competencies for preparing secondary agricultural education instructors to effectively manage their school greenhouse facilities. The use of specialized facilities in agricultural education requires appropriate preparation of agricultural education teachers. The…

  4. Appropriateness of clinical and organizational criteria for intra-articular injection therapies in osteoarthritis: A Delphi method consensus initiative among experts in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Paoloni

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to identify the main aspects involved in patient selection, the choice of therapeutic agents and the safety profile, as well as the medico-legal and organizational aspects of intra-articular injection therapies for osteoarthritis. METHODS: A committee of 10 experts from Italian universities, public hospitals, territorial services, research institutes and patient associations was set up. Fifty-two clinicians from a large number of Italian medical centers specialized in intra-articular injection therapy took part in a Delphi process aimed at obtaining consensus statements among the participants. RESULTS: Large consensus was obtained for statements grouped under the following main themes: treatment indications; drug/medical device choice; treatment efficacy; and appropriate setting. CONCLUSIONS: The consensus statements developed by a large number of experts may be used as a practical reference tool to help physicians treat osteoarthritis patients by means of intra-articular injection therapies.

  5. Turkey's Educational Policies in Central Asia and Caucasia: Perceptions of Policy Makers and Experts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akcali, Pinar; Engin-Demir, Cennet

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the educational policies of Turkey in Central Asia and Caucasia in the post-Soviet era in terms of their successes and failures as perceived by some of the relevant professional policy makers in this field as well as experts from various think-tank institutions in Turkey who are interested in the region.…

  6. Development of an objective assessment tool for total laparoscopic hysterectomy: A Delphi method among experts and evaluation on a virtual reality simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Sophie; Aggarwal, Rajesh; Agostini, Aubert; Loundou, Anderson; Berdah, Stéphane; Crochet, Patrice

    2018-01-01

    Total Laparoscopic hysterectomy (LH) requires an advanced level of operative skills and training. The aim of this study was to develop an objective scale specific for the assessment of technical skills for LH (H-OSATS) and to demonstrate feasibility of use and validity in a virtual reality setting. The scale was developed using a hierarchical task analysis and a panel of international experts. A Delphi method obtained consensus among experts on relevant steps that should be included into the H-OSATS scale for assessment of operative performances. Feasibility of use and validity of the scale were evaluated by reviewing video recordings of LH performed on a virtual reality laparoscopic simulator. Three groups of operators of different levels of experience were assessed in a Marseille teaching hospital (10 novices, 8 intermediates and 8 experienced surgeons). Correlations with scores obtained using a recognised generic global rating tool (OSATS) were calculated. A total of 76 discrete steps were identified by the hierarchical task analysis. 14 experts completed the two rounds of the Delphi questionnaire. 64 steps reached consensus and were integrated in the scale. During the validation process, median time to rate each video recording was 25 minutes. There was a significant difference between the novice, intermediate and experienced group for total H-OSATS scores (133, 155.9 and 178.25 respectively; p = 0.002). H-OSATS scale demonstrated high inter-rater reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC] = 0.930; preality simulator. The implementation of this scale is expected to facilitate deliberate practice. Next steps should focus on evaluating the validity of the scale in the operating room.

  7. The anatomy of EU policy-making: Appointing the experts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Field

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available At 38,000, the total number of staff at the European Commission is relatively small for a body representing half a billion citizens. Likewise, the 3,500 strong research and statistical team is modest in size given that it operates across the Directorates General and other services. In order to assist policy-makers, the Commission supplements this research base by using outside expertise to advise at all stages of the policy-making process. For many years, those who observe the European Union’s institutions have recognised that this use of outside expertise to assist with the shaping of policy presents a potential democratic shortfall. The 2001 White Paper on Governance acknowledged that the line between expertise and political authority had become blurred and that, increasingly, the public questioned the independence of expert advice. The following year, the Commission published its first set of guidelines on the collection and use of expertise, listing ‘openness’ as one of three core principles. Despite considerable changes that have occurred in the transparency landscape in the intervening period, the Commission’s commitment to this core principle of expertise remains. This article investigates the measures the Commission introduced specifically to facilitate this openness. Applying a structure-agency approach, the article characterises an expert group as a ‘community of knowledge’ and contrasts the transparency of the Commission’s formal appointment procedures with the less visible but frequently used informal measures through which individuals are identified and approached. Based on a recent and highly relevant case, the article employs data gathered from the near contemporaneous accounts of expert group members and Commission officials. It finds that the reported appointment processes do not reflect the widespread incidence of individuals selected based on previous contact or personal recommendation and argues that this may

  8. Environmental policy. 2000 environmental expert opinion of the Council of Experimental Experts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-05-01

    The reorientation of energy policy is a key issue. The Council of Environmental Experts considers the further use of atomic energy to be irresponsible and recommends a new orientation. Recommendations are made on ecology-centered taxation. Critical comments are made in the context of conservation of nature, where many species of plants and animals still continue to be endangered. The conservation programme of the Federal government, which also comprises a system of large, interconnected biotopes on 10% of Germany's total surface, is approved, and the potential contribution of sustainable agricultural and forestry policy is discussed in a separate chapter. Further subjects discussed are recycling and waste management, protection of water and soil, air pollution abatement, health protection and genetic engineering. The environmental aspects of Eastern European states becoming EC members are gone into in particular. The network of Europen Environmental Councils, for which the German Council of Environmental Experts currently acts as a coordinator, makes intensive efforts to improve environmental counselling in these states [de

  9. An expert-based approach to forest road network planning by combining Delphi and spatial multi-criteria evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayati, Elyas; Majnounian, Baris; Abdi, Ehsan; Sessions, John; Makhdoum, Majid

    2013-02-01

    Changes in forest landscapes resulting from road construction have increased remarkably in the last few years. On the other hand, the sustainable management of forest resources can only be achieved through a well-organized road network. In order to minimize the environmental impacts of forest roads, forest road managers must design the road network efficiently and environmentally as well. Efficient planning methodologies can assist forest road managers in considering the technical, economic, and environmental factors that affect forest road planning. This paper describes a three-stage methodology using the Delphi method for selecting the important criteria, the Analytic Hierarchy Process for obtaining the relative importance of the criteria, and finally, a spatial multi-criteria evaluation in a geographic information system (GIS) environment for identifying the lowest-impact road network alternative. Results of the Delphi method revealed that ground slope, lithology, distance from stream network, distance from faults, landslide susceptibility, erosion susceptibility, geology, and soil texture are the most important criteria for forest road planning in the study area. The suitability map for road planning was then obtained by combining the fuzzy map layers of these criteria with respect to their weights. Nine road network alternatives were designed using PEGGER, an ArcView GIS extension, and finally, their values were extracted from the suitability map. Results showed that the methodology was useful for identifying road that met environmental and cost considerations. Based on this work, we suggest future work in forest road planning using multi-criteria evaluation and decision making be considered in other regions and that the road planning criteria identified in this study may be useful.

  10. Strategies for the prevention of MP3-induced hearing loss among adolescents : Expert opinions from a Delphi study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogel, I.; Brug, J.; Ploeg, C.P.B. van der; Raat, H.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. To identify parties involved in the prevention of MP3-induced hearing loss among adolescents and potentially effective prevention strategies and interventions. METHODS. Thirty experts in fields such as scientific research, medical practice, community health professions, education, youth

  11. Classification of neuropathic pain in cancer patients: A Delphi expert survey report and EAPC/IASP proposal of an algorithm for diagnostic criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunelli, Cinzia; Bennett, Michael I; Kaasa, Stein; Fainsinger, Robin; Sjøgren, Per; Mercadante, Sebastiano; Løhre, Erik T; Caraceni, Augusto

    2014-12-01

    Neuropathic pain (NP) in cancer patients lacks standards for diagnosis. This study is aimed at reaching consensus on the application of the International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP) special interest group for neuropathic pain (NeuPSIG) criteria to the diagnosis of NP in cancer patients and on the relevance of patient-reported outcome (PRO) descriptors for the screening of NP in this population. An international group of 42 experts was invited to participate in a consensus process through a modified 2-round Internet-based Delphi survey. Relevant topics investigated were: peculiarities of NP in patients with cancer, IASP NeuPSIG diagnostic criteria adaptation and assessment, and standardized PRO assessment for NP screening. Median consensus scores (MED) and interquartile ranges (IQR) were calculated to measure expert consensus after both rounds. Twenty-nine experts answered, and good agreement was found on the statement "the pathophysiology of NP due to cancer can be different from non-cancer NP" (MED=9, IQR=2). Satisfactory consensus was reached for the first 3 NeuPSIG criteria (pain distribution, history, and sensory findings; MEDs⩾8, IQRs⩽3), but not for the fourth one (diagnostic test/imaging; MED=6, IQR=3). Agreement was also reached on clinical examination by soft brush or pin stimulation (MEDs⩾7 and IQRs⩽3) and on the use of PRO descriptors for NP screening (MED=8, IQR=3). Based on the study results, a clinical algorithm for NP diagnostic criteria in cancer patients with pain was proposed. Clinical research on PRO in the screening phase and on the application of the algorithm will be needed to examine their effectiveness in classifying NP in cancer patients. Copyright © 2014 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Delphi consensus of an expert committee in oncogeriatrics regarding comprehensive geriatric assessment in seniors with cancer in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Garrido, Maria-Jose; Guillén-Ponce, Carmen; Blanco, Remei; Saldaña, Juana; Feliú, Jaime; Antonio, Maite; López-Mongil, Rosa; Ramos Cordero, Primitivo; Gironés, Regina

    2017-12-13

    The aim of this work was to reach a national consensus in Spain regarding the Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment (CGA) domains in older oncological patients and the CGA scales to be used as a foundation for widespread use. The Delphi method was implemented to attain consensus. Representatives of the panel were chosen from among the members of the Oncogeriatric Working Group of the Spanish Society of Medical Oncology (SEOM). Consensus was defined as ≥66.7% coincidence in responses and by the stability of said coincidence (changes ≤15% between rounds). The study was conducted between July and December 2016. Of the 17 people invited to participate, 16 agreed. The panel concluded by consensus that the following domains should be included in the CGA:(and the scales to evaluate them): functional (Barthel Index, Lawton-Brody scale, gait speed), cognitive (Pfeiffer questionnaire), nutritional (Mini Nutritional Assessment - MNA), psychological/mood (Yesavage scale), social-familial (Gijon scale), comorbidity (Charlson index), medications, and geriatric syndromes (urinary and/or fecal incontinence, low auditory and/or visual acuity, presence of falls, pressure sores, insomnia, and abuse). Also by consensus, the CGA should be administered to older patients with cancer for whom there is a subsequent therapeutic intent and who scored positive on a previous frailty-screening questionnaire. After 3 rounds, consensus was reached regarding CGA domains to be used in older patients with cancer, the scales to be administered for each of these domains, as well as the timeline to be followed during consultation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Developing Policy for Integrating Biomedicine and Traditional Chinese Medical Practice Using Focus Groups and the Delphi Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent C. H. Chung

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In Hong Kong, statutory regulation for traditional Chinese medicine (TCM practitioners has been implemented in the past decade. Increasing use of TCM on top of biomedicine (BM services by the population has been followed; but corresponding policy development to integrate their practices has not yet been discussed. Using focus group methodology, we explore policy ideas for integration by collating views from frontline BM (n=50 and TCM clinicians (n=50. Qualitative data were analyzed under the guidance of structuration model of collaboration, a theoretical model for understanding interprofessional collaboration. From focus group findings we generated 28 possible approaches, and subsequently their acceptability was assessed by a two round Delphi survey amongst BM and TCM policy stakeholders (n=12. Consensus was reached only on 13 statements. Stakeholders agreed that clinicians from both paradigms should share common goals of providing patient-centered care, promoting the development of protocols for shared care and information exchange, as well as strengthening interprofessional connectivity and leadership for integration. On the other hand, attitudes amongst policy stakeholders were split on the possibility of fostering trust and mutual learning, as well as on enhancing innovation and governmental support. Future policy initiatives should focus on these controversial areas.

  14. Discovering the knowledge creation process of an expert group in women-friendly policy: The policy case of Seoul City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Young Sam; Nam, SungHee; Kim, Yuna

    2016-01-01

    This research explores how expert knowledge is created in the process of women-friendly policy making, based on actor network theory (ANT). To address this purpose, this study uses the "Women's Happiness in the City of Seoul" policy initiated by the local government of Seoul as one example of policy development. Research findings demonstrate that knowledge creation in expert groups followed the four stages suggested by ANT. In addition, this study found that various types of knowledge emerged from individual experts. This research elucidates the process of knowledge creation and its meanings for women-friendly policy.

  15. Neuropathic pain phenotyping by international consensus (NeuroPPIC) for genetic studies: a NeuPSIG systematic review, Delphi survey, and expert panel recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hecke, Oliver; Kamerman, Peter R; Attal, Nadine; Baron, Ralf; Bjornsdottir, Gyda; Bennett, David L H; Bennett, Michael I; Bouhassira, Didier; Diatchenko, Luda; Freeman, Roy; Freynhagen, Rainer; Haanpää, Maija; Jensen, Troels S; Raja, Srinivasa N; Rice, Andrew S C; Seltzer, Zeʼev; Thorgeirsson, Thorgeir E; Yarnitsky, David; Smith, Blair H

    2015-11-01

    For genetic research to contribute more fully to furthering our knowledge of neuropathic pain, we require an agreed, valid, and feasible approach to phenotyping, to allow collaboration and replication in samples of sufficient size. Results from genetic studies on neuropathic pain have been inconsistent and have met with replication difficulties, in part because of differences in phenotypes used for case ascertainment. Because there is no consensus on the nature of these phenotypes, nor on the methods of collecting them, this study aimed to provide guidelines on collecting and reporting phenotypes in cases and controls for genetic studies. Consensus was achieved through a staged approach: (1) systematic literature review to identify all neuropathic pain phenotypes used in previous genetic studies; (2) Delphi survey to identify the most useful neuropathic pain phenotypes and their validity and feasibility; and (3) meeting of experts to reach consensus on the optimal phenotype(s) to be collected from patients with neuropathic pain for genetic studies. A basic "entry level" set of phenotypes was identified for any genetic study of neuropathic pain. This set identifies cases of "possible" neuropathic pain, and controls, and includes: (1) a validated symptom-based questionnaire to determine whether any pain is likely to be neuropathic; (2) body chart or checklist to identify whether the area of pain distribution is neuroanatomically logical; and (3) details of pain history (intensity, duration, any formal diagnosis). This NeuroPPIC "entry level" set of phenotypes can be expanded by more extensive and specific measures, as determined by scientific requirements and resource availability.

  16. A Delphi Study of HIPAA Compliance to Battlefield Medical Evacuation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chessman, John

    2008-01-01

    .... The research questions were answered through the use of the Delphi Technique. Eight experts, representing Air Force, Army and Civilian medical communities participated in two rounds of the Delphi Technique...

  17. Building Bridges: Linking political leaders and policy experts in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2017-05-01

    May 1, 2017 ... Building Bridges was conceived as a safe and constructive space for African leaders to foster a systematic and sustained dialogue about critical development issues in Africa. The policy-focused research and outreach program at the University of Cape Town's Graduate School of Development Policy and ...

  18. Building Bridges: Linking political leaders and policy experts in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    1 mai 2017 ... Building Bridges was conceived as a safe and constructive space for African leaders to foster a systematic and sustained dialogue about critical development issues in Africa. The policy-focused research and outreach program at the University of Cape Town's Graduate School of Development Policy and ...

  19. Policies and Practices for Improving Student Bus Behavior: A Delphi Study

    OpenAIRE

    Cornett, Joshua Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Students' behavior on buses continues to be an issue that requires administrators to spend significant time investigating and applying consequences for the behavior (Neatrour, 1994; Pattington, 1945; Putnam, Handler, Ramirez-Plat, and Luiselli, 2003). The purpose of this study was to identify policies and practices that may improve student bus behavior. Two research questions were addressed: (a) What policies could school districts implement to facilitate the improvement of student bus beh...

  20. Think Tanks in Poland: Policy Experts at the Crossroads

    OpenAIRE

    Stasiak, Dorota (Dr)

    2015-01-01

    Development of the think tank sector in post-communist states is, at times, regarded as a self-evident consequence of the processes of democratization. However, the specific “environment of obstacles and opportunities” makes it neither automatic, nor easy for think tanks of the region to join the policy game. In particular, it is not clear to what extent the think tanks in transition democracies can or should engage in strictly political disputes. The alleged shift from academic towards...

  1. [Effectiveness of institutional policies to prevent adolescent alcohol use: The view of experts and adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez, Cristian; del Moral, Gonzalo; Musitu, Gonzalo; Sánchez, Juan Carlos; John, Bev

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study is to obtain the views of a sample of adolescents and experts on adolescence, family, school, local policies and media, regarding the effectiveness of institutional policies to prevent adolescent alcohol use. Four educational centers in the province of Seville. Head office of the Alcohol and Society Foundation in Madrid. Qualitative study using the method proposed by Grounded theory (Glaser and Strauss, 1967). Data were collected from 10 discussion groups guided by semistructured interviews. The data were analyzed using Atlas ti 5 software. A total of 32 national experts and 40 adolescents of both sexes aged 15 to 20 years living in the province of Seville, selected by theoretical intentional sampling. The experts believed that most of the evaluated preventive actions were effective, while adolescents disputed the preventive impact of most of them. Adolescents proposed actions focused on the reduction of supply of alcohol. Experts proposed a mixed model as the most effective strategy to prevent alcohol consumption in adolescents, combining supply and demand reduction policies, depending on specific short and long term objectives. We have obtained, not only an overview of what is working (or not) from the view of adolescents and experts, but also the key points that should be taken into account for designing effective prevention policies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Use (and abuse) of expert elicitation in support of decision making for public policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, M Granger

    2014-05-20

    The elicitation of scientific and technical judgments from experts, in the form of subjective probability distributions, can be a valuable addition to other forms of evidence in support of public policy decision making. This paper explores when it is sensible to perform such elicitation and how that can best be done. A number of key issues are discussed, including topics on which there are, and are not, experts who have knowledge that provides a basis for making informed predictive judgments; the inadequacy of only using qualitative uncertainty language; the role of cognitive heuristics and of overconfidence; the choice of experts; the development, refinement, and iterative testing of elicitation protocols that are designed to help experts to consider systematically all relevant knowledge when they make their judgments; the treatment of uncertainty about model functional form; diversity of expert opinion; and when it does or does not make sense to combine judgments from different experts. Although it may be tempting to view expert elicitation as a low-cost, low-effort alternative to conducting serious research and analysis, it is neither. Rather, expert elicitation should build on and use the best available research and analysis and be undertaken only when, given those, the state of knowledge will remain insufficient to support timely informed assessment and decision making.

  3. Alchemy of the Oracle: The Delphi Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, William J.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the origins and foundations of the Delphi technique. Outlines procedures for using it in research to obtain the insights of experts. Addresses limitations of the technique. (Contains 44 references.) (SK)

  4. Delphi cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Teti, Daniele

    2014-01-01

    Intended to refresh the basics of Delphi as well as advance your knowledge to the next level, it is assumed you will know RAD studio and the Object Pascal language. However, if you are not an experienced RAD studio programmer this accessible guide will still develop those initial crucial skills.

  5. Transport policy and climate change: How to decide when experts disagree

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berrittella, Maria [Centro Interdipartimentale di Ricerca per la Programmazione Informatica dell' Economia e Tecnologia (CIRPIET), Universita degli Studi di Palermo, V.le delle Scienze, 90128 Palermo (Italy)], E-mail: maria.berrittella@unipa.it; Certa, Antonella; Enea, Mario [Dipartimento di Tecnologia Meccanica, Produzione e Ingegneria Gestionale (DTMPIG), Universita degli Studi di Palermo, V.le delle Scienze, 90128 Palermo (Italy); Zito, Pietro [Dipartimento di Ingegneria dei Trasporti (DITRA), Universita degli Studi di Palermo, V.le delle Scienze, 90128 Palermo (Italy)

    2008-06-15

    Transport is the sector with the fastest growth of greenhouse gases emissions in many countries. Accumulation of these emissions may cause uncertain and irreversible adverse climate change impacts. In this context, we use the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) to face the question on how to select the best transport policy if the experts have different opinions and beliefs on the occurrence of these impacts. Thus, both the treatment of uncertainty and dissent are examined for the ranking of transport policies. The opinions of experts have been investigated by a means of a survey questionnaire. A sensitivity analysis of the experts' weights and the criteria' weights confirms the robustness of the results.

  6. Future Work and Retirement Needs: Policy Experts and Baby Boomers Express Their Views.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon-Rusinowitz, Lori; Wilson, Laura B.; Marks, Lori N.; Krach, Constance A.; Welch, Catherine

    1998-01-01

    Interviews conducted in 1994 with policy experts and researchers and from focus groups of adults aged 40-48 regarding the future work and retirement needs of baby boomers found that many adults are anxious but unable to plan for a financially secure future. (Author/JOW)

  7. Transnational issue-specific expert networking: A pathway to local policy change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Cheryl

    2015-12-01

    This article reports on key findings from a study of subnational governments in Mexico and Nigeria (O'Brien, 2013). With empirical richness of the case study method and small-n statistical analysis across the subnational units for each country, this study asks: How can we push the needle toward more progressive policy change on violence against women in developing and democratizing contexts? This study finds that issue-specific expert networking is a civic pathway to subnational policy responsiveness in Mexico and Nigeria. The dynamics of this pathway illuminate local-global political connections, and this study shows how issue-specific expert networking is important for the diffusion of an international norm and policies on violence against women. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Technocrats and nuclear politics. The influence of professional experts in policy-making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massey, Andrew

    1988-01-01

    The role of technical experts, especially scientists and engineers, in the development of Britain's civil nuclear energy policy is analysed. It is proposed that civil initiatives came from the integration of technical professions within the bureaucracy of government and quasi-governmental organisations involved in the formulation and implementation of policy. Organisational logic and professional motivation encouraged policies which would lead to occupational autonomy. The first three chapters develop the concept of technical professionalism, Chapters 4-7 then focus on the technocrat's role in providing a spur from their positions within the policy community's bureaucracies that drives top-level policy decisions. These functions are examined in more detail using two case studies, the first concerned with the evolution of British Nuclear Fuels Ltd., the second with the Inquiry (in 1977) into the proposal by BNFL to extend its Windscale site (now known as Sellafield) to build the Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant. (U.K.)

  9. The healthy food environment policy index: findings of an expert panel in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Dominick, Clare; Devi, Anandita; Swinburn, Boyd

    2015-05-01

    To assess government actions to improve the healthiness of food environments in New Zealand, based on the healthy food environment policy index. A panel of 52 public health experts rated the extent of government implementation against international best practice for 42 indicators of food environment policy and infrastructure support. Their ratings were informed by documented evidence, validated by government officials and international benchmarks. There was a high level of implementation for some indicators: providing ingredient lists and nutrient declarations and regulating health claims on packaged foods; transparency in policy development; monitoring prevalence of noncommunicable diseases and monitoring risk factors for noncommunicable diseases. There was very little, if any implementation of the following indicators: restrictions on unhealthy food marketing to children; fiscal and food retail policies and protection of national food environments within trade agreements. Interrater reliability was 0.78 (95% confidence interval, CI: 0.76-0.79). Based on the implementation gaps, the experts recommended 34 actions, and prioritized seven of these. The healthy food environment policy index provides a useful set of indicators that can focus attention on where government action is needed. It is anticipated that this policy index will increase accountability of governments, stimulate government action and support civil society advocacy efforts.

  10. The science-policy interface: Perceptions and strategies of the Iberian 'new water culture' expert community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanie J. Bukowski

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available There is a normative consensus that science should contribute to decision-making in environmental policy, given that science provides a means of understanding natural systems, human impacts upon them, and the consequences of those impacts for human systems. Despite this general agreement, however, the means through which science is transmitted into policy is contested. This paper envisions several of the competing characterisations of the science-policy interface as a continuum with the endpoints of 'fortress science' and 'co-production', and applies this continuum in an empirical analysis of the transboundary expert community promoting a 'new water culture' on the Iberian Peninsula. In engaging directly with members of this community, the paper finds that these characterisations are better seen as strategies among which scientists and their communities may choose and over which they may disagree. These trade-offs and disagreements in turn have implications for policy impact.

  11. Think Tanks, "Policy Experts" and "Ideas for" Education Policy Making in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingard, Bob

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides a case study of the Centre for Independent Studies (CIS) in Australia with a focus on its education policy work, specifically the report, "School funding on a budget" (SFoB). CIS is a conservative right wing advocacy think tank, established in 1976 in the aftermath of the Whitlam government's policy activism, framed…

  12. Unravelling the concept of integrated public health policy: Concept mapping with Dutch experts from science, policy, and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubbing, Luuk; Harting, Janneke; Stronks, Karien

    2015-06-01

    While expectations of integrated public health policy (IPHP) promoting public health are high, assessment is hampered by the concept's ambiguity. This paper aims to contribute to conceptual clarification of IPHP as first step in further measurement development. In an online concept mapping procedure, we invited 237 Dutch experts, 62 of whom generated statements on characteristics of IPHP. Next, 100 experts were invited, 24 of whom sorted the statements into piles according to their perceived similarity and rated the statements on relevance and measurability. Data was analyzed using concept mapping software. The concept map consisted of 97 statements, grouped into 11 clusters and five themes. Core themes were 'integration', concerning 'policy coherence' and 'organizing connections', and 'health', concerning 'positioning health' and 'addressing determinants'. Peripheral themes were 'generic aspects', 'capacities', and 'goals and setting', which respectively addressed general notions of integrated policy making, conditions for IPHP, and the variety in manifestations of IPHP. Measurability ratings were low compared to relevance. The concept map gives an overview of interrelated themes, distinguishes core from peripheral dimensions, and provides pointers for theories of the policy process. While low measurability ratings indicate measurement difficulties, the core themes provide pointers for systematic insight into IPHP through measurement. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Curriculum Development Through Delphi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Gary; Jauch, Lawrence R.

    1978-01-01

    The basic Delphi methodology is outlined along with possible goals and objectives in a Delphi study. The results of an actual case study in the use of the Delphi method for higher education curriculum development are reported, and attention is given to the problem of selecting participants for a Delphi exercise. (Author/LBH)

  14. The health-promoting nurse as a health policy career expert and entrepreneur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Dean

    2003-11-01

    A plethora of literature suggests that many nurses struggle in their attempts to develop a political role that allows them to directly influence and implement health policy activity. Nursing curricula are an integral part of ensuring that nurses are capable of taking on a more active role in initiating and developing health policy processes, through a broadening of the health promotion curriculum that focuses on socio-political approaches to health care provision. Despite this, the available literature suggests that the majority of nursing curricula are yet to fulfil this role. Such a role could be supported by attempts to define and promote a specific career route that develops nurses as health policy experts and entrepreneurs early on in their careers. This article aims to put forward a rationale for developing such a position in nursing education.

  15. IMPLEMENTATION OF THE DELPHI TECHNIQUE IN FINANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Kozak

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In the rapidly developing world, forecasting is very important for numerous aspects of our lives,the finance realm not being an exception. Various qualitative and quantitative methods are used to predict what is ahead. One of them is the Delphi method, an anonymous, structured discussion among experts on the forecasted topic. Developed over 60 years ago, it is one of the most effective qualitative forecasting and decision-making techniques. That said, literature review suggests Delphi’s advantages have not been sufficiently utilized in financial research. This paper is an introduction to Delphi with a focus on the method’s application possibilities in finance and related disciplines. For this purpose, we performed a literature review and presented a step-by-step guide for implementing the Delphi technique, describing a structure of the Delphi process, major principles of Delphi, experts’ selection, Delphi types, ways of establishing consensus, validity of the method among others. Finally, we focused on implementing Delphi in finance and offered example topics that could be studied with Delphi.

  16. Implementation of the Delphi technique in finance

    OpenAIRE

    Kozak, Marcin; Iefremova, Olesia

    2014-01-01

    In the rapidly developing world, forecasting is very important for numerous aspects of our lives, the finance realm not being an exception. Various qualitative and quantitative methods are used to predict what is ahead. One of them is the Delphi method, an anonymous, structured discussion among experts on the forecasted topic. Developed over 60 years ago, it is one of the most effective qualitative forecasting and decision-making techniques. That said, literature review suggests Delphi's adva...

  17. New Zealand tobacco control experts' views towards policies to reduce tobacco availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Lindsay; Marsh, Louise; Hoek, Janet; McGee, Rob

    2017-06-02

    Higher tobacco retailer density promotes smoking by making cigarettes more accessible and available, and by increasing environmental cues to smoke. We aimed to examine tobacco control experts' views on policies that could reduce tobacco retail availability. Telephone interviews with 25 individuals drawn from academia, non-governmental organisations, Māori and Pacific health, smoking cessation services, district health boards and other public health-related organisations. We used a semi-structured interview guide to explore the perceived importance of reducing tobacco retail supply, views on different policy options and barriers to policy adoption. Qualitative content analysis was conducted using transcripts as the data source. Participants believed tobacco retailer licensing was an important short-term step towards the 2025 goal. In the long-term, participants envisaged tobacco only being available at a small number of specialised outlets, either pharmacies or adult-only stores. To achieve that long-term scenario, participants suggested a sinking-lid policy on licences or a zoning approach could be adopted to gradually reduce outlet density. Policies banning sales at certain types of outlet were not considered feasible. There is tension between the tobacco retail reduction policies seen as more likely to be politically acceptable, and the need to make substantial changes to the tobacco retail environment by 2025. Future research could investigate possible legal mechanisms for requiring existing tobacco retailers to transition out of selling tobacco.

  18. The Natural Gas Dilemma in New England's Electricity Sector: Experts' Perspectives on Long Term Climate Issues and Policy Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Steven

    This thesis is an interpretive analysis of experts' perspectives on the climate implications of New England's reliance on natural gas for electricity generation. Specifically, this research, conducted through interviews and literature review, examines experts' opinions on the desired role of natural gas within the regional electricity sector, alternative energy resources, and state and regional policy opportunities toward the achievement of New England's ambitious long-term greenhouse gas reduction goals. Experts expressed concern about the climate dilemma posed by a dependence on natural gas. However, interviews revealed that short-term reliability and cost considerations are paramount for many experts, and therefore a reliance on natural gas is the existing reality. To incentivize renewable generation technologies for the purposes of long-term climate stabilization, experts advocated for the expanded implementation of renewable portfolio standard, net metering, and feed-in tariff policies. More broadly, interviewees expressed the need for an array of complementary state and regional policies.

  19. How do experts define relevance criteria when initiating Health Impact Assessments of national policies?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraemer, Stella Rj; Gulis, Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this article is to present how the Danish Disease Prevention Committee (DDPC) members and HIA-experts understand when HIA is "relevant", which in this context means when there is "presumed to be a direct and documented effect on the health and morbidity of citizens". Method: DDPC members...... between policy and the related risk factors. Both groups favour the use of scientific evidence according to the traditional biomedical evidence hierarchy but HIA-experts also judge that there is value in using evidence that can be considered weak such as local community knowledge. Conclusions: It is clear...... that the DDPC recommendation gives rise to a discussion on differing perceptions of relevance. The same definition can be used for both direct and indirect effects depending on interpretation. Documented evidence for an effect is desirable in the form provided by the traditional biomedical evidence hierarchy...

  20. Utilizing and Adapting the Delphi Method for Use in Qualitative Research

    OpenAIRE

    Shane R. Brady

    2015-01-01

    The Delphi method is a pragmatic research method created in the 1950s by researchers at the RAND Corporation for use in policy making, organizational decision making, and to inform direct practices. While the Delphi method has been regularly utilized in mixed methods studies, far fewer studies have been completed using the Delphi method for qualitative research. Despite the utility of the Delphi method in social science research, little guidance is provided for using the Delphi in the context...

  1. Feasibility of multi-sector policy measures that create activity-friendly environments for children : Results of a Delphi study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarts, M.J.; Schuit, A.J.; van de Goor, L.A.M.; van Oers, J.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Although multi-sector policy is a promising strategy to create environments that stimulate physical activity among children, little is known about the feasibility of such a multi-sector policy approach. The aims of this study were: to identify a set of tangible (multi-sector) policy

  2. Career and Technical Education at a Crossroads: A Delphi Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutright, Michael W.

    2011-01-01

    Career and technical education in the United States has reached a critical juncture. A three round Delphi method was used to determine a consensus on the future events of career and technical education to better inform educational decision makers. Forty-one individual experts in the field were invited to serve as panelists for the Delphi study and…

  3. Identifying Core Concepts of Cybersecurity: Results of Two Delphi Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parekh, Geet; DeLatte, David; Herman, Geoffrey L.; Oliva, Linda; Phatak, Dhananjay; Scheponik, Travis; Sherman, Alan T.

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents and analyzes results of two Delphi processes that polled cybersecurity experts to rate cybersecurity topics based on importance, difficulty, and timelessness. These ratings can be used to identify core concepts--cross-cutting ideas that connect knowledge in the discipline. The first Delphi process identified core concepts that…

  4. The Delphi Method as a Useful Tool to Study Governance and Protected Areas?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mehnen, Nora; Mose, Ingo; Strijker, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    The Delphi method is a systematic, interactive, written method, which relies on a panel of experts. This paper seeks to discuss whether the Delphi method is an appropriate method for obtaining information about governance. In this study we used the Delphi method to assemble information from 10

  5. [Application of Delphi method in traditional Chinese medicine clinical research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Ying-fei; Mao, Jing-yuan

    2012-03-01

    In recent years, Delphi method has been widely applied in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) clinical research. This article analyzed the present application situation of Delphi method in TCM clinical research, and discussed some problems presented in the choice of evaluation method, classification of observation indexes and selection of survey items. On the basis of present application of Delphi method, the author analyzed the method on questionnaire making, selection of experts, evaluation of observation indexes and selection of survey items. Furthermore, the author summarized the steps of application of Delphi method in TCM clinical research.

  6. Identification of Response Options to Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining (ASGM) in Ghana via the Delphi Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Avik; Phipps, Sean; Long, Rachel; Essegbey, George; Basu, Niladri

    2015-09-10

    The Delphi technique is a means of facilitating discussion among experts in order to develop consensus, and can be used for policy formulation. This article describes a modified Delphi approach in which 27 multi-disciplinary academics and 22 stakeholders from Ghana and North America were polled about ways to address negative effects of small-scale gold mining (ASGM) in Ghana. In early 2014, the academics, working in disciplinary groups, synthesized 17 response options based on data aggregated during an Integrated Assessment of ASGM in Ghana. The researchers participated in two rounds of Delphi polling in March and April 2014, during which 17 options were condensed into 12. Response options were rated via a 4-point Likert scale in terms of benefit (economic, environmental, and benefit to people) and feasibility (economic, social/cultural, political, and implementation). The six highest-scoring options populated a third Delphi poll, which 22 stakeholders from diverse sectors completed in April 2015. The academics and stakeholders also prioritized the response options using ranking exercises. The technique successfully gauged expert opinion on ASGM, and helped identify potential responses, policies and solutions for the sector. This is timely given that improvement to the ASGM sector is an important component within the UN Minamata Convention.

  7. Beyond Consensus: An Alternative use of Delphi Enquiry in Hospitality Research

    OpenAIRE

    Paraskevas, A; Saunders, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To critically review the use of Delphi techniques in qualitative research for utilising ‘expert’ opinions and to explore through a detailed example, how Policy Delphi can be used by hospitality researchers as an alternative to the more widely used Normative Delphi. Design/methodology/approach This paper reflects on the research methodology of a project that explored organisational crisis signals detection using Policy Delphi with a criterion sample comprising 16 se...

  8. Delphi Fuzzy Elicitation Technique in the Determination of Third ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL HORSFALL

    ABSTRACT: The Delphi technique via the expert elicitation method becomes extremely handy particularly ... synthesize subjective judgments of experts on a ..... distributions. Journal of the American Statistical. Association, 100, 680-700. Hart, A. (1986). Knowledge acquisition for expert systems. McGraw-Hill, New York.

  9. Identifying Threshold Concepts for Information Literacy: A Delphi Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Lori; Hofer, Amy R.; Hanick, Silvia Lin; Brunetti, Korey

    2016-01-01

    This study used the Delphi method to engage expert practitioners on the topic of threshold concepts--core ideas and processes in a discipline that students need to grasp in order to progress in their learning, but that are often unspoken or unrecognized by expert practitioners--for information literacy. A panel of experts considered two questions:…

  10. New Zealand policy experts' appraisal of interventions to reduce smoking in young adults: a qualitative investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Jude; Hoek, Janet; Tautolo, El Shadan; Gifford, Heather

    2017-12-10

    Reducing smoking in young adults, particularly young Māori and Pacific, is vital for reducing tobacco harm and health inequalities in New Zealand (NZ). We investigated how NZ policy experts appraised the feasibility and likely effectiveness of interventions designed to reduce smoking prevalence among 18-24 year olds. We used a qualitative design, conducting semistructured interviews and applying thematic analysis. We interviewed 15 key informants, including politicians, senior policy analysts and leading tobacco control advocates. Participant selection was based on seniority and expertise and ensuring diverse perspectives were represented. We examined nine interventions that could either promote greater mindfulness or introduce barriers impeding smoking uptake: smoke-free outdoor dining and bars; no tobacco sales where alcohol is sold; social marketing campaigns; real life stories (testimonials); life skills training; raise purchase age to 21; tobacco-free generation; smokers' licence; make tobacco retail premises R18. The policies perceived as more effective denormalised tobacco; made it less convenient to access and use; highlighted immediate disadvantages (eg, impact on fitness); aligned with young people's values; and addressed the underlying causes of smoking (eg, stress). Participants highlighted some political barriers and noted concerns that some interventions might widen ethnic disparities. Exceptions were social marketing campaigns and extending smoke-free regulations to include outdoor areas of cafes and bars, which participants saw as politically feasible and likely to be effective. Our findings suggest the merit of an approach that combines social marketing with regulation that makes accessing and using tobacco less convenient for young adults; however, political barriers may limit the regulatory options available in the short term. Strategies to support self-determination and address the underlying causes of smoking in young people warrant further

  11. A Delphi Study on Staff Bereavement Training in the Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Jennifer A.; Truesdale, Jesslyn

    2015-01-01

    The Delphi technique was used to obtain expert panel consensus to prioritize content areas and delivery methods for developing staff grief and bereavement curriculum training in the intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) field. The Delphi technique was conducted with a panel of 18 experts from formal and informal disability caregiving,…

  12. Delphi Accounts Receivable Module -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Delphi accounts receivable module contains the following data elements, but are not limited to customer information, cash receipts, line of accounting details, bill...

  13. DELPHI time projection chamber

    CERN Document Server

    1989-01-01

    The time projection chamber is inserted inside the central detector of the DELPHI experiment. Gas is ionised in the chamber as a charged particle passes through, producing an electric signal from which the path of the particle can be found. DELPHI, which ran from 1989 to 2000 on the LEP accelerator, was primarily concerned with particle identification.

  14. Barriers to adopting a fistula-first policy in Europe: an international survey among national experts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Veer, Sabine N.; Ravani, Pietro; Coentrão, Luis; Fluck, Richard; Kleophas, Werner; Labriola, Laura; Hoischen, Susanne H.; Noordzij, Marlies; Jager, Kitty J.; van Biesen, Wim

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore how vascular access care was reimbursed, promoted, and organised at the national level in European and neighbouring countries. An electronic survey among national experts to collect country-level data. Forty-seven experts (response rate, 76%) from 37 countries

  15. Delphi Fuzzy Elicitation Technique in the Determination of Third ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Delphi technique via the expert elicitation method becomes extremely handy particularly in view of limited availability of data in determining failure probabilities of onshore transmission pipelines in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria occasioned by third party activity. Using, ten (10) experts opinion elucidated individually ...

  16. A Delphi Study: The Characteristics of Democratic Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkmaz, H. Eylem; Erden, Münire

    2014-01-01

    The authors aim to identify characteristics of democratic schools. The Delphi technique used in this study is based on attaining a consensus among a group of experts over 3 rounds with 22 experts from 9 countries participating in the first round. By the end of the third round, 339 items referring to democratic school characteristics were…

  17. Climate change : expert opinion on the economics of policy options to address climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    Panelists identified key strengths and limitations of alternative policy approaches that should be of assistance to the Congress in weighing the potential benefits and costs of different policies for addressing climate change. Many panelists said tha...

  18. Perspectives of policy and political decision makers on access to formal dementia care: expert interviews in eight European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broda, Anja; Bieber, Anja; Meyer, Gabriele; Hopper, Louise; Joyce, Rachael; Irving, Kate; Zanetti, Orazio; Portolani, Elisa; Kerpershoek, Liselot; Verhey, Frans; Vugt, Marjolein de; Wolfs, Claire; Eriksen, Siren; Røsvik, Janne; Marques, Maria J; Gonçalves-Pereira, Manuel; Sjölund, Britt-Marie; Woods, Bob; Jelley, Hannah; Orrell, Martin; Stephan, Astrid

    2017-08-03

    As part of the ActifCare (ACcess to Timely Formal Care) project, we conducted expert interviews in eight European countries with policy and political decision makers, or representatives of relevant institutions, to determine their perspectives on access to formal care for people with dementia and their carers. Each ActifCare country (Germany, Ireland, Italy, The Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Sweden, United Kingdom) conducted semi-structured interviews with 4-7 experts (total N = 38). The interview guide addressed the topics "Complexity and Continuity of Care", "Formal Services", and "Public Awareness". Country-specific analysis of interview transcripts used an inductive qualitative content analysis. Cross-national synthesis focused on similarities in themes across the ActifCare countries. The analysis revealed ten common themes and two additional sub-themes across countries. Among others, the experts highlighted the need for a coordinating role and the necessity of information to address issues of complexity and continuity of care, demanded person-centred, tailored, and multidisciplinary formal services, and referred to education, mass media and campaigns as means to raise public awareness. Policy and political decision makers appear well acquainted with current discussions among both researchers and practitioners of possible approaches to improve access to dementia care. Experts described pragmatic, realistic strategies to influence dementia care. Suggested innovations concerned how to achieve improved dementia care, rather than transforming the nature of the services provided. Knowledge gained in these expert interviews may be useful to national decision makers when they consider reshaping the organisation of dementia care, and may thus help to develop best-practice strategies and recommendations.

  19. Delphi General Ledger -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Delphi general ledger contains the following data elements, but is not limited to the United States Standard General Ledger (USSGL) chart of accounts, stores actual,...

  20. Strategic risk appraisal. Comparing expert- and literature-informed consequence assessments for environmental policy risks receiving national attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagonneau, Jérôme; Rocks, Sophie A; Prpich, George; Garnett, Kenisha; Black, Edgar; Pollard, Simon J T

    2017-10-01

    Strategic risk appraisal (SRA) has been applied to compare diverse policy level risks to and from the environment in England and Wales. Its application has relied on expert-informed assessments of the potential consequences from residual risks that attract policy attention at the national scale. Here we compare consequence assessments, across environmental, economic and social impact categories that draw on 'expert'- and 'literature-based' analyses of the evidence for 12 public risks appraised by Government. For environmental consequences there is reasonable agreement between the two sources of assessment, with expert-informed assessments providing a narrower dispersion of impact severity and with median values similar in scale to those produced by an analysis of the literature. The situation is more complex for economic consequences, with a greater spread in the median values, less consistency between the two assessment types and a shift toward higher severity values across the risk portfolio. For social consequences, the spread of severity values is greater still, with no consistent trend between the severities of impact expressed by the two types of assessment. For the latter, the findings suggest the need for a fuller representation of socioeconomic expertise in SRA and the workshops that inform SRA output. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Environmental policy. 2000 environmental expert opinion of the Council of Experimental Experts; Umweltpolitik. Umweltgutachten 2000 des Rates von Sachverstaendigen fuer Umweltfragen. Schritte ins naechste Jahrtausend. Kurzfassung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-05-01

    The reorientation of energy policy is a key issue. The Council of Environmental Experts considers the further use of atomic energy to be irresponsible and recommends a new orientation. Recommendations are made on ecology-centered taxation. Critical comments are made in the context of conservation of nature, where many species of plants and animals still continue to be endangered. The conservation programme of the Federal government, which also comprises a system of large, interconnected biotopes on 10% of Germany's total surface, is approved, and the potential contribution of sustainable agricultural and forestry policy is discussed in a separate chapter. Further subjects discussed are recycling and waste management, protection of water and soil, air pollution abatement, health protection and genetic engineering. The environmental aspects of Eastern European states becoming EC members are gone into in particular. The network of Europen Environmental Councils, for which the German Council of Environmental Experts currently acts as a coordinator, makes intensive efforts to improve environmental counselling in these states. [German] Eines der Schwerpunktthemen des Umweltgutachtens ist die Neuordnung der Energiepolitik. Der Umweltrat haelt die weitere Nutzung der Atomenergie vor allem wegen der Risiken der Entsorgung nicht fuer verantwortbar. Er befuerwortet die Einleitung einer Energiewende. Zur oekologischen Steuerreform werden weiterfuehrende Empfehlungen unterbreitet. An vielen Stellen nimmt der Rat die Umweltpolitik auch kritisch unter die Lupe. Er weist auf den hohen Handlungsbedarf im Naturschutz hin. Eine dauerhafte Trendwende beim Grad der Gefaehrdung heimischer Tier- und Pflanzenarten sei in Deutschland noch nicht erreicht. Der Rat bestaetigt in diesem Zusammenhang die naturschutzpolitische Konzeption der Bundesregierung fuer einen Naturschutz auf der ganzen Flaeche, kombiniert mit einem grossflaechigen Biotopverbundsystem auf 10% der Landesflaeche. Der

  2. Rating scale for the assessment of competence in ultrasound-guided peripheral vascular access - a Delphi Consensus Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primdahl, Stine C; Todsen, Tobias; Clemmesen, Louise; Knudsen, Lars; Weile, Jesper

    2016-09-21

    Peripheral vascular access is vital for treatment and diagnostics of hospitalized patients. Ultrasound-guided vascular access (UGVA) is superior to the landmark technique. To ensure competence-based education, an assessment tool of UGVA competence is needed. We aimed to develop a global rating scale (RS) for assessment of UGVA competence based on opinions on the content from ultrasound experts in a modified Delphi consensus study. We included experts from anesthesiology, emergency medicine and radiology across university hospitals in Denmark. Nine elements were drafted based on existing literature and recommendations from international societies. In a multi-round survey, the experts rated the elements on a five-point Likert scale according to importance, and suggested missing elements. The final Delphi round occurred when >80% of the experts rated all elements ≥4 on the Likert scale. Sixteen experts consented to participate in the study, one withdrew consent prior to the first Delphi round, and 14 completed all three Delphi rounds. In the first Delphi round the experts excluded one element from the scale and changed the content of two elements. In the second Delphi round, the experts excluded one element from the scale. In the third Delphi round, consensus was obtained on the eight elements: preparation of utensils, ergonomics, preparation of the ultrasound device, identification of blood vessels, anatomy, hygiene, coordination of the needle, and completion of the procedure. We developed an RS for assessment of UGVA competence based on opinions of ultrasound experts through a modified Delphi consensus study.

  3. Let’s Talk! On the practice and method of interviewing policy experts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beyers, J.; Braun, C.H.J.M.; DeBruycker, I.

    2014-01-01

    This article sheds light on the practice and method of expert interviewing in research projects on interest group politics. We first discuss the rationale of interviewing as a data collection instrument, arguing that a careful combination and cross-validation of behavioral and observational data

  4. Evaluation of Nine Consensus Indices in Delphi Foresight Research and Their Dependency on Delphi Survey Characteristics: A Simulation Study and Debate on Delphi Design and Interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birko, Stanislav; Dove, Edward S; Özdemir, Vural

    2015-01-01

    The extent of consensus (or the lack thereof) among experts in emerging fields of innovation can serve as antecedents of scientific, societal, investor and stakeholder synergy or conflict. Naturally, how we measure consensus is of great importance to science and technology strategic foresight. The Delphi methodology is a widely used anonymous survey technique to evaluate consensus among a panel of experts. Surprisingly, there is little guidance on how indices of consensus can be influenced by parameters of the Delphi survey itself. We simulated a classic three-round Delphi survey building on the concept of clustered consensus/dissensus. We evaluated three study characteristics that are pertinent for design of Delphi foresight research: (1) the number of survey questions, (2) the sample size, and (3) the extent to which experts conform to group opinion (the Group Conformity Index) in a Delphi study. Their impacts on the following nine Delphi consensus indices were then examined in 1000 simulations: Clustered Mode, Clustered Pairwise Agreement, Conger's Kappa, De Moivre index, Extremities Version of the Clustered Pairwise Agreement, Fleiss' Kappa, Mode, the Interquartile Range and Pairwise Agreement. The dependency of a consensus index on the Delphi survey characteristics was expressed from 0.000 (no dependency) to 1.000 (full dependency). The number of questions (range: 6 to 40) in a survey did not have a notable impact whereby the dependency values remained below 0.030. The variation in sample size (range: 6 to 50) displayed the top three impacts for the Interquartile Range, the Clustered Mode and the Mode (dependency = 0.396, 0.130, 0.116, respectively). The Group Conformity Index, a construct akin to measuring stubbornness/flexibility of experts' opinions, greatly impacted all nine Delphi consensus indices (dependency = 0.200 to 0.504), except the Extremity CPWA and the Interquartile Range that were impacted only beyond the first decimal point (dependency = 0

  5. Including values in evidence-based policy making for breast screening: An empirically grounded tool to assist expert decision makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Lisa

    2017-07-01

    Values are an important part of evidence-based decision making for health policy: they guide the type of evidence that is collected, how it is interpreted, and how important the conclusions are considered to be. Experts in breast screening (including clinicians, researchers, consumer advocates and senior administrators) hold differing values in relation to what is important in breast screening policy and practice, and committees may find it difficult to incorporate the complexity and variety of values into policy decisions. The decision making tool provided here is intended to assist with this process. The tool is modified from more general frameworks that are intended to assist with ethical decision making in public health, and informed by data drawn from previous empirical studies on values amongst Australian breast screening experts. It provides a structured format for breast screening committees to consider and discuss the values of themselves and others, suggests relevant topics for further inquiry and highlights areas of need for future research into the values of the public. It enables committees to publicly explain and justify their decisions with reference to values, improving transparency and accountability. It is intended to act alongside practices that seek to accommodate the values of individual women in the informed decision making process for personal decision making about participation in breast screening. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Expert views on scientific policy advice on complex environmental health issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spruijt, P.

    2016-01-01

    Fact-based policies grounded in solid uncontested scientific evidence: this may sound as the ideal relation between science and policy. However, this ideal rarely holds for complex environmental health risks. When scientific knowledge is contested or incomplete, scientists can take different roles

  7. Coping With Nuclear Weapons Policy: How Expert Do You Have To Be?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruina, Jack

    1983-01-01

    Points out that policy decisions about nuclear weapons evolve from politics, bureaucracy, and technology, indicating that intelligent people can learn enough about technology to make judgments about policy issues. Suggests, however, that much more thinking is necessary to arrive at a coherent perspective about what constitutes nuclear weapons…

  8. Exploration to Identify Professional Dispositions of School Librarians: A Delphi Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Gail; Jones, Jami L.

    2010-01-01

    This article reports the findings of an exploratory study to identify professional dispositions of school librarians. The authors employed the Delphi method, a qualitative research method that emphasizes expert knowledge and consensus within a particular field. The Delphi panel consisted of members of the editorial boards of nationally recognized…

  9. A Delphi Study: Exploring Faculty Perceptions of the Best Practices Influencing Student Persistence in Blended Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Kim Elise

    2010-01-01

    This Delphi study explored the instructional practices of community college faculty who were teaching blended or Web-assisted courses and how these practices influenced student persistence. The Delphi method provided qualitative data in the form of expert advice through consensus building on the instructional practices most likely to influence…

  10. Acceptability and Perceived Benefits and Risks of Public and Patient Involvement in Health Care Policy: A Delphi Survey in Belgian Stakeholders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleemput, Irina; Christiaens, Wendy; Kohn, Laurence; Léonard, Christian; Daue, François; Denis, Alain

    2015-06-01

    In systems with public health insurance, coverage decisions should reflect social values. Deliberation among stakeholders could achieve this goal, but rarely involves patients and citizens directly. This study aimed at evaluating the acceptability, and the perceived benefits and risks, of public and patient involvement (PPI) in coverage decision making to Belgian stakeholders. A two-round Delphi survey was conducted among all stakeholder groups. The survey was constructed on the basis of interviews with 10 key stakeholders and a review of the literature on participation models. Consensus was defined as 65% or more of the respondents agreeing with a statement and less than 15% disagreeing. Eighty stakeholders participated in both rounds. They were defined as the Delphi panel. Belgian stakeholders are open toward PPI in coverage decision processes. Benefits are expected to exceed risks. The preferred model for involvement is to consult citizens or patients, within the existing decision-making structures and at specific milestones in the process. Consulting citizens and patients is a higher level of involvement than merely informing them and a lower level than letting them participate actively. Consultation involves asking nonbinding advice on (parts of) the decision problem. According to the Delphi panel, the benefits of PPI could be increasing awareness among members of the general public and patients about the challenges and costs of health care, and enriched decision processes with expertise by experience from patients. Potential risks include subjectivity, insufficient resources to participate and weigh on the process, difficulties in finding effective ways to express a collective opinion, the risk of manipulation, and lobbying or power games of other stakeholders. PPI in coverage decision-making processes is acceptable to Belgian stakeholders, be it in different ways for different types of decisions. Benefits are expected to outweigh risks. Copyright © 2015

  11. The impact of workforce redesign policies on role boundaries in 'generalist' podiatry practice: expert views within the professional body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stressing, Samantha J; Borthwick, Alan M

    2014-01-01

    Demographic changes and a predicted rise in the prevalence of chronic illness have led to a range of health policies in the UK (and elsewhere) focused on workforce flexibility and extended roles for the allied health professions. Whilst much academic attention has been paid to extended specialised roles for allied health professionals such as podiatrists, little work has addressed the likely impact of these policy changes on non-specialist, 'generalist' podiatry practice. This study aimed to explore expert professional views on the impact of role flexibility on generalist podiatry practice. Expert podiatry practitioners drawn from within the professional body, the Society of Chiropodists and Podiatrists/College of Podiatry were recruited to 3 focus groups and 4 individual semi structured interviews and the data subject to a thematic analysis. Three key themes emerged, reflecting concerns about the future of generalist podiatry practice in the NHS, a perceived likelihood that generalist care will move inexorably towards private sector provision, and a growth in support worker grades undermining the position of generalist practice in the mainstream health division of labour. Up skilling generalist practitioners was viewed as the strongest defence against marginalisation. An emphasis on enhanced and specialised roles in podiatry by NHS commissioners and profession alike may threaten the sustainability of generalist podiatry provision in the state funded NHS. Non-specialist general podiatry may increasingly become the province of the private sector.

  12. Policy relevant results from an expert elicitation on the health risks of phthalates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmer, K.E.; Gutleb, A.C.; Ravnum, S.; Krayer von Krauss, M.; Murk, A.J.; Ropstad, E.; Skaare, J.U.; Eriksen, G.S.; Lyche, J.L.; Koppe, J.G.; Magnanti, B.; Yang, A.; Keune, H.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The EU 6th Framework Program (FP)-funded Health and Environment Network (HENVINET) aimed to support informed policy making by facilitating the availability of relevant knowledge on different environmental health issues. An approach was developed by which scientific agreement,

  13. The Delphi Technique: Making Sense of Consensus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Chien Hsu

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The Delphi technique is a widely used and accepted method for gathering data from respondents within their domain of expertise. The technique is designed as a group communication process which aims to achieve a convergence of opinion on a specific real-world issue. The Delphi process has been used in various fields of study such as program planning, needs assessment, policy determination, and resource utilization to develop a full range of alternatives, explore or expose underlying assumptions, as well as correlate judgments on a topic spanning a wide range of disciplines. The Delphi technique is well suited as a method for consensus-building by using a series of questionnaires delivered using multiple iterations to collect data from a panel of selected subjects. Subject selection, time frames for conducting and completing a study, the possibility of low response rates, and unintentionally guiding feedback from the respondent group are areas which should be considered when designing and implementing a Delphi study.

  14. Application of the Delphi technique in healthcare maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njuangang, Stanley; Liyanage, Champika; Akintoye, Akintola

    2017-10-09

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine the research design, issues and considerations in the application of the Delphi technique to identify, refine and rate the critical success factors and performance measures in maintenance-associated infections. Design/methodology/approach In-depth literature review through the application of open and axial coding were applied to formulate the interview and research questions. These were used to conduct an exploratory case study of two healthcare maintenance managers, randomly selected from two National Health Service Foundation Trusts in England. The results of exploratory case study provided the rationale for the application of the Delphi technique in this research. The different processes in the application of the Delphi technique in healthcare research are examined thoroughly. Findings This research demonstrates the need to apply and integrate different research methods to enhance the validity of the Delphi technique. The rationale for the application of the Delphi technique in this research is because some healthcare maintenance managers lack knowledge about basic infection control (IC) principles to make hospitals safe for patient care. The result of first round of the Delphi exercise is a useful contribution in its own rights. It identified a number of salient issues and differences in the opinions of the Delphi participants, noticeably between healthcare maintenance managers and members of the infection control team. It also resulted in useful suggestions and comments to improve the quality and presentation of the second- and third-round Delphi instruments. Practical implications This research provides a research methodology that can be adopted by researchers investigating new and emerging issues in the healthcare sector. As this research demonstrates, the Delphi technique is relevant in soliciting expert knowledge and opinion to identify performance measures to control maintenance-associated infections in

  15. Reporting outcomes of back pain trials: A modified Delphi study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Froud, Robert; Eldridge, Sandra; Kovacs, Francisco

    2011-01-01

    trials. METHODS: We presented experts with clinicians' views on different reporting methods and asked them to rate and comment on the suitability reporting methods for inclusion in a standardized set. Panellists developed a statement of recommendation over three online rounds. We used a modified Delphi...

