Sample records for expert decision system

  1. Tuning Expert Systems for Cost-Sensitive Decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atish P. Sinha


    Full Text Available There is currently a growing body of research examining the effects of the fusion of domain knowledge and data mining. This paper examines the impact of such fusion in a novel way by applying validation techniques and training data to enhance the performance of knowledge-based expert systems. We present an algorithm for tuning an expert system to minimize the expected misclassification cost. The algorithm employs data reserved for training data mining models to determine the decision cutoff of the expert system, in terms of the certainty factor of a prediction, for optimal performance. We evaluate the proposed algorithm and find that tuning the expert system results in significantly lower costs. Our approach could be extended to enhance the performance of any intelligent or knowledge system that makes cost-sensitive business decisions.

  2. A fuzzy expert system for diabetes decision support application. (United States)

    Lee, Chang-Shing; Wang, Mei-Hui


    An increasing number of decision support systems based on domain knowledge are adopted to diagnose medical conditions such as diabetes and heart disease. It is widely pointed that the classical ontologies cannot sufficiently handle imprecise and vague knowledge for some real world applications, but fuzzy ontology can effectively resolve data and knowledge problems with uncertainty. This paper presents a novel fuzzy expert system for diabetes decision support application. A five-layer fuzzy ontology, including a fuzzy knowledge layer, fuzzy group relation layer, fuzzy group domain layer, fuzzy personal relation layer, and fuzzy personal domain layer, is developed in the fuzzy expert system to describe knowledge with uncertainty. By applying the novel fuzzy ontology to the diabetes domain, the structure of the fuzzy diabetes ontology (FDO) is defined to model the diabetes knowledge. Additionally, a semantic decision support agent (SDSA), including a knowledge construction mechanism, fuzzy ontology generating mechanism, and semantic fuzzy decision making mechanism, is also developed. The knowledge construction mechanism constructs the fuzzy concepts and relations based on the structure of the FDO. The instances of the FDO are generated by the fuzzy ontology generating mechanism. Finally, based on the FDO and the fuzzy ontology, the semantic fuzzy decision making mechanism simulates the semantic description of medical staff for diabetes-related application. Importantly, the proposed fuzzy expert system can work effectively for diabetes decision support application.

  3. Multicriterial Methods used in Expert Systems for Business Decision Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia MUNTEAN


    Full Text Available Many organizations are in front of most competitive economic environments, where, in order to survive, they must reduce costs all the time and adopt the most intelligent business strategies. In most decision making activities the manager has to decide which variant is the most advantageous, taking into account a multitude of criterions. Expert systems use the expert's knowledge and problem solving skills in a particular subject area throughout an organization, and can propose the optimal variant to be chosen. In this paper we have outlined the role of multicriterial methods in programming expert systems to decide in favor of the most eligible variant between a multitude of possibilities. We also made a case study and designed the prototype of an expert system for choosing the most profitable offer among many, in the prenegotiation stage, for a company, in order to organize the negotiation processes accor-dingly. In this respect, we tried to highlight the usefulness of multicriterial mathematical me-thods in three negotiation processes of a Romanian negotiation team with foreign negotiation teams for the acquisition of an equipment.

  4. Expert Systems, Job Aids, and the Future of Instructional Technology; and Decision Tables, the Poor Person's Answer to "Expert Systems." (United States)

    Harmon, Paul; Pipe, Peter


    Describes design and presents examples of industrial use of small expert systems and guidelines for choosing problems which lend themselves to small tool solutions. Use of microcomputer facilitated decision tables to diagnose and categorize people, things, and issues is suggested, and development of three decision table formats is described. (MBR)

  5. Neural expert decision support system for stroke diagnosis (United States)

    Kupershtein, Leonid M.; Martyniuk, Tatiana B.; Krencin, Myhail D.; Kozhemiako, Andriy V.; Bezsmertnyi, Yurii; Bezsmertna, Halyna; Kolimoldayev, Maksat; Smolarz, Andrzej; Weryńska-Bieniasz, RóŻa; Uvaysova, Svetlana


    In the work the hybrid expert system for stroke diagnosis was presented. The base of expert system consists of neural network and production rules. This program can quickly and accurately set to the patient preliminary and final diagnoses, get examination and treatment plans, print data of patient, analyze statistics data and perform parameterized search for patients.

  6. Computer-Aided Decisions in Human Services: Expert Systems and Multivariate Models. (United States)

    Sicoly, Fiore


    This comparison of two approaches to the development of computerized supports for decision making--expert systems and multivariate models--focuses on computerized systems that assist professionals with tasks related to diagnosis or classification in human services. Validation of both expert systems and statistical models is emphasized. (39…

  7. Expert System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hildebrandt, Thomas Troels; Cattani, Gian Luca


    An expert system is a computer system for inferring knowledge from a knowledge base, typically by using a set of inference rules. When the concept of expert systems was introduced at Stanford University in the early 1970s, the knowledge base was an unstructured set of facts. Today the knowledge...... base of expert systems is often given in terms of an ontology, extracted and built from various data sources by employing natural language-processing and statistics. To emphasize such capabilities, the term “expert” is now often replaced by “cognitive,” “knowledge,” “knowledge-based,” or “intelligent......” system. With very few exceptions, general-purpose expert systems have failed to emerge so far. However, expert systems are applied in specialized domains, particularly in healthcare. The increasing availability of large quantities of data to organizations today provides a valuable opportunity...

  8. On the use of computerised decision aids: an investigation into the expert system as persuasive communicator


    Dijkstra, Jacob Jan


    The results of this study show that an expert system is a persuasive message source and that users tend to follow the advice of an expert system without critically examining it. Accordingly, users will probably not notice when an expert system gives incorrect advice. These facts comprise a serious problem, because expert systems can make mistakes and have been developed on the implicit assumption that the user will judge the applicability of the expert system's advice. The Elaboration Likelih...

  9. The Development of an Expert System for Decision Making in Forest Resources Managemant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Ilyana Mohd Zukki


    Full Text Available Tropical forests are a repository of biodiversity which provides habitats for more than 50% of the earth’s plant and animal species, an important sink for carbon stores which provides many goods and ecosystem services and a critical contributor to livelihoods, mainly of the indigenous groups which are totally dependent on forests. Yet, forests are under pressure. Tropical forests are among the earth’s most threatened ecosystems, particularly threatened by human activities and climate change. Consequently, tropical forests are loosing capacity to provide basic goods and services that are essentials to human livelihood. Hence, every decision involving forest utilization should consider various criteria that are important for sustainable forest management. However, making decision about forest resources management often involves balancing conflicting, inadequate and incompatible values of many users and usage of a resource. One of the most fundamental and difficult task is the effective integration of environmental, economic and social values to achieve and maintain ecologically sustainable development. Therefore, an integrated technology such as an Analytical Hierarchy Process and expert systems is essential to be performed in making decision process for forest resources management because an AHP method is capable to capture both tangible and intangible criteria. This study places emphasis on the development of expert system for forest resources management to assist decision makers to select the best forest resources use based on Malaysian Criteria and Indicators [(MC&I2002].

  10. On the use of computerised decision aids : an investigation into the expert system as persuasive communicator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Jacob Jan


    The results of this study show that an expert system is a persuasive message source and that users tend to follow the advice of an expert system without critically examining it. Accordingly, users will probably not notice when an expert system gives incorrect advice. These facts comprise a serious

  11. A Computerised Business Ethics Expert System -A new approach to improving the ethical quality of business decision-making

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    Bernie Brenner


    Full Text Available Abstract Where unethical business decision-making arises from failures of ethical perception, there is an important role for ethical training and decision-making tools. These may help business people to consider all relevant issues when assessing the ethical status of potential decisions. Ethical training programmes give business people a basic understanding of the principles which underlie ethical judgements and equip them with many of the necessary skills for dealing with the ethical dilemmas which they face in their jobs. Similarly, ethical decision-making tools may guide managers through the various ethical considerations which are relevant to business decision-making and help them to develop their ethical-perceptual skills. Furthermore, by establishing and reinforcing good ethical decision-making practices, training programmes and decision-making tools may also reduce the incidence of self-consciously unethical decision-making. A new approach to improving the ethical quality of business decision-making by the use of computerized business ethics expert systems is proposed. These systems have the potential to guide business people through a process of ethical evaluation while simultaneously fulfilling an educational role, thus providing many of the benefits of both training programmes and decision-making tools. While the prospect of a computer system which could simply make ethical judgements for business people is both unrealistic and undesirable, a system which leads human decision-makers through a structured assessment process has the potential for genuine benefits. Keywords: Expert Systems, Ethical Decision Making

  12. Accident diagnosis system based on real-time decision tree expert system (United States)

    Nicolau, Andressa dos S.; Augusto, João P. da S. C.; Schirru, Roberto


    Safety is one of the most studied topics when referring to power stations. For that reason, sensors and alarms develop an important role in environmental and human protection. When abnormal event happens, it triggers a chain of alarms that must be, somehow, checked by the control room operators. In this case, diagnosis support system can help operators to accurately identify the possible root-cause of the problem in short time. In this article, we present a computational model of a generic diagnose support system based on artificial intelligence, that was applied on the dataset of two real power stations: Angra1 Nuclear Power Plant and Santo Antônio Hydroelectric Plant. The proposed system processes all the information logged in the sequence of events before a shutdown signal using the expert's knowledge inputted into an expert system indicating the chain of events, from the shutdown signal to its root-cause. The results of both applications showed that the support system is a potential tool to help the control room operators identify abnormal events, as accidents and consequently increase the safety.

  13. The CBT Advisor: An Expert System Program for Making Decisions about CBT. (United States)

    Kearsley, Greg


    Discusses structure, credibility, and use of the Computer Based Training (CBT) Advisor, an expert system designed to help managers make judgements about course selection, system selection, cost/benefits, development effort, and probable success of CBT projects. (MBR)

  14. Modeling the Construct of an Expert Evidence-Adaptive Knowledge Base for a Pressure Injury Clinical Decision Support System

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    Peck Chui Betty Khong


    Full Text Available The selection of appropriate wound products for the treatment of pressure injuries is paramount in promoting wound healing. However, nurses find it difficult to decide on the most optimal wound product(s due to limited live experiences in managing pressure injuries resulting from successfully implemented pressure injury prevention programs. The challenges of effective decision-making in wound treatments by nurses at the point of care are compounded by the yearly release of wide arrays of newly researched wound products into the consumer market. A clinical decision support system for pressure injury (PI-CDSS was built to facilitate effective decision-making and selection of optimal wound treatments. This paper describes the development of PI-CDSS with an expert knowledge base using an interactive development environment, Blaze Advisor. A conceptual framework using decision-making and decision theory, knowledge representation, and process modelling guided the construct of the PI-CDSS. This expert system has incorporated the practical and relevant decision knowledge of wound experts in assessment and wound treatments in its algorithm. The construct of the PI-CDSS is adaptive, with scalable capabilities for expansion to include other CDSSs and interoperability to interface with other existing clinical and administrative systems. The algorithm was formatively evaluated and tested for usability. The treatment modalities generated after using patient-specific assessment data were found to be consistent with the treatment plan(s proposed by the wound experts. The overall agreement exceeded 90% between the wound experts and the generated treatment modalities for the choice of wound products, instructions, and alerts. The PI-CDSS serves as a just-in-time wound treatment protocol with suggested clinical actions for nurses, based on the best evidence available.

  15. A Framework For Design Of Operator Planning/Decision Aids: Expert Systems Approach (United States)

    Yufik, Yan M.; Sheridan, Thomas B.


    This paper suggests an approach to modeling reactor control planning and decision-making which serves as a framework for the design of computer based decision aids. The suggested approach combines two distinct theoretical concepts. The first uses a probabilistic graph to characterize the operator's "internal model" of the system behavior; the second invokes the idea of implicit utility maximization as a generic computational heuristic operating on the graph. The model is used to derive some basic design principles of decision aids that might complement operator decision processes in planning control operations.

  16. Decision support system for overall welfare assessment in pregnant sows. B. Validation by expert opinion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bracke, M.B.M.; Spruijt, B.M.; Metz, J.H.M.; Schouten, W.G.P.


    This paper examines the validity of a model that is embedded in a computer-based decision support system to assess the welfare status of pregnant sows in housing and management systems. The so-called SOWEL (SOw WELfare) model was constructed using a formalized procedure to identify and weight

  17. Medical Expert Systems Survey


    Abu-Nasser, Bassem S.


    International audience; There is an increase interest in the area of Artificial Intelligence in general and expert systems in particular. Expert systems are rapidly growing technology. Expert system is a branch of Artificial Intelligence which is having a great impact on many fields of human life. Expert systems use human expert knowledge to solve complex problems in many fields such as Health, science, engineering, business, and weather forecasting. Organizations employing the technology of ...

  18. Argumentative SOX Compliant and Quality Decision Support Intelligent Expert System over the Suppliers Selection Process

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    Jesus Angel Fernandez Canelas


    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to define a decision support system over SOX (Sarbanes-Oxley Act compatibility and quality of the Suppliers Selection Process based on Artificial Intelligence and Argumentation Theory knowledge and techniques. The present SOX Law, in effect nowadays, was created to improve financial government control over US companies. This law is a factor standard out United States due to several factors like present globalization, expansion of US companies, or key influence of US stock exchange markets worldwide. This paper constitutes a novel approach to this kind of problems due to following elements: (1 it has an optimized structure to look for the solution, (2 it has a dynamic learning method to handle court and control gonvernment bodies decisions, (3 it uses fuzzy knowledge to improve its performance, and (4 it uses its past accumulated experience to let the system evolve far beyond its initial state.

  19. Lithofacies identification using multiple adaptive resonance theory neural networks and group decision expert system (United States)

    Chang, H.-C.; Kopaska-Merkel, D. C.; Chen, H.-C.; Rocky, Durrans S.


    Lithofacies identification supplies qualitative information about rocks. Lithofacies represent rock textures and are important components of hydrocarbon reservoir description. Traditional techniques of lithofacies identification from core data are costly and different geologists may provide different interpretations. In this paper, we present a low-cost intelligent system consisting of three adaptive resonance theory neural networks and a rule-based expert system to consistently and objectively identify lithofacies from well-log data. The input data are altered into different forms representing different perspectives of observation of lithofacies. Each form of input is processed by a different adaptive resonance theory neural network. Among these three adaptive resonance theory neural networks, one neural network processes the raw continuous data, another processes categorial data, and the third processes fuzzy-set data. Outputs from these three networks are then combined by the expert system using fuzzy inference to determine to which facies the input data should be assigned. Rules are prioritized to emphasize the importance of firing order. This new approach combines the learning ability of neural networks, the adaptability of fuzzy logic, and the expertise of geologists to infer facies of the rocks. This approach is applied to the Appleton Field, an oil field located in Escambia County, Alabama. The hybrid intelligence system predicts lithofacies identity from log data with 87.6% accuracy. This prediction is more accurate than those of single adaptive resonance theory networks, 79.3%, 68.0% and 66.0%, using raw, fuzzy-set, and categorical data, respectively, and by an error-backpropagation neural network, 57.3%. (C) 2000 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. An expert system as a support to the decision making process for groundwater management of alluvial groundwater bodies in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Souvent


    Full Text Available The expert decision support system for groundwater management in the shallow alluvial aquifers links numerical groundwater flow models with the water permits and concessions databases in order to help groundwater managers to quantify sustainable yield for a given groundwater body and provide additional information for sustainable groundwater management. Stand alone numerical groundwater models are used in the process of the assessment of groundwater quantitative status as well as for assessing local yield quantity during the period of maximum water demand and minimum groundwater recharge.

  1. Introduction to expert systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, P.


    Expert systems have become one of the most exciting applications within the domain of artificial intelligence. Further interest has been provoked by Japan's Fifth Generation Project, which identifies expert or knowledge-based systems as a key element in the computer systems of the future. This book presents an introduction to expert systems at a level suited to the undergraduate student and the interested layman. It surveys the three main techniques for knowledge representation - rules, frames and logic. and describes in detail the expert systems which employ them. Contents: Expert systems and artificial intelligence; Formalisms for knowledge representation; MYCIN; Medical diagnosis using rules. MYCIN derivatives; TEIRESIAS, EMYCIN, and GUIDON; RI: recognition as a problem-solving strategy; CENTAUR: a combination of frames metalevel inference and commonsense reasoning in MECHO; Tools for building expert systems; Summary and conclusions; Exercises.

  2. Database and Expert Systems Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viborg Andersen, Kim; Debenham, John; Wagner, Roland

    submissions. The papers are organized in topical sections on workflow automation, database queries, data classification and recommendation systems, information retrieval in multimedia databases, Web applications, implementational aspects of databases, multimedia databases, XML processing, security, XML......, reasoning and learning, network management and mobile systems, expert systems and decision support, and information modelling....

  3. Expert Systems in Education. (United States)

    Hartschuh, Wayne

    This paper argues that the concepts and techniques used in the development of expert systems should be expanded and applied to the field of education, particularly in the area of intelligent tutoring systems. It is noted that expert systems are a well known area of artificial intelligence and have been proven effective in well-defined topic areas.…

  4. Benchmarking expert system tools (United States)

    Riley, Gary


    As part of its evaluation of new technologies, the Artificial Intelligence Section of the Mission Planning and Analysis Div. at NASA-Johnson has made timing tests of several expert system building tools. Among the production systems tested were Automated Reasoning Tool, several versions of OPS5, and CLIPS (C Language Integrated Production System), an expert system builder developed by the AI section. Also included in the test were a Zetalisp version of the benchmark along with four versions of the benchmark written in Knowledge Engineering Environment, an object oriented, frame based expert system tool. The benchmarks used for testing are studied.

  5. Database and Expert Systems Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viborg Andersen, Kim; Debenham, John; Wagner, Roland

    This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Database and Expert Systems Applications, DEXA 2005, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in August 2005.The 92 revised full papers presented together with 2 invited papers were carefully reviewed and selected from 390...... submissions. The papers are organized in topical sections on workflow automation, database queries, data classification and recommendation systems, information retrieval in multimedia databases, Web applications, implementational aspects of databases, multimedia databases, XML processing, security, XML......, reasoning and learning, network management and mobile systems, expert systems and decision support, and information modelling....

  6. [An expert system of aiding decision making in breast pathology connected to a clinical data base]. (United States)

    Brunet, M; Durrleman, S; Ferber, J; Ganascia, J G; Hacene, K; Hirt, F; Jouniaux, F; Meeus, L


    The René Huguenin Cancer Center holds a medical file for each patient which is intended to store and process medical data. Since 1970, we introduced computerization: a development plan was elaborated and simultaneously a statistical software (Clotilde--GSI/CFRO) was selected. Thus, we now have access to a large database, structured according to medical rationale, and utilizable with methods of artificial intelligence towards three objectives: improved data acquisition, decision making and exploitation. The first application was to breast pathology, which represents one of the Center's primary activities. The structure of the data concerning patients is by all criteria part of the medical knowledge. This information needs to be presented as well as processed with a suitable language. To this end, we chose a language-oriented object, Mering II, usable with Apple and IBM 4 micro-computers. This project has already allowed to work out an operational model.

  7. Database and Expert Systems Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viborg Andersen, Kim; Debenham, John; Wagner, Roland

    This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Database and Expert Systems Applications, DEXA 2005, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in August 2005.The 92 revised full papers presented together with 2 invited papers were carefully reviewed and selected from 390......, reasoning and learning, network management and mobile systems, expert systems and decision support, and information modelling.......This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Database and Expert Systems Applications, DEXA 2005, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in August 2005.The 92 revised full papers presented together with 2 invited papers were carefully reviewed and selected from 390...... submissions. The papers are organized in topical sections on workflow automation, database queries, data classification and recommendation systems, information retrieval in multimedia databases, Web applications, implementational aspects of databases, multimedia databases, XML processing, security, XML...

  8. Web-based Expert Decision Support System for Tourism Destination Management in Nigeria


    Yekini Nureni Asafe; Adetoba Bolaji; Aigbokhan Edwin Enaholo; Olufemi Olubukola


    The use of Information Technologies have played and currently playing prominent roles in many organizations, such as business, education, commerce. The tourism industry has witnessed the use and application of various computer-based systems in carrying out one or more activities or operation. But currently there is no computer-based system tourist destination to integrate the tourists (from outside Nigeria) and tourists center within Nigeria, so that tourists can make a pre destination plan a...

  9. Empirical guidelines for forest management decision support systems based on the past experiences of the expert's community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques, A. F.; Ficko, A.; Kangas, A.; Rosset, C.; Ferreti, F.; Rasinmaki, J.; Packalen, T.; Gordom, S.