  16. A Delphi Study and Initial Validation of Counselor Supervision Competencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuer Colburn, Anita A.; Grothaus, Tim; Hays, Danica G.; Milliken, Tammi

    2016-01-01

    The authors addressed the lack of supervision training standards for doctoral counseling graduates by developing and validating an initial list of supervision competencies. They used content analysis, Delphi polling, and content validity methods to generate a list, vetted by 2 different panels of supervision experts, of 33 competencies grouped…

  17. Radiographer managers and service development: A Delphi study to determine an MRI service portfolio for year 2020

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castillo, J.; Caruana, C.J.; Morgan, P.S.; Westbrook, C.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: As high quality CPD courses become increasingly expensive and time off for radiographers progressively limited, it is important that CPD content be aligned to forecasted service portfolio development. When such a portfolio has not been developed locally the CPD planner should carry out an own forecasting exercise. The purpose of the study was to develop a 2020 MRI service portfolio using a Delphi study. Methods and materials: MRI stakeholder experts participated in a first Delphi round based on semi-structured interviews. The interviews were analysed thematically leading to a series of statements for a second Delphi round. Level of agreement was assessed as the median value on a 6 point Likert scale ranging from 1 (complete disagreement) to 6 (complete agreement), the level of consensus was assessed using the interquartile range (IQR). Consensus was defined as IQR ≤ 1. Results: Very strong agreement and consensus (median 6, IQR ≤ 1) was obtained for maintaining current service catalogue and introduction of breast biopsies, cardiac studies, ISO standards, referral guidelines, and departmental policies aligned to EU regulations. Strong agreement and consensus (median 5, IQR ≤ 1) was obtained for introduction of tumour assessment, tractography, elastography, enterography. The level of consensus was low (IQR ≥ 1) regarding research, 3T MRI, outsourcing, prostate screening and certification for MRI referral privileges. Conclusion: The multi stakeholder approach adopted ensured that the proposed service portfolio would be suitable for local healthcare needs. Although the methodology has been applied to MRI it could easily be adapted to any imaging modality. - Highlights: • A Delphi study was successfully used to forecast MRI service portfolio for year 2020. • The service portfolio determines the competences required by radiographers. • The service portfolio has helped in decision making to introduce waiting list initiatives. • Protocols

  18. Food for thought? Potential conflicts of interest in academic experts advising government and charities on dietary policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Alex; Lloyd-Williams, Ffion; Bromley, Helen; Capewell, Simon

    2016-08-05

    A conflict of interest (CoI) can occur between public duty and private interest, in which a public official's private-capacity interest could improperly influence the performance of their official duties and responsibilities. The most tangible and commonly considered CoI are financial. However, CoI can also arise due to other types of influence including interpersonal relationships, career progression, or ideology. CoI thus exist in academia, business, government and non-governmental organisations. However, public knowledge of CoI is currently limited due to a lack of information. The mechanisms of managing potential conflicts of interest also remain unclear due to a lack of guidelines. We therefore examined the independence of academic experts and how well potential CoI are identified and addressed in four government and non-governmental organisations in the UK responsible for the development of food policy. Policy analysis. We developed an analytical framework to explore CoI in high-level UK food policy advice, using four case studies. Two government policy-making bodies: Department of Health 'Obesity Review Group' (ORG), 'Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition' (SACN) and two charities: 'Action on Sugar' (AoS), & 'Heart of Mersey' (HoM). Information was obtained from publicly available sources and declarations. We developed a five point ordinal scale based upon the ideology of the Nolan Principles of Public Life. Group members were individually categorised on the ordinal ConScale from "0", (complete independence from the food and drink industry) to "4", (employed by the food and drink industry or a representative organisation). CoI involving various industries have long been evident in policy making, academia and clinical practice. Suggested approaches for managing CoI could be categorised as "deny", "describe", or "diminish". Declared CoI were common in the ORG and SACN. 4 out of 28 ORG members were direct industry employees. In SACN 11 out of 17 members

  19. Identifying Threshold Concepts for Information Literacy: A Delphi Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lori Townsend

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study used the Delphi method to engage expert practitioners on the topic of threshold concepts for information literacy. A panel of experts considered two questions. First, is the threshold concept approach useful for information literacy instruction? The panel unanimously agreed that the threshold concept approach holds potential for information literacy instruction. Second, what are the threshold concepts for information literacy instruction? The panel proposed and discussed over fifty potential threshold concepts, finally settling on six information literacy threshold concepts.

  20. Determinants of Social Accountability in Iranian Nursing and Midwifery Schools: A Delphi Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Reza Salehmoghaddam

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Revising the medical education programs to meet the needs of society has become both a necessity and an important priority due to the considerable increase of population, changing patterns of diseases, and new health priorities. While this necessity has been highlighted in Iran’s Fifth Development Plan as well as its National 2025 Vision Plan, the determinants of social accountability have not been explained yet. This study aimed to develop determinants of social accountability in the Iranian Nursing and Midwifery Schools. Methods: This classic Delphi study included thirty experts in Nursing and Midwifery Education, Research and Services selected based on purposive sampling and three rounds of Delphi technique and conducted in Nursing and Midwifery School of Mashhad University of Medical Sciences. The primary data were collected using an initial structured questionnaire prepared through extensive review of literature. SPSS 11.5 software was used to analyze the data. The interquartile deviation and percentage of agreement were also used to study the consensus of opinion by experts. Results: Finding obtained from the rounds of Delphi resulted in selecting 69 determinants out of the initial pool of 128 primary determinants of social accountability. The items were selected based on experts’ consensus and categorized under three main activities of Nursing and Midwifery School, namely education, research, and service. Conclusion: Social accountability determinants were explained by 69 items for Schools of Nursing and Midwifery in Iran. The proposed determinants can be used by managers and authorities of Nursing and Midwifery School, policy makers, and evaluating institutions associated with them to ensure realizing social accountability goals.

  1. Determinants of Social Accountability in Iranian Nursing and Midwifery Schools: A Delphi Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehmoghaddam, Amir Reza; Mazloom, Seyed Reza; Sharafkhani, Mohammad; Gholami, Hassan; Emami Zeydi, Amir; Khorashadizadeh, Fatemeh; Emadzadeh, Ali

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Revising the medical education programs to meet the needs of society has become both a necessity and an important priority due to the considerable increase of population, changing patterns of diseases, and new health priorities. While this necessity has been highlighted in Iran’s Fifth Development Plan as well as its National 2025 Vision Plan, the determinants of social accountability have not been explained yet. This study aimed to develop determinants of social accountability in the Iranian Nursing and Midwifery Schools. Methods: This classic Delphi study included thirty experts in Nursing and Midwifery Education, Research and Services selected based on purposive sampling and three rounds of Delphi technique and conducted in Nursing and Midwifery School of Mashhad University of Medical Sciences. The primary data were collected using an initial structured questionnaire prepared through extensive review of literature. SPSS 11.5 software was used to analyze the data. The interquartile deviation and percentage of agreement were also used to study the consensus of opinion by experts. Results: Finding obtained from the rounds of Delphi resulted in selecting 69 determinants out of the initial pool of 128 primary determinants of social accountability. The items were selected based on experts’ consensus and categorized under three main activities of Nursing and Midwifery School, namely education, research, and service. Conclusion: Social accountability determinants were explained by 69 items for Schools of Nursing and Midwifery in Iran. The proposed determinants can be used by managers and authorities of Nursing and Midwifery School, policy makers, and evaluating institutions associated with them to ensure realizing social accountability goals. PMID:28409171

  2. Economic instruments for obesity prevention: results of a scoping review and modified delphi survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LaFrance Jeffrey

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Comprehensive, multi-level approaches are required to address obesity. One important target for intervention is the economic domain. The purpose of this study was to synthesize existing evidence regarding the impact of economic policies targeting obesity and its causal behaviours (diet, physical activity, and to make specific recommendations for the Canadian context. Methods Arksey and O'Malley's (2005 methodological framework for conducting scoping reviews was adopted for this study and this consisted of two phases: 1 a structured literature search and review, and 2 consultation with experts in the research field through a Delphi survey and an in-person expert panel meeting in April 2010. Results Two key findings from the scoping review included 1 consistent evidence that weight outcomes are responsive to food and beverage prices. The debate on the use of food taxes and subsidies to address obesity should now shift to how best to address practical issues in designing such policies; and 2 very few studies have examined the impact of economic instruments to promote physical activity and clear policy recommendations cannot be made at this time. Delphi survey findings emphasised the relatively modest impact any specific economic instrument would have on obesity independently. Based on empirical evidence and expert opinion, three recommendations were supported. First, to create and implement an effective health filter to review new and current agricultural polices to reduce the possibility that such policies have a deleterious impact on population rates of obesity. Second, to implement a caloric sweetened beverage tax. Third, to examine how to implement fruit and vegetable subsidies targeted at children and low income households. Conclusions In terms of economic interventions, shifting from empirical evidence to policy recommendation remains challenging. Overall, the evidence is not sufficiently strong to provide clear policy

  3. The DELPHI silicon tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Pernegger, H

    1997-01-01

    The DELPHI collaboration has upgraded the Silicon Vertex Detector in order to cope with the physics requirements for LEP200. The new detector consists of a barrel section with three layers of microstrip detectors and a forward extension made of hybrid pixel and large pitch strip detectors. The layout of the detector and the techniques used for the different parts of the new silicon detector shall be described.

  4. DELPHI: Hadron detection

    CERN Multimedia

    1992-01-01

    This track is an example of real data collected from the DELPHI detector on the Large Electron-Positron (LEP) collider at CERN, which ran between 1989 and 2000. A 3-jet event is seen, resulting from the decay of a Z0 into a quark and an antiquark, one of which emits a gluon. Both quarks and gluons appear in the detector as showers of hadrons, comonly called jets.

  5. DELPHI: Higgs candidate

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    This track is an example of real data collected from the DELPHI detector on the Large Electron-Positron (LEP) collider at CERN, which ran between 1989 and 2000. Its topology is compatible with what is expected from the associated production of a Z boson and Higgs boson of mass 113 GeV that each decay into two jets. A different pairing of the jets could lead to an interpretation compatible with the production of two Z bosons.

  6. Research Priorities for NCD Prevention and Climate Change: An International Delphi Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Colagiuri

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Climate change and non-communicable diseases (NCDs are arguably the greatest global challenges of the 21st Century. However, the confluence between them remains under-examined and there is little evidence of a comprehensive, systematic approach to identifying research priorities to mitigate their joint impact. Consequently, we: (i convened a workshop of academics (n = 25 from the Worldwide Universities Network to identify priority areas at the interface between NCDs and climate change; (ii conducted a Delphi survey of international opinion leaders in public health and relevant other disciplines; and (iii convened an expert panel to review and advise on final priorities. Three research areas (water security; transport; conceptualising NCD harms to support policy formation were listed among the top 10 priorities by >90% of Delphi respondents, and ranked among the top 12 priorities by >60% of respondents who ranked the order of priority. A fourth area (reducing the carbon footprint of cities was ranked highest by the same >60% of respondents. Our results are consistent with existing frameworks on health and climate change, and extends them by focusing specifically on NCDs. Researching these priorities could progress understanding of climate change and NCDs, and inform global and national policy decisions for mitigating associated harms.

  7. Research Priorities for NCD Prevention and Climate Change: An International Delphi Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colagiuri, Ruth; Boylan, Sinead; Morrice, Emily

    2015-10-16

    Climate change and non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are arguably the greatest global challenges of the 21st Century. However, the confluence between them remains under-examined and there is little evidence of a comprehensive, systematic approach to identifying research priorities to mitigate their joint impact. Consequently, we: (i) convened a workshop of academics (n = 25) from the Worldwide Universities Network to identify priority areas at the interface between NCDs and climate change; (ii) conducted a Delphi survey of international opinion leaders in public health and relevant other disciplines; and (iii) convened an expert panel to review and advise on final priorities. Three research areas (water security; transport; conceptualising NCD harms to support policy formation) were listed among the top 10 priorities by >90% of Delphi respondents, and ranked among the top 12 priorities by >60% of respondents who ranked the order of priority. A fourth area (reducing the carbon footprint of cities) was ranked highest by the same >60% of respondents. Our results are consistent with existing frameworks on health and climate change, and extends them by focusing specifically on NCDs. Researching these priorities could progress understanding of climate change and NCDs, and inform global and national policy decisions for mitigating associated harms.

  8. Research Priorities for NCD Prevention and Climate Change: An International Delphi Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colagiuri, Ruth; Boylan, Sinead; Morrice, Emily

    2015-01-01

    Climate change and non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are arguably the greatest global challenges of the 21st Century. However, the confluence between them remains under-examined and there is little evidence of a comprehensive, systematic approach to identifying research priorities to mitigate their joint impact. Consequently, we: (i) convened a workshop of academics (n = 25) from the Worldwide Universities Network to identify priority areas at the interface between NCDs and climate change; (ii) conducted a Delphi survey of international opinion leaders in public health and relevant other disciplines; and (iii) convened an expert panel to review and advise on final priorities. Three research areas (water security; transport; conceptualising NCD harms to support policy formation) were listed among the top 10 priorities by >90% of Delphi respondents, and ranked among the top 12 priorities by >60% of respondents who ranked the order of priority. A fourth area (reducing the carbon footprint of cities) was ranked highest by the same >60% of respondents. Our results are consistent with existing frameworks on health and climate change, and extends them by focusing specifically on NCDs. Researching these priorities could progress understanding of climate change and NCDs, and inform global and national policy decisions for mitigating associated harms. PMID:26501301

  9. Identificación de barreras a las políticas de nutrición y alimentación en Colombia: estudio por el método Delfos Identifying barriers to food and nutrition policies in Colombia: a study using the Delphi method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Rocío Ortiz

    2003-09-01

    compromisos de los diferentes sectores involucrados. En la sesión en que se discutieron los resultados, los expertos asistentes consideraron correcta la interpretación de sus opiniones y valoraron posibles estrategias para mejorar el funcionamiento del PNAN en el país. CONCLUSIONES: El desarrollo y la implementación de las políticas de alimentación y nutrición en Colombia han encontrado barreras, tanto externas como dentro de las propias políticas, que pueden limitar su utilidad social. Se propone crear una entidad coordinadora del PNAN en Colombia.OBJECTIVE: To identify the most important barriers to the development and progress of Colombia's National Food and Nutrition Plan (NFNP (which was enacted in 1996, from the viewpoint of food and nutrition plan planners, implementers, and academicians. METHODS: The research was carried out in two stages. The first stage consisted of a pilot study in 1998 based on individual interviews with 35 key informants with knowledge of nutrition policies in Colombia, in order to identify possible groups of experts with experience in the development of the NFNP and also to confirm the relevance and feasibility of the research. The second stage consisted of a study using the Delphi method with 77 experts who identified the principal barriers that the NFNP was facing. In a second step in the Delphi process, 58 of the experts took the 10 barriers that had been mentioned most frequently in the first step and then ranked those barriers, using a point scale from 1 to 10. In order to analyze the individual responses overall and by the three groups (planners, implementers, and academicians, we calculated the mean, the median, and the standard deviation of the scores, and we then ranked the barriers according to their median point scores. When median values were the same, we then utilized the higher mean or the smaller standard deviation. We had meetings to discuss those results with the participating experts in order to assess the soundness of

  10. Review: Michael Häder & Sabine Häder (Eds.) (2000). Die Delphi-Technik in den Sozialwissenschaften. Methodische Forschungen und innovative Anwendungen [The Delphi-Technique in the Social Sciences. Research on Methods and Innovative Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Welker

    2002-01-01

    Die Delphi-Technik in den Sozialwissenschaften edited by HÄDER and HÄDER is a must for every researcher who wants an update on the methodological scope and diversity of topics concerning Delphi. Fourteen international authors discuss methodological innovations, for instance using the Internet as a tool for recruiting experts. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0201265

  11. Utilizing and Adapting the Delphi Method for Use in Qualitative Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shane R. Brady

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Delphi method is a pragmatic research method created in the 1950s by researchers at the RAND Corporation for use in policy making, organizational decision making, and to inform direct practices. While the Delphi method has been regularly utilized in mixed methods studies, far fewer studies have been completed using the Delphi method for qualitative research. Despite the utility of the Delphi method in social science research, little guidance is provided for using the Delphi in the context of theory building, in primarily qualitative studies, and in the context of community-engaged research (CER. This article will emphasize new and modest innovations in the Delphi method for improving the overall rigor of the method in theory building and CER.

  12. Examining the Roles of Blended Learning Approaches in Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL) Environments: A Delphi Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Hyo-Jeong; Bonk, Curtis J.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, a Delphi method was used to identify and predict the roles of blended learning approaches in computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL) environments. The Delphi panel consisted of experts in online learning from different geographic regions of the world. This study discusses findings related to (a) pros and cons of blended…

  13. Food for thought? Potential conflicts of interest in academic experts advising government and charities on dietary policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Newton

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A conflict of interest (CoI can occur between public duty and private interest, in which a public official’s private-capacity interest could improperly influence the performance of their official duties and responsibilities. The most tangible and commonly considered CoI are financial. However, CoI can also arise due to other types of influence including interpersonal relationships, career progression, or ideology. CoI thus exist in academia, business, government and non-governmental organisations. However, public knowledge of CoI is currently limited due to a lack of information. The mechanisms of managing potential conflicts of interest also remain unclear due to a lack of guidelines. We therefore examined the independence of academic experts and how well potential CoI are identified and addressed in four government and non-governmental organisations in the UK responsible for the development of food policy. Methods Policy analysis. We developed an analytical framework to explore CoI in high-level UK food policy advice, using four case studies. Two government policy-making bodies: Department of Health ‘Obesity Review Group’ (ORG, ‘Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition’ (SACN and two charities: ‘Action on Sugar’ (AoS, & ‘Heart of Mersey’ (HoM. Information was obtained from publicly available sources and declarations. We developed a five point ordinal scale based upon the ideology of the Nolan Principles of Public Life. Group members were individually categorised on the ordinal ConScale from “0”, (complete independence from the food and drink industry to “4”, (employed by the food and drink industry or a representative organisation. Results CoI involving various industries have long been evident in policy making, academia and clinical practice. Suggested approaches for managing CoI could be categorised as “deny”, “describe”, or “diminish”. Declared CoI were common in the ORG and SACN

  14. Defining Multimorbidity: From English to Portuguese Using a Delphi Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prazeres, Filipe; Santiago, Luiz Miguel; Simões, José Augusto

    2015-01-01

    To translate the European General Practice Research Network multimorbidity definition according to Portuguese cultural and linguistic features. Similar to the process completed in several other European countries, a forward and backward translation of the English multimorbidity definition using the Delphi technique was performed in Portugal. Twenty-three general practitioners (GPs)-14 males and 9 females-agreed to form the Portuguese expert panel for the Delphi process (59% acceptance rate). The Portuguese definition of multimorbidity was achieved after two Delphi rounds with a mean (SD) consensus score for final round of 8.43/9 (0.73). With this paper the definition of multimorbidity is now available in a new language-Portuguese. Its availability in the local language will raise Portuguese GPs' awareness about multimorbidity and allow future national and international research. The operationalization of the definition will allow an easier identification of patients with multimorbidity.

  15. Delphi project in bronchial asthma. Two stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Benítez, M; Ibero Iborra, M; Sanz Ortega, J; Garde Garde, J

    2010-01-01

    From the paediatric point of view, we have undertaken two Delphi studies into bronchial asthma. The first is related to the consensus known as the consensus document of the five associations. The second is more recent and has been undertaken with GEMA (the Spanish Guidelines on the Management of Asthma). The aim of this paper is to carry out a descriptive study comparing the 2 Delphi processes and to objectively assess if in some way behaviour over the past two years has changed as far as expert opinion is concerned. In the consensus document those points giving rise to most controversy were the treatment of children under three years of age and treatment with immunotherapy in allergic asthma. It is also necessary to highlight how important it was at that particular point in time to define the phenotypes of wheezing and the predictive index of asthma in children of less than 3 years of age. Of the 52 questions in the questionnaire, in 13.6% the panel of experts reached no consensus in their positions. Following GEMA the Delphi methodology, 56 questions were asked in the first round of the questionnaire, and consensus was reached in 87.5%. As regards the paediatric part relating to diagnosis and treatment in children, agreement was reached on all the questions in the first round. Agreement was reached in 8.92% questions in the second round. Clinical guidelines and consensus documents can modify behaviour towards an illness, both in the diagnosis and treatment. Copyright © 2010 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  16. El mètode Delphi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Reguant Álvarez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available El mètode Delphi és una tècnica de recollida d'informació que permet obtenir l'opinió d'un grup d'experts a través de la consulta reiterada. Aquesta tècnica, de caràcter qualitatiu, és recomanable quan no es disposa d'informació suficient per a la presa de decisions o cal, per a la nostra investigació, recollir opinions consensuades i representatives d'un col·lectiu d’experts. En aquest article es descriuen les característiques principals de la tècnica i es detalla el procés de consultes reiterades en l'aplicació de la tècnica.

  17. WINE ADVISOR EXPERT SYSTEM USING DECISION RULES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinuca Elena Claudia

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article I focus on developing an expert system for advising the choice of wine that best matches a specific occasion. An expert system is a computer application that performs a task that would be performed by a human expert. The implementation is done using Delphi programming language. I used to represent the knowledge bases a set of rules. The rules are of type IF THEN ELSE rules, decision rules based on different important wine features.

  18. The Delphi process: a solution for reviewing novel grant applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cath Holliday

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Cath Holliday1, Monica Robotin1,21Cancer Council New South Wales, Sydney; 2University of Sydney, School of Public Health, Sydney, New South Wales, AustraliaIntroduction: Traditional scientific review processes are not well suited for evaluating the merits of research in situations where the available scientific evidence is limited and if review panels have widely divergent opinions. This study tested whether a Delphi process is useful in grant selection.Materials and method: A Delphi process prioritized novel research proposals in pancreatic cancer. Five reviewers holding similar grants overseas ranked research applications by scientific merit, innovativeness, and level of risk.Result: Three rounds of voting evaluated the best 10 applications received. In the first round of the Delphi process, scores ranged from 5.0 to 8.3. After the second round, the cumulative scores of the eight remaining applications ranged from 10 to 12.6. At the end of the third round, the final cumulative scores of the remaining six applications ranged from 13.6 to 18.2. The four highest ranking applications were recommended for funding, with agreement from reviewers.Conclusion: A modified Delphi process proved to be an efficient, transparent, and equitable method of reviewing novel grant applications in a specialized field of research, where no local expertise was available. This process may also be useful for other peer review processes, particularly where there is limited access to local experts.Keywords: delphi process, research grant selection, consensus

  19. Instruments for assessment of impairments and activity limitations in patients with hand conditions: A European Delphi study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ven-Stevens, L.A.; Graff, M.J.; Selles, R.W.; Schreuders, T.A.; Linde, H. van der; Spauwen, P.H.; Geurts, A.C.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To reach multidisciplinary European consensus on the assessment tools for impairments and activity limitations in patients with hand conditions. DESIGN: Electronic Delphi method. SUBJECTS: Thirty experts from European societies for hand therapy, hand surgery, and physical and

  20. The Essential Components of Coach Training for Mental Health Professionals: A Delphi Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriarity, Marlene Therese

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this study was to discover how coach training experts define coaching and what they would identify to be the essential components of a coach training program for mental health professionals. Methods. A panel of nine experts, through an iterative Delphi process of responding to three rounds of questionnaires, provided…

  1. Estimating the Effect of Location Externalities on Real Estate Values Using the Delphi Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boaz Barzilay

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Delphi method is a method of collecting and structuring knowledge from a group of experts using a questionnaire combined with a controlled opinion feedback. The present paper reviews the main principles of the Delphi method, and attempts to validate its results using data obtained by standard econometric techniques of real estate appraisal, such as the hedonic price method. As we argue, the Delphi method may become a useful tool for real estate appraisal for unique cases, such as small communities with relatively few housing sales and transitional economies characterized by developing property markets.

  2. Scenarios for future agriculture in Finland: a Delphi study among agri-food sector stakeholders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. RIKKONEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents alternative scenarios for future agriculture in Finland up to 2025. These scenarios are the results of a large Delphi study carried out among Finnish agri-food sector stakeholders. The Delphi panel members gave their future view on desirable and probable futures. From these two dimensions, three scenarios were elaborated through the future images – the subjective future path and the importance analysis. The scenarios represent a technology optimistic “day-dream agriculture”, a probable future as “industrialised agriculture” and an undesirable future path as “drifting agriculture”. Two mini-scenarios are also presented. They are based on a discontinuity event as an unexpected impact of climate change and an analogy event as an ecological breakdown due to the expansive animal disease epidemics. In both mini-scenarios, the directions of storylines are dramatically changed. The scenarios support strategic planning introducing not only one forecast but alternative outcomes as a basis for future strategy and decisions. In this study the scenarios were constructed to address the opportunities as a desired vision and also the threats as to an undesirable future in the agricultural sector. These results bring to the table a Finnish agri-food expert community view of the future directions of relevant key issues in the agricultural policy agenda.;

  3. Identification of quality indicators for the nutritional management of adult hospitalized patients by a modified Delphi process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbanck, L; De Waele, J; Duysburgh, I; Van Looy, L; Ysebaert, D; Merckx, L; Ferdinande, P

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify quality indicators (QI) that measure or evaluate the quality of nutritional management of the adult hospitalized patient irrespective of the primary disease or surgical condition. During a modified Delphi procedure consisting of three rounds a 48 member expert panel selected quality indicators applicable to the subject focusing on validity and feasibility from a list of 89 candidate indicators, retrieved from the literature and completed by expert opinion. The following top ten of QIs were selected (weight between brackets): (1) Priority use of enteral route in the absence of contra indications (.95); (2) Patients with malnutrition (risk) receive a nutrition care plan or Nutritional Support (NS) (.935); (3) The hospital has a formulary on enteral formulas, parenteral nutrition (PN) solutions and nutritional supplements (.93); (4) The hospital has a designated nutrition support service (or team) (.922); (5) The hospital has written policies and procedures for the provision of nutrition support therapy (.9); (6) In hospitalized patients on PN the plasma triglycerides are checked weekly (.894); (7) Presence of a protocol for enteral drug administration through a feeding tube (.885); (8) Frequency of periodic reassessment of patients on NS (.883); (9) Enteral and PN orders are regularly revised and adjusted (daily/weekly/twice a week)(.88); (10) There is a hospital wide consensus on the screening method(s) for malnutrition (.88). Using a three round modified Delphi approach a list of ten best scoring QIs for the management of the adult hospitalized patient was established.

  4. Verification of a Quality Management Theory: Using a Delphi Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mohammad Mosadeghrad

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundA model of quality management called Strategic Collaborative Quality Management (SCQM model was developed based on the quality management literature review, the findings of a survey on quality management assessment in healthcare organisations, semi-structured interviews with healthcare stakeholders, and a Delphi study on healthcare quality management experts. The purpose of this study was to verify the SCQM model. MethodsThe proposed model was further developed using feedback from thirty quality management experts using a Delphi method. Further, a guidebook for its implementation was prepared including a road map and performance measurement. ResultsThe research led to the development of a context-specific model of quality management for healthcare organisations and a series of guidelines for its implementation. ConclusionA proper model of quality management should be developed and implemented properly in healthcare organisations to achieve business excellence.

  5. Verification of a quality management theory: using a delphi study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosadeghrad, Ali Mohammad

    2013-11-01

    A model of quality management called Strategic Collaborative Quality Management (SCQM) model was developed based on the quality management literature review, the findings of a survey on quality management assessment in healthcare organisations, semi-structured interviews with healthcare stakeholders, and a Delphi study on healthcare quality management experts. The purpose of this study was to verify the SCQM model. The proposed model was further developed using feedback from thirty quality management experts using a Delphi method. Further, a guidebook for its implementation was prepared including a road map and performance measurement. The research led to the development of a context-specific model of quality management for healthcare organisations and a series of guidelines for its implementation. A proper model of quality management should be developed and implemented properly in healthcare organisations to achieve business excellence.

  6. Verification of a Quality Management Theory: Using a Delphi Study

    OpenAIRE

    Mosadeghrad, Ali Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    BackgroundA model of quality management called Strategic Collaborative Quality Management (SCQM) model was developed based on the quality management literature review, the findings of a survey on quality management assessment in healthcare organisations, semi-structured interviews with healthcare stakeholders, and a Delphi study on healthcare quality management experts. The purpose of this study was to verify the SCQM model. MethodsThe proposed model was further developed using feedback from ...

  7. Delphi FND Application Object Library -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Delphi FND Application Object Library contains the following data elements, but are not limited to temporary data tables for the logged in session, information about...

  8. Informing decision making in agricultural greenhouse gas mitigation policy: A Best–Worst Scaling survey of expert and farmer opinion in the sheep industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, A.K.; Jones, D.L.; Edwards-Jones, G.; Cross, P.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Effectiveness and practicality of greenhouse gas mitigation measures are assessed. ► Best–Worst Scaling surveys are used to elicit expert and sheep farmer opinion. ► Effective and practical measures are priority candidates for policy inclusion. ► Support mechanisms may be needed to deliver effective, low practicality measures. ► Variation in farmers’ perceptions of practicality holds implications for policy delivery. -- Abstract: Policy decision making for agricultural greenhouse gas mitigation is hindered by scientific uncertainty regarding the effectiveness of mitigation measures. Successful on-farm adoption of measures is contingent upon farmer perception of the relative practicality of implementing the measure and associated incentives and advice. In the absence of a comprehensive evidence base we utilised Best–Worst Scaling, a discrete choice survey method, to elicit expert and farmer opinion on the relative effectiveness and practicality of mitigation measures to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from sheep production systems. The method enabled individual mitigation measures to be ranked on a ratio scale of effectiveness (expert opinion) and practicality (farmer opinion). Six measures were identified as possessing the combined qualities of effectiveness and practicality and are considered priority candidates for policy promotion. The overall preferred measure was the use of legumes in pasture reseed mixes. Estimation and analysis of the distribution of individual respondent scores revealed heterogeneity in farmers’ perceptions of practicality, suggesting that flexible policies are required to enable farmers to select mitigation measures most suited to their farm type and locality. Practical measures with below average effectiveness may be widely adopted with limited regulation, incentivisation or advice, whilst some highly effective measures with lower practicality are likely to present greater obstacles to adoption

  9. Defining the Bobath concept using the Delphi technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raine, Sue

    2006-03-01

    The Bobath concept, based on the work of Berta and Karel Bobath, offers therapists working in the field of neurological rehabilitation a framework for their clinical interventions. It is the most commonly used approach in the UK. Although they recognize that over the last half-century the concept has undergone considerable developments, proponents of the Bobath concept have been criticized for not publishing these changes. The aim of the present study was to use the Delphi technique to enable experts in the field to define the current Bobath concept. A four-round Delphi study design was used. The sample included all members of the British Bobath Tutor's Association, who are considered experts in the field. Initial statements were identified from the literature, with respondents generating additional statements during the study. The level of agreement was determined using a five-point Likert scale. The respondents were then provided with feedback on group opinions and given an opportunity to re-rate each statement. The level of group consensus was set at 80%. Fifteen experts took part. The response rate was 85% in the first round, and 93% in each subsequent round. Ten statements from the literature were rated with a further 12 generated by the experts. Thirteen statements achieved consensus for agreement and seven for disagreement. The Delphi study was an effective research tool, maintaining anonymity of responses and exploring expert opinions on the Bobath concept. The experts stated that Bobath's work has been misunderstood if it is considered as the inhibition of spasticity and the facilitation of normal movement, as described in some literature. They agreed that the Bobath concept was developed by the Bobaths as a living concept, understanding that as therapists' knowledge base grows their view of treatment broadens.

  10. Evidence-based policy? The re-medicalization of cannabis and the role of expert committees in the UK, 1972-1982.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Suzanne L

    2016-11-01

    Cannabis was introduced to the UK as a medical product in the nineteenth century. However, with questions over its safety, efficacy, and possible harms its medical role diminished and by the 1950s it was viewed as a drug of misuse. Nonetheless, scientific and lay knowledge around cannabis expanded from the 1960s and cannabis re-appeared in different therapeutic forms. In re-medicalizing cannabis, science-policy transfer proved important and was enabled by the developing mechanism of expert committees, most notably the Advisory Council on the Misuse of Drugs (ACMD). This article draws upon previously unknown archival material on the ACMD held at the National Archives and covers the period 1972-1982. It considers how expert groups were established, their membership, and the evolving discussion over therapeutic cannabis within the broader drug policy debate. Three distinct periods emerged: 1972-1976 with the creation of the Working Group on Cannabis; 1977-1979 when the Working Group focused on potential amendments to the Misuse of Drugs Act and recommended downgrading cannabis from Class B to Class C; 1980-1982 when the Expert Group on the Effects of Cannabis recommended downgrading cannabis and encouraged research into cannabis as a medicine. Sources reveal that driven by drug control imperatives the ACMD stimulated research on cannabis leading to increased research on medical applications. Expert advice was critical in the process of re-medicalization. Initially, discourse occurred in the closed expert committees of the ACMD. The drug problem had been framed under the criminal justice system but as the limitations of this were revealed, and there was continuing uncertainty over cannabis' impact, new approaches to cannabis were sought. It was this combination of more relaxed attitudes towards cannabis, research incentives, as well as a developing desire to draw medical needs away from discussion of drug control that was to allow re-medicalization to develop

  11. Environmental and occupational health research and training needs in Colombia: A Delphi study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Villamizar, Laura A; González, Beatriz Elena; Vera, Lina María; Patz, Jonathan; Bautista, Leonelo E

    2015-08-01

    Environmental factors contribute with 16% of the burden of disease in Colombia. A main obstacle in implementing national and regional environmental and occupational health policies is the limited knowledge on the local ability to study and control the impact of harmful exposures on health. To identify needs for research and training in environmental and occupational health in Colombia. We conducted a three-round hybrid Delphi study. A group of environmental and occupational health Colombian experts (n=16) from government agencies, universities, and research centers was recruited to participate in the study. Expert´s opinions on research and training needs were gathered through online questionnaires, followed by an in-person meeting. The percentage of agreement and the coefficient of variation were used to measure consensus. Air pollution and chemical products were considered the most important environmental and occupational exposures, due to their significant impact on chronic non-communicable diseases, such as respiratory diseases, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer. Research on the effects of outdoor air pollution on cardiovascular and respiratory diseases was considered of the greatest importance. Priority training areas included environmental and occupational health risk assessment, exposure modeling, advanced statistical methods, urban planning, occupational safety and hygiene, and epidemiology and toxicology. These findings provide a valuable input for the definition and implementation of national environmental and occupational health policies and for the development of a regional hub aimed at strengthening the capacity for research and training in Colombia.

  12. Building Responsive Health Systems to Help Communities Affected by Migration: An International Delphi Consensus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Pottie

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Persons affected by migration require health systems that are responsive and adaptable to the needs of both disadvantaged migrants and non-migrant populations. The objective of this study is to support health systems for populations affected by migration. Materials and Methods: An international Delphi consensus process was used to identify policy approaches to improve health systems for populations affected by migration. Participants were leading migrant health experts from Americas, Europe, Middle East, Asia, and Australasia. We calculated average ranking scores and qualitatively analyzed open-ended questions. Results: Participants identified the following key areas as priorities for policy development: health inequities, system discrimination, migrant related health data, disadvantaged migrant sub-groups, and considerations for disadvantaged non-migrant populations. Highly ranked items to improve health systems were: Health Equity Impact Assessment, evidence based guidelines, and the International Organization for Migration annual reports. Discussion: Policy makers need tools, data and resources to address health systems challenges. Policies need to avoid preventable deaths of migrants and barriers to basic health services.

  13. On speaking terms: a Delphi study on shared decision-making in maternity care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwenhuijze, Marianne J; Korstjens, Irene; de Jonge, Ank; de Vries, Raymond; Lagro-Janssen, Antoine

    2014-07-09

    For most women, participation in decision-making during maternity care has a positive impact on their childbirth experiences. Shared decision-making (SDM) is widely advocated as a way to support people in their healthcare choices. The aim of this study was to identify quality criteria and professional competencies for applying shared decision-making in maternity care. We focused on decision-making in everyday maternity care practice for healthy women. An international three-round web-based Delphi study was conducted. The Delphi panel included international experts in SDM and in maternity care: mostly midwives, and additionally obstetricians, educators, researchers, policy makers and representatives of care users. Round 1 contained open-ended questions to explore relevant ingredients for SDM in maternity care and to identify the competencies needed for this. In rounds 2 and 3, experts rated statements on quality criteria and competencies on a 1 to 7 Likert-scale. A priori, positive consensus was defined as 70% or more of the experts scoring ≥6 (70% panel agreement). Consensus was reached on 45 quality criteria statements and 4 competency statements. SDM in maternity care is a dynamic process that starts in antenatal care and ends after birth. Experts agreed that the regular visits during pregnancy offer opportunities to build a relationship, anticipate situations and revisit complex decisions. Professionals need to prepare women antenatally for unexpected, urgent decisions in birth and revisit these decisions postnatally. Open and respectful communication between women and care professionals is essential; information needs to be accurate, evidence-based and understandable to women. Experts were divided about the contribution of professional advice in shared decision-making and about the partner's role. SDM in maternity care is a dynamic process that takes into consideration women's individual needs and the context of the pregnancy or birth. The identified

  14. Defining competencies for safe thyroidectomy: An international Delphi consensus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madani, Amin; Watanabe, Yusuke; Vassiliou, Melina; Feldman, Liane S; Duh, Quan-Yang; Singer, Michael C; Ruan, Daniel T; Tabah, Roger; Mitmaker, Elliot

    2016-01-01

    Current methods for teaching and assessing competencies that characterize expert intraoperative performance are inconsistent, subjective, and lack standardization. This mixed-methods study was designed to define and establish expert consensus on the most important competencies required to perform a thyroidectomy safely. Cognitive task analyses for thyroidectomy were performed with semistructured interviews of experts in thyroid surgery. Verbal data were transcribed verbatim, coded, and categorized according to themes that were synthesized into a list of items. Once qualitative data reached saturation, 26 experts were invited to complete 2-round online Delphi surveys to rank each item on a Likert scale of importance (1-7). Consensus was predefined as a Cronbach's α ≥ 0.80. Sixty items were synthesized from 5 interviews and categorized into 8 sections: preparation (n = 8), incision/exposure (n = 11), general considerations (n = 4), middle thyroid vein (n = 1), superior pole (n = 5), inferior pole (n = 5), posterolateral dissection (n = 19), and closure (n = 7). Eighteen (69%) experts from 3 countries participated in the Delphi survey. Consensus was achieved after 2 voting rounds (Cronbach's α = 0.95). Greatest weighted sections included "Superior Pole Dissection" and "Posterolateral Dissection." Consensus was achieved on defining the most important competencies for safe thyroidectomy. This blueprint serves as the basis for instructional design and objective assessment tools to evaluate performance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Consensus building on access to controlled medicines: a four-stage Delphi consensus procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jünger, Saskia; Brearley, Sarah; Payne, Sheila; Mantel-Teeuwisse, Aukje K; Lynch, Thomas; Scholten, Willem; Radbruch, Lukas

    2013-12-01

    In 2011, the World Health Organization (WHO) published the policy guidelines Ensuring Balance in National Controlled Substances Policies-Guidance for Availability and Accessibility of Controlled Medicines, presenting a revised version of the previous guidelines from 2000. To describe the consensus process that guided the revision of the guidelines. A four-stage revision process was undertaken with a panel of 29 international experts from palliative care, public health, and harm reduction: 1) a qualitative inventory of required changes by means of a structured checklist, 2) & 3) a two-round online consensus Delphi process about the draft revision of the guidelines, and 4) a WHO advisory meeting for the discussion of remaining controversies and final issues. The qualitative inventory resulted in a draft revision of the guidelines meeting requirements on different levels, such as a broader focus and more accurate evidence. Operationalization of the guidelines was improved by specifying measures, procedures, and responsibilities. The Delphi procedure provided concrete indications for the rewording of both the guidelines and the associated text. During the advisory meeting, any persistent disagreements were systematically discussed to achieve consensus on the new version of the guidelines. The four-stage multimethod consensus process resulted in a substantial revision to the WHO guidelines. This takes into account the increase in knowledge about opioid medication since the first edition of the guidelines. Disagreement emerging from the process underlines the complexity of preparing guidance because of the delicate balance between need and control. Copyright © 2013 U.S. Cancer Pain Relief Committee. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. How to use the nominal group and Delphi techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, Sara S; King, Michelle; Tully, Mary P

    2016-06-01

    Introduction The Nominal Group Technique (NGT) and Delphi Technique are consensus methods used in research that is directed at problem-solving, idea-generation, or determining priorities. While consensus methods are commonly used in health services literature, few studies in pharmacy practice use these methods. This paper provides an overview of the NGT and Delphi technique, including the steps involved and the types of research questions best suited to each method, with examples from the pharmacy literature. Methodology The NGT entails face-to-face discussion in small groups, and provides a prompt result for researchers. The classic NGT involves four key stages: silent generation, round robin, clarification and voting (ranking). Variations have occurred in relation to generating ideas, and how 'consensus' is obtained from participants. The Delphi technique uses a multistage self-completed questionnaire with individual feedback, to determine consensus from a larger group of 'experts.' Questionnaires have been mailed, or more recently, e-mailed to participants. When to use The NGT has been used to explore consumer and stakeholder views, while the Delphi technique is commonly used to develop guidelines with health professionals. Method choice is influenced by various factors, including the research question, the perception of consensus required, and associated practicalities such as time and geography. Limitations The NGT requires participants to personally attend a meeting. This may prove difficult to organise and geography may limit attendance. The Delphi technique can take weeks or months to conclude, especially if multiple rounds are required, and may be complex for lay people to complete.

  17. Local health policies under the microscope: consultants, experts, international missions and poliomyelitis in Spain, 1950-1975.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballester, Rosa; Porras, María Isabel; Báguena, María José

    2015-01-01

    One of the main focuses of analysis of this paper concerns the missions of international health agency experts to Spain to report on the situation, the activities in the fight against physical disabilities in children and on the actions taken to cope with the problem. The Spain-23 Plan was the instrument used by WHO and other agencies to start the process of change in a country undergoing a period of transformation under the enduring Franco dictatorship. As key sources, the paper uses unpublished reports of WHO experts on the subject, which resulted from visits to the country between 1950 and 1975. The methodological approach consists of an analysis of discourses from primary sources within the historiographical framework.

  18. Laparotomy operative note template constructed through a modified Delphi method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Lolonya; Churley-Strom, Ruth; Singal, Bonita; O'Leary, Sharon

    2009-05-01

    An operative note is indispensable to physician documentation and decision-making; however, there are no accepted standards for operative note content. Our aim was to use a modified Delphi consensus-building method to construct a uniform operative note template for laparotomy. Using Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations requirements, literature review, and feedback from 15 medical malpractice defense attorneys, we compiled a draft operative note template of 31 elements. We surveyed 37 Association of Professor of Gynecology and Obstetrics/Solvay scholars asking for their input on inclusion of each item as essential content of the operative note. Two iterations of the survey were required to reach a predetermined 75% level of consensus. Nine elements were eliminated from the template: 6 original and 3 expert-suggested elements. We provide an operative note template that was compiled through a Delphi process.

  19. Consensus definition of fetal growth restriction: a Delphi procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordijn, S J; Beune, I M; Thilaganathan, B; Papageorghiou, A; Baschat, A A; Baker, P N; Silver, R M; Wynia, K; Ganzevoort, W

    2016-09-01

    To determine, by expert consensus, a definition for early and late fetal growth restriction (FGR) through a Delphi procedure. A Delphi survey was conducted among an international panel of experts on FGR. Panel members were provided with 18 literature-based parameters for defining FGR and were asked to rate the importance of these parameters for the diagnosis of both early and late FGR on a 5-point Likert scale. Parameters were described as solitary parameters (parameters that are sufficient to diagnose FGR, even if all other parameters are normal) and contributory parameters (parameters that require other abnormal parameter(s) to be present for the diagnosis of FGR). Consensus was sought to determine the cut-off values for accepted parameters. A total of 106 experts were approached, of whom 56 agreed to participate and entered the first round, and 45 (80%) completed all four rounds. For early FGR (four contributory parameters (AC or EFW  95(th) centile in either the UA or uterine artery) were agreed upon. For late FGR (≥ 32 weeks), two solitary parameters (AC or EFW four contributory parameters (EFW or AC  two quartiles on growth charts and cerebroplacental ratio  95(th) centile) were defined. Consensus-based definitions for early and late FGR, as well as cut-off values for parameters involved, were agreed upon by a panel of experts. Copyright © 2016 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Copyright © 2016 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. DELPHI's Ring Imaging Cherenkov Chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1989-01-01

    The hundreds of mirrors around this Ring Imaging Cherenkov Chamber reflect cones of light created by fast moving particles to a detector. The velocity of a particle can be measured by the size of the ring produced on the detector. DELPHI, which ran from 1989 to 2000 on the LEP accelerator, was primarily concerned with particle identification.

  1. Performance of the DELPHI detector

    CERN Document Server

    Abreu, P; Adye, T; Agasi, E; Ajinenko, I; Aleksan, Roy; Alekseev, G D; Alemany, R; Allport, P P; Almehed, S; Alvsvaag, S J; Amaldi, Ugo; Amato, S; Andreazza, A; Andrieux, M L; Antilogus, P; Apel, W D; Arnoud, Y; Åsman, B; Augustin, J E; Augustinus, A; Baillon, Paul; Bambade, P; Barão, F; Barate, R; Barbiellini, Guido; Bardin, Dimitri Yuri; Baroncelli, A; Bärring, O; Barrio, J A; Bartl, Walter; Bates, M J; Battaglia, Marco; Baubillier, M; Baudot, J; Becks, K H; Begalli, M; Beillière, P; Belokopytov, Yu A; Benvenuti, Alberto C; Berggren, M; Bertrand, D; Bianchi, F; Bigi, M; Bilenky, S M; Billoir, P; Bloch, D; Blume, M; Blyth, S; Bolognese, T; Bonesini, M; Bonivento, W; Booth, P S L; Borisov, G; Bosio, C; Bosworth, S; Botner, O; Bouquet, B; Bourdarios, C; Bowcock, T J V; Bozzo, M; Branchini, P; Brand, K D; Brenke, T; Brenner, R A; Bricman, C; Brillault, L; Brown, R C A; Brückman, P; Brunet, J M; Bugge, L; Buran, T; Burgsmüller, T; Buschmann, P; Buys, A; Cabrera, S; Caccia, M; Calvi, M; Camacho-Rozas, A J; Camporesi, T; Canale, V; Canepa, M; Cankocak, K; Cao, F; Carena, F; Carrilho, P; Carroll, L; Caso, Carlo; Castillo-Gimenez, M V; Cattai, A; Cavallo, F R; Cerrito, L; Chabaud, V; Charpentier, P; Chaussard, L; Chauveau, J; Checchia, P; Chelkov, G A; Chen, M; Chierici, R; Chliapnikov, P V; Chochula, P; Chorowicz, V; Chudoba, J; Cindro, V; Collins, P; Contreras, J L; Contri, R; Cortina, E; Cosme, G; Cossutti, F; Crawley, H B; Crennell, D J; Crosetti, G; Cuevas-Maestro, J; Czellar, S; Dahl-Jensen, Erik; Dahm, J; D'Almagne, B; Dam, M; Damgaard, G; Dauncey, P D; Davenport, Martyn; Da Silva, W; Defoix, C; Deghorain, A; Della Ricca, G; Delpierre, P A; Demaria, N; De Angelis, A; de Boer, Wim; De Brabandere, S; De Clercq, C; La Vaissière, C de; De Lotto, B; De Min, A; De Paula, L S; De Saint-Jean, C; Dijkstra, H; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Djama, F; Dolbeau, J; Dönszelmann, M; Doroba, K; Dracos, M; Drees, J; Drees, K A; Dris, M; Dufour, Y; Dupont, F; Edsall, D M; Ehret, R; Eigen, G; Ekelöf, T J C; Ekspong, Gösta; Elsing, M; Engel, J P; Ershaidat, N; Erzen, B; Espirito-Santo, M C; Falaleev, V P; Falk, E; Fassouliotis, D; Feindt, Michael; Fenyuk, A; Ferrer, A; Filippas-Tassos, A; Firestone, A; Fischer, P A; Föth, H; Fokitis, E; Fontanelli, F; Formenti, F; Franek, B J; Frenkiel, P; Fries, D E C; Frodesen, A G; Frühwirth, R; Fulda-Quenzer, F; Fuster, J A; Galloni, A; Gamba, D; Gandelman, M; García, C; García, J; Gaspar, C; Gasparini, U; Gavillet, P; Gazis, E N; Gelé, D; Gerber, J P; Gerdyukov, L N; Gibbs, M; Gokieli, R; Golob, B; Gopal, Gian P; Gorn, L; Górski, M; Guz, Yu; Gracco, Valerio; Graziani, E; Grosdidier, G; Grzelak, K; Gumenyuk, S A; Gunnarsson, P; Günther, M; Guy, J; Hahn, F; Hahn, S; Hajduk, Z; Hallgren, A; Hamacher, K; Hao, W; Harris, F J; Hedberg, V; Henriques, R P; Hernández, J J; Herquet, P; Herr, H; Hessing, T L; Higón, E; Hilke, Hans Jürgen; Hill, T S; Holmgren, S O; Holt, P J; Holthuizen, D J; Hoorelbeke, S; Houlden, M A; Hrubec, Josef; Huet, K; Hultqvist, K; Jackson, J N; Jacobsson, R; Jalocha, P; Janik, R; Jarlskog, C; Jarlskog, G; Jarry, P; Jean-Marie, B; Johansson, E K; Jönsson, L B; Jönsson, P E; Joram, Christian; Juillot, P; Kaiser, M; Kapusta, F; Karafasoulis, K; Karlsson, M; Karvelas, E; Karyukhin, A N; Katsanevas, S; Katsoufis, E C; Keränen, R; Khomenko, B A; Khovanskii, N N; King, B J; Kjaer, N J; Klein, H; Klovning, A; Kluit, P M; Köne, B; Kokkinias, P; Koratzinos, M; Kourkoumelis, C; Kuznetsov, O; Kramer, P H; Krammer, Manfred; Kreuter, C; Kronkvist, I J; Krumshtein, Z; Krupinski, W; Kubinec, P; Kucewicz, W; Kurvinen, K L; Lacasta, C; Laktineh, I; Lamblot, S; Lamsa, J; Lanceri, L; Lane, D W; Langefeld, P; Lapin, V; Last, I; Laugier, J P; Lauhakangas, R; Leder, Gerhard; Ledroit, F; Lefébure, V; Legan, C K; Leitner, R; Lemoigne, Y; Lemonne, J; Lenzen, Georg; Lepeltier, V; Lesiak, T; Liko, D; Lindner, R; Lipniacka, A; Lippi, I; Lörstad, B; Loken, J G; López, J M; López-Aguera, M A; Loukas, D; Lutz, P; Lyons, L; MacNaughton, J N; Maehlum, G; Maio, A; Malychev, V; Mandl, F; Marco, J; Maréchal, B; Margoni, M; Marin, J C; Mariotti, C; Markou, A; Maron, T; Martínez-Rivero, C; Martínez-Vidal, F; Martí i García, S; Masik, J; Matorras, F; Matteuzzi, C; Matthiae, Giorgio; Mazzucato, M; McCubbin, M L; McKay, R; McNulty, R; Medbo, J; Meroni, C; Meyer, S; Meyer, W T; Michelotto, M; Migliore, E; Mirabito, L; Mitaroff, Winfried A; Mjörnmark, U; Moa, T; Møller, R; Mönig, K; Monge, M R; Morettini, P; Müller, H; Mundim, L M; Murray, J; Muryn, B; Myatt, Gerald; Naraghi, F; Navarria, Francesco Luigi; Navas, S; Nawrocki, K; Negri, P; Neumann, W; Neumeister, N; Nicolaidou, R; Nielsen, B S; Nieuwenhuizen, M; Nikolaenko, V; Niss, P; Nomerotski, A; Normand, Ainsley; Oberschulte-Beckmann, W; Obraztsov, V F; Olshevskii, A G; Onofre, A; Orava, Risto; Österberg, K; Ouraou, A; Paganini, P; Paganoni, M; Pagès, P; Palka, H; Papadopoulou, T D; Papageorgiou, K; Pape, L; Parkes, C; Parodi, F; Passeri, A; Pegoraro, M; Peralta, L; Perevozchikov, V; Pernegger, H; Perrotta, A; Petridou, C; Petrolini, A; Petrovykh, M; Phillips, H T; Piana, G; Pierre, F; Pimenta, M; Pindo, M; Plaszczynski, S; Podobrin, O; Pol, M E; Polok, G; Poropat, P; Pozdnyakov, V; Prest, M; Privitera, P; Pukhaeva, N; Pullia, Antonio; Radojicic, D; Ragazzi, S; Rahmani, H; Rames, J; Ratoff, P N; Read, A L; Reale, M; Rebecchi, P; Redaelli, N G; Regler, Meinhard; Reid, D; Renton, P B; Resvanis, L K; Richard, F; Richardson, J; Rídky, J; Rinaudo, G; Ripp, I; Romero, A; Roncagliolo, I; Ronchese, P; Roos, L; Rosenberg, E I; Rosso, E; Roudeau, Patrick; Rovelli, T; Rückstuhl, W; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V; Ruiz, A; Rybicki, K; Saarikko, H; Sacquin, Yu; Sadovskii, A; Sajot, G; Salt, J; Sánchez, J; Sannino, M; Schimmelpfennig, M; Schneider, H; Schwickerath, U; Schyns, M A E; Sciolla, G; Scuri, F; Seager, P; Sedykh, Yu; Segar, A M; Seitz, A; Sekulin, R L; Shellard, R C; Siccama, I; Siegrist, P; Simonetti, S; Simonetto, F; Sissakian, A N; Sitár, B; Skaali, T B; Smadja, G; Smirnov, N; Smirnova, O G; Smith, G R; Solovyanov, O; Sosnowski, R; Souza-Santos, D; Spiriti, E; Sponholz, P; Squarcia, S; Stanescu, C; Stapnes, Steinar; Stavitski, I; Stichelbaut, F; Stocchi, A; Strauss, J; Strub, R; Stugu, B; Szczekowski, M; Szeptycka, M; Tabarelli de Fatis, T; Tavernet, J P; Chikilev, O G; Tilquin, A; Timmermans, J; Tkatchev, L G; Todorov, T; Toet, D Z; Tomaradze, A G; Tomé, B; Tonazzo, A; Tortora, L; Tranströmer, G; Treille, D; Trischuk, W; Tristram, G; Trombini, A; Troncon, C; Tsirou, A L; Turluer, M L; Tyapkin, I A; Tyndel, M; Tzamarias, S; Überschär, B; Ullaland, O; Valenti, G; Vallazza, E; Van der Velde, C; van Apeldoorn, G W; van Dam, P; Van Doninck, W K; Van Eldik, J; Vassilopoulos, N; Vegni, G; Ventura, L; Venus, W A; Verbeure, F; Verlato, M; Vertogradov, L S; Vilanova, D; Vincent, P; Vitale, L; Vlasov, E; Vodopyanov, A S; Vrba, V; Wahlen, H; Walck, C; Weierstall, M; Weilhammer, Peter; Weiser, C; Wetherell, Alan M; Wicke, D; Wickens, J H; Wielers, M; Wilkinson, G R; Williams, W S C; Winter, M; Witek, M; Woschnagg, K; Yip, K; Zach, F; Zaitsev, A; Zalewska-Bak, A; Zalewski, Piotr; Zavrtanik, D; Zevgolatakos, E; Zimin, N I; Zito, M; Zontar, D; Zuberi, R; Zucchelli, G C; Zumerle, G; Belokopytov, Yu; Charpentier, Ph; Gavillet, Ph; Gouz, Yu; Jarlskog, Ch

    1996-01-01

    DELPHI (DEtector with Lepton, Photon and Hadron Identification) is a detector for e^+e^- physics, designed to provide high granularity over a 4\\pi solid angle, allowing an effective particle identification. It has been operating at the LEP (Large Electron-Positron) collider at CERN since 1989. This article reviews its performance.

  2. Development of Preliminary Remission Criteria for Gout Using Delphi and 1000Minds® Consensus Exercises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Lautour, Hugh; Taylor, William J; Adebajo, Ade

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to establish consensus for potential remission criteria for use in clinical trials of gout. METHODS: Experts (n=88) in gout from multiple countries were invited to participate in a web-based questionnaire study. Three rounds of Delphi consensus exercises were...

  3. A Delphi Survey on Citizenship Education in Asean Countries: Findings for Brunei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salleh, Hajah Sallimah Haji Mohammed; Laxman, Kumar; Jawawi, Rosmawijah

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the Delphi Survey was to elucidate Bruneian Education experts' responses to five questions regarding their knowledge and understanding of the charateristics of citizenship education viz. Environment, Coexistence, Culture, Social Justice and Equity, Democracy, Sustainable Development, Interdependence, Foreign Language, Social Welfare,…

  4. Concepts and contexts in engineering and technology education : An international and interdisciplinary Delphi study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossouw, A.; Hacker, M.; De Vries, M.J.

    2010-01-01

    Inspired by a similar study by Osborne et al. we have conducted a Delphi study among experts to identify key concepts to be taught in engineering and technology education and relevant and meaningful contexts through which these concepts can be taught and learnt. By submitting the outcomes of the

  5. Critical Guidelines for U.S.-Based Counselor Educators When Working Transnationally: A Delphi Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Paul H.; Benshoff, James M.; Gonzalez, Laura M.