    Aim of the study: Decision support systems for forest management (FMDSS) have been developed world wide to account for a broad range of forest ecosystems, management goals and organizational frameworks (e.g. the wiki page of the FORSYS project reports 62 existing FMDSSs from 23 countries). The need to enhance the collaboration among this diverse community of developers and users fostered the rise of new group communication processes that could capture useful knowledge from past experiences in order to efficiently provide it to new FMDSS development efforts. Material and methods: This paper presents and tests an exploratory process aiming to identify the empirical guidelines assisting developers and users of FMDSS. This process encompasses a Delphi survey built upon the consolidation of the lessons-learned statements that summarize the past experiences of the experts involved in the FORSYS project. The experts come from 34 countries and have diverse interests, ranging from forest planners, IT developers, social scientists studying participatory planning, and researchers with interests in knowledge management and in quantitative models for forest planning. Main results: The proposed 37 empirical guidelines that group 102 lessons-learned cover a broad range of issues including the DSS development cycle, involvement of the stakeholders, methods, models and knowledge based techniques in use. Research highlights: These results may be used for improving new FMDSS development processes, teaching and training and further suggest new features of FMDSS and future research topics. Furthermore, the guidelines may constitute a knowledge repository that may be continuously improved by a community of practice. (Author)

  10. Capital Expert System (United States)

    Dowell, Laurie; Gary, Jack; Illingworth, Bill; Sargent, Tom


    Gathering information, necessary forms, and financial calculations needed to generate a "capital investment proposal" is an extremely complex and difficult process. The intent of the capital investment proposal is to ensure management that the proposed investment has been thoroughly investigated and will have a positive impact on corporate goals. Meeting this requirement typically takes four or five experts a total of 12 hours to generate a "Capital Package." A Capital Expert System was therefore developed using "Personal Consultant." The completed system is hybrid and as such does not depend solely on rules but incorporates several different software packages that communicate through variables and functions passed from one to another. This paper describes the use of expert system techniques, methodology in building the knowledge base, contexts, LISP functions, data base, and special challenges that had to be overcome to create this system. The Capital Expert System is the successful result of a unique integration of artificial intelligence with business accounting, financial forms generation, and investment proposal expertise.

  11. Evolution of expert systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biancoli, L.


    A brief exposition of the nature and functions of expert systems (knowledge based systems) and some remarks upon the way in which they resemble, but fall far short of, the very largely intuitive action of the human brain are given. The remainder of the article consists of summaries of the work being done in this field by organisations in Italy, namely: ISPRA; Delphi Electronic Design Systems, VIAREGGIO; SPL Italia SPA, (VA), Milan; Italservice Srl, Milan; and Artificial Intelligence Software, Rovigo.

  12. ALICE Expert System

    CERN Document Server

    Ionita, C


    The ALICE experiment at CERN employs a number of human operators (shifters), who have to make sure that the experiment is always in a state compatible with taking Physics data. Given the complexity of the system and the myriad of errors that can arise, this is not always a trivial task. The aim of this paper is to describe an expert system that is capable of assisting human shifters in the ALICE control room. The system diagnoses potential issues and attempts to make smart recommendations for troubleshooting. At its core, a Prolog engine infers whether a Physics or a technical run can be started based on the current state of the underlying sub-systems. A separate C++ component queries certain SMI objects and stores their state as facts in a Prolog knowledge base. By mining the data stored in dierent system logs, the expert system can also diagnose errors arising during a run. Currently the system is used by the on-call experts for faster response times, but we expect it to be adopted as a standard tool by reg...

  13. Operational expert system applications in Europe

    CERN Document Server

    Zarri, Gian Piero


    Operational Expert System Applications in Europe describes the representative case studies of the operational expert systems (ESs) that are used in Europe.This compilation provides examples of operational ES that are realized in 10 different European countries, including countries not usually examined in the standard reviews of the field.This book discusses the decision support system using several artificial intelligence tools; expert systems for fault diagnosis on computerized numerical control (CNC) machines; and expert consultation system for personal portfolio management. The failure prob

  14. Expert Systems - A Natural History


    Shadbolt, N. R.


    This paper examines the origins, current state and future prospects for expert systems. The origins are traced from the schism with classic Artificial Intelligence. The characteristics of early expert systems are described and contrasted with more recent developments. A number of influential forces operating on present day systems are reviewed. The future trends in the evolution of expert systems are discussed.

  15. Expert System for ASIC Imaging (United States)

    Gupta, Shri N.; Arshak, Khalil I.; McDonnell, Pearse; Boyce, Conor; Duggan, Andrew


    With the developments in the techniques of artificial intelligence over the last few years, development of advisory, scheduling and similar class of problems has become very convenient using tools such as PROLOG. In this paper an expert system has been described which helps lithographers and process engineers in several ways. The methodology used is to model each work station according to its input, output and control parameters, combine these work stations in a logical sequence based on past experience and work out process schedule for a job. In addition, all the requirements vis-a-vis a particular job parameters are converted into decision rules. One example is the exposure time, develop time for a wafer with different feature sizes would be different. This expert system has been written in Turbo Prolog. By building up a large number of rules, one can tune the program to any facility and use it for as diverse applications as advisory help, trouble shooting etc. Leitner (1) has described an advisory expert system that is being used at National Semiconductor. This system is quite different from the one being reported in the present paper. The approach is quite different for one. There is stress on job flow and process for another.

  16. From an expert-driven paper guideline to a user-centred decision support system: a usability comparison study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kilsdonk, Ellen; Peute, Linda W.; Riezebos, Rinke J.; Kremer, Leontien C.; Jaspers, Monique W. M.


    To assess whether a user-centred prototype clinical decision support system (CDSS) providing patient-specific advice better supports healthcare practitioners in terms of (a) types of usability problems detected and (b) effective and efficient retrieval of childhood cancer survivor's follow-up

  17. Automated Predictive Diagnosis (APD): A 3-tiered shell for building expert systems for automated predictions and decision making (United States)

    Steib, Michael


    The APD software features include: On-line help, Three level architecture, (Logic environments, Setup/Application environment, Data environment), Explanation capability, and File handling. The kinds of experimentation and record keeping that leads to effective expert systems is facilitated by: (1) a library of inferencing modules (in the logic environment); (2) an explanation capability which reveals logic strategies to users; (3) automated file naming conventions; (4) an information retrieval system; and (5) on-line help. These aid with effective use of knowledge, debugging and experimentation. Since the APD software anticipates the logical rules becoming complicated, it is embedded in a production system language (CLIPS) to insure the full power of the production system paradigm of CLIPS and availability of the procedural language C. The development is discussed of the APD software and three example applications: toy, experimental, and operational prototype for submarine maintenance predictions.

  18. Genetic Learning of Fuzzy Expert Systems for Decision Support in the Automated Process of Wooden Boards Cutting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaroslav MATSYSHYN


    Full Text Available Sawing solid wood (lumber, wooden boards into blanks is an important technological operation, which has significant influence on the efficiency of the woodworking industry as a whole. Selecting a rational variant of lumber cutting is a complex multicriteria problem with many stochastic factors, characterized by incomplete information and fuzzy attributes. About this property by currently used automatic optimizing cross-cut saw is not always rational use of wood raw material. And since the optimization algorithms of these saw functions as a “black box”, their improvement is not possible. Therefore topical the task of developing a new approach to the optimal cross-cutting that takes into account stochastic properties of wood as a material from biological origin. Here we propose a new approach to the problem of lumber optimal cutting in the conditions of uncertainty of lumber quantity and fuzziness lengths of defect-free areas. To account for these conditions, we applied the methods of fuzzy sets theory and used a genetic algorithm to simulate the process of human learning in the implementation the technological operation. Thus, the rules of behavior with yet another defect-free area is defined in fuzzy expert system that can be configured to perform specific production tasks using genetic algorithm. The author's implementation of the genetic algorithm is used to set up the parameters of fuzzy expert system. Working capacity of the developed system verified on simulated and real-world data. Implementation of this approach will make it suitable for the control of automated or fully automatic optimizing cross cutting of solid wood.

  19. Expert systems for satellite stationkeeping (United States)

    Mekaru, M. M.; Wright, M. A.

    The feasibility of implementing artificial intelligence on satellites is evaluated, with the aim of using an onboard expert system to perform effective stationkeeping functions without assistance from the ground. The Defense Satellite Communication System (DSCS III) is used as an example. The cost for implementing a satellite stationkeeping expert system is analyzed. A ground-based expert system could reduce the current number of support personnel for the stationkeeping task. Results of analyzing a possible flight system are quite promising. An expert system for satellite stationkeeping seems feasible, appears cost-effective, and offers increased satellite endurance through autonomous operations.

  20. Engineering monitoring expert system's developer (United States)

    Lo, Ching F.


    This research project is designed to apply artificial intelligence technology including expert systems, dynamic interface of neural networks, and hypertext to construct an expert system developer. The developer environment is specifically suited to building expert systems which monitor the performance of ground support equipment for propulsion systems and testing facilities. The expert system developer, through the use of a graphics interface and a rule network, will be transparent to the user during rule constructing and data scanning of the knowledge base. The project will result in a software system that allows its user to build specific monitoring type expert systems which monitor various equipments used for propulsion systems or ground testing facilities and accrues system performance information in a dynamic knowledge base.

  1. ICADS: A cooperative decision making model with CLIPS experts (United States)

    Pohl, Jens; Myers, Leonard


    A cooperative decision making model is described which is comprised of six concurrently executing domain experts coordinated by a blackboard control expert. The focus application field is architectural design, and the domain experts represent consultants in the area of daylighting, noise control, structural support, cost estimating, space planning, and climate responsiveness. Both the domain experts and the blackboard were implemented as production systems, using an enhanced version of the basic CLIPS package. Acting in unison as an Expert Design Advisor, the domain and control experts react to the evolving design solution progressively developed by the user in a 2-D CAD drawing environment. A Geometry Interpreter maps each drawing action taken by the user to real world objects, such as spaces, walls, windows, and doors. These objects, endowed with geometric and nongeometric attributes, are stored as frames in a semantic network. Object descriptions are derived partly from the geometry of the drawing environment and partly from knowledge bases containing prototypical, generalized information about the building type and site conditions under consideration.

  2. Expert system support and juridical quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groothuis, Marga M.; Svensson, Jorgen S.; Breuker, J.; Leenes, R.E.; Winkels, R.


    This article discusses the use of expert systems as a means of achieving juridical quality within administrative organisations. Do these systems really improve the quality of decision making and provide the desired guarantees with respect to the correct treatment of clients?

  3. Expert Systems for auditing management information systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheroghe Popescu


    Full Text Available Expert systems are built with the help of: specialised programming languages or expert system generators (shell. But this structure was reached after tens of years of work and research, because expert systems are nothing but pragmatic capitalisation of the results of research carried out in artificial intelligence and theory of knowledge.

  4. Artificial Intelligence and Expert Systems. (United States)

    Wilson, Harold O.; Burford, Anna Marie


    Delineates artificial intelligence/expert systems (AI/ES) concepts; provides an exposition of some business application areas; relates progress; and creates an awareness of the benefits, limitations, and reservations of AI/ES. (Author)

  5. REXS : A financial risk diagnostic expert system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Richter


    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Artificial intelligence techniques are rapidly emerging as important contributors to more effective management. One of the greatest growth areas probably lies in the use of Expert System methodology for supporting managerial decision processes.
    Existing Decision Support Systems often attempt to apply analytical techniques in combination with traditional data access and retrieval functions. One of the problems usually encountered while developing such decision support systems is the need to transform an unstructured problem environment into a structured analytical model. Using an expert system approach to strategic decision making in such unstructured problem environments may provide significant advantages.
    The financial Risk diagnostic EXpert System (REXS concentrates on Financial Risk Analysis. Based on a Forecasting Model the system will, with the support of several expert system knowledge bases, attempt to evaluate the financial risk of a business and provide guidelines for improvement.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Tegnieke gebaseer op Kunsmatige Intelligensie toon tans die belofte om belangrike bydraes te maak tot meerBestaande Besluitsteunstelsels poog dikwels om analitiese tegnieke en lradisionele datatoegang- en onttrekkingsfunksies te kombineer. Een van die probleme wat gewoonlik ondervind word gedurende die ontwikkeling van '0 besluitsteunstelsel bestaan uit die behoefte om 'n ongestruktueerde probleemomgewing te transformeer na 'n gestruktueerde analitiese model. 'n Ekspertstelselbenadering lot strategiese besluitneming in 'n ongeSlruktureerde probleemomgewing mag betekenisvolle voordele inhou.
    Die "financial Risk diagnostic EXpert System (REXS" konsentreer op fmansiele risiko-analise. Uitgaande vanaf 'n Vooruitskattingsmode~ en deur gebruik te maak van verskeie ekspertstelselkennisbasisse, poog die stelsel om die fmansiele risiko van 'n onderneming te evalueer en riglyne vir moontlike verbetering

  6. Expert system terms and building tools (United States)

    Gevarter, William B.


    The characteristics of an Expert System Building Tool (ESBT) capable of inference and hypothetical reasoning are discussed. The inference capabilities of ESBTs allow such functions as classification, design-synthesis, forecasting, decision-aiding, scheduling and planning, real-time monitoring, situation assessment, the discovery of novel relations, and debugging. ESBTs are noted to have made possible order-of-magnitude improvements in expert system construction. Higher-end ESBTs are moving from LISP machines to less expensive workstations, and lower-end ones are appearing on PCs.

  7. Expert Systems--A Competent Tool for Training? (United States)

    Shaoul, Jean; Smith, P. J.

    Expert systems, rule-based knowledge systems, have been widely heralded as an important tool in management and accounting. Expert system shells have become available for personal computers, and accountants are investing in systems which are supposed to be capable of intelligent decisions. The limitations of rule-based knowledge systems are…

  8. Expert system application education project (United States)

    Gonzelez, Avelino J.; Ragusa, James M.


    Artificial intelligence (AI) technology, and in particular expert systems, has shown potential applicability in many areas of operation at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC). In an era of limited resources, the early identification of good expert system applications, and their segregation from inappropriate ones can result in a more efficient use of available NASA resources. On the other hand, the education of students in a highly technical area such as AI requires an extensive hands-on effort. The nature of expert systems is such that proper sample applications for the educational process are difficult to find. A pilot project between NASA-KSC and the University of Central Florida which was designed to simultaneously address the needs of both institutions at a minimum cost. This project, referred to as Expert Systems Prototype Training Project (ESPTP), provided NASA with relatively inexpensive development of initial prototype versions of certain applications. University students likewise benefit by having expertise on a non-trivial problem accessible to them at no cost. Such expertise is indispensible in a hands-on training approach to developing expert systems.

  9. QUEST: Quality of Expert Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perre, M.


    TNO Physics and Electronics laboratory, in collaboration with the University of Limburg and the Research Institute for Knowledge Systems, worked on a technology project named 'QUEST: Quality of Expert Systems' [FEL90]. QUEST was carried out under commision of the Dutch Ministry of Defence. A strong

  10. Laserjet Printer Troubleshooting Expert System

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    This paper model an expert system called LAPTEX for troubleshooting LaserJet printers' faults. Today, with the innumerable advances in information technologies, computerizing printer's fault troubleshooting and identifying faults is far becoming so vital. Also, printers' fault detection is a complicated process that requires a ...

  11. Proceedings of the second international expert systems conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This book presents the papers given at a conference on knowledge engineering. Topics considered at the conference included data base management, real time process control, artificial intelligence, decision making, expert systems in the nuclear sector, the uses of expert systems in education and training, radar applications, software and knowledge engineering methods, uncertainty, natural language, and man-machine systems.

  12. A brief history and technical review of the expert system research (United States)

    Tan, Haocheng


    The expert system is a computer system that emulates the decision-making ability of a human expert, which aims to solve complex problems by reasoning knowledge. It is an important branch of artificial intelligence. In this paper, firstly, we briefly introduce the development and basic structure of the expert system. Then, from the perspective of the enabling technology, we classify the current expert systems and elaborate four expert systems: The Rule-Based Expert System, the Framework-Based Expert System, the Fuzzy Logic-Based Expert System and the Expert System Based on Neural Network.

  13. Naturalistic decision-making in expert badminton players. (United States)

    Macquet, A C; Fleurance, P


    This paper reports on a study of naturalistic decision-making in expert badminton players. These decisions are frequently taken under time-pressured conditions, yet normally lead to successful performance. Two male badminton teams participated in this study. Self-confrontation interviews were used to collect data. Inductive data analysis revealed three types of intentions during a rally: to maintain the rally; to take the advantage; and to finish the point. It also revealed eight types of decision taken in this situation: to ensure an action; to observe the opponent's response to an action; to realize a limited choice; to influence the opponent's decision; to put pressure on an opponent; to surprise the opponent; to reproduce an efficient action; and to play wide. A frequent decision was to put pressure on the opponent. Different information and knowledge was linked to specific decisions. The results are discussed in relation to research that has considered naturalistic decision-making.

  14. Financial Decision Making Support System


    Lobanova, E. N.; Zmitrovich, A. I.; Voshevoz, A. A.; Krivko-Krasko, A. V.


    In this article we consider concepts and components of the Financial Decision Making System that is being developed in the Institute of Business and Management Technology, BSU. Such system can be successfully used either for training experts in financial analytics and financial management or for financial managers and financial directors in an enterprise for the effective financial decision making.

  15. Expert system validation in prolog (United States)

    Stock, Todd; Stachowitz, Rolf; Chang, Chin-Liang; Combs, Jacqueline


    An overview of the Expert System Validation Assistant (EVA) is being implemented in Prolog at the Lockheed AI Center. Prolog was chosen to facilitate rapid prototyping of the structure and logic checkers and since February 1987, we have implemented code to check for irrelevance, subsumption, duplication, deadends, unreachability, and cycles. The architecture chosen is extremely flexible and expansible, yet concise and complementary with the normal interactive style of Prolog. The foundation of the system is in the connection graph representation. Rules and facts are modeled as nodes in the graph and arcs indicate common patterns between rules. The basic activity of the validation system is then a traversal of the connection graph, searching for various patterns the system recognizes as erroneous. To aid in specifying these patterns, a metalanguage is developed, providing the user with the basic facilities required to reason about the expert system. Using the metalanguage, the user can, for example, give the Prolog inference engine the goal of finding inconsistent conclusions among the rules, and Prolog will search the graph intantiations which can match the definition of inconsistency. Examples of code for some of the checkers are provided and the algorithms explained. Technical highlights include automatic construction of a connection graph, demonstration of the use of metalanguage, the A* algorithm modified to detect all unique cycles, general-purpose stacks in Prolog, and a general-purpose database browser with pattern completion.

  16. Fuzzy Expert System for Heart Attack Diagnosis (United States)

    Hassan, Norlida; Arbaiy, Nureize; Shah, Noor Aziyan Ahmad; Afizah Afif@Afip, Zehan


    Heart attack is one of the serious illnesses and reported as the main killer disease. Early prevention is significant to reduce the risk of having the disease. The prevention efforts can be strengthen through awareness and education about risk factor and healthy lifestyle. Therefore the knowledge dissemination is needed to play role in order to distribute and educate public in health care management and disease prevention. Since the knowledge dissemination in medical is important, there is a need to develop a knowledge based system that can emulate human intelligence to assist decision making process. Thereby, this study utilized hybrid artificial intelligence (AI) techniques to develop a Fuzzy Expert System for Diagnosing Heart Attack Disease (HAD). This system integrates fuzzy logic with expert system, which helps the medical practitioner and people to predict the risk and as well as diagnosing heart attack based on given symptom. The development of HAD is expected not only providing expert knowledge but potentially become one of learning resources to help citizens to develop awareness about heart-healthy lifestyle.

  17. Database and Expert Systems Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viborg Andersen, Kim; Debenham, John; Wagner, Roland

    schemata, query evaluation, semantic processing, information retrieval, temporal and spatial databases, querying XML, organisational aspects of databases, natural language processing, ontologies, Web data extraction, semantic Web, data stream management, data extraction, distributed database systems......This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Database and Expert Systems Applications, DEXA 2005, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in August 2005.The 92 revised full papers presented together with 2 invited papers were carefully reviewed and selected from 390...... submissions. The papers are organized in topical sections on workflow automation, database queries, data classification and recommendation systems, information retrieval in multimedia databases, Web applications, implementational aspects of databases, multimedia databases, XML processing, security, XML...

  18. The use of expert judgement in decision making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Expert judgment (EJ) techniques and protocols have been used in different areas for more than half a century. the Nuclear Energy Division of the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA), via the Risk Control Domain of the Nuclear Development and Innovation Division and the Innovative Systems Studies Service, and the Institute for Energy of JRC (Petten), via the Nuclear Safety Unit, organized a 'workshop on the use of expert judgment in decision making'. The objectives of this workshop were to create an exchange forum about this topic and to gather a first state of the art, in order to identify the needs for R and D. This workshop brought together approximately 55 participants, from different industry sectors (energy, both nuclear and non-nuclear, food and communication among others) and from universities, research organizations and technical support organizations. The workshop was divided in one opening session, four thematic sessions plus a round table and a final general discussion session. The first session was dedicated to the elicitation of expertise and the combination of opinions given by different experts. The papers in this session had more theoretical contents than most of the papers in other session. The second session was dedicated to expert knowledge management. It consisted of four papers, two of them in the area of the food industry, one of them in the area of e-business and the last one in the area of human reliability assessment (HRA) and its impact on Probabilistic Safety Analysis (PSA) calculations. The third session was dedicated to industrial applications and consisted of four papers, all of them in the area of energy production. The last session was about the use of EJ in risk analysis and decision making processes. Four papers were included in this session, EJ has been applied for a very long time in very different fields, which has brought as a consequence a broad diversity of methodologies The workshop did also show the

  19. Psychological expert witness testimony and judicial decision making trends. (United States)

    Shapiro, David L; Mixon, LeKisha; Jackson, Melissa; Shook, Jonathan


    Despite the establishment of the Daubert standard in 1993, the evidentiary criteria are rarely used as a basis for admissibility of expert witness testimony in the behavioral sciences. Ever since the promulgation of Frye and the Federal Rules of Evidence, controversy has surrounded the admissibility of expert testimony in courtrooms. There appears to be no existing uniform application of standards governing the admissibility of psychological expert witness testimony. Therefore, it is essential for the psycho-legal communities to explore judicial decision-making trends regarding psychological expert witness evidence. In this current research, psychological expert witness testimony and judicial decision-making will be explored. In preliminary examination, 97 criminal and civil case summaries from the LexisNexis Academic Database involved issues of admissibility. Analyses conducted by eight trained and paired coders revealed that reliability and assistance to the trier of fact were the most often cited reasons for admissibility in courts. Consistent with prior studies, it was also found that the most applied standards for admissibility of psychological evidence were the Federal Rules of Evidence. Interestingly, while the Daubert scientific criteria for admission of scientific testimony were mentioned, they were rarely utilized. A secondary analysis of 167 civil and criminal appellate cases indicated that the reliability of testimony (18% of all cases), ability to assist the trier of fact (17%), the expert witness' qualifications (17%), and the relevance of the testimony (16%) were the most commonly cited reasons for determining admissibility. A tertiary qualitative analysis focusing on these four categories then revealed eight major trends in admissibility of psychological expert evidence. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Neuro-expert system applications in power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khosla, R.; Dillon, T.