    2018-01-01

    U.S.-based counselor education faculty increasingly are participating in transnational experiences, such as global research and study abroad. The purpose of this study was to develop guidelines for U.S.-based counselor educators when working transnationally. Using Delphi methodology, 69 consensus guidelines were developed from an expert panel.…

  6. Recommended Skill Requirements of Recent Management Information Systems Graduates for Employment: A Modified Delphi Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strnad, Michael A., Sr.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this Modified Delphi study was to achieve a consensus and forecast a prediction from expert IT hiring managers on what skills are required of MIS graduates for employment. In doing so, guidance could be provided to academic leaders who design curricula for MIS students on the required skills for employment. This study was conducted…

  7. Nursing Diagnoses (NANDA-I) in Hematology-Oncology: A Delphi-Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speksnijder, Herma T.; Mank, Arno P.; van Achterberg, Theo

    2011-01-01

    To identify NANDA-I diagnoses that are most relevant to hematology-oncology nursing in Europe.   In a two-round, electronic, quantitative Delphi study, 28 experts from nine European countries assessed the relevance of NANDA-I diagnoses and health problems.   This study identified 64 relevant

  8. Nursing diagnoses (NANDA-I) in hematology-oncology: a Delphi-study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speksnijder, H.T.; Mank, A.P.; Achterberg, T. van

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: To identify NANDA-I diagnoses that are most relevant to hematology-oncology nursing in Europe. METHODS: In a two-round, electronic, quantitative Delphi study, 28 experts from nine European countries assessed the relevance of NANDA-I diagnoses and health problems. FINDINGS: This study

  9. Development of an Adolescent Alcohol Misuse Intervention Based on the Prototype Willingness Model: A Delphi Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Emma; Martin, Jilly; Foxcroft, David

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report on the use of the Delphi method to gain expert feedback on the identification of behaviour change techniques (BCTs) and development of a novel intervention to reduce adolescent alcohol misuse, based on the Prototype Willingness Model (PWM) of health risk behaviour. Design/methodology/approach: Four…

  10. The Learner-Centered Instructional Design Model: A Modified Delphi Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melsom, Duane Allan

    2010-01-01

    The learner-centered instructional design model redefines the standard linear instructional design model to form a circular model where the learner's needs are the first item considered in the development of instruction. The purpose of this modified Delphi study was to have a panel of experts in the instructional design field review the…

  11. Qualitative Delphi Study of Factors Influencing Data Center Investment in Eco-Innovations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, M. Bennett

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative investigation explored the diffusion of eco-innovations within the U.S. data center industry from 2007 to 2015 whose adoption was intended to decouple digital economy growth from environmental impact. Using diffusion of innovation theory to inform the study, and synthesizing subject matter expert input from a Delphi panel…

  12. Research priorities for child and adolescent physical activity and sedentary behaviours: an international perspective using a twin-panel Delphi procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillis, Lauren; Tomkinson, Grant; Olds, Timothy; Moreira, Carla; Christie, Candice; Nigg, Claudio; Cerin, Ester; Van Sluijs, Esther; Stratton, Gareth; Janssen, Ian; Dorovolomo, Jeremy; Reilly, John J; Mota, Jorge; Zayed, Kashef; Kawalski, Kent; Andersen, Lars Bo; Carrizosa, Manuel; Tremblay, Mark; Chia, Michael; Hamlin, Mike; Thomas, Non Eleri; Maddison, Ralph; Biddle, Stuart; Gorely, Trish; Onywera, Vincent; Van Mechelen, Willem

    2013-10-24

    The quantity and quality of studies in child and adolescent physical activity and sedentary behaviour have rapidly increased, but research directions are often pursued in a reactive and uncoordinated manner. To arrive at an international consensus on research priorities in the area of child and adolescent physical activity and sedentary behaviour. Two independent panels, each consisting of 12 experts, undertook three rounds of a Delphi methodology. The Delphi methodology required experts to anonymously answer questions put forward by the researchers with feedback provided between each round. The primary outcome of the study was a ranked set of 29 research priorities that aimed to be applicable for the next 10 years. The top three ranked priorities were: developing effective and sustainable interventions to increase children's physical activity long-term; policy and/or environmental change and their influence on children's physical activity and sedentary behaviour; and prospective, longitudinal studies of the independent effects of physical activity and sedentary behaviour on health. These research priorities can help to guide decisions on future research directions.

  13. Australian nurse educators identify gaps in expert practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, D; Duffield, C; Adams, A; Nagy, S; Crisp, J; Mitten-Lewis, S

    2000-01-01

    In Australia, nurses face a double-barreled challenge to their role. With the rapid adoption of new health care technologies coupled with increasing economic constraints, they find themselves "doing more with less." In this context of continuous change, it is useful to determine what expert nurse clinicians deem the most essential skills, attitudes and knowledge required for practice in complex technological environments. Separate panels of 28 educators and 43 cardiac nurse clinicians participated in a national Delphi study rating the importance to the nursing role of 107 items drawn from the international literature on expert practice and technology. Indicating the importance of each item in both the "real" and "ideal" worlds of practice, educators identified 58 items where they felt actual practice was substantially far from the ideal. For 16 of these items relating to empowerment of patients, nursing research, and technology policy, the educators rated clinical behavior below the median of the real world scale, indicating substandard performance of a role or inadequate assimilation of a concept. The implications for the definition of expert practice and for curricula development are discussed.

  14. International multispecialty consensus on how to evaluate ultrasound competence: a Delphi consensus survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin G Tolsgaard

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To achieve international consensus across multiple specialties on a generic ultrasound rating scale using a Delphi technique. METHODS: Ultrasound experts from Obstetrics-Gynaecology, Surgery, Urology, Radiology, Rheumatology, Emergency Medicine, and Gastro-Enterology representing North America, Australia, and Europe were identified. A multi-round survey was conducted to obtain consensus between these experts. Of 60 invited experts, 44 experts agreed to participate in the first Delphi round, 41 remained in the second round, and 37 completed the third Delphi round. Seven key elements of the ultrasound examination were identified from existing literature and recommendations from international ultrasound societies. All experts rated the importance of these seven elements on a five-point Likert scale in the first round and suggested potential new elements for the assessment of ultrasound skills. In the second round, the experts re-rated all elements and a third round was conducted to allow final comments. Agreement on which elements to include in the final rating scale was pre-defined as more than 80% of the experts rating an element four or five, on importance to the ultrasound examination. RESULTS: Two additional elements were suggested by more than 10% of the experts in the first Delphi round. Consensus was obtained to include these two new elements along with five of the original elements in the final assessment instrument: 1 Indication for the examination 2 Applied knowledge of ultrasound equipment 3 Image optimization 4 Systematic examination 5 Interpretation of images 6 Documentation of examination and 7 Medical decision making. CONCLUSION: International multispecialty consensus was achieved on the content of a generic ultrasound rating scale. This is the first step to ensure valid assessment of clinicians in different medical specialties using ultrasound.

  15. An overview of the national immunization policy making process: the role of the Korea expert committee on immunization practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    The need for evidence-based decision making in immunization programs has increased due to the presence of multiple health priorities, limited human resources, expensive vaccines, and limited funds. Countries should establish a group of national experts to advise their Ministries of Health. So far, many nations have formed their own National Immunization Technical Advisory Groups (NITAGs). In the Republic of Korea, the Korea Expert Committee on Immunization Practices (KECIP), established by law in the early 1990s, has made many important technical recommendations to contribute to the decline in vaccine preventable diseases and currently functions as a NITAG. It includes 13 core members and 2 non-core members, including a chairperson. Core members usually come from affiliated organizations in internal medicine, pediatrics, obstetrics, microbiology, preventive medicine, nursing and a representative from a consumer group, all of whom serve two year terms. Non-core members comprise two government officials belonging to the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (KCDC) and the Korea Food and Drug Administration. Meetings are held as needed, but at least twice a year, and sub-committees are formed as a resource for gathering, analyzing, and preparing information for the KECIP meetings. Once the sub-committees or the KCDC review the available data, the KECIP members discuss each issue in depth and develop recommendations, usually by a consensus in the meeting. The KECIP publishes national guidelines and immunization schedules that are updated regularly. KECIP's role is essentially consultative and the implementation of their recommendations may depend on the budget or current laws. PMID:22359523

  16. An overview of the national immunization policy making process: the role of the Korea expert committee on immunization practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee Yeon Cho

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The need for evidence-based decision making in immunization programs has increased due to the presence of multiple health priorities, limited human resources, expensive vaccines, and limited funds. Countries should establish a group of national experts to advise their Ministries of Health. So far, many nations have formed their own National Immunization Technical Advisory Groups (NITAGs. In the Republic of Korea, the Korea Expert Committee on Immunization Practices (KECIP, established by law in the early 1990s, has made many important technical recommendations to contribute to the decline in vaccine preventable diseases and currently functions as a NITAG. It includes 13 core members and 2 non-core members, including a chairperson. Core members usually come from affiliated organizations in internal medicine, pediatrics, obstetrics, microbiology, preventive medicine, nursing and a representative from a consumer group, all of whom serve two year terms. Non-core members comprise two government officials belonging to the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (KCDC and the Korea Food and Drug Administration. Meetings are held as needed, but at least twice a year, and sub-committees are formed as a resource for gathering, analyzing, and preparing information for the KECIP meetings. Once the sub-committees or the KCDC review the available data, the KECIP members discuss each issue in depth and develop recommendations, usually by a consensus in the meeting. The KECIP publishes national guidelines and immunization schedules that are updated regularly. KECIP’s role is essentially consultative and the implementation of their recommendations may depend on the budget or current laws.

  17. Expert systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haldy, P.A.

    1988-01-01

    The definitions of the terms 'artificial intelligence' and 'expert systems', the methodology, areas of employment and limits of expert systems are discussed. The operation of an expert system is described, especially the presentation and organization of knowledge as well as interference and control. Methods and tools for expert system development are presented and their application in nuclear energy are briefly addressed. 7 figs., 2 tabs., 6 refs

  18. Clinical management and associated costs for moderate and severe Alzheimer's disease in urban China: a Delphi panel study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xin; Chen, Shengdi; Chen, Xiaochun; Jia, Jianjun; Li, Chunhou; Liu, Cong; Toumi, Mondher; Milea, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    Healthcare resource utilisation for Alzheimer's disease (AD) in China is not well understood. This Delphi panel study aimed to describe the clinical management pathways for moderate and severe AD patients in urban China and to define the amount and cost of healthcare resources used. A panel of 11 experts was recruited from urban China to participate in two rounds of preparatory interviews. In the first round, 9 physicians specialised in dementia gave a qualitative description of the clinical management of AD patients. In the second round, 2 hospital administrators were asked about the cost of AD management and care. Results from the interviews were discussed by the experts in a Delphi panel meeting, where consensus was reached on quantitative aspects of AD management, including the rate of healthcare resource utilisation, the respective unit costs and caregiving time. Interviewees reported that mild AD is under-recognised in China; most patients are diagnosed with moderate to severe AD. Loss of independence and agitation/aggression are the main drivers for healthcare resource utilisation and contribute to a heavier caregiver burden. It was estimated that 70 % moderate AD patients are independent/non-aggressive at the time of diagnosis, 15 % are independent/aggressive, 10 % are dependent/non-aggressive, and 5 % are dependent/aggressive. Dependent/aggressive AD patients are more likely to be hospitalised (70-90 %) than accepted in a nursing home (0-20 %), while the opposite is true for dependent/non-aggressive patients (5-35 % for hospitalisation vs. 80 % for nursing home). Independent AD patients require 1-3 hours/day of caregiver time, while dependent patients can require up to 12-15 hours/day. Experts agreed that AD complicates the management of age-related comorbidities, found in 70-80 % of all AD patients, increasing the frequency and cost of hospitalisation. The Delphi panel approach was an efficient method of gathering data about the amount of

  19. Environmental and occupational health research and training needs in Colombia: A Delphi study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Villamizar, Laura A.; González, Beatriz Elena; Vera, Lina María; Patz, Jonathan; Bautista, Leonelo E.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Environmental factors contribute with 16% of the burden of disease in Colombia. A main obstacle in implementing national and regional environmental and occupational health policies is the limited knowledge on the local ability to study and control the impact of harmful exposures on health. Objective To identify needs for research and training in environmental and occupational health in Colombia. Materials and methods We conducted a three-round hybrid Delphi study. A group of environmental and occupational health Colombian experts (n=16) from government agencies, universities, and research centers was recruited to participate in the study. Expert’s opinions on research and training needs were gathered through online questionnaires, followed by an in-person meeting. The percentage of agreement and the coefficient of variation were used to measure consensus. Results Air pollution and chemical products were considered the most important environmental and occupational exposures, due to their significant impact on chronic non-communicable diseases, such as respiratory diseases, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer. Research on the effects of outdoor air pollution on cardiovascular and respiratory diseases was considered of the greatest importance. Priority training areas included environmental and occupational health risk assessment, exposure modeling, advanced statistical methods, urban planning, occupational safety and hygiene, and epidemiology and toxicology. Conclusions These findings provide a valuable input for the definition and implementation of national environmental and occupational health policies and for the development of a regional hub aimed at strengthening the capacity for research and training in Colombia. PMID:26535742

  20. Rating scale for the assessment of competence in ultrasound-guided peripheral vascular access - a Delphi Consensus Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Primdahl, Stine C; Todsen, Tobias; Clemmesen, Marie Louise

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Peripheral vascular access is vital for treatment and diagnostics of hospitalized patients. Ultrasound-guided vascular access (UGVA) is superior to the landmark technique. To ensure competence-based education, an assessment tool of UGVA competence is needed. We aimed to develop...... a global rating scale (RS) for assessment of UGVA competence based on opinions on the content from ultrasound experts in a modified Delphi consensus study. METHODS: We included experts from anesthesiology, emergency medicine and radiology across university hospitals in Denmark. Nine elements were drafted...... Delphi round, the experts excluded one element from the scale. In the third Delphi round, consensus was obtained on the eight elements: preparation of utensils, ergonomics, preparation of the ultrasound device, identification of blood vessels, anatomy, hygiene, coordination of the needle, and completion...

  1. [A Delphi Method Survey of the Core Competences of Post-Acute-Care Nurses in Caring for Acute Stroke Patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Shu-Ching; Yeh, Lily; Lu, Meei-Shiow; Lin, Pei-Yu

    2015-12-01

    Post-acute care (PAC) service is becoming increasingly important in Taiwan as a core focus of government policies that are designed to ensure continuity of care. In order to improve PAC nursing education and quality of care, the present study applies a modified Delphi method to identify the core competences of nurses who provide PAC services to acute stroke patients. We surveyed 18 experts in post-acute care and long-term care anonymously using a 29-question questionnaire in order to identify the essential professional skills that are required to perform PAC effectively. The results of this survey indicate that the core competences of PAC may be divided into two categories: Case Management and Care Management. Case Management includes Direct Care, Communication, Health Care Education, Nursing Consulting, and Family Assessment & Health Care. Care Management includes Interdisciplinary Teamwork, Patient Care Management, and Resource Integration. The importance and practicality of each item was evaluated using a 7-point Likert scale. The experts required 2 rounds to reach a consensus about the importance and 3 rounds to determine the practicality of PAC core competences. This process highlighted the differing points of view that are held by professionals in the realms of nursing, medicine, and national health policy. The PAC in-job training program in its current form inadequately cul-tivates core competence in Care Management. The results of the present study may be used to inform the development of PAC nurse orientation training programs and continuing education courses.

  2. Experts on public trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blok, Anders

    2007-01-01

    a case study of the May 2003 Danish consensus conference on environmental economics as a policy tool, the article reflects on the politics of expert authority permeating practices of public participation. Adopting concepts from the sociology of scientific knowledge (SSK), the conference is seen......-than-successful defense in the citizen perspective. Further, consensus conferences are viewed alternatively as "expert dissent conferences," serving to disclose a multiplicity of expert commitments. From this perspective, some challenges for democratizing expertise through future exercises in public participation...

  3. EXPERT SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Georgiana Marin; Mihai Catalin Andrei

    2011-01-01

    In recent decades IT and computer systems have evolved rapidly in economic informatics field. The goal is to create user friendly information systems that respond promptly and accurately to requests. Informatics systems evolved into decision assisted systems, and such systems are converted, based on gained experience, in expert systems for creative problem solving that an organization is facing. Expert systems are aimed at rebuilding human reasoning on the expertise obtained from experts, sto...

  4. Evaluation Criteria for Nursing Student Application of Evidence-Based Practice: A Delphi Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostwick, Lina; Linden, Lois

    2016-06-01

    Core clinical evaluation criteria do not exist for measuring prelicensure baccalaureate nursing students' application of evidence-based practice (EBP) during direct care assignments. The study objective was to achieve consensus among EBP nursing experts to create clinical criteria for faculty to use in evaluating students' application of EBP principles. A three-round Delphi method was used. Experts were invited to participate in Web-based surveys. Data were analyzed using qualitative coding and categorizing. Quantitative analyses were descriptive calculations for rating and ranking. Expert consensus occurred in the Delphi rounds. The study provides a set of 10 core clinical evaluation criteria for faculty evaluating students' progression toward competency in their application of EBP. A baccalaureate program curriculum requiring the use of Bostwick's EBP Core Clinical Evaluation Criteria will provide a clear definition for understanding basic core EBP competence as expected for the assessment of student learning. [J Nurs Educ. 2016;55(5):336-341.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  5. Expert committee to formulate policy and guidelines for approval of new drugs, clinical trials and banning of drugs-comments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghooi, Ravindra B

    2014-07-01

    All is not well with the clinical research industry. Instances of scientific misconduct by investigators, cutting corners by sponsors, irregularities by regulators, have brought a bad name to the industry. These however form a small part of the clinical research done in this country. The US FDA has conducted over 40 audits, and not made any major observations, suggesting that the clinical research in India is by and large above board. Regulators have amended trial rules recently which have cost the industry dear. A committee appointed to formulate the policy and guidelines for approval of new drugs, clinical trials and banning of the drugs has made 25 recommendations of which most are either superfluous or not likely produce the desired effect. Clubbing banning of the drugs with approval of new drugs and clinical trials also does not make sense, since the mechanisms involved are totally different. Barring a few, most recommendations are counterproductive and should be rejected outright. It is time we learnt that appointment of a committee is not the best way to solve a problem.

  6. DelPhi: a comprehensive suite for DelPhi software and associated resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Lin

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accurate modeling of electrostatic potential and corresponding energies becomes increasingly important for understanding properties of biological macromolecules and their complexes. However, this is not an easy task due to the irregular shape of biological entities and the presence of water and mobile ions. Results Here we report a comprehensive suite for the well-known Poisson-Boltzmann solver, DelPhi, enriched with additional features to facilitate DelPhi usage. The suite allows for easy download of both DelPhi executable files and source code along with a makefile for local installations. The users can obtain the DelPhi manual and parameter files required for the corresponding investigation. Non-experienced researchers can download examples containing all necessary data to carry out DelPhi runs on a set of selected examples illustrating various DelPhi features and demonstrating DelPhi’s accuracy against analytical solutions. Conclusions DelPhi suite offers not only the DelPhi executable and sources files, examples and parameter files, but also provides links to third party developed resources either utilizing DelPhi or providing plugins for DelPhi. In addition, the users and developers are offered a forum to share ideas, resolve issues, report bugs and seek help with respect to the DelPhi package. The resource is available free of charge for academic users from URL: http://compbio.clemson.edu/DelPhi.php.

  7. Expert System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hildebrandt, Thomas Troels; Cattani, Gian Luca

    2016-01-01

    An expert system is a computer system for inferring knowledge from a knowledge base, typically by using a set of inference rules. When the concept of expert systems was introduced at Stanford University in the early 1970s, the knowledge base was an unstructured set of facts. Today the knowledge...... base of expert systems is often given in terms of an ontology, extracted and built from various data sources by employing natural language-processing and statistics. To emphasize such capabilities, the term “expert” is now often replaced by “cognitive,” “knowledge,” “knowledge-based,” or “intelligent......” system. With very few exceptions, general-purpose expert systems have failed to emerge so far. However, expert systems are applied in specialized domains, particularly in healthcare. The increasing availability of large quantities of data to organizations today provides a valuable opportunity...

  8. Delphi Decision Methods in Higher Education Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judd, Robert C.

    This document describes and comments on the extent of use of the Delphi method in higher education decision making. Delphi is characterized by: (1) anonymity of response; (2) multiple iterations; (3) convergence of the distribution of answers; and (4) statistical group response (median, interquartile range) preserving intact a distribution that…

  9. DELPHI Barrel Muon Chamber Module

    CERN Multimedia

    1989-01-01

    The module was used as part of the muon identification system on the barrel of the DELPHI detector at LEP, and was in active use from 1989 to 2000. The module consists of 7 individual muons chambers arranged in 2 layers. Chambers in the upper layer are staggered by half a chamber width with respect to the lower layer. Each individual chamber is a drift chamber consisting of an anode wire, 47 microns in diameter, and a wrapped copper delay line. Each chamber provided 3 signal for each muon passing through the chamber, from which a 3D space-point could be reconstructed.

  10. DEFINING RAPID REVIEWS: A MODIFIED DELPHI CONSENSUS APPROACH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Shannon E; Moher, David; Clifford, Tammy J

    2016-01-01

    Rapid reviews are characterized as an accelerated evidence synthesis approach with no universally accepted methodology or definition. This modified Delphi consensus study aimed to develop a comprehensive set of defining characteristics for rapid reviews that may be used as a functional definition. Expert panelists with knowledge in rapid reviews and evidence synthesis were identified. In the first round, panelists were asked to answer a seventeen-item survey addressing a variety of rapid review topics. Results led to the development of statements describing the characteristics of rapid reviews that were circulated to experts for agreement in a second survey round and further revised in a third round. Consensus was reached if ≥70 percent of experts agreed and there was stability in free-text comments. A panel of sixty-six experts participated. Consensus was reached on ten of eleven statements describing the characteristics of rapid reviews. According to the panel, rapid reviews aim to meet the requirements and timelines of a decision maker and should be conducted in less time than a systematic review. They use a variety of approaches to accelerate the evidence synthesis process, tailor the methods conventionally used to carry out systematic reviews, and use the most rigorous methods that the delivery time frame will allow. This study achieved consensus on ten statements describing the defining characteristics of rapid reviews based on the opinion of a panel of knowledgeable experts. Areas of disagreement were also highlighted. Findings emphasize the role of the decision maker and stress the importance of transparent reporting.

  11. Stability of response characteristics of a Delphi panel: application of bootstrap data expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cole Bryan R

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Delphi surveys with panels of experts in a particular area of interest have been widely utilized in the fields of clinical medicine, nursing practice, medical education and healthcare services. Despite this wide applicability of the Delphi methodology, there is no clear identification of what constitutes a sufficient number of Delphi survey participants to ensure stability of results. Methods The study analyzed the response characteristics from the first round of a Delphi survey conducted with 23 experts in healthcare quality and patient safety. The panel members had similar training and subject matter understanding of the Malcolm Baldrige Criteria for Performance Excellence in Healthcare. The raw data from the first round sampling, which usually contains the largest diversity of responses, were augmented via bootstrap sampling to obtain computer-generated results for two larger samples obtained by sampling with replacement. Response characteristics (mean, trimmed mean, standard deviation and 95% confidence intervals for 54 survey items were compared for the responses of the 23 actual study participants and two computer-generated samples of 1000 and 2000 resampling iterations. Results The results from this study indicate that the response characteristics of a small expert panel in a well-defined knowledge area are stable in light of augmented sampling. Conclusion Panels of similarly trained experts (who possess a general understanding in the field of interest provide effective and reliable utilization of a small sample from a limited number of experts in a field of study to develop reliable criteria that inform judgment and support effective decision-making.

  12. Defining a Bobath clinical framework - A modified e-Delphi study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan-Graham, Julie; Cott, Cheryl

    2016-11-01

    To gain consensus within the expert International Bobath Instructors Training Association (IBITA) on a Bobath clinical framework on which future efficacy studies can be based. A three-round modified e-Delphi approach was used with 204 full members of the IBITA. Twenty-one initial statements were generated from the literature. Consensus was defined a priori as at least 80% of the respondents with a level of agreement on a Likert scale of 4 or 5. The Delphi questionnaire for each round was available online for two weeks. Summary reports and subsequent questionnaires were posted within four weeks. Ninety-four IBITA members responded, forming the Delphi panel, of which 68 and 66 responded to Rounds Two and Three, respectively. The 21 initial statements were revised to 17 statements and five new statements in Round Two in which eight statements were accepted and two statements were eliminated. Round Three presented 12 revised statements, all reaching consensus. The Delphi was successful in gaining consensus on a Bobath clinical framework in a geographically diverse expert association, identifying the unique components of Bobath clinical practice. Discussion throughout all three Rounds revolved primarily around the terminology of atypical and compensatory motor behavior and balance.

  13. Research priorities for child and adolescent physical activity and sedentary behaviours: an international perspective using a twin-panel Delphi procedure

    OpenAIRE

    Carrizosa, M; Gills, L; Tomkins, G; Olds, T; Moreira, C; Christie, C; Nigg, C; Van Sluijs, E; Stratton, G; Janssen, I; Dorovolomo, J; Reilly, J; Mota, J; Zayed, K; Kawalski, K

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The quantity and quality of studies in child and adolescent physical activity and sedentary behaviour have rapidly increased, but research directions are often pursued in a reactive and uncoordinated manner. AIM: To arrive at an international consensus on research priorities in the area of child and adolescent physical activity and sedentary behaviour. METHODS: Two independent panels, each consisting of 12 experts, undertook three rounds of a Delphi methodology. The Delphi methodo...

  14. Development of consensus on Models of Care in Adults with Intestinal Failure using a modified Delphi approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Sharon; Kalachov, Michelle; Jones, Lynn; Koh, Cherry

    2018-02-27

    To establish consensus on service delivery models for management of Type III intestinal failure (IF) and home parenteral nutrition (HPN) within the Australian health care system and to identify barriers and enablers in moving towards this ideal model. A modified Delphi methodology was utilised to survey experts working in Type III IF HPN. The panel comprised physicians, dietitians, nurses and pharmacists from 18 of the 20 adult Type III IF HPN centres across Australia. The study consisted of two rounds of email administered questionnaires developed around four key areas of health service delivery: access to services, clinical care, service guidance and models of care. Open ended responses were evaluated via an inductive thematic approach to identify areas of consensus. Experts reviewed the final report to consolidate consensus and validity. There was >80% consensus that an ideal team should consist of a physician, nurse, dietitian, pharmacist and access to psychological support. Consensus supported the need for updated guidelines (75%) and a hub and spoke model of care (82%). However, further consultation is required in order to establish consensus around the use of HPN in the palliative oncology setting (69%). This consensus provides a framework within which health professionals, managers, policy makers, and consumer groups can move towards optimal management for Type III IF HPN patients. Advocacy and a review of service delivery across Australia are now required to facilitate the ideal model of care identified. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  15. Identification and analysis of reverse logistics barriers using fuzzy Delphi method and AHP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouzon, Marina; Govindan, Kannan; Rodriguez, Carlos M Taboada

    2016-01-01

    enacted National Policy on solid waste. To bridge this gap, this paper identifies and evaluates the barriers for RL in the Brazilian context. An eleven-step research methodology is proposed. First, literature was thoroughly reviewed. fuzzy Delphi method (FDM) was used to obtain the critical list...

  16. Development of a core-stability model: a delphi approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majewski-Schrage, Tricia; Evans, Todd A; Ragan, Brian

    2014-05-01

    Despite widespread acceptance, there is currently no consensus on the definition, components, and the specific techniques most appropriate to measure and quantify core stability. To develop a comprehensive core-stability model addressing its definition, components, and assessment techniques. Delphi technique. University laboratory. 15 content experts from United States and Canada, representing a variety of disciplines. The authors distributed an open-ended questionnaire pertaining to a core-stability definition, components, and assessment techniques specific to each expert. They collected data over 2 rounds of telephone interviews. They concluded data collection once a consensus was achieved that equated with 51% agreement among respondents. The authors developed a working definition of core stability as the ability to achieve and sustain control of the trunk region at rest and during precise movement. Eighty-three percent of the experts considered the definition satisfactory. Therefore, the definition was accepted. Furthermore, the experts agreed that muscles (14/15 = 93.3%) and neuromuscular control (8/12 = 66.7%) were components of core stability. Assessment techniques were identified and inconsistencies were highlighted; however, no consensus was established. A consensus core-stability definition was created and 2 components were identified. However, of the initial definitions provided by the experts, no 2 were identical, which revealed the inconsistencies among experts and the importance of this study. Nonetheless, the goal of obtaining a consensus definition was obtained. Although a consensus for the assessment techniques of core stability could not be reached, it was a beneficial starting point to identify the inconsistencies that were discovered among the content experts.

  17. Determining the most important factors for sustainable energy technology selection in Africa: application of the Delphi technique

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Barry, M-L

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available into account when identifying the most sustainable technological systems in the African context. The study utilised the Delphi technique. The questionnaire of the first round was based on factors identified during a focus group exercise with energy experts...

  18. Low-back pain definitions in occupational studies were categorized for a meta-analysis using Delphi consensus methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Griffith, L.E.; Hogg-Johnson, S.; Cole, D.C.; Krause, N.; Hayden, J.; Burdorf, A.; Leclerc, A.; Coggon, D.; Bongers, P.; Walter, S.D.; Shannon, H.S.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To determine which literature-based definitions of low back pain (LBP) could be combined to produce sufficiently similar sets for use in a meta-analysis. Study Design and Setting: A group of six international experts participated in an e-mail-administered Delphi process. Literature-based

  19. Identification of the Competencies Needed to Apply Social Marketing to Extension Programming: Results of a Delphi Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Laura A.; Stubbs, Eric; Murphrey, Theresa Pesl; Huynh, Phuong

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the specific competencies needed to apply social marketing, a promising approach to behavior change, to Extension programming. A modified Delphi study was used to achieve group consensus among a panel of experts on the skills, characteristics, and knowledge needed to successfully apply this behavior change…

  20. Authority Delegation in Boyerahmad Health Centers through Model to Combine Suggestions System and Delphi Method 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Momeninezhad

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Authority delegation means to transmit part of organization`s manager and leader`s special authorities and executive duties, regardless its root to subordinates and heads of units and related offices to speed up implementing affairs and organizational purposes quickly and on time. The purpose of this study was to inspect authority delegation in health centers of Boyerahmad district through using model to combine suggestions (to identify process and Delphi method (expert`s opinions . Methods: This cross-sectional study was implemented in two stages at first stage, research community was authorities of Boyerahmad health centers (58 persons, their suggestions about requested processes to delegate were gathered by total count through open questionnaires and in second stage, which was Delphi, suggestions gathered from previous stage judged by 30 experts. Data of both stages analyzed by help of Chi-square, correlation coefficient tests. Results: Findings showed that 73.85% of suggestions were able to be delegated, based on expert`s opinion. 40% of suggestions were in domain of official, 36.92% financial and 23.08% hygienic. 88% less than 6 years management background. 20.69% had no academic studies and only 27% were general physicians. Conclusion: By participation of environmental management levels, several processes may be specified and identify cases which are possible to delegate them executively using Delphi (expert`s opinion and this model can be used as a trust worthy method to delegate authority for decentralization. Key words: Participation Management, Health centers, Authority delegation

  1. Stakeholders or subject matter experts, who should be consulted?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberts, Daniel J.

    2007-01-01

    The Energy Office of Michigan asked Lawrence Technological University (LTU) to conduct Delphi Inquires into wind turbine noise and wildlife issues. These inquiries collected and analyzed stakeholders' perceptions of how to address turbine noise and potential wildlife impacts in the Michigan Siting Guidelines for Wind Energy Systems. This paper uses Beierle and Cayford's conceptual framework for evaluating the success of public participation to compare the two inquiries. Beierle and Cayford's framework identifies five social goals for public participation in policy development: incorporating public values into decisions, improving the substantive quality of decisions, resolving conflict among competing interests, building trust in institutions, and educating and informing the public. The framework also identifies several process elements that contribute to the success of meeting those goals. This paper examines how the participants' prior experience with each issue influenced two important elements of the participation process: the participants' ability to engage in meaningful discourse and their ability to exert control over the process. This paper examines how some participants' inexperience prevented them from effectively participating in the process of developing wind energy policy; demonstrating that it can be more productive to seek input primarily from technical experts than to seek consensus from all stakeholders

  2. Use of expert judgment elicitation to estimate seismic vulnerability of selected building types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, K.S.; Aspinall, W.; Perkins, D.; Wald, D.; Porter, K.A.

    2012-01-01

    Pooling engineering input on earthquake building vulnerability through an expert judgment elicitation process requires careful deliberation. This article provides an overview of expert judgment procedures including the Delphi approach and the Cooke performance-based method to estimate the seismic vulnerability of a building category.

  3. Expert Study to Select Indicators of the Occurence of Emerging Mycotoxin Hazards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kandhai, M.C.; Booij, C.J.H.; Fels-Klerx, van der H.J.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a Delphi-based expert judgment study aimed at the selection of indicators to identify the occurrence of emerging mycotoxin hazards related to Fusarium spp. in wheat supply chains. A panel of 29 experts from 12 European countries followed a holistic approach to evaluate the

  4. Patient safety priorities in mental healthcare in Switzerland: a modified Delphi study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascherek, Anna C; Schwappach, David L B

    2016-08-05

    Identifying patient safety priorities in mental healthcare is an emerging issue. A variety of aspects of patient safety in medical care apply for patient safety in mental care as well. However, specific aspects may be different as a consequence of special characteristics of patients, setting and treatment. The aim of the present study was to combine knowledge from the field and research and bundle existing initiatives and projects to define patient safety priorities in mental healthcare in Switzerland. The present study draws on national expert panels, namely, round-table discussion and modified Delphi consensus method. As preparation for the modified Delphi questionnaire, two round-table discussions and one semistructured questionnaire were conducted. Preparative work was conducted between May 2015 and October 2015. The modified Delphi was conducted to gauge experts' opinion on priorities in patient safety in mental healthcare in Switzerland. In two independent rating rounds, experts made private ratings. The modified Delphi was conducted in winter 2015. Nine topics were defined along the treatment pathway: diagnostic errors, non-drug treatment errors, medication errors, errors related to coercive measures, errors related to aggression management against self and others, errors in treatment of suicidal patients, communication errors, errors at interfaces of care and structural errors. Patient safety is considered as an important topic of quality in mental healthcare among experts, but it has been seriously neglected up until now. Activities in research and in practice are needed. Structural errors and diagnostics were given highest priority. From the topics identified, some are overlapping with important aspects of patient safety in medical care; however, some core aspects are unique. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  5. Modified Delphi study to determine optimal data elements for inclusion in an emergency management database system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Jabar

    2012-03-01

    Conclusion: The use of a modified Expert Delphi study achieved consensus in aspects of hospital institutional capacity that can be translated into practical recommendations for implementation by the local emergency management database system. Additionally, areas of non-consensus have been identified where further work is required. This purpose of this study is to contribute to and aid in the development of this new system.

  6. DELPHI: past experiment and current data

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    The design and construction of the DELPHI detector took 7 years. It operated from 1989 until the end of 2000, recording data from electronpositron collisions of energies up to 210 GeV. These data are still being analysed.

  7. The KwaZulu-Natal School Library Policy and its feasibility for implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Du Toit

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The research took into account accepted standards of good policy formulation to provide perspective and contextualise the study, and delineated educational challenges for the sector.The following theoretical frameworks guided the study: a constructivist approach in interpreting and  evaluating the role of school libraries within an education system based in constructivist principles, the traditional policy model to evaluate policy formulation and design, and a social constructionist view of policy in the interpreting of policy development and implementation. The epistemological basis for the main   methodology, the Delphi technique, was social constructivism.The research design comprised two phases.  Qualitative data collected from the Delphi panel's expert opinion was interpreted to analyse the policy document critically and assess its implementation strategy.  Quantitative data from an analysis of existing surveys and reports provided an overview of the current state of school  library provisioning in KwaZulu-Natal.  School library models already being implemented in the province were evaluated against this background.The research results provide guidelines for reviewing and refining the provincial policy intervention and  brought to the fore several issues that need to be resolved to facilitate school library development in South Africa.

  8. Importance and Feasibility of Transitional Care for Children With Medical Complexity: Results of a Multistakeholder Delphi Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyenaar, JoAnna K; Rizzo, Paul A; Khodyakov, Dmitry; Leslie, Laurel K; Lindenauer, Peter K; Mangione-Smith, Rita

    Children with medical complexity (CMC) account for disproportionate hospital utilization and adverse outcomes after discharge, and several gaps exist regarding the quality of hospital to home transitional care for this population. We conducted an expert elicitation process to identify important and feasible hospital to home transitional care interventions for CMC from the perspectives of parents and health care professionals. We conducted a 2-round electronic Delphi process to identify important and feasible transitional care interventions. Panelists included parents of CMC and multidisciplinary health care professionals. In the first round, panelists rated the importance and feasibility of 39 transitional care interventions on a 9-point Likert scale; agreement between panelists was defined according to RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Methods. The second round of data collection evaluated 16 interventions that panelists did not agree on in the first round and 8 new or revised interventions, accompanied by quantitative and qualitative data summaries. A total of 29 parents of CMC and 37 health care professionals participated in the Delphi process (response rate 75%). Both stakeholder panels endorsed most interventions as important; health care professionals were less likely to rate several interventions as feasible compared with the parent panel. Over 2 rounds of data collection, the 2 stakeholder panels endorsed 25 interventions as important as well as feasible. These interventions related to family engagement during the hospitalization, care coordination and social support assessment, predischarge education, and written materials. Parents and health care professionals considered several transitional care interventions important as well as feasible. This research might inform hospitals' transitional care programs and policies. Copyright © 2017 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Expert Witness

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adele

    demonstrated that, on the balance of probabilities, a correct diagnosis at that time would not have altered the course of the illness. Quantum. Where it appears likely that the claimant may have a strong case on both breach of duty and causation, MPS may seek the opinion of a quantum expert to assist in determining the size.

  10. [Construction of a physiological aging scale for healthy people based on a modified Delphi method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Yao; Zhou, Xuan; Deng, Pengfei; Liao, Xiong; Wu, Lei; Zhou, Jianming; Huang, Helang

    2016-04-01

    To build a physiological aging scale for healthy people.
 We collected age-related physiologic items through literature screening and expert interview. Two rounds of Delphi were implemented. The importance, feasibility and the degree of authority for the physiological index system were graded. Using analytic hierarchy process, we determined the weight of dimensions and items.
 Using Delphy mothod, 17 physiological and other professional experts offered the results as follow: coefficient of expert authorities Cr was 0.86±0.03, coordination coefficients for the first and second round were 0.264(χ2=229.691, Paging scale for healthy people included 3 dimensions, namely physical form, feeling movement and functional status. Each dimension had 8 items. The weight coefficients for the 3 dimensions were 0.54, 0.16, and 0.30, respectively. The Cronbach's α coefficient of the scale was 0.893, the reliability was 0.796, and the variance of the common factor was 58.17%.
 The improved Delphi method or physiological aging scale is satisfied, which can provide reference for the evaluation of aging.

  11. Development of the Psychiatric Nursing Intervention Providing Structure: An International Delphi Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voogt, L Amar; Nugter, Annet; van Achterberg, Theo; Goossens, Peter J J

    2016-01-01

    Psychiatric nurses commonly refer to "providing structure" (PS) as a key intervention. But no consensus exists about what PS entails. PS can be understood as a complex intervention. In four previous studies, a definition, activities, and context variables were described that were presented to experts in a Delphi study. To reach consensus about the definition of PS, its activities, and context variables. In a qualitative study, a Delphi study is used to gather the opinions of experts. The Delphi study consisted of three rounds with statements to score in each round. Experts reached consensus about a definition of PS, its activities, and context variables. Eleven statements related to the definition were accepted. Fourteen statements of a total of 17 statements related to the specific activities reached sufficient agreement, and 4 statements related to context variables were accepted. A definition could be given of PS with 4 general PS activities, 15 specific activities, and 3 context variables. Psychiatric nurses can use the information about PS to reflect on the use of PS activities within their own working environment, and these insights can help nurses develop their professional growth. © The Author(s) 2016.

  12. Experts on public trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blok, Anders

    2007-01-01

    Citizen deliberation on technoscientific developments is regularly regarded as a hallmark of Danish democracy, embodied in particular by the Danish Board of Technology. Few empirically guided questions have been raised, however, as to how the Board's democratic projects actually work. Through...... a case study of the May 2003 Danish consensus conference on environmental economics as a policy tool, the article reflects on the politics of expert authority permeating practices of public participation. Adopting concepts from the sociology of scientific knowledge (SSK), the conference is seen......-than-successful defense in the citizen perspective. Further, consensus conferences are viewed alternatively as "expert dissent conferences," serving to disclose a multiplicity of expert commitments. From this perspective, some challenges for democratizing expertise through future exercises in public participation...

  13. A Delphi study to validate an advanced practice nursing tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Anne M; Gardner, Glenn E; Duffield, Christine; Ramis, Mary-Anne

    2010-10-01

    This paper is a report of a study conducted to validate an instrument for measuring advanced practice nursing role delineation in an international contemporary health service context using the Delphi technique. Although most countries now have clear definitions and competency standards for nurse practitioners, no such clarity exists for many advanced practice nurse roles, leaving healthcare providers uncertain whether their service needs can or should be met by an advanced practice nurse or a nurse practitioner. The validation of a tool depicting advanced practice nursing is essential for the appropriate deployment of advanced practice nurses. This paper is the second in a three-phase study to develop an operational framework for assigning advanced practice nursing roles. An expert panel was established to review the activities in the Strong Model of Advanced Practice Role Delineation tool. Using the Delphi technique, data were collected via an on-line survey through a series of iterative rounds in 2008. Feedback and statistical summaries of responses were distributed to the panel until the 75% consensus cut-off was obtained. After three rounds and modification of five activities, consensus was obtained for validation of the content of this tool. The Strong Model of Advanced Practice Role Delineation tool is valid for depicting the dimensions of practice of the advanced practice role in an international contemporary health service context thereby having the potential to optimize the utilization of the advanced practice nursing workforce. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of Advanced Nursing © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Consensus principles for wound care research obtained using a Delphi process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serena, Thomas; Bates-Jensen, Barbara; Carter, Marissa J; Cordrey, Renee; Driver, Vickie; Fife, Caroline E; Haser, Paul B; Krasner, Diane; Nusgart, Marcia; Smith, Adrianne P S; Snyder, Robert J

    2012-01-01

    Too many wound care research studies are poorly designed, badly executed, and missing crucial data. The objective of this study is to create a series of principles for all stakeholders involved in clinical or comparative effectiveness research in wound healing. The Delphi approach was used to reach consensus, using a web-based survey for survey participants and face-to-face conferences for expert panel members. Expert panel (11 members) and 115 wound care researchers (respondents) drawn from 15 different organizations. Principles were rated for validity using 5-point Likert scales and comments. A 66% response rate was achieved in the first Delphi round from the 173 invited survey participants. The response rate for the second Delphi round was 46%. The most common wound care researcher profile was age 46-55 years, a wound care clinic setting, and >10 years' wound care research and clinical experience. Of the initial 17 principles created by the panel, only four principles were not endorsed in Delphi round 1 with another four not requiring revision. Of the 14 principles assessed by respondents in the second Delphi round, only one principle was not endorsed and it was revised; four other principles also needed revision based on the use of specific words or contextual use. Of the 19 final principles, three included detailed numbered lists. With the wide variation in design, conduct, and reporting of wound care research studies, it is hoped that these principles will improve the standard and practice of care in this field. © 2012 by the Wound Healing Society.

  15. Expert Systems: What Is an Expert System?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duval, Beverly K.; Main, Linda

    1994-01-01

    Describes expert systems and discusses their use in libraries. Highlights include parts of an expert system; expert system shells; an example of how to build an expert system; a bibliography of 34 sources of information on expert systems in libraries; and a list of 10 expert system shells used in libraries. (Contains five references.) (LRW)

  16. Evaluation dimensions for collaborative mental health services in primary care systems in latin america: results of a Delphi group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapag, Jaime C; Rush, Brian; Barnsley, Jan

    2015-05-01

    This article presents the results of a Delphi group to identify the dimensions of an evaluation framework for collaborative mental health care (CMHC) in Latin America. A three-round Delphi process was implemented with 26 experts from Latin America and Canada to identify main areas of consensus, as well as disagreements, about the importance and feasibility of potential evaluation dimensions previously identified in Mexico, Nicaragua and Chile. Participants validated 40 evaluation dimensions. They strongly endorsed a comprehensive evaluation framework for CMHC in Latin America. This study represents a solid foundation for developing an evaluation framework for CMHC.

  17. German Delphi report on the development of science and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-08-01

    Adopting the Japanese strategy and approach, the German Delphi study has come out with a detailed analysis of 16 important subject fields of science and technology (as, e.g., energy, ecology, astronautics, environmental engineering, nuclear physics, elementary particle physics) and has taken this database reflecting the expert knowledge in Germany as a source for adventuring in a consensusoriented forecast of future development trends. The study was intended to offer a platform for debate about the results and data published, and to forster the dialogue between science, industry and politics and to thus initiate a process eventually ending in the definition of goals and concepts reconciling the sometimes diverging interests of the various fields of science or technology. (HP) [de

  18. Building a Privacy, Ethics, and Data Access Framework for Real World Computerised Medical Record System Data: A Delphi Study. Contribution of the Primary Health Care Informatics Working Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liyanage, H; Liaw, S-T; Di Iorio, C T; Kuziemsky, C; Schreiber, R; Terry, A L; de Lusignan, S

    2016-11-10

    Privacy, ethics, and data access issues pose significant challenges to the timely delivery of health research. Whilst the fundamental drivers to ensure that data access is ethical and satisfies privacy requirements are similar, they are often dealt with in varying ways by different approval processes. To achieve a consensus across an international panel of health care and informatics professionals on an integrated set of privacy and ethics principles that could accelerate health data access in data-driven health research projects. A three-round consensus development process was used. In round one, we developed a baseline framework for privacy, ethics, and data access based on a review of existing literature in the health, informatics, and policy domains. This was further developed using a two-round Delphi consensus building process involving 20 experts who were members of the International Medical Informatics Association (IMIA) and European Federation of Medical Informatics (EFMI) Primary Health Care Informatics Working Groups. To achieve consensus we required an extended Delphi process. The first round involved feedback on and development of the baseline framework. This consisted of four components: (1) ethical principles, (2) ethical guidance questions, (3) privacy and data access principles, and (4) privacy and data access guidance questions. Round two developed consensus in key areas of the revised framework, allowing the building of a newly, more detailed and descriptive framework. In the final round panel experts expressed their opinions, either as agreements or disagreements, on the ethics and privacy statements of the framework finding some of the previous round disagreements to be surprising in view of established ethical principles. This study develops a framework for an integrated approach to ethics and privacy. Privacy breech risk should not be considered in isolation but instead balanced by potential ethical benefit.

  19. The transculturality of 'gut feelings'. Results from a French Delphi consensus survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Reste, Jean-Yves; Coppens, Magali; Barais, Marie; Nabbe, Patrice; Le Floch, Bernard; Chiron, Benoît; Dinant, Geert Jan; Berkhout, Christophe; Stolper, Erik; Barraine, Pierre

    2013-12-01

    General Practitioners (GPs) sometimes base their clinical decisions on 'gut feelings.' Research into the significance of this phenomenon with focus groups and a Delphi consensus procedure in the Netherlands provided a concept of 'gut feelings:' a sense of alarm, a sense of reassurance and several determinants. The transculturality of 'gut feelings' has been examined briefly until now as the issue is complex. To determine whether a consensus on 'gut feelings' in general practice in France could be obtained. Using a similar Delphi consensus procedure and the same six initial statements as in the Netherlands, and compare the French results with the seven final Dutch consensual statements. Qualitative research, including a Delphi consensus procedure after a forward-backward translation (FBT) of the initial Dutch statements of 'gut feelings.' A heterogeneous sample of 34 French expert GPs participated. FBT of the final French statements was undertaken for a content comparison with the Dutch. After three Delphi rounds, French GPs reached agreement on nine statements. Many similarities have been found between the Dutch and the French defining statements, with reservations concerning the 'sense of reassurance,' which French GPs seemed to feel more cautious about. 'Gut feelings' are a well-defined concept in France too. The Dutch and the French consensual statements seem very close. The transculturality of the concept is confirmed, which is a new indicator that 'gut feelings' are a self-contained concept.

  20. The Oracle of Delphi Encore!

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    After the great success of the performance last winter the company Mimescope and CERN stage again The Oracle of Delphi! A performance with acrobatics, mime and music played in the heart of CERN laboratory. Kept in suspense between dream and reality inside the fertile imagination of the brilliant English physicist Paul Dirac, the audience dives into the fascinating world of antimatter. The performance will be staged in the PS Soutn Hall, close to LEAR, where the first atoms of antihydrogen were produced. After each performance there will be a short tour around the hall. - From 11 January 2001 to 04 February 2001 every Thursday (EXCEPT 1st February!), Friday and Saturday at 20.00 h, and Sundays at 18.00 h. - Purchase of tickets from Forum Meyrin, open Monday to Saturday from 14.00h to 18.00h, tel: 022/989.34.34, or through the Billetel system tel: 0901.553.901 (1.50 CHF per minute). On the days of the event last minute tickets can still be purchased at the Reception desk of bldg 33 on CERN site. Please arrive ...

  1. The Oracle of Delphi Encore!

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    After the great success of the performance last winter the company Mimescope and CERN stage again The Oracle of Delphi! A performance with acrobatics, mime and music played in the heart of CERN laboratory. Kept in suspense between dream and reality inside the fertile imagination of the brilliant English physicist Paul Dirac, the audience dives into the fascinating world of antimatter. The performance will be staged in the PS Soutn Hall, close to LEAR, where the first atoms of antihydrogen were produced. After each performance there will be a short tour around the hall. From 11 January 2001 to 04 February 2001 every Thursday (EXCEPT 1st February!), Friday and Saturday at 20.00 h, and Sundays at 18.00 h. Purchase of tickets from Forum Meyrin, open Monday to Saturday from 14.00h to 18.00h, tel: 022/989.34.34, or through the Billetel system tel: 0901.553.901 (1.50 CHF per minute). On the days of the event last minute tickets can still be purchased at the Reception desk of bldg 33 on CERN site. Please arrive ...

  2. Assessment of Competence in EVAR Procedures: A Novel Rating Scale Developed by the Delphi Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strøm, M; Lönn, L; Bech, B; Schroeder, T V; Konge, L

    2017-07-01

    To develop a procedure specific global rating scale for assessment of operator competence in endovascular aortic repair (EVAR). A Delphi approach was used to achieve expert consensus. A panel of 32 international experts (median 300 EVAR procedures, range 200-3000) from vascular surgery (n = 21) and radiology (n = 11) was established. The first Delphi round was based on a review of endovascular skills assessment papers, stent graft instructions for use, and structured interviews. It led to a primary pool of 83 items that were formulated as global rating scale items with tentative anchors. Iterative Delphi rounds were executed. The panellists rated the importance of each item on a 5 point Likert scale. Consensus was defined as 80% of the panel rating an item 4 or 5 in the primary round and 90% in subsequent rounds. Consensus on the final assessment tool was defined as Cronbach's alpha > .8 after a minimum of three rounds. Thirty-two of 35 invited experts participated. Three rounds of surveys were completed with a completion rate of 100% in the first two rounds and 91% in round three. The 83 primary assessment items were supplemented with five items suggested by the panel and reduced to seven pivotal assessment items that reached consensus, Cronbach's alpha = 0.82. The seven item rating scale covers key elements of competence in EVAR stent placement and deployment. Each item has well defined grades with explicit anchors at unacceptable, acceptable, and superior performance on a 5 point Likert scale. The Delphi methodology allowed for international consensus on a new procedure specific global rating scale for assessment of competence in EVAR. The resulting scale, EndoVascular Aortic Repair Assessment of Technical Expertise (EVARATE), represents key elements in the procedure. EVARATE constitutes an assessment tool for providing structured feedback to endovascular operators in training. Copyright © 2017 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier

  3. Delphi research exploring essential components and preconditions for case management in people with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkade, Paul-Jeroen; van Meijel, Berno; Brink, Cindy; van Os-Medendorp, Harmieke; Koekkoek, Bauke; Francke, Anneke L

    2010-08-09

    Case management programmes for home-dwelling people with dementia and their informal carers exist in multiple forms and shapes. The aim of this research was to identify the essential components of case management for people with dementia as well as the preconditions for an effective delivery of case management services. The method used to carry out the research was a modified four-phase Delphi design. First, a list of potentially essential components and preconditions for the provision of case management was drawn up on the basis of a literature review and a subsequent focus group interview. The list was then validated by experts in a first Delphi survey round, following which the researchers translated the list items into 75 statements. In the second Delphi survey, the experts rated the statements; in the third Delphi round, they rated 18 statements on which no consensus had been reached in the second round. The experts were able to build consensus on 61 of the 75 statements. Essential components of case management for people with dementia are: information, support and counselling, coordination of the care provided and, to a lesser extent, practical help. A patient-centred approach was found to be one of the key aspects of providing case management services. Essential preconditions are: vision, care relationship, structured methodology, integration of case management into the health care chain, and the case manager's level of training and expertise. We recommend that, based on the essential components and preconditions referred to above, quality criteria be developed for the provision of case management for people with dementia. Furthermore, we suggest the conduct of additional research to assess the effectiveness of case management in people with dementia.

  4. Delphi-research exploring essential components and preconditions for case management in people with dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verkade Paul-Jeroen

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Case management programmes for home-dwelling people with dementia and their informal carers exist in multiple forms and shapes. The aim of this research was to identify the essential components of case management for people with dementia as well as the preconditions for an effective delivery of case management services. Method The method used to carry out the research was a modified four-phase Delphi design. First, a list of potentially essential components and preconditions for the provision of case management was drawn up on the basis of a literature review and a subsequent focus group interview. The list was then validated by experts in a first Delphi survey round, following which the researchers translated the list items into 75 statements. In the second Delphi survey, the experts rated the statements; in the third Delphi round, they rated 18 statements on which no consensus had been reached in the second round. Results The experts were able to build consensus on 61 of the 75 statements. Essential components of case management for people with dementia are: information, support and counselling, coordination of the care provided and, to a lesser extent, practical help. A patient-centred approach was found to be one of the key aspects of providing case management services. Essential preconditions are: vision, care relationship, structured methodology, integration of case management into the health care chain, and the case manager's level of training and expertise. Conclusions We recommend that, based on the essential components and preconditions referred to above, quality criteria be developed for the provision of case management for people with dementia. Furthermore, we suggest the conduct of additional research to assess the effectiveness of case management in people with dementia.

  5. The Diabetes Evaluation Framework for Innovative National Evaluations (DEFINE): Construct and Content Validation Using a Modified Delphi Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquette-Warren, Jann; Tyler, Marie; Fournie, Meghan; Harris, Stewart B

    2017-06-01

    In order to scale-up successful innovations, more evidence is needed to evaluate programs that attempt to address the rising prevalence of diabetes and the associated burdens on patients and the healthcare system. This study aimed to assess the construct and content validity of the Diabetes Evaluation Framework for Innovative National Evaluations (DEFINE), a tool developed to guide the evaluation, design and implementation with built-in knowledge translation principles. A modified Delphi method, including 3 individual rounds (questionnaire with 7-point agreement/importance Likert scales and/or open-ended questions) and 1 group round (open discussion) were conducted. Twelve experts in diabetes, research, knowledge translation, evaluation and policy from Canada (Ontario, Quebec and British Columbia) and Australia participated. Quantitative consensus criteria were an interquartile range of ≤1. Qualitative data were analyzed thematically and confirmed by participants. An importance scale was used to determine a priority multi-level indicator set. Items rated very or extremely important by 80% or more of the experts were reviewed in the final group round to build the final set. Participants reached consensus on the content and construct validity of DEFINE, including its title, overall goal, 5-step evaluation approach, medical and nonmedical determinants of health schematics, full list of indicators and associated measurement tools, priority multi-level indicator set and next steps in DEFINE's development. Validated by experts, DEFINE has the right theoretic components to evaluate comprehensively diabetes prevention and management programs and to support acquisition of evidence that could influence the knowledge translation of innovations to reduce the burden of diabetes. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Policies for managing emergency medical services in mass casualty incidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adini, B; Bodas, M; Nilsson, H; Peleg, K

    2017-09-01

    Diverse decision-making is needed in managing mass casualty incidents (MCIs), by emergency medical services (EMS). The aim of the study was to review consensus among international experts concerning policies of EMS management during MCIs. Applicability of 21 EMS policies was tested through a 2-cycle modified e-Delphi process, in which 38 multi-disciplinary experts from 10 countries participated. Threshold for approving proposed solutions was defined as consensus of >80%. Policies that did not achieve the targeted consensus were reviewed to detect variability according to respondents' origin country. 16 policies were endorsed in the first cycle including collaboration between ambulance service providers; implementing a unified mode of operation; preparing criteria for ground versus aerial evacuation; and, developing support systems for caregivers exposed to violence. An additional policy which proposed that senior EMS officers should not necessarily act as on-site MCI commanders was endorsed in the second cycle. Demographic breakdown of views concerning non-consensual policies revealed differences according to countries of origin. Assigning ambulances to off-duty team members was highly endorsed by experts from Israel and South Africa and strongly rejected by European respondents. Avoiding entry to risk areas until declared safe was endorsed by European, Asian and Oceanic experts, but rejected by Israeli, South African and North American experts. Despite uniqueness of countries and EMS agencies, solutions to most dilemmas were applicable to all organizations, regardless of location or affiliation. Cultural diversity was found concerning readiness to implement military-civilian collaboration in MCIs and a rigid separation between work-leisure responsibilities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Developing a Framework for Ankle Function: A Delphi Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Kelli R.; Evans, Todd A.; Neibert, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Addressing clinical outcomes is paramount to providing effective health care, yet there is no consensus regarding the appropriate outcomes to address after ankle injuries. Compounding the problem is the repetitive nature of lateral ankle sprains, referred to as functional (FAI) or chronic (CAI) ankle instability. Although they are commonly used terms in practice and research, FAI and CAI are inconsistently defined and assessed. Objective: To establish definitions of a healthy/normal/noninjured ankle, FAI, and CAI, as well as their characteristics and assessment techniques. Design: Delphi study. Setting: Telephone interviews and electronic surveys. Patients or Other Participants: Sixteen experts representing the fields of ankle function and treatment, ankle research, and outcomes assessment and research were selected as panelists. Data Collection and Analysis: A telephone interview produced feedback regarding the definition of, functional characteristics of, and assessment techniques for a healthy/normal/noninjured ankle, an unhealthy/acutely injured ankle, and FAI/CAI. Those data were compiled, reduced, and returned through electronic surveys and were either included by reaching consensus (80% agreement) or excluded. Results: The definitions of a healthy/normal/noninjured ankle and FAI reached consensus. Experts did not agree on a definition of CAI. Eleven functional characteristics of a healthy/normal/noninjured ankle, 32 functional characteristics of an unhealthy/acutely injured ankle, and 13 characteristics of FAI were agreed upon. Conclusions: Although a consensus was reached regarding the definitions and functional characteristics of a healthy/normal/noninjured ankle and FAI, the experts could only agree on 1 characteristic to include in the FAI definition. Several experts did, however, provide additional comments that reinforced the differences in the interpretation of those concepts. Although the experts could not agree on the definition of CAI, its

  8. Prevention and control of bovine cysticercosis: a Delphi study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizandro Pruence Nickele

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Bovine cysticercosis is a zoonotic parasitic infection caused by the larval stage (Cysticercus bovis of Taenia saginata. This study aimed to identify prevention and control measures for bovine cysticercosis indicated by experts in the fields of public and animal health. The study was conducted through three rounds of the Delphi method and had the participation of 44 experts from 13 Brazilian states in 30 educational institutions, research institutions, and sanitary inspection services. The first round comprised an open question, the answers to which formed the basis for structuring the second and third questionnaire. To reach a consensus in the second and third rounds, experts were asked to express their agreement or disagreement of each proposition on the questionnaire using a five-point Likert scale. A descriptive statistical analysis was performed at the end of each round. Twenty-three specialists (52.27% participated in all three rounds. The first round resulted in 28 proposals categorized into six areas: health education, methods of diagnosis and treatment, sanitation measures, epidemiological studies, legislation and sanitary supervision, and intersectorality. In the second round, the experts reached a consensus on 16 propositions (57.14%. This percentage increased by 3.54% during the third round. At the end of the third round, the experts had reached a consensus on 17 of the 28 initial propositions (60.71%. The highest percentage of agreement (29.4% was observed in the category of health education. This study allowed us to identify 17 recommendations pertaining to the prevention and control of bovine cysticercosis. These measures are not mutually exclusive, and require an integrated approach to the establishment of intervention actions at various points in the life cycle of the parasite.

  9. Medication administration errors from a nursing viewpoint: a formal consensus of definition and scenarios using a Delphi technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawahna, Ramzi; Masri, Dina; Al-Gharabeh, Rawan; Deek, Rawan; Al-Thayba, Lama; Halaweh, Masa

    2016-02-01

    To develop and achieve formal consensus on a definition of medication administration errors and scenarios that should or should not be considered as medication administration errors in hospitalised patient settings. Medication administration errors occur frequently in hospitalised patient settings. Currently, there is no formal consensus on a definition of medication administration errors or scenarios that should or should not be considered as medication administration errors. This was a descriptive study using Delphi technique. A panel of experts (n = 50) recruited from major hospitals, nursing schools and universities in Palestine took part in the study. Three Delphi rounds were followed to achieve consensus on a proposed definition of medication administration errors and a series of 61 scenarios representing potential medication administration error situations formulated into a questionnaire. In the first Delphi round, key contact nurses' views on medication administration errors were explored. In the second Delphi round, consensus was achieved to accept the proposed definition of medication administration errors and to include 36 (59%) scenarios and exclude 1 (1·6%) as medication administration errors. In the third Delphi round, consensus was achieved to consider further 14 (23%) and exclude 2 (3·3%) as medication administration errors while the remaining eight (13·1%) were considered equivocal. Of the 61 scenarios included in the Delphi process, experts decided to include 50 scenarios as medication administration errors, exclude three scenarios and include or exclude eight scenarios depending on the individual clinical situation. Consensus on a definition and scenarios representing medication administration errors can be achieved using formal consensus techniques. Researchers should be aware that using different definitions of medication administration errors, inclusion or exclusion of medication administration error situations could significantly affect

  10. Development of an instrument to assess the quality of acupuncture: results from a Delphi process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Caroline A; Zaslawski, Christopher J; Zheng, Zhen; Cobbin, Deidre; Cochrane, Suzanne; Lenon, George B; Loyeung, Bertrand; Meier, Peter C; Walsh, Sean; Xue, Charlie Changli; Zhang, Anthony L; Zhu, Xiaoshu; Bensoussan, Alan

    2011-05-01

    Quality acupuncture influences the outcomes of clinical research, and issues associated with effective administration of acupuncture in randomized controlled trials need to be addressed when appraising studies. The study objective was to achieve consensus on domains and items for inclusion in a rating scale to assess quality acupuncture administered in clinical research. An active group of Australian acupuncture researchers initially identified a pool of items assessing quality. The Delphi consensus process was then used to select and reduce the number of items, and an additional expert panel of 42 researchers were invited to participate. Participants initially ranked items along a five-point scale for the first Delphi round, and indicated an agree or disagree response during the second round. For an item to be retained into the second round, an item had to attain greater than 80% agreement that the item described a dimension of quality acupuncture and related study design. Thirty-two (32) experts agreed to participate in the study. After two rounds of the Delphi process, consensus was reached on 14 domains and 26 items relating to quality acupuncture. Domains, items, and minimum standards related to study design; rationale of the intervention; criteria relating to needling stimulation either manual or electrostimulation; duration and frequency of treatment; and practitioner training. Items for inclusion in an instrument to assess quality acupuncture in clinical research were identified. Further development of the instrument including relative weighting of items and reliability testing is under way.

  11. Curriculum development for a national cardiotocography education program: a Delphi survey to obtain consensus on learning objectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thellesen, Line; Hedegaard, Morten; Bergholt, Thomas; Colov, Nina P; Hoegh, Stinne; Sorensen, Jette L

    2015-08-01

    To define learning objectives for a national cardiotocography (CTG) education program based on expert consensus. A three-round Delphi survey. One midwife and one obstetrician from each maternity unit in Denmark were appointed based on CTG teaching experience and clinical obstetric experience. Following national and international guidelines, the research group determined six topics as important when using CTG: fetal physiology, equipment, indication, interpretation, clinical management, and communication/responsibility. In the first Delphi round, participants listed one to five learning objectives within the predefined topics. Responses were analyzed by a directed approach to content analysis. Phrasing was modified in accordance with Bloom's taxonomy. In the second and third Delphi rounds, participants rated each objective on a five-point relevance scale. Consensus was predefined as objectives with a mean rating value of ≥ 3. A prioritized list of CTG learning objectives. A total of 42 midwives and obstetricians from 21 maternity units were invited to participate, of whom 26 completed all three Delphi rounds, representing 18 maternity units. The final prioritized list included 40 objectives. The highest ranked objectives emphasized CTG interpretation and clinical management. The lowest ranked objectives emphasized fetal physiology. Mean ratings of relevance ranged from 3.15 to 5.00. National consensus on CTG learning objectives was achieved using the Delphi methodology. This was an initial step in developing a valid CTG education program. A prioritized list of objectives will clarify which topics to emphasize in a CTG education program. © 2015 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  12. Extent of East-african nurse leaders' participation in health policy development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariff, N; Potgieter, E

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports part of a bigger study whose aim was to develop an empowerment model that could be used to enhance nurse leaders' participation in health policy development. A Delphi survey was applied which included the following criteria: expert panelists, iterative rounds, statistical analysis, and consensus building. The expert panelists were purposively selected and included national nurse leaders in leadership positions at the nursing professional associations, nursing regulatory bodies, ministries of health, and universities in East Africa. The study was conducted in three iterative rounds. The results reported here were gathered as part of the first round of the study and that examined the extent of nurse leaders' participation in health policy development. Seventy-eight (78) expert panelists were invited to participate in the study, and the response rate was 47%. Data collection was done with the use of a self-report questionnaire. Data analysis was done by use of SPSS and descriptive statistics were examined. The findings indicated that nurse leaders participate in health policy development though participation is limited and not consistent across all the stages of health policy development. The recommendations from the findings are that health policy development process needs to be pluralistic and inclusive of all nurse leaders practicing in positions related to policy development and the process must be open to their ideas and suggestions.

  13. Extent of East-African Nurse Leaders’ Participation in Health Policy Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Shariff

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports part of a bigger study whose aim was to develop an empowerment model that could be used to enhance nurse leaders’ participation in health policy development. A Delphi survey was applied which included the following criteria: expert panelists, iterative rounds, statistical analysis, and consensus building. The expert panelists were purposively selected and included national nurse leaders in leadership positions at the nursing professional associations, nursing regulatory bodies, ministries of health, and universities in East Africa. The study was conducted in three iterative rounds. The results reported here were gathered as part of the first round of the study and that examined the extent of nurse leaders’ participation in health policy development. Seventy-eight (78 expert panelists were invited to participate in the study, and the response rate was 47%. Data collection was done with the use of a self-report questionnaire. Data analysis was done by use of SPSS and descriptive statistics were examined. The findings indicated that nurse leaders participate in health policy development though participation is limited and not consistent across all the stages of health policy development. The recommendations from the findings are that health policy development process needs to be pluralistic and inclusive of all nurse leaders practicing in positions related to policy development and the process must be open to their ideas and suggestions.

  14. Horizon 2020 priorities in clinical mental health research : Results of a consensus-based ROAMER expert survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elfeddali, I.; van der Feltz-Cornelis, C.M.; van Os, J.; Knappe, S.; Vieta, E.; Wittchen, H.-U.; Obradors-Tarragó, C.

    2014-01-01

    Within the ROAMER project, which aims to provide a Roadmap for Mental Health Research in Europe, a two-stage Delphi survey among 86 European experts was conducted in order to identify research priorities in clinical mental health research. Expert consensus existed with regard to the importance of

  15. What are the essential features of resilience for informal caregivers of people living with dementia? A Delphi consensus examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joling, Karlijn J; Windle, Gill; Dröes, Rose-Marie; Huisman, Martijn; Hertogh, Cees M P M; Woods, Robert T

    2017-05-01

    Few studies have examined what might enable or prevent resilience in carers of people with dementia. Consequently, there are limited insights as to how it should be understood, defined and measured. This creates challenges for research, and also practice in terms of how it might best be promoted. This study aimed to address these limitations and add new insights, identifying the essential features of resilience in dementia caregiving. A Delphi consensus study was conducted, consulting a multi-disciplinary panel of informal caregivers and experts with relevant professional expertise. Panellists rated the relevance of various statements addressing essential components of resilience; 'adversity' and 'successful caregiving' on a 5-point Likert scale. Based on the median and Inter Quartile Range, the most relevant statements with moderate consensus were proposed in Round 2 in which panellists selected up to five statements in order of importance. Moderate consensus was reached for all statements after two rounds. Patients' behavioural problems and feeling competent as a caregiver were selected by both caregivers and professionals as essential resilience features. Caregivers also emphasized the importance of social support, the quality of the relationship with their relative and enjoying spending time together. Professionals considered coping skills, experiencing positive aspects of caregiving, and a good quality of life of caregivers most relevant. The essential elements of resilience selected from multiple stakeholder perspectives can be used to select appropriate outcomes for intervention studies and give guidance to policy to support caregivers more effectively and better tailored to their needs.

  16. Key attributes of expert NRL referees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Gavin; O'Connor, Donna

    2017-05-01

    Experiential knowledge of elite National Rugby League (NRL) referees was investigated to determine the key attributes contributing to expert officiating performance. Fourteen current first-grade NRL referees were asked to identify the key attributes they believed contributed to their expert refereeing performance. The modified Delphi method involved a 3-round process of an initial semi-structured interview followed by 2 questionnaires to reach consensus of opinion. The data revealed 25 attributes that were rated as most important that underpin expert NRL refereeing performance. Results illustrate the significance of the cognitive category, with the top 6 ranked attributes all cognitive skills. Of these, the referees ranked decision-making accuracy as the most important attribute, followed by reading the game, communication, game understanding, game management and knowledge of the rules. Player rapport, positioning and teamwork were the top ranked game skill attributes underpinning performance excellence. Expert referees also highlighted a number of psychological attributes (e.g., concentration, composure and mental toughness) that were significant to performance. There were only 2 physiological attributes (fitness, aerobic endurance) that were identified as significant to elite officiating performance. In summary, expert consensus was attained which successfully provided a hierarchy of the most significant attributes of expert NRL refereeing performance.

  17. What Superintendents Should Do to Position Their Districts to be Prepared for the Changing Nature of Technology in the Next Ten Years: A Delphi Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainsworth, Ean

    Over the past twenty years, schools and districts have been faced with the challenge of integrating technology into their classroom instruction. The rapid rate of evolution that technology changes has placed new burdens on school and district leaders to plan meaningful professional development, create and develop effective policy, and focus on school and district culture. In the coming years, the changing nature of technology is not expected to slow down and most certainly will accelerate. The purpose of this Delphi study was to identify what K-12 superintendents should do to position their districts to be prepared for the changing nature of technology in the next 10 years. The expert panel for this study was comprised of K-12 superintendents from eight Northern California counties. This Delphi study consisted of three rounds. In Round 1, the expert panel identified 74 strategies that superintendents should do to position their districts to be prepared for the changing nature of technology in the next 10 years. Those items were thematically categorized and where then narrowed down into a list of 30 strategies in preparation for Round 2. During Round 2, the expert panel rated the 30 strategies on the level of influence it would have on preparing districts for the changing nature of technology in the next 10 years using a 6-point Likert scale. In Round 3, each panel member was given the mean rating for each item as well as their own ratings for each item. Each panel member was then given the opportunity to change their ratings to the Round 2 survey. The expert panel identified four strategies which had the highest combined mean and median scores as well as an interquartile range of less than two. Each of the strategies from Round 2 and 3 had a mean score of four or higher. However, consensus was reached on four strategies which were rated with the highest combined mean and median scores. The four highest rated strategies were represented by three categories: culture

  18. A web-based delphi study for eliciting helpful criteria in the positive diagnosis of hemophagocytic syndrome in adult patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hejblum, Gilles; Lambotte, Olivier; Galicier, Lionel; Coppo, Paul; Marzac, Christophe; Aumont, Cédric; Fardet, Laurence

    2014-01-01

    The diagnosis of the reactive form of hemophagocytic syndrome in adults remains particularly difficult since none of the clinical or laboratory manifestations are specific. We undertook a study in order to elicit which features constitute helpful criteria for a positive diagnosis. In this Delphi study, the features investigated in the questionnaire and the experts invited to participate in the survey were issued from a bibliographic search. The questionnaire was iteratively proposed to experts via a web-based application with a feedback of the results observed at the preceding Delphi round. Experts were asked to label each investigated criterion in one of the following categories: absolutely required, important, of minor interest, or not assessable in the routine practice environment. A positive consensus was a priori defined as at least 75% answers observed in the categories absolutely required and important. The questionnaire investigated 26 criteria and 24 experts originating from 13 countries participated in the second and final Delphi round. A positive consensus was reached for the nine following criteria: unilineage cytopenia, bicytopenia, pancytopenia, presence of hemophagocytosis pictures on a bone marrow aspirate or on a tissue biopsy, high ferritin level, fever, organomegaly, presence of a predisposing underlying disease, and high level of lactate dehydrogenase. A negative consensus was reached for 13 criteria, and an absence of consensus was observed for 4 criteria. The study constitutes the first initiative to date for defining international guidelines devoted to the positive diagnosis of the reactive form of hemophagocytic syndrome.

  19. Validation of a clinical leadership qualities framework for managers in aged care: a Delphi study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Yun-Hee; Conway, Jane; Chenoweth, Lynn; Weise, Janelle; Thomas, Tamsin Ht; Williams, Anna

    2015-04-01

    To establish validity of a clinical leadership framework for aged care middle managers (The Aged care Clinical Leadership Qualities Framework). Middle managers in aged care have responsibility not only for organisational governance also and operational management but also quality service delivery. There is a need to better define clinical leadership abilities in aged care middle managers, in order to optimise their positional authority to lead others to achieve quality outcomes. A Delphi method. Sixty-nine experts in aged care were recruited, representing rural, remote and metropolitan community and residential aged care settings. Panellists were asked to rate the proposed framework in terms of the relevance and importance of each leadership quality using four-point Likert scales, and to provide comments. Three rounds of consultation were conducted. The number and corresponding percentage of the relevance and importance rating for each quality was calculated for each consultation round, as well as mean scores. Consensus was determined to be reached when a percentage score reached 70% or greater. Twenty-three panellists completed all three rounds of consultation. Following the three rounds of consultation, the acceptability and face validity of the framework was confirmed. The study confirmed the framework as useful in identifying leadership requirements for middle managers in Australian aged care settings. The framework is the first validated framework of clinical leadership attributes for middle managers in aged care and offers an initial step forward in clarifying the aged care middle manager role. The framework provides clarity in the breadth of role expectations for the middle managers and can be used to inform an aged care specific leadership program development, individuals' and organisations' performance and development processes; and policy and guidelines about the types of activities required of middle managers in aged care. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Core principles of evolutionary medicine: A Delphi study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunspan, Daniel Z; Nesse, Randolph M; Barnes, M Elizabeth; Brownell, Sara E

    2018-01-01

    Evolutionary medicine is a rapidly growing field that uses the principles of evolutionary biology to better understand, prevent and treat disease, and that uses studies of disease to advance basic knowledge in evolutionary biology. Over-arching principles of evolutionary medicine have been described in publications, but our study is the first to systematically elicit core principles from a diverse panel of experts in evolutionary medicine. These principles should be useful to advance recent recommendations made by The Association of American Medical Colleges and the Howard Hughes Medical Institute to make evolutionary thinking a core competency for pre-medical education. The Delphi method was used to elicit and validate a list of core principles for evolutionary medicine. The study included four surveys administered in sequence to 56 expert panelists. The initial open-ended survey created a list of possible core principles; the three subsequent surveys winnowed the list and assessed the accuracy and importance of each principle. Fourteen core principles elicited at least 80% of the panelists to agree or strongly agree that they were important core principles for evolutionary medicine. These principles over-lapped with concepts discussed in other articles discussing key concepts in evolutionary medicine. This set of core principles will be helpful for researchers and instructors in evolutionary medicine. We recommend that evolutionary medicine instructors use the list of core principles to construct learning goals. Evolutionary medicine is a young field, so this list of core principles will likely change as the field develops further.

  1. Cross platform development using Delphi and Kylix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, J.L.; Nishimura, H.; Timossi, C.

    2002-01-01

    A cross platform component for EPICS Simple Channel Access (SCA) has been developed for the use with Delphi on Windows and Kylix on Linux. An EPICS controls GUI application developed on Windows runs on Linux by simply rebuilding it, and vice versa. This paper describes the technical details of the component

  2. Determining nursing research priorities according to viewpoints of nurses in Bushehr City using Delphi technique

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Reza Yazdankhah fard; Farahnaz Kamalli; Sharif Sharifi; Niloofar Motamed; fatemeh Hajinejad

    2008-01-01

    Background: Nowadays, determining research priorities is one of the strategic approaches for research planning. Since there is no clear research policy in nursing in Iran, the present study was designed to find research priorities for nursing. Methods: In this descriptive-analytic study, the nurses in academic and clinical settings of Bushehr city participated and responded to a questionnaire in two round Delphi survey (208 persons in the first round and 174 persons in the second round). The...

  3. Teacher Competencies in Health Education: Results of a Delphi Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moynihan, Sharon; Paakkari, Leena; Välimaa, Raili; Jourdan, Didier; Mannix-McNamara, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research study was to identify the core competencies for health education teachers in supporting the development of health literacy among their students. A three round Delphi method was employed. Experts in health education were asked to identify core competencies for school health educators. Twenty six participants from the academic field were invited to participate in the study. Twenty participants completed the first round of the Delphi, while eighteen took part in round two and fifteen participated in the final round. Data were collected using an electronic questionnaire. The first round contained an open ended question in which participants were asked to name and define all the competencies they perceived were important. Thematic analysis was undertaken on these data. A list of 36 competencies was created from this round. This list was then returned to the same participants and they were asked to rate each competency on a 7 point semantic differential scale in terms of importance. The resulting data were then analysed. For the final round, participants were presented with a list of 33 competencies and were asked to rank them again, in order of importance. Twelve core competencies emerged from the analysis and these competencies comprised of a mixture of knowledge, attitude and skills. The authors suggest that how these competencies are achieved and operationalised in the school context can be quite complex and multi-faceted. While the authors do not seek to generalise from the study they suggest that these competencies are an important input for all stakeholders, in order to question national and international teacher guidelines. In addition the competencies identified may provide a useful starting point for others to undertake deeper analysis of what it means to be an effective health educator in schools.

  4. Development of guidelines for tertiary education institutions to assist them in supporting students with a mental illness: a Delphi consensus study with Australian professionals and consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reavley, Nicola J; Ross, Anna M; Killackey, Eoin; Jorm, Anthony F

    2013-01-01

    Background. The age at which most young people are in tertiary education is also the age of peak onset for mental illness. Because mental health problems can have adverse effects on students' academic performance and welfare, institutions require guidance how they can best provide support. However, the scientific evidence for how best to do this is relatively limited. Therefore a Delphi expert consensus study was carried out with professional and consumer experts. Methods. A systematic review of websites, books and journal articles was conducted to develop a 172 item survey containing strategies that institutions might use to support students with a mental illness. Two panels of Australian experts (74 professionals and 35 consumers) were recruited and independently rated the items over three rounds, with strategies reaching consensus on importance written into the guidelines. Results. The overall response rate across three rounds was 83% (80% consumers, 85% professionals). 155 strategies were endorsed as essential or important by at least 80% of panel members. The endorsed strategies provided information on policy, measures to promote support services, service provision, accessibility of support services, relationships between services, other types of support and issues associated with reasonable adjustments. They also provided guidance on the procedures the institutions should have for making staff aware of issues associated with mental illness, mental illness training, support for staff and communicating with a student with a mental illness. They also covered student rights and responsibilities, the procedures the institutions should have for making students aware of issues associated with mental illness, dealing with mental health crises, funding and research and evaluation. Conclusions. The guidelines provide guidance for tertiary institutions to assist them in supporting students with a mental illness. It is hoped that they may be used to inform policy and

  5. Development of guidelines for tertiary education institutions to assist them in supporting students with a mental illness: a Delphi consensus study with Australian professionals and consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola J. Reavley

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. The age at which most young people are in tertiary education is also the age of peak onset for mental illness. Because mental health problems can have adverse effects on students’ academic performance and welfare, institutions require guidance how they can best provide support. However, the scientific evidence for how best to do this is relatively limited. Therefore a Delphi expert consensus study was carried out with professional and consumer experts.Methods. A systematic review of websites, books and journal articles was conducted to develop a 172 item survey containing strategies that institutions might use to support students with a mental illness. Two panels of Australian experts (74 professionals and 35 consumers were recruited and independently rated the items over three rounds, with strategies reaching consensus on importance written into the guidelines.Results. The overall response rate across three rounds was 83% (80% consumers, 85% professionals. 155 strategies were endorsed as essential or important by at least 80% of panel members. The endorsed strategies provided information on policy, measures to promote support services, service provision, accessibility of support services, relationships between services, other types of support and issues associated with reasonable adjustments. They also provided guidance on the procedures the institutions should have for making staff aware of issues associated with mental illness, mental illness training, support for staff and communicating with a student with a mental illness. They also covered student rights and responsibilities, the procedures the institutions should have for making students aware of issues associated with mental illness, dealing with mental health crises, funding and research and evaluation.Conclusions. The guidelines provide guidance for tertiary institutions to assist them in supporting students with a mental illness. It is hoped that they may be used to

  6. Insufficiently studied factors related to burnout in nursing: Results from an e-Delphi study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guadalupe Manzano-García

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify potentially important factors in explaining burnout in nursing that have been insufficiently studied or ignored.A three-round Delphi study via e-mail correspondence was conducted, with a group of 40 European experts. The e-Delphi questionnaire consisted of 52 factors identified from a literature review. Experts rated and scored the importance of factors in the occurrence of burnout and the degree of attention given by researchers to each of the variables listed, on a six-point Likert scale. We used the agreement percentage (>80% to measure the level of consensus between experts. Furthermore, to confirm the level of consensus, we also calculated mean scores and modes. Regardless of the degree of consensus reached by the experts, we have calculated the mean of the stability of the answers for each expert (individual's qualitative stability and the mean of the stability percentages of the experts (qualitative group stability.The response rate in the three rounds was 93.02% (n = 40. Eight new factors were suggested in the first round. After modified, the e-Delphi questionnaire in the second and third rounds had 60 factors. All the factors reached the third round with a consensus level above 80% in terms of the attention that researchers gave them in their studies. Moreover, the data show a total mean qualitative group stability of 96.21%. In the third round 9 factors were classified by experts as 'studied very little', 17 as 'studied little' and 34 as 'well studied'.Findings show that not all the factors that may influence nursing burnout have received the same attention from researchers. The panel of experts has identified factors that, although important in explaining burnout, have been poorly studied or even forgotten. Our results suggest that further study into factors such as a lack of recognition of part of the tasks that nurses perform, feminine stereotype or excessive bureaucracy is needed for a better

  7. Insufficiently studied factors related to burnout in nursing: Results from an e-Delphi study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to identify potentially important factors in explaining burnout in nursing that have been insufficiently studied or ignored. Methods A three-round Delphi study via e-mail correspondence was conducted, with a group of 40 European experts. The e-Delphi questionnaire consisted of 52 factors identified from a literature review. Experts rated and scored the importance of factors in the occurrence of burnout and the degree of attention given by researchers to each of the variables listed, on a six-point Likert scale. We used the agreement percentage (>80%) to measure the level of consensus between experts. Furthermore, to confirm the level of consensus, we also calculated mean scores and modes. Regardless of the degree of consensus reached by the experts, we have calculated the mean of the stability of the answers for each expert (individual's qualitative stability) and the mean of the stability percentages of the experts (qualitative group stability). Results The response rate in the three rounds was 93.02% (n = 40). Eight new factors were suggested in the first round. After modified, the e-Delphi questionnaire in the second and third rounds had 60 factors. All the factors reached the third round with a consensus level above 80% in terms of the attention that researchers gave them in their studies. Moreover, the data show a total mean qualitative group stability of 96.21%. In the third round 9 factors were classified by experts as ‘studied very little’, 17 as ‘studied little’ and 34 as 'well studied' Conclusion Findings show that not all the factors that may influence nursing burnout have received the same attention from researchers. The panel of experts has identified factors that, although important in explaining burnout, have been poorly studied or even forgotten. Our results suggest that further study into factors such as a lack of recognition of part of the tasks that nurses perform, feminine stereotype or excessive bureaucracy is

  8. Insufficiently studied factors related to burnout in nursing: Results from an e-Delphi study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzano-García, Guadalupe; Ayala, Juan-Carlos

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to identify potentially important factors in explaining burnout in nursing that have been insufficiently studied or ignored. A three-round Delphi study via e-mail correspondence was conducted, with a group of 40 European experts. The e-Delphi questionnaire consisted of 52 factors identified from a literature review. Experts rated and scored the importance of factors in the occurrence of burnout and the degree of attention given by researchers to each of the variables listed, on a six-point Likert scale. We used the agreement percentage (>80%) to measure the level of consensus between experts. Furthermore, to confirm the level of consensus, we also calculated mean scores and modes. Regardless of the degree of consensus reached by the experts, we have calculated the mean of the stability of the answers for each expert (individual's qualitative stability) and the mean of the stability percentages of the experts (qualitative group stability). The response rate in the three rounds was 93.02% (n = 40). Eight new factors were suggested in the first round. After modified, the e-Delphi questionnaire in the second and third rounds had 60 factors. All the factors reached the third round with a consensus level above 80% in terms of the attention that researchers gave them in their studies. Moreover, the data show a total mean qualitative group stability of 96.21%. In the third round 9 factors were classified by experts as 'studied very little', 17 as 'studied little' and 34 as 'well studied'. Findings show that not all the factors that may influence nursing burnout have received the same attention from researchers. The panel of experts has identified factors that, although important in explaining burnout, have been poorly studied or even forgotten. Our results suggest that further study into factors such as a lack of recognition of part of the tasks that nurses perform, feminine stereotype or excessive bureaucracy is needed for a better understanding of this

  9. White paper defining optimal palliative care in older people with dementia: a Delphi study and recommendations from the European Association for Palliative Care.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steen, J.T. van der; Radbruch, L.; Hertogh, C.M.P.M.; Boer, M.E. de; Hughes, J.C.; Larkin, P.; Francke, A.L.; Jünger, S.; Gove, D.; Firth, P.; Koopmans, R.T.C.M.; Volicer, L.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Dementia is a life-limiting disease without curative treatments. Patients and families may need palliative care specific to dementia. Aim:To define optimal palliative care in dementia. Methods: Five-round Delphi study. Based on literature, a core group of 12 experts from 6 countries

  10. White paper defining optimal palliative care in older people with dementia: A Delphi study and recommendations from the European Association for Palliative Care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Steen, J.T.; Radbruch, L.; Hertogh, C.M.P.M.; de Boer, M.E.; Hughes, J.C.; Larkin, P.; Francke, A.L.; Junger, S.; Gove, D.; Firth, P.; Koopmans, R.T.C.M.; Volicer, L.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Dementia is a life-limiting disease without curative treatments. Patients and families may need palliative care specific to dementia. Aim: To define optimal palliative care in dementia. Methods: Five-round Delphi study. Based on literature, a core group of 12 experts from 6 countries

  11. Sleep-deprived motor vehicle operators are unfit to drive: a multidisciplinary expert consensus statement on drowsy driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czeisler, Charles A; Wickwire, Emerson M; Barger, Laura K; Dement, William C; Gamble, Karen; Hartenbaum, Natalie; Ohayon, Maurice M; Pelayo, Rafael; Phillips, Barbara; Strohl, Kingman; Tefft, Brian; Rajaratnam, Shantha M W; Malhotra, Raman; Whiton, Kaitlyn; Hirshkowitz, Max

    2016-06-01

    This article presents the consensus findings of the National Sleep Foundation Drowsy Driving Consensus Working Group, which was an expert panel assembled to establish a consensus statement regarding sleep-related driving impairment. The National Sleep Foundation assembled a expert panel comprised of experts from the sleep community and experts appointed by stakeholder organizations. A systematic literature review identified 346 studies that were abstracted and provided to the panelists for review. A modified Delphi RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method with 2 rounds of voting was used to reach consensus. A final consensus was reached that sleep deprivation renders motorists unfit to drive a motor vehicle. After reviewing growing evidence of impairment and increased crash risk among drivers who obtained less than optimal sleep duration in the preceding 24 hours, the panelists recognized the need for public policy guidance as to when it is certainly unsafe to drive. Toward this end, the panelists agreed upon the following expert consensus statement: "Drivers who have slept for two hours or less in the preceding 24 hours are not fit to operate a motor vehicle." Panelists further agreed that most healthy drivers would likely be impaired with only 3 to 5 hours of sleep during the prior 24 hours. There is consensus among experts that healthy individuals who have slept for 2 hours or less in the preceding 24 hours are too impaired to safely operate a motor vehicle. Prevention of drowsy driving will require sustained and collaborative effort from multiple stakeholders. Implications and limitations of the consensus recommendations are discussed. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. End points for validating early warning scores in the context of rapid response systems: a Delphi consensus study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, N E; Oestergaard, D; Lippert, A

    2016-05-01

    When investigating early warning scores and similar physiology-based risk stratification tools, death, cardiac arrest and intensive care unit admission are traditionally used as end points. A large proportion of the patients identified by these end points cannot be saved, even with optimal treatment. This could pose a limitation to studies using these end points. We studied current expert opinion on end points for validating tools for the identification of patients in hospital wards at risk of imminent critical illness. The Delphi consensus methodology was used. We identified 22 experts based on objective criteria; 17 participated in the study. Each expert panel member's suggestions for end points were collected and distributed to the entire expert panel in anonymised form. The experts reviewed, rated and commented the suggested end points through the rounds in the Delphi process, and the experts' combined rating of the usefulness of each suggestion was established. A gross list of 86 suggestions for end points, relating to 13 themes, was produced. No items were uniformly recognised as ideal. The themes cardiac arrest, death, and level of care contained the items receiving highest ratings. End points relating to death, cardiac arrest and intensive care unit admission currently comprise the most obvious compromises for investigating early warning scores and similar risk stratification tools. Additional end points from the gross list of suggested end points could become feasible with the increased availability of large data sets with a multitude of recorded parameters. © 2015 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Expert opinion vs. empirical evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Rod A; Raybould, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Expert opinion is often sought by government regulatory agencies when there is insufficient empirical evidence to judge the safety implications of a course of action. However, it can be reckless to continue following expert opinion when a preponderance of evidence is amassed that conflicts with this opinion. Factual evidence should always trump opinion in prioritizing the information that is used to guide regulatory policy. Evidence-based medicine has seen a dramatic upturn in recent years spurred by examples where evidence indicated that certain treatments recommended by expert opinions increased death rates. We suggest that scientific evidence should also take priority over expert opinion in the regulation of genetically modified crops (GM). Examples of regulatory data requirements that are not justified based on the mass of evidence are described, and it is suggested that expertise in risk assessment should guide evidence-based regulation of GM crops. PMID:24637724

  14. Charting the New Territory of Adaptive Co-management: A Delphi Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Plummer

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Complex systems understanding implies a world characterized by dynamic, nonlinear interactions, discontinuities, and surprises. Such conditions are not amenable to conventional resource management approaches that stress command-and-control, and therefore, novel governance approaches more suited to complexity and uncertainty are required. Adaptive co-management has emerged as an interdisciplinary response to this need, and blends the adaptive management and collaborative management narratives. However, concepts associated with adaptive co-management are relatively new and quickly expanding from multiple perspectives. The objective of this paper is to take stock of this relatively recent concept and synthesize current thinking in terms of: (1 the core components of adaptive co-management, (2 emerging research directions, (3 the barriers to implementation of adaptive co-management, and (4 criteria for success. To explore these four areas, a three-round, classical Delphi process was administered with an expert panel of 30 individuals. All members of the expert panel initially responded to open-ended questions, and the qualitative results were analyzed using QSR NVIVO. The subsequent two rounds of the Delphi required quantitative responses in which the expert panel was asked to indicate the level of importance using a seven point likert scale associated with specific items. Results of the Delphi survey reveal a high degree of consensus on several core areas within this emerging interdisciplinary governance approach. Results of this research should foster precision with respect to employment of the term, foster scholarly discourse, and indicate areas of practical importance to adaptive co-management.

  15. Identifying Ethical Issues in Mental Health Research with Minors Adolescents: Results of a Delphi Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeta Ioana Hiriscau

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Research with minors, especially for preventive purposes, e.g., suicide prevention, investigating risk or self-destructive behaviors such as deviance, drug abuse, or suicidal behavior, is ethically sensitive. We present a Delphi study exploring the ethical implications of the needs formulated by researchers in an international pre-conference who would benefit from ethics support and guidance in conducting Mental Health Research with minors. The resulting List of Ethical Issues (LEI was submitted to a 2-rounds Delphi process via the Internet, including 34 multidisciplinary experts. In the first round, the experts reviewed the LEI and completed a questionnaire. Results from this round were analyzed and grouped in nine categories comprising 40 items. In the second round, the experts had to agree/disagree with the needs expressed in the LEI leading to a final list of 25 ethical issues considered relevant for Mental Health Research with minors such as: confidentiality of the sensitive data, competence for consenting alone and risk of harm and stigma related to the methodology used in research. It was shown that studies like SEYLE (Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe trigger among researchers wishes to obtain specific recommendations helping to comply with standards for good practice in conducting research with minors.

  16. Curricular priorities for business ethics in medical practice and research: recommendations from Delphi consensus panels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuBois, James M; Kraus, Elena M; Gursahani, Kamal; Mikulec, Anthony; Bakanas, Erin

    2014-11-15

    No published curricula in the area of medical business ethics exist. This is surprising given that physicians wrestle daily with business decisions and that professional associations, the Institute of Medicine, Health and Human Services, Congress, and industry have issued related guidelines over the past 5 years. To fill this gap, the authors aimed (1) to identify the full range of medical business ethics topics that experts consider important to teach, and (2) to establish curricular priorities through expert consensus. In spring 2012, the authors conducted an online Delphi survey with two heterogeneous panels of experts recruited in the United States. One panel focused on business ethics in medical practice (n = 14), and 1 focused on business ethics in medical research (n = 12). Panel 1 generated an initial list of 14 major topics related to business ethics in medical practice, and subsequently rated 6 topics as very important or essential to teach. Panel 2 generated an initial list of 10 major topics related to business ethics in medical research, and subsequently rated 5 as very important or essential. In both domains, the panel strongly recommended addressing problems that conflicts of interest can cause, legal guidelines, and the goals or ideals of the profession. The Bander Center for Medical Business Ethics at Saint Louis University will use the results of the Delphi panel to develop online curricular resources for each of the highest rated topics.

  17. Guidelines for using the Delphi Technique to develop habitat suitability index curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crance, Johnie H.

    1987-01-01

    Habitat Suitability Index (SI) curves are one method of presenting species habitat suitability criteria. The curves are often used with the Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) and are necessary components of the Instream Flow Incremental Methodology (IFIM) (Armour et al. 1984). Bovee (1986) described three categories of SI curves or habitat suitability criteria based on the procedures and data used to develop the criteria. Category I curves are based on professional judgment, with 1ittle or no empirical data. Both Category II (utilization criteria) and Category III (preference criteria) curves have as their source data collected at locations where target species are observed or collected. Having Category II and Category III curves for all species of concern would be ideal. In reality, no SI curves are available for many species, and SI curves that require intensive field sampling often cannot be developed under prevailing constraints on time and costs. One alternative under these circumstances is the development and interim use of SI curves based on expert opinion. The Delphi technique (Pill 1971; Delbecq et al. 1975; Linstone and Turoff 1975) is one method used for combining the knowledge and opinions of a group of experts. The purpose of this report is to describe how the Delphi technique may be used to develop expert-opinion-based SI curves.

  18. A True Delphi Approach: Developing a Tailored Curriculum in Response to Local Agriscience Need

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubenstein, Eric; Thoron, Andrew; Burleson, Sarah

    2012-02-07

    The Delphi approach is a structured communication technique, developed as a systematic, interactive forecasting method which relies on a panel of experts. In this specific case experts from Industry, Education and Extension fields addressed needs for educational programs in a traditional agriculturally-based community, environmentally conscious practices in order to restore environmental integrity and multi-disciplinary approach to solve sustainability problems facing the agricultural industry. The experts were divided into two main groups, (A) Secondary and (B) Post-secondary, and answered questionnaires in three rounds: • 1st Round – Participants generated a list of knowledge, skills, and competencies followed • 2nd Round – Panelists rated each item • 3rd Round – Panelists were given the opportunity to combine and add additional items As a result, top six items from both groups were not found similar, secondary panelists centralized around employment skills and post-secondary panelists focused on content areas. Implications include a need for content-based curriculum for post-secondary graduates, utilization of true-Delphi technique for future curriculum development research and further examination of students that complete secondary and post-secondary programs in biofuels/sustainable agriculture.

  19. Science to the rescue or contingent progress? Comparing 10 years of public, expert and policy discourses on new and emerging science and technology in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smallman, Melanie

    2017-05-01

    Over the past 10 years, numerous public debates on new and emerging science and technologies have taken place in the United Kingdom. In this article, we characterise the discourses emerging from these debates and compare them to the discourses in analogous expert scientific and policy reports. We find that while the public is broadly supportive of new scientific developments, they see the risks and social and ethical issues associated with them as unpredictable but inherent parts of the developments. In contrast, the scientific experts and policymakers see risks and social and ethical issues as manageable and quantifiable with more research and knowledge. We argue that these differences amount to two different sociotechnical imaginaries or views of science and how it shapes our world - an elite imaginary of 'science to the rescue' shared by scientists and policymakers and public counter-imaginary of 'contingent progress'. We argue that these two imaginaries indicate that, but also help explain why, public dialogue has had limited impact on public policy.

  20. A core undergraduate curriculum in plastic surgery - a Delphi consensus study in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almeland, Stian K; Lindford, Andrew; Berg, Jais Oliver

    2017-01-01

    , there appears to be a need to define the core competences that are to be taught. The aim of this study was to establish a Scandinavian core undergraduate curriculum of competences in plastic surgery, using scientific methods. METHODS: The Delphi technique for group consensus was employed. An expert panel......BACKGROUND AND AIMS: In recent years, undergraduate medical education has undergone a transition from a speciality-based to a more competence-based training system. Consequently, whilst medical knowledge is rapidly expanding, time for teaching of the surgical specialties is decreasing. Thus...

  1. [Terms for home care in Alzheimer's disease patients: a consensus study with the Delphi technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caire, Jean-Michel; Tétreault, Sylvie; Sarrazy, Bernard

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the terms for home care of a person with Alzheimer's and related diseases. Interactions between the individual and his human and physical environement require important support to promote home care. This study was conducted with the Delphi technique and interviewed more than twenty experts, professional, volunteer and family caregivers from three countries to set up the best terms for home care. The results show the importance of taking into account the approval of the caregiver for the available support measures and the preservation of his personal activities. This study opens perspectives regarding the assessment and interventions for this population.

  2. Development of sustainability reports for farming operations in the Basque Country using the Delphi method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Alvarez Etxeberria

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, publications of sustainability reports from a variety of organisations all over the world have significantly increased. Most of these companies are large and belong to the secondary and tertiary sector. This paper uses stakeholder theory to attempt to contribute to the development of sustainability reports specifically related to farming operations. This paper also uses the Delphi methodology to collect information from different stakeholders that, in turn, represent different groups of agents within the organisations involved. The conclusions indicate a difference in the assessments from the three subgroups of experts that comprise the panel.

  3. [Competency requirements for executives in healthcare and social services organizations: Results of a Delphi study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pielach, Martin; Schubert, Hans-Joachim

    2018-02-07

    Leadership in social services and healthcare organizations is marked by high levels of complexity and contradiction, which cannot be fully explained by politically, economically, and socially induced changes. Rather, it is the particularities of service provision in healthcare and social services that confront executives with specific demands. This study aimed to capture and prioritize required leadership competencies in healthcare and social services organizations. A three-step Delphi study was conducted with executives and managerial staff, who are job holders and thus experts on their occupation. For the first step, an explorative qualitative approach was chosen to record general opinion without prior assumptions. The following two steps weighted and selected the competency requirements in step one using rating- and ranking procedures. Results of the Delphi inquiry imply high relevance of social and personal competencies. Approximately 66 % of the competencies assessed in round three were social and personal competencies. 12 out of the 15 highest rated competencies in Delphi step three can be assigned to these two competency categories. In contrast, the importance of professional as well as methodical competencies was rated as less important. Only two methodical competencies and one professional competency were rated as very important by the panel. Nevertheless, the importance of executive professional and methodical competencies in healthcare and social services organizations is emphasized by high ratings of the competencies "Sector-specific expertise" and "Analytical skills". The methodical competency "Analytical skills" was identified by the Delphi respondents as the most important competency requirement. Social and personal requirements are of primary importance for leadership in healthcare and social services organizations. These results mostly correspond to leadership requirements posited in the literature on leadership skills. Emphasis should be on the

  4. A Delphi-matrix approach to SEA and its application within the tourism sector in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuo, N.-W.; Hsiao, T.-Y.; Yu, Y.-H.

    2005-01-01

    Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) is a procedural tool and within the framework of SEA, several different types of analytical methods can be used in the assessment. However, the impact matrix used currently in Taiwan has some disadvantages. Hence, a Delphi-matrix approach to SEA is proposed here to improve the performance of Taiwan's SEA. This new approach is based on the impact matrix combination with indicators of sustainability, and then the Delphi method is employed to collect experts' opinions. In addition, the assessment of National Floriculture Park Plan and Taiwan Flora 2008 Program is taken as an example to examine this new method. Although international exhibition is one of the important tourism (economic) activities, SEA is seldom about tourism sector. Finally, the Delphi-matrix approach to SEA for tourism development plan is established containing eight assessment topics and 26 corresponding categories. In summary, three major types of impacts: resources' usages, pollution emissions, and local cultures change are found. Resources' usages, such as water, electricity, and natural gas demand, are calculated on a per capita basis. Various forms of pollution resulting from this plan, such as air, water, soil, waste, and noise, are also identified

  5. Delphi Survey for Designing a Intervention Research Study on Childhood Obesity Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Jeong; Sung, Eunju; Choi, Eun Young; Ju, Young-Su; Park, Eal-Whan; Cheong, Yoo-Seock; Yoo, Sunmi; Park, Kyung Hee; Choi, Hyung Jin; Kim, Seolhye

    2017-09-01

    The prevalence of childhood obesity in South Korea has increased owing to economic improvement and the prevailing Westernized dietary pattern. As the incidence of chronic diseases caused by obesity is also expected to increase, effective interventions to prevent childhood obesity are needed. Therefore, we conducted a Delphi study to determine the priorities of a potential intervention research on childhood obesity prevention and its adequacy and feasibility. The two-round Delphi technique was used with a panel of 10 childhood obesity experts. The panelists were asked to rate "priority populations," "methods of intervention," "measurement of outcomes," "future intervention settings," and "duration of intervention" by using a structured questionnaire. Finally, a portfolio analysis was performed with the adequacy and feasibility indexes as the two axes. For priority populations, the panel favored "elementary," "preschool," and "middle and high school" students in this order. Regarding intervention settings, the panelists assigned high adequacy and feasibility to "childcare centers" and "home" for preschool children, "school" and "home" for elementary school children, and "school" for adolescents in middle and high school. As the age of the target population increased, the panelists scored increasing numbers of anthropometric, clinical, and intermediate outcomes as highly adequate and feasible for assessing the effectiveness of the intervention. According to the results of the Delphi survey, the highest-priority population for the research on childhood obesity prevention was that of elementary school students. Various settings, methods, outcome measures, and durations for the different age groups were also suggested.

  6. Designing a safety checklist for dental implant placement: a Delphi study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christman, Adam; Schrader, Stuart; John, Vanchit; Zunt, Susan; Maupome, Gerardo; Prakasam, Sivaraman

    2014-02-01

    Complications during and after dental implant placement can be a hindrance to successful treatment. Checklists are emerging as useful tools in error reduction in various fields. The authors selected a Delphi panel to explore the appropriate clinical practices involved in implant placement, with the objective of formulating a safety checklist that would aid in reducing errors. The authors administered a Delphi method survey to an expert panel of 24 board-certified periodontists to determine if consensus existed regarding the critical steps involved in implant placement. They defined consensus as 90 percent agreement among participants. Using the Delphi data, the authors designed a safety checklist for implant placement. The panelists generated 20 consensus statements regarding essential steps in implant placement. The authors divided the statements into preoperative, intraoperative and postoperative phases. To determine the rationale for consensus decisions, the authors conducted a thematic qualitative analysis of responses to all open-ended questionnaire items, asking panel members how or why a particular procedure was performed. The panelists reached a consensus regarding the steps they considered critical in implant placement. Further research is needed to assess the acceptance and effectiveness of this type of checklist in a clinical setting. Practical Implications. The authors developed a checklist that may be useful in reducing errors in placement of dental implants. If effective, this checklist ultimately will aid in minimizing risk and increasing implant success rates, especially for inexperienced practitioners, dental students, surgical residents and dental implant trainees (that is, dentists undergoing training to place implants through continuing education courses).

  7. Identifying the Essential Elements of Effective Science Communication: What Do the Experts Say?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Belinda; France, Bev; Gilbert, John K.

    2012-01-01

    Experts in science communication were asked to identify the essential elements of a science communication course for post-graduate students. A Delphi methodology provided a framework for a research design that accessed their opinions and allowed them to contribute to, reflect on and identify 10 essential elements. There was a high level of…

  8. Expert consensus on gender criteria for assessment in medical communication education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dielissen, P.; Verdonk, P.; Kramer, A.; Bottema, B.; Lagro-Janssen, T.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study is to develop gender criteria that can be included in communication skills assessment in medical education. Methods: A three-round Delphi study was conducted. The invited 59 participants were experts in the field of gender medicine education (n=28) and doctor-patient

  9. Expert consensus on gender criteria for assessment in medical communication education.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dielissen, P.; Verdonk, P.; Bottema, B.; Kramer, A.; Lagro-Janssen, T.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to develop gender criteria that can be included in communication skills assessment in medical education. METHODS: A three-round Delphi study was conducted. The invited 59 participants were experts in the field of gender medicine education (n=28) and doctor-patient

  10. Expert forecast on emerging psychosocial risks related to occupational safety and health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Milczarek, M.; Brun, E.; Houtman, I.; Goudswaard, A.; Evers, M.; Bovenkamp, M. van de; Roskams, N.; Op de Beeck, R.; Pahkin, K.; Berthet, M.; Morvan, E.; Kuhn, K.; Kaluza, K.; Hupke, M.; Hauke, A.; Reinert, D.; Widerszal-Bazyl, M.; Perez, J.; Oncins de Frutos, M.

    2007-01-01

    This report is in cooperation with TNO Work and Employment and the European Agency for Safety and Health at Work. The expert forecast on emerging psychosocial risks was carried out by means of the Delphi method. The main emerging psychosocial risks revealed were related to new forms of employment

  11. Réponse à Christine Delphy

    OpenAIRE

    Fassin, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Dans la revue Sociologie (vol. 3, n° 3, 2012), Christine Delphy et Pascale Molinier mènent une discussion intéressante, animée par Isabelle Clair et Sandrine Rui, sous un titre qui a attiré mon attention tant il rencontre les réflexions que j’essaie de développer de longue date : « Genre à la française ? ». Christine Delphy y revient d’ailleurs sur un article que j’ai publié en 1993 dans la revue Esprit: « C’est bien pourquoi je n’aime pas cette notion de « rapport social de sexe » car elle l...

  12. Organization of DELPHI experimental data analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsyganov, E.N.; Vodop'yanov, A.S.

    1988-01-01

    The philosophy of the DELPI off-line interactive centre at CERN is presented briefly. The main purpose of this centre is to provide a fast turn-around and graphics support for the express analysis line. It should comprise 2 medium power computers of VAX type, 2-3 emulators 2-3 high resolution graphics facilities and 2-3 personal computers. The processing of the events at the DELPHI interactive centre will include the following steps: full processing of a small sample of events, futher reduction of this samples by physics analysis programs, detailed scanning and correction of the reduced sample, physics analysis of the sample of events. The DELPHI off-line software is considered

  13. The Delphi technique in radiography education research

    OpenAIRE

    St John-Matthews, J; Robinson, L; Wallace, MJ

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To describe and review the Delphi technique as a tool for radiographers engaged in mixed-methods research whereby agreement is required on the proficiencies needed by educational programmes for pre- and post- registration radiographers. This is achieved through a description offering a brief history of the technique. Through a literature search, radiography education research using this technique is identified. A protocol for a research project using the technique is presented. Us...

  14. A Delphi forecast of technology in education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, B. E.

    1973-01-01

    The results are reported of a Delphi forecast of the utilization and social impacts of large-scale educational telecommunications technology. The focus is on both forecasting methodology and educational technology. The various methods of forecasting used by futurists are analyzed from the perspective of the most appropriate method for a prognosticator of educational technology, and review and critical analysis are presented of previous forecasts and studies. Graphic responses, summarized comments, and a scenario of education in 1990 are presented.

  15. Expert Systems: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adiga, Sadashiv

    1984-01-01

    Discusses: (1) the architecture of expert systems; (2) features that distinguish expert systems from conventional programs; (3) conditions necessary to select a particular application for the development of successful expert systems; (4) issues to be resolved when building expert systems; and (5) limitations. Examples of selected expert systems…

  16. Consolidating AMC’s Contingency Response Capabilities: A Delphi Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-19

    CONSOLIDATING AMC’S CONTINGENCY RESPONSE CAPABILITIES: A DELPHI STUDY GRADUATE RESEARCH PAPER June 2015 Brad P. Bowyer, Major, USAF AFIT- ENS-GRP-15...A DELPHI STUDY GRADUATE RESEARCH PAPER Presented to the Faculty Department of Operational Sciences Graduate School of Engineering and Management Air...AFIT- ENS-GRP-15-J-026 ii CONSOLIDATING AMC’S CONTINGENCY RESPONSE CAPABILITIES: A DELPHI STUDY Brad P. Bowyer, BS, MA Major, USAF Committee

  17. The Use of the Delphi and Other Consensus Group Methods in Medical Education Research: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey-Murto, Susan; Varpio, Lara; Wood, Timothy J; Gonsalves, Carol; Ufholz, Lee-Anne; Mascioli, Kelly; Wang, Carol; Foth, Thomas

    2017-10-01

    Consensus group methods, such as the Delphi method and nominal group technique (NGT), are used to synthesize expert opinions when evidence is lacking. Despite their extensive use, these methods are inconsistently applied. Their use in medical education research has not been well studied. The authors set out to describe the use of consensus methods in medical education research and to assess the reporting quality of these methods and results. Using scoping review methods, the authors searched the Medline, Embase, PsycInfo, PubMed, Scopus, and ERIC databases for 2009-2016. Full-text articles that focused on medical education and the keywords Delphi, RAND, NGT, or other consensus group methods were included. A standardized extraction form was used to collect article demographic data and features reflecting methodological rigor. Of the articles reviewed, 257 met the inclusion criteria. The Modified Delphi (105/257; 40.8%), Delphi (91/257; 35.4%), and NGT (23/257; 8.9%) methods were most often used. The most common study purpose was curriculum development or reform (68/257; 26.5%), assessment tool development (55/257; 21.4%), and defining competencies (43/257; 16.7%). The reporting quality varied, with 70.0% (180/257) of articles reporting a literature review, 27.2% (70/257) reporting what background information was provided to participants, 66.1% (170/257) describing the number of participants, 40.1% (103/257) reporting if private decisions were collected, 37.7% (97/257) reporting if formal feedback of group ratings was shared, and 43.2% (111/257) defining consensus a priori. Consensus methods are poorly standardized and inconsistently used in medical education research. Improved criteria for reporting are needed.