    In this chapter we outline a generic neuro-expert system (GENUES) architecture for hybrid reasoning. The architecture consists of five phases, namely, decomposition phase, control phase, decision phase, preprocessing phase, and postprocessing phase. The architecture is particularly applicable in time critical diagnostic/classification domains and data intensive domains in general. We describe the application of GENUES in a real time alarm processing system in a power system control centre. (Author)

  1. Enhancing the Learning Process with Expert Systems. (United States)

    Karake, Zeinab A.


    Discusses the use of artificial intelligence and expert system shells to enhance the learning process of graduate or undergraduate statistics students. A student exercise is described using STAT-EXPERT, an expert system designed to help students select the appropriate statistical analysis technique. (25 references) (LRW)

  2. Fire Effects, Education, and Expert Systems (United States)

    Robert E. Martin


    Predicting the effects of fires in the year 2000 and beyond will be enhanced by the use of expert systems. Although our predictions may have broad confidence limits, expert systems should help us to improve the predictions and to focus on the areas where improved knowledge is most needed. The knowledge of experts can be incorporated into previously existing knowledge...

  3. Language theory and expert systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attilio Agodi


    Full Text Available Some remarks on the problem of knowledge representation and processing, as recognized in connection with the use of computers in the scientific research work, emphasizes the relevance of these problems for the studies on both the theory of languages and the expert system. A consideration of the common traits in the recent history of these studies, with reference to the use of computers on texts in natural language motivates the introduction of set theoretic and algebraic methods, suitable for applications in the analysis and in the automatic treatment of languages, based on the concept of model sets and on relational structures suggested from the connections between syntax and semantics evidenced in some example of sub-languages corresponding to theories of different classes of physical phenomena. Some details of these methods are evidenced, which have already successfully used or whose applications appears suggestive of interesting development.

  4. Visual skills involved in decision making by expert referees. (United States)

    Ghasemi, Abdollah; Momeni, Maryam; Jafarzadehpur, Ebrahim; Rezaee, Meysam; Taheri, Hamid


    Previous studies have compared visual skills of expert and novice athletes; referees' performance has not been addressed. Visual skills of two groups of expert referees, successful and unsuccessful in decision making, were compared. Using video clips of soccer matches to assess decision-making success of 41 national and international referees from 31 to 42 years of age, 10 top referees were selected as the Successful group and 10 as the Unsuccessful group. Visual tests included visual memory, visual reaction time, peripheral vision, recognition speed, saccadic eye movement, and facility of accommodation. The Successful group had better visual skills than the Unsuccessful group. Such visual skills enhance soccer referees' performance and may be recommended for young referees.

  5. Operational expert system applications in Canada

    CERN Document Server

    Suen, Ching Y


    This book is part of a new series on operational expert systems worldwide. Expert systems are now widely used in different parts of the world for various applications. The past four years have witnessed a steady growth in the development and deployment of expert systems in Canada. Research in this field has also gained considerable momentum during the past few years. However, the field of expert systems is still young in Canada. This book contains 13 chapters contributed by 31 experts from both universities and industries across Canada covering a wide range of applications related to electric


    Rogers, J. L.


    The expert system called EXADS was developed to aid users of the Automated Design Synthesis (ADS) general purpose optimization program. Because of the general purpose nature of ADS, it is difficult for a nonexpert to select the best choice of strategy, optimizer, and one-dimensional search options from the one hundred or so combinations that are available. EXADS aids engineers in determining the best combination based on their knowledge of the problem and the expert knowledge previously stored by experts who developed ADS. EXADS is a customized application of the AESOP artificial intelligence program (the general version of AESOP is available separately from COSMIC. The ADS program is also available from COSMIC.) The expert system consists of two main components. The knowledge base contains about 200 rules and is divided into three categories: constrained, unconstrained, and constrained treated as unconstrained. The EXADS inference engine is rule-based and makes decisions about a particular situation using hypotheses (potential solutions), rules, and answers to questions drawn from the rule base. EXADS is backward-chaining, that is, it works from hypothesis to facts. The rule base was compiled from sources such as literature searches, ADS documentation, and engineer surveys. EXADS will accept answers such as yes, no, maybe, likely, and don't know, or a certainty factor ranging from 0 to 10. When any hypothesis reaches a confidence level of 90% or more, it is deemed as the best choice and displayed to the user. If no hypothesis is confirmed, the user can examine explanations of why the hypotheses failed to reach the 90% level. The IBM PC version of EXADS is written in IQ-LISP for execution under DOS 2.0 or higher with a central memory requirement of approximately 512K of 8 bit bytes. This program was developed in 1986.

  7. An Expert System for Concrete Bridge Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brito, J. de; Branco, F. A.; Thoft-Christensen, Palle


    The importance of bridge repair versus new bridge construction has risen in recent decades due to high deterioration rates that have been observed in these structures. Budgets both for building new bridges and keeping the existing ones are always limited. To help rational decision-making, bridge...... management systems are presently being implemented by bridge authorities in several countries. The prototype of an expert system for concrete bridge management is presented in this paper, with its functionality relying on two modules. The inspection module relies on a periodic acquisition of field...... information complemented by a knowledge-based interactive system, BRIDGE-1. To optimize management strategies at the headquarters, the BRIDGE-2 module was implemented, including three submodules: inspection strategy, maintenance and repair....

  8. Application of expert systems technology in water-quality modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnwell, T.O.; Brown, L.C.; Marek, W.


    Computerized modeling is becoming an integral part of decision making in water pollution control. Expert Systems is an innovative methodology that can assist in building, using, and interpreting the output of the models. The paper reviews the use and evaluates the potential of expert systems technology in environmental modeling and describes the elements of an expert advisor for the stream water quality model QUAL2E. Some general conclusions are presented about the tools available to develop the system, the level of available technology in knowledge-based engineering, and the value of approaching problems from a knowledge engineering perspective.

  9. Topics in expert system design methodologies and tools

    CERN Document Server

    Tasso, C


    Expert Systems are so far the most promising achievement of artificial intelligence research. Decision making, planning, design, control, supervision and diagnosis are areas where they are showing great potential. However, the establishment of expert system technology and its actual industrial impact are still limited by the lack of a sound, general and reliable design and construction methodology.This book has a dual purpose: to offer concrete guidelines and tools to the designers of expert systems, and to promote basic and applied research on methodologies and tools. It is a coordinated coll

  10. Development of a Spacecraft Materials Selector Expert System (United States)

    Pippin, G.; Kauffman, W. (Technical Monitor)


    This report contains a description of the knowledge base tool and examples of its use. A downloadable version of the Spacecraft Materials Selector (SMS) knowledge base is available through the NASA Space Environments and Effects Program. The "Spacecraft Materials Selector" knowledge base is part of an electronic expert system. The expert system consists of an inference engine that contains the "decision-making" code and the knowledge base that contains the selected body of information. The inference engine is a software package previously developed at Boeing, called the Boeing Expert System Tool (BEST) kit.

  11. Expert Knowledge-Based Automatic Sleep Stage Determination by Multi-Valued Decision Making Method (United States)

    Wang, Bei; Sugi, Takenao; Kawana, Fusae; Wang, Xingyu; Nakamura, Masatoshi

    In this study, an expert knowledge-based automatic sleep stage determination system working on a multi-valued decision making method is developed. Visual inspection by a qualified clinician is adopted to obtain the expert knowledge database. The expert knowledge database consists of probability density functions of parameters for various sleep stages. Sleep stages are determined automatically according to the conditional probability. Totally, four subjects were participated. The automatic sleep stage determination results showed close agreements with the visual inspection on sleep stages of awake, REM (rapid eye movement), light sleep and deep sleep. The constructed expert knowledge database reflects the distributions of characteristic parameters which can be adaptive to variable sleep data in hospitals. The developed automatic determination technique based on expert knowledge of visual inspection can be an assistant tool enabling further inspection of sleep disorder cases for clinical practice.

  12. Expert systems to improve plant operability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sopocy, D.M.; Glazer, A.R. (Sargent and Lundy, Chicago, IL (USA)); Jonas, O. (Jonas, Inc., Wilmington, DE (US)); Rice, J.K. (James K. Rice, Chartered, Olney, MD (US))


    Prospective expert system applications in the power industry generally are in one of the following categories:esign, information management, plant operations, and equipment diagnostics. Many power facility expert system efforts are four plant operations. Several of these applications help optimize plant operation and also detect developing problems and suggest remedial action before the occurrence of any serious consequences. Many types of plant processes and equipment can benefit from routine trending and evaluation of operating data by this type of expert system. This paper discusses a variety of special considerations for the development and implementation of expert systems for plant operations, both in general and as exemplified by CYCLEXPRT.

  13. An expert system for wind shear avoidance (United States)

    Stengel, Robert F.; Stratton, D. Alexander


    The principal objectives are to develop methods for assessing the likelihood of wind shear encounter (based on real-time information in the cockpit), for deciding what flight path to pursue (e.g., takeoff abort, landing go-around, or normal climbout or glide slope), and for using the aircraft's full potential for combating wind shear. This study requires the definition of both deterministic and statistical techniques for fusing internal and external information, for making go/no-go decisions, and for generating commands to the aircraft's autopilot and flight directors for both automatic and manually controlled flight. The expert system for pilot aiding is based on the results of the FAA Windshear Training Aids Program, a two-volume manual that presents an overview, pilot guide, training program, and substantiating data that provides guidelines for this initial development. The Windshear Safety Advisor expert system currently contains over 140 rules and is coded in the LISP programming language for implementation on a Symbolics 3670 LISP Machine.

  14. Problematic Aspects of the Use of Expert Systems in Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Kalinauskas


    Full Text Available Summary. The usage of expert systems in law brings many problematic questions. Complexity and intricacy of law, combined with limited possibilities of information technologies makes it difficult to create flawlessly working expert systems. In this article the author analyses problematic aspects related to expert system usage in law. Comparisons of various research are made according to analysis of scientific articles. The author analyses practical difficulties of legal norm representation, creation of expert knowledge ontology, expert systems liability issues. Legal responsibility of expert system developers, users, and owners are also covered in this paper. Creation of legal ontologies is a complicated process because of the nature of the subject itself and the complexity and quantity of knowledge which must be represented in order to have fully functional legal expert system. Legal information basically consists of legal norms, doctrine, precedents and expert knowledge. All of these areas have specific representation issues, but the most difficult part is to make ontology and representation of expert knowledge. Different experts may have distinct points of view in some similar cases. Human decisions are made not only by applying certain rules to the problem decision pattern. Providence, analytical skills and critical thinking is required in legal professional work. Human reasoning and decision-making is not only based on symbolic values, it also consists of intermediate symbolic assumptions. So the question is: is it possible to give a clear structure to something which has no permanent state? The other problem which is analyzed in this article is artificial reasoning methods, which are basically different forms of pattern recognition with some specific methods applied to them. The second part of the paper analyses the liability of expert systems. Nowadays expert systems can’t be legally responsible for their decisions. They lack

  15. Problematic Aspects of the Use of Expert Systems in Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Kalinauskas


    Full Text Available The usage of expert systems in law brings many problematic questions. Complexity and intricacy of law, combined with limited possibilities of information technologies makes it difficult to create flawlessly working expert systems. In this article the author analyses problematic aspects related to expert system usage in law. Comparisons of various research are made according to analysis of scientific articles. The author analyses practical difficulties of legal norm representation, creation of expert knowledge ontology, expert systems liability issues. Legal responsibility of expert system developers, users, and owners are also covered in this paper. Creation of legal ontologies is a complicated process because of the nature of the subject itself and the complexity and quantity of knowledge which must be represented in order to have fully functional legal expert system. Legal information basically consists of legal norms, doctrine, precedents and expert knowledge. All of these areas have specific representation issues, but the most difficult part is to make ontology and representation of expert knowledge. Different experts may have distinct points of view in some similar cases. Human decisions are made not only by applying certain rules to the problem decision pattern. Providence, analytical skills and critical thinking is required in legal professional work. Human reasoning and decision-making is not only based on symbolic values, it also consists of intermediate symbolic assumptions. So the question is: is it possible to give a clear structure to something which has no permanent state? The other problem which is analyzed in this article is artificial reasoning methods, which are basically different forms of pattern recognition with some specific methods applied to them. The second part of the paper analyses the liability of expert systems. Nowadays expert systems can’t be legally responsible for their decisions. They lack intellectual

  16. Systematic methods for knowledge acquisition and expert system development (United States)

    Belkin, Brenda L.; Stengel, Robert F.


    Nine cooperating rule-based systems, collectively called AUTOCREW, were designed to automate functions and decisions associated with a combat aircraft's subsystem. The organization of tasks within each system is described; performance metrics were developed to evaluate the workload of each rule base, and to assess the cooperation between the rule-bases. Each AUTOCREW subsystem is composed of several expert systems that perform specific tasks. AUTOCREW's NAVIGATOR was analyzed in detail to understand the difficulties involved in designing the system and to identify tools and methodologies that ease development. The NAVIGATOR determines optimal navigation strategies from a set of available sensors. A Navigation Sensor Management (NSM) expert system was systematically designed from Kalman filter covariance data; four ground-based, a satellite-based, and two on-board INS-aiding sensors were modeled and simulated to aid an INS. The NSM Expert was developed using the Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and the ID3 algorithm. Navigation strategy selection is based on an RSS position error decision metric, which is computed from the covariance data. Results show that the NSM Expert predicts position error correctly between 45 and 100 percent of the time for a specified navaid configuration and aircraft trajectory. The NSM Expert adapts to new situations, and provides reasonable estimates of hybrid performance. The systematic nature of the ANOVA/ID3 method makes it broadly applicable to expert system design when experimental or simulation data is available.

  17. Expert systems in treating substance abuse. (United States)

    Wesson, D R; Hink, R H


    Computer programs can assist humans in solving complex problems that cannot be solved by traditional computational techniques using mathematic formulas. These programs, or "expert systems," are commonly used in finance, engineering, and computer design. Although not routinely used in medicine at present, medical expert systems have been developed to assist physicians in solving many kinds of medical problems that traditionally require consultation from a physician specialist. No expert systems are available specifically for drug abuse treatment, but at least one is under development. Where access to a physician specialist in substance abuse is not available for consultation, this expert system will extend specialized substance abuse treatment expertise to nonspecialists. Medical expert systems are a developing technologic tool that can assist physicians in practicing better medicine.

  18. Operation and Structure of an Artificial Intelligence Expert Consultative System for Reading and Learning. (United States)

    Balajthy, Ernest


    The article examines decision-making expert systems and discusses their implications for diagnosis and prescription of reading difficulties. A detailed description of how a reading diagnostic expert system might operate to aid classroom teachers is followed by a discussion of advantages and limitations of expert systems for educational use.…

  19. Implementation of expert system in Prolog for infant seizures (United States)

    Gaweł, M.; Tataj, E.; Dunin-Wąsowicz, D.


    Expert Systems are found to be very promising as an important advisory tool. They can be useful in different situations where human expert is not available and decision should be undertaken quickly. Expert systems can also be useful in medicine to help doctors or even non-trained personnel (when the doctor is not available). These systems are important in clinical practice and could help in rapid finding of etiology and treatment. To fulfill such requirement in this contribution, we discuss an implementation of expert system, which is written in Prolog language. Since this language has its syntactical limitations, we have developed a general architecture of a shell type, to overcome these difficulties. Next, we have demonstrated its practical utility, by applying the knowledge taken from medical practice.

  20. Expert systems and ballistic range data analysis (United States)

    Hathaway, Wayne; Steinhoff, Mark; Whyte, Robert; Brown, David; Choate, Jeff; Adelgren, Russ


    A program aimed at the development of an expert system for the reduction of ballistic range data is described. The program applies expert system and artificial intelligence techniques to develop a mathematically complex state-of-the-art spark range data reduction procedure that includes linear theory and six-degree-of-freedom analysis. The scope of the knowledge base includes both spin and statically stable vehicles. The expert system is expected to improve the quality of the data reduction process while reducing the work load on the senior range engineer.

  1. GEST = The Generic Expert System Tool (United States)

    Gilmore, John F.; Ho, David; Howard, Chuck


    The development cycle of an expert system can be decreased if an effective expert system tool (EST) is used. This paper describes the Generic Expert System Tool (GEST) developed by the Artificial Intelligence Branch of the Georgia Tech Research Institute. GEST was developed to be as general purpose as possible while incorporating all of the basic features required of an EST used for real world applications. This paper outlines GEST's basic software architecture and highlights a variety of it's processing elements. A discussion of future enhancement currently being implemented to increase GEST's application domains is also provided.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The paper describes the development of a prototype web-based expert knowledge system that can be used to maintain flexible pavement within a tropical region. This prototype system provides the advantages of using existing web-based expert system technology. Currently, deterioration of asphalt pavement layers is one of the biggest problems in Malaysia and requires maintenance to ensure that the roads remain open and able to guarantee the regularity, punctuality, and safety of all transport services. According to this process, the knowledge collection that has acquired and the date concerning to domain expert system of the development web-based system was launched with knowledge representation IF and THEN rules and coded by PHP programming. The web pages that support the user interface are created using a framework consisting of HTML, CSS, and J-Query. The prototype web-based expert system uses the knowledge of a pavement maintenance expert, or a specialist in pavement problem remediation, to emulate a portion of their professional reasoning abilities, which it can then use to assist with the maintenance of existing roads and enhance the efficiency and accuracy of the professional engineers tasked with the assessment of all available remedies. Thus, the system increases the performance level of the engineers in analysing, discerning and customising the information that will assist decision makers throughout the project, so the probability that the right decision and treatment are implemented at the right time is increased.

  3. Multiple neural network approaches to clinical expert systems (United States)

    Stubbs, Derek F.


    We briefly review the concept of computer aided medical diagnosis and more extensively review the the existing literature on neural network applications in the field. Neural networks can function as simple expert systems for diagnosis or prognosis. Using a public database we develop a neural network for the diagnosis of a major presenting symptom while discussing the development process and possible approaches. MEDICAL EXPERTS SYSTEMS COMPUTER AIDED DIAGNOSIS Biomedicine is an incredibly diverse and multidisciplinary field and it is not surprising that neural networks with their many applications are finding more and more applications in the highly non-linear field of biomedicine. I want to concentrate on neural networks as medical expert systems for clinical diagnosis or prognosis. Expert Systems started out as a set of computerized " ifthen" rules. Everything was reduced to boolean logic and the promised land of computer experts was said to be in sight. It never came. Why? First the computer code explodes as the number of " ifs" increases. All the " ifs" have to interact. Second experts are not very good at reducing expertise to language. It turns out that experts recognize patterns and have non-verbal left-brain intuition decision processes. Third learning by example rather than learning by rule is the way natural brains works and making computers work by rule-learning is hideously labor intensive. Neural networks can learn from example. They learn the results

  4. Processes in construction of failure management expert systems from device design information (United States)

    Malin, Jane T.; Lance, Nick


    This paper analyzes the tasks and problem solving methods used by an engineer in constructing a failure management expert system from design information about the device to te diagnosed. An expert test engineer developed a trouble-shooting expert system based on device design information and experience with similar devices, rather than on specific expert knowledge gained from operating the device or troubleshooting its failures. The construction of the expert system was intensively observed and analyzed. This paper characterizes the knowledge, tasks, methods, and design decisions involved in constructing this type of expert system, and makes recommendations concerning tools for aiding and automating construction of such systems.



    Ioan Constantin Dima; Mariana Man; Ciurea Vergil; Iwona Grabara


    In the conditions of computing the human society, the operational management activities can be improved by using artificial intelligence. Therefore, an expert system is proposed, for the metallurgical industry, for the casting activity for parts necessary in mining industry.