  18. Evidence-based algorithm for diagnosis and assessment in psoriatic arthritis: results by Italian DElphi in psoriatic Arthritis (IDEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Lapadula

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Psoriatic arthritis (PsA is a chronic inflammatory disease involving skin, peripheral joints, entheses, and axial skeleton. The disease is frequently associated with extrarticular manifestations (EAMs and comorbidities. In order to create a protocol for PsA diagnosis and global assessment of patients with an algorithm based on anamnestic, clinical, laboratory and imaging procedures, we established a DElphi study on a national scale, named Italian DElphi in psoriatic Arthritis (IDEA. After a literature search, a Delphi poll, involving 52 rheumatologists, was performed. On the basis of the literature search, 202 potential items were identified. The steering committee planned at least two Delphi rounds. In the first Delphi round, the experts judged each of the 202 items using a score ranging from 1 to 9 based on its increasing clinical relevance. The questions posed to experts were How relevant is this procedure/observation/sign/symptom for assessment of a psoriatic arthritis patient? Proposals of additional items, not included in the questionnaire, were also encouraged. The results of the poll were discussed by the Steering Committee, which evaluated the necessity for removing selected procedures or adding additional ones, according to criteria of clinical appropriateness and sustainability. A total of 43 recommended diagnosis and assessment procedures, recognized as items, were derived by combination of the Delphi survey and two National Expert Meetings, and grouped in different areas. Favourable opinion was reached in 100% of cases for several aspects covering the following areas: medical (familial and personal history, physical evaluation, imaging tool, second level laboratory tests, disease activity measurement and extrarticular manifestations. After performing PsA diagnosis, identification of specific disease activity scores and clinimetric approaches were suggested for assessing the different clinical subsets. Further, results showed the

  19. Expert Opinion on the Perceived Effectiveness and Importance of On-Farm Biosecurity Measures for Cattle and Swine Farms in Switzerland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Kuster

    Full Text Available Biosecurity is crucial for safeguarding livestock from infectious diseases. Despite the plethora of biosecurity recommendations, published scientific evidence on the effectiveness of individual biosecurity measures is limited. The objective of this study was to assess the perception of Swiss experts about the effectiveness and importance of individual on-farm biosecurity measures for cattle and swine farms (31 and 30 measures, respectively. Using a modified Delphi method, 16 Swiss livestock disease specialists (8 for each species were interviewed. The experts were asked to rank biosecurity measures that were written on cards, by allocating a score from 0 (lowest to 5 (highest. Experts ranked biosecurity measures based on their importance related to Swiss legislation, feasibility, as well as the effort required for implementation and the benefit of each biosecurity measure. The experts also ranked biosecurity measures based on their effectiveness in preventing an infectious agent from entering and spreading on a farm, solely based on transmission characteristics of specific pathogens. The pathogens considered by cattle experts were those causing Bluetongue (BT, Bovine Viral Diarrhea (BVD, Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD and Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis (IBR. Swine experts expressed their opinion on the pathogens causing African Swine Fever (ASF, Enzootic Pneumonia (EP, Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS, as well as FMD. For cattle farms, biosecurity measures that improve disease awareness of farmers were ranked as both most important and most effective. For swine farms, the most important and effective measures identified were those related to animal movements. Among all single measures evaluated, education of farmers was perceived by the experts to be the most important and effective for protecting both Swiss cattle and swine farms from disease. The findings of this study provide an important basis for recommendation to farmers

  20. Expert Opinion on the Perceived Effectiveness and Importance of On-Farm Biosecurity Measures for Cattle and Swine Farms in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuster, Karin; Cousin, Marie-Eve; Jemmi, Thomas; Schüpbach-Regula, Gertraud; Magouras, Ioannis

    2015-01-01

    Biosecurity is crucial for safeguarding livestock from infectious diseases. Despite the plethora of biosecurity recommendations, published scientific evidence on the effectiveness of individual biosecurity measures is limited. The objective of this study was to assess the perception of Swiss experts about the effectiveness and importance of individual on-farm biosecurity measures for cattle and swine farms (31 and 30 measures, respectively). Using a modified Delphi method, 16 Swiss livestock disease specialists (8 for each species) were interviewed. The experts were asked to rank biosecurity measures that were written on cards, by allocating a score from 0 (lowest) to 5 (highest). Experts ranked biosecurity measures based on their importance related to Swiss legislation, feasibility, as well as the effort required for implementation and the benefit of each biosecurity measure. The experts also ranked biosecurity measures based on their effectiveness in preventing an infectious agent from entering and spreading on a farm, solely based on transmission characteristics of specific pathogens. The pathogens considered by cattle experts were those causing Bluetongue (BT), Bovine Viral Diarrhea (BVD), Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) and Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis (IBR). Swine experts expressed their opinion on the pathogens causing African Swine Fever (ASF), Enzootic Pneumonia (EP), Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS), as well as FMD. For cattle farms, biosecurity measures that improve disease awareness of farmers were ranked as both most important and most effective. For swine farms, the most important and effective measures identified were those related to animal movements. Among all single measures evaluated, education of farmers was perceived by the experts to be the most important and effective for protecting both Swiss cattle and swine farms from disease. The findings of this study provide an important basis for recommendation to farmers and

  1. Expert Opinion on the Perceived Effectiveness and Importance of On-Farm Biosecurity Measures for Cattle and Swine Farms in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuster, Karin; Cousin, Marie-Eve; Jemmi, Thomas; Schüpbach-Regula, Gertraud; Magouras, Ioannis

    2015-01-01

    Biosecurity is crucial for safeguarding livestock from infectious diseases. Despite the plethora of biosecurity recommendations, published scientific evidence on the effectiveness of individual biosecurity measures is limited. The objective of this study was to assess the perception of Swiss experts about the effectiveness and importance of individual on-farm biosecurity measures for cattle and swine farms (31 and 30 measures, respectively). Using a modified Delphi method, 16 Swiss livestock disease specialists (8 for each species) were interviewed. The experts were asked to rank biosecurity measures that were written on cards, by allocating a score from 0 (lowest) to 5 (highest). Experts ranked biosecurity measures based on their importance related to Swiss legislation, feasibility, as well as the effort required for implementation and the benefit of each biosecurity measure. The experts also ranked biosecurity measures based on their effectiveness in preventing an infectious agent from entering and spreading on a farm, solely based on transmission characteristics of specific pathogens. The pathogens considered by cattle experts were those causing Bluetongue (BT), Bovine Viral Diarrhea (BVD), Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) and Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis (IBR). Swine experts expressed their opinion on the pathogens causing African Swine Fever (ASF), Enzootic Pneumonia (EP), Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS), as well as FMD. For cattle farms, biosecurity measures that improve disease awareness of farmers were ranked as both most important and most effective. For swine farms, the most important and effective measures identified were those related to animal movements. Among all single measures evaluated, education of farmers was perceived by the experts to be the most important and effective for protecting both Swiss cattle and swine farms from disease. The findings of this study provide an important basis for recommendation to farmers and

  2. Socio-compatible energy policies. Experts' opinion on behalf of the Federal Government. Sozialvertraegliche Energiepolitik. Ein Gutachten fuer die Bundesregierung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renn, O.; Albrecht, G.; Kotte, U.; Peters, H.P.; Stegelmann, H.U.

    1985-01-01

    The socio-compatibility project comprises three central analytical elements: 1) The arborescent value analysis: Eminent social groups (such as the trade-unions or the ecological institutes) were questioned on their values and criteria applied to evaluate different energy systems. 2) The energy system and scenario impact analysis: Indicators deduced from the arborescent value analysis serve to approximately cover the value dimensions affected by above criteria. 3) Impact analysis weighing executed by a group of arbitrarily chosen citizens. All reflections considered, it is evident that none of the energy policies discussed may claim the title 'socio-compatible'. The individual, i.e. neither scientist nor politician, cannot decide upon the socio-compatibility of one or the other concept. An altogether socially compatible solution accepted and classified as such by different social groups may only crystallize and be set against different options by the political formation of opinion. The studys' primary concern lies in furnishing information, i.e. aids for politicians having to decide on energy policies. Above all the study aimed at finding out about reactions, social protest, opposition or approval to be coped with by those who, having the say in political matters, want to speak up for one of the energy policies under public discussion. (orig./HSCH).

  3. White paper defining optimal palliative care in older people with dementia: a Delphi study and recommendations from the European Association for Palliative Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Steen, Jenny T; Radbruch, Lukas; Hertogh, Cees M P M; de Boer, Marike E; Hughes, Julian C; Larkin, Philip; Francke, Anneke L; Jünger, Saskia; Gove, Dianne; Firth, Pam; Koopmans, Raymond T C M; Volicer, Ladislav

    2014-03-01

    Dementia is a life-limiting disease without curative treatments. Patients and families may need palliative care specific to dementia. To define optimal palliative care in dementia. Five-round Delphi study. Based on literature, a core group of 12 experts from 6 countries drafted a set of core domains with salient recommendations for each domain. We invited 89 experts from 27 countries to evaluate these in a two-round online survey with feedback. Consensus was determined according to predefined criteria. The fourth round involved decisions by the core team, and the fifth involved input from the European Association for Palliative Care. A total of 64 (72%) experts from 23 countries evaluated a set of 11 domains and 57 recommendations. There was immediate and full consensus on the following eight domains, including the recommendations: person-centred care, communication and shared decision-making; optimal treatment of symptoms and providing comfort (these two identified as central to care and research); setting care goals and advance planning; continuity of care; psychosocial and spiritual support; family care and involvement; education of the health care team; and societal and ethical issues. After revision, full consensus was additionally reached for prognostication and timely recognition of dying. Recommendations on nutrition and dehydration (avoiding overly aggressive, burdensome or futile treatment) and on dementia stages in relation to care goals (applicability of palliative care) achieved moderate consensus. We have provided the first definition of palliative care in dementia based on evidence and consensus, a framework to provide guidance for clinical practice, policy and research.

  4. Medical specialists' views on the impact of reducing alcohol consumption on prognosis of, and risk of, hospital admission due to specific medical conditions: results from a Delphi survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mdege, Noreen D; Raistrick, Duncan; Johnson, Graham

    2014-02-01

    To find consensus, or lack thereof, on the impact of reducing alcohol consumption on prognosis and the risk of hospital admissions for a number of alcohol-attributable disorders. A modified two-round Delphi survey utilizing web-based questionnaires to collect quantitative and qualitative data was used. Alcohol treatment experts from cardiology, emergency medicine, gastroenterology and oncology in the United Kingdom were invited to participate. The main outcomes were median impact ratings (on a scale of 1-9) and consensus (unanimous, strong, moderate, weak or no consensus). Of 192 experts invited to participate, 59 completed first questionnaires. The overall retention rate to the second questionnaires was about 51% (30/59). There was strong support that reducing alcohol consumption could result in improvement in prognosis for gastroenterology and emergency medicine patients; but uncertainty on the benefits for cardiology and oncology patients. Overall, the responses from the expert panel did not reflect the assumption that reducing alcohol consumption would result in benefits on hospital admissions for any of the specialties. The specialists viewed the severity of disorders as important when considering the impact of reducing alcohol consumption. The highest impact of treatment for problem drinking in hospitals is considered to be for alcohol-related disorders associated with gastroenterology and emergency medicine. At policy level, if targeted screening for alcohol problems by presenting disease or condition is the strategy of choice, it would be logical to implement screening and easily accessible interventions or addiction specialists within these areas where alcohol treatment is considered as having a high impact. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Barriers Inhibiting Albanian Tourism from Being Competitive: A Delphi Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariett a Poshi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Albanian tourism is a major income contributor to the country’s employment and economy. The industry is relatively new to the country and only recently has it been able to receive the attention it needs in regards to making it more appealing to tourists and everyone involved in it. The lack of inexperience as compared to countries in the region is very apparent especially by comparison of visitors per capita on Albania with the other destinations in the region. Research on various factors that might inhibit Albanian tourism have been conducted and while they display what the problems might be, they lack to suggest implementing strategies. A qualitative Delphi was used in this research study, which included a purposeful sample of SMEs in the field of Albanian tourism. The panel of experts were drawn from three groups: (a government officials, (b industry leaders, and (c academics. The data were collected and analyzed from three rounds of questionnaires. The study found 10 factors inhibiting Albanian tourism from being competitive in the region. SMEs suggested 6 short-term and 4 long-term actions needed to be taken by Albanian tourism in order to increase its competitiveness in the Mediterranean. Recommendations for academia, government, and industry included the need for more research in the field, regulation of industry taxes and fighting of corruption, investment of infrastructure, professional training and developed, and creation on independent professional organizations.

  6. Suicide first aid guidelines for Sri Lanka: a Delphi consensus study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Silva, Saranga A; Colucci, Erminia; Mendis, Jayan; Kelly, Claire M; Jorm, Anthony F; Minas, Harry

    2016-01-01

    Sri Lanka has one of the highest suicide rates in the world. Gatekeeper programs aimed at specific target groups could be a promising suicide prevention strategy in the country. The aim of this study was to develop guidelines that help members of the public to provide first aid to persons in Sri Lanka who are at risk of suicide. The Delphi method was used to elicit consensus on potential helping statements to include in the guidelines. These statements describe information members of the public should have and actions they can take to help a person who is experiencing suicidal thoughts. An expert panel, comprised of mental health and suicide experts in Sri Lanka, rated each statement. The panellists were encouraged to suggest any additional action that was not included in the original questionnaire and, in particular, to include items that were culturally appropriate or gender specific. Responses to open-ended questions were used to generate new items. These items were included in the subsequent Delphi rounds. Three Delphi rounds were carried out. Statements were accepted for inclusion in the guidelines if they were endorsed (rated as essential or important) by at least 80 % of the panel. Statements endorsed by 70-79 % of the panel were re-rated in the following round. Statements with less than 70 % endorsement, or re-rated items that did not receive 80 % or higher endorsement were rejected. The output from the Delphi process was a set of endorsed statements. In the first round questionnaire 473 statements were presented to the panel and 58 new items were generated from responses to the open-ended questions. Of the total 531 statements presented, 304 were endorsed. These statements were used to develop the suicide first aid guidelines for Sri Lanka. By engaging Sri Lankans who are experts in the field of mental health or suicide this research developed culturally appropriate guidelines for providing mental health first aid to a person at risk of suicide in Sri

  7. OnabotulinumtoxinA for Lower Limb Spasticity: Guidance From a Delphi Panel Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esquenazi, Alberto; Alfaro, Abraham; Ayyoub, Ziyad; Charles, David; Dashtipour, Khashayar; Graham, Glenn D; McGuire, John R; Odderson, Ib R; Patel, Atul T; Simpson, David M

    2017-10-01

    OnabotulinumtoxinA is approved for the treatment of upper and lower limb spasticity in adults. Guidance on common postures and onabotulinumtoxinA injection paradigms for upper limb spasticity has been developed via a Delphi Panel; however, similar guidance for lower limb spasticity has not been established. To define a clinically recommended treatment paradigm for the use of onabotulinumtoxinA for each common posture among patients with poststroke lower limb spasticity (PSLLS) and to identify the most common PSLLS aggregate postures. Clinical experts provided insight regarding onabotulinumtoxinA treatment for PSLLS using an adaptation of the Delphi consensus process. Delphi panel. Ten expert clinicians in neurology and physical medicine and rehabilitation who treat PSLLS. A minimum of 2 rounds of anonymous voting occurred for each recommendation until consensus was reached (≥66% agreement). The first round was conducted via a survey; the second round was an in-person meeting. Reached consensus on muscle selection for injection, overall and per-muscle dose of onabotulinumtoxinA, number of injection sites/muscle, onabotulinumtoxinA dilution, and use of localization techniques. The most common PSLLS postures were reviewed. Recommendations were tailored toward injectors with less experience. Consensus was reached on targeted subsets of muscles for each posture. Doses ranged from 20 to 150 U for individual muscles and 50 to 300 U for limb postures. OnabotulinumtoxinA dilution 50 U/mL (2:1 ratio) was considered most appropriate but varied based on muscles selected (range, 2:1-4:1). Experts agreed that localization techniques for muscle identification during injection for all postures would be useful. For suboptimal response to injection, all panel members would increase the dose, and the majority (89%) would increase the number of treated muscles. The panel identified 3 common aggregating lower limb postures: (1) equinovarus foot and flexed toes; (2) extended knee and

  8. Competencies required for nursing telehealth activities: A Delphi-study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Houwelingen, Cornelis T M; Moerman, Anna H; Ettema, Roelof G A; Kort, Helianthe S M; Ten Cate, Olle

    2016-04-01

    Telehealth is viewed as a major strategy to address the increasing demand for care and a shrinking care professional population. However, most nurses are not trained or are insufficiently trained to use these technologies effectively. Therefore, the potential of telehealth fails to reach full utilization. A better understanding of nursing telehealth entrustable professional activities (NT-EPAs) and the required competencies can contribute to the development of nursing telehealth education. In a four-round Delphi-study, a panel of experts discussed which NT-EPAs are relevant for nurses and which competencies nurses need to possess to execute these activities effectively. The 51 experts, including nurses, nursing faculty, clients and technicians all familiar with telehealth, were asked to select items from a list of 52 competencies based on the literature and on a previous study. Additionally, the panelists could add competencies based on their experience in practice. The threshold used for consensus was set at 80%. Consensus was achieved on the importance of fourteen NT-EPAs, requiring one or more of the following core competencies; coaching skills, the ability to combine clinical experience with telehealth, communication skills, clinical knowledge, ethical awareness, and a supportive attitude. Each NT-EPA requires a specific set of competencies (at least ten). In total, 52 competencies were identified as essential in telehealth. Many competencies for telehealth, including clinical knowledge and communication skills, are not novel competencies. They are fundamental to nursing care as a whole and therefore are also indispensable for telehealth. Additionally, the fourteen NT-EPAs appeared to require additional subject specific competencies, such as the ability to put patients at ease when they feel insecure about using technology. The NT-EPAs and related competencies presented in this study can be used by nursing schools that are considering including or expanding

  9. Rethinking clinical governance: healthcare professionals’ views: a Delphi study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veenstra, Gepke L; Ahaus, Kees; Welker, Gera A; Heineman, Erik; van der Laan, Maarten J; Muntinghe, Friso L H

    2017-01-01

    Objective Although the guiding principle of clinical governance states that healthcare professionals are the leading contributors to quality and safety in healthcare, little is known about what healthcare professionals perceive as important for clinical governance. The aim of this study is to clarify this by exploring healthcare professionals' views on clinical governance. Design Based on a literature search, a list of 99 elements related to clinical governance was constructed. This list was refined, extended and restricted during a three-round Delphi study. Setting and participants The panel of experts was formed of 24 healthcare professionals from an academic hospital that is seen as a leader in terms of its clinical governance expertise in the Netherlands. Main outcome measures Rated importance of each element on a four-point scale. Results The 50 elements that the panel perceived as most important related to adopting a bottom-up approach to clinical governance, ownership, teamwork, learning from mistakes and feedback. The panel did not reach a consensus concerning elements that referred to patient involvement. Elements that referred to a managerial approach to clinical governance and standardisation of work were rejected by the panel. Conclusions In the views of the panel of experts, clinical governance is a practice-based, value-driven approach that has the goal of delivering the highest possible quality care and ensuring the safety of patients. Bottom-up approaches and effective teamwork are seen as crucial for high quality and safe healthcare. Striving for high quality and safe healthcare is underpinned by continuous learning, shared responsibility and good relationships and collaboration between healthcare professionals, managers and patients. PMID:28082364

  10. Rethinking clinical governance: healthcare professionals' views: a Delphi study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veenstra, Gepke L; Ahaus, Kees; Welker, Gera A; Heineman, Erik; van der Laan, Maarten J; Muntinghe, Friso L H

    2017-01-12

    Although the guiding principle of clinical governance states that healthcare professionals are the leading contributors to quality and safety in healthcare, little is known about what healthcare professionals perceive as important for clinical governance. The aim of this study is to clarify this by exploring healthcare professionals' views on clinical governance. Based on a literature search, a list of 99 elements related to clinical governance was constructed. This list was refined, extended and restricted during a three-round Delphi study. The panel of experts was formed of 24 healthcare professionals from an academic hospital that is seen as a leader in terms of its clinical governance expertise in the Netherlands. Rated importance of each element on a four-point scale. The 50 elements that the panel perceived as most important related to adopting a bottom-up approach to clinical governance, ownership, teamwork, learning from mistakes and feedback. The panel did not reach a consensus concerning elements that referred to patient involvement. Elements that referred to a managerial approach to clinical governance and standardisation of work were rejected by the panel. In the views of the panel of experts, clinical governance is a practice-based, value-driven approach that has the goal of delivering the highest possible quality care and ensuring the safety of patients. Bottom-up approaches and effective teamwork are seen as crucial for high quality and safe healthcare. Striving for high quality and safe healthcare is underpinned by continuous learning, shared responsibility and good relationships and collaboration between healthcare professionals, managers and patients. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  11. International Consensus for ultrasound lesions in gout: results of Delphi process and web-reliability exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Marwin; Schmidt, Wolfgang A; Thiele, Ralf G; Keen, Helen I; Kaeley, Gurjit S; Naredo, Esperanza; Iagnocco, Annamaria; Bruyn, George A; Balint, Peter V; Filippucci, Emilio; Mandl, Peter; Kane, David; Pineda, Carlos; Delle Sedie, Andrea; Hammer, Hilde Berner; Christensen, Robin; D'Agostino, Maria Antonietta; Terslev, Lene

    2015-10-01

    To produce consensus-based definitions of the US elementary lesions in gout and to test their reliability in a web-based exercise. The process consisted of two steps. In the first step a written Delphi questionnaire was developed from a systematic literature review and expert international consensus. This collated information resulted in four statements defining US elementary lesions: double contour (DC), tophus, aggregates and erosion. The Delphi questionnaire was sent to 35 rheumatology experts in US, asking them to rate their level of agreement or disagreement with each statement. The second step tested the reliability by a web-exercise. US images of both normal and gouty elementary lesions were collected by the participants. A facilitator then constructed an electronic database of 110 images. The database was sent to the participants, who evaluated the presence/absence of US elementary lesions. A group of 20 images was displayed twice to evaluate intra-reader reliability. A total of 32 participants responded to the questionnaires. Good agreement (>80%) was obtained for US definitions on DC, tophus, aggregates and erosion in the Delphi exercise after three rounds. The reliability on images showed inter-reader κ values for DC, tophus, aggregates, erosion findings of 0.98, 0.71, 0.54 and 0.85, respectively. The mean intra-reader κ values were also acceptable: 0.93, 0.78, 0.65 and 0.78, respectively. This, the first consensus-based US definition of elementary lesions in gout, demonstrated good reliability overall. It constitutes an essential step in developing a core outcome measurement that permits a higher degree of homogeneity and comparability between multicentre studies. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Quality Indicators to Assure and Improve Cancer Care in Spain Using the Delphi Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camps, Carlos; Albanell, Joan; Antón, Antonio; Aranda, Enrique; Carrato, Alfredo; Cassinello, Javier; Castellano, Daniel; Cruz, Juan J; Garrido, Pilar; Guillem, Vicente; Grávalos, Cristina; López, Guillermo; Llorente, César; Lorenzo, Antonio; Lluch, Ana; Ignacio, Emilio; Díaz-Rubio, Eduardo

    2016-05-01

    The quality of cancer care has become a priority for health care systems. The goal of this research was to develop a set of evidence-based quality indicators (QIs) for organization, palliative care, and colorectal, breast, and lung cancers for introducing a system of benchmarking in Spain. A comprehensive evidence-based literature search was performed to identify potential QIs. An expert panel (the health care quality promotion group) of 9 oncologists identified indicators and evaluated them. A Delphi process involving 58 physicians was used to rank QIs by clinical relevance (validity). The expert panel then evaluated the selected indicators in terms of the feasibility of measuring them in Spanish hospitals, their usefulness for comparisons, their degree of clinical relevance, and their sensitivity to the impact of health care improvements. From the literature review, 99 potential QIs were identified. The Delphi process shortened the list to 72 QIs. A final set of 57 QIs was established by the health care quality promotion group: 12 related to organizational issues, 11 to colorectal cancer, 11 to breast cancer, 12 to lung cancer, and 11 to palliative care. This final set included structure (n=2), process (n=36), and outcome (n=19) indicators. A set of QIs has been developed using a validated Delphi method, meaning that we can be confident of their validity, feasibility, sensitivity, and acceptability. These QIs are to serve as the basis of a strategy for benchmarking across oncology services in Spanish hospitals and should enable us to assure and improve the quality of cancer care. Copyright © 2016 by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network.

  13. [Episodic breathlessness: translation and consenting of the international definition using the Delphi method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, S T; Weingärtner, V; Voltz, R; Bausewein, C

    2014-10-01

    Similar to pain, refractory breathlessness can occur episodically. Episodic Breathlessness is a distressing symptom in patients with advanced life-limiting disease. The lack of a universal definition impedes symptom understanding in clinical practice and effective management, respectively. The aim of the study was to formally consent a German translation of the English definition and terminology of episodic breathlessness. A web-based Delphi survey was conducted with German breathlessness experts (breathlessness working group of Germany's National Guideline (S3) for Palliative Care). Drafts of German-language definitions und terminology were assessed using structured questionnaires by binary rating or rankings, respectively. Optional comments were analysed by content analysis. Consensus was defined by ≥ 70% agreement among participants. In two resulting Delphi-rounds 8/16 (50%) und 11/16 (69%) experts, 30-59 years of age, 50%/55% female, participated. After the second round, consensus was reached for the symptom's description "Atemnotattacke" (73%) and a German-language definition (90%). The terms "vorhersehbar" vs. "unvorhersehbar" were directly consented for the categorization (88%). The formally consented German definition and terminology of episodic breathlessness enable clearer symptom understanding and provide a precise basis for education and research on the symptom and its management also in Germany. Effective management options are warranted to improve quality of life of suffering patients and their relatives. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. A quality assessment index framework for public health services: a Delphi study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Z G; Cheng, J Q; Xu, S L; Hou, W L; Richardus, J H

    2015-01-01

    This study sought consensus-based indices for quality assessment of the public health service (QAPHS) to evaluate the service quality of public health in Shenzhen and other cities in China. A qualitative study. A list of quality assessment indices was formed based on Donabedian theory. These indices were presented to an expert panel in a two-round Delphi study to establish a consensus view. A weight of indices was established to validate the applicability and practicability of the framework. The specialist authority coefficient and Kendall's W were also calculated based on statistical analysis. A total of 30 experts participated in the Delphi study. Consensus was reached on four first-grade indices, nine second-grade indices and 28 third-grade indices. The specialist authority coefficient (Cr) was high (between 0.88 and 0.92), while Kendall's coefficient (W) of all the indices was >0.5 with statistical significant differences (P < 0.05). This indicated correlation among panelists and had high reliability. A unified and hierarchical quality assessment index framework for public health services was established. The framework should be further tested and improved in practice. Copyright © 2014 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Using a Delphi Method to Identify Human Factors Contributing to Nursing Errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Cheryl; Brewer, Melanie; Wieck, K Lynn

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify human factors associated with nursing errors. Using a Delphi technique, this study used feedback from a panel of nurse experts (n = 25) on an initial qualitative survey questionnaire followed by summarizing the results with feedback and confirmation. Synthesized factors regarding causes of errors were incorporated into a quantitative Likert-type scale, and the original expert panel participants were queried a second time to validate responses. The list identified 24 items as most common causes of nursing errors, including swamping and errors made by others that nurses are expected to recognize and fix. The responses provided a consensus top 10 errors list based on means with heavy workload and fatigue at the top of the list. The use of the Delphi survey established consensus and developed a platform upon which future study of nursing errors can evolve as a link to future solutions. This list of human factors in nursing errors should serve to stimulate dialogue among nurses about how to prevent errors and improve outcomes. Human and system failures have been the subject of an abundance of research, yet nursing errors continue to occur. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Assessment and treatment of malnutrition in Dutch geriatric practice: consensus through a modified Delphi study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Asselt, Dieneke Z B; van Bokhorst-de van der Schueren, Marian A E; van der Cammen, Tischa J M; Disselhorst, Luc G M; Janse, Andre; Lonterman-Monasch, Sabine; Maas, Huub A A M; Popescu, Miruna E; Schölzel-Dorenbos, Carla J M; Sipers, Walter M W H; Veldhoven, Carel M M; Wijnen, Hugo H; Olde Rikkert, Marcel G M

    2012-05-01

    scientific evidence regarding the optimal management of malnutrition in geriatric patients is scarce. Our aim was to develop a consensus statement for geriatric hospital practice concerning six elements: (i) definition of malnutrition, (ii) screening and assessment, (iii) treatment and monitoring, (iv) roles and responsibilities of involved health care professionals, (v) communication and coordination of care between hospital and community health care professionals, (vi) quality indicators for malnutrition management. a modified Delphi study. eleven geriatricians with special interest in malnutrition participated. In four rounds the experts rated the relevance of 204 statements, which were based on a literature review, on a five-point Likert scale. From the responses, means and 95% CIs were calculated. Consensus was defined as a lower 95% confidence limit ≥4.0. the panel reached consensus that malnutrition should be considered a geriatric syndrome. The nutritional status should be assessed using the Mini Nutritional Assessment combined with comprehensive geriatric assessment. Nutritional interventions should be combined with interventions targeting underlying factors. Specific goals for nutritional therapy and ways to achieve them were agreed upon. According to the experts, malnutrition is best managed by a multidisciplinary team for whom roles and responsibilities were specified. At discharge written information about the nutritional problem, treatment plan and goals should be provided to the patient, caregiver and community health care professionals. this study shows that a qualitative study based on a modified Delphi technique can result in national consensus on essential ingredients for a practical malnutrition guideline for geriatric patients.

  17. Determination of problematic ICD-9-CM subcategories for further study of coding performance: Delphi method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiaoming; Bell, Paul D

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we report on a qualitative method known as the Delphi method, used in the first part of a research study for improving the accuracy and reliability of ICD-9-CM coding. A panel of independent coding experts interacted methodically to determine that the three criteria to identify a problematic ICD-9-CM subcategory for further study were cost, volume, and level of coding confusion caused. The Medicare Provider Analysis and Review (MEDPAR) 2007 fiscal year data set as well as suggestions from the experts were used to identify coding subcategories based on cost and volume data. Next, the panelists performed two rounds of independent ranking before identifying Excisional Debridement as the subcategory that causes the most confusion among coders. As a result, they recommended it for further study aimed at improving coding accuracy and variation. This framework can be adopted at different levels for similar studies in need of a schema for determining problematic subcategories of code sets.

  18. Modified Delphi survey for decision analysis for prophylaxis of post-radiation osteonecrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Carl K; Epstein, Joel B; Sheps, Samuel B; Schechter, Martin T; Busser, James R

    2002-09-01

    to augment epidemiological data from the literature, assist Bayesian perspectives and a decision analytic framework for the minimization of post-radiation osteonecrosis (PRON; osteoradionecrosis) and its impacts in irradiated head and neck cancer patients. a modified Delphi process survey of 15 international clinical experts was used to identify and assess outcome data and factors related to PRON risk, extraction, and factor suitability for formal decision analysis. Clinimetric pain and function outcome scales were created and assessed for relevance to quality of life. expert opinion qualitative assessments were generally adequate and consistent between open- and close-ended items, but many quantitative (e.g. PRON risk rate) estimates were not. A research agenda advocated to validate the epidemiological database for minimization of PRON and decision analysis includes: adoption of a uniform definition of PRON, and ICD code for non-experimental databases; more detailed, consistent data reporting in articles; and quality of life studies.

  19. Expert judgment for nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Young Sung; Lee, Sun Ho; Lee, Byong Whi

    2000-01-01

    Public perception on nuclear energy is much influenced by subjective impressions mostly formed through sensational and dramatic news of mass media or anti-nuclear groups. However, nuclear experts, those who have more relevant knowledge and information about nuclear energy, may have reasonable opinion based on scientific facts or inferences. Thus their opinion and consensus should be examined and taken into account during the process of nuclear energy policy formulation. For the purpose of eliciting experts' opinion, the web-based on-line survey system (eBOSS) was developed. Using the survey system, experts' views on nuclear energy were tallied, analyzed and compared with the public's. Based on the survey results, the paper suggests some recommendations about the future direction of the public information program in Korea

  20. Using the modified Delphi method to establish a new Chinese clinical consensus of the treatments for cervical radiculopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Lei; Fan, Ning; Hai, Yong; Lu, S B; Su, Q J; Yang, J C; Du, Peng; Gao, Y J

    2015-06-01

    Although cervical radiculopathy is very common, there is no standard treatment for this condition, with little high-level evidence available to guide the treatment choice. Thus, this study aimed to review the current data on the management of cervical radiculopathy; and, further, to establish a new Chinese clinical consensus of the treatments for cervical radiculopathy using the Delphi method. First, a systematic review of the previously established treatment guidelines and of articles related to cervical radiculopathy was conducted to establish a protocol for the clinical consensus of the treatment for cervical radiculopathy. Second, from February 2012 to June 2014, we performed a modified Delphi survey in which the current professional opinions from 30 experienced experts, representing almost all of the Chinese provinces, were gathered. Three rounds were performed, and consensus was defined as ≥70% agreement. Consensus of the treatments for cervical radiculopathy was reached on seven aspects, including the proportion of patients requiring only non-surgical therapies; the effectiveness of neck immobilization, physiotherapy, pharmacologic treatment; surgical indications; contraindications; surgery. The modified Delphi study conducted herein reached a consensus concerning several treatment issues for cervical radiculopathy. In the absence of high-level evidence, at present, these expert opinion findings will help guide health care providers to define the appropriate treatment in their regions. Items with no consensus provide excellent areas for future research.

  1. Exploring health literacy competencies towards patient education programme for Chinese-speaking healthcare professionals: a Delphi study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Li-Chun; Chen, Yu-Chi; Wu, Fei Ling; Liao, Li-Ling

    2017-01-16

    To achieve consensus on a set of competencies in health literacy practice based on a literature review and expert consultation. Hospitals and community health centres in Taiwan. A 2-stage modified Delphi study involving a literature review was conducted, followed by qualitative interviews and 3 rounds of email-based data collection over a 3-month period in 2011. 15 Chinese healthcare practitioners with more than 6 months' experience in patient education were interviewed to collect data on health literacy practice. 24 experts (12 academic scholars in health literacy and 12 professionals with training related to health literacy practice) were invited to participate in the Delphi process. Qualitative data from the interviews were analysed and summarised to form 99 competency items for health literacy practice, which were categorised into 5 domains of health literacy practice including those pertaining to knowledge and skills. Consensus was reached on 92 of 99 competencies, using a modified Delphi technique. The 92 competencies in health literacy practice embraced core components of patient education in the Chinese healthcare profession. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  2. b-tagging in DELPHI at LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Abdallah, J; Adam, W; Adye, T; Adzic, P; Albrecht, T; Alderweireld, T; Alemany-Fernandez, R; Allmendinger, T; Allport, P P; Almehed, S; Amaldi, Ugo; Amapane, N; Amato, S; Anashkin, E; Andreazza, A; Andringa, S; Anjos, N; Antilogus, P; Apel, W D; Arnoud, Y; Ask, S; Åsman, B; Augustin, J E; Augustinus, A; Baillon, Paul; Ballestrero, A; Bambade, P; Barbier, R; Bardin, Dimitri Yuri; Barker, G; Baroncelli, A; Bates, M; Battaglia, Marco; Baubillier, M; Becks, K H; Begalli, M; Behrmann, A; Benekos, N C; Benvenuti, Alberto C; Bérat, C; Berggren, M; Berntzon, L; Bertrand, D; Besançon, M; Besson, N; Bibby, J; Biffi, P; Bloch, D; Blom, M; Bonesini, M; Boonekamp, M; Booth, P S L; Borisov, G; Botner, O; Bouquet, B; Bowcock, T J V; Boyko, I; Bracko, M; Branchini, P; Brenner, R; Brodet, E; Brückman, P; Brunet, J M; Bugge, L; Buschmann, P; Caccia, M; Calvi, M; Camporesi, T; Canale, V; Carena, F; Castro, N; Cavallo, F R; Chabaud, V; Chapkin, M M; Charpentier, P; Checchia, P; Chierici, R; Shlyapnikov, P; Chudoba, J; Chung, S U; Cieslik, K; Collins, P; Contri, R; Cosme, G; Cossutti, F; Costa, M J; Couchot, F; Crawley, B; Crennell, D J; Cuevas-Maestro, J; D'Almagne, B; D'Hondt, J; Dalmau, J; Da Silva, T; Da Silva, W; Della Ricca, G; De Angelis, A; de Boer, Wim; De Clercq, C; De Lotto, B; De Maria, N; De Min, A; De Paula, L S; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Dijkstra, H; Di Simone, A; Doroba, K; Drees, J; Dris, M; Eigen, G; Ekelöf, T J C; Ellert, M; Elsing, M; Espirito-Santo, M C; Fanourakis, G K; Fassouliotis, D; Feindt, M; Fernández, J; Ferrer, A; Ferro, F; Flagmeyer, U; Föth, H; Fokitis, E; Fulda-Quenzer, F; Fuster, J A; Gandelman, M; García, C; Gavillet, P; Gazis, E N; Geralis, T; Gokieli, R; Golob, B; Gómez-Cadenas, J J; Gómez-Ceballos, G; Gonçalves, P; Graziani, E; Grosdidier, G; Grzelak, K; Guy, J; Haag, C; Hallgren, A; Hamacher, K; Hamilton, K; Hansen, J; Haug, S; Hauler, F; Hedberg, V; Hennecke, M; Hernando, J A; Herr, H; Heuser, J M; Holmgren, S O; Holt, P J; Houlden, M A; Hultqvist, K; Jackson, J N; Jalocha, P; Jarlskog, C; Jarlskog, G; Jarry, P; Jeans, D; Johansson, E K; Johansson, P D; Jonsson, P; Joram, C; Jungermann, L; Kapusta, F; Karlsson, M; Katsanevas, S; Katsoufis, E C; Keränen, R; Kernel, G; Kersevan, Borut P; Kiiskinen, A P; King, B T; Kjaer, N J; Kluit, P; Kokkinias, P; Kourkoumelis, C; Kuznetsov, O; Krumshtein, Z; Kucharczyk, M; Kucewicz, W; Kurowska, J; Lamsa, J; Leder, G; Ledroit, F; Leinonen, L; Leitner, R; Lemonne, J; Lepeltier, V; Lesiak, T; Liebig, W; Liko, D; Lipniacka, A; Lopes, J H; López, J M; Loukas, D; Lutz, P; Lyons, L; MacNaughton, J; Malek, A; Maltezos, S; Mandl, F; Marco, J; Marco, R; Maréchal, B; Margoni, M; Marin, J C; Mariotti, C; Markou, A; Martínez-Rivero, C; Martínez-Vidal, F; Masik, J; Mastroyiannopoulos, N; Matorras, F; Matteuzzi, C; Mazzucato, F; Mazzucato, M; McNulty, R; Meroni, C; Meyer, W T; Migliore, E; Mitaroff, W A; Mjörnmark, U; Moa, T; Moch, M; Mönig, K; Monge, R; Montenegro, J; Moraes, D; Moreno, S; Morettini, P; Müller, U; Münich, K; Mulders, M; Mundim, L; Murray, W; Muryn, B; Myatt, Gerald; Myklebust, T; Nassiakou, M; Navarria, Francesco Luigi; Nawrocki, K; Nicolaidou, R; Niezurawski, P; Nikolenko, M; Nomerotski, A; Norman, A; Nygren, A; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V F; Olshevskii, A G; Onofre, A; Orava, Risto; Österberg, K; Ouraou, A; Oyanguren, A; Paganoni, M; Paiano, S; Palacios, J P; Palka, H; Papadopoulou, T D; Pape, L; Parkes, C; Parodi, F; Parzefall, U; Passeri, A; Passon, O; Peralta, L; Perepelitsa, V F; Perrotta, A; Petrolini, A; Piedra, J; Pieri, L; Pierre, F; Pimenta, M; Piotto, E; Podobnik, T; Poireau, V; Pol, M E; Polok, G; Poropat, P; Pozdnyakov, V; Pukhaeva, N; Pullia, Antonio; Rames, J; Ramler, L; Read, A; Rebecchi, P; Rehn, J; Reid, D; Reinhardt, R; Renton, P B; Richard, F; Rídky, J; Rivero, M; Rodríguez, D; Romero, A; Ronchese, P; Rosenberg, E I; Roudeau, Patrick; Rovelli, T; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V; Ryabtchikov, D; Sadovskii, A; Salmi, L; Salt, J; Savoy-Navarro, A; Schwickerath, U; Segar, A; Sekulin, R L; Siebel, M; Sissakian, A N; Smadja, G; Smirnova, O G; Sokolov, A; Sopczak, A; Sosnowski, R; Spassoff, Tz; Stanitzki, M; Stavitski, I; Stocchi, A; Strauss, J; Stugu, B; Szczekowski, M; Szeptycka, M; Szumlak, T; Tabarelli de Fatis, T; Taffard, A C; Tegenfeldt, F; Timmermans, J; Tinti, N; Tkatchev, L G; Tobin, M; Todorovova, S; Tomaradze, A G; Tomé, B; Tonazzo, A; Tortosa, P; Travnicek, P; Treille, D; Trischuk, W; Tristram, G; Trochimczuk, M; Troncon, C; Turluer, M L; Tyapkin, I A; Tyapkin, P; Tyndel, M; Tzamarias, S; Uvarov, V; Valenti, G; van Dam, P; Van Eldik, J; Van Lysebetten, A; Van Remortel, N; Van Vulpen, I B; Vegni, G; Veloso, F; Venus, W A; Verbeure, F; Verdier, P; Verzi, V; Vilanova, D; Vitale, L; Vrba, V; Wahlen, H; Washbrook, A J; Weilhammer, Peter; Weiser, C; Wicke, D; Wickens, J H; Wilkinson, G; Winter, M; Witek, M; Yushchenko, O P; Zalewska-Bak, A; Zalewski, Piotr; Zavrtanik, D; Zimin, N I; Zinchenko, A I; Zupan, M

    2004-01-01

    The standard method used for tagging b-hadrons in the DELPHI experiment at the CERN LEP Collider is discussed in detail. The main ingredient of b-tagging is the impact parameters of tracks, which relies mostly on the vertex detector. Additional information, such as the mass of particles associated to a secondary vertex, significantly improves the selection efficiency and the background suppression. The paper describes various discriminating variables used for the tagging and the procedure of their combination. In addition, applications of b-tagging to some physics analyses, which depend crucially on the performance and reliability of b-tagging, are described briefly.

  3. Speech spectrogram expert

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johannsen, J.; Macallister, J.; Michalek, T.; Ross, S.

    1983-01-01

    Various authors have pointed out that humans can become quite adept at deriving phonetic transcriptions from speech spectrograms (as good as 90percent accuracy at the phoneme level). The authors describe an expert system which attempts to simulate this performance. The speech spectrogram expert (spex) is actually a society made up of three experts: a 2-dimensional vision expert, an acoustic-phonetic expert, and a phonetics expert. The visual reasoning expert finds important visual features of the spectrogram. The acoustic-phonetic expert reasons about how visual features relates to phonemes, and about how phonemes change visually in different contexts. The phonetics expert reasons about allowable phoneme sequences and transformations, and deduces an english spelling for phoneme strings. The speech spectrogram expert is highly interactive, allowing users to investigate hypotheses and edit rules. 10 references.

  4. What works for wellbeing in culture and sport? Report of a DELPHI process to support coproduction and establish principles and parameters of an evidence review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daykin, Norma; Mansfield, Louise; Payne, Annette; Kay, Tess; Meads, Catherine; D'Innocenzo, Giorgia; Burnett, Adele; Dolan, Paul; Julier, Guy; Longworth, Louise; Tomlinson, Alan; Testoni, Stefano; Victor, Christina

    2017-09-01

    There is a growing recognition of the ways in which culture and sport can contribute to wellbeing. A strong evidence base is needed to support innovative service development and a 3-year research programme is being undertaken to capture best evidence of wellbeing impacts and outcomes of cultural and sporting activities in order to inform UK policy and practice. This article provides an overview of methods and findings from an initial coproduction process with key stakeholders that sought to explore and agree principles and parameters of the evidence review for culture, sport and wellbeing (CSW). A two-stage DELPHI process was conducted with a purposeful sample of 57 stakeholders between August and December 2015. Participants were drawn from a range of culture and sport organisations and included commissioners and managers, policy makers, representatives of service delivery organisations (SDOs) and scholars. The DELPHI 1 questionnaire was developed from extensive consultation in July and August 2015. It explored definitions of wellbeing, the role of evidence, quality assessment, and the culture and sport populations, settings and interventions that are most likely to deliver wellbeing outcomes. Following further consultation, the results, presented as a series of ranked statements, were sent back to participants (DELPHI 2), which allowed them to reflect on and, if they wished, express agreement or disagreement with the emerging consensus. A total of 40 stakeholders (70.02%) responded to the DELPHI questionnaires. DELPHI 1 mapped areas of agreement and disagreement, confirmed in DELPHI 2. The exercise drew together the key priorities for the CSW evidence review. The DELPHI process, in combination with face-to-face deliberation, enabled stakeholders to engage in complex discussion and express nuanced priorities while also allowing the group to come to an overall consensus and agree outcomes. The results will inform the CSW evidence review programme until its

  5. Key interventions and quality indicators for quality improvement of STEMI care: a RAND Delphi survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aeyels, Daan; Sinnaeve, Peter R; Claeys, Marc J; Gevaert, Sofie; Schoors, Danny; Sermeus, Walter; Panella, Massimiliano; Coeckelberghs, Ellen; Bruyneel, Luk; Vanhaecht, Kris

    2017-12-13

    Identification, selection and validation of key interventions and quality indicators for improvement of in hospital quality of care for ST-elevated myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients. A structured literature review was followed by a RAND Delphi Survey. A purposively selected multidisciplinary expert panel of cardiologists, nurse managers and quality managers selected and validated key interventions and quality indicators prior for quality improvement for STEMI. First, 34 experts (76% response rate) individually assessed the appropriateness of items to quality improvement on a nine point Likert scale. Twenty-seven key interventions, 16 quality indicators at patient level and 27 quality indicators at STEMI care programme level were selected. Eighteen additional items were suggested. Experts received personal feedback, benchmarking their score with group results (response rate, mean, median and content validity index). Consequently, 32 experts (71% response rate) openly discussed items with an item-content validity index above 75%. By consensus, the expert panel validated a final set of 25 key interventions, 13 quality indicators at patient level and 20 quality indicators at care programme level prior for improvement of in hospital care for STEMI. A structured literature review and multidisciplinary expertise was combined to validate a set of key interventions and quality indicators prior for improvement of care for STEMI. The results allow researchers and hospital staff to evaluate and support quality improvement interventions in a large cohort within the context of a health care system.

  6. Clinical and Para Clinical Information Needs of Infertility Electronic Health Records in Iran: A Delphi Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzandipour, Mehrdad; Jeddi, Fateme Rangraz; Gilasi, Hamid Reza; Shirzadi, Diana

    2017-09-01

    infertility is referred to the person's inability to conceive pregnancy after one year of intercourse without using protection. This study paves the ground for creating a complete, united, and coherent source of patients' medical information. this is an applied research of descriptive-cross sectional type which has been carried out through qualitative - quantitative methods. The sample of the present study was 50 specialists in the field of infertility which has been chosen based on purposive sampling method. Designing the questionnaire was done based on library studies and Gathering experts' views was done based on Delphi technique. 261 items from clinical and Para clinical information of infertile patients' electronic health records were subjected to an opinion poll by experts. During this process 223 items were accepted and 38 items have been rejected after two sessions of surveys by infertility experts. Para clinical information section consisted of 57 items that all of them have been accepted by the experts. Also, clinical information section consisted of 242 items from which 204 items were accepted and 38 items were rejected by the experts. existence of a structured electronic record system of infertile patients' information leads to the integration of patients' information, improvement of health care services and a decrease in treatment costs: all working to increase information safety. Furthermore, only essential and relevant information would be provided for the specialists and it will facilitate and direct the future infertility related studies due to the coherence, unity and relevance of the information.

  7. Performance indicators for clinical practice management in primary care in Portugal: consensus from a Delphi study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basto-Pereira, Miguel; Furtado, Sara Isabel Félix; Silva, Ricardo Jorge Pereira; Fachado González, Francisco; Vara Fernandes, Tito Manuel; Correia de Sousa, Jaime; Yaphe, John

    2015-03-01

    Performance indicators assessing the quality of medical care and linked to pay for performance may cause disagreement. Portuguese indicators included in recent health care reform are controversial. To obtain consensus from opinion leaders in family medicine regarding the performance indicators for practice management used in the evaluation of Family Health Units in Portugal. Eighty-nine specialists in primary care were invited to answer the following question in an online Delphi study: 'Which performance indicators should be assessed regarding the organization and management of clinical practice in primary care in Portugal?' A Likert scale was used to evaluate validity, reliability, feasibility and sensitivity to change. Twenty-seven experts participated in the second round and achieved a high degree of consensus. Eight categories were created for analysis. The experts suggested the use of existing indicators as well as new indicators. Thirty-nine indicators suggested by the experts are currently in use in Portugal. The assessment of the number of clinical acts performed, the number of administrative acts, and evaluation of the clinical demographic profile achieved a high degree of consensus. The expert panel suggested fifty new indicators. Five categories of these new indicators had a high degree of consensus, and three categories had a low degree of consensus. The expert panel recommended that performance indicators of practice management should first assess the quantity of clinical and administrative activities undertaken. These indicators must take into account the human and financial resources available to the clinic and its demographic context.

  8. Designing a questionnaire on physical activity habits and lifestyle from the Delphi method DISEÑO DE UN CUESTIONARIO SOBRE HÁBITOS DE ACTIVIDAD FÍSICA Y ESTILO DE VIDA A PARTIR DEL MÉTODO DELPHI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Robles Rodríguez

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays there are numerous questionnaires studying physical activity habits, lifestyle and health (IPAQ, SF-36, EQ-5D. The problem arises when trying to design a new tool for use in a specific population that has specific characteristics and which seeks to explore aspects related to the area in which it develops. The main objective of this study was to design a questionnaire on physical activity and lifestyle of the university population. To prepare this Delphi method was used, a procedure based on expert consultation through a steering group and a group of experts to cast their opinions on a cyclical basis of the topic until they reach a consensus. In our case, a questionnaire was developed with seven dimensions and 55 items. The results lead us to make a positive assessment of the use of the Delphi method to design the questionnaire and ensuring greater validity.Key words: Physical activity habits, lifestyle, Delphi method.En la actualidad existen numerosos cuestionarios que estudian los hábitos de actividad física, estilo de vida y salud (IPAQ, SF-36, EQ-5D. El problema surge cuando se pretende diseñar una herramienta nueva para utilizarla en una población concreta que tiene unas características específicas y de la que se pretende conocer aspectos relacionados con el ámbito en el que se desarrolla. El objetivo principal de este trabajo fue diseñar un cuestionario sobre actividad física y estilo de vida de la población universitaria. Para su elaboración se utilizó el método Delphi, un procedimiento basado en la consulta a expertos a través de un grupo coordinador y un grupo de expertos que emiten sus opiniones de manera cíclica acerca del tema a tratar hasta que llegan a un consenso. En nuestro caso, se elaboró un cuestionario con siete dimensiones y 55 ítems. Los resultados nos llevan a realizar una valoración positiva de la utilización del método Delphi para el diseño del cuestionario ya que garantiza una mayor validez

  9. Specialty Training's Organizational Readiness for curriculum Change (STORC): development of a questionnaire in a Delphi study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bank, Lindsay; Jippes, Mariëlle; van Luijk, Scheltus; den Rooyen, Corry; Scherpbier, Albert; Scheele, Fedde

    2015-08-05

    In postgraduate medical education (PGME), programs have been restructured according to competency-based frameworks. The scale and implications of these adjustments justify a comprehensive implementation plan. Organizational Readiness for Change (ORC) is seen as a critical precursor for a successful implementation of change initiatives. Though, ORC in health care settings is mostly assessed in small scale settings and in relation to new policies and practices rather than educational change. Therefore our aim with this work was to develop an instrument to asses Specialty Training's Organizational Readiness for curriculum Change (STORC). A Delphi procedure was conducted to examine the applicability of a preliminary questionnaire in PGME, which was based on existing instruments designed for business and health care organizations. The 41 panellists (19 trainees and 22 supervisors from 6 specialties) from four different countries who were confronted with an apparent curriculum change, or would be in the near future, were asked to rate the relevance of a 89-item web-based questionnaire with regard to changes in specialty training on a 5-point Likert scale. Furthermore, they were invited to make qualitative comments on the items. In two rounds the 89-item preliminary questionnaire was reduced to 44 items. Items were either removed, kept, adapted or added based on individual item scores and qualitative comments. In the absence of a gold standard, this Delphi procedure was considered complete when the overall questionnaire rating exceeded 4.0 (scale 0-5). The overall item score reached 4.1 in the second round, meeting our criteria for completion of this Delphi procedure. This Delphi study describes the initial validating step in the development of an instrument to asses Specialty Training's Organisational Readiness for curriculum Change (STORC). Since ORC is measured on various subscales and presented as such, its strength lies in analysing these subscales. The latter makes

  10. Experts' perceptions on the entrepreneurial framework conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Aldina; e Silva, Eliana Costa; Lopes, I. Cristina; Braga, Alexandra; Braga, Vitor

    2017-11-01

    The Global Entrepreneurship Monitor is a large scale database for internationally comparative entrepreneurship. This database includes information of more than 100 countries concerning several aspects of entrepreneurship activities, perceptions, conditions, national and regional policy, among others, in two main sources of primary data: the Adult Population Survey and the National Expert Survey. In the present work the National Expert Survey datasets for 2011, 2012 and 2013 are analyzed with the purpose of studying the effects of different type of entrepreneurship expert specialization on the perceptions about the Entrepreneurial Framework Conditions (EFCs). The results of the multivariate analysis of variance for the 2013 data show significant differences of the entrepreneurship experts when compared the 2011 and 2012 surveys. For the 2013 data entrepreneur experts are less favorable then most of the other experts to the EFCs.

  11. Delphi-consensus weights for ischemic and bleeding events to be included in a composite outcome for RCTs in thrombosis prevention.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Dechartres

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available To weight ischemic and bleeding events according to their severity to be used in a composite outcome in RCTs in the field of thrombosis prevention.Using a Delphi consensus method, a panel of anaesthesiology and cardiology experts rated the severity of thrombotic and bleeding clinical events. The ratings were expressed on a 10-point scale. The median and quartiles of the ratings of each item were returned to the experts. Then, the panel members evaluated the events a second time with knowledge of the group responses from the first round. Cronbach's a was used as a measure of homogeneity for the ratings. The final rating for each event corresponded to the median rating obtained at the last Delphi round.Of 70 experts invited, 32 (46% accepted to participate. Consensus was reached at the second round as indicated by Cronbach's a value (0.99 (95% CI 0.98-1.00 so the Delphi was stopped. Severity ranged from under-popliteal venous thrombosis (median = 3, Q1 = 2; Q3 = 3 to ischemic stroke or intracerebral hemorrhage with severe disability at 7 days and massive pulmonary embolism (median = 9, Q1 = 9; Q3 = 9. Ratings did not differ according to the medical specialty of experts.These ratings could be used to weight ischemic and bleeding events of various severity comprising a composite outcome in the field of thrombosis prevention.

  12. Cross-cultural adaptation of the delphi definitions of low back pain prevalence (German DOLBaPP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonhardt, Marja; Liebers, Falk; Dionne, Clermont E; Latza, Ute

    2014-11-25

    Assessed dimensions of low back pain (LBP) vary in prevalence studies. This may explain the heterogeneity in frequency estimates. To standardize definitions of LBP, an English consensus with 28 experts from 12 countries developed the "Delphi Definitions of Low Back Pain Prevalence" (DOLBaPP). The optimal definition and the shorter minimal definition with the related questionnaires for online, paper, and face-to-face use and telephone surveys are suitable for population-based studies. The definitions have to be adapted to different languages and cultures to provide comparable frequency estimates. The objective was to culturally adapt and pre-test the English definitions and corresponding Delphi DOLBaPP questionnaire forms into German. The German DOLBaPP adaptation was conducted using the systematic approach suggested by Beaton et al. A pre-test of the Delphi DOLBaPP optimal paper questionnaire including an additional evaluation form was conducted in a sample of 121 employees (mainly office workers). In order to evaluate the comprehensibility, usability, applicability, and completeness of the adapted questionnaire, response to the questionnaire and 6 closed evaluation questions were analyzed descriptively. Qualitative methods were used for the 3 open questions of the evaluation form. The cultural adaptation of the DOLBaPP for a German-speaking audience required little linguistic adaptation. Conceptual equivalence was difficult for the expression "low back pain". The expert committee considered the face validity of the pre-final version of the related Delphi DOLBaPP questionnaires as good. In the pre-test, most participants (95%) needed less than 5 minutes to fill in the optimal Delphi DOLBaPP questionnaire. They were generally positive regarding length, wording, diagram, and composition. All subjects with LBP (n=61 out of 121 - 50.4%) answered the questions on functional limitation, sciatic pain, frequency and duration of symptoms as well as pain severity. The

  13. A proposal for an Italian minimum data set assessment protocol for robot-assisted rehabilitation: a Delphi study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franceschini, M; Colombo, R; Posteraro, F; Sale, P

    2015-12-01

    At present there is no agreement on a common evaluation protocol to assess improvement in stroke patients after robotic therapy. The aim of this study was to identify a Minimum Data Set Assessment Protocol, using an agreement-based survey. A Delphi survey. This study was conceived by the Italian Robotic Neurorehabilitation Research Group (IRNRG), an Italian group involved in the clinical application of robot-assisted rehabilitation devices Stroke subjects. A 3-round Delphi survey was carried out through the electronic submission of questionnaires to a panel of experts identified in fourteen rehabilitation centers. For each generated item, experts were asked to rate questions on a 5 point Likert Scale. After the 1st round the questionnaire was filled out by 43 (84.3%) out of 51 experts invited to participate in the study. In the 2nd and 3rd rounds we explored the specific evaluation tools for each of the ICF domains identified in the 1st round. The experts identified the following assessment tools for the upper limb: the Ashworth Scale, the Fugl-Meyer assessment scale, the Frenchay Arm Test, the Medical Research Council scale, the Motricity Index, Frenchay Activities Index and Modified Barthel Index; and for the lower limb: the Ashworth Scale, the Motricity Index, the 10 meter walking Test, the 6 minutes walking Test, the Functional Ambulatory Classification, the Timed Up and Go Test, the Walking Handicap Scale, the Borg Rating of Perceived Exertion, the Heart Rate, the Medical Research Council Scale, the Tinetti Balance Scale and the Modified Barthel Index. The Delphi survey presented in this study allows the identification of a shared assessment protocol to be applied in clinical practice and research for the evaluation of the real improvement related to robot-assisted rehabilitation of the upper and lower limb in patients after stroke. Clinicians and researchers could use the results of this study to obtain a common language in robotic rehabilitation assessments.

  14. [Key measures for developing palliative care from a public health perspective. Initial results from a three-round Delphi study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behmann, M; Jünger, S; Radbruch, L; Schneider, N

    2011-05-01

    Recently, six key targets for public health initiatives to improve palliative care in Germany were defined. This article reports the initial results of a follow-up study aiming at developing concrete measures to achieve these targets. We carried out a three-round Delphi study with stakeholders acting on the meso- and macro-levels of the German healthcare system (e.g., representatives of patient organizations, health insurance funds, politics, medical and nursing associations). In the first Delphi round, participants proposed measures to achieve the six key targets using free-text answers. The answers were analyzed with a qualitative-descriptive approach. In total, 107 stakeholders responded to the first Delphi round. After data reduction, 37 measures were extracted and grouped into six major categories: family carers, qualification, quality, public relations, services, and coordination. The range of measures on the different levels of policy, health care, and education presents a substantiated basis for the elaboration of targeted public health action plans to improve palliative care. Prioritization of measures in the second and third Delphi rounds will provide empirical support for decision making.