  6. The European Association of Preventive Cardiology Exercise Prescription in Everyday Practice and Rehabilitative Training (EXPERT) tool: A digital training and decision support system for optimized exercise prescription in cardiovascular disease. Concept, definitions and construction methodology. (United States)

    Hansen, Dominique; Dendale, Paul; Coninx, Karin; Vanhees, Luc; Piepoli, Massimo F; Niebauer, Josef; Cornelissen, Veronique; Pedretti, Roberto; Geurts, Eva; Ruiz, Gustavo R; Corrà, Ugo; Schmid, Jean-Paul; Greco, Eugenio; Davos, Constantinos H; Edelmann, Frank; Abreu, Ana; Rauch, Bernhard; Ambrosetti, Marco; Braga, Simona S; Barna, Olga; Beckers, Paul; Bussotti, Maurizio; Fagard, Robert; Faggiano, Pompilio; Garcia-Porrero, Esteban; Kouidi, Evangelia; Lamotte, Michel; Neunhäuserer, Daniel; Reibis, Rona; Spruit, Martijn A; Stettler, Christoph; Takken, Tim; Tonoli, Cajsa; Vigorito, Carlo; Völler, Heinz; Doherty, Patrick


    Background Exercise rehabilitation is highly recommended by current guidelines on prevention of cardiovascular disease, but its implementation is still poor. Many clinicians experience difficulties in prescribing exercise in the presence of different concomitant cardiovascular diseases and risk factors within the same patient. It was aimed to develop a digital training and decision support system for exercise prescription in cardiovascular disease patients in clinical practice: the European Association of Preventive Cardiology Exercise Prescription in Everyday Practice and Rehabilitative Training (EXPERT) tool. Methods EXPERT working group members were requested to define (a) diagnostic criteria for specific cardiovascular diseases, cardiovascular disease risk factors, and other chronic non-cardiovascular conditions, (b) primary goals of exercise intervention, (c) disease-specific prescription of exercise training (intensity, frequency, volume, type, session and programme duration), and (d) exercise training safety advices. The impact of exercise tolerance, common cardiovascular medications and adverse events during exercise testing were further taken into account for optimized exercise prescription. Results Exercise training recommendations and safety advices were formulated for 10 cardiovascular diseases, five cardiovascular disease risk factors (type 1 and 2 diabetes, obesity, hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia), and three common chronic non-cardiovascular conditions (lung and renal failure and sarcopaenia), but also accounted for baseline exercise tolerance, common cardiovascular medications and occurrence of adverse events during exercise testing. An algorithm, supported by an interactive tool, was constructed based on these data. This training and decision support system automatically provides an exercise prescription according to the variables provided. Conclusion This digital training and decision support system may contribute in overcoming barriers in

  7. Graphical and technical options in Expert Choice for group decision making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    of a DSS designed to deal with complex issues. The literature on MCDA is extensive, providing a sound basis for the methodologies employed and the mathematics involved. Moreover, there are numerous systems covering several disciplines, policy contexts and users’ needs for specific application environments....... This compendium examines the Expert Choice DSS based on the well-known MCDA technique: the analytic hierarchy process (AHP). More specifically, the possibilities for using the Expert Choice software in decision situations involving groups are examined with focus on the graphical presentations of the DSS....

  8. Jess, the Java expert system shell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedman-Hill, E.J.


    This report describes Jess, a clone of the popular CLIPS expert system shell written entirely in Java. Jess supports the development of rule-based expert systems which can be tightly coupled to code written in the powerful, portable Java language. The syntax of the Jess language is discussed, and a comprehensive list of supported functions is presented. A guide to extending Jess by writing Java code is also included.

  9. Expert Systems: An Introduction -46 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    One of the goals of Artificial Intelligence is to develop systems .... If the value of an antecedent is not known (in the WM memory), the system checks if there are any other rules with that as a consequent; thus setting up a sub-goal. .... classifying the distance as either 'far' or 'not far', we have a continuous distribution of values.

  10. Optical Design Using an Expert System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lerner, S A


    We present, as a different perspective on optimization, an expert system for optimization of optical systems that can be used in conjunction with damped least squared methods to find minima for specific design forms. Expert system optimization differs from global optimization in that it preserves the basic structure of the optical system and limits its search for a minima to a relatively small portion of the design space. In general, the high density of local minima obscures the general trend of the merit function in the region of interest for systems with a large number of variables and constraints. Surprisingly, there may be a potential decrease of an order a magnitude in the merit function for a region of solution space. While global optimization is well-suited to identifying design forms of interest, expert system optimization can be used for in-depth optimization of such forms. An expert system based upon such techniques was used to obtain the winning entry for the 2002 IODC lens design problem. The expert system used is discussed along with other design examples.

  11. Clinical decision support systems. (United States)

    Beeler, Patrick Emanuel; Bates, David Westfall; Hug, Balthasar Luzius


    Clinical decision support (CDS) systems link patient data with an electronic knowledge base in order to improve decision-making and computerised physician order entry (CPOE) is a requirement to set up electronic CDS. The medical informatics literature suggests categorising CDS tools into medication dosing support, order facilitators, point-of-care alerts and reminders, relevant information display, expert systems and workflow support. To date, CDS has particularly been recognised for improving processes. CDS successfully fostered prevention of deep-vein thrombosis, improved adherence to guidelines, increased the use of vaccinations, and decreased the rate of serious medication errors. However, CDS may introduce errors, and therefore the term "e-iatrogenesis" has been proposed to address unintended consequences. At least two studies reported severe treatment delays due to CPOE and CDS. In addition, the phenomenon of "alert fatigue" - arising from a high number of CDS alerts of low clinical significance - may facilitate overriding of potentially critical notifications. The implementation of CDS needs to be carefully planned, CDS interventions should be thoroughly examined in pilot wards only, and then stepwise introduced. A crucial feature of CPOE in combination with CDS is speed, since time consumption has been found to be a major factor determining failure. In the near future, the specificity of alerts will be improved, notifications will be prioritised and offer detailed advice, customisation of CDS will play an increasing role, and finally, CDS is heading for patient-centred decision support. The most important research question remains whether CDS is able to improve patient outcomes beyond processes.

  12. Database and Expert Systems Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viborg Andersen, Kim; Debenham, John; Wagner, Roland

    submissions. The papers are organized in topical sections on workflow automation, database queries, data classification and recommendation systems, information retrieval in multimedia databases, Web applications, implementational aspects of databases, multimedia databases, XML processing, security, XML...

  13. Applications of artificial intelligence and expert systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This book contains over 30 papers. Some of the titles are: operating systems for CD/ROM; the impact of optical storage technology on education; the future of expert systems in the financial services industry; the future of compact disk/DC-1 explosive ordinance disposal rendered safe information system; and will artificial intelligence improve computer based training (CBT) development process.

  14. Importance assessment of decision attributes: A qualitative study comparing experts and laypersons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heerkens, Johannes M.G.; Norde, Christiaan; van der Heijden, Beatrice


    Purpose – This paper aims to investigate differences between experts and laypersons concerning the way they assess the importance of each of the various decision attributes (cost, risk, feasibility) taken into consideration during decision processes in an organizational setting.

  15. Commercial Expert-System-Building Software Tools (United States)

    Gevarter, William B.


    Report evaluates commercially-available expert-system-building tools in terms of structures, representations of knowledge, inference mechanisms, interfaces with developers and end users, and capabilities of performing such functions as diagnosis and design. Software tools commercialized derivatives of artificial-intelligence systems developed by researchers at universities and research organizations. Reducing time to develop expert system by order of magnitude compared to that required with such traditional artificial development languages as LISP. Table lists 20 such tools, rating attributes as strong, fair, programmable by user, or having no capability in various criteria.

  16. Using expert systems in industrial production management


    Ioan Constantin Dima; Codruţa Dura


    The expert system aiming the moulded pieces production management improving is designed to assist maintenance and operation personal in the process of diagnosis of complex defects which may appear during the technological process, but the system must also contribute to technical measurements adopted after these distortions have emerged

  17. ROSIE: A Programming Environment for Expert Systems (United States)


    ence on Artificial Inteligence , Tbilisi, USSR, 1975. Fain, J., D. Gorlin, F. Hayes-Roth, S. Rosenschein, H. Sowizral, and D. Waterman, The ROSIE Language...gramming environment for artificial intelligence (AI) applications. It provides particular support for designing expert systems, systems that embody

  18. Spacecraft command and control using expert systems (United States)

    Norcross, Scott; Grieser, William H.


    This paper describes a product called the Intelligent Mission Toolkit (IMT), which was created to meet the changing demands of the spacecraft command and control market. IMT is a command and control system built upon an expert system. Its primary functions are to send commands to the spacecraft and process telemetry data received from the spacecraft. It also controls the ground equipment used to support the system, such as encryption gear, and telemetry front-end equipment. Add-on modules allow IMT to control antennas and antenna interface equipment. The design philosophy for IMT is to utilize available commercial products wherever possible. IMT utilizes Gensym's G2 Real-time Expert System as the core of the system. G2 is responsible for overall system control, spacecraft commanding control, and spacecraft telemetry analysis and display. Other commercial products incorporated into IMT include the SYBASE relational database management system and Loral Test and Integration Systems' System 500 for telemetry front-end processing.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NAN Anca-Petruţa


    Full Text Available Because of the fact that specialty agricultural assistance is not always available when the farmers need it, we identified expert systems as a strong instrument with an extended potential in agriculture. This started to grow in scale recently, including all socially-economic activity fields, having the role of collecting data regarding different aspects from human experts with the purpose of assisting the user in the necessary steps for solving problems, at the performance level of the expert, making his acquired knowledge and experience available. We opted for a general presentation of the expert systems as well as their necessity, because, the solution to develop the agricultural system can come from artificial intelligence by implementing the expert systems in the field of agricultural insurance, promoting existing insurance products, farmers finding options in depending on their necessities and possibilities. The objective of this article consists of collecting data about different aspects about specific areas of interest of agricultural insurance, preparing the database, a conceptual presentation of a pilot version which will become constantly richer depending on the answers received from agricultural producers, with the clearest exposure of knowledgebase possible. We can justify picking this theme with the fact that even while agricultural insurance plays a very important role in agricultural development, the registered result got from them are modest, reason why solutions need to be found in the scope of developing the agricultural sector. The importance of this consists in the proposal of an immediate viable solution to correspond with the current necessities of agricultural producers and in the proposal of an innovative solution, namely the implementation of expert system in agricultural insurance as a way of promoting insurance products. Our research, even though it treats the subject at an conceptual level, it wants to undertake an

  20. Knowledge-Acquisition Tool For Expert System (United States)

    Disbrow, James D.; Duke, Eugene L.; Regenie, Victoria A.


    Digital flight-control systems monitored by computer program that evaluates and recommends. Flight-systems engineers for advanced, high-performance aircraft use knowlege-acquisition tool for expert-system flight-status monitor suppling interpretative data. Interpretative function especially important in time-critical, high-stress situations because it facilitates problem identification and corrective strategy. Conditions evaluated and recommendations made by ground-based engineers having essential knowledge for analysis and monitoring of performances of advanced aircraft systems.

  1. Diagnosing battery behavior with an expert system in PROLOG (United States)

    Kirkwood, N.; Weeks, D. J.


    Power for the Hubble Space Telescope comes from a system of 20 solar panel assemblies (SPAs) and six nickel-cadmium batteries. The HST battery system is simulated by the HST Electrical Power System (EPS) testbed at Marshall Space Flight Center. The Nickel Cadmium Battery Expert System (NICBES) is being used to diagnose faults of the testbed system, evaluate battery status and provide decision support for the engineer. Extensive telemetry of system operating conditions is relayed through a DEC LSI-11. A BASIC program running on a PC monitors the flow of data, figures cell divergence and recharge ratio, and stores these values, along with other selected data, for use by the expert system.

  2. Integrating clinicians, knowledge and data: expert-based cooperative analysis in healthcare decision support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Alonso Carlos


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Decision support in health systems is a highly difficult task, due to the inherent complexity of the process and structures involved. Method This paper introduces a new hybrid methodology Expert-based Cooperative Analysis (EbCA, which incorporates explicit prior expert knowledge in data analysis methods, and elicits implicit or tacit expert knowledge (IK to improve decision support in healthcare systems. EbCA has been applied to two different case studies, showing its usability and versatility: 1 Bench-marking of small mental health areas based on technical efficiency estimated by EbCA-Data Envelopment Analysis (EbCA-DEA, and 2 Case-mix of schizophrenia based on functional dependency using Clustering Based on Rules (ClBR. In both cases comparisons towards classical procedures using qualitative explicit prior knowledge were made. Bayesian predictive validity measures were used for comparison with expert panels results. Overall agreement was tested by Intraclass Correlation Coefficient in case "1" and kappa in both cases. Results EbCA is a new methodology composed by 6 steps:. 1 Data collection and data preparation; 2 acquisition of "Prior Expert Knowledge" (PEK and design of the "Prior Knowledge Base" (PKB; 3 PKB-guided analysis; 4 support-interpretation tools to evaluate results and detect inconsistencies (here Implicit Knowledg -IK- might be elicited; 5 incorporation of elicited IK in PKB and repeat till a satisfactory solution; 6 post-processing results for decision support. EbCA has been useful for incorporating PEK in two different analysis methods (DEA and Clustering, applied respectively to assess technical efficiency of small mental health areas and for case-mix of schizophrenia based on functional dependency. Differences in results obtained with classical approaches were mainly related to the IK which could be elicited by using EbCA and had major implications for the decision making in both cases. Discussion This

  3. Laserjet Printer Troubleshooting Expert System | Adesola | West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper model an expert system called LAPTEX for troubleshooting LaserJet printers' faults. Today, with the innumerable advances in information technologies, computerizing printer's fault troubleshooting and identifying faults is far becoming so vital. Also, printers' fault detection is a complicated process that requires a ...


    This article describes results of an agreement between the North Penn Water Authority in Lansdale, Pa., and the US Environmental Protection Agency, Drinking Water Research Division, Cincinnati, Ohio, to study use of expert systems technology in a water utility. The threeyear stud...

  5. Fuzzy Expert System to Characterize Students (United States)

    Van Hecke, T.


    Students wanting to succeed in higher education are required to adopt an adequate learning approach. By analyzing individual learning characteristics, teachers can give personal advice to help students identify their learning success factors. An expert system based on fuzzy logic can provide economically viable solutions to help students identify…

  6. PLEXUS--The Expert System for Referral. (United States)

    Vickery, A.; Brooks, H. M.


    Presents a description of PLEXUS, an expert system on gardening designed as a referral tool for public libraries by the University of London. Highlights include determining user characteristics, developing the problem statement, the use of semantic categories, and search strategies that modify the original problem statement using Boolean…

  7. An Expert System for Diagnosis of Diseases in Rice Plant


    Shikhar Kr. Sarma; Kh. Robindro Singh; Abhijeet Singh


    This paper presents an architectural framework of an Expert System in the area of agriculture and describes the design and development of the rule based expert system, using the shell ESTA (Expert System for Text Animation). The designed system is intended for the diagnosis of common diseases occurring in the rice plant. An Expert System is a computer program normally composed of a knowledge base, inference engine and user-interface. The proposed expert system facilitates different components...

  8. Decision time for clinical decision support systems. (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Dympna; Fraccaro, Paolo; Carson, Ewart; Weller, Peter


    Clinical decision support systems are interactive software systems designed to help clinicians with decision-making tasks, such as determining a diagnosis or recommending a treatment for a patient. Clinical decision support systems are a widely researched topic in the computer science community, but their inner workings are less well understood by, and known to, clinicians. This article provides a brief explanation of clinical decision support systems and some examples of real-world systems. It also describes some of the challenges to implementing these systems in clinical environments and posits some reasons for the limited adoption of decision-support systems in practice. It aims to engage clinicians in the development of decision support systems that can meaningfully help with their decision-making tasks and to open a discussion about the future of automated clinical decision support as a part of healthcare delivery. © 2014 Royal College of Physicians.

  9. A distributed expert system for fault diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardozo, E.; Talukdar, S.N.


    This paper describes a hybrid approach to synthesizing solutions for diagnosis and set covering problems from the area of power system operations. The approach combines expert systems written in a rule-based language (OPS5) with algorithmic programs written in C and Lisp. An environment called DPSK has been developed to allow these programs to be run in parallel in a network of computers. Speeds sufficient for real-time applications can thereby be obtained.

  10. SENSAT(C) prototype expert system (United States)

    Lavender, Joseph A.


    The Sensor Satellite Expert System (SENSAT)TM is an application of the concurrent engineering simulation methodology which utilizes fuzzy logic in an object-oriented programming environment. Several unique characteristics of SENSAT includes the implementation team, mission system parameters, and priority optimization with respect to mission, cost, schedule, technology, and funding levels. SENSAT operates within a WINDOWSTM environment and a `simulation tour' is included in this paper along with a video to be shown with an actual SENSAT prototype simulation.

  11. Research on an expert system for TRIZ Method applying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Burz


    Full Text Available TRIZ method is a powerful creative technique, used in the most diverse and competitive fields of engineering, and, among others, in value analysis / engineering. Psychological creativity tools, including brainstorming and related methods, have the disadvantage that they have unpredictable and unrepeatable results. Unlike these TRIZ provides repeatability, predictability, reliability and algorithmic approach. One of the fundamental concepts of TRIZ is that contradiction which must be removed from a technical system. It was found that there are 39 standard technical features that could lead to contradictions in the technical system analysis and 40 inventive principles that can resolve generated conflicts creatively. For this a method was developed to correlate the conflicts with inventive principles known as the “contradictions matrix”. On the other hand, a problem in a particular area, it is a good candidate for expert system technology if it meets several criteria. One of the most important activities that precede construction of an expert system is knowledge representation, among the most popular models of knowledge representation being decision tables. The contradictions matrix can be transformed in decision tables with standard structure. An expert system for TRIZ method should, based on the 39 parameters that may in conflict, choose the inventive principles from contradictions matrix and then for each inventive principle chosen provide examples and afferent details and other related items resulting from experience.

  12. Expert systems for on line security assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christie, R.D.; Talukdar, S.N.


    This paper argues that automatic security assessment schemes cannot generate information of high quality until their architectures, which are now wholly algorithmic, are changed to hybrids combining algorithms with expert systems. In particular, numerical algorithms should continue to be used for simulating the effects of contingencies, but expert systems should be developed for selecting the contingencies and interpreting the simulation results. These changes will make automatic schemes more closely resemble the manual schemes that are used off line too generate assessment information of high quality. The problems of integrating hybrid software into existing Energy Management Systems (EMSs) are far from trivial. The paper goes on to discuss these problems and suggest a solution, namely the use of a network of workstations tied to existing EMS computers.

  13. Developing and using expert systems and neural networks in medicine: a review on benefits and challenges. (United States)

    Sheikhtaheri, Abbas; Sadoughi, Farahnaz; Hashemi Dehaghi, Zahra


    Complicacy of clinical decisions justifies utilization of information systems such as artificial intelligence (e.g. expert systems and neural networks) to achieve better decisions, however, application of these systems in the medical domain faces some challenges. We aimed at to review the applications of these systems in the medical domain and discuss about such challenges. Following a brief introduction of expert systems and neural networks by representing few examples, the challenges of these systems in the medical domain are discussed. We found that the applications of expert systems and artificial neural networks have been increased in the medical domain. These systems have shown many advantages such as utilization of experts' knowledge, gaining rare knowledge, more time for assessment of the decision, more consistent decisions, and shorter decision-making process. In spite of all these advantages, there are challenges ahead of developing and using such systems including maintenance, required experts, inputting patients' data into the system, problems for knowledge acquisition, problems in modeling medical knowledge, evaluation and validation of system performance, wrong recommendations and responsibility, limited domains of such systems and necessity of integrating such systems into the routine work flows. We concluded that expert systems and neural networks can be successfully used in medicine; however, there are many concerns and questions to be answered through future studies and discussions.

  14. Quantitative knowledge acquisition for expert systems (United States)

    Belkin, Brenda L.; Stengel, Robert F.


    A common problem in the design of expert systems is the definition of rules from data obtained in system operation or simulation. While it is relatively easy to collect data and to log the comments of human operators engaged in experiments, generalizing such information to a set of rules has not previously been a direct task. A statistical method is presented for generating rule bases from numerical data, motivated by an example based on aircraft navigation with multiple sensors. The specific objective is to design an expert system that selects a satisfactory suite of measurements from a dissimilar, redundant set, given an arbitrary navigation geometry and possible sensor failures. The systematic development is described of a Navigation Sensor Management (NSM) Expert System from Kalman Filter convariance data. The method invokes two statistical techniques: Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and the ID3 Algorithm. The ANOVA technique indicates whether variations of problem parameters give statistically different covariance results, and the ID3 algorithms identifies the relationships between the problem parameters using probabilistic knowledge extracted from a simulation example set. Both are detailed.

  15. The Expert Project Management System (EPMS) (United States)

    Silverman, Barry G.; Diakite, Coty


    Successful project managers (PMs) have been shown to rely on 'intuition,' experience, and analogical reasoning heuristics. For new PMs to be trained and experienced PMs to avoid repeating others' mistakes, it is necessary to make the knowledge and heuristics of successful PMs more widely available. The preparers have evolved a model of PM thought processes over the last decade that is now ready to be implemented as a generic PM aid. This aid consists of a series of 'specialist' expert systems (CRITIC, LIBRARIAN, IDEA MAN, CRAFTSMAN, and WRITER) that communicate with each other via a 'blackboard' architecture. The various specialist expert systems are driven to support PM training and problem solving since any 'answers' they pass to the blackboard are subjected to conflict identification (AGENDA FORMULATOR) and GOAL SETTER inference engines.

  16. Considerations in development of expert systems for real-time space applications (United States)

    Murugesan, S.


    Over the years, demand on space systems has increased tremendously and this trend will continue for the near future. Enhanced capabilities of space systems, however, can only be met with increased complexity and sophistication of onboard and ground systems. Artificial Intelligence and expert system techniques have great potential in space applications. Expert systems could facilitate autonomous decision making, improve in-orbit fault diagnosis and repair, enhance performance and reduce reliance on ground support. However, real-time expert systems, unlike conventional off-line consultative systems, have to satisfy certain special stringent requirements before they could be used for onboard space applications. Challenging and interesting new environments are faced while developing expert system space applications. This paper discusses the special characteristics, requirements and typical life cycle issues for onboard expert systems. Further, it also describes considerations in design, development, and implementation which are particularly important to real-time expert systems for space applications.

  17. The influence of expert opinions on the selection of wastewater treatment alternatives: a group decision-making approach. (United States)

    Kalbar, Pradip P; Karmakar, Subhankar; Asolekar, Shyam R


    The application of multiple-attribute decision-making (MADM) to real life decision problems suggests that avoiding the loss of information through scenario-based approaches and including expert opinions in the decision-making process are two major challenges that require more research efforts. Recently, a wastewater treatment technology selection effort has been made with a 'scenario-based' method of MADM. This paper focuses on a novel approach to incorporate expert opinions into the scenario-based decision-making process, as expert opinions play a major role in the selection of treatment technologies. The sets of criteria and the indicators that are used consist of both qualitative and quantitative criteria. The group decision-making (GDM) approach that is implemented for aggregating expert opinions is based on an analytical hierarchy process (AHP), which is the most widely used MADM method. The pairwise comparison matrices (PCMs) for qualitative criteria are formed based on expert opinions, whereas, a novel approach is proposed for generating PCMs for quantitative criteria. It has been determined that the experts largely prefer natural treatment systems because they are more sustainable in any scenario. However, PCMs based on expert opinions suggest that advanced technologies such as the sequencing batch reactor (SBR) can also be appropriate for a given decision scenario. The proposed GDM approach is a rationalized process that will be more appropriate in realistic scenarios where multiple stakeholders with local and regional societal priorities are involved in the selection of treatment technology. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. [Expert systems in medicine: possible uses in anesthesia]. (United States)

    Petersen, J; Kochs, E; Kochs, H D


    The euphoric assumption that powerful computers fed with sophisticated software programmes may serve as a substitute for human knowledge and decision making has been replaced by a more realistic concept of how computers may help in collecting data and their interpretation on the basis of human knowledge and experience. The computer is now used as a dedicated tool to support man in overtaking cumbersome and monotonous processes and tedious calculations. Running 24 hours a day, a specific feature of the computer is that depending on unequivocal software programmes it does neither forget or alter commands and information. Computer programmes imitating human thinking and information processing are called expert or knowledge based systems. These are especially useful when multiple possible combinations of data make a given task very complex. This review presents several systems used in different medical disciplines to describe fundamental ideas, different problem-solving methods, techniques and possible working fields including anaesthesia. It is made clear why computers have found widespread use in all administrative areas. In contrast, no system comparable in potency has been developed for use in clinical medicine in spite of 25 years of research in expert systems. This review starts with a definition of expert knowledge and the appropriate transformation of this knowledge to the computer. In addition, a general survey about the structure of expert systems and a state of the art in some current problem solving methods is given. Additional aspects and restrictions including technical, psychological and legal problems which seem to be unimportant from the outside but are essential for the development of expert systems are presented.

  19. Decision support systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, L.N.; Noe, E.; Langvad, A.M.


    by these three groups to make their decisions varies and therefore different ways of using decision support systems need to be provided. Decision support systems need to be developed in close dialogue and collaboration with user groups.......The highly complex knowledge of scientific disciplines makes nuanced analysis and modelling possible. However, the information produced often does not reach farmers because it is presented in a way that does not correspond to the way their work is carried out in practice. The decision support...... 1000 farmers). A sociological investigation of farmers' decision-making styles in the area of crop protection has shown that arable farmers can be divided into three major groups: (a) system-orientated farmers, (b) experience-based farmers and (c) advisory-orientated farmers. The information required...

  20. Resource allocations and expert systems. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The work performed to meet the requirement of this task is a continuing effort, evolving toward a general-purpose reasoning tool. The idea here is to build a more-powerful general expert system than the previous one. Towards that, this new Bayesian inference engine is based on the work done by Pearl and Kim. The advantages of this new inference engine over the previous one are that the representation of the knowledge is more compact and the inferencing is suitable for parallel processing. The inference engine is written in Franz lisp on VAX machine. All the code and a typescript of how to load and use the system is attached.

  1. Expert Team Decision-Making and Problem Solving: Development and Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Tancig


    Full Text Available Traditional research of decision-making has not significantly contributed towards better understanding of professional judgment and decisions in practice. Researchers dealing with decision-making in various professions and natural settings initiated new perspectives called naturalistic, which put the expert in the focus of research and the expertise thus entered the core of decision-making research in natural situations.Expert team is more than a group of experts. It is defined as a group of interdependent team members with a high level of task related expertise and the mastering of team processes.There have been several advances in understanding of expertise and the team. By combining theories, models, and empirical evidence we are trying to explain effectiveness and adaptation of expert teams in problem-solving and decision-making in complex and dynamic situations.A considerable research has been devoted to finding out what are the characteristics of experts and expert teams during their optimal functioning. These characteristics are discussed as input, process and output factors. As input variables the cognitive, social-affective, and motivational characteristics are presented. Process variables encompass individual and team learning, problem solving and decision-making as presented in Kolb’s cycle of learning, in deeper structures of dialogue and discussion, and in phenomena of collaboration, alignment, and distributed cognition. Outcome variables deal with task performance – activities.

  2. Tactical Decision Making and Decision Support Systems. (United States)

    Harmon, Joel I.


    The use of computerized decision support systems in higher education for making tactical institutional decisions is reviewed, with attention to the kind of administrative problems that lie somewhere between programmed to nonprogrammed decisions and require a combination of computer support and administrative judgment. (MSE)

  3. Developing a biomedical expert finding system using medical subject headings. (United States)

    Singh, Harpreet; Singh, Reema; Malhotra, Arjun; Kaur, Manjit


    Efficient identification of subject experts or expert communities is vital for the growth of any organization. Most of the available expert finding systems are based on self-nomination, which can be biased, and are unable to rank experts. Thus, the objective of this work was to develop a robust and unbiased expert finding system which can quantitatively measure expertise. Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) is a controlled vocabulary developed by the National Library of Medicine (NLM) for indexing research publications, articles and books. Using the MeSH terms associated with peer-reviewed articles published from India and indexed in PubMed, we developed a Web-based program which can be used to identify subject experts and subjects associated with an expert. We have extensively tested our system to identify experts from India in various subjects. The system provides a ranked list of experts where known experts rank at the top of the list. The system is general; since it uses information available with the PubMed, it can be implemented for any country. The expert finding system is able to successfully identify subject experts in India. Our system is unique because it allows the quantification of subject expertise, thus enabling the ranking of experts. Our system is based on peer-reviewed information. Use of MeSH terms as subjects has standardized the subject terminology. The system matches requirements of an ideal expert finding system.

  4. An Expert System Design and Application for Hydroponics Greenhouse Systems


    CALP, M. Hanefi; İsmail ŞAHİN; ÖZKAN, Atacan


    In this study, the hydroponics subject is briefly discussed and developed an expert system on the subject. Expert system, the process of upbringing of plants produced in the hydroponics systems has controlled. The system is able to determine to the values ​​of input parameters by using output parameters entered by user. The input parameters preparing the optimum growing environment for plants by controlling the process of plant breeding. Thus, removal of the optimum level of efficiency in act...

  5. Rotating Machinery Predictive Maintenance Through Expert System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sarath Kumar


    Full Text Available Modern rotating machines such as turbomachines, either produce or absorb huge amount of power. Some of the common applications are: steam turbine-generator and gas turbine-compressor-generator trains produce power and machines, such as pumps, centrifugal compressors, motors, generators, machine tool spindles, etc., are being used in industrial applications. Condition-based maintenance of rotating machinery is a common practice where the machine's condition is monitored constantly, so that timely maintenance can be done. Since modern machines are complex and the amount of data to be interpreted is huge, we need precise and fast methods in order to arrive at the best recommendations to prevent catastrophic failure and to prolong the life of the equipment. In the present work using vibration characteristics of a rotor-bearing system, the condition of a rotating machinery (electrical rotor is predicted using an off-line expert system. The analysis of the problem is carried out in an Object Oriented Programming (OOP framework using the finite element method. The expert system which is also developed in an OOP paradigm gives the type of the malfunctions, suggestions and recommendations. The system is implemented in C++.

  6. Hemispheric activation differences in novice and expert clinicians during clinical decision making. (United States)

    Hruska, Pam; Hecker, Kent G; Coderre, Sylvain; McLaughlin, Kevin; Cortese, Filomeno; Doig, Christopher; Beran, Tanya; Wright, Bruce; Krigolson, Olav


    Clinical decision making requires knowledge, experience and analytical/non-analytical types of decision processes. As clinicians progress from novice to expert, research indicates decision-making becomes less reliant on foundational biomedical knowledge and more on previous experience. In this study, we investigated how knowledge and experience were reflected in terms of differences in neural areas of activation. Novice and expert clinicians diagnosed simple or complex (easy, hard) cases while functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data were collected. Our results highlight key differences in the neural areas activated in novices and experts during the clinical decision-making process. fMRI data were collected from ten second year medical students (novices) and ten practicing gastroenterologists (experts) while they diagnosed sixteen (eight easy and eight hard) clinical cases via multiple-choice questions. Behavioral data were collected for diagnostic accuracy (correct/incorrect diagnosis) and time taken to assign a clinical diagnosis. Two analyses were performed with the fMRI data. First, data from easy and hard cases were compared within respective groups (easy > hard, hard > easy). Second, neural differences between novices and experts (novice > expert, expert > novice) were assessed. Experts correctly diagnosed more cases than novices and made their diagnoses faster than novices on both easy and hard cases (all p's decision making process, we identified significant hemispheric activation differences between novice and expert clinicians when diagnosing hard clinical cases. Specifically, novice clinicians had greater activations in the left anterior temporal cortex and left ventral lateral prefrontal cortex whereas expert clinicians had greater activations in the right dorsal lateral, right ventral lateral, and right parietal cortex. Hemispheric differences in activation were not observed between novices and experts while diagnosing easy clinical

  7. Expert systems for automated maintenance of a Mars oxygen production system (United States)

    Huang, Jen-Kuang; Ho, Ming-Tsang; Ash, Robert L.


    Application of expert system concepts to a breadboard Mars oxygen processor unit have been studied and tested. The research was directed toward developing the methodology required to enable autonomous operation and control of these simple chemical processors at Mars. Failure detection and isolation was the key area of concern, and schemes using forward chaining, backward chaining, knowledge-based expert systems, and rule-based expert systems were examined. Tests and simulations were conducted that investigated self-health checkout, emergency shutdown, and fault detection, in addition to normal control activities. A dynamic system model was developed using the Bond-Graph technique. The dynamic model agreed well with tests involving sudden reductions in throughput. However, nonlinear effects were observed during tests that incorporated step function increases in flow variables. Computer simulations and experiments have demonstrated the feasibility of expert systems utilizing rule-based diagnosis and decision-making algorithms.

  8. Development of the Expert System Domain Advisor and Analysis Tool (United States)


    systems. 3. Educational background a. General b. Expert Systems 98 Description of ’ome expert systems worked on. For eacn of the Expert Systems discussed...of an ES to evaluate the suitability of a project for using ES tecnology is not recxzmrxded because the wide variation in projects wold reqdir

  9. ESPRE: Expert System for Platelet Request Evaluation


    Sielaff, B H; Scott, E.; Connelly, D. P.


    ESPRE, a knowledge-based system designed to facilitate good platelet transfusion practices, is under development at the University of Minnesota Hospital and Clinic. This microcomputer based decision support system aids Blood Bank personnel in evaluating requests for platelet transfusions. Because of a direct link with the laboratory computers, most patient data need not be entered manually, but rather can be accessed directly. ESPRE uses a combination of frames and rules during its inference ...

  10. Application of expert system technology to nondestructive waste assay - initial prototype model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, G.K.; Determan, J.C. [Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)


    Expert system technology has been identified as a technique useful for filling certain types of technology/capability gaps in existing waste nondestructive assay (NDA) applications. In particular, expert system techniques are being investigated with the intent of providing on-line evaluation of acquired data and/or directed acquisition of data in a manner that mimics the logic and decision making process a waste NDA expert would employ. The space from which information and data sources utilized in this process is much expanded with respect to the algorithmic approach typically utilized in waste NDA. Expert system technology provides a mechanism to manage and reason with this expanded information/data set. The material presented in this paper concerns initial studies and a resultant prototype expert system that incorporates pertinent information, and evaluation logic and decision processes, for the purpose of validating acquired waste NDA measurement assays. 6 refs., 6 figs.

  11. Knowledge-Based Expert System Development and Validation with Petri Nets


    Madjid Tavana


    Expert systems (ESs) are complex information systems that are expensive to build and difficult to validate. Numerous knowledge representation strategies such as rules, semantic networks, frames, objects and logical expressions are developed to provide high-level abstraction of a system. Rules are the most commonly used form of knowledge representation and they are derived from popular techniques such as decision trees and decision tables. Despite their huge popularity, decision trees and deci...

  12. Computer Guided Educational Diagnosis: A Prototype Expert System. (United States)

    Colbourn, Marlene; McLeod, John


    The article reviews some recent literature pertaining to development and use of expert systems (automated consulting systems, which provide expert advice within particular domains). The design and implementation of an expert system developed to guide a teacher diagnostician through the various stages of diagnosing reading difficulities are…

  13. Integrating Information from Multiple Sources: Expert Decision Making Procedures (United States)


    in this procedural and student record sections, this format required a approach to information organization , the clusters of search information...Efficiency Ratio task measures combined to evaluate the effect of 0 48 0 07 0.47 009e 058eO188 information organization of decision making ease of...step I in the procedure. We have seen that an information organization scheme based on procedural knowledge (Condition C) can DISCUSSION facilitate

  14. A diagnostic expert system for digital circuits (United States)

    Backlund, R. W.; Wilson, J. D.


    A scheme is presented for a diagnostic expert system which is capable of troubleshooting a faulty digital circuit or producing a reduced test vector set for a non-faulty digital circuit. It is based on practical fault-finding logic and utilizes artificial intelligence techniques. The program uses expert knowledge comprised of two components: that which is contained within the program in the form of rules and heuristics, and that which is derived from the circuit under test in the form of specific device information. Using both forward and backward tracking algorithms, signal paths comprised of device and gate interconnections are identified from each output pin to the primary input pins which have effect on them. Beginning at the output, the program proceeds to validate each device in each signal path by forward propagating test values through the device to the output, and backward propagating the same values to the primary inputs. All devices in the circuit are monitored for each test applied and their performance is recorded. Device or gate validation occurs when the recorded history shows that a device has been toggled successfully through all necessary states. When run on a circuit which does not contain a fault, the program determines a reduced test vector set for that circuit.

  15. A distributed clinical decision support system architecture


    Shaker H. El-Sappagh; El-Masri, Samir


    This paper proposes an open and distributed clinical decision support system architecture. This technical architecture takes advantage of Electronic Health Record (EHR), data mining techniques, clinical databases, domain expert knowledge bases, available technologies and standards to provide decision-making support for healthcare professionals. The architecture will work extremely well in distributed EHR environments in which each hospital has its own local EHR, and it satisfies the compatibi...

  16. Use (and abuse) of expert elicitation in support of decision making for public policy. (United States)

    Morgan, M Granger


    The elicitation of scientific and technical judgments from experts, in the form of subjective probability distributions, can be a valuable addition to other forms of evidence in support of public policy decision making. This paper explores when it is sensible to perform such elicitation and how that can best be done. A number of key issues are discussed, including topics on which there are, and are not, experts who have knowledge that provides a basis for making informed predictive judgments; the inadequacy of only using qualitative uncertainty language; the role of cognitive heuristics and of overconfidence; the choice of experts; the development, refinement, and iterative testing of elicitation protocols that are designed to help experts to consider systematically all relevant knowledge when they make their judgments; the treatment of uncertainty about model functional form; diversity of expert opinion; and when it does or does not make sense to combine judgments from different experts. Although it may be tempting to view expert elicitation as a low-cost, low-effort alternative to conducting serious research and analysis, it is neither. Rather, expert elicitation should build on and use the best available research and analysis and be undertaken only when, given those, the state of knowledge will remain insufficient to support timely informed assessment and decision making.

  17. Blood Donor Deferrals by Expert System (United States)

    Sorace, James M.; Berman, Jules J.; Brown, Lawrence A.; Moore, G. William


    Blood collection facilities have recently witnessed a substantial increase in the number of different tests used to detect infectious disease in donor populations. These facilities are also experiencing an increasingly stringent regulatory effort on the part of the Food and Drug Administration to determine the validity of the software used to handle this information. This report describes a precedence-based inference program (PRELOG) and a modular expert system used to determine a donor's suitability for continued donations (donor deferrals), and whether the donated unit can be released for transfusion. PRELOG accepts ternary logic input, in which test results are allowed to be positive, negative, or undetermined; and allows one to assign precedence values to the logic rules. These features enable programs to be written in a shorter, more error-resistant manner. A comparison between PRELOG and PROLOG is included, and the utility of this approach in producing and validating blood bank software is discussed.

  18. Expert system for spacecraft command and control (United States)

    Wagner, R. E.

    The application of AI techniques to the automation of ground control functions in the defense satellite communication system (DSCS) is described. The aim of this effort is to lower the vulnerability of the DSCS to attack; a first step is the design of software for spacecraft maintenance and control. The benefits of automation and the need for high-level implementation are reviewed. A knowledge-based or expert approach was chosen to automate telemetry-interpretation, trend-analysis, anomaly-resolution, and status-maintenance functions now performed solely by operators; and a design concept was developed to meet the requirements of extendability, simplicity, and explicitness. Rule-based and logic-based knowledge-representation schemes, and data-driven and goal-driven control strategies are compared. The programming tools developed by the different organizations participating in the AI effort are indicated in a table.

  19. The Application of Big-Neuron Theory in Expert Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    With a new way of knowledge representation and acquirement, inference, and building an expert system based on big-neurons composed of different field expert knowledge presented, the fundamental theory and architecture of expert system based upon big-neuron theory has thus been built. It is unnecessary to organize a large number of production rules when using big-neurons to build an expert system. The facts and rules of an expert system have already been hidden in big-neurons. And also, it is unnecessary to do a great quantity of tree searching when using this method to do logic reasoning. Machine can do self-organizing and self-learning.

  20. Expert System For Diagnosis Of Skin Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A.L.C. Amarathunga


    Full Text Available Abstract Dermatology is a one of major session of medicine that concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of skin diseases. Skin diseases are the most common form of disease in humans. Recently many of researchers have advocated and developed the imaging of human vision or in the loop approach to visual object recognition. This research paper presents a development of a skin diseases diagnosis system which allows user to identify diseases of the human skin and to provide advises or medical treatments in a very short time period. For this purpose user will have to upload an image of skin disease to our system and answer questions based on their skin condition or symptoms. It will be used to detect diseases of the skin and offer a treatment recommendation. This system uses technologies such as image processing and data mining for the diagnosis of the disease of the skin. The image of skin disease is taken and it must be subjected to various preprocessing for noise eliminating and enhancement of the image. This image is immediately segmentation of images using threshold values. Finally data mining techniques are used to identify the skin disease and to suggest medical treatments or advice for users. This expert system exhibits disease identification accuracy of 85 for Eczema 95 for Impetigo and 85 for Melanoma.

  1. Possibility Intuitionistic Fuzzy Soft Expert Set Theory and Its Application in Decision Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganeshsree Selvachandran


    Full Text Available We propose the theory of possibility intuitionistic fuzzy soft expert theory and define some related concepts pertaining to this notion as well as the basic operations on this concept, namely, the complement, union, intersection, AND, and OR. The basic properties and relevant laws pertaining to this concept such as De Morgan’s laws are proved. Lastly, a generalized algorithm is introduced and applied to the concept of possibility intuitionistic fuzzy soft expert sets in hypothetical decision making problem.

  2. Expert systems guide biological phosphorus removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krichten, D.J.; Wilson, K.D.; Tracy, K.D. (Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Allentown, PA (United States))


    There is a large body of knowledge regarding optimum control strategies for new secondary wastewater treatment technology using an anaerobic selector to provide biological phosphorus removal. However, because the selector technology is new and the concepts differ somewhat from those used in conventional activated sludge wastewater treatment, a method of communicating this knowledge to plant operators is needed. Traditional methods such as classroom training and operating manuals are of limited effectiveness. The commonplace availability and low cost of the personal computer (PC) makes it practical to use a computer program to communicate the type of information required to control a wastewater treatment plant. Knowledge-based systems technology, commonly referred to as expert systems (ES) technology, is easy to use, provides useful information regarding a consistent control strategy, relieves the anxiety associated with learning a new process,' and provides instruction for inexperienced personnel. ES technology does not require special formatted input and is therefore easily accessible. All information required by the program is readily available through routine laboratory analysis, common plant instrumentation, or direct user observation. The program was designed for all levels of computer users and will run on all IBM-compatible or Apple MacIntosh systems.

  3. Expert panel vs decision-analysis recommendations for postdischarge coronary angiography after myocardial infarction. (United States)

    Kuntz, K M; Tsevat, J; Weinstein, M C; Goldman, L


    Expert panels and decision-analytic techniques are increasingly used to determine the appropriateness of medical interventions, but these 2 approaches use different methods to process evidence. To compare expert panel appropriateness ratings of coronary angiography after myocardial infarction (from the time of hospital discharge to 12 weeks after infarction) with the health gains and cost-effectiveness predicted by a decision-analytic model. Comparison of the degree of importance of the clinical variables considered in expert panel appropriateness ratings vs a previously published decision-analytic model. Identification of 36 clinical scenarios from the expert panel that could be simulated by the decision-analytic model. Appropriateness score and appropriateness classification (expert panel) vs gain in quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) and incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (decision-analytic model). The most important clinical variables were similar in the 2 approaches, with the exercise tolerance test result exerting the greatest leverage on strength of recommendation for angiography. Among the expert panel clinical scenarios considered to be appropriate for coronary angiography that could be simulated in the decision-analysis model, the median (interquartile range) health gain and incremental cost-effectiveness ratio were 0.59 (0.41-0.76) QALYs and $27000 ($23000-$35000) per QALY gained, respectively. Among the clinical scenarios that expert panels considered inappropriate, the corresponding medians (interquartile ranges) were 0.24 (0.19-0.34) QALYs and $54000 ($36000-$58000) per QALY gained. The Spearman rank correlation between appropriateness score and QALY gain was 0.58 (Pappropriateness score and estimated incremental cost-effectiveness ratios was -0.66 (Pappropriateness score and both the health gain and the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of coronary angiography compared with no angiography in the convalescent phase of acute myocardial infarction

  4. Expert system to control a fusion energy experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, R.R.; Canales, T.; Lager, D.