  15. Application methods for identification of delphi bases comprehensive development of human capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Bartková

    2012-03-01

    present an overview of the issue of work with human capital in an environment of Czech companies with an emphasis on comprehensive development of human capital, not only through education. METHODS: To identify the bases for the comprehensive development of human capital, we chose the Delphi method of research. A group of experts was selected among economists and managers, experts in promoting physical activity, experts in work psychology among academic staff and professional consultants for multinational companies. RESULTS: Conceptual approach to the development of human capital for the company is necessary and beneficial. It is necessary to develop a component according to the individual needs of the job and the employee. On the basis of a single enterprise is desirable individual approach and analysis of the specific needs and preferences of the company and its employees. Effect of the form of benefits is insufficient, positively must use other forms of employee motivation. The Czech company is not space to work with human capital sufficiently exploited. CONCLUSIONS: It must be developed not only knowledge and skills of individuals, but also key skills, physical and mental health staff loyalty to the employer, positive and healthy atmosphere in the company. The starting point for the optimal approach to the devel

  16. Defining the Key Competencies in Radiation Protection for Endovascular Procedures: A Multispecialty Delphi Consensus Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyen, Bart; Maurel, Blandine; Cole, Jonathan; Maertens, Heidi; Mastracci, Tara; Van Herzeele, Isabelle

    2018-02-01

    Radiation protection training courses currently focus on broad knowledge topics which may not always be relevant in daily practice. The goal of this study was to determine the key competencies in radiation protection that every endovascular team member should possess and apply routinely, through multispecialty clinical content expert consensus. Consensus was obtained through a two round modified Delphi methodology. The expert panel consisted of European vascular surgeons, interventional radiologists, and interventional cardiologists/angiologists experienced in endovascular procedures. An initial list of statements, covering knowledge skills, technical skills and attitudes was created, based on a literature search. Additional statements could be suggested by the experts in the first Delphi round. Each of the statements had to be rated on a 5- point Likert scale. A statement was considered to be a key competency when the internal consistency was greater than alpha = 0.80 and at least 80% of the experts agreed (rating 4/5) or strongly agreed (rating 5/5) with the statement. Questionnaires were emailed to panel members using the Surveymonkey service. Forty-one of 65 (63.1%) invited experts agreed to participate in the study. The response rates were 36 out of 41 (87.8%): overall 38 out of 41(92.6%) in the first round and 36 out of 38 (94.7%) in the second round. The 71 primary statements were supplemented with nine items suggested by the panel. The results showed excellent consensus among responders (Cronbach's alpha = 0.937 first round; 0.958 s round). Experts achieved a consensus that 30 of 33 knowledge skills (90.9%), 23 of 27 technical skills (82.1%), and 15 of 20 attitudes (75.0%) should be considered as key competencies. A multispecialty European endovascular expert panel reached consensus about the key competencies in radiation protection. These results may serve to create practical and relevant radiation protection training courses in the future, enhancing

  17. Delphi survey of issues after the Great East Japan Earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Yasunobu; Seo, Kami; Motoyoshi, Tadahiro; Okada, Shinya

    2011-01-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011 has catastrophic impacts on Japan. Japan is currently on the way to recovery. However, as the damage on the country as well as society is so serious, Japanese society is urged to change some systems including hazard management, energy policy, information systems and city planning. These changes are accompanied with social group realignments, thus necessarily followed by various risks. To cope with these risk issues, SRA-Japan established the special research committee for the Great East Japan Earthquake. The aim of the committee is, from viewpoints of risk analysts, to create and relate messages about risk issues in 2-3 years, in ten years and in thirty years from the earthquake. To do this, the committee garners SRA-Japan member's opinions about possible risks in Japan by using Delphi method. In SRA-Japan, there are over 600 members in interdisciplinary fields from various backgrounds, thus the messages are expected to be helpful for Japanese society to lower its risks and to optimize the resource allocation. The research is now underway. An interim report will be presented. (author)

  18. What Are Expert Systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Agapeyeff, A.

    1986-01-01

    Intended for potential business users, this paper describes the main characteristics of expert systems; discusses practical use considerations; presents a taxonomy of the systems; and reviews several expert system development projects in business and industry. (MBR)

  19. Towards consensus in operational definitions in functional capacity evaluation: a Delphi Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soer, Remko; van der Schans, Cees P; Groothoff, Johan W; Geertzen, Jan H B; Reneman, Michiel F

    2008-12-01

    The problem of inconsistent terminology in functional capacity evaluation (FCE) has been widely addressed in the international literature. Many different terms seem to be used interchangeably while other terms appear to be interpreted differently. This may seriously hinder FCE research and clinical use. To gain consensus in operational definitions in FCE and conceptual framework to classify terminology used in FCE. A Delphi Survey with FCE experts was conducted which consisted of three rounds of questioning, using semi and full structured questions. The expert group was formed from international experts in FCE. Experts were selected if they met any of the following criteria: at least one international publication as first author and one as co-author in the field of FCE; or an individual who had developed an FCE that was subject of investigation in at least one publication in international literature. Consensus of definitions was considered when 75% or more of all experts agreed with a definition. In total, 22 international experts from 6 different countries in Australia, Europe and North America, working in different health related sectors, participated in this study. Consensus concerning conceptual framework of FCE was met in 9 out of 20 statements. Consensus on definitions was met in 10 out of 19 definitions. Experts agreed to use the ICF as a conceptual framework in which terminology of FCE should be classified and agreed to use pre-defined terms of the ICF. No consensus was reached about the definition of FCE, for which two potential eligible definitions remained. Consensus was reached in many terms used in FCE. For future research, it was recommended that researchers use these terms, use the ICF as a conceptual framework and clearly state which definition for FCE is used because no definition of FCE was consented.

  20. Attitudes and values expected of public health nursing students at graduation: A delphi study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okura, Mika; Takizawa, Hiroko

    2018-03-09

    The skills and knowledge of the competencies expected of public health nursing (PHN) students at graduation have been clarified; however, the attitudes and values have not yet been studied in Japan. The objective of this study was to identify and reach a consensus among experts on the attitudes and values expected of PHN students at graduation. This survey was conducted as a two-stage Delphi study. We selected the following experts: 248 teachers in the faculty of public health nursing at a university as academic experts, and 250 public health nurses who were also experienced clinical instructors as clinical experts. The round 1 mailed survey was conducted using a questionnaire about the necessity and importance of attitudes and values, and 211 experts responded (42.4%, clinical; n = 124, academic; n = 87). In the Round 2 survey, the experts consisted of 60.2% of the round 1 participants (clinical; n = 73, academic; n = 54). Descriptive statistics were used for multiple imputation. We identified a total of 13 attitudes and values expected of PHN students, and reached ≥90% consensus for most items (except for one). Regarding the expected achievement level at graduation, there was no difference between clinical and academic experts except for one item. Consensus was clearly achieved for 13 attitudes and values expected of PHN students, as well as importance and expected achievement level at graduation. In the future, it is important to examine strategies that can effectively develop these attitudes and values through basic and continuous education. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Radiologic criteria for the diagnosis of spinal stenosis: results of a Delphi survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamisch, Nadja; Brumann, Martin; Hodler, Juerg; Held, Ulrike; Brunner, Florian; Steurer, Johann

    2012-07-01

    To develop a list of radiologic criteria for describing lumbar spinal stenosis, to learn from experts which parameters they consider to be most important, and to assess the strength of agreement among experts on the most relevant criteria. An expert panel of 41 radiologists (musculoskeletal experts and neuroradiologists from Europe and the United States) was formed. A three-round Delphi survey was conducted. Twenty-seven of the 41 nominated experts agreed to participate; 21 completed all three rounds. In the first round, experts were asked to complete a list of suggested parameters and cutoff values to describe lumbar spinal stenosis. In the second round, panelists rated the diagnostic relevance of each parameter (visual analog scale, 0-10). In the third round, panelists were provided with the group results (median and range) and their own answers and had the opportunity to adapt their judgments from round 2. To assess the degree of consensus among experts, the Cronbach α was calculated. The qualitative criteria disk protrusion and perineural intraforaminal fat were rated as the most important diagnostic indicators, with median scores of 9 (range, 2-10). The highest rated quantitative criterion was the anteroposterior diameter of the osseous canal, with a median score of 8; however, there was a wide range of scores (range, 0-10). The median Cronbach α of all panelists within the group was 0.81 after the third round. Results of the survey suggest that there are no broadly accepted quantitative criteria and only partially accepted qualitative criteria for the diagnosis of lumbar spinal stenosis. The latter include disk protrusion, lack of perineural intraforaminal fat, hypertrophic facet joint degeneration, absent fluid around the cauda equine, and hypertrophy of the ligamentum flavum. © RSNA, 2012.

  2. Expert auditors’ services classification

    OpenAIRE

    Jolanta Wisniewska

    2013-01-01

    The profession of an expert auditor is a public trust occupation with a distinctive feature of taking responsibility for actions in the public interest. The main responsibility of expert auditors is performing financial auditing; however, expert auditors are prepared to carry out different tasks which encompass a wide plethora of financial and auditing services for different kinds of institutions and companies. The aim of the article is first of all the description of expert auditors’ service...

  3. Factors that act as facilitators and barriers to nurse leaders' participation in health policy development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariff, Nilufa

    2014-01-01

    Health policies impact on nursing profession and health care. Nurses' involvement in health policy development ensures that health care is safe, of a high quality, accessible and affordable. Numerous factors influence nurse leaders' ability to be politically active in influencing health policy development. These factors can be facilitators or barriers to their participation. There is scant research evidence from Eastern African region that draws attention to this topic. This paper reports part of the larger study. The objectives reported in this paper were those aimed to: build consensus on factors that act as facilitators and barriers to nurse leaders' participation in health policy development in Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania. A DELPHI SURVEY WAS APPLIED WHICH INCLUDED: expert panelists, iterative rounds, statistical analysis, and consensus building. The expert panelists were purposively selected and included national nurse leaders in leadership positions in East Africa. Data collection was done, in three iterative rounds, and utilized a questionnaire with open and closed ended questions. 78 expert panelists were invited to participate in the study; the response rate was 47% of these 64.8% participated in the second round and of those 100% participated in the third round. Data analysis was done by examining the data for the most commonly occurring categories for the open ended questions and descriptive statistics for structured questions. The findings of the study indicate that both facilitators and barriers exist. The former include: being involved in health policy development, having knowledge and skills, enhancing the image of nursing and enabling structures and processes. The latter include: lack of involvement, negative image of nursing and structures and processes which exclude them. There is a window of opportunity to enhance national nurse leaders' participation in health policy development. Nurse leaders have a key role in mentoring, supporting and

  4. Factors that act as facilitators and barriers to nurse leaders’ participation in health policy development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Health policies impact on nursing profession and health care. Nurses' involvement in health policy development ensures that health care is safe, of a high quality, accessible and affordable. Numerous factors influence nurse leaders' ability to be politically active in influencing health policy development. These factors can be facilitators or barriers to their participation. There is scant research evidence from Eastern African region that draws attention to this topic. This paper reports part of the larger study. The objectives reported in this paper were those aimed to: build consensus on factors that act as facilitators and barriers to nurse leaders' participation in health policy development in Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania. Methods A Delphi survey was applied which included: expert panelists, iterative rounds, statistical analysis, and consensus building. The expert panelists were purposively selected and included national nurse leaders in leadership positions in East Africa. Data collection was done, in three iterative rounds, and utilized a questionnaire with open and closed ended questions. 78 expert panelists were invited to participate in the study; the response rate was 47% of these 64.8% participated in the second round and of those 100% participated in the third round. Data analysis was done by examining the data for the most commonly occurring categories for the open ended questions and descriptive statistics for structured questions. Results The findings of the study indicate that both facilitators and barriers exist. The former include: being involved in health policy development, having knowledge and skills, enhancing the image of nursing and enabling structures and processes. The latter include: lack of involvement, negative image of nursing and structures and processes which exclude them. Conclusion There is a window of opportunity to enhance national nurse leaders' participation in health policy development. Nurse leaders have a key role

  5. Quality pharmacy services and key performance indicators in Polish NICUs: a Delphi approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzyżaniak, Natalia; Pawłowska, Iga; Bajorek, Beata

    2018-03-31

    Background Currently, there is no literature describing what a quality level of practice entails in Polish neonatal intensive care units (NICUs), nor are there any means of currently measuring the quality of pharmaceutical care provided to NICU patients. Objective To identify a set of essential pharmacist roles and pharmacy-relevant key performance indicators (KPI's) suitable for Polish neonatal intensive units (NICUs). Setting Polish hospital pharmacies and NICUs. Method Using a modified Delphi technique, potential KPI's structured along Donabedian's domains as well as pharmacy services were presented to an expert panel of stakeholders. Two online, consecutive Delphi rounds, were completed by panellists between August and September 2017. Main outcome measure To identify the minimum level of pharmacy services that should be consistently provided to NICU patients. Results A total of 16 panellists contributed to the expert panel. Overall, consensus of 75% was reached for 23 indicators and for 28 roles. When considering pharmacy services for the NICU, the experts were found to highly value traditional pharmacy roles, such as dispensing and extemporaneous compounding, however, they were still eager for roles in the other domains, such as educational and clinical services, to be listed as essential for NICU practice. Panellists were found to positively value the list of indicators presented, and excluded only 9 out of the total list. Conclusion There is a need for future research to establish a minimum standard of practice for Polish pharmacists to encourage the progression and standardisation of hospital pharmacy services to meet the level of practice seen in NICUs worldwide.

  6. From equity to power: Critical Success Factors for Twinning between midwives, a Delphi study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadée, Franka; Nieuwenhuijze, Marianne J; Lagro-Janssen, Antoine L M; de Vries, Raymond

    2018-02-28

    To gain consensus for Critical Success Factors associated with Twinning in Midwifery. International publications identify midwifery as important for improving maternity care worldwide. Midwifery is a team effort where midwives play a key role. Yet their power to take on this role is often lacking. Twinning has garnered potential to develop power in professionals, however, its success varies because implementation is not always optimal. Critical Success Factors have demonstrated positive results in the managerial context and can be helpful to build effective Twinning relationships. We approached 56 midwife Twinning experts from 19 countries to participate in three Delphi rounds between 2016 - 2017. In round 1, experts gave input through an open ended questionnaire and this was analysed to formulate Critical Success Factors statements that were scored on a 1-7 Likert scale aiming to gain consensus in rounds 2 and 3. These statements were operationalized for practical use such as a check list in planning, monitoring and evaluation in the field. Thirty-three experts from 14 countries took part in all three Delphi rounds, producing 58 initial statements. This resulted in 25 Critical Success Factors covering issues of management, communication, commitment and values, most focus on equity. The Critical Success Factors formulated represent the necessary ingredients for successful Twinning by providing a practical implementation framework and promote further research into the effect of Twinning. Findings show that making equity explicit in Twinning may contribute towards the power of midwives to take on their identified key role. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Advanced Nursing Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Assessing risk factors for early hip osteoarthritis in activity-related hip pain: a Delphi study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, K A; Glyn-Jones, S; Batt, M E; Arden, N K; Newton, J L

    2015-01-01

    Objective Hip pain and injury as a result of activity can lead to the development of early hip osteoarthritis (OA) in susceptible individuals. Our understanding of the factors that increase susceptibility continues to evolve. The ability to clearly identify individuals (and cohorts) with activity-related hip pain who are at risk of early hip OA is currently lacking. The purpose of this study was to gain expert consensus on which key clinical measures might help predict the risk of early hip OA in individuals presenting with activity-related hip pain. The agreed measures would constitute a standardised approach to initial clinical assessment to help identify these individuals. Methods This Dephi study used online surveys to gain concordance of expert opinion in a structured process of ‘rounds’. In this study, we asked ‘What outcome measures are useful in predicting hip OA in activity-related hip pain?’ The Delphi panel consisted of experts from sport and exercise medicine, orthopaedics, rheumatology, physiotherapy and OA research. Results The study identified key clinical measures in the history, examination and investigations (plain anteroposterior radiograph and femoroacetabular impingement views) that the panel agreed would be useful in predicting future risk of hip OA when assessing activity-related hip pain. The panel also agreed that certain investigations and tests (eg, MR angiography) did not currently have a role in routine assessment. There was a lack of consensus regarding the role of MRI, patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) and certain biomechanical and functional assessments. Conclusions We provide a standardised approach to the clinical assessment of patients with activity-related hip pain. Assessment measures rejected by the Delphi panel were newer, more expensive investigations that currently lack evidence. Assessment measures that did not reach consensus include MRI and PROMs. Their role remains ambiguous and would benefit from further

  8. Persuasiveness of expert systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, JJ; Liebrand, WBG; Timminga, E; Liebrand, Wim B.G.

    1998-01-01

    Expert system advice is not always evaluated by examining its contents. Users can be persuaded by expert system advice because they have certain beliefs about advice given by a computer. The experiment in this paper shows that subjects (n = 84) thought that, given the same argumentation, expert

  9. Towards a definition of neurodisability: a Delphi survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Christopher; Janssens, Astrid; Tomlinson, Richard; Williams, Jane; Logan, Stuart

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to develop, systematically, a consensus-based definition for 'neurodisability' that is meaningful to health professionals and parents of children with neurological conditions. A multidisciplinary group of health professionals was recruited through child development teams and professional societies in the UK; several parents of children with neurological conditions worked with the research team. Professionals participated in three rounds of a Delphi survey. Participants rated their agreement with a proposed definition in each round, and feedback was used to refine the definition. Finally, a perspective was sought from international experts. Responses to the three rounds were as follows: round 1,245 out of 290 (84.4%); round 2,242 out of 300 (80.6%); and round 3,237 out of 297 (79.7%). Agreement with the proposed definition was extremely high in every round (89.0%, 90.1%, and 93.6% respectively). The final version of the definition was widely endorsed among professionals, parents, and a small number of international colleagues. The final definition is as follows: 'Neurodisability describes a group of congenital or acquired long-term conditions that are attributed to impairment of the brain and/or neuromuscular system and create functional limitations. A specific diagnosis may not be identified. Conditions may vary over time, occur alone or in combination, and include a broad range of severity and complexity. The impact may include difficulties with movement, cognition, hearing and vision, communication, emotion, and behaviour'. An agreed definition of neurodisability will be useful for conducting research or clinical evaluations with people affected by neurological problems. © 2013 Crown copyright. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology © 2013 Mac Keith Press. This article is published with the permission of the Controller of HMSO and the Queen's Printer for Scotland.

  10. Identifying Mental Health Elements among Technical University Students Using Fuzzy Delphi Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pua, P. K.; Lai, C. S.; Lee, M. F.

    2017-08-01

    Mental health is a part of our daily life that is often experienced. As a student, mental health issue often encounters a variety of difficult challenges at the higher education institution. A student with good mental health can handle and cope the normal stress of life, capable work productivity, enhance academic performance and able to make contribute to the community. However, rapidly transformation and changing of society have been impacted on students’ mental health, and it will be deteriorated and negatively impact on students if it absence of preventive controlled. This study aimed to identify the element of mental health among the technical university students. A total of 11 experts were selected to analyze the fuzziness consensus of experts. All collected data was analyzed by using the fuzzy Delphi method and the result shows that there are 4 elements of 8 elements that fulfill the requirement consensus of experts, which threshold value is equal and less than 0.2, the percentage of the expert group is more than 75%. The four elements were depression, anxiety, stress, and fear are often experienced by technical university students. In conclusion, precocious actions have to be taken by university and counseling center, parents and non-government organization in order to mitigate the mental health problem faced by students to improve the quality lifestyle students at the university.

  11. Quality issues concerning genetic counselling for presymptomatic testing: a European Delphi study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paneque, Milena; Sequeiros, Jorge; Skirton, Heather

    2015-11-01

    Genetic counselling for presymptomatic testing is complex, bringing both ethical and practical questions. There are protocols for counselling but a scarcity of literature regarding quality assessment of such counselling practice. Generic quality assessment tools for genetic services are not specific to presymptomatic testing (PST). Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify aspects of effective counselling practice in PST for late-onset neurological disorders. We used the Delphi method to ascertain the views of relevant European experts in genetic counselling practice, ascertained via published literature and nomination by practitioners. Ethical approval was obtained. Questionnaires were sent electronically to a list of 45 experts, (Medical Doctors, Geneticists, Genetic Counsellors and Genetic Nurses), who each contributed to one to three rounds. In the first round, we provided a list of relevant indicators of quality of practice from a literature review. Experts were requested to evaluate topics in four domains: (a) professional standards; (b) service standards; (c) the consultant's perspective; and (d) protocol standards. We then removed items receiving less than 65% approval and added new issues suggested by experts. The second round was performed for the refinement of issues and the last round was aimed at achieving final consensus on high-standard indicators of quality, for inclusion in the assessment tool. The most relevant indicators were related to (1) consultant-centred practice and (2) advanced counselling and interpersonal skills of professionals. Defined high-standard indicators can be used for the development of a new tool for quality assessment of PST counselling practice.

  12. Assisting an Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander person with gambling problems: a Delphi study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Kathy S; Dart, Katrina M; Jorm, Anthony F; Kelly, Claire M; Kitchener, Betty A; Reavley, Nicola J

    2017-08-02

    Gambling problems appear to be more prevalent in the Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population than in the non-Indigenous population. Although gambling harms can be significant, treatment-seeking rates are low. The Delphi expert consensus method was used to develop a set of guidelines on how a family or community member can assist an Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander person with gambling problems. Building on a previous systematic review of websites, books and journal articles a questionnaire was developed that contained items about the knowledge, skills and actions needed for supporting an Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander person with gambling problems. These items were rated over three rounds by an expert panel comprising professionals who provide treatment to or conduct research with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people with gambling problems. A total of 22 experts rated 407 helping statements according to whether they thought the statements should be included in these guidelines. There were 225 helping statements that were endorsed by at least 90% of participants. These endorsed statements were used to develop the guidelines. Experts were able to reach substantial consensus on how someone can recognise the signs of gambling problems and support an Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander person to change.

  13. Self-management behaviors to reduce exacerbation impact in COPD patients: a Delphi study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korpershoek, Yvonne Jg; Bruins Slot, Joyce C; Effing, Tanja W; Schuurmans, Marieke J; Trappenburg, Jaap Ca

    2017-01-01

    Little is known about which self-management behaviors have the highest potential to influence exacerbation impact in COPD patients. We aimed to reach expert consensus on the most relevant set of self-management behaviors that can be targeted and influenced to maximize reduction of exacerbation impact. A 2-round Delphi study was performed using online surveys to rate the relevance and feasibility of predetermined self-management behaviors identified by literature and expert opinion. Descriptive statistics and qualitative analyses were used. An international expert panel reached consensus on 17 self-management behaviors focusing on: stable phase (n=5): pharmacotherapy, vaccination, physical activity, avoiding stimuli and smoking cessation; periods of symptom deterioration (n=1): early detection; during an exacerbation (n=5): early detection, health care contact, self-treatment, managing stress/anxiety and physical activity; during recovery (n=4): completing treatment, managing stress/anxiety, physical activity and exercise training; and after recovery (n=2): awareness for recurrent exacerbations and restart of pulmonary rehabilitation. This study has provided insight into expert opinion on the most relevant and feasible self-management behaviors that can be targeted and influenced before, during and after an exacerbation to exert the highest magnitude of influence on the impact of exacerbations. Future research should focus at developing more comprehensive patient-tailored interventions supporting patients in these exacerbation-related self-management behaviors.

  14. International, Expert-Based, Consensus Statement Regarding the Management of Acute Diverticulitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, D Peter; Lynch, Noel; Clancy, Cillian; Winter, Desmond C; Myers, Eddie

    2015-09-01

    This Delphi study provides consensus related to many aspects of acute diverticulitis and identifies other areas in need of research. To generate an international, expert-based, consensus statement to address controversies in the management of acute diverticulitis. This study was conducted using the Delphi technique from April 3 through October 21, 2014. A survey website was used and a panel of acute diverticulitis experts was formed via the snowball method. The top 5 acute diverticulitis experts in 5 international geographic regions were identified based on their number of publications related to acute diverticulitis. The Delphi study used 3 rounds of questions, after which the consensus statement was collated. A consensus statement related to the management of acute diverticulitis. Twenty items were selected for inclusion in the consensus statement following 3 rounds of questioning. A clear definition of uncomplicated and complicated diverticulitis is provided. In uncomplicated diverticulitis, consensus was reached regarding appropriate laboratory and radiological evaluation of patients as well as nonsurgical, surgical, and follow-up strategies. A number of important topics, including antibiotic treatment, failed to reach consensus. In addition, consensus was reached regarding many nonsurgical and surgical treatment strategies in complicated diverticulitis. Controversy continues internationally regarding the management of acute diverticulitis. This study demonstrates that there is more nonconsensus among experts than consensus regarding most issues, even in the same region. It also provides insight into the status quo regarding the treatment of acute diverticulitis and provides important direction for future research.

  15. Expert status and performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A Burgman

    Full Text Available Expert judgements are essential when time and resources are stretched or we face novel dilemmas requiring fast solutions. Good advice can save lives and large sums of money. Typically, experts are defined by their qualifications, track record and experience. The social expectation hypothesis argues that more highly regarded and more experienced experts will give better advice. We asked experts to predict how they will perform, and how their peers will perform, on sets of questions. The results indicate that the way experts regard each other is consistent, but unfortunately, ranks are a poor guide to actual performance. Expert advice will be more accurate if technical decisions routinely use broadly-defined expert groups, structured question protocols and feedback.

  16. Target risk factors for dementia prevention: a systematic review and Delphi consensus study on the evidence from observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deckers, Kay; van Boxtel, Martin P J; Schiepers, Olga J G; de Vugt, Marjolein; Muñoz Sánchez, Juan Luis; Anstey, Kaarin J; Brayne, Carol; Dartigues, Jean-Francois; Engedal, Knut; Kivipelto, Miia; Ritchie, Karen; Starr, John M; Yaffe, Kristine; Irving, Kate; Verhey, Frans R J; Köhler, Sebastian

    2015-03-01

    Dementia has a multifactorial etiology, but the importance of individual health and lifestyle related risk factors is often uncertain or based on few studies. The goal of this paper is to identify the major modifiable risk factors for dementia as a first step in developing an effective preventive strategy and promoting healthy late life cognitive functioning. A mixed-method approach combined findings from a systematic literature review and a Delphi consensus study. The literature search was conducted in PubMed and updated an earlier review by the United States National Institutes of Health from 2010. We reviewed the available evidence from observational epidemiological studies. The online Delphi study asked eight international experts to rank and weigh each risk factor for its importance for dementia prevention. Out of 3127 abstracts, 291 were included in the review. There was good agreement between modifiable risk factors identified in the literature review and risk factors named spontaneously by experts. After triangulation of both methods and re-weighting by experts, strongest support was found for depression, (midlife) hypertension, physical inactivity, diabetes, (midlife) obesity, hyperlipidemia, and smoking, while more research is needed for coronary heart disease, renal dysfunction, diet, and cognitive activity. Findings provide good support for several somatic and lifestyle factors and will be used to inform the design of a new multicenter trial into dementia prevention. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Metoda Delphi, Pendekatan Kualitatif dalam Peramalan Permintaan Produk

    OpenAIRE

    Pattiwael Irawan, Judith Felicia

    1999-01-01

    In every decision-making process, the are often completed by either qualitative approach or quantitative approach. That is also for product forecasting. Forecasting classification can be based by qualitative and quantitative approach besides by time-horizon. By talking ones classification, there are five qualitative methods namely: personal insight, panel consensus, market surveys, historic analogy, and Delphi method. The previous four methods have been familiar enough. Delphi method is a...

  18. Identification of Translational Dermatology Research Priorities in the UK; Results of an e-Delphi Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, E.; Reynolds, N.J.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Translational research is the direct application of basic and applied research to patient care. It is estimated that there are at least 2,000 different skin diseases, thus there are considerable challenges in seeking to undertake research on each of these disorders. Objective This eDelphi exercise was conducted in order to generate a list of translational dermatology research questions which are regarded as a priority for further investigations. Results During the first phase of the eDelphi, 228 research questions were generated by an expert panel which included clinical academic dermatologists, clinical dermatologists, non-clinical scientists, dermatology trainees and representatives from patient support groups. Following completion of the second and third phases, 40 questions on inflammatory skin disease, 20 questions on structural skin disorders / genodermatoses, 37 questions on skin cancer and 8 miscellaneous questions were designated as priority translational dermatology research questions (PRQs). In addition to PRQs on a variety of disease areas (including multiple PRQs on psoriasis, eczema, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and melanoma), there were a number of cross-cutting themes which identified a need to investigate mechanisms / pathogenesis of disease and the necessity to improve treatments for patients with skin disease. Conclusion It is predicted that this list of PRQs will help to provide a strategic direction for translational dermatology research in the UK and that addressing this list of questions will ultimately provide clinical benefit for substantial numbers of subjects with skin disorders. PMID:26149834

  19. The International Universities Walking Project: development of a framework for workplace intervention using the Delphi technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilson, Nicholas; Brown, Wendy J; Faulkner, Guy; McKenna, Jim; Murphy, Marie; Pringle, Andy; Proper, Karin; Puig-Ribera, Anna; Stathi, Aphroditi

    2009-07-01

    This paper aimed to use the Delphi technique to develop a consensus framework for a multinational, workplace walking intervention. Ideas were gathered and ranked from eight recognized and emerging experts in the fields of physical activity and health, from universities in Australia, Canada, England, The Netherlands, Northern Ireland, and Spain. Members of the panel were asked to consider the key characteristics of a successful campus walking intervention. Consensus was reached by an inductive, content analytic approach, conducted through an anonymous, three-round, e-mail process. The resulting framework consisted of three interlinking themes defined as "design, implementation, and evaluation." Top-ranked subitems in these themes included the need to generate research capacity (design), to respond to group needs through different walking approaches (implementation), and to undertake physical activity assessment (evaluation). Themes were set within an underpinning domain, referred to as the "institution" and sites are currently engaging with subitems in this domain, to provide sustainable interventions that reflect the practicalities of local contexts and needs. Findings provide a unique framework for designing, implementing, and evaluating walking projects in universities and highlight the value of adopting the Delphi technique for planning international, multisite health initiatives.

  20. Application of Delphi method for determining the affecting factors upon audit risk model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Hajiha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of risks in an audit work could directly influence the costs, timing, and strategies as well as audit quality. The purpose of this paper is to identify the critical affecting factors on risks proposed in Audit Risk Model (ARM, in Iranian audit environment of Iran. In the present, the Delphi Method consists of 60 audit partners and managers is employed. The panel consists of two equally divided groups, one from audit organization, a governmental organization, and the other from private audit firms. We employ two rounds of Delphi and 58 critical risk factors extracted from auditing literature and Iranian auditing standards and present them to the experts. There are 43 factors categorized as important factors to assess the risks in ARM. The results are considerable in an Iranian audit environment, findings show the most important factors are in inherent risk factors. Finally, we made a comparison with a similar study in Taiwan. Differences indicate that in professional judgment issues like risk assessment, the consideration of particular culture and environment could help enhance the precision of assessments, especially in assessing control risk factors.

  1. A Delphi Study of Aviation Maintenance Experts' Recommendations for a Model School Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyen, Fred D.

    2017-01-01

    The program described in this paper is the essential first step in reviving and reinitiating the delivery of aviation maintenance technology instruction. The demand for aviation maintenance technicians (AMTs) is rapidly increasing and there is a need to provide as many as 679,000 AMTs over the next 20 years (Boeing, 2016). Given the high cost of…

  2. Identification of translational dermatology research priorities in the U.K.: results of an electronic Delphi exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, E; Brown, S J; Langan, S M; Nicholls, S G; Shams, K; Reynolds, N J

    2015-11-01

    Translational research is the direct application of basic and applied research to patient care. It is estimated that there are at least 2000 different skin diseases; thus, there are considerable challenges in seeking to undertake research on each of these disorders. This electronic Delphi (e-Delphi) exercise was conducted in order to generate a list of translational dermatology research questions that are regarded as a priority for further investigations. During the first phase of the e-Delphi exercise, 228 research questions were generated by an expert panel that included clinical academic dermatologists, clinical dermatologists, nonclinical scientists, dermatology trainees and representatives from patient support groups. Following completion of the second and third phases, 40 questions on inflammatory skin disease, 20 questions on structural skin disorders/genodermatoses, 37 questions on skin cancer and eight miscellaneous questions were designated as priority translational dermatology research questions (PRQs). In addition to PRQs on a variety of disease areas (including multiple PRQs on psoriasis, eczema, squamous cell carcinoma and melanoma), there were a number of cross-cutting themes that identified a need to investigate mechanisms/pathogenesis of disease and the necessity to improve treatments for patients with skin disease. It is predicted that this list of PRQs will help to provide a strategic direction for translational dermatology research in the U.K. and that addressing this list of questions will ultimately provide clinical benefit for substantial numbers of patients with skin disorders. © 2015 British Association of Dermatologists.

  3. USING THE DELPHI TECHNIQUE TO DEVELOP EFFECTIVENESS INDICATORS FOR SOCIAL MARKETING COMMUNICATION TO REDUCE HEALTH-RISK BEHAVIORS AMONG YOUTH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vantamay, Nottakrit

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to develop effectiveness indicators for social marketing communication to reduce health-risk behaviors among Thai youth by using the Delphi technique. The Delphi technique is a research approach used to gain consensus through a series of two or more rounds of questionnaire surveys where information and results are fed back to panel members between each round and it has been extensively used to generate many indicators relevant to health behaviors. The Delphi technique was conducted in 3 rounds by consulting a panel of 15 experts in the field of social marketing communication for public health campaigns in Thailand. We found forty-nine effectiveness indicators in eight core components reached consensus. These components were: 1) attitude about health-risk behavior reduction, 2) subjective norms, 3) perceived behavioral control, 4) intention to reduce health-risk behaviors, 5) practices for reducing health-risk behaviors, 6) knowledge about the dangers and impact of health-risk behaviors, 7) campaign brand equity, and 8) communication networks. These effectiveness indicators could be applied by health promotion organizations for evaluating the effectiveness of social marketing communication to effectively reduce health-risk behaviors among youth.

  4. Computerized screening devices and performance assessment: development of a policy towards automation. International Academy of Cytology Task Force summary. Diagnostic Cytology Towards the 21st Century: An International Expert Conference and Tutorial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, P H; Bibbo, M; Hutchinson, M L; Gahm, T; Grohs, H K; Gwi-Mak, E; Kaufman, E A; Kaufman, R H; Knight, B K; Koss, L G; Magruder, L E; Mango, L J; McCallum, S M; Melamed, M R; Peebles, A; Richart, R M; Robinowitz, M; Rosenthal, D L; Sauer, T; Schenck, U; Tanaka, N; Topalidis, T; Verhest, A P; Wertlake, P T; Wilbur, D C

    1998-01-01

    The extension of automation to the diagnostic assessment of clinical materials raises issues of professional responsibility, on the part of both the medical professional and designer of the device. The International Academy of Cytology (IAC) and other professional cytology societies should develop a policy towards automation in the diagnostic assessment of clinical cytologic materials. The following summarizes the discussion of the initial position statement at the International Expert Conference on Diagnostic Cytology Towards the 21st Century, Hawaii, June 1997. 1. The professional in charge of a clinical cytopathology laboratory continues to bear the ultimate medical responsibility for diagnostic decisions made at the facility, whether automated devices are involved or not. 2. The introduction of automated procedures into clinical cytology should under no circumstances lead to a lowering of standards of performance. A prime objective of any guidelines should be to ensure that an automated procedure, in principle, does not expose any patient to new risks, nor should it increase already-existing, inherent risks. 3. Automated devices should provide capabilities for the medical professional to conduct periodic tests of the appropriate performance of the device. 4. Supervisory personnel should continue visual quality control screening of a certain percentage of slides dismissed at primary screening as within normal limits (WNL), even when automated procedures are employed in the laboratory. 5. Specifications for the design of primary screening devices for the detection of cervical cancer issued by the IAC in 1984 were reaffirmed. 6. The setting of numeric performance criteria is the proper charge of regulatory agencies, which also have the power of enforcement. 7. Human expert verification of results represents the "gold standard" at this time. Performance characteristics of computerized cytology devices should be determined by adherence to defined and well

  5. Being an expert

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brechet, Y.; Musseau, O.; Bruna, G.; Sperandio, M.; Roulleaux-Dugage, M.; Andrieux, S.; Metteau, L.

    2014-01-01

    This series of short articles are dedicated to the role of the expert in the enterprise. There is an important difference between a scientific counsellor and an expert, the expert, recognized by his peers, can speak publicly in his field of expertise but has a duty of transparency while the job of a scientific counsellor requires confidentiality. The making and the use of an expert in an enterprise requires a dedicated organization. The organization of the expertise in 5 enterprises in nuclear industry are considered: CEA (French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission), IRSN (Institute of Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety), AREVA, ANDRA (National Radioactive Waste Management Agency) and EDF (Electricity of France)

  6. Identifying the critical financial ratios for stocks evaluation: A fuzzy delphi approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtar, Mazura; Shuib, Adibah; Mohamad, Daud

    2014-12-01

    Stocks evaluation has always been an interesting and challenging problem for both researchers and practitioners. Generally, the evaluation can be made based on a set of financial ratios. Nevertheless, there are a variety of financial ratios that can be considered and if all ratios in the set are placed into the evaluation process, data collection would be more difficult and time consuming. Thus, the objective of this paper is to identify the most important financial ratios upon which to focus in order to evaluate the stock's performance. For this purpose, a survey was carried out using an approach which is based on an expert judgement, namely the Fuzzy Delphi Method (FDM). The results of this study indicated that return on equity, return on assets, net profit margin, operating profit margin, earnings per share and debt to equity are the most important ratios.

  7. Quality indicators for the design and implementation of simulation experiences: a Delphi study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, Carol; Levett-Jones, Tracy; Kable, Ashley

    2013-11-01

    Simulation is widely used in nursing education. Previous studies have examined the impact of simulation on the acquisition of psychomotor skills, knowledge, critical thinking and non-technical skills such as teamwork. Challenges associated with the integration of simulation into nursing curricula have also been examined, however only limited research addresses the most effective simulation design and teaching strategies for quality educational outcomes. This paper reports a Delphi study that synthesises expert opinion on the pedagogical principles and teaching strategies that are indicative of quality in simulation based learning activities. The resultant set of Quality Indicator Statements is presented and opportunities for application and further research are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Factors Influencing Office Building Occupation Decision by Tenants in Kuala Lumpur city centre ' a Delphi Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmin Mohd Adnan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Only a limited amount of research has been reported on factors influencing office building occupation decision among tenants within the centre of Kuala Lumpur. In this paper, a comprehensive set of factors that may influence occupation decisions by tenants in office buildings in Kuala Lumpur is first identified through the search of existing literature. Results are then presented of a Delphi study that investigates the views of the panel of experts who had dealt with office building tenants in Kuala Lumpur in relation to factors influencing occupation decisions. The top five important factors identified by the panel are rental rate, security and access control, responsible management and maintenance team, car park provision/accessibility, and building image/identity. With the given responses, the results will then be used in the study to determine the relative importance of the factors and sub-factors across the different categories of office building tenants in Kuala Lumpur.

  9. Project evaluation and selection using fuzzy Delphi method and zero - one goal programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alias, Suriana; Adna, Nofarziah; Arsad, Roslah; Soid, Siti Khuzaimah; Ali, Zaileha Md

    2014-12-01

    Project evaluation and selection is a factor affecting the impotence of board director in which is trying to maximize all the possible goals. Assessment of the problem occurred in organization plan is the first phase for decision making process. The company needs a group of expert to evaluate the problems. The Fuzzy Delphi Method (FDM) is a systematic procedure to evoke the group's opinion in order to get the best result to evaluate the project performance. This paper proposes an evaluation and selection of the best alternative project based on combination of FDM and Zero - One Goal Programming (ZOGP) formulation. ZOGP is used to solve the multi-criteria decision making for final decision part by using optimization software LINDO 6.1. An empirical example on an ongoing decision making project in Johor, Malaysia is implemented for case study.

  10. Characteristics and functions for place brands based on a Delphi method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J de San Eugenio Vela

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Representation of territories through brands is a recurring issue in today’s modern society. The aim of this article is to establish certain characteristics and functions pertaining to brands linked to geographical areas. Methodology. The decision was made to conduct qualitative research based on a Delphi method comprising a panel of fourteen place branding experts. Results. In relation to commercial brands, it is found that, since they are publicly owned, place brands call for more complex management, preferably on three levels: public administration, private organisations and citizens. Conclusions. Based on the results obtained, it is concluded that management of places centres on the projection of unique, spatial identities on the context of increasing competition between territories.

  11. Nature-based care opportunities and barriers in oncology contexts: a modified international e-Delphi survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaschke, Sarah; O'Callaghan, Clare C; Schofield, Penelope

    2017-10-16

    To develop recommendations regarding opportunities and barriers for nature-based care in oncology contexts using a structured knowledge generation process involving relevant healthcare and design experts. Four-round modified electronic Delphi study. Oncology patients' nature-based recommendations, uncovered in preceding qualitative investigation, were included in the first round for the expert participants' consideration. Key items (opportunities and barriers) were developed using data aggregation and synthesis, followed by item prioritisation and 10-point Likert scale ranking (1=not important, 10=very important). Descriptive statistics were calculated to assess items of highest importance representing expert recommendations. Online Delphi process constituting an electronic international survey. A purposive sample of 200 potential panellists (recruitment target n=40) comprising healthcare practitioners, managers, designers, architects and researchers were invited to participate; experts were identified via research networks, snowballing and systematic literature review. 38 experts across seven countries (Australia, USA, UK, New Zealand, Canada, Denmark and Sweden) returned questionnaire 1, which determined consent and acceptance for participation. Initial response rate was 19%, and subsequent response rates were 84%, 82% and 84% for rounds 2, 3 and 4, respectively. The Delphi panel developed recommendations consisting of 10 opportunities and 10 barriers. The following opportunities were rated to be of highest importance: window views from clinical areas onto nature; outdoor settings, gardens and courtyards with easy and effortless access; and nature-based physical exercise adapted to patient requirements. Highest-rated barriers for nature-based oncology care included lack of knowledge and awareness about benefits of nature engagement and inaccessibility, not considering access requirements for the very sick and frail. Experts suggested and agreed on a set of

  12. Promoting good policy for leadership and governance of health related rehabilitation: a realist synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McVeigh, Joanne; MacLachlan, Malcolm; Gilmore, Brynne; McClean, Chiedza; Eide, Arne H; Mannan, Hasheem; Geiser, Priscille; Duttine, Antony; Mji, Gubela; McAuliffe, Eilish; Sprunt, Beth; Amin, Mutamad; Normand, Charles

    2016-08-24

    Good governance may result in strengthened performance of a health system. Coherent policies are essential for good health system governance. The overall aim of this research is to provide the best available scientific evidence on principles of good policy related leadership and governance of health related rehabilitation services in less resourced settings. This research was also conducted to support development of the World Health Organization's (WHO) Guidelines on health related rehabilitation. An innovative study design was used, comprising two methods: a systematic search and realist synthesis of literature, and a Delphi survey of expert stakeholders to refine and triangulate findings from the realist synthesis. In accordance with Pawson and Tilley's approach to realist synthesis, we identified context mechanism outcome pattern configurations (CMOCs) from the literature. Subsequently, these CMOCs were developed into statements for the Delphi survey, whereby 18 expert stakeholders refined these statements to achieve consensus on recommendations for policy related governance of health related rehabilitation. Several broad principles emerged throughout formulation of recommendations: participation of persons with disabilities in policy processes to improve programme responsiveness, efficiency, effectiveness, and sustainability, and to strengthen service-user self-determination and satisfaction; collection of disaggregated disability statistics to support political momentum, decision-making of policymakers, evaluation, accountability, and equitable allocation of resources; explicit promotion in policies of access to services for all subgroups of persons with disabilities and service-users to support equitable and accessible services; robust inter-sectoral coordination to cultivate coherent mandates across governmental departments regarding service provision; and 'institutionalizing' programmes by aligning them with preexisting Ministerial models of healthcare to

  13. Characteristics of student preparedness for clinical learning: clinical educator perspectives using the Delphi approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chipchase Lucinda S

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During clinical placements, clinical educators facilitate student learning. Previous research has defined the skills, attitudes and practices that pertain to an ideal clinical educator. However, less attention has been paid to the role of student readiness in terms of foundational knowledge and attitudes at the commencement of practice education. Therefore, the aim of this study was to ascertain clinical educators’ views on the characteristics that they perceive demonstrate that a student is well prepared for clinical learning. Methods A two round on-line Delphi study was conducted. The first questionnaire was emailed to a total of 636 expert clinical educators from the disciplines of occupational therapy, physiotherapy and speech pathology. Expert clinical educators were asked to describe the key characteristics that indicate a student is prepared for a clinical placement and ready to learn. Open-ended responses received from the first round were subject to a thematic analysis and resulted in six themes with 62 characteristics. In the second round, participants were asked to rate each characteristic on a 7 point Likert Scale. Results A total of 258 (40.56% responded to the first round of the Delphi survey while 161 clinical educators completed the second (62.40% retention rate. Consensus was reached on 57 characteristics (six themes using a cut off of greater than 70% positive respondents and an interquartile deviation IQD of equal or less than 1. Conclusions This study identified 57 characteristics (six themes perceived by clinical educators as indicators of a student who is prepared and ready for clinical learning. A list of characteristics relating to behaviours has been compiled and could be provided to students to aid their preparation for clinical learning and to universities to incorporate within curricula. In addition, the list provides a platform for discussions by professional bodies about the role of placement

  14. Mental Health First Aid guidelines for helping a suicidal person: a Delphi consensus study in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorm Anthony F

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed to develop guidelines for how a member of the Indian public should provide mental health first aid to a person who is suicidal. Methods The guidelines were produced by developing a questionnaire containing possible first aid actions and asking an expert panel of Indian mental health clinicians to rate whether each action should be included in the guidelines. The content of the questionnaire was based on a systematic search of the relevant evidence and claims made by authors of consumer and carer guides and websites. Experts were recruited by SC, EC and HM. The panel members were asked to complete the questionnaire by web survey. Three rounds of the rating were carried and, at the end of each round, items that reached the consensus criterion were selected for inclusion in the guidelines. During the first round, panel members were also asked to suggest any additional actions that were not covered in the original questionnaire (to include items that are relevant to local cultural circumstances, values, and social norms.. Responses to the open-ended questions were used to generate new items. Results The output from the Delphi process was a set of agreed upon action statements. The Delphi process started with 138 statements, 30 new items were written based on suggestions from panel members and, of these 168 items, 71 met the consensus criterion. These statements were used to develop the guidelines appended to this paper. Translated versions of the guidelines will be produced and used for training. Conclusions There are a number of actions that are considered to be useful for members of the public when they encounter someone who is experiencing suicidal thoughts or engaging in suicidal behaviour. Although the guidelines are designed for members of the public, they may also be helpful to non-mental health professionals working in health and welfare settings.

  15. Development of quality of care interventions for adult patients on home parenteral nutrition (HPN) with a benign underlying disease using a two-round Delphi approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreesen, Mira; Foulon, Veerle; Vanhaecht, Kris; Hiele, Martin; De Pourcq, Lutgart; Pironi, Loris; Van Gossum, Andre; Wanten, Geert; Baxter, Janet P; Joly, Francisca; Cuerda, Cristina; Willems, Ludo

    2013-02-01

    HPN patients with benign diseases deserve professional care as they have to deal with complex techniques and risk potentially dangerous complications. The aim was to highlight main outcome quality indicators and to develop a set of key interventions to direct multidisciplinary teams in providing qualitative care. A two-round Delphi approach was used to build consensus on the most important outcome indicators and on 59 interventions identified in existing guidelines on HPN. Comments and interventions newly identified in the first round were co-evaluated in the second round. 29 experts from 9 countries completed the two-round Delphi approach. The outcome indicators rated as the most important are 1) incidence of catheter-related infections, 2) incidence of readmission and quality of life (shared second place) and 3) incidence of dehydration. Sixty eight of a total of 89 interventions were considered as important for the quality of care, of which 46 are based on published guidelines and 22 were newly suggested by the Delphi panel. Using a two-round Delphi approach, consensus was reached for the majority of interventions concerning HPN patients with benign diseases. This set of 68 interventions could be of use as a starting point for quality-improvement programs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  16. Towards development and validation of an intraoperative assessment tool for robot-assisted radical prostatectomy training: results of a Delphi study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Christopher; Hoogenes, Jen; Shayegan, Bobby; Matsumoto, Edward D

    2017-01-01

    As urology training shifts toward competency-based frameworks, the need for tools for high stakes assessment of trainees is crucial. Validated assessment metrics are lacking for many robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP). As it is quickly becoming the gold standard for treatment of localized prostate cancer, the development and validation of a RARP assessment tool for training is timely. We recruited 13 expert RARP surgeons from the United States and Canada to serve as our Delphi panel. Using an initial inventory developed via a modified Delphi process with urology residents, fellows, and staff at our institution, panelists iteratively rated each step and sub-step on a 5-point Likert scale of agreement for inclusion in the final assessment tool. Qualitative feedback was elicited for each item to determine proper step placement, wording, and suggestions. Panelist's responses were compiled and the inventory was edited through three iterations, after which 100% consensus was achieved. The initial inventory steps were decreased by 13% and a skip pattern was incorporated. The final RARP stepwise inventory was comprised of 13 critical steps with 52 sub-steps. There was no attrition throughout the Delphi process. Our Delphi study resulted in a comprehensive inventory of intraoperative RARP steps with excellent consensus. This final inventory will be used to develop a valid and psychometrically sound intraoperative assessment tool for use during RARP training and evaluation, with the aim of increasing competency of all trainees. Copyright® by the International Brazilian Journal of Urology.

  17. Towards development and validation of an intraoperative assessment tool for robot-assisted radical prostatectomy training: results of a Delphi study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Morris

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction As urology training shifts toward competency-based frameworks, the need for tools for high stakes assessment of trainees is crucial. Validated assessment metrics are lacking for many robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP. As it is quickly becoming the gold standard for treatment of localized prostate cancer, the development and validation of a RARP assessment tool for training is timely. Materials and methods We recruited 13 expert RARP surgeons from the United States and Canada to serve as our Delphi panel. Using an initial inventory developed via a modified Delphi process with urology residents, fellows, and staff at our institution, panelists iteratively rated each step and sub-step on a 5-point Likert scale of agreement for inclusion in the final assessment tool. Qualitative feedback was elicited for each item to determine proper step placement, wording, and suggestions. Results Panelist’s responses were compiled and the inventory was edited through three iterations, after which 100% consensus was achieved. The initial inventory steps were decreased by 13% and a skip pattern was incorporated. The final RARP stepwise inventory was comprised of 13 critical steps with 52 sub-steps. There was no attrition throughout the Delphi process. Conclusions Our Delphi study resulted in a comprehensive inventory of intraoperative RARP steps with excellent consensus. This final inventory will be used to develop a valid and psychometrically sound intraoperative assessment tool for use during RARP training and evaluation, with the aim of increasing competency of all trainees.

  18. DELPHI: An introduction to output layout and data content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, C.F.

    1994-08-16

    DELPHI was the data summary and interpretation code used by gas diagnostics personnel during the period from 1968 through 1986. It was written by Floyd Momyer, and went through several revisions during its period of use. Described here is the final version, which provided the most extensive set of summary tables. Earlier versions of the code lacked some of the capabilities of the final version, but what they did include was of substantially the same format. DELPHI was run against most available input decks in the mid 1980s. Microfiche and hardcopy output were generated. Both now reside in our archives. These reruns used modified input decks, which may not have had the proper {open_quotes}trigger{close_quotes} to instruct DELPHI to output some tables. These tables could, therefore be missing from a printout even though the necessary data was present. Also, modifications to DELPHI did, in some instances, eliminate DELPHIs` capability to correctly output some of the earlier optional tables. This monologue is intended to compliment the archived printout, and to provide enough insight so that someone unfamiliar with the techniques of Gas Diagnostics can retrieve the results at some future date. DELPHI last ran on the CDC-7600 machines, and was not converted to run on the Crays when the CDC-7600`s were decommissioned. DELPHI accepted data from various analytical systems, set up data summary tables, and combined preshot tracer and detector data with these results to calculate the total production of measured species and the indicated fission yields and detector conversions.

  19. Reconstruction of B hadron decays at DELPHI

    CERN Document Server

    Salmi, Laura Tiina Maria

    2006-01-01

    This thesis describes three analyses related to heavy quarks. The analysis with the largest impact is the extraction of parameters of heavy quark decays using the lepton energy spectrum and the hadronic mass spectrum in semileptonic B decays. The extraction of the parameters allows to test the framework used to theoretically describe the decay of heavy mesons, and more accurate knowledge of the parameter values results in greater accuracy in the determination of the element |Vcb| of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) quark mixing matrix. The determination described in this thesis is important, since it is so far the only one where the full lepton energy spectrum has been used. The other determinations are based on using only a part of the spectrum. The first extraction of the parameters in the kinetic mass scheme was based on the statistical moments of the lepton energy spectrum and hadronic mass spectrum measured using the data collected at delphi. In the second analysis, the angular distribution of fragmen...

  20. The Role Descriptions of Triage Nurse in Emergency Department: A Delphi Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Ebrahimi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Triage nurses play a pivotal role in the emergency department. However some researchers have attempted to expand triage nurse’s role; remarkable discrepancies exist among scholarly communities. The aim was to develop a role description of triage nurse relying on the experts. Methods. A modified Delphi study consisting of 3 rounds was performed from March to October 2014. In the first round, an extensive review of the literature was conducted. Expert selection was conducted through a purposeful sample of 38 emergency medicine experts. Results. Response rates for the second and third rounds were 37% and 58%. Average age of panelists was (38.42±5.94 years. Thirty-nine out of 54 items reached to the final round. Prioritizing had the higher agreement rate and least agreement on triage related interventions. Conclusion. Triage nursing as a relatively new role for nurses needs significant development to be practiced. Comprehensive educational programs and developmental research are required to support diagnostic and therapeutic interventions in triage practice by nurses.

  1. Key performance indicators to benchmark hospital information systems - a delphi study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hübner-Bloder, G; Ammenwerth, E

    2009-01-01

    To identify the key performance indicators for hospital information systems (HIS) that can be used for HIS benchmarking. A Delphi survey with one qualitative and two quantitative rounds. Forty-four HIS experts from health care IT practice and academia participated in all three rounds. Seventy-seven performance indicators were identified and organized into eight categories: technical quality, software quality, architecture and interface quality, IT vendor quality, IT support and IT department quality, workflow support quality, IT outcome quality, and IT costs. The highest ranked indicators are related to clinical workflow support and user satisfaction. Isolated technical indicators or cost indicators were not seen as useful. The experts favored an interdisciplinary group of all the stakeholders, led by hospital management, to conduct the HIS benchmarking. They proposed benchmarking activities both in regular (annual) intervals as well as at defined events (for example after IT introduction). Most of the experts stated that in their institutions no HIS benchmarking activities are being performed at the moment. In the context of IT governance, IT benchmarking is gaining importance in the healthcare area. The found indicators reflect the view of health care IT professionals and researchers. Research is needed to further validate and operationalize key performance indicators, to provide an IT benchmarking framework, and to provide open repositories for a comparison of the HIS benchmarks of different hospitals.

  2. Defining interdisciplinary competencies for audiological rehabilitation: findings from a modified Delphi study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Lina; Le Bot, Gaëlle; Van Petegem, Wim; van Wieringen, Astrid

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this study is to derive a consensus on an interdisciplinary competency framework regarding a holistic approach for audiological rehabilitation (AR), which includes disciplines from medicine, engineering, social sciences and humanities. We employed a modified Delphi method. In the first round survey, experts were asked to rate an initial list of 28 generic interdisciplinary competencies and to propose specific knowledge areas for AR. In the second round, experts were asked to reconsider their answers in light of the group answers of the first round. An international panel of 27 experts from different disciplines in AR completed the first round. Twenty-two of them completed the second round. We developed a competency framework consisting of 21 generic interdisciplinary competencies grouped in five domains and nine specific competencies (knowledge areas) in three clusters. Suggestions for the implementation of the generic competencies in interdisciplinary programmes were identified. This study reveals insights into the interdisciplinary competencies that are unique for AR. The framework will be useful for educators in developing interdisciplinary programmes as well as for professionals in considering their lifelong training needs in AR.

  3. Identification of relevant ICF categories in patients with chronic health conditions: a Delphi exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigl, Martin; Cieza, Alarcos; Andersen, Christina; Kollerits, Barbara; Amann, Edda; Stucki, Gerold

    2004-07-01

    To identify the most typical and relevant categories of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) for patients with low back pain, osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, chronic generalized pain, stroke, depression, obesity, chronic ischaemic heart disease, obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes mellitus, and breast cancer. An international expert survey using the Delphi technique was conducted. Data were collected in 3 rounds. Answers were linked to the ICF and analysed for the degree of consensus. Between 21 (osteoporosis, chronic ischaemic heart disease, and obstructive pulmonary disease) and 43 (stroke) experts responded in each of the conditions. In all conditions, with the exception of depression, there were categories in all ICF components that were considered typical and/or relevant by at least 80% of the responders. While all conditions had a distinct typical spectrum of relevant ICF categories, there were also some common relevant categories throughout the majority of conditions. Lists of ICF categories that are considered relevant and typical for specific conditions by international experts could be created. This is an important step towards identifying ICF Core Sets for chronic conditions.

  4. Key Learning Outcomes for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics Education in Europe: A Modified Delphi Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkman, David J; Tichelaar, Jelle; Mokkink, Lidwine B; Christiaens, Thierry; Likic, Robert; Maciulaitis, Romaldas; Costa, Joao; Sanz, Emilio J; Maxwell, Simon R; Richir, Milan C; van Agtmael, Michiel A

    2017-12-05

    Harmonizing clinical pharmacology and therapeutics (CPT) education in Europe is necessary to ensure that the prescribing competency of future doctors is of a uniform high standard. As there are currently no uniform requirements, our aim was to achieve consensus on key learning outcomes for undergraduate CPT education in Europe. We used a modified Delphi method consisting of three questionnaire rounds and a panel meeting. A total of 129 experts from 27 European countries were asked to rate 307 learning outcomes. In all, 92 experts (71%) completed all three questionnaire rounds, and 33 experts (26%) attended the meeting. 232 learning outcomes from the original list, 15 newly suggested and 5 rephrased outcomes were included. These 252 learning outcomes should be included in undergraduate CPT curricula to ensure that European graduates are able to prescribe safely and effectively. We provide a blueprint of a European core curriculum describing when and how the learning outcomes might be acquired. © 2017 The Authors. Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.