    This paper describes a system that automates neutral beam source conditioning. The system achieves this with artificial intelligence techniques by encoding the behavior of several experts as a set of if-then rules in an expert system. One of the functions of the expert system is to control an adaptive controller that, in turn, controls the neutral beam source. The architecture of the system is presented followed by a description of its performance.

  5. Expert System for Data Security Risk Management for SMEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justinas Janulevičius


    Full Text Available Accessibility of expertise and expert inferences is one of the key factors for appropriate expert evaluation. Appropriate and timely expert information allows a smooth process of expertise. Small and medium enterprises (SMEs have limited possibilities to acquire professional expertise for data security risk analysis due to limited finances. A risk management expert system is developed for SMEs with the ability to adapt to various subject domains using ontologies of the field.Article in Lithuanian

  6. Expert financial advice neurobiologically "Offloads" financial decision-making under risk. (United States)

    Engelmann, Jan B; Capra, C Monica; Noussair, Charles; Berns, Gregory S


    Financial advice from experts is commonly sought during times of uncertainty. While the field of neuroeconomics has made considerable progress in understanding the neurobiological basis of risky decision-making, the neural mechanisms through which external information, such as advice, is integrated during decision-making are poorly understood. In the current experiment, we investigated the neurobiological basis of the influence of expert advice on financial decisions under risk. While undergoing fMRI scanning, participants made a series of financial choices between a certain payment and a lottery. Choices were made in two conditions: 1) advice from a financial expert about which choice to make was displayed (MES condition); and 2) no advice was displayed (NOM condition). Behavioral results showed a significant effect of expert advice. Specifically, probability weighting functions changed in the direction of the expert's advice. This was paralleled by neural activation patterns. Brain activations showing significant correlations with valuation (parametric modulation by value of lottery/sure win) were obtained in the absence of the expert's advice (NOM) in intraparietal sulcus, posterior cingulate cortex, cuneus, precuneus, inferior frontal gyrus and middle temporal gyrus. Notably, no significant correlations with value were obtained in the presence of advice (MES). These findings were corroborated by region of interest analyses. Neural equivalents of probability weighting functions showed significant flattening in the MES compared to the NOM condition in regions associated with probability weighting, including anterior cingulate cortex, dorsolateral PFC, thalamus, medial occipital gyrus and anterior insula. Finally, during the MES condition, significant activations in temporoparietal junction and medial PFC were obtained. These results support the hypothesis that one effect of expert advice is to "offload" the calculation of value of decision options from the

  7. Expert systems for real-time monitoring and fault diagnosis (United States)

    Edwards, S. J.; Caglayan, A. K.


    Methods for building real-time onboard expert systems were investigated, and the use of expert systems technology was demonstrated in improving the performance of current real-time onboard monitoring and fault diagnosis applications. The potential applications of the proposed research include an expert system environment allowing the integration of expert systems into conventional time-critical application solutions, a grammar for describing the discrete event behavior of monitoring and fault diagnosis systems, and their applications to new real-time hardware fault diagnosis and monitoring systems for aircraft.

  8. Differential diagnosis of allergic rhinitis and sinusitis an expert system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creider, R.D.; Sundar Singh, P.S. [Texas A& M Univ., Commerce, TX (United States)


    Nasal congestion is a common problem for many people. It is a symptom of chronic sinusitis and also a characteristic of allergic rhinitis. Individuals frequently confuse sinusitis and allergic rhinitis. The expert system described below will diagnose the problem to be either rhinitis or sinusitis. In this paper we describe the expert system, the need for such an expert system and the process of developing the system.

  9. Applicability of tunnel boring Machine and its expert system. Tunnel kusshinki no tekiyosei to expert system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okubo, S. (Univ. of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering)


    A tunnel boring machine (TBM) shows extreme lowering in mean penetration rate if it is not properly applied and used, therefore, it is required to discuss the applicability of TBM in advance. In this papaer, the work results presented up to now and knowledge concerning to TBM performances are collected and implemented in a computer program which is called an expert system for applicability of TBM. In this expert system, input parameters are tunnel length, tunnel diameter, maximum curvature, dip, uniaxial compressive strength etc., and penetration rate, normal force, rolling force etc. are deduced together with the appraisal and recommendation for users. Through the several case studies, it was found that the developed expert system gives the appropriate results specially for the tunnels excavated in North America and Europe. In cases of tunnels excavated in Japan, the estimated penetration rate is far less than the actual result. Consideration for complicated environments and surroundings differing from country to country may be remained for future. 31 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  10. Decision table languages and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Metzner, John R


    ACM Monograph Series: Decision Table Languages and Systems focuses on linguistic examination of decision tables and survey of the features of existing decision table languages and systems. The book first offers information on semiotics, programming language features, and generalization. Discussions focus on semantic broadening, outer language enrichments, generalization of syntax, limitations, implementation improvements, syntactic and semantic features, decision table syntax, semantics of decision table languages, and decision table programming languages. The text then elaborates on design im

  11. Handbook of VLSI chip design and expert systems

    CERN Document Server

    Schwarz, A F


    Handbook of VLSI Chip Design and Expert Systems provides information pertinent to the fundamental aspects of expert systems, which provides a knowledge-based approach to problem solving. This book discusses the use of expert systems in every possible subtask of VLSI chip design as well as in the interrelations between the subtasks.Organized into nine chapters, this book begins with an overview of design automation, which can be identified as Computer-Aided Design of Circuits and Systems (CADCAS). This text then presents the progress in artificial intelligence, with emphasis on expert systems.

  12. Identifying psychophysiological indices of expert vs. novice performance in deadly force judgment and decision making. (United States)

    Johnson, Robin R; Stone, Bradly T; Miranda, Carrie M; Vila, Bryan; James, Lois; James, Stephen M; Rubio, Roberto F; Berka, Chris


    To demonstrate that psychophysiology may have applications for objective assessment of expertise development in deadly force judgment and decision making (DFJDM). Modern training techniques focus on improving decision-making skills with participative assessment between trainees and subject matter experts primarily through subjective observation. OBJECTIVE metrics need to be developed. The current proof of concept study explored the potential for psychophysiological metrics in deadly force judgment contexts. Twenty-four participants (novice, expert) were recruited. All wore a wireless Electroencephalography (EEG) device to collect psychophysiological data during high-fidelity simulated deadly force judgment and decision-making simulations using a modified Glock firearm. Participants were exposed to 27 video scenarios, one-third of which would have justified use of deadly force. Pass/fail was determined by whether the participant used deadly force appropriately. Experts had a significantly higher pass rate compared to novices (p DFA) using psychophysiological metrics was able to discern between experts and novices with 72.6% accuracy. While limited due to small sample size, the results suggest that psychophysiology may be developed for use as an objective measure of expertise in DFDJM. Specifically, discriminant function measures may have the potential to objectively identify expert skill acquisition. Psychophysiological metrics may create a performance model with the potential to optimize simulator-based DFJDM training. These performance models could be used for trainee feedback, and/or by the instructor to assess performance objectively.

  13. Expert system for skin problem consultation in Thai traditional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Materials and Methods: The tool selected for developing the expert system is a software program written in the PHP language. MySQL database is used to work together with PHP for building database of the expert system. The system is ... The developed system was considered good for learning and consultation.

  14. Expert System Techniques and Applications in AEC-Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Tom

    This part of a book presents expert system techniques applicable to building design and construction, and it reports and evaluates on systems developed in thar domain.......This part of a book presents expert system techniques applicable to building design and construction, and it reports and evaluates on systems developed in thar domain....

  15. Rule Based Expert System for Cerebral Palsy Diagnosis


    Borgohain, Rajdeep; Sanyal, Sugata


    The use of Artificial Intelligence is finding prominence not only in core computer areas, but also in cross disciplinary areas including medical diagnosis. In this paper, we present a rule based Expert System used in diagnosis of Cerebral Palsy. The expert system takes user input and depending on the symptoms of the patient, diagnoses if the patient is suffering from Cerebral Palsy. The Expert System also classifies the Cerebral Palsy as mild, moderate or severe based on the presented symptoms.

  16. Expert intuitions: how to model the decision strategies of airport customs officers? (United States)

    Pachur, Thorsten; Marinello, Gianmarco


    How does expertise impact the selection of decision strategies? We asked airport customs officers and a novice control group to decide which passengers (described on several cue dimensions) they would submit to a search. Additionally, participants estimated the validities of the different cues. Then we modeled the decisions using compensatory strategies, which integrate many cues, and a noncompensatory heuristic, which relies on one-reason decision making. The majority of the customs officers were best described by the noncompensatory heuristic, whereas the majority of the novices were best described by a compensatory strategy. We also found that the experts' subjective cue validity estimates showed a higher dispersion across the cues and that differences in cue dispersion partially mediated differences in strategy use between experts and novices. Our results suggest that experts often rely on one-reason decision making and that expert-novice differences in strategy selection may reflect a response to the internal representation of the environment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Integrated Knowledge Based Expert System for Disease Diagnosis System (United States)

    Arbaiy, Nureize; Sulaiman, Shafiza Eliza; Hassan, Norlida; Afizah Afip, Zehan


    The role and importance of healthcare systems to improve quality of life and social welfare in a society have been well recognized. Attention should be given to raise awareness and implementing appropriate measures to improve health care. Therefore, a computer based system is developed to serve as an alternative for people to self-diagnose their health status based on given symptoms. This strategy should be emphasized so that people can utilize the information correctly as a reference to enjoy healthier life. Hence, a Web-based Community Center for Healthcare Diagnosis system is developed based on expert system technique. Expert system reasoning technique is employed in the system to enable information about treatment and prevention of the diseases based on given symptoms. At present, three diseases are included which are arthritis, thalassemia and pneumococcal. Sets of rule and fact are managed in the knowledge based system. Web based technology is used as a platform to disseminate the information to users in order for them to optimize the information appropriately. This system will benefit people who wish to increase health awareness and seek expert knowledge on the diseases by performing self-diagnosis for early disease detection.

  18. The Complex Neutrosophic Soft Expert Relation and Its Multiple Attribute Decision-Making Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Al-Quran


    Full Text Available This paper introduces a novel soft computing technique, called the complex neutrosophic soft expert relation (CNSER, to evaluate the degree of interaction between two hybrid models called complex neutrosophic soft expert sets (CNSESs. CNSESs are used to represent two-dimensional data that are imprecise, uncertain, incomplete and indeterminate. Moreover, it has a mechanism to incorporate the parameter set and the opinions of all experts in one model, thus making it highly suitable for use in decision-making problems where the time factor plays a key role in determining the final decision. The complex neutrosophic soft expert set and complex neutrosophic soft expert relation are both defined. Utilizing the properties of CNSER introduced, an empirical study is conducted on the relationship between the variability of the currency exchange rate and Malaysian exports and the time frame (phase of the interaction between these two variables. This study is supported further by an algorithm to determine the type and the degree of this relationship. A comparison between different existing relations and CNSER to show the ascendancy of our proposed CNSER is provided. Then, the notion of the inverse, complement and composition of CNSERs along with some related theorems and properties are introduced. Finally, we define the symmetry, transitivity and reflexivity of CNSERs, as well as the equivalence relation and equivalence classes on CNSESs. Some interesting properties are also obtained.

  19. Clinical decision modeling system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyons-Weiler James


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Decision analysis techniques can be applied in complex situations involving uncertainty and the consideration of multiple objectives. Classical decision modeling techniques require elicitation of too many parameter estimates and their conditional (joint probabilities, and have not therefore been applied to the problem of identifying high-performance, cost-effective combinations of clinical options for diagnosis or treatments where many of the objectives are unknown or even unspecified. Methods We designed a Java-based software resource, the Clinical Decision Modeling System (CDMS, to implement Naïve Decision Modeling, and provide a use case based on published performance evaluation measures of various strategies for breast and lung cancer detection. Because cost estimates for many of the newer methods are not yet available, we assume equal cost. Our use case reveals numerous potentially high-performance combinations of clinical options for the detection of breast and lung cancer. Results Naïve Decision Modeling is a highly practical applied strategy which guides investigators through the process of establishing evidence-based integrative translational clinical research priorities. CDMS is not designed for clinical decision support. Inputs include performance evaluation measures and costs of various clinical options. The software finds trees with expected emergent performance characteristics and average cost per patient that meet stated filtering criteria. Key to the utility of the software is sophisticated graphical elements, including a tree browser, a receiver-operator characteristic surface plot, and a histogram of expected average cost per patient. The analysis pinpoints the potentially most relevant pairs of clinical options ('critical pairs' for which empirical estimates of conditional dependence may be critical. The assumption of independence can be tested with retrospective studies prior to the initiation of

  20. Fuzzy expert system in the prediction of neonatal resuscitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A.M. Reis


    Full Text Available In view of the importance of anticipating the occurrence of critical situations in medicine, we propose the use of a fuzzy expert system to predict the need for advanced neonatal resuscitation efforts in the delivery room. This system relates the maternal medical, obstetric and neonatal characteristics to the clinical conditions of the newborn, providing a risk measurement of need of advanced neonatal resuscitation measures. It is structured as a fuzzy composition developed on the basis of the subjective perception of danger of nine neonatologists facing 61 antenatal and intrapartum clinical situations which provide a degree of association with the risk of occurrence of perinatal asphyxia. The resulting relational matrix describes the association between clinical factors and risk of perinatal asphyxia. Analyzing the inputs of the presence or absence of all 61 clinical factors, the system returns the rate of risk of perinatal asphyxia as output. A prospectively collected series of 304 cases of perinatal care was analyzed to ascertain system performance. The fuzzy expert system presented a sensitivity of 76.5% and specificity of 94.8% in the identification of the need for advanced neonatal resuscitation measures, considering a cut-off value of 5 on a scale ranging from 0 to 10. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.93. The identification of risk situations plays an important role in the planning of health care. These preliminary results encourage us to develop further studies and to refine this model, which is intended to implement an auxiliary system able to help health care staff to make decisions in perinatal care.

  1. The BRIEFER project: using expert systems as theory construction tools. (United States)

    Gingerich, W J; de Shazer, S


    This article describes the development of BRIEFER I and BRIEFER II, expert systems that advise the therapist on selecting, designing, and developing an intervention at the end of the first therapy session. The process of developing expert systems has aided us in describing what brief therapists do, in modeling the intervention design process, and in training brief therapists.

  2. Expert System for Diagnosis of Hepatitis B Ibrahim Mailafiya, Fatima ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Expert System for Diagnosis of Hepatitis B. Ibrahim Mailafiya, Fatima Isiaka. Department of Computer Science,. Nasarawa State University, Keffi. Abstract. This paper is a preview of the work so far concluded on Expert Systems implementation for the diagnosis of hepatitis B, which is one of the most common of all hepatitis ...

  3. The development of an expert system for arid rangeland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Currently, the expert system uses wiki technology, as this allows a high level of interaction between user and administrator. The expert system includes embedded links to photographs and additional information. It allows easy updating of the knowledge base. An additional booklet was also developed, since access to ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüdayim BAŞAK


    Full Text Available In this study, a expert system has been developed using Leonardo expert system package programming for screw operation, According to DIN standard norm. The designed program decide the most suitable screw type considering to material, cutting speed, working condition etc. This program also directs to user.

  5. The Principles of Designing an Expert System in Teaching Mathematics (United States)

    Salekhova, Lailya; Nurgaliev, Albert; Zaripova, Rinata; Khakimullina, Nailya


    This study reveals general didactic concepts of the Expert Systems (ES) development process in the educational area. The proof of concept is based on the example of teaching the 8th grade Algebra subject. The main contribution in this work is the implementation of innovative approaches in analysis and processing of data by expert system as well as…

  6. Expert systems applications for space shuttle payload integration automation (United States)

    Morris, Keith


    Expert systems technologies have been and are continuing to be applied to NASA's Space Shuttle orbiter payload integration problems to provide a level of automation previously unrealizable. NASA's Space Shuttle orbiter was designed to be extremely flexible in its ability to accommodate many different types and combinations of satellites and experiments (payloads) within its payload bay. This flexibility results in differnet and unique engineering resource requirements for each of its payloads, creating recurring payload and cargo integration problems. Expert systems provide a successful solution for these recurring problems. The Orbiter Payload Bay Cabling Expert (EXCABL) was the first expert system, developed to solve the electrical services provisioning problem. A second expert system, EXMATCH, was developed to generate a list of the reusable installation drawings available for each EXCABL solution. These successes have proved the applicability of expert systems technologies to payload integration problems and consequently a third expert system is currently in work. These three expert systems, the manner in which they resolve payload problems and how they will be integrated are described.

  7. Weibull Decision Support Systems in Maintenance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aboura Khalid


    Full Text Available Background: The Weibull distribution is one of the most important lifetime distributions in applied statistics. Weibull analysis is the leading method in the world for fitting and analyzing lifetime data. We discuss one of the earliest decision support system for the assessment of a distribution for the parameters of the Weibull reliability model using expert information. We then present a different approach to assess the parameters distribution.

  8. Utilizing expert systems for satellite monitoring and control (United States)

    Hughes, Peter M.


    Spacecraft analysts in the spacecraft control center for the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite are currently utilizing a fault-isolation expert system developed to assist in the isolation and correction of faults in the communications link. This system, the communication link expert assistance resource (CLEAR), monitors real time spacecraft and ground systems performance parameters in search of configuration discrepancies and communications link problems. If such a discrepancy or problem is isolated, CLEAR alerts the analyst and provides advice on how to resolve the problem swiftly and effectively. The CLEAR system is the first real time expert system to be used in the operational environment of a satellite control center at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. Clear has not only demonstrated the utility and potential of an expert system in the demanding environment of a satellite control center, but also has revealed many of the pitfalls and deficiencies of development of expert systems. One of the lessons learned from this and other initial expert system projects is that prototypes can often be developed quite rapidly, but operational expert systems require considerable effort. Development is generally a slow, tedious process that typically requires the special skills of trained programmers. Due to the success of CLEAR and several other systems in the control center domain, a large number of expert systems will certainly be developed to support control center operations during the early 1990's. To facilitate the development of these systems, a project was initiated to develop an integrated, domain-specific tool, the generic spacecraft analyst assistent (GenSAA), that alows the spacecraft analysts to rapidly create simple expert systems themselves. By providing a highly graphical point-and-select method of system development, GenSAA allows the analyst to utilize and/or modify previously developed rule bases and system components; thus, facilitating

  9. Factors identified by experts to support decision making for post acute referral. (United States)

    Bowles, Kathryn H; Holmes, John H; Ratcliffe, Sarah J; Liberatore, Matthew; Nydick, Robert; Naylor, Mary D


    Each year, more than 13 million post acute referral decisions are made for Medicare recipients, yet there are no national, empirically derived decision support tools to assist in making these important decisions. The aim of this study was to elicit expert knowledge about factors important to referral decision making and identify the characteristics of hospitalized patients who need a post acute referral. This was a retrospective and prospective mixed-methods study of the referral decisions made by discharge planning experts for 355 hospitalized older adults. Variables included sociodemographics, living arrangement, insurance, diagnosis, comorbid conditions, adverse events, medications, home care use, hospitalization in last 30 days or 6 months, patients' perception of need for and use of assistive devices or post acute services, length of stay, cognition, self-rated health, depression, functional status, and post acute referral decision. The final model identified six factors associated with the need for a post acute referral. A cutpoint was derived with a sensitivity and specificity of 87.6% and 63.2%, respectively. Experts were more likely to refer patients who had no or intermittent help available (odds ratio [OR] = 3.0), major walking restrictions (OR = 6.5), less than excellent self-rated health (3.1 and 4.0 times more likely with good and fair-poor health, respectively), remained in the hospital longer (OR = 1.2), and had higher depression scores (OR = 1.1) or number of comorbidities (OR = 1.2). This study begins to identify information useful to clinicians caring for hospitalized older adults who may benefit from post acute services. By assuring the systematic, valid, and reliable collection of these items, the multidisciplinary team is alerted to patients who may benefit from post acute services. Further work is needed to increase the specificity and generalizability of the model and to test its effects on patient and clinician outcomes.

  10. Knowledge communication problems between experts and managers: an analysis of knowledge transfer in decision processes


    Eppler, Martin J.


    This article proposes a communication perspective on the problem of knowledge transfer between experts and managers in organizational decision making processes. We outline why this perspective is important and we show where and when knowledge communication matters. After an overview of typical knowledge communication situations in management, we define knowledge communication and differentiate it from other types of professional communication. We do so by showing that what is communicated dif...

  11. Toward an expert project management system (United States)

    Silverman, Barry G.; Murray, Arthur; Diakite, Coty; Feggos, Kostas


    The purpose of the research effort is to prescribe a generic reusable shell that any project office can install and customize for the purposes of advising, guiding, and supporting project managers in that office. The prescribed shell is intended to provide both: a component that generates prescriptive guidance for project planning and monitoring activities, and an analogy (intuition) component that generates descriptive insights of previous experience of successful project managers. The latter component is especially significant in that it has the potential to: retrieve insights, not just data, and provide a vehicle for expert PMs to easily transcribe their current experiences in the course of each new project managed.

  12. Expert system application for prioritizing preventive actions for shift work: shift expert. (United States)

    Esen, Hatice; Hatipoğlu, Tuğçen; Cihan, Ahmet; Fiğlali, Nilgün


    Shift patterns, work hours, work arrangements and worker motivations have increasingly become key factors for job performance. The main objective of this article is to design an expert system that identifies the negative effects of shift work and prioritizes mitigation efforts according to their importance in preventing these negative effects. The proposed expert system will be referred to as the shift expert. A thorough literature review is conducted to determine the effects of shift work on workers. Our work indicates that shift work is linked to demographic variables, sleepiness and fatigue, health and well-being, and social and domestic conditions. These parameters constitute the sections of a questionnaire designed to focus on 26 important issues related to shift work. The shift expert is then constructed to provide prevention advice at the individual and organizational levels, and it prioritizes this advice using a fuzzy analytic hierarchy process model, which considers comparison matrices provided by users during the prioritization process. An empirical study of 61 workers working on three rotating shifts is performed. After administering the questionnaires, the collected data are analyzed statistically, and then the shift expert produces individual and organizational recommendations for these workers.

  13. The European Association of Preventive Cardiology Exercise Prescription in Everyday Practice and Rehabilitative Training (EXPERT) tool: A digital training and decision support system for optimized exercise prescription in cardiovascular disease. Concept, definitions and construction methodology.


    Hansen, Dominique; Dendale, Paul; Coninx, Karin; Vanhees, Luc; Piepoli, Massimo F.; Niebauer, Josef; Cornelissen, Veronique; Pedretti, Roberto; Geurts, Eva; Rovelo Ruiz, Gustavo; Corra, U.; Schmid, Jean-Paul; Greco, Eugenio; Davos, Constantinos; Edelmann, Frank


    Background Exercise rehabilitation is highly recommended by current guidelines on prevention of cardiovascular disease, but its implementation is still poor. Many clinicians experience difficulties in prescribing exercise in the presence of different concomitant cardiovascular diseases and risk factors within the same patient. It was aimed to develop a digital training and decision support system for exercise prescription in cardiovascular disease patients in clinical practice: the European A...

  14. Expert Systems the Old Fashioned Way: Person to Person. (United States)

    McCleary, Hunter; Mayer, William J.


    Describes the services of Teltech, Inc., which mimic the desirable attributes of artificial intelligence and expert systems via a "database" of 5,000 experts in technical areas and interactive literature searches executed by staff. Advantages and shortcomings of the network are exemplified by sample searches. Several sample menus and…

  15. A mathematical framework for combining decisions of multiple experts toward accurate and remote diagnosis of malaria using tele-microscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam Mavandadi

    Full Text Available We propose a methodology for digitally fusing diagnostic decisions made by multiple medical experts in order to improve accuracy of diagnosis. Toward this goal, we report an experimental study involving nine experts, where each one was given more than 8,000 digital microscopic images of individual human red blood cells and asked to identify malaria infected cells. The results of this experiment reveal that even highly trained medical experts are not always self-consistent in their diagnostic decisions and that there exists a fair level of disagreement among experts, even for binary decisions (i.e., infected vs. uninfected. To tackle this general medical diagnosis problem, we propose a probabilistic algorithm to fuse the decisions made by trained medical experts to robustly achieve higher levels of accuracy when compared to individual experts making such decisions. By modelling the decisions of experts as a three component mixture model and solving for the underlying parameters using the Expectation Maximisation algorithm, we demonstrate the efficacy of our approach which significantly improves the overall diagnostic accuracy of malaria infected cells. Additionally, we present a mathematical framework for performing 'slide-level' diagnosis by using individual 'cell-level' diagnosis data, shedding more light on the statistical rules that should govern the routine practice in examination of e.g., thin blood smear samples. This framework could be generalized for various other tele-pathology needs, and can be used by trained experts within an efficient tele-medicine platform.

  16. Parallelism in backward-chained expert systems - Experimental results (United States)

    Hall, Lawrence O.


    There are many applications which may be done by an expert system in real time, if the system is capable of real-time response. The LISP and PROLOG-based expert systems have typically been too slow for real-time response. This has led to an effort to use other languages, the development of fast pattern matching techniques and other methods of improving the speed of expert systems. Another approach to developing faster expert systems is to make use of the emerging parallel processing computer technology. A further use for parallelism is to allow reasonable response time for large knowledge bases. The size of knowledge bases may become as large as 20,000 chunks of knowledge (and more) in the near future in medical and space applications. This paper describes the use of parallel processing in the EMYCIN backward chained rule-based model.

  17. Expert system for controlling plant growth in a contained environment (United States)

    May, George A. (Inventor); Lanoue, Mark Allen (Inventor); Bethel, Matthew (Inventor); Ryan, Robert E. (Inventor)


    In a system for optimizing crop growth, vegetation is cultivated in a contained environment, such as a greenhouse, an underground cavern or other enclosed space. Imaging equipment is positioned within or about the contained environment, to acquire spatially distributed crop growth information, and environmental sensors are provided to acquire data regarding multiple environmental conditions that can affect crop development. Illumination within the contained environment, and the addition of essential nutrients and chemicals are in turn controlled in response to data acquired by the imaging apparatus and environmental sensors, by an "expert system" which is trained to analyze and evaluate crop conditions. The expert system controls the spatial and temporal lighting pattern within the contained area, and the timing and allocation of nutrients and chemicals to achieve optimized crop development. A user can access the "expert system" remotely, to assess activity within the growth chamber, and can override the "expert system".

  18. Expert performance on a virtual reality simulation system. (United States)

    Wierinck, Els R; Puttemans, Veerle; Swinnen, Stephan P; van Steenberghe, Daniel


    The objective of this research was to determine if the essence of expert performance could be captured on a virtual reality simulation system. Six experts in operative dentistry, six experts in periodontology, and six novice dental students performed a Class II tooth preparation task on the lower left second premolar. All subjects performed a pre-test to assess the basic skill level of each group. During the (limited) training component of the study, the three groups practiced three tooth preparations and received augmented feedback. At both a one-minute and one-day interval, subjects performed a final test in the absence of augmented feedback. All preparations were graded by the simulation system. The results showed at pre-test a significantly better performance of the experts in operative dentistry as compared to the novices. During the practice (acquisition) phase, the experts in operative dentistry outperformed both the periodontologists and novices, whereas the experts in periodontology performed more accurately than the novices. After one minute and one day following practice, similar results were obtained. Retention performance was most accurate after a one-day delay. Based on these results, the simulator appears to be a valid and reliable tool to capture expert performance. It is an effective screening device for assessing the level of expert performance.

  19. Expert Intraoperative Judgment and Decision-Making: Defining the Cognitive Competencies for Safe Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy. (United States)

    Madani, Amin; Watanabe, Yusuke; Feldman, Liane S; Vassiliou, Melina C; Barkun, Jeffrey S; Fried, Gerald M; Aggarwal, Rajesh


    Bile duct injuries from laparoscopic cholecystectomy remain a significant source of morbidity and are often the result of intraoperative errors in perception, judgment, and decision-making. This qualitative study aimed to define and characterize higher-order cognitive competencies required to safely perform a laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Hierarchical and cognitive task analyses for establishing a critical view of safety during laparoscopic cholecystectomy were performed using qualitative methods to map the thoughts and practices that characterize expert performance. Experts with more than 5 years of experience, and who have performed at least 100 laparoscopic cholecystectomies, participated in semi-structured interviews and field observations. Verbal data were transcribed verbatim, supplemented with content from published literature, coded, thematically analyzed using grounded-theory by 2 independent reviewers, and synthesized into a list of items. A conceptual framework was created based on 10 interviews with experts, 9 procedures, and 18 literary sources. Experts included 6 minimally invasive surgeons, 2 hepato-pancreatico-biliary surgeons, and 2 acute care general surgeons (median years in practice, 11 [range 8 to 14]). One hundred eight cognitive elements (35 [32%] related to situation awareness, 47 [44%] involving decision-making, and 26 [24%] action-oriented subtasks) and 75 potential errors were identified and categorized into 6 general themes and 14 procedural tasks. Of the 75 potential errors, root causes were mapped to errors in situation awareness (24 [32%]), decision-making (49 [65%]), or either one (61 [81%]). This study defines the competencies that are essential to establishing a critical view of safety and avoiding bile duct injuries during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. This framework may serve as the basis for instructional design, assessment tools, and quality-control metrics to prevent injuries and promote a culture of patient safety. Copyright

  20. The Use of Web Based Expert System Application for Identification and Intervention of Children with Special Needs in Inclusive School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dian Atnantomi Wiliyanto


    Full Text Available This research is conducted to determine the effectiveness of web based expert system application for identification and intervention of children with special needs in inclusive school. 40 teachers of inclusive school in Surakarta participated in this research. The result showed that: (1 web based expert system application was suitable with the needs of teachers/officers, had 50% (excellence criteria, (2 web based expert system application was worthwhile for identification of children with special needs, had 50% (excellence criteria, (3 web based expert system application was easy to use, had 52.5% (good criteria, and (4 web based expert system application had result accuracy in making decision, had 52.5% (good criteria. It shows that the use of web based expert system application is effective to be used by teachers in inclusive school in conducting identification and intervention with percentage on average was more than 50%.

  1. Expert system for determining welding condition for a pressure vessel

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fukuda, Shuichi; Morita, Hideki; Yamauchi, Yoshihisa; Nagasawa, Isao; Tsuji, Shuichi


    This paper describes the outline of the expert system for producing a Welding Procedure Specification for a pressure vessel which was developed with the grant from the Ministry of International Trade...

  2. An Expert Systems Approach for PR Campaigns Research. (United States)

    Cameron, Glen T.; Curtin, Patricia A.


    Describes an expert system (the artificial intelligence program "Publics") that helps users identify key publics for public relations campaigns. Examines advantages and problems encountered in its use in public relations campaigns classrooms. (SR)

  3. Building Expert Medical Prognostic Systems Using Voronoi Diagram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria A. Ivanchuk


    Full Text Available The method of building expert systems for medical prediction of severity in patients is purposed. The method is based on using Voronoi diagrams. Examples of using the method are described in the paper.

  4. Hierarchical scaling of marketing decision support systems, Decision Support Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Wierenga (Berend); P.A.M. Oude Ophuis (Peter); K.R.E. Huizingh; P.F.A.M. Campen, van


    textabstractMarketing Decision Support Systems (MDSS) show a large variety in functionality and form. In this paper a scale is developed that measures the sophistication of a Marketing Decision Support System. This scale, based on Guttman's Scalogram Analysis, is hierarchical in nature: more

  5. YUCSA: A CLIPS expert database system to monitor academic performance (United States)

    Toptsis, Anestis A.; Ho, Frankie; Leindekar, Milton; Foon, Debra Low; Carbonaro, Mike


    The York University CLIPS Student Administrator (YUCSA), an expert database system implemented in C Language Integrated Processing System (CLIPS), for monitoring the academic performance of undergraduate students at York University, is discussed. The expert system component in the system has already been implemented for two major departments, and it is under testing and enhancement for more departments. Also, more elaborate user interfaces are under development. We describe the design and implementation of the system, problems encountered, and immediate future plans. The system has excellent maintainability and it is very efficient, taking less than one minute to complete an assessment of one student.

  6. Expert System for UNIX System Reliability and Availability Enhancement (United States)

    Xu, Catherine Q.


    Highly reliable and available systems are critical to the airline industry. However, most off-the-shelf computer operating systems and hardware do not have built-in fault tolerant mechanisms, the UNIX workstation is one example. In this research effort, we have developed a rule-based Expert System (ES) to monitor, command, and control a UNIX workstation system with hot-standby redundancy. The ES on each workstation acts as an on-line system administrator to diagnose, report, correct, and prevent certain types of hardware and software failures. If a primary station is approaching failure, the ES coordinates the switch-over to a hot-standby secondary workstation. The goal is to discover and solve certain fatal problems early enough to prevent complete system failure from occurring and therefore to enhance system reliability and availability. Test results show that the ES can diagnose all targeted faulty scenarios and take desired actions in a consistent manner regardless of the sequence of the faults. The ES can perform designated system administration tasks about ten times faster than an experienced human operator. Compared with a single workstation system, our hot-standby redundancy system downtime is predicted to be reduced by more than 50 percent by using the ES to command and control the system.

  7. [From debate to decision: at the crossroads of the dialogue between experts, practitioners and citizens]. (United States)

    Kivits, Joëlle; Jabot, Françoise


    The increasing democratisation of the public health decision-making process and the opening-up of debate to new actors heavily rely upon procedures which provide a platform to enable informed groups such as practitioners or consumer associations and other NGOs to express their opinions. Using the example of a public hearing on BCG vaccination that was organised in November 2006 by the French Society of Public Health, this study questions the role of these new actors in the decision-making process, their weight with regard to expert opinions and their influence on decision-makers. The qualitative thematic analysis of the debates held throughout the public hearing and hearing committee's deliberations highlights that despite the diversity of the actors present and their level of participation in the debate, the varied nature of the themes addressed and the diverse stance on issues, the consultation process is held according to a relatively restricted format under certain noticeable constraints. Only a well-informed audience, composed of doctors (either clinicians or public health doctors) is apt and capable of contributing to the debate with the full capacity to react to the technical interventions. Their participation is largely dependant on using their own experience from the field as a form of expertise on the subject of vaccination. This study discusses the notion of expertise within public debate, which in order to be truly legitimate, must be accompanied by recognition of the affiliation of the actor as an expert as such.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Financial rating and ranking firms often use linguistic instead of numerical values. When input data are mostly qualitative and are based on subjective knowledge of experts, the Fuzzy Set Theory provides a solid mathematical model to represent and handle these data. The aim of this study is developing a fuzzy expert model to evaluate the performance of the pension funds by using their risk and return values. The method is used for evaluating the performance of the randomly selected of twenty seven Turkish pension funds. The obtained results proved that the fuzzy expert system is appropriate and consistent for performance evaluation.

  9. Expert system for compressor maintenance support; Sistema especialista para apoio a manutencao de compressores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Jonny Carlos da [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica; Caletti, Luciano [KEOHPS - Knowledge Engineering on Hydraulic and Pneumatic System, SC (Brazil); Luna, Paulo de T.M. [Universidade Regional de Blumenau - FURB, SC (Brazil)


    The performance of critical machines in industrial processes, such as compressors used in industrial plants, is fundamental for overall company operation. In this context, it becomes strategic the application of methods and tools to support the operation and maintenance of the most relevant process equipment. Among these computational tools are the Expert Systems, which aim to emulate the decision making process of human experts in a specific knowledge domain. In Oil and Gas domain, an example of such tools is the SEGRED project, which combines expert system techniques with dynamic simulation of transport and distribution natural gas networks. The SECOMP project, Expert System for Compressor Maintenance, is considered a spin-off of the SEGRED. Its objective is to develop an expert system to support maintenance activities, aiming to increase reliability, improve performance and reduce maintenance and operational costs. This article presents the first phase of the SECOMP project, which is related to the development of an expert system prototype for corrective maintenance of natural gas reciprocating compressors. The paper discusses the context of this knowledge domain, the prototype development and its potential contribution in an industrial environment. (author)

  10. The effects of team expert choice on group decision-making in collaborative new product development; a pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hummel, J. Marjan; van Rossum, Wouter; Verkerke, Gijsbertus Jacob; Rakhorst, G.


    This study analyses the effects of Team Expert Choice on group decision-making in collaborative new product development. We applied Team Expert Choice to support a product evaluation conducted by a new product development group composed of professionally diverse members. The evaluation resulted in

  11. Expert system for skin problem consultation in Thai traditional medicine. (United States)

    Nopparatkiat, Pornchai; na Nagara, Byaporn; Chansa-ngavej, Chuvej


    This paper aimed to demonstrate the research and development of a rule-based expert system for skin problem consulting in the areas of acne, melasma, freckle, wrinkle, and uneven skin tone, with recommended treatments from Thai traditional medicine knowledge. The tool selected for developing the expert system is a software program written in the PHP language. MySQL database is used to work together with PHP for building database of the expert system. The system is web-based and can be reached from anywhere with Internet access. The developed expert system gave recommendations on the skin problem treatment with Thai herbal recipes and Thai herbal cosmetics based on 416 rules derived from primary and secondary sources. The system had been tested by 50 users consisting of dermatologists, Thai traditional medicine doctors, and general users. The developed system was considered good for learning and consultation. The present work showed how such a scattered body of traditional knowledge as Thai traditional medicine and herbal recipes could be collected, organised and made accessible to users and interested parties. The expert system developed herein should contribute in a meaningful way towards preserving the knowledge and helping promote the use of Thai traditional medicine as a practical alternative medicine for the treatment of illnesses.

  12. Verification and validation of decision support software: Expert Choice{trademark} and PCM{trademark}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Q.H.; Martin, J.D.


    This report documents the verification and validation of two decision support programs: EXPERT CHOICE{trademark} and PCM{trademark}. Both programs use the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) -- or pairwise comparison technique -- developed by Dr. Thomas L. Saaty. In order to provide an independent method for the validating the two programs, the pairwise comparison algorithm was developed for a standard mathematical program. A standard data set -- selecting a car to purchase -- was used with each of the three programs for validation. The results show that both commercial programs performed correctly.

  13. Applying expert systems technology to communications software validation (United States)

    Davis, Margaret J.

    This case study describes the use of an expert-systems approach to automation of systems and integration testing for validation of complex, real-time communications software, such as used onboard the Airborne Warning and Control Systems (AWACS) aircraft. The approach permits a state-based rather than path- or branch-based testing style. States can be matched with high-level system requirements to give a measure of test coverage. The benefits and weaknesses realized from using the Boeing-built embeddable expert systems shell with a custom relational database interface to construct an automated software verification tool supporting this approach are discussed, along with a brief summary of the utility of applying expert systems technology in this software engineering area. Qualitative measurements of the productivity increase from a prototype demonstration are also included.

  14. Good thinking or gut feeling? Decision-making style and rationality in traders, bankers and financial non-experts


    Thoma, Volker


    Research in cognitive psychology and behavioural finance has suggested that human decision-making is subject to the use of ‘heuristics’ – simple decision rules that produce systematic biases away from normative decision outcomes (Kahneman, 2003), and that even financial experts may be susceptible to heuristic thinking (e.g., Taleb, 2004).\\ud The current study investigated differences in decision-making style and the susceptibility to heuristics between financial traders, non-trading bank empl...

  15. Thinking through ethics : the processes of ethical decision-making by novice and expert American sign language interpreters


    Mendoza, Mary Elizabeth


    In the course of their work, sign language interpreters are faced with ethical dilemmas that require prioritizing competing moral beliefs and views on professional practice. There are several decision-making models, however, little research has been done on how sign language interpreters learn to identify and make ethical decisions. Through surveys and interviews on ethical decision-making, this study investigates how expert and novice interpreters discuss their ethical decision-making proces...

  16. An expert system for natural language processing (United States)

    Hennessy, John F.


    A solution to the natural language processing problem that uses a rule based system, written in OPS5, to replace the traditional parsing method is proposed. The advantage to using a rule based system are explored. Specifically, the extensibility of a rule based solution is discussed as well as the value of maintaining rules that function independently. Finally, the power of using semantics to supplement the syntactic analysis of a sentence is considered.

  17. A novel computer based expert decision making model for prostate cancer disease management. (United States)

    Richman, Martin B; Forman, Ernest H; Bayazit, Yildirim; Einstein, Douglas B; Resnick, Martin I; Stovsky, Mark D


    We propose a strategic, computer based, prostate cancer decision making model based on the analytic hierarchy process. We developed a model that improves physician-patient joint decision making and enhances the treatment selection process by making this critical decision rational and evidence based. Two groups (patient and physician-expert) completed a clinical study comparing an initial disease management choice with the highest ranked option generated by the computer model. Participants made pairwise comparisons to derive priorities for the objectives and subobjectives related to the disease management decision. The weighted comparisons were then applied to treatment options to yield prioritized rank lists that reflect the likelihood that a given alternative will achieve the participant treatment goal. Aggregate data were evaluated by inconsistency ratio analysis and sensitivity analysis, which assessed the influence of individual objectives and subobjectives on the final rank list of treatment options. Inconsistency ratios less than 0.05 were reliably generated, indicating that judgments made within the model were mathematically rational. The aggregate prioritized list of treatment options was tabulated for the patient and physician groups with similar outcomes for the 2 groups. Analysis of the major defining objectives in the treatment selection decision demonstrated the same rank order for the patient and physician groups with cure, survival and quality of life being more important than controlling cancer, preventing major complications of treatment, preventing blood transfusion complications and limiting treatment cost. Analysis of subobjectives, including quality of life and sexual dysfunction, produced similar priority rankings for the patient and physician groups. Concordance between initial treatment choice and the highest weighted model option differed between the groups with the patient group having 59% concordance and the physician group having only 42

  18. Strategic Decision Making and Group Decision Support Systems. (United States)

    McGrath, Michael Robert


    Institutional strategic decisions require the participation of every individual with a significant stake in the solution, and group decision support systems are being developed to respond to the political and consensual problems of collective decision-making. (MSE)

  19. CRN5EXP: Expert system for statistical quality control (United States)

    Hentea, Mariana


    The purpose of the Expert System CRN5EXP is to assist in checking the quality of the coils at two very important mills: Hot Rolling and Cold Rolling in a steel plant. The system interprets the statistical quality control charts, diagnoses and predicts the quality of the steel. Measurements of process control variables are recorded in a database and sample statistics such as the mean and the range are computed and plotted on a control chart. The chart is analyzed through patterns using the C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS) and a forward chaining technique to reach a conclusion about the causes of defects and to take management measures for the improvement of the quality control techniques. The Expert System combines the certainty factors associated with the process control variables to predict the quality of the steel. The paper presents the approach to extract data from the database, the reason to combine certainty factors, the architecture and the use of the Expert System. However, the interpretation of control charts patterns requires the human expert's knowledge and lends to Expert Systems rules.