  5. A decision-making framework for total ownership cost management of complex systems: A Delphi study

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Russel J.

    This qualitative study, using a modified Delphi method, was conducted to develop a decision-making framework for the total ownership cost management of complex systems in the aerospace industry. The primary focus of total ownership cost is to look beyond the purchase price when evaluating complex system life cycle alternatives. A thorough literature review and the opinions of a group of qualified experts resulted in a compilation of total ownership cost best practices, cost drivers, key performance factors, applicable assessment methods, practitioner credentials and potential barriers to effective implementation. The expert panel provided responses to the study questions using a 5-point Likert-type scale. Data were analyzed and provided to the panel members for review and discussion with the intent to achieve group consensus. As a result of the study, the experts agreed that a total ownership cost analysis should (a) be as simple as possible using historical data; (b) establish cost targets, metrics, and penalties early in the program; (c) monitor the targets throughout the product lifecycle and revise them as applicable historical data becomes available; and (d) directly link total ownership cost elements with other success factors during program development. The resultant study framework provides the business leader with incentives and methods to develop and implement strategies for controlling and reducing total ownership cost over the entire product life cycle when balancing cost, schedule, and performance decisions.

  6. IFNA approved Chinese Anaesthesia Nurse Education Program: A Delphi method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jiale; Fallacaro, Michael D; Jiang, Lili; Wu, Junyan; Jiang, Hong; Shi, Zhen; Ruan, Hong

    2017-09-01

    Numerous nurses work in operating rooms and recovery rooms or participate in the performance of anaesthesia in China. However, the scope of practice and the education for Chinese Anaesthesia Nurses is not standardized, varying from one geographic location to another. Furthermore, most nurses are not trained sufficiently to provide anaesthesia care. This study aimed to develop the first Anaesthesia Nurse Education Program in Mainland China based on the Educational Standards of the International Federation of Nurse Anaesthetists. The Delphi technique was applied to develop the scope of practice, competencies for Chinese Anaesthesia Nurses and education program. In 2014 the Anaesthesia Nurse Education Program established by the hospital applied for recognition by the International Federation of Nurse Anaesthetists. The Program's curriculum was evaluated against the IFNA Standards and recognition was awarded in 2015. The four-category, 50-item practice scope, and the three-domain, 45-item competency list were identified for Chinese Anaesthesia Nurses. The education program, which was established based on the International Federation of Nurse Anaesthetists educational standards and Chinese context, included nine curriculum modules. In March 2015, 13 candidates received and passed the 21-month education program. The Anaesthesia Nurse Education Program became the first program approved by the International Federation of Nurse Anaesthetists in China. Policy makers and hospital leaders can be confident that anaesthesia nurses graduating from this Chinese program will be prepared to demonstrate high level patient care as reflected in the recognition by IFNA of their adoption of international nurse anaesthesia education standards. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Achieving Consensus in the Development of an Online Intervention Designed to Effectively Support Midwives in Work-Related Psychological Distress: Protocol for a Delphi Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezaro, Sally; Clyne, Wendy

    2015-09-04

    The development of an online intervention designed to effectively support midwives in work-related psychological distress will be challenging due to the ethical, practical, and therapeutic issues surrounding its design. Related literature suggests that midwives may require an anonymous, confidential, and therapeutic platform that facilitates amnesty and nonpunitive approaches to remedy ill health. However, it is unclear which requirements may be most salient to midwifery populations. The objective of this paper is to describe the design of a Delphi study, intended to achieve expert consensus on the needs of midwives in work-related psychological distress who may be supported via an online intervention. This protocol may also serve as a research framework for similar studies to be modeled upon. A heterogeneous sample of at least thirty experts on psychological well-being and distress associated with midwifery work will be recruited. Their opinions regarding the development of an online intervention designed to support midwives in work-related psychological distress will be collected through 2 rounds of questioning, via the Delphi Technique. When 60% (≥18, assuming the minimum is 30) of panelists score within 2 adjacent points on a 7-point scale, consensus will be acknowledged. This Delphi study protocol will invite both qualitative and quantitative outcomes. This study is currently in development. It is financially supported by a full-time scholarship at the Centre for Technology Enabled Health Research at Coventry University (Coventry, UK). The implementation of this Delphi study is anticipated to occur during the autumn of 2015. The results of this study will direct the development of an online intervention designed to support midwives in work-related psychological distress, summarize expert driven consensus, and direct future research.

  8. Real time expert systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asami, Tohru; Hashimoto, Kazuo; Yamamoto, Seiichi

    1992-01-01

    Recently, aiming at the application to the plant control for nuclear reactors and traffic and communication control, the research and the practical use of the expert system suitable to real time processing have become conspicuous. In this report, the condition for the required function to control the object that dynamically changes within a limited time is presented, and the technical difference between the real time expert system developed so as to satisfy it and the expert system of conventional type is explained with the actual examples and from theoretical aspect. The expert system of conventional type has the technical base in the problem-solving equipment originating in STRIPS. The real time expert system is applied to the fields accompanied by surveillance and control, to which conventional expert system is hard to be applied. The requirement for the real time expert system, the example of the real time expert system, and as the techniques of realizing real time processing, the realization of interruption processing, dispersion processing, and the mechanism of maintaining the consistency of knowledge are explained. (K.I.)

  9. Trendwatch combining expert opinion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendrix, E.M.T.; Kornelis, M.; Pegge, S.M.; Galen, van M.A.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, focus is on a systematic way to detect future changes in trends that may effect the dynamics in the agro-food sector, and on the combination of opinions of experts. For the combination of expert opinions, the usefulness of multilevel models is investigated. Bayesian data analysis is

  10. Expert systems: An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verdejo, F.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to introduce readers to the basic principles of rule-based expert systems. Four topics are discussed in subsequent sections: (1) Definition; (2) Structure of an expert system; (3) State of the art and (4) Impact and future research. (orig.)

  11. Expert Systems in Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartschuh, Wayne

    This paper argues that the concepts and techniques used in the development of expert systems should be expanded and applied to the field of education, particularly in the area of intelligent tutoring systems. It is noted that expert systems are a well known area of artificial intelligence and have been proven effective in well-defined topic areas.…

  12. Combining Expert Advice Efficiently

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.M. Koolen-Wijkstra (Wouter); S. de Rooij (Steven)

    2008-01-01

    htmlabstractWe show how models for prediction with expert advice can be defined concisely and clearly using hidden Markov models (HMMs); standard HMM algorithms can then be used to efficiently calculate, among other things, how the expert predictions should be weighted according to the model. We

  13. Towards a standardised definition for fundamental care: A modified Delphi study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feo, Rebecca; Conroy, Tiffany; Jangland, Eva; Muntlin Athlin, Åsa; Brovall, Maria; Parr, Jenny; Blomberg, Karin; Kitson, Alison

    2017-12-26

    To generate a standardised definition for fundamental care and identify the discrete elements that constitute such care. There is poor conceptual clarity surrounding fundamental care. The Fundamentals of Care Framework aims to overcome this problem by outlining three core dimensions underpinning such care. Implementing the Framework requires a standardised definition for fundamental care that reflects the Framework's conceptual understanding, as well as agreement on the elements that comprise such care (i.e., patient needs, such as nutrition, and nurse actions, such as empathy). This study sought to achieve this consensus. Modified Delphi study. Three phases: (i) engaging stakeholders via an interactive workshop; (ii) using workshop findings to develop a preliminary definition for, and identify the discrete elements that constitute, fundamental care; and (iii) gaining consensus on the definition and elements via a two-round Delphi approach (Round 1 n = 38; Round 2 n = 28). Delphi participants perceived both the definition and elements generated from the workshop as comprehensive, but beyond the scope of fundamental care. Participants questioned whether the definition should focus on patient needs and nurse actions, or more broadly on how fundamental care should be delivered (e.g., through a trusting nurse-patient relationship), and the outcomes of this care delivery. There were also mixed opinions whether the definition should be nursing specific. This study has initiated crucial dialogue around how fundamental care is conceptualised and defined. Future work should focus on further refinements of the definition and elements with a larger, international group of practising nurses and service users. The definition and elements, through ongoing refinement, will contribute to a robust evidence base that will underpin policy development and the systematic and effective teaching, delivery, measurement and evaluation of fundamental care. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. [Validation of Personal Factors in Breast Cancer Rehabilitation - A National Delphi Survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, R S; Queri, S

    2017-02-01

    Objective: In the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF), data on environmental and personal factors, the so-called facilitators or barriers, can be gathered. The World Health Organization (WHO) has not classified personal factors. This is justified with the cultural differences among countries. The German society for social medicine and prevention (DGSMP) has performed pioneering work and has provided a classification draft. The aim of this study is to validate this draft in the context of oncological rehabilitation of breast cancer patients in Germany. Design: 21 experts from 8 rehabilitation centers and 2 breast cancer support groups in Germany were interviewed about personal factors in a 2-round survey using the Delphi technique. The expert group included doctors, nurses, therapists, psychologists with experience in rehabilitation of breast cancer patients and breast cancer patients. The responses of the first round were linked to the DGSMP draft. The degree of fit was calculated by means of the kappa statistic. In the second round, the focus was on the agreement of the personal factors determined in the first round. Results: The experts identified 244 factors out of which 203 (83.2%) were linked to the DGSMP draft. There are 77 categories in the DGSMP draft; 43 of them were included by the experts in the first round and 34 were not mentioned (kappa coefficient 0.776; 95% bootstrapped confidence interval 0.712-0.817). In the second round, 34 of the 43 named DGSMP categories achieved an agreement of at least 75% among the experts. Conclusions: The draft of the DGSMP working group is a comprehensive collection of facilitators and barriers in breast cancer rehabilitation and should be integrated reasonably in rehabilitation. More research on personal facilitators and barriers has to be carried out to show their concrete influence on functioning ability of breast cancer patients. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Data base and slow controls system of the DELPHI VSAT and two-photon physics using DELPHI at LEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kronkvist, I.

    1996-09-01

    This thesis is based on work done at the DELPHI-detector at LEP 1991-1996. The first part describes the Very Small Angle Tagger (VSAT) and Small angle TIle Calorimeter (STIC), which are sub-detectors of DELPHI. The second part describes the structure of the DELPHI database, and how this was implemented for the VSAT detector. An automatic on-line calibration database updating procedure that was set up in 1991 in order to prepare for off-line analysis and luminosity calculations. The third part gives an introduction to the DELPHI slow controls system. This is a very complex system as a whole, and the implementation for VSAT showed a need for detector-specific software adapted to the custom-built hardware. As an example of how the system can be used in tracing problems and their origins, there is a section on the radiation damage sustained to two of the VSAT modules in September 1995. There is also a description on how the Small Angle Tagger (SAT) slow controls system was adapted to the STIC detector in early 1994 when the STIC was installed, replacing the SAT as the main DELPHI luminosity monitor. The forth and final part is about two-photon physics at DELPHI, with emphasis on a VSAT double-tagged event analysis. It shows the feasibility of looking for double-tagged events where the scattered particles are tagged in very small angles. The cross sections for such events are very small, but the data is consistent with Monte Carlo predictions using a combination of VDM, QPM, QCD + RPC models, and demonstrates the feasibility of making such investigations with future DELPHI data-recordings. 46 refs, 21 figs

  16. Data base and slow controls system of the DELPHI VSAT and two-photon physics using DELPHI at LEP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kronkvist, I.

    1996-09-01

    This thesis is based on work done at the DELPHI-detector at LEP 1991-1996. The first part describes the Very Small Angle Tagger (VSAT) and Small angle TIle Calorimeter (STIC), which are sub-detectors of DELPHI. The second part describes the structure of the DELPHI database, and how this was implemented for the VSAT detector. An automatic on-line calibration database updating procedure that was set up in 1991 in order to prepare for off-line analysis and luminosity calculations. The third part gives an introduction to the DELPHI slow controls system. This is a very complex system as a whole, and the implementation for VSAT showed a need for detector-specific software adapted to the custom-built hardware. As an example of how the system can be used in tracing problems and their origins, there is a section on the radiation damage sustained to two of the VSAT modules in September 1995. There is also a description on how the Small Angle Tagger (SAT) slow controls system was adapted to the STIC detector in early 1994 when the STIC was installed, replacing the SAT as the main DELPHI luminosity monitor. The forth and final part is about two-photon physics at DELPHI, with emphasis on a VSAT double-tagged event analysis. It shows the feasibility of looking for double-tagged events where the scattered particles are tagged in very small angles. The cross sections for such events are very small, but the data is consistent with Monte Carlo predictions using a combination of VDM, QPM, QCD + RPC models, and demonstrates the feasibility of making such investigations with future DELPHI data-recordings. 46 refs, 21 figs.

  17. Working for Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colebatch, H.K.; Hoppe, Robertus; Noordegraaf, Mirko

    2010-01-01

    Though democratic government calls for well-designed and implemented policy, there is surprisingly little expert guidance available for policy makers and politicians. Working for Policy fills that gap, addressing the nature of policy work and offering necessary guidance. The contributors bring

  18. Investigating Adaptive Grieving Styles: A Delphi Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doughty, Elizabeth A.

    2009-01-01

    There has been an evolution in the understanding of the nature of grief since S. Freud's initial work, Mourning and Melancholia (1917/1953). Mental health practitioners and researchers have established new models to aid in the conceptualization and treatment of grief issues. The purpose of this study was to examine the opinions of experts in the…

  19. Road Safety Data, Collection, Transfer and Analysis DaCoTa. Workpackage 4, Decision Support: Deliverable 4.1: Consultation of a panel of experts on the needs for data and technical tools in road safety policy-making.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dupont, E. Martensen, H. Papadimitriou, E. Yannis, G. Muhlrad, N. Jähi, H. Vallet, G. Giustiniani, G. Tripodi, A. Usami, D. Bax, C. Wijnen, W. Schöne, M.-L. Machata, K. Buttle, I. Zysinska, M. Talbot, R. Gitelman, V. & Hakkert, S.

    2015-01-01

    In a co-production of DaCoTA WP1 and DaCoTA WP4, an Experts Panel was created and a consultation was launched for the preliminary assessment of knowledge, data and analysis needs within road safety management. The objective of the consultation of this Experts Panel was the assessment of current

  20. Does expert knowledge improve automatic probabilistic classification of gait joint motion patterns in children with cerebral palsy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Laet, Tinne; Papageorgiou, Eirini; Nieuwenhuys, Angela; Desloovere, Kaat

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to improve the automatic probabilistic classification of joint motion gait patterns in children with cerebral palsy by using the expert knowledge available via a recently developed Delphi-consensus study. To this end, this study applied both Naïve Bayes and Logistic Regression classification with varying degrees of usage of the expert knowledge (expert-defined and discretized features). A database of 356 patients and 1719 gait trials was used to validate the classification performance of eleven joint motions. Two main hypotheses stated that: (1) Joint motion patterns in children with CP, obtained through a Delphi-consensus study, can be automatically classified following a probabilistic approach, with an accuracy similar to clinical expert classification, and (2) The inclusion of clinical expert knowledge in the selection of relevant gait features and the discretization of continuous features increases the performance of automatic probabilistic joint motion classification. This study provided objective evidence supporting the first hypothesis. Automatic probabilistic gait classification using the expert knowledge available from the Delphi-consensus study resulted in accuracy (91%) similar to that obtained with two expert raters (90%), and higher accuracy than that obtained with non-expert raters (78%). Regarding the second hypothesis, this study demonstrated that the use of more advanced machine learning techniques such as automatic feature selection and discretization instead of expert-defined and discretized features can result in slightly higher joint motion classification performance. However, the increase in performance is limited and does not outweigh the additional computational cost and the higher risk of loss of clinical interpretability, which threatens the clinical acceptance and applicability.

  1. Does expert knowledge improve automatic probabilistic classification of gait joint motion patterns in children with cerebral palsy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tinne De Laet

    Full Text Available This study aimed to improve the automatic probabilistic classification of joint motion gait patterns in children with cerebral palsy by using the expert knowledge available via a recently developed Delphi-consensus study. To this end, this study applied both Naïve Bayes and Logistic Regression classification with varying degrees of usage of the expert knowledge (expert-defined and discretized features. A database of 356 patients and 1719 gait trials was used to validate the classification performance of eleven joint motions.Two main hypotheses stated that: (1 Joint motion patterns in children with CP, obtained through a Delphi-consensus study, can be automatically classified following a probabilistic approach, with an accuracy similar to clinical expert classification, and (2 The inclusion of clinical expert knowledge in the selection of relevant gait features and the discretization of continuous features increases the performance of automatic probabilistic joint motion classification.This study provided objective evidence supporting the first hypothesis. Automatic probabilistic gait classification using the expert knowledge available from the Delphi-consensus study resulted in accuracy (91% similar to that obtained with two expert raters (90%, and higher accuracy than that obtained with non-expert raters (78%. Regarding the second hypothesis, this study demonstrated that the use of more advanced machine learning techniques such as automatic feature selection and discretization instead of expert-defined and discretized features can result in slightly higher joint motion classification performance. However, the increase in performance is limited and does not outweigh the additional computational cost and the higher risk of loss of clinical interpretability, which threatens the clinical acceptance and applicability.

  2. The clinical diagnosis of symptomatic forefoot neuroma in the general population: a Delphi consensus study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dando, Charlotte; Cherry, Lindsey; Jones, Lyndon; Bowen, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    There is limited evidence for defining what specific method or methods should be used to clinically influence clinical decision making for forefoot neuroma. The aim of this study was to develop a clinical assessment protocol that has agreed expert consensus for the clinical diagnosis of forefoot neuroma. A four-round Delphi consensus study was completed with 16 expert health professionals from either a clinical or clinical academic background, following completion of a structured literature review. Clinical experience ranged from 5 to 34 years (mean: 19.5 years). Consensus was sought on the optimal methods to achieve the clinical diagnosis of forefoot neuroma. Round 1 sought individual input with an open ended question. This developed a list of recommendations. Round 2 and 3 asked the participants to accept or reject each of the recommendations in the list in relation to the question: "What is the best way to clinically diagnose neuroma in the forefoot?" Votes that were equal to or greater than 60% were accepted into the next round; participant's votes equal to or less then 20% were excluded. The remaining participant's votes between 20 to 60% were accepted and placed into the following round for voting. Round 4 asked the participants to rank the list of recommendations according to the strength of recommendation they would give in relation to the question: "What is the best way to clinically diagnose neuroma in the forefoot?" The recruitment and Delphi rounds were conducted through email. In round 1, the 16 participants identified 68 recommendations for the clinical diagnosis of forefoot neuroma. In round 2, 27 recommendations were accepted, 11 recommendations were rejected and 30 recommendations were assigned to be re-voted on. In round 3, 36 recommendations were accepted, 22 recommendations were rejected and 11 recommendations were assigned to be re-voted on. In round 4, 21 recommendations were selected by the participants to form the expert derived clinical

  3. Best Practices for Outpatient Anterior Cervical Surgery: Results From a Delphi Panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohandas, Anita; Summa, Chris; Worthington, W Bradley; Lerner, Jason; Foley, Kevin T; Bohinski, Robert J; Lanford, Gregory B; Holden, Carol; Wohns, Richard N W

    2017-06-01

    Delphi Panel expert panel consensus and narrative literature review. To obtain expert consensus on best practices for patient selection and perioperative decision making for outpatient anterior cervical surgery (anterior cervical disc fusion (ACDF) and cervical total disc replacement (CTDR)). Spine surgery in ambulatory settings is becoming a preferred option for both patients and providers. The transition from traditional inpatient environments has been enabled by innovation in anesthesia protocols and surgical technique, as well as favorable economics. Studies have demonstrated that anterior cervical surgery (ACDF and CTDR) can be performed safely on an outpatient basis. However, practice guidelines and evidence-based protocols to inform best practices for the safe and efficient performance of these procedures in same-day, ambulatory settings are lacking. A panel of five neurosurgeons, three anesthesiologists, one orthopedic spine surgeon, and a registered nurse was convened to comprise a multidisciplinary expert panel. A three-round modified-Delphi method was used to generate best-practice statements. Predetermined consensus was set at 70% for each best-practice statement. A total of 94 consensus statements were reviewed by the panel. After three rounds of review, there was consensus for 83 best-practice statements, while 11 statements failed to achieve consensus. All statements within several perioperative categories (and subcategories) achieved consensus, including preoperative assessment (n = 8), home-care/follow-up (n = 2), second-stage recovery (n = 18), provider economics (n = 8), patient education (n = 14), discharge criteria (n = 4), and hypothermia prevention (n = 6). This study obtained expert-panel consensus on best practices for patient selection and perioperative decision making for outpatient anterior cervical surgery (ACDF/CTDR). Given a paucity of guidelines and a lack of established care pathways for ACDF/CTDR in same

  4. Gadamerian philosophical hermeneutics as a useful methodological framework for the Delphi technique

    OpenAIRE

    Guzys, Diana; Dickson-Swift, Virginia; Kenny, Amanda; Threlkeld, Guinever

    2015-01-01

    In this article we aim to demonstrate how Gadamerian philosophical hermeneutics may provide a sound methodological framework for researchers using the Delphi Technique (Delphi) in studies exploring health and well-being. Reporting of the use of Delphi in health and well-being research is increasing, but less attention has been given to covering its methodological underpinnings. In Delphi, a structured anonymous conversation between participants is facilitated, via an iterative survey process....

  5. A protocol for the development of a critical thinking assessment tool for nurses using a Delphi technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Elisabeth; Duffield, Christine; Jacob, Darren

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an assessment tool to measure the critical thinking ability of nurses. As an increasing number of complex patients are admitted to hospitals, the importance of nurses recognizing changes in health status and picking up on deterioration is more important. To detect early signs of complication requires critical thinking skills. Registered Nurses are expected to commence their clinical careers with the necessary critical thinking skills to ensure safe nursing practice. Currently, there is no published tool to assess critical thinking skills which is context specific to Australian nurses. A modified Delphi study will be used for the project. This study will develop a series of unfolding case scenarios using national health data with multiple-choice questions to assess critical thinking. Face validity of the scenarios will be determined by an expert reference group of clinical and academic nurses. A Delphi study will determine the answers to scenario questions. Panel members will be expert clinicians and educators from two states in Australia. Rasch analysis of the questionnaire will assess validity and reliability of the tool. Funding for the study and Research Ethics Committee approval were obtained in March and November 2016, respectively. Patient outcomes and safety are directly linked to nurses' critical thinking skills. This study will develop an assessment tool to provide a standardized method of measuring nurses' critical thinking skills across Australia. This will provide healthcare providers with greater confidence in the critical thinking level of graduate Registered Nurses. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. A core outcome set for neonatal abstinence syndrome: study protocol for a systematic review, parent interviews and a Delphi survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Lauren E; Jansson, Lauren M; Moulsdale, Wendy; Pereira, Jodi; Simpson, Sarah; Guttman, Astrid; Allegaert, Karel; Askie, Lisa; Roukema, Henry; Lacaze, Thierry; Davis, Jonathan M; Finnegan, Loretta; Williamson, Paula; Offringa, Martin

    2016-11-08

    The prevalence of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) is increasing globally resulting in an increased incidence of adverse neonatal outcomes and health system costs. Evidence regarding the effectiveness of NAS prevention and management strategies is very weak and further research initiatives are critically needed to support meta-analysis and clinical practice guidelines. In NAS research, the choice of outcomes and the use of valid, responsive and feasible measurement instruments are crucial. There is currently no consensus and evidence-based core outcome set (COS) for NAS. The development of the NAS-COS will include five stages led by an international Multidisciplinary Steering Committee: (1) qualitative interviews with parents/families and a systematic review (SR) to identify items for inclusion in a COS. The SR will also identify participants for the Delphi survey, (2) a three-round Delphi survey to gain expert opinion on the importance of health outcomes influencing NAS management decisions, (3), a consensus meeting to finalize the items and definitions with experts and COS users, (4) feasibility and pilot testing, development of the COS and explanatory document and (5) implementation planning. Since standardized outcome measurement and reporting will improve NAS clinical research consistency, efficacy and impact, this COS will reflect the minimum set of health outcomes which should be measured in trials evaluating interventions for preventing or treating NAS.

  7. The DELPHI Detector (DEtector with Lepton Photon and Hadron Identification)

    CERN Multimedia

    Crawley, B; Munich, K; Mckay, R; Matorras, F; Joram, C; Malychev, V; Behrmann, A; Van dam, P; Drees, J K; Stocchi, A; Adam, W; Booth, P; Bilenki, M; Rosenberg, E I; Morton, G; Rames, J; Hahn, S; Cosme, G; Ventura, L; Marco, J; Tortosa martinez, P; Monge silvestri, R; Moreno, S; Phillips, H; Alekseev, G; Boudinov, E; Martinez rivero, C; Gitarskiy, L; Davenport, M; De clercq, C; Firestone, A; Myagkov, A; Belous, K; Haider, S; Hamilton, K M; Lamsa, J; Rahmani, M H; Malek, A; Hughes, G J; Peralta, L; Carroll, L; Fuster verdu, J A; Cossutti, F; Gorn, L; Yi, J I; Bertrand, D; Myatt, G; Richard, F; Shapkin, M; Hahn, F; Ferrer soria, A; Reinhardt, R; Renton, P; Sekulin, R; Timmermans, J; Baillon, P

    2002-01-01

    % DELPHI The DELPHI Detector (Detector with Lepton Photon and Hadron Identification) \\\\ \\\\DELPHI is a general purpose detector for physics at LEP on and above the Z$^0$, offering three-dimensional information on curvature and energy deposition with fine spatial granularity as well as identification of leptons and hadrons over most of the solid angle. A superconducting coil provides a 1.2~T solenoidal field of high uniformity. Tracking relies on the silicon vertex detector, the inner detector, the Time Projection Chamber (TPC), the outer detector and forward drift chambers. Electromagnetic showers are measured in the barrel with high granularity by the High Density Projection Chamber (HPC) and in the endcaps by $ 1 ^0 $~x~$ 1 ^0 $ projective towers composed of lead glass as active material and phototriode read-out. Hadron identification is provided mainly by liquid and gas Ring Imaging Counters (RICH). The instrumented magnet yoke serves for hadron calorimetry and as filter for muons, which are identified in t...

  8. Autotööstuse Delphi juht ravib firmat pankrotiga / Mikk Salu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Salu, Mikk, 1975-

    2005-01-01

    Maailma suurima autoosade valmistaja Delphi tegevjuht Steve Miller, kes on kuulsaks saanud United Airlines'i ja Bethlehem Steel'i pankrotiga, kuulutas välja Delphi pankroti ning seadis ametiühingud valiku ette: kas kärbitakse palku või lõpetatakse pensionide maksmine. Lisa: Pensionikoorem. Diagramm: Delphi kuulutas välja pankroti

  9. Clinical Nursing and Midwifery Research Priorities in Eastern and Southern African Countries: Results From a Delphi Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Carolyn; Dohrn, Jennifer; Klopper, Hester; Malata, Address; Omoni, Grace; Larson, Elaine

    2015-01-01

    Because of the profound shortage of nurse and midwifery researchers in many African countries, identification of clinical nursing and midwifery research is of highest priority for the region to improve health outcomes. The aim of this study was to gain consensus from experts on the priorities of clinical nursing and midwifery research in southern and eastern African countries. A Delphi survey was conducted among experts in the region. Criteria for "expert" included (a) a professional nurse, (b) a bachelor's degree or higher in nursing, (c) published research, (d) affiliated with a school of nursing with at least a master's level nursing program, and/or (e) identified by the African core collaborators as an expert in the region. A list of candidates was identified through searches of published and gray literature and then vetted by core collaborators in Kenya, Malawi, and South Africa. Core collaborators held leadership roles in a nursing school and a doctoral degree in nursing, had conducted and published nursing research, and resided in an included country. Two rounds of the Delphi survey were required to reach consensus. In total, 40 participants completed both rounds, and at least one participant from each country completed both rounds; 73% and 85% response rates were achieved for each round, respectively. Critical clinical research priorities were infectious disease/infection control and midwifery/maternal health topics. These included subtopics such as HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, maternal health and mortality, infant mortality, and obstetrical emergencies. Many other topics were ranked as important including patient outcomes, noncommunicable diseases, and rural health. Areas identified as research priorities were consistent with gaps identified in current literature. As evidenced by previous research, there is a lack of clinical nursing and midwifery research in these areas as well as nurses and midwives trained to conduct research; these priorities will help

  10. Um estudo sobre as características do método Delphi e de grupo focal, como técnicas na obtenção de dados em pesquisas exploratórias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorimar Francisco Munaretto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to describe the main characteristics of the Delphi method and focus group as data collection techniques in exploratory research. This is a bibliographic study, conducted with materials published in books, magazines, electronic networks etc.., Of primary and secondary sources. The results demonstrate that the focus group technique has no anonymity of the participants, as in Delphi, and that the interaction between the participants is carried out by uncontrolled feedback, unlike what occurs in the Delphi method. The research Delphie accomplished through structured questionnaires applied to experts, intensively and interspersed in several rounds. The main benefits of focus group techniques for exploratory research are: i to assist in the formulation of hypotheses, since the discussion on specific topic leads to clarity of thought, helping to express research propositions ii assist in identifying relevant concepts of research, which may be characteristic of a product or a service, working in the operational definition of a concept in the identification and testing of new research ideas. Denotes that both methods, Delphi and focus group contributions have efficient data collection for research of an exploratory nature.

  11. The Expert Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, Peter F.; Henson, Kenneth T.

    1982-01-01

    The curriculum and instruction specialist should not fall prey to the "expert syndrome," in which the specialist decides on the "best" curriculum or instructional method without considering the teacher's discipline or personality. (CJ)

  12. Experts' meeting: Maintenance '83

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    The brochure presents, in full wording, 20 papers read at the experts' meeting ''Maintenance '83'' in Wiesbaden. Most of the papers discuss reliability data (acquisition, evaluation, processing) of nearly all fields of industry. (RW) [de

  13. Gaining consensus on family carer needs when caring for someone dying at home to develop the Carers' Alert Thermometer (CAT): a modified Delphi study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knighting, Katherine; O'Brien, Mary R; Roe, Brenda; Gandy, Rob; Lloyd-Williams, Mari; Nolan, Mike; Jack, Barbara A

    2016-01-01

    To report a multi-phase modified Delphi study conducted with carers and professionals to identify the priority areas for inclusion in an alert screening tool for carers providing support to someone dying at home. Internationally, there is a growing emphasis on increasing choice for patients who wish to die at home which relies heavily on care provided by the unpaid family carers. Family carers can have high levels of unmet needs comprising their psychological and physical health and their ability to provide effective care and support. Development of an alert tool to identify carers' needs in everyday practice required identification and consensus of the priority areas of need for inclusion. Multi-phase modified Delphi study and instrument development. Qualitative and quantitative data collection took place between 2011-2013 with 111 carers and 93 professionals to identify carers' needs and gain consensus on the priority areas for inclusion in the alert tool. An expert panel stage and final evidence review post-Delphi were used. The Delphi panels had high levels of agreement and consensus. Ten areas of carer need across two themes of 'the current caring situation' and 'the carer's own health and well-being' were prioritized for inclusion in the alert tool. An optional end-of-life planning question was included following the final stages. The results provide evidence of carers' needs to be assessed, areas for consideration in the education of those who support carers and someone dying at home and targeting of services, while demonstrating the usefulness and adaptability of the Delphi method. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Advanced Nursing Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Using a Delphi process to develop an effective train-the-trainers program to train health and social care professionals throughout Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Jennifer; Jones, Caryl; Morrison, Sinead; Olff, Miranda; van Buschbach, Susanne; Witteveen, Anke B; Williams, Richard; Orengo-García, Francisco; Ajdukovic, Dean; Aker, A Tamer; Nordanger, Dag; Lueger-Schuster, Brigitte; Bisson, Jonathan I

    2012-06-01

    Research has shown that developing a Train-the-Trainers (TTT) program is important if agencies are to implement guidelines, but the most effective way to deliver a TTT program remains unanswered. This article presents data from a 3-round Internet-based Delphi process, which was used to help develop consensus-based guidelines for a TTT programme to deliver to health and social care professionals throughout Europe a curriculum on traumatic stress. In Round 1, 74 experts rated the importance of statements relating to the TTT field and then reassessed their scores in the light of others' responses in subsequent rounds. Forty-one (67%) of 61 statements achieved consensus (defined as having a mean score >7 or manuals, refresher courses, and supervision. The Delphi process allowed a consensus to be achieved in an area in which there are limitations in the current evidence. Copyright © 2012 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  15. A Delphi study to develop indicators of cancer patient experience for quality improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Kathryn E; Sansoni, Janet; Morris, Darcy; Thompson, Cristina

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop prioritised indicators to measure cancer patient experience and thus guide quality improvement in the delivery of patient care. A Delphi study, consisting of two surveys and three workshops, was employed to gather expert opinions on the most important indicators to measure. Survey participants were 149 health professionals, academics/technical experts and consumers. The first survey was based on a literature review which identified 105 elements of care within 14 domains of patient experience. These were rated on a 7-point Likert scale, with '1' representing high importance. Elements with mean ratings between 1.0 and 2.0 were retained for the second survey. The 43 least-important elements were omitted, four elements were revised and nine new elements added. Consensus was defined as at least 70% of participants rating an element '1' or '2'. Multivariate and cluster analyses were used to develop 20 draft indicators, which were presented to 51 experts to refine and prioritise at the three workshops. All elements in the second survey were rated '1' or '2' by 81% of participants. Workshop participants agreed strongly on the four most important indicators: coordinated care, access to care, timeliness of the first treatment, and communication. Other indicators considered highly important were follow-up care for survivors; timeliness of diagnosis; information relating to side effects, pain and medication; comprehensibility of information provided to patients; and needs assessment. Experts identified priorities with a high level of consensus, providing a rigorous foundation for developing prioritised indicators of quality in cancer patient experience.

  16. A Delphi survey to determine how educational interventions for evidence-based practice should be reported: stage 2 of the development of a reporting guideline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Anna C; Lewis, Lucy K; McEvoy, Maureen P; Galipeau, James; Glasziou, Paul; Hammick, Marilyn; Moher, David; Tilson, Julie K; Williams, Marie T

    2014-07-31

    Undertaking a Delphi exercise is recommended during the second stage in the development process for a reporting guideline. To continue the development for the Guideline for Reporting Evidence-based practice Educational interventions and Teaching (GREET) a Delphi survey was undertaken to determine the consensus opinion of researchers, journal editors and educators in evidence-based practice (EBP) regarding the information items that should be reported when describing an educational intervention for EBP. A four round online Delphi survey was conducted from October 2012 to March 2013. The Delphi panel comprised international researchers, educators and journal editors in EBP. Commencing with an open-ended question, participants were invited to volunteer information considered important when reporting educational interventions for EBP. Over three subsequent rounds participants were invited to rate the importance of each of the Delphi items using an 11 point Likert rating scale (low 0 to 4, moderate 5 to 6, high 7 to 8 and very high >8). Consensus agreement was set a priori as at least 80 per cent participant agreement. Consensus agreement was initially calculated within the four categories of importance (low to very high), prior to these four categories being merged into two (Likert scores, standard deviation (SD), range and median participant scores. Mean absolute deviation from the median (MAD-M) was also calculated as a measure of participant disagreement. Thirty-six experts agreed to participate and 27 (79%) participants completed all four rounds. A total of 76 information items were generated across the four survey rounds. Thirty-nine items (51%) were specific to describing the intervention (as opposed to other elements of study design) and consensus agreement was achieved for two of these items (5%). When the four rating categories were merged into two (<7 and ≥7), 18 intervention items achieved consensus agreement. This Delphi survey has identified 39 items for

  17. The Cardiovascular Health in Ambulatory Care Research Team performance indicators for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease: a modified Delphi panel study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Jack V; Maclagan, Laura C; Ko, Dennis T; Atzema, Clare L; Booth, Gillian L; Johnston, Sharon; Tu, Karen; Lee, Douglas S; Bierman, Arlene; Hall, Ruth; Bhatia, R Sacha; Gershon, Andrea S; Tobe, Sheldon W; Sanmartin, Claudia; Liu, Peter; Chu, Anna

    2017-04-25

    High-quality ambulatory care can reduce cardiovascular disease risk, but important gaps exist in the provision of cardiovascular preventive care. We sought to develop a set of key performance indicators that can be used to measure and improve cardiovascular care in the primary care setting. As part of the Cardiovascular Health in Ambulatory Care Research Team initiative, we established a 14-member multidisciplinary expert panel to develop a set of indicators for measuring primary prevention performance in ambulatory cardiovascular care. We used a 2-stage modified Delphi panel process to rate potential indicators, which were identified from the literature and national cardiovascular organizations. The top-rated indicators were pilot tested to determine their measurement feasibility with the use of data routinely collected in the Canadian health care system. A set of 28 indicators of primary prevention performance were identified, which were grouped into 5 domains: risk factor prevalence, screening, management, intermediate outcomes and long-term outcomes. The indicators reflect the major cardiovascular risk factors including smoking, obesity, hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia and atrial fibrillation. All indicators were determined to be amenable to measurement with the use of population-based administrative (physician claims, hospital admission, laboratory, medication), survey or electronic medical record databases. The Cardiovascular Health in Ambulatory Care Research Team indicators of primary prevention performance provide a framework for the measurement of cardiovascular primary prevention efforts in Canada. The indicators may be used by clinicians, researchers and policy-makers interested in measuring and improving the prevention of cardiovascular disease in ambulatory care settings. Copyright 2017, Joule Inc. or its licensors.

  18. Developing standards for an integrated approach to workplace facilitation for interprofessional teams in health and social care contexts: a Delphi study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Anne; Manley, Kim

    2018-01-01

    Integration of health and social care forms part of health and social care policy in many countries worldwide in response to changing health and social care needs. The World Health Organization's appeal for systems to manage the global epidemiologic transition advocates for provision of care that crosses boundaries between primary, community, hospital, and social care. However, the focus on structural and process changes has not yielded the full benefit of expected advances in care delivery. Facilitating practice in the workplace is a widely recognised cornerstone for developments in the delivery of health and social care as collaborative and inclusive relationships enable frontline staff to develop effective workplace cultures that influence whether transformational change is achieved and maintained. Workplace facilitation embraces a number of different purposes which may not independently lead to better quality of care or improved patient outcomes. Holistic workplace facilitation of learning, development, and improvement supports the integration remit across health and social care systems and avoids duplication of effort and waste of valuable resources. To date, no standards to guide the quality and effectiveness of integrated facilitation have been published. This study aimed to identify key elements constitute standards for an integrated approach to facilitating work-based learning, development, improvement, inquiry, knowledge translation, and innovation in health and social care contexts using a three rounds Delphi survey of facilitation experts from 10 countries. Consensus about priority elements was determined in the final round, following an iteration process that involved modifications to validate content. The findings helped to identify key qualities and skills facilitators need to support interprofessional teams to flourish and optimise performance. Further research could evaluate the impact of skilled integrated facilitation on health and social care

  19. Return to play after hamstring injuries in football (soccer): a worldwide Delphi procedure regarding definition, medical criteria and decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Horst, Nick; Backx, Fjg; Goedhart, Edwin A; Huisstede, Bionka Ma

    2017-11-01

    There are three major questions about return to play (RTP) after hamstring injuries: How should RTP be defined? Which medical criteria should support the RTP decision? And who should make the RTP decision? The study aimed to provide a clear RTP definition and medical criteria for RTP and to clarify RTP consultation and responsibilities after hamstring injury. The study used the Delphi procedure. The results of a systematic review were used as a starting point for the Delphi procedure. Fifty-eight experts in the field of hamstring injury management selected by 28 FIFA Medical Centres of Excellence worldwide participated. Each Delphi round consisted of a questionnaire, an analysis and an anonymised feedback report. After four Delphi rounds, with more than 83% response for each round, consensus was achieved that RTP should be defined as 'the moment a player has received criteria-based medical clearance and is mentally ready for full availability for match selection and/or full training'. The experts reached consensus on the following criteria to support the RTP decision: medical staff clearance, absence of pain on palpation, absence of pain during strength and flexibility testing, absence of pain during/after functional testing, similar hamstring flexibility, performance on field testing, and psychological readiness. It was also agreed that RTP decisions should be based on shared decision-making, primarily via consultation with the athlete, sports physician, physiotherapist, fitness trainer and team coach. The consensus regarding aspects of RTP should provide clarity and facilitate the assessment of when RTP is appropriate after hamstring injury, so as to avoid or reduce the risk of injury recurrence because of a premature RTP. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  20. Consensus on quality indicators to assess the organisation of palliative cancer and dementia care applicable across national healthcare systems and selected by international experts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Riet Paap, Jasper; Vernooij-Dassen, Myrra; Dröes, Rose-Marie; Radbruch, Lukas; Vissers, Kris; Engels, Yvonne

    2014-09-17

    Large numbers of vulnerable patients are in need of palliative cancer and dementia care. However, a wide gap exists between the knowledge of best practices in palliative care and their use in everyday clinical practice. As part of a European policy improvement program, quality indicators (QIs) have been developed to monitor and improve the organisation of palliative care for patients with cancer and those with dementia in various settings in different European countries. A multidisciplinary, international panel of professionals participated in a modified RAND Delphi procedure to compose a set of palliative care QIs based on existing sets of QIs on the organisation of palliative care. Panellists participated in three written rounds, one feedback round and one meeting. The panel's median votes were used to identify the final set of QIs. The Delphi procedure resulted in 23 useful QIs. These QIs represent key elements of the organisation of good clinical practice, such as the availability of palliative care teams, the availability of special facilities to provide palliative care for patients and their relatives, and the presence of educational interventions for professionals. The final set also includes QIs that are related to the process of palliative care, such as documentation of pain and other symptoms, communication with patients in need of palliative care and their relatives, and end-of-life decisions. International experts selected a set of 23 QIs for the organisation of palliative care. Although we particularly focused on the organisation of cancer and dementia palliative care, most QIs are generic and are applicable for other types of diseases as well.

  1. A case study on use of modified delphi technique for developing consensus on designing contents of a module for imparting sex education to adolescents in schools, in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak B. Saxena

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In the year 2007, eleven (11 of India’s 29 states suspended the federal initiative, ‘Adolescence Education Program’, under the name of School AIDS awareness education program (SAEP designed for 15- to 17-year-olds in all staterun schools and devised by the Ministry of Human Resource Development (HRD and National AIDS Control Organization (NACO on grounds that the flip charts used for training teachers contained explicit images of male and female reproductive systems, conception, and contraception. The aim of the present study is to understand usefulness of Delphi technique as a tool to develop contents and make consensus over a suitable module that can be utilized for imparting Sex Education to the Adolescents in school. The study present below used Delphi technique in transaction of the module recommended by National Council of Education Research and Training (NCERT for imparting Sex education under SAEP. Although the technique was successful in building consensus amongst different stake holders, within the limitations of Delphi like potential drop outs, loss to follow up and lack of clear verbal labels. It is concluded from the results of present study that Delphi technique, when rigorously administered, analyzed and reported, is a valuable method to help policy planners in developing the process for a suitable module that can be utilized for imparting sex education to adolescents in school.

  2. A case study on use of modified delphi technique for developing consensus on designing contents of a module for imparting sex education to adolescents in schools, in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak B. Saxena

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the year 2007, eleven (11 of India’s 29 states suspended the federal initiative, ‘Adolescence Education Program’, under the name of School AIDS awareness education program (SAEP designed for 15- to 17-year-olds in all state- run schools and devised by the Ministry of Human Resource Development (HRD and National AIDS Control Organization (NACO on grounds that the flip charts used for training teachers contained explicit images of male and female reproductive systems, conception, and contraception. The aim of the present study is to understand usefulness of Delphi technique as a tool to develop contents and make consensus over a suitable module that can be utilized for imparting Sex Education to the Adolescents in school. The study present below used Delphi technique in transaction of the module recommended by National Council of Education Research and Training (NCERT for imparting Sex education under SAEP. Although the technique was successful in building consensus amongst different stake holders, within the limitations of Delphi like potential drop outs, loss to follow up and lack of clear verbal labels. It is concluded from the results of present study that Delphi technique, when rigorously administered, analyzed and reported, is a valuable method to help policy planners in developing the process for a suitable module that can be utilized for imparting sex education to adolescents in school

  3. [Barriers to treatment-seeking among German veterans: expert interviews].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Stefan; Rau, Heinrich; Dors, Simone; Brants, Loni; Börner, Michaela; Mahnke, Manuel; Zimmermann, Peter L; Willmund, Gerd; Ströhle, Andreas

    2017-08-01

    The number of service members of the German armed forces suffering from deployment-related mental health problems is increasing. However, less than 50 % seek professional help, and there is little knowledge about the barriers to treatment-seeking. The article presents data gathered by the Delphi technique combined with focus groups from 55 health service experts regarding the evaluated barriers to treatment-seeking among German veterans. According to the interviewed experts, major contextual barriers to treatment-seeking include: 1) intimidating processes and structures, 2) actual stigmatization and discrimination, and 3) health service deficits. Major individual barriers to treatment were: 4) health beliefs, self-perception and fear of stigmatization, and 5) avoidance behavior related to psychopathology. In addition, there is another both contextual and individual barrier, i.e., 6) information deficits. Individual internal factors like the soldiers' self-perception and their fear of being stigmatized were considered important barriers to treatment-seeking. The experts' opinion about avoidance behavior related to psychopathology and deficits in health services and information coincides with international findings. Compared to research in other countries, actual stigmatization and discrimination were regarded to be an important barrier in itself. According to our findings daunting/intimidating processes and structures like time-consuming and complex expert medical reports rather seem to be a German phenomenon. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  4. Expert Recommendations on Treating Psoriasis in Special Circumstances (Part II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrascosa, J M; Galán, M; de Lucas, R; Pérez-Ferriols, A; Ribera, M; Yanguas, I

    2016-11-01

    There is insufficient information on how best to treat moderate to severe psoriasis in difficult clinical circumstances. We considered 5 areas where there is conflicting or insufficient evidence: pediatric psoriasis, risk of infection in patients being treated with biologics, psoriasis in difficult locations, biologic drug survival, and impact of disease on quality of life. Following discussion of the issues by an expert panel of dermatologists specialized in the management of psoriasis, participants answered a questionnaire survey according to the Delphi method. Consensus was reached on 66 (70.9%) of the 93 items analyzed; the experts agreed with 49 statements and disagreed with 17. It was agreed that body mass index, metabolic comorbidities, and quality of life should be monitored in children with psoriasis. The experts also agreed that the most appropriate systemic treatment for this age group was methotrexate, while the most appropriate biologic treatment was etanercept. Although it was recognized that the available evidence was inconsistent and difficult to extrapolate, the panel agreed that biologic drug survival could be increased by flexible, individualized dosing regimens, continuous treatment, and combination therapies. Finally, consensus was reached on using the Dermatology Quality of Life Index to assess treatment effectiveness and aid decision-making in clinical practice. The structured opinion of experts guides decision-making regarding aspects of clinical practice for which there is incomplete or conflicting information. Copyright © 2016 AEDV. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. A Delphi Method Analysis to Create an Emergency Medicine Educational Patient Satisfaction Survey

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    Kory S. London

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Feedback on patient satisfaction (PS as a means to monitor and improve performance in patient communication is lacking in residency training. A physician’s promotion, compensation and job satisfaction may be impacted by his individual PS scores, once he is in practice. Many communication and satisfaction surveys exist but none focus on the emergency department setting for educational purposes. The goal of this project was to create an emergency medicine-based educational PS survey with strong evidence for content validity. Methods: We used the Delphi Method (DM to obtain expert opinion via an iterative process of surveying. Questions were mined from four PS surveys as well as from group suggestion. The DM analysis determined the structure, content and appropriate use of the tool. The group used four-point Likert-type scales and Lynn’s criteria for content validity to determine relevant questions from the stated goals. Results: Twelve recruited experts participated in a series of seven surveys to achieve consensus. A 10-question, single-page survey with an additional page of qualitative questions and demographic questions was selected. Thirty one questions were judged to be relevant from an original 48-question list. Of these, the final 10 questions were chosen. Response rates for individual survey items was 99.5%. Conclusion: The DM produced a consensus survey with content validity evidence. Future work will be needed to obtain evidence for response process, internal structure and construct validity.

  6. Innovations and trends in meat consumption: an application of the Delphi method in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamorro, Antonio; Miranda, Francisco J; Rubio, Sergio; Valero, Víctor

    2012-12-01

    The meat sector in Spain is an important industry. However, traditional consumption is changing as a result of the country's economic crisis and the new structure of households. The objective of the present study was to identify trends in meat consumption in Spain extrapolated to 2016, and the main innovations that should be of interest to firms in the sector. The study was conducted in 2011 using the Delphi method with the participation of 26 experts. The results showed that, while the demand for meat will not vary significantly in amount, it will do so in composition, with chicken replacing beef as the meat of most importance in the shopping basket. In addition, significant growth is expected in certified meat, but the demand for organic meat will not take off. Neither will there be no significant changes in end purchase formats, but there will be a clear trend in consumers' purchasing decision criteria away from price, external appearance and origin towards quality certification and the attributes of the packaging. With respect to end purchase channels, the experts estimate that the current trend will be accentuated with increasing market share for large supermarkets and major distribution brands. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Identification of competencies for patient education in physiotherapy using a Delphi approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Roma; Mandrusiak, Allison; Smith, Michelle; Russell, Trevor

    2017-06-20

    Patient education is a critical part of physiotherapy practice however an empirically derived set of competencies for its use does not exist. This study aimed to generate a set of competencies for patient education in physiotherapy using a consensus approach. A Delphi study with two rounds using a panel of expert physiotherapists within Australia was undertaken. In the first round, the panel of 12 specialist physiotherapists identified competencies required for patient education in the physiotherapy setting. Framework analysis was applied to develop a set of competencies that were assessed in the second round where ≥80% agreement of importance from the panel indicated consensus. Response rates of specialist physiotherapists agreeing to participate were 67% for the first round and 100% for the second round. Analysis following the first round produced 25 competencies. The second round resulted in agreement on a final set of 22 competencies. This study developed a concise list of competencies for patient education with a high level of expert agreement. By identifying the key competencies in this area, there is potential to benchmark patient education training and assessment of physiotherapists for improved educational and professional outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The competencies of Registered Nurses working in care homes: a modified Delphi study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanyon, Miriam Ruth; Goldberg, Sarah Elizabeth; Astle, Anita; Griffiths, Amanda; Gordon, Adam Lee

    2017-07-01

    registered Nurses (RNs) working in UK care homes receive most of their training in acute hospitals. At present the role of care home nursing is underdeveloped and it is seen as a low status career. We describe here research to define core competencies for RNs working in UK care homes. a two-stage process was adopted. A systematic literature review and focus groups with stakeholders provided an initial list of competencies. The competency list was modified over three rounds of a Delphi process with a multi-disciplinary expert panel of 28 members. twenty-two competencies entered the consensus process, all competencies were amended and six split. Thirty-one competencies were scored in round two, eight were agreed as essential, one competency was split into two. Twenty-four competencies were submitted for scoring in round three. In total, 22 competencies were agreed as essential for RNs working in care homes. A further 10 competencies did not reach consensus. the output of this study is an expert-consensus list of competencies for RNs working in care homes. This would be a firm basis on which to build a curriculum for this staff group. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society.All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  9. Recommendations for the Use of Serious Games in Neurodegenerative Disorders: 2016 Delphi Panel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Manera

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of Serious Games (SG in the health domain is expanding. In the field of neurodegenerative disorders (ND such as Alzheimer’s disease, SG are currently employed both to support and improve the assessment of different functional and cognitive abilities, and to provide alternative solutions for patients’ treatment, stimulation, and rehabilitation. As the field is quite young, recommendations on the use of SG in people with ND are still rare. In 2014 we proposed some initial recommendations (Robert et al., 2014. The aim of the present work was to update them, thanks to opinions gathered by experts in the field during an expert Delphi panel. Results confirmed that SG are adapted to elderly people with mild cognitive impairment (MCI and dementia, and can be employed for several purposes, including assessment, stimulation, and improving wellbeing, with some differences depending on the population (e.g., physical stimulation may be better suited for people with MCI. SG are more adapted for use with trained caregivers (both at home and in clinical settings, with a frequency ranging from 2 to 4 times a week. Importantly, the target of SG, their frequency of use and the context in which they are played depend on the SG typology (e.g., Exergame, cognitive game, and should be personalized with the help of a clinician.

  10. Modified Delphi investigation of motor development and learning in physical education teacher education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Susan; Metcalf, Amanda; Bulger, Sean M; Housner, Lynn D

    2014-09-01

    As the scope of motor development and learning knowledge has successfully broadened over the years, there is an increased need to identify the content and learning experiences that are essential in preparing preservice physical educators. The purpose of this study was to generate expert consensus regarding the most critical motor development and learning competencies that prospective physical educators need to learn within the physical education teacher education (PETE) curriculum and to identify learning environments and instructional methods for delivering core knowledge. The study employed a 2-round, modified Delphi procedure involving the repeated circulation of a questionnaire to a panel of motor development specialists, motor learning specialists, teacher educators, and K-12 physical education teachers. Panel members rated an initial list of theoretical and applied motor development and learning competencies derived from various curricular guidelines and textbook sources. An open-response question was incorporated into the 2nd round asking panel members to recommend specific instructional methods and settings for delivering core motor development and learning content to prospective physical educators within the PETE curriculum. Expert consensus determined that 64 out of the initial 159 motor development and learning competencies were critical in preparing preservice physical educators. Early field experiences and peer practice in a variety of settings were recommended by panelists for delivering the identified competencies. The Discussion section represents an important link between the motor development and learning body of knowledge and physical education teachers' role in promoting skillful movement, physical activity, and fitness among youth in the school setting.

  11. Delphi definition of the EADC-ADNI Harmonized Protocol for hippocampal segmentation on magnetic resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccardi, Marina; Bocchetta, Martina; Apostolova, Liana G.; Barnes, Josephine; Bartzokis, George; Corbetta, Gabriele; DeCarli, Charles; deToledo-Morrell, Leyla; Firbank, Michael; Ganzola, Rossana; Gerritsen, Lotte; Henneman, Wouter; Killiany, Ronald J.; Malykhin, Nikolai; Pasqualetti, Patrizio; Pruessner, Jens C.; Redolfi, Alberto; Robitaille, Nicolas; Soininen, Hilkka; Tolomeo, Daniele; Wang, Lei; Watson, Craig; Wolf, Henrike; Duvernoy, Henri; Duchesne, Simon; Jack, Clifford R.; Frisoni, Giovanni B.

    2015-01-01

    Background This study aimed to have international experts converge on a harmonized definition of whole hippocampus boundaries and segmentation procedures, to define standard operating procedures for magnetic resonance (MR)-based manual hippocampal segmentation. Methods The panel received a questionnaire regarding whole hippocampus boundaries and segmentation procedures. Quantitative information was supplied to allow evidence-based answers. A recursive and anonymous Delphi procedure was used to achieve convergence. Significance of agreement among panelists was assessed by exact probability on Fisher’s and binomial tests. Results Agreement was significant on the inclusion of alveus/fimbria (P =.021), whole hippocampal tail (P =.013), medial border of the body according to visible morphology (P =.0006), and on this combined set of features (P =.001). This definition captures 100% of hippocampal tissue, 100% of Alzheimer’s disease-related atrophy, and demonstrated good reliability on preliminary intrarater (0.98) and inter-rater (0.94) estimates. Discussion Consensus was achieved among international experts with respect to hippocampal segmentation using MR resulting in a harmonized segmentation protocol. PMID:25130658

  12. A Delphi Method Analysis to Create an Emergency Medicine Educational Patient Satisfaction Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    London, Kory S; Singal, Bonita; Fowler, Jennifer; Prepejchal, Rebecca; Simmons, Stefanie; Finefrock, Douglas

    2015-12-01

    Feedback on patient satisfaction (PS) as a means to monitor and improve performance in patient communication is lacking in residency training. A physician's promotion, compensation and job satisfaction may be impacted by his individual PS scores, once he is in practice. Many communication and satisfaction surveys exist but none focus on the emergency department setting for educational purposes. The goal of this project was to create an emergency medicine-based educational PS survey with strong evidence for content validity. We used the Delphi Method (DM) to obtain expert opinion via an iterative process of surveying. Questions were mined from four PS surveys as well as from group suggestion. The DM analysis determined the structure, content and appropriate use of the tool. The group used four-point Likert-type scales and Lynn's criteria for content validity to determine relevant questions from the stated goals. Twelve recruited experts participated in a series of seven surveys to achieve consensus. A 10-question, single-page survey with an additional page of qualitative questions and demographic questions was selected. Thirty one questions were judged to be relevant from an original 48-question list. Of these, the final 10 questions were chosen. Response rates for individual survey items was 99.5%. The DM produced a consensus survey with content validity evidence. Future work will be needed to obtain evidence for response process, internal structure and construct validity.

  13. Potential Effects of the Electronic Health Record on the Small Physician Practice: A Delphi Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sines, Chad C; Griffin, Gerald R

    2017-01-01

    The Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health (HITECH) Act established the requirement of all medical practices to have certified electronic health records (EHRs). Some primary concerns that have been delaying implementation are issues of cost, revenue impact, and the effect on the patient encounter. Small physician practices (one to four physicians) account for 46 percent of all physicians. The purpose of this qualitative study using a modified Delphi research design was to examine the potential effect of the adoption of the EHR on revenue, unintended costs or savings, and changes in the patient encounter. Fifteen expert panelists completed the three-round survey process. The expert panelists reached a consensus that EHRs would reduce the number of patients seen per day, thereby reducing their revenue. Although the panelists limited their discussion on the effect of patient outcomes, their most dominant concern was the loss of face-to-face time with the patient. They felt that the use of an EHR would reduce the focus on the patient and potentially cause physicians to miss medical conditions. The results of this study indicate an avenue for EHR vendors to develop educational avenues to teach physicians how to optimize the EHR as well as to share success stories that demonstrate improved financial impact.