  20. Hypercube Expert System Shell - Applying Production Parallelism. (United States)


    the most efficient algorithms for Smuat cli ,et d(ev,, lopd . 1,, ,achieve this efficiency, Rete exploits two features common to most production vs ent... risk . heavily defended targets. A contract wa awarded to Texas Instruments Iicor- porated (TI) in September 19S.5 to develop a system architecture ard

  1. Designing a fuzzy expert system for selecting knowledge management strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameneh Khadivar


    Full Text Available knowledge management strategy is mentioned as one of the most important success factors for implementing knowledge management. The KM strategy selection is a complex decision that requires consideration of several factors. For evaluation and selection of an appropriate knowledge management strategy in organizations, many factors must be considered. The identified factors and their impact on knowledge management strategy are inherently ambiguous. In this study, an overview of theoretical foundations of research regarding the different knowledge management strategies has been done And factors influencing the knowledge management strategy selection have been extracted from conceptual frameworks and models. How these factors influence the knowledge management strategy selection is extracted through the fuzzy Delphi. Next a fuzzy expert system for the selection of appropriate knowledge management strategy is designed with respect to factors that have an impact on knowledge management strategy. The factors which influence the selection of knowledge management strategy include: general business strategy, organizational structure, cultural factors, IT strategy, strategic human resource management, social level, the types of knowledge creation processes and release it. The factors which influence the knowledge management strategy selection include: business strategy general, organizational structure, cultural factors, IT strategy, human resource management strategies, socialization level, knowledge types and its creation and diffusion processes. According to identified factors which affect the knowledge management strategy, the final strategy is recommended based on the range of human-oriented and system-oriented by keep the balance of explicit and implicit knowledge. The Designed system performance is tested and evaluated by the information related to three Iranian organization.

  2. Knowledge acquisition for expert systems using statistical methods (United States)

    Belkin, Brenda L.; Stengel, Robert F.


    A common problem in the design of expert systems is the definition of rules from data obtained in system operation or simulation. A statistical method for generating rule bases from numerical data, motivated by an example based on aircraft navigation with multiple sensors is presented. The specific objective is to design an expert system that selects a satisfactory suite of measurements from a dissimilar, redundant set, given an arbitrary navigation geometry and possible sensor failures. The systematic development of a Navigation Sensor Management (NSM) Expert System from Kalman Filter covariance data is described. The development method invokes two statistical techniques: Analysis-of-Variance (ANOVA) and the ID3 algorithm. The ANOVA technique indicates whether variations of problem parameters give statistically different covariance results, and the ID3 algorithm identifies the relationships between the problem parameters using probabilistic knowledge extracted from a simulation example set.

  3. Global Grid Telemedicine System: Expert Consult Manager (United States)


    REPB REPAIR-BLOOD-VESSEL-OTHER-THAN-FOR- FISTULA -WTH-OR-WITHOUT-PATCH-ANGIOPLASTY 0 2 D% REPA REPAIR- ARTERIOVENOUS - FISTULA 2 5 40% PERI PERICAROIUM...that the conceptual model of 5.1.1 together with the domain knowledge of 5.1.3 represented as in 5.1.2 is capable of functioning as an effective and...critical for system acceptance and functionality . The primary risk of our strategy is that what we learn from a narrow application domain may not

  4. Decision Support Systems in Libraries. (United States)

    Heindel, Allan; Napier, H. Albert

    Following a review of the contributions of computers and managerial science/operations research to the management of libraries, this paper introduces the concept of decision support systems. DSS, a blending of these techniques, can lead to more effective decisions by library managers. A case study of the utilization of a DSS in the budgeting…

  5. Expert Maintenance Advisor Development for Navy Shipboard Systems (United States)


    Society - Swedish Al Society SFrench Al Association - United Nations Industrial Development - IEEE Technical Committee on Organization ES Applications...Estoril (EDEN) Chair: Xavier Alaman, Instituto de Ingenieria del Conocimiento, SPAIN "A Model of Handling Uncertainty in Expert Systems," 01 Zhao...for Supervisory Process Control," Xavier Alaman, Instituto de Ingenieria del Conocimiento, SPAIN - (L) INTEGRATED KNOWLEDGE BASED SYSTEMS IN POWER

  6. Approche conceptuelle pour un systeme expert distine a la ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this article we present an approach of the design and realization of an expert system intended for the autonomous wind-solar systems design with batteries of storage. This approach uses the formalisms of representation of knowledge which is a hybridization of the rules of production and structured objects. To this end, a ...

  7. A local area computer network expert system framework (United States)

    Dominy, Robert


    Over the past years an expert system called LANES designed to detect and isolate faults in the Goddard-wide Hybrid Local Area Computer Network (LACN) was developed. As a result, the need for developing a more generic LACN fault isolation expert system has become apparent. An object oriented approach was explored to create a set of generic classes, objects, rules, and methods that would be necessary to meet this need. The object classes provide a convenient mechanism for separating high level information from low level network specific information. This approach yeilds a framework which can be applied to different network configurations and be easily expanded to meet new needs.

  8. Advances in metal forming expert system for metal forming

    CERN Document Server

    Hingole, Rahulkumar Shivajirao


    This comprehensive book offers a clear account of the theory and applications of advanced metal forming. It provides a detailed discussion of specific forming processes, such as deep drawing, rolling, bending extrusion and stamping. The author highlights recent developments of metal forming technologies and explains sound, new and powerful expert system techniques for solving advanced engineering problems in metal forming. In addition, the basics of expert systems, their importance and applications to metal forming processes, computer-aided analysis of metalworking processes, formability analysis, mathematical modeling and case studies of individual processes are presented.

  9. A Novel Web-based Human Advisor Fuzzy Expert System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Rafe


    Full Text Available The applications of the Internet-based technologies and the concepts of fuzzy expert systems (FES have created new methods for sharing and distributing knowledge. However, there has been a general lack of investigation in the area of web-based fuzzy expert systems. In this paper, the issues associated with the design, development, and use of web-based applications from a standpoint of the benefits and challenges of development and utilization are investigated. The original theory and concepts in conventional FES are reviewed and a knowledge engineering framework for developing such systems is revised. For a human advisor to have a satisfying performance, expertise is a must. In addition, some of advisory rules are subject to change because of domain knowledge update. The human requests may have linguistic or crisp forms and a conventional expert system (ES is not able to overcome the fuzziness in the problem nature. In this research, a Web-based fuzzy expert system for Common Human Advisor (FES-CHA is developed and implemented to be used as a student advisor at the department‘s web portal. The system is implemented by using Microsoft Visual Studio .NET 2010, MVC and Microsoft SQL Server 2012.

  10. An Integrated Expert Controller for the Oven Temperature Control System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagabhushana KATTE


    Full Text Available Paper presents a methodology for design of integrated fuzzy logic based an expert controller and its implementation for a real time oven temperature control system. Integrated expert controller (IEC is composed by cascading fuzzy logic controller with improved PID controller. Wherein, fuzzy controller evaluates the supplemental control actions and PID evaluates the final control actions. Temperature measurement of the oven with a precision of 16-bits is achieved through Pt100, instrumentation amplifier, and A/D converter and fuzzy plus PID computed control actions are given to the actuator via D/A converter (16-bits and PWM generator. Paper experimentally demonstrated the performance of IEC for oven temperature control application. The performance indexes of the system are presented in a comparative fashion with the conventional PID and expert controllers. Control algorithms are developed using C language.

  11. ANAPPRES: An expert system for interference well-test analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arellano, V.M.; Iglesias, E.R.; Arellano, J.; Schwarzblat, M.


    We present ANAPPRES V1.0, the first version of a computerized expert system capable of analyzing constant- and variable-flowrate interference tests, in which there is one active well and an arbitrary number of observation wells, in liquid-saturated homogeneous reservoirs. ANAPPRES successfully couples mathematical models, optimization techniques, heuristic knowledge and computerized graphics, a combination not often found in published expert systems. Its main advantages are that it is user friendly, requires essentially no experience on the part of the analyst, eliminates subjectivity associated with earlier techniques of analysis, can handle complex cases and large data sets, completes the analysis of even the most complex cases (including plotting the results) in one run, and is significantly faster than a human expert.

  12. Thinking like an expert: surgical decision making as a cyclical process of being aware. (United States)

    Cristancho, Sayra M; Apramian, Tavis; Vanstone, Meredith; Lingard, Lorelei; Ott, Michael; Forbes, Thomas; Novick, Richard


    Education researchers are studying the practices of high-stake professionals as they learn how to better train for flexibility under uncertainty. This study explores the "Reconciliation Cycle" as the core element of an intraoperative decision-making model of how experienced surgeons assess and respond to challenges. We analyzed 32 semistructured interviews using constructivist grounded theory to develop a model of intraoperative decision making. Using constant comparison analysis, we built on this model with 9 follow-up interviews about the most challenging cases described in our dataset. The Reconciliation Cycle constituted an iterative process of "gaining" and "transforming information." The cyclical nature of surgeons' decision making suggested that transforming information requires a higher degree of awareness, not yet accounted by current conceptualizations of situation awareness. This study advances the notion of situation awareness in surgery. This characterization will support further investigations on how expert and nonexpert surgeons implement strategies to cope with unexpected events. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A Novel Web-based Human Advisor Fuzzy Expert System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Rafe


    Full Text Available The applications of the Internet-based technologies and the concepts of fuzzy expert systems (FES have creatednew methods for sharing and distributing knowledge. However, there has been a general lack of investigation in thearea of web-based fuzzy expert systems. In this paper, the issues associated with the design, development, and useof web-based applications from a standpoint of the benefits and challenges of development and utilization areinvestigated. The original theory and concepts in conventional FES are reviewed and a knowledge engineeringframework for developing such systems is revised. For a human advisor to have a satisfying performance, expertise isa must. In addition, some of advisory rules are subject to change because of domain knowledge update. The humanrequests may have linguistic or crisp forms and a conventional expert system (ES is not able to overcome thefuzziness in the problem nature. In this research, a Web-based fuzzy expert system for Common Human Advisor(FES-CHA is developed and implemented to be used as a student advisor at the department's web portal. Thesystem is implemented by using Microsoft Visual Studio .NET 2010, MVC and Microsoft SQL Server 2012.

  14. A method for knowledge acquisition in diagnostic expert system. (United States)

    Li, Weishi; Li, Aiping; Li, Shudong


    Knowledge acquisition plays very important role in the diagnostic expert system. It usually takes a long period to acquire disease knowledge using the traditional methods. To solve this problem, this paper describes relations between rough set theory and rule-based description of diseases, which corresponds to the process of knowledge acquisition of diagnostic expert system. Then the exclusive rules, inclusive rules and disease images of disease are built based on the PDES diagnosis model, and the definition of probability rule is put forward. At last, the paper presents the rule-based automated induction reasoning method, including exhaustive search, post-processing procedure, estimation for statistic test and the bootstrap and resampling methods. We also introduce automated induction of the rule-based description, which is used in our diseases diagnostic expert system. The experimental results not only show that rough set theory gives a very suitable framework to represent processes of uncertain knowledge extraction, but also that this method induces diagnostic rules correctly. This method can act as the assistant tool for development of diagnosis expert system, and has an extensive application in intelligent information systems.

  15. An Expert System for Searching in Full-Text (United States)


    systems are the STAIRS system from IBM and the WESTLAW database of legal Gauch 3 information distributed by the West Publishing Company. Other, more recent...passages in large full-text databases . Our expert system automatically reformulates contextual Boolean queries to improve search results and presents...retrieved passages in decreasing order of estimated relevance. It differs from other intelligent database functions in two ways: it works with

  16. Expert system isssues in automated, autonomous space vehicle rendezvous (United States)

    Goodwin, Mary Ann; Bochsler, Daniel C.


    The problems involved in automated autonomous rendezvous are briefly reviewed, and the Rendezvous Expert (RENEX) expert system is discussed with reference to its goals, approach used, and knowledge structure and contents. RENEX has been developed to support streamlining operations for the Space Shuttle and Space Station program and to aid definition of mission requirements for the autonomous portions of rendezvous for the Mars Surface Sample Return and Comet Nucleus Sample return unmanned missions. The experience with REMEX to date and recommendations for further development are presented.

  17. An expert system for the calculation of sample size. (United States)

    Ebell, M H; Neale, A V; Hodgkins, B J


    Calculation of sample size is a useful technique for researchers who are designing a study, and for clinicians who wish to interpret research findings. The elements that must be specified to calculate the sample size include alpha, beta, Type I and Type II errors, 1- and 2-tail tests, confidence intervals, and confidence levels. A computer software program written by one of the authors (MHE), Sample Size Expert, facilitates sample size calculations. The program uses an expert system to help inexperienced users calculate sample sizes for analytic and descriptive studies. The software is available at no cost from the author or electronically via several on-line information services.

  18. An expert system as applied to bridges : software development phase. (United States)


    This report describes the results of the third of a four-part study dealing with the use of a computerized expert system to assist bridge engineers in their structures management program. In this phase of the study, software (called DOBES) was writte...

  19. Profile of the first generation of marketing expert systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Wierenga (Berend)


    textabstractThe emergence of expert systems in marketing can be seen as the next step in the development of the use of computers in marketing management, where starting out with an almost exclusively mathematical model building/optimization approach, gradually more judgmental elements from

  20. Expert system applications in support of system diagnostics and prognostics at EBR-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehto, W.K.; Gross, K.C. (Argonne National Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (USA); Argonne National Lab., IL (USA))


    Expert systems have been developed to aid in the monitoring and diagnostics of the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) in Idaho Falls, Idaho. Systems have been developed for failed fuel surveillance and diagnostics and reactor coolant pump monitoring and diagnostics. A third project is being done jointly by ANL-W and EG G Idaho to develop a transient analysis system to enhance overall plant diagnostic and prognostic capability. The failed fuel surveillance and diagnosis system monitors, processes, and interprets information from nine key plant sensors. It displays to the reactor operator diagnostic information needed to make proper decisions regarding technical specification conformance during reactor operation with failed fuel. 8 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Spacelab data processing facility (SLDPF) Quality Assurance (QA)/Data Accounting (DA) expert systems: Transition from prototypes to operational systems (United States)

    Basile, Lisa


    The SLDPF is responsible for the capture, quality monitoring processing, accounting, and shipment of Spacelab and/or Attached Shuttle Payloads (ASP) telemetry data to various user facilities. Expert systems will aid in the performance of the quality assurance and data accounting functions of the two SLDPF functional elements: the Spacelab Input Processing System (SIPS) and the Spacelab Output Processing System (SOPS). Prototypes were developed for each as independent efforts. The SIPS Knowledge System Prototype (KSP) used the commercial shell OPS5+ on an IBM PC/AT; the SOPS Expert System Prototype used the expert system shell CLIPS implemented on a Macintosh personal computer. Both prototypes emulate the duties of the respective QA/DA analysts based upon analyst input and predetermined mission criteria parameters, and recommended instructions and decisions governing the reprocessing, release, or holding for further analysis of data. These prototypes demonstrated feasibility and high potential for operational systems. Increase in productivity, decrease of tedium, consistency, concise historial records, and a training tool for new analyses were the principal advantages. An operational configuration, taking advantage of the SLDPF network capabilities, is under development with the expert systems being installed on SUN workstations. This new configuration in conjunction with the potential of the expert systems will enhance the efficiency, in both time and quality, of the SLDPF's release of Spacelab/AST data products.

  2. Data quality for decision makers a dialog between a board member and a DQ expert

    CERN Document Server

    Morbey, Guilherme


    Currently many companies are confronted with the decision how to deal with the new data quality requirements of the regulatory authorities. Future data quality statements for enterprise key figures and their origins are being demanded. Applying methods of a data quality management system can produce these statements best. Guilherme Morbey explains the introduction of such a system in the form of a dialogue.

  3. Expert System Control of Plant Growth in an Enclosed Space (United States)

    May, George; Lanoue, Mark; Bathel, Matthew; Ryan, Robert E.


    The Expert System is an enclosed, controlled environment for growing plants, which incorporates a computerized, knowledge-based software program that is designed to capture the knowledge, experience, and problem-solving skills of one or more human experts in a particular discipline. The Expert System is trained to analyze crop/plant status, to monitor the condition of the plants and the environment, and to adjust operational parameters to optimize the plant-growth process. This system is intended to provide a way to remotely control plant growth with little or no human intervention. More specifically, the term control implies an autonomous method for detecting plant states such as health (biomass) or stress and then for recommending and implementing cultivation and/or remediation to optimize plant growth and to minimize consumption of energy and nutrients. Because of difficulties associated with delivering energy and nutrients remotely, a key feature of this Expert System is its ability to minimize this effort and to achieve optimum growth while taking into account the diverse range of environmental considerations that exist in an enclosed environment. The plant-growth environment for the Expert System could be made from a variety of structures, including a greenhouse, an underground cavern, or another enclosed chamber. Imaging equipment positioned within or around the chamber provides spatially distributed crop/plant-growth information. Sensors mounted in the chamber provide data and information pertaining to environmental conditions that could affect plant development. Lamps in the growth environment structure supply illumination, and other additional equipment in the chamber supplies essential nutrients and chemicals.

  4. Decision Support Systems: Theory. (United States)


    Henry , Man-Machine System Experiments. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press , 1972. Parsons , Talcott , Structure and Process in Modern Societies, The Free...B146-155, Dec. 1965. Heany, D. F. , " Education - The Critical Link in Getting Managers to Use Management Systems." Interfaces, Vol. 2, No. 3, pp. 1...34Toward a Psychological Theory of Education ," of Humanistic Psychology, Vol. IX, No. 1, pp. 17-52, 1969. Mogni, Ben , "The Computer’s Role in Marketing

  5. A study on the development and application of expert system for nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, Hee Gon; Kim, Seong Bok [Korea Electric Power Corp. (KEPCO), Taejon (Korea, Republic of). Research Center


    It is a final report of the research that is a study on the development and application of expert system for nuclear power plants and development of the schemes computing environments and user interfaces for the expert system, which is a systematic and efficient development of expert system for nuclear power plants in the future. This report is consisted of -Development trends of expert system for nuclear power plants. -Classification of expert system applications for nuclear power plants. -Systematic and efficient developments schemes of expert system for nuclear power plants, and -Suitable computing environments and user interfaces for the expert systems. (author). 113 refs., 85 figs.

  6. Expert system for online surveillance of nuclear reactor coolant pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gross, K.C.; Singer, R.M.; Humenik, K.E.


    This report describes an expert system for online surveillance of nuclear reactor coolant pumps. This system provides a means for early detection of pump or sensor degradation. Degradation is determined through the use of a statistical analysis technique, sequential probability ratio test, applied to information from several sensors which are responsive to differing physical parameters. The results of sequential testing of the data provide the operator with an early warning of possible sensor or pump failure.

  7. Expert Systems: How Far Can They Go? Part One


    Davis, Randall


    A panel session at the 1989 International Joint Conference on artificial intelligence in Los Angeles dealt with the subject of knowledge-based systems; the session was entitled "Expert Systems: How Far Can They Go?" The panelists included Randall Davis (Massachusetts Institute of Technology); Stuart Dreyfus (University of California at Berkeley); Brian Smith (Xerox Palo Alto Research Center); and Terry Winograd (Stanford University), chairman. The article begins with Winograd's original charg...

  8. Expert Systems: How Far Can They Go? Part Two


    Davis, Randall


    A panel session at the 1989 International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Los Angeles dealt with the subject of knowledge-based systems; the session was entitled "Expert Systems: How Far Can They Go?" The panelists included Randall Davis (Massachusetts Institute of Technology); Stuart Dreyfus (University of California at Berkeley); Brian Smith (Xerox Palo Alto Research Center); and Terry Winograd (Stanford University), chairman. Part 1 of this article, which appeared in the Spr...

  9. Alternative Theories of Inference in Expert Systems for Image Analysis. (United States)


    the literal "transfer" of information, or rules, from expert to system. Much of the relevant knowledge is (as yet) unverbalized and only implicit in...In part, this can be attributed to the pragmatic urgency of get- * ting systems up and running. In part, it may be due to a bias against numerical... pragmatic aspect, on the other. Thus, under semantics, we indicate the desirability of an explicit be- havioral specification for the requi ed inputs. For

  10. An expert systems application to space base data processing (United States)

    Babb, Stephen M.


    The advent of space vehicles with their increased data requirements are reflected in the complexity of future telemetry systems. Space based operations with its immense operating costs will shift the burden of data processing and routine analysis from the space station to the Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV). A research and development project is described which addresses the real time onboard data processing tasks associated with a space based vehicle, specifically focusing on an implementation of an expert system.

  11. Group decision making by experts: field study of panels evaluating medical technologies. (United States)

    Vinokur, A; Burnstein, E; Sechrest, L; Wortman