  14. Development of guidelines for giving community presentations about eating disorders: a Delphi study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doley, Joanna Rachel; Hart, Laura Merilyn; Stukas, Arthur Anthony; Morgan, Amy Joanna; Rowlands, Danielle Lisa; Paxton, Susan Jessica

    2017-01-01

    Concerns exist around how to talk about eating disorders (EDs) due to evidence that suggests discussing ED symptoms and behaviours may cause or worsen symptoms in vulnerable people. Using expert consensus, we developed a set of guidelines for giving safe community presentations about EDs. Participants with professional ED expertise, and people with lived experience of an ED, were recruited for a Delphi study. N  = 26 panel members rated 367 statements for both a) inclusion in guidelines, and b) their potential to be helpful (increase knowledge, reduce stigma) or harmful (increase stigma, cause/worsen ED symptoms). After each round of the study, statements were classified as endorsed, re-rate, or not endorsed. 208 statements were endorsed by the panel over three rounds. 13 statements were strongly endorsed in the first round, with both people with lived experience and professionals agreeing it is important for presentations to include information on etiology of EDs and to promote help-seeking. Several statements had a high level of disagreement between those with lived experience and professionals, including the idea that presentations should suggest dieting is likely to result in weight gain. The experts were able to develop consensus on a wide range of issues. Panel members, particularly people with lived experience, were sensitive to aspects of presentations that may be harmful to an audience. The guidelines fill an important gap in the literature and provide guidance to those educating the public about EDs; they should, however, be further evaluated to test their efficacy.

  15. A Delphi Technology Foresight Study: Mapping Social Construction of Scientific Evidence on Metagenomics Tests for Water Safety.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Birko

    Full Text Available Access to clean water is a grand challenge in the 21st century. Water safety testing for pathogens currently depends on surrogate measures such as fecal indicator bacteria (e.g., E. coli. Metagenomics concerns high-throughput, culture-independent, unbiased shotgun sequencing of DNA from environmental samples that might transform water safety by detecting waterborne pathogens directly instead of their surrogates. Yet emerging innovations such as metagenomics are often fiercely contested. Innovations are subject to shaping/construction not only by technology but also social systems/values in which they are embedded, such as experts' attitudes towards new scientific evidence. We conducted a classic three-round Delphi survey, comprised of 107 questions. A multidisciplinary expert panel (n = 24 representing the continuum of discovery scientists and policymakers evaluated the emergence of metagenomics tests. To the best of our knowledge, we report here the first Delphi foresight study of experts' attitudes on (1 the top 10 priority evidentiary criteria for adoption of metagenomics tests for water safety, (2 the specific issues critical to governance of metagenomics innovation trajectory where there is consensus or dissensus among experts, (3 the anticipated time lapse from discovery to practice of metagenomics tests, and (4 the role and timing of public engagement in development of metagenomics tests. The ability of a test to distinguish between harmful and benign waterborne organisms, analytical/clinical sensitivity, and reproducibility were the top three evidentiary criteria for adoption of metagenomics. Experts agree that metagenomic testing will provide novel information but there is dissensus on whether metagenomics will replace the current water safety testing methods or impact the public health end points (e.g., reduction in boil water advisories. Interestingly, experts view the publics relevant in a "downstream capacity" for adoption of

  16. A Delphi Technology Foresight Study: Mapping Social Construction of Scientific Evidence on Metagenomics Tests for Water Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birko, Stanislav; Dove, Edward S; Özdemir, Vural

    2015-01-01

    Access to clean water is a grand challenge in the 21st century. Water safety testing for pathogens currently depends on surrogate measures such as fecal indicator bacteria (e.g., E. coli). Metagenomics concerns high-throughput, culture-independent, unbiased shotgun sequencing of DNA from environmental samples that might transform water safety by detecting waterborne pathogens directly instead of their surrogates. Yet emerging innovations such as metagenomics are often fiercely contested. Innovations are subject to shaping/construction not only by technology but also social systems/values in which they are embedded, such as experts' attitudes towards new scientific evidence. We conducted a classic three-round Delphi survey, comprised of 107 questions. A multidisciplinary expert panel (n = 24) representing the continuum of discovery scientists and policymakers evaluated the emergence of metagenomics tests. To the best of our knowledge, we report here the first Delphi foresight study of experts' attitudes on (1) the top 10 priority evidentiary criteria for adoption of metagenomics tests for water safety, (2) the specific issues critical to governance of metagenomics innovation trajectory where there is consensus or dissensus among experts, (3) the anticipated time lapse from discovery to practice of metagenomics tests, and (4) the role and timing of public engagement in development of metagenomics tests. The ability of a test to distinguish between harmful and benign waterborne organisms, analytical/clinical sensitivity, and reproducibility were the top three evidentiary criteria for adoption of metagenomics. Experts agree that metagenomic testing will provide novel information but there is dissensus on whether metagenomics will replace the current water safety testing methods or impact the public health end points (e.g., reduction in boil water advisories). Interestingly, experts view the publics relevant in a "downstream capacity" for adoption of metagenomics rather

  17. The DELPHI silicon microvertex detector: from concept to physical results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zalewska, A.

    1994-09-01

    The silicon microvertex detector which has been used in DELPHI experiments at CERN is described in detail. The brief description of the LEP accelerator as well as the results of the physical experiment have also been presented. (author). 65 refs, 50 figs, 6 tabs

  18. Future Directions for Business Education: A Delphi Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesten, Cyril A.; Lambrecht, Judith J.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to synthesize perceptions from the field about current issues and to propose future directions for the field of business education. Method: A modified three-stage Delphi study was carried out with business educators who attended national conferences and/or belonged to national professional organizations.…

  19. Female Adolescent Smoking: A Delphi Study on Best Prevention Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Sean; Huebner, Angela; Piercy, Fred; Shettler, Lauren; Meszaros, Peggy S.; Matheson, Jennifer

    2004-01-01

    The present researchers used a multi-wave Delphi methodology to determine what 14 knowledgeable substance abuse professionals believe are the most appropriate smoking prevention practices for female adolescents. While there was some agreement with the emerging literature, particularly on weight control issues and parental involvement, there was…

  20. DELPHI ANALYSIS OF CONSTRAINTS TO MAIZE PRODUCTION IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A descriptive Delphi study was conducted to: identify constraints to maize production on SNL from the perspectives of crop researchers, extension officers and farmers; categorise the constraints; rank them in order of importance; and identify ways of addressing them. A total of 33 constraint items were identified and ...

  1. Establishing a Research Agenda for Art Therapy: A Delphi Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Donna; Deaver, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Art therapy in the United States is a young profession that would benefit from an identified research agenda to marshal resources more effectively to address gaps in the knowledge base. This article describes a Delphi study of U.S. art therapy researchers who were surveyed on research priorities for the profession. The research panelists were…

  2. Business intelligence and service-oriented architecture: a Delphi study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mueller, Roland; Linders, Stefan; Ferreira Pires, Luis

    Although service-oriented architecture (SOA) is becoming increasingly popular in enterprise application rchitectures, little is known about how SOA could support and influence the use and implementation of business intelligence (BI). We applied the Delphi method in order to identify opportunities

  3. Future Directions in Deinstitutionalization and Education: A Delphi Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Joanne W.; Bruininks, Robert H.

    1986-01-01

    A total of 33 special education leaders presented forecasts, through a Delphi survey procedure, for the deinstitutionalization of and the residential and education services for the handicapped. It was predicted that the deinstitutionalization movement will not lose its momentum and that community based residential services will become increasingly…

  4. [Delphi study to identify the management skills of nursing executives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yañez, M R; Avila, J A; Bermudez, M I; De Miguel, I; Bellver, V; Guilabert, M; Mira, J J

    2016-01-01

    To determine and update the skills map for the position of Nurse Administrator in hospitals and Primary Care. An observational, descriptive, cross-sectional study based on a Delphi technique was conducted in hospital and Primary Care settings. Two nominal groups with 15 nurses each were used to define the contents of the questionnaire 0 in the Delphi technique. All nurses registered in the professional associations of Alicante, Castellón and Valencia were invited to participate. The results of the Delphi study was submitted to factor analysis to identify the set of skills and, subsequently, compare them with the offer of post-graduate course in colleges and universities during the 2014-15 academic year. Forty-five competences were extracted during the Nominal groups. In total, 705 nurses replied to the first wave in the Delphi Technique, and 394 in the second (response rate of 56%). Factorial analysis grouped the skills chosen into 10 factors: managing people, conflict management, independent learning, ethics, emotional balance, commitment, self-discipline, continuous improvement, critical-thinking, and innovation. Four skills groups identified in this study (emotional balancing, commitment, self-discipline and courage) were not usually included in the post-graduate courses The nurse administrator skills should be related to relational and ethical behaviour. The training offer of the post-graduate courses must be reoriented. Copyright © 2015 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  5. Development of the Korean framework for senior-friendly hospitals: a Delphi study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yoon-Sook; Han, Seol-Heui; Hwang, Jeong-Hae; Park, Jae-Min; Lee, Jongmin; Choi, Jaekyung; Moon, Yeonsil; Kim, Hee Joung; Shin, Grace Jung Eun; Lee, Ji-Sun; Choi, Ye Ji; Uhm, Kyeong Eun; Kim, In Ae; Nam, Ji-Won

    2017-08-04

    Aging is an inevitable part of life. One can maintain well-being and wellness even after discharge and/or transition if his or her functional decline is minimized, sudden decline is prevented, and functioning is promoted during hospitalization. Caring appropriately for elderly patients requires the systematic application of Senior-Friendly Hospital principles to all operating systems, including medical centres' organization and environment, as well as patient treatment processes. The Senior-Friendly Hospital framework is valid and important for patient safety and quality improvement. This study aimed to make recommendations regarding the development of the Korean Framework for Senior-Friendly Hospitals for older patients' care management, patient safety interventions, and health promotion, via a Delphi survey. Two rounds of Delphi surveying were conducted with 15 participants who had at least 3 years' experience in accreditation surveying and medical accreditation standards, survey methods, and accreditation investigator education. In each round, we calculated statistics describing each standard's validity and feasibility. The Korean Framework for Senior-Friendly Hospitals included 4 Chapters, 11 categories, and 67 standards through consensus of the Senior-Friendly Hospitals task force and experts' peer review. After the two rounds of Delphi surveying, validity evaluation led to no changes in standards of the Senior-Friendly Hospitals; however, the number of standards showing adequate validity decreased from 67 to 58. Regarding feasibility, no changes were necessary in the standards; however, the number of categories showing adequate feasibility decreased from 11 to 8 and from 67 to 30, respectively. The excluded categories were 3.2, 4.2, and 4.3 (service, transportation, and signage and identification). The highest feasibility values were given to standards 2.1.1, 4.1.4, and 4.1.6. The highest feasibility score was given to standard 2.4.2. The Korean Framework for

  6. Quality Metrics in Neonatal and Pediatric Critical Care Transport: A National Delphi Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Hamilton P; Bigham, Michael T; Schoettker, Pamela J; Meyer, Keith; Trautman, Michael S; Insoft, Robert M

    2015-10-01

    The transport of neonatal and pediatric patients to tertiary care facilities for specialized care demands monitoring the quality of care delivered during transport and its impact on patient outcomes. In 2011, pediatric transport teams in Ohio met to identify quality indicators permitting comparisons among programs. However, no set of national consensus quality metrics exists for benchmarking transport teams. The aim of this project was to achieve national consensus on appropriate neonatal and pediatric transport quality metrics. Modified Delphi technique. The first round of consensus determination was via electronic mail survey, followed by rounds of consensus determination in-person at the American Academy of Pediatrics Section on Transport Medicine's 2012 Quality Metrics Summit. All attendees of the American Academy of Pediatrics Section on Transport Medicine Quality Metrics Summit, conducted on October 21-23, 2012, in New Orleans, LA, were eligible to participate. Candidate quality metrics were identified through literature review and those metrics currently tracked by participating programs. Participants were asked in a series of rounds to identify "very important" quality metrics for transport. It was determined a priori that consensus on a metric's importance was achieved when at least 70% of respondents were in agreement. This is consistent with other Delphi studies. Eighty-two candidate metrics were considered initially. Ultimately, 12 metrics achieved consensus as "very important" to transport. These include metrics related to airway management, team mobilization time, patient and crew injuries, and adverse patient care events. Definitions were assigned to the 12 metrics to facilitate uniform data tracking among programs. The authors succeeded in achieving consensus among a diverse group of national transport experts on 12 core neonatal and pediatric transport quality metrics. We propose that transport teams across the country use these metrics to

  7. Mental Health First Aid guidelines for helping a suicidal person: a Delphi consensus study in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background This study aimed to develop guidelines for how a member of the Japanese public should provide mental health first aid to a person who is suicidal. Methods The guidelines were produced by developing a questionnaire containing possible first aid actions and asking an expert panel of 32 Japanese mental health professionals to rate whether each action should be included in the guidelines. The content of the questionnaire was based on a systematic search of the relevant evidence and claims made by authors of consumer and carer guides and websites. The panel members were asked to complete the questionnaire by web survey. Three rounds of the rating were carried and, at the end of each round, items that reached the consensus criterion were selected for inclusion in the guidelines. During the first round, panel members were also asked to suggest any additional actions that were not covered in the original questionnaire (to include items that are relevant to local cultural circumstances, values, and social norms). Responses to these open-ended questions were used to generate new items. Results The output from the Delphi process was a set of agreed upon action statements. The Delphi process started with 138 statements, 38 new items were written based on suggestions from panel members and, of these 176 items, 56 met the consensus criterion. These statements were used to develop the guidelines appended to this article. Conclusions There are a number of actions that are considered to be useful for members of the Japanese public when they encounter someone who is experiencing suicidal thoughts or engaging in suicidal behaviour. Although the guidelines are designed for members of the public, they may also be helpful to health professionals working in health and welfare settings who do not have clinical mental health training. PMID:21592409

  8. Delphi Survey of Clinical Nursing and Midwifery Research Priorities in the Eastern Mediterranean Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Carolyn; Dohrn, Jennifer; Oweis, Arwa; Huijer, Huda Abu-Saad; Abu-Moghli, Fathieh; Dawani, Hania; Ghazi, Cheherezade; Larson, Elaine

    2017-03-01

    As the shortage of nurses and midwives is expected to worsen in the Eastern Mediterranean region concomitantly with a growing focus on achievement of universal health coverage, nurses and midwives are expected to fill major gaps in health care. Hence, the need for a solid evidence base for nursing practice and a clear direction for clinical nursing research are paramount. Therefore, a Delphi survey was conducted to determine clinical (research focused on patient outcomes) nursing and midwifery priorities for research within this region. A Delphi survey, using iterative rounds of an online survey of regional clinical nursing and midwifery research experts, was conducted between January and April 2016. Consensus was determined by percentage agreement on level of priority for topics as determined by participants. Additionally, results were compared between countries within the region by income and mortality levels using Kendall's tau. Critical research topics were focused on public/community/primary care as well as emergency preparedness for disasters, and these priorities are well aligned with gaps in the literature for this region. There were statistically significant differences between priority level and country mortality group for geriatrics, self-management of disease, and sexually transmitted infections. Critical research priorities should focus on population-based health topics. Between-country differences should be analyzed further. A clinical research database for the region may help improve research access for nurses and midwives. Practicing nurses and midwives lack extensive evidence (including culturally relevant evidence) on which to practice. Increasing research in areas identified in this survey may improve patient outcomes and quality of care regionally. © 2017 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  9. Identifying Industry-Specific Components of Product Liability Response System Using Delphi-AHP Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seo JunHyeok

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available PL (product liability response system is an enterprise-wide system that prevents company’s financial loss due to PL-related accidents. Existing researches on PL response system are mainly focused on preventive and/or defense strategies for the companies. Also, it is obvious that each industry has their original characteristics related on PL issues. It means industry-specific characteristics should be considered to adopt PL response strategies. Thus, this paper aims to discuss industry-specific PL response system and their components. Based on prior researches, we tried to reveal the possibility of its application to manufacturing companies of existing PL response strategies using Delphi method with PL experts. Based on first round results, we tried to classify existing PL strategies of manufacturing companies into several categories. To validate our suggestion for essential components of PL response system, second round Delphi method are applied. Analytic hierarchy process (AHP technique will be applied to identify a prioritized list of each components and strategies. Existing PL response strategies could be categorized with six components – strategy, technology, investment, training, awareness, and organization. Among six components, Technology – it represents the technology needed for improving the safety of all products – is the most important components to prepare PL accidents. The limitation of this paper is on the size of survey and variety of examples. However, the future study will enhance the potential of the proposed method. Regardless of rich research efforts to identify PL response strategies, there is no effort to categorize these strategies and prioritized them. Well-coordinated and actionable PL response strategies and their priorities could help small-and-medium sized enterprise (SME to develop their own PL response system with their limited resources.

  10. Toward Minimum Standards for Certifying Patient Decision Aids: A Modified Delphi Consensus Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph-Williams, Natalie; Newcombe, Robert; Politi, Mary; Durand, Marie-Anne; Sivell, Stephanie; Stacey, Dawn; O'Connor, Annette; Volk, Robert J; Edwards, Adrian; Bennett, Carol; Pignone, Michael; Thomson, Richard; Elwyn, Glyn

    2014-08-01

    The IPDAS Collaboration has developed a checklist and an instrument (IPDASi v3.0) to assess the quality of patient decision aids (PDAs) in terms of their development process and shared decision-making design components. Certification of PDAs is of growing interest in the US and elsewhere. We report a modified Delphi consensus process to agree on IPDASi (v3.0) items that should be considered as minimum standards for PDA certification, for inclusion in the refined IPDASi (v4.0). A 2-stage Delphi voting process considered the inclusion of IPDASi (v3.0) items as minimum standards. Item scores and qualitative comments were analyzed, followed by expert group discussion. One hundred and one people voted in round 1; 87 in round 2. Forty-seven items were reduced to 44 items across 3 new categories: 1) qualifying criteria, which are required in order for an intervention to be considered a decision aid (6 items); 2) certification criteria, without which a decision aid is judged to have a high risk of harmful bias (10 items); and 3) quality criteria, believed to strengthen a decision aid but whose omission does not present a high risk of harmful bias (28 items). This study provides preliminary certification criteria for PDAs. Scoring and rating processes need to be tested and finalized. However, the process of appraising the quality of the clinical evidence reported by the PDA should be used to complement these criteria; the proposed standards are designed to rate the quality of the development process and shared decision-making design elements, not the quality of the PDA's clinical content. © The Author(s) 2013.

  11. Expert tool use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorndahl, Kathrine Liedtke; Ravn, Susanne

    2017-01-01

    and autoethnographic material from one former elite skipper, we take some initial steps toward the development of a more nuanced understanding of the concept of incorporation; one that is able to accommodate the experiences of expert tool users. In sum, our analyses indicate that the possibility for experiencing...... a tool as incorporated depends on the existence of an extraordinary kind of relationship between the tool and the expert tool user. This relation, that can persist even when successful manipulation of the tool fails, is not only cultivated through deliberate practice of physical skills, but also through...... the collective sense-making process going on within a particular community of practice. Therefore, expert tool users may experience a more profound kind of incorporation that can persist even when normal motor incorporation fails....

  12. Soft Expert Sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawkat Alkhazaleh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In 1999, Molodtsov introduced the concept of soft set theory as a general mathematical tool for dealing with uncertainty. Many researchers have studied this theory, and they created some models to solve problems in decision making and medical diagnosis, but most of these models deal only with one expert. This causes a problem with the user, especially with those who use questionnaires in their work and studies. In our model, the user can know the opinion of all experts in one model. So, in this paper, we introduce the concept of a soft expert set, which will more effective and useful. We also define its basic operations, namely, complement, union intersection AND, and OR. Finally, we show an application of this concept in decision-making problem.

  13. The First Consensus Statement on One Anastomosis/Mini Gastric Bypass (OAGB/MGB) Using a Modified Delphi Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahawar, Kamal K; Himpens, Jacques; Shikora, Scott A; Chevallier, Jean-Marc; Lakdawala, Mufazzal; De Luca, Maurizio; Weiner, Rudolf; Khammas, Ali; Kular, Kuldeepak Singh; Musella, Mario; Prager, Gerhard; Mirza, Mohammad Khalid; Carbajo, Miguel; Kow, Lilian; Lee, Wei-Jei; Small, Peter K

    2018-02-01

    An increasing number of surgeons worldwide are now performing one anastomosis/mini gastric bypass (OAGB/MGB). Lack of a published consensus amongst experts may be hindering progress and affecting outcomes. This paper reports results from the first modified Delphi consensus building exercise on this procedure. A committee of 16 recognised opinion-makers in bariatric surgery with special interest in OAGB/MGB was constituted. The committee invited 101 OAGB/MGB experts from 39 countries to vote on 55 statements in areas of controversy or variation associated with this procedure. An agreement amongst ≥ 70.0% of the experts was considered to indicate a consensus. A consensus was achieved for 48 of the 55 proposed statements after two rounds of voting. There was no consensus for seven statements. Remarkably, 100.0% of the experts felt that OAGB/MGB was an "acceptable mainstream surgical option" and 96.0% felt that it could no longer be regarded as a new or experimental procedure. Approximately 96.0 and 91.0% of the experts felt that OAGB/MGB did not increase the risk of gastric and oesophageal cancers, respectively. Approximately 94.0% of the experts felt that the construction of the gastric pouch should start in the horizontal portion of the lesser curvature. There was a consensus of 82, 84, and 85% for routinely supplementing iron, vitamin B 12 , and vitamin D, respectively. OAGB/MGB experts achieved consensus on a number of aspects concerning this procedure but several areas of disagreements persist emphasising the need for more studies in the future.

  14. Drivers for the effective management of HIV and AIDS in the South African construction industry--a Delphi study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harinarain, Nishani; Haupt, Theo Conrad

    2014-09-01

    Different industries manage the threats presented by HIV and AIDS in different ways. The construction industry is particularly vulnerable to the pandemic because of its large unskilled labour force, high labour turnover and the migratory nature of the workforce. The study reported on in this paper, the first of its kind in the South African construction industry, aimed to identify the important drivers needed for the effective management of HIV and AIDS and to understand their impact on the construction industry. The aim was achieved in two stages. The first stage involved an extensive literature review to determine the factors that drive corporate response in the management of HIV and AIDS in the South African construction sector. Six drivers, namely legal requirements, social pressures, business costs, voluntary regulation, visibility of the disease, and individuals within companies with a total of 87 items were identified. An iterative Delphi technique with a panel of experts was used to validate the factors identified in the literature review and formed the second stage of this research. The Delphi method was used as it provided a systematic approach to achieve consensus on the six drivers for effective management of HIV and AIDS management in the construction industry. An expert panel responded to three iterations of questionnaires to achieve consensus. The experts reached consensus on 56 items categorised under the 6 drivers. This study found that the legal driver was considered most important but only second in terms of impact. The second most important driver was the visibility of the disease and was regarded as the driver with the highest impact. Internal agents ranked third in terms of importance and impact. This study can be used for further research to assist the construction industry in helping fight HIV and AIDS.

  15. What are priorities for deprescribing for elderly patients? Capturing the voice of practitioners: a modified delphi process.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Farrell

    Full Text Available Polypharmacy and inappropriate medication use among older adults contribute to adverse drug reactions, falls, cognitive impairment, noncompliance, hospitalization and mortality. While deprescribing - tapering, reducing or stopping a medication - is feasible and relatively safe, clinicians find it difficult to carry out. Deprescribing guidelines would facilitate this process. The aim of this paper is to identify and prioritize medication classes where evidence-based deprescribing guidelines would be of benefit to clinicians. A modified Delphi approach included a literature review to identify potentially inappropriate medications for the elderly, an expert panel to develop survey content and three survey rounds to seek consensus on priorities. Panel participants included three pharmacists, two family physicians and one social scientist. Sixty-five Canadian geriatrics experts (36 pharmacists, 19 physicians and 10 nurse practitioners participated in the survey. Twenty-nine drugs/drug classes were included in the first survey with 14 reaching the required (≥ 70% level of consensus, and 2 new drug classes added from qualitative comments. Fifty-three participants completed round two, and 47 participants completed round three. The final five priorities were benzodiazepines, atypical antipsychotics, statins, tricyclic antidepressants, and proton pump inhibitors; nine other drug classes were also identified as being in need of evidence-based deprescribing guidelines. The Delphi consensus process identified five priority drug classes for which expert clinicians felt guidance is needed for deprescribing. The classes of drugs that emerged strongly from the rankings dealt with mental health, cardiovascular, gastroenterological, and neurological conditions. The results suggest that deprescribing and overtreatment occurs through the full spectrum of primary care, and that evidence-based deprescribing guidelines are a priority in the care of the elderly.

  16. What are priorities for deprescribing for elderly patients? Capturing the voice of practitioners: a modified delphi process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Barbara; Tsang, Corey; Raman-Wilms, Lalitha; Irving, Hannah; Conklin, James; Pottie, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Polypharmacy and inappropriate medication use among older adults contribute to adverse drug reactions, falls, cognitive impairment, noncompliance, hospitalization and mortality. While deprescribing - tapering, reducing or stopping a medication - is feasible and relatively safe, clinicians find it difficult to carry out. Deprescribing guidelines would facilitate this process. The aim of this paper is to identify and prioritize medication classes where evidence-based deprescribing guidelines would be of benefit to clinicians. A modified Delphi approach included a literature review to identify potentially inappropriate medications for the elderly, an expert panel to develop survey content and three survey rounds to seek consensus on priorities. Panel participants included three pharmacists, two family physicians and one social scientist. Sixty-five Canadian geriatrics experts (36 pharmacists, 19 physicians and 10 nurse practitioners) participated in the survey. Twenty-nine drugs/drug classes were included in the first survey with 14 reaching the required (≥ 70%) level of consensus, and 2 new drug classes added from qualitative comments. Fifty-three participants completed round two, and 47 participants completed round three. The final five priorities were benzodiazepines, atypical antipsychotics, statins, tricyclic antidepressants, and proton pump inhibitors; nine other drug classes were also identified as being in need of evidence-based deprescribing guidelines. The Delphi consensus process identified five priority drug classes for which expert clinicians felt guidance is needed for deprescribing. The classes of drugs that emerged strongly from the rankings dealt with mental health, cardiovascular, gastroenterological, and neurological conditions. The results suggest that deprescribing and overtreatment occurs through the full spectrum of primary care, and that evidence-based deprescribing guidelines are a priority in the care of the elderly.

  17. Spatial vulnerability units - expert-based spatial modelling of socio-economic vulnerability in the Salzach catchment, Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kienberger, S.; Lang, S.; Zeil, P.

    2009-05-01

    The assessment of vulnerability has moved to centre-stage of the debate between different scientific disciplines related to climate change and disaster risk management. Composed by a combination of social, economical, physical and environmental factors the assessment implies combining different domains as well as quantitative with qualitative data and makes it therefore a challenge to identify an integrated metric for vulnerability. In this paper we define vulnerability in the context of climate change, targeting the hazard "flood". The developed methodology is being tested in the Salzach river catchment in Austria, which is largely prone to floods. The proposed methodology allows the spatial quantification of vulnerability and the identification of vulnerability units. These units build upon the geon concept which acts as a framework for the regionalization of continuous spatial information according to defined parameters of homogeneity. Using geons, we are capable of transforming singular domains of information on specific systemic components to policy-relevant, conditioned information. Considering the fact that vulnerability is not directly measurable and due to its complex dimension and social construction an expert-based approach has been chosen. Established methodologies such as Multicriteria Decision Analysis, Delphi exercises and regionalization approaches are being integrated. The method not only enables the assessment of vulnerability independent from administrative boundaries, but also applies an aggregation mode which reflects homogenous vulnerability units. This supports decision makers to reflect on complex issues such as vulnerability. Next to that, the advantage is to decompose the units to their underlying domains. Feedback from disaster management experts indicates that the approach helps to improve the design of measures aimed at strengthening preparedness and mitigation. From this point of view, we reach a step closer towards validation of the

  18. Expert consensus panel guidelines on geriatric assessment in oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donovan, A; Mohile, S G; Leech, M

    2015-07-01

    Despite consensus guidelines on best practice in the care of older patients with cancer, geriatric assessment (GA) has yet to be optimally integrated into the field of oncology in most countries. There is a relative lack of consensus in the published literature as to the best approach to take, and there is a degree of uncertainty as to how integration of geriatric medicine principles might optimally predict patient outcomes. The aim of the current study was to obtain consensus on GA in oncology to inform the implementation of a geriatric oncology programme. A four-round Delphi process was employed. The Delphi method is a structured group facilitation process, using multiple iterations to gain consensus on a given topic. Consensus was reached on the optimal assessment method and interventions required for the commonly employed domains of GA. Other aspects of GA, such as screening methods and age cut-off for assessment, represented a higher degree of disagreement. The expert panel employed in this study clearly identified the criteria that should be included in a clinical geriatric oncology programme. In the absence of evidence-based guidelines, this may prove useful in the care of older cancer patients. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. A Quality, Benefit, Cost, and Financial Framework for Health Information Technology, E-Prescribing: A Delphi Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMuro, Paul R; Ash, Joan; Middleton, Blackford; Fletcher, Justin; Madison, Cecelia J

    2017-01-01

    Little research has been conducted about the quality, benefits, costs, and financial considerations associated with health information technology (HIT), particularly informatics technologies, such as e-prescribing, from the perspective of all its stakeholders. This research effort sought to identify the stakeholders involved in e-prescribing and to identify and rank-order the positives and the negatives from the perspective of the stakeholders to create a framework to assist in the development of incentives and payment mechanisms which result in better managed care. The Delphi method was employed by enlisting a panel of experts. They were presented with the results of initial research in an online survey of questions which sought to prioritize the quality, benefit, cost, and financial effects of e-prescribing from the perspective of each stakeholder. From the results of this study, a framework was presented to framework experts. The experts added stakeholders and positives and negatives to the initial lists and rank-ordered the positives and negatives of e-prescribing from the perspective of each stakeholder. The aggregate results were summarized by category of stakeholder. The framework experts evaluated the framework. Positives and negatives can be rank-ordered from the perspective of each stakeholder. A useful framework was created.

  20. Identifying and Prioritizing Effective Factors on Classifying A Private Bank Customers by Delphi Technique and Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Khayatmoghadam

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Banking industry development and presence of different financial institutions cause to increase competition in customer and their capitals attraction so that there are about 28 banks and many credit and financial institutions from which 6 banks are public and 22 banks are private. Among them, public banks have a more appropriate situation than private banks with regard to governmental relations and support and due to geographical expansion and longer history. But due to lack of above conditions; private banks try to attract customers with regarding science areas to remedy this situation. Therefore, in this study we are decided to review banking customers from a different viewpoint. For this reason, we initially obtained ideal indications from banking viewpoint in two-story of uses and resources customers using experts and Delphi technique application which based on this, indicators such as account workflow, account average, lack of returned cheque, etc and in uses section, the amount of facility received, the amount of received warranties, etc, were determined. Then, using a Hierarchical Analysis (AHP method and experts opinions through software Expert Choice11, priority of these criteria were determined and weight of each index was determined. It should be noted that statistical population of bank experts associated with this study were queue and staff. Also obtained results can be used as input for customer grouping in line with CRM techniques implementation.

  1. Skill in expert dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helton, William S

    2007-09-01

    The motor control of novice participants is often cognitively demanding and susceptible to interference by other tasks. As people develop expertise, their motor control becomes less susceptible to interference from other tasks. Researchers propose a transition in human motor skill from active control to automaticity. This progression may also be the case with nonhuman animals. Differences in performance characteristics between expert, advanced, intermediate, and novice dogs competing in the sport of agility were investigated. There were statistically significant differences between dogs of varying competitive levels in speed, motor control, and signal detections suggestive of increasing motor control automaticity in highly skilled, or expert, dogs. The largest sequential motor control difference was between novice and intermediate dogs, d = .96, whereas the largest sequential signal detection difference was between advanced and expert dogs, d = .90. These findings have two significant implications for expertise researchers: first, the observed similarities between dogs and humans may enable dogs to be used as expert models; and second, expertise science and methods may be profitably employed in the future to create more proficient canine workers.

  2. Capital Expert System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowell, Laurie; Gary, Jack; Illingworth, Bill; Sargent, Tom

    1987-05-01

    Gathering information, necessary forms, and financial calculations needed to generate a "capital investment proposal" is an extremely complex and difficult process. The intent of the capital investment proposal is to ensure management that the proposed investment has been thoroughly investigated and will have a positive impact on corporate goals. Meeting this requirement typically takes four or five experts a total of 12 hours to generate a "Capital Package." A Capital Expert System was therefore developed using "Personal Consultant." The completed system is hybrid and as such does not depend solely on rules but incorporates several different software packages that communicate through variables and functions passed from one to another. This paper describes the use of expert system techniques, methodology in building the knowledge base, contexts, LISP functions, data base, and special challenges that had to be overcome to create this system. The Capital Expert System is the successful result of a unique integration of artificial intelligence with business accounting, financial forms generation, and investment proposal expertise.

  3. Neural Expert Systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šíma, Jiří

    1995-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 2 (1995), s. 261-271 ISSN 0893-6080 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/95/0976 Keywords : expert system * knowledge representation * multilayered neural network * back propagation * interval neuron function * incomplete information * explanation Impact factor: 1.262, year: 1995

  4. Expert Cold Structure Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, T.; Demuysere, P.

    2011-05-01

    The EXPERT Program is funded by ESA. The objective of the EXPERT mission is to perform a sub-orbital flight during which measurements of critical aero- thermodynamic phenomena will be obtained by using state-of-the-art instrumentation. As part of the EXPERT Flight Segment, the responsibility of the Cold Structure Development Design, Manufacturing and Validation was committed to the Belgian industrial team SONACA/SABCA. The EXPERT Cold Structure includes the Launcher Adapter, the Bottom Panel, the Upper Panel, two Cross Panels and the Parachute Bay. An additional Launcher Adapter was manufactured for the separation tests. The selected assembly definition and manufacturing technologies ( machined parts and sandwich panels) were dictated classically by the mass and stiffness, but also by the CoG location and the sensitive separation interface. Used as support for the various on-board equipment, the Cold Structure is fixed to but thermally uncoupled from the PM 1000 thermal shield. It is protect on its bottom panel by a thermal blanket. As it is a protoflight, analysis was the main tool for the verification. Low level stiffness and modal analysis tests have also been performed on the Cold Structure equipped with its ballast. It allowed to complete its qualification and to prepare SONACA/SABCA support for the system dynamic tests foreseen in 2011. The structure was finally coated with a thermal control black painting and delivered on time to Thales Alenia Space-Italy end of March 201.

  5. A study on the overall economic risks of a hypothetical severe accident in nuclear power plant using the delphi method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Han Ki; Kim, Joo Yeon; Lee, Jai Ki

    2008-01-01

    Potential economic impact of a hypothetical severe accident at a nuclear power plant(Uljin units 3/4) was estimated by applying the delphi method, which is based on the expert judgements and opinions, in the process of quantifying uncertain factor. For the purpose of this study, it is assumed that the radioactive plume directs the inland direction. Since the economic risk can be divided into direct costs and indirect effects and more uncertainties are involved in the latter, the direct costs were estimated first and the indirect effects were then estimated by applying a weighting factor to the direct cost. The delphi method however subjects to risk of distortion or discrimination of variables because of the human behavior pattern. A mathematical approach based on the Bayesian inferences was employed for data processing to improve the delphi results. For this task, a model for data processing was developed. One-dimensional Monte Carlo analysis was applied to get a distribution of values of the weighting factor. The mean and median values of the weighting factor for the indirect effects appeared to be 2.59 and 2.08, respectively. These values are higher than the value suggested by OECD/NEA, 1.25. Some factors such as small territory and public attitude sensitive to radiation could affect the judgement of panel. Then the parameters of the model for estimating the direct costs were classified as U- and V-types, and two-dimensional Monte Carlo analysis was applied to quantify the overall economic risk. The resulting median of the overall economic risk was about 3.9% of the Gross Domestic Products (GDP) of Korea in 2006. When the cost of electricity loss, the highest direct cost, was not taken into account, the overall economic risk was reduced to 2.2% of GDP. This assessment can be used as a reference for justifying the radiological emergency planning and preparedness

  6. Essential elements for assessment of persons with severe neurological impairments for computer access utilizing assistive technology devices: a Delphi study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppestad, Brian Scott

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine prospective elements that should comprise a comprehensive and valid assessment of persons with severe disabilities for access to computers utilizing assistive technology (AT). Currently, there is a lack of guidelines regarding areas that permit a satisfactory measure of a person's need for AT devices to enable computer access, resulting in substandard services. A list of criteria for elements that should be incorporated into an instrument for determining AT for computer access was compiled from a literature review in the areas of neuroscience, rehabilitation, and education; and a Delphi study using an electronic survey form that was e-mailed to a panel of experts in the field of AT. Only those areas rated as essential to the assessment process ('very important' or 'important' by 80% of the respondents) were chosen as important criteria for an assessment instrument. The initial Delphi survey contained 22 categories (54 subcategories or elements) for incorporation into an assessment for computer access. The second round of the survey completed the Delphi process resulting in a consensus for inclusion of 39 of the elements in an assessment instrument. There are inherent obstacles to prescribing the proper AT device to assist disabled persons with computer access due to the complexity of his/her condition, and the multitude of technological devices available to aid persons in accomplishing diverse tasks. This study reveals the intricacy of the assessment process, especially in persons with severe disabilities associated with neurological conditions. An assessment instrument should be broad ranging, integrating both intrinsic and extrinsic factors, considering the multidimensional nature of AT prescription for computer access.

  7. Incorporating the Delphi Technique to investigate renewable energy technology transfer in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Otaibi, Nasir K.

    Saudi Arabia is a major oil-producing nation facing a rapidly-growing population, high unemployment, climate change, and the depletion of its natural resources, potentially including its oil supply. Technology transfer is regarded as a means to diversify countries' economies beyond their natural resources. This dissertation examined the opportunities and barriers to utilizing technology transfer successfully to build renewable energy resources in Saudi Arabia to diversify the economy beyond oil production. Examples of other developing countries that have successfully used technology transfer to transform their economies are explored, including Japan, Malayasia, and the United Arab Emirates. Brazil is presented as a detailed case study to illustrate its transition to an economy based to a much greater degree than before on renewable energy. Following a pilot study, the Delphi Method was used in this research to gather the opinions of a panel of technology transfer experts consisting of 10 heterogeneous members of different institutions in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, including aviation, telecommunication, oil industry, education, health systems, and military and governmental organizations. In three rounds of questioning, the experts identified Education, Dependence on Oil, and Manpower as the 3 most significant factors influencing the potential for success of renewable energy technology transfer for Saudi Arabia. Political factors were also rated toward the "Very Important" end of a Likert scale and were discussed as they impact Education, Oil Dependence, and Manpower. The experts' opinions are presented and interpreted. They form the basis for recommended future research and discussion of how in light of its political system and its dependence on oil, Saudi Arabia can realistically move forward on renewable energy technology transfer and secure its economic future.

  8. Management of Helicobacter pylori infection in Latin America: A Delphi technique-based consensus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollan, Antonio; Arab, Juan Pablo; Camargo, M Constanza; Candia, Roberto; Harris, Paul; Ferreccio, Catterina; Rabkin, Charles S; Gana, Juan Cristóbal; Cortés, Pablo; Herrero, Rolando; Durán, Luisa; García, Apolinaria; Toledo, Claudio; Espino, Alberto; Lustig, Nicole; Sarfatis, Alberto; Figueroa, Catalina; Torres, Javier; Riquelme, Arnoldo

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To optimize diagnosis and treatment guidelines for this geographic region, a panel of gastroenterologists, epidemiologists, and basic scientists carried out a structured evaluation of available literature. METHODS: Relevant questions were distributed among the experts, who generated draft statements for consideration by the entire panel. A modified three-round Delphi technique method was used to reach consensus. Critical input was also obtained from representatives of the concerned medical community. The quality of the evidence and level of recommendation supporting each statement was graded according to United States Preventive Services Task Force criteria. RESULTS: A group of ten experts was established. The survey included 15 open-ended questions that were distributed among the experts, who assessed the articles associated with each question. The levels of agreement achieved by the panel were 50% in the first round, 73.3% in the second round and 100% in the third round. Main consensus recommendations included: (1) when available, urea breath and stool antigen test (HpSA) should be used for non-invasive diagnosis; (2) detect and eradicate Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) in all gastroscopy patients to decrease risk of peptic ulcer disease, prevent o retard progression in patients with preneoplastic lesions, and to prevent recurrence in patients treated for gastric cancer; (3) further investigate implementation issues and health outcomes of H. pylori eradication for primary prevention of gastric cancer in high-risk populations; (4) prescribe standard 14-d triple therapy or sequential therapy for first-line treatment; (5) routinely assess eradication success post-treatment in clinical settings; and (6) select second- and third-line therapies according to antibiotic susceptibility testing. CONCLUSION: These achievable steps toward better region-specific management can be expected to improve clinical health outcomes. PMID:25152601

  9. Key indicators of overcrowding in Canadian emergency departments: a Delphi study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ospina, Maria B; Bond, Kenneth; Schull, Michael; Innes, Grant; Blitz, Sandra; Rowe, Brian H

    2007-09-01

    To identify the level of consensus among a group of Canadian emergency department (ED) experts on the importance of a set of indicators to document ED overcrowding. A 2-round Delphi survey was conducted from February 2005 to April 2005, with a multidisciplinary group of 38 Canadian experts in various aspects of ED operations who rated the relevance of 36 measures and ranked their relative importance as indicators of ED overcrowding. The response rates for the first and second rounds were 84% and 87%, respectively. The most important indicator identified by the experts was the percentage of the ED occupied by inpatients (mean on a 7-point Likert-type scale 6.53, standard deviation [SD] 0.80). The other 9 indicators, in order of the importance attributed, were the total number of ED patients (mean 6.35, SD 0.75), the total time in the ED (mean 6.16, SD 1.04), the percentage of time that the ED was at or above capacity (mean 6.16, SD 1.08), the overall bed occupancy (mean 6.19, SD 0.93), the time from bed request to bed assignment (mean 6.06, SD 1.08), the time from triage to care (mean 5.84, SD 1.08) the physician satisfaction (mean 5.84, SD 1.22), the time from bed availability to ward transfer (mean 5.53, SD 1.72) and the number of staffed acute care beds (mean 5.53, SD 1.57). Ten clinically important measures were prioritized by the participants as relevant indicators of ED overcrowding. Indicators derived from consensus techniques have face validity, but their metric properties must be tested to ensure their effectiveness for identifying ED overcrowding in different settings.

  10. Determining an Imaging Literacy Curriculum for Radiation Oncologists: An International Delphi Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giuliani, Meredith E., E-mail: Meredith.Giuliani@rmp.uhn.on.ca [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Gillan, Caitlin [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Milne, Robin A. [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Uchino, Minako; Millar, Barbara-Ann; Catton, Pamela [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: Rapid evolution of imaging technologies and their integration into radiation therapy practice demands that radiation oncology (RO) training curricula be updated. The purpose of this study was to develop an entry-to-practice image literacy competency profile. Methods and Materials: A list of 263 potential imaging competency items were assembled from international objectives of training. Expert panel eliminated redundant or irrelevant items to create a list of 97 unique potential competency items. An international 2-round Delphi process was conducted with experts in RO. In round 1, all experts scored, on a 9-point Likert scale, the degree to which they agreed an item should be included in the competency profile. Items with a mean score ≥7 were included, those 4 to 6 were reviewed in round 2, and items scored <4 were excluded. In round 2, items were discussed and subsequently ranked for inclusion or exclusion in the competency profile. Items with >75% voting for inclusion were included in the final competency profile. Results: Forty-nine radiation oncologists were invited to participate in round 1, and 32 (65%) did so. Participants represented 24 centers in 6 countries. Of the 97 items ranked in round 1, 80 had a mean score ≥7, 1 item had a score <4, and 16 items with a mean score of 4 to 6 were reviewed and rescored in round 2. In round 2, 4 items had >75% of participants voting for inclusion and were included; the remaining 12 were excluded. The final list of 84 items formed the final competency profile. The 84 enabling competency items were aggregated into the following 4 thematic groups of key competencies: (1) imaging fundamentals (42 items); (2) clinical application (27 items); (3) clinical management (5 items); and (4) professional practice (10 items). Conclusions: We present an imaging literacy competency profile which could constitute the minimum training standards in radiation oncology residency programs.

  11. Determining an Imaging Literacy Curriculum for Radiation Oncologists: An International Delphi Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giuliani, Meredith E.; Gillan, Caitlin; Milne, Robin A.; Uchino, Minako; Millar, Barbara-Ann; Catton, Pamela

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Rapid evolution of imaging technologies and their integration into radiation therapy practice demands that radiation oncology (RO) training curricula be updated. The purpose of this study was to develop an entry-to-practice image literacy competency profile. Methods and Materials: A list of 263 potential imaging competency items were assembled from international objectives of training. Expert panel eliminated redundant or irrelevant items to create a list of 97 unique potential competency items. An international 2-round Delphi process was conducted with experts in RO. In round 1, all experts scored, on a 9-point Likert scale, the degree to which they agreed an item should be included in the competency profile. Items with a mean score ≥7 were included, those 4 to 6 were reviewed in round 2, and items scored <4 were excluded. In round 2, items were discussed and subsequently ranked for inclusion or exclusion in the competency profile. Items with >75% voting for inclusion were included in the final competency profile. Results: Forty-nine radiation oncologists were invited to participate in round 1, and 32 (65%) did so. Participants represented 24 centers in 6 countries. Of the 97 items ranked in round 1, 80 had a mean score ≥7, 1 item had a score <4, and 16 items with a mean score of 4 to 6 were reviewed and rescored in round 2. In round 2, 4 items had >75% of participants voting for inclusion and were included; the remaining 12 were excluded. The final list of 84 items formed the final competency profile. The 84 enabling competency items were aggregated into the following 4 thematic groups of key competencies: (1) imaging fundamentals (42 items); (2) clinical application (27 items); (3) clinical management (5 items); and (4) professional practice (10 items). Conclusions: We present an imaging literacy competency profile which could constitute the minimum training standards in radiation oncology residency programs

  12. Definition, categorization, and terminology of episodic breathlessness: consensus by an international Delphi survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Steffen T; Weingärtner, Vera; Higginson, Irene J; Voltz, Raymond; Bausewein, Claudia

    2014-05-01

    Episodic breathlessness is a common and distressing symptom in patients with advanced disease. Still, it is not yet clearly defined. The aim of this work was to develop an international definition, categorization, and terminology of episodic breathlessness. An online Delphi survey was conducted with international breathlessness experts. We used a structured questionnaire to identify specific aspects and reach agreement on a definition, categorization, and terminology (five-point Likert scale). Consensus was defined in advance as ≥70% agreement. Thirty-one of 68 (45.6%), 29 of 67 (43.3%), and 33 of 67 (49.3%) experts responded in the first, second, and third rounds, respectively. Participants were 20-79 years old, about 60% male, and more than 75% rated their own breathlessness expertise as moderate to high. After three rounds, consensus was reached on a definition, categorization, and terminology (84.4%, 96.3%, and 92.9% agreement). The final definition includes general and qualitative aspects of the symptom, for example, time-limited severe worsening of intensity or unpleasantness of breathlessness in the patient's perception. Categories are predictable or unpredictable, depending on whether any triggers can be identified. There is high agreement on clinical and operational aspects of episodic breathlessness in advanced disease among international experts. The consented definition and categorization may serve as a catalyst for clinical and basic research to improve symptom control and patients' quality of life. Copyright © 2014 U.S. Cancer Pain Relief Committee. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Management of problematic behaviours among individuals on long-term opioid therapy: protocol for a Delphi study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlin, Jessica S; Young, Sarah R; Azari, Soraya; Becker, William C; Liebschutz, Jane M; Pomeranz, Jamie; Roy, Payel; Saini, Shalini; Starrels, Joanna L; Edelman, E Jennifer

    2016-05-06

    Given the sharp rise in opioid prescribing and heightened recognition of opioid addiction and overdose, opioid safety has become a priority. Clinical guidelines on long-term opioid therapy (LTOT) for chronic pain consistently recommend routine monitoring and screening for problematic behaviours. Yet, there is no consensus definition regarding what constitutes a problematic behaviour, and recommendations for appropriate management to inform front-line providers, researchers and policymakers are lacking. This creates a barrier to effective guideline implementation. Thus, our objective is to present the protocol for a Delphi study designed to: (1) elicit expert opinion to identify the most important problematic behaviours seen in clinical practice and (2) develop consensus on how these behaviours should be managed in the context of routine clinical care. We will include clinical experts, defined as individuals who provide direct patient care to adults with chronic pain who are on LTOT in an ambulatory setting, and for whom opioid prescribing for chronic non-malignant pain is an area of expertise. The Delphi study will be conducted online in 4 consecutive rounds. Participants will be asked to list problematic behaviours and identify which behaviours are most common and challenging. They will then describe how they would manage the most frequently occurring common and challenging behaviours, rating the importance of each management strategy. Qualitative analysis will be used to categorise behaviours and management strategies, and consensus will be based on a definition established a priori. This study has been approved by the Institutional Review Board (IRB) of the University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB). This study will generate Delphi-based expert consensus on the management of problematic behaviours that arise in individuals on LTOT, which we will publish and disseminate to appropriate professional societies. Ultimately, our findings will provide guidance to front

  14. Practical state of health estimation of power batteries based on Delphi method and grey relational grade analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Bingxiang; Jiang, Jiuchun; Zheng, Fangdan; Zhao, Wei; Liaw, Bor Yann; Ruan, Haijun; Han, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Weige

    2015-05-01

    The state of health (SOH) estimation is very critical to battery management system to ensure the safety and reliability of EV battery operation. Here, we used a unique hybrid approach to enable complex SOH estimations. The approach hybridizes the Delphi method known for its simplicity and effectiveness in applying weighting factors for complicated decision-making and the grey relational grade analysis (GRGA) for multi-factor optimization. Six critical factors were used in the consideration for SOH estimation: peak power at 30% state-of-charge (SOC), capacity, the voltage drop at 30% SOC with a C/3 pulse, the temperature rises at the end of discharge and charge at 1C; respectively, and the open circuit voltage at the end of charge after 1-h rest. The weighting of these factors for SOH estimation was scored by the 'experts' in the Delphi method, indicating the influencing power of each factor on SOH. The parameters for these factors expressing the battery state variations are optimized by GRGA. Eight battery cells were used to illustrate the principle and methodology to estimate the SOH by this hybrid approach, and the results were compared with those based on capacity and power capability. The contrast among different SOH estimations is discussed.

  15. A Delphi Study to Detect Deficiencies and Propose Actions in Real Life Treatment of Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo García-Layana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Spanish retina specialists were surveyed in order to propose actions to decrease deficiencies in real-life neovascular age macular degeneration treatment (nv-AMD. Methods. One hundred experts, members of the Spanish Vitreoretinal Society (SERV, were invited to complete an online survey of 52 statements about nv-AMD management with a modified Delphi methodology. Four rounds were performed using a 5-point Linkert scale. Recommendations were developed after analyzing the differences between the results and the SERV guidelines recommendations. Results. Eighty-seven specialists completed all the Delphi rounds. Once major potential deficiencies in real-life nv-AMD treatment were identified, 15 recommendations were developed with a high level of agreement. Consensus statements to reduce the burden of the disease included the use of treat and extend regimen and to reduce the amount of diagnostic tests during the loading phase and training technical staff to perform these tests and reduce the time between relapse detection and reinjection, as well as establishing patient referral protocols to outside general ophthalmology clinics. Conclusion. The level of agreement with the final recommendations for nv-AMD treatment among Spanish retinal specialist was high indicating that some actions could be applied in order to reduce the deficiencies in real-life nv-AMD treatment.

  16. A Delphi Study on the Potential Benefits and Obstacles of Interstate Short Sea Shipping in Archipelagic Southeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Arof

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to identify the potential benefits and obstacles of the interstate Short Sea Shipping (SSS operation in the archipelagic Southeast Asia sub-region. Although literature has addressed a myriad of benefits and obstacles that were caused by the SSS operation as an alternative mode to unimodal land transport, it has been recognised that each SSS corridor may have its own peculiarities. Therefore, the identification of the potential benefits and obstacles through a Delphi survey among sub-regional expert respondents is expected to inform the countries of Southeast Asia on how to direct their limited resources to address the obstacles identified in order to enable a viable interstate SSS operation. The initial review of the benefits and obstacles of SSS operations will focus on case studies performed in Europe as the breadth of literature on SSS outside Europe is still limited. Hence, this study addresses the gap in the literature by focusing on SSS in archipelagic Southeast Asia particularly those involving interstate Ro-Ro operations and extending the usage of Delphi technique to the realm of interstate SSS.

  17. Bioethics for Technical Experts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Shigetaka

    Along with rapidly expanding applications of life science and technology, technical experts have been implicated more and more often with ethical, social, and legal problems than before. It should be noted that in this background there are scientific and social uncertainty elements which are inevitable during the progress of life science in addition to the historically-established social unreliability to scientists and engineers. In order to solve these problems, therefore, we should establish the social governance with ‘relief’ and ‘reliance’ which enables for both citizens and engineers to share the awareness of the issues, to design social orders and criterions based on hypothetical sense of values for bioethics, to carry out practical use management of each subject carefully, and to improve the sense of values from hypothetical to universal. Concerning these measures, the technical experts can learn many things from the present performance in the medical field.

  18. Expert PLSQL Practices

    CERN Document Server

    Beresniewicz, John

    2011-01-01

    Expert PL/SQL Practices is a book of collected wisdom on PL/SQL programming from some of the best and the brightest in the field. Each chapter is a deep-dive into a specific problem, technology, or feature set that you'll face as a PL/SQL programmer. Each author has chosen their topic out of the strong belief that what they share can make a positive difference in the quality and scalability of code that you write. The path to mastery begins with syntax and the mechanics of writing statements to make things happen. If you've reached that point with PL/SQL, then let the authors of Expert PL/SQL

  19. [Objective: To present the process and challenges of developing an online competency-based course on public health policy using a collaborative international approach.Methods: Five public health experts, supported by an expert in educational technology, adopted a rigorous approach to the development of the course: a needs analysis, identification of objectives and competencies, development of a pedagogical scenario for each module and target, choice of teaching methods and learning activities, material to be identified or developed, and the responsibilities and tasks involved.Results: The 2-credit (90-hour) graduate course consists of six modules including an integration module. The modules start with a variety of case studies: tobacco law (neutral packaging), supervised injection sites, housing, integrated services for the frail elderly, a prevention programme for mothers from disadvantaged backgrounds, and the obligatory use of bicycle helmets. In modules 1, 3, 4 and 5, students learn about different stages of the public policy development process: emergence, formulation and adoption, implementation and evaluation. Module 2 focuses on the importance of values and ideologies in public policy. The integration module allows the students to apply the knowledge learned and addresses the role of experts in public policy and ethical considerations.Conclusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hébert, Réjean; Coppieters, Yves; Pradier, Christian; Williams-Jones, Bryn; Brahimi, Cora; Farley, Céline

    2018-01-30

    To present the process and challenges of developing an online competency-based course on public health policy using a collaborative international approach. Five public health experts, supported by an expert in educational technology, adopted a rigorous approach to the development of the course: a needs analysis, identification of objectives and competencies, development of a pedagogical scenario for each module and target, choice of teaching methods and learning activities, material to be identified or developed, and the responsibilities and tasks involved. The 2-credit (90-hour) graduate course consists of six modules including an integration module. The modules start with a variety of case studies: tobacco law (neutral packaging), supervised injection sites, housing, integrated services for the frail elderly, a prevention programme for mothers from disadvantaged backgrounds, and the obligatory use of bicycle helmets. In modules 1, 3, 4 and 5, students learn about different stages of the public policy development process: emergence, formulation and adoption, implementation and evaluation. Module 2 focuses on the importance of values and ideologies in public policy. The integration module allows the students to apply the knowledge learned and addresses the role of experts in public policy and ethical considerations. The course has been integrated into the graduate programmes of the participating universities and allows students to follow, at a distance, an innovative training programme.

  20. [Applying the Modified Delphi Technique to Develop the Role of HIV Case Managers and Essential Nursing Competencies in HIV Care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Nai-Ying; Hsieh, Chia-Yin; Chen, Yen-Chin; Tsai, Chen-Hsi; Liu, Hsiao-Ying; Liu, Li-Fang

    2015-08-01

    Since 2005, the Taiwan Centers for Disease Control (Taiwan CDC) initiated an HIV case management program in AIDS-designated hospitals to provide integrative services and risk-reduction counseling for HIV-infected individuals. In light of the increasingly complex and highly specialized nature of clinical care, expanding and improving competency-based professional education is important to enhance the quality of HIV/AIDS care. The aim of this study was to develop the essential competency framework for HIV care for HIV case managers in Taiwan. We reviewed essential competencies of HIV care from Canada, the United Kingdom, and several African countries and devised descriptions of the roles of case managers and of the associated core competencies for HIV care in Taiwan. The modified Delphi technique was used to evaluate the draft framework of these roles and core competencies. A total of 15 HIV care experts were invited to join the expert panel to review and rank the draft framework. The final framework consisted of 7 roles and 27 competencies for HIV case managers. In Round 1, only 3 items did not receive consensus approval from the experts. After modification based on opinions of the experts, 7 roles and 27 competencies received 97.06% consensus approval in Round 2 and were organized into the final framework for HIV case managers. These roles and associated core competencies were: HIV Care Expert (9 competencies), Communicator (1 competency), Collaborator (4 competencies), Navigator (2 competencies), Manager (4 competencies), Advocate (2 competencies), and Professional (5 competencies). The authors developed an essential competency framework for HIV care using the consensus of a multidisciplinary expert panel. Curriculum developers and advanced nurses and practitioners may use this framework to support developments and to ensure a high quality of HIV care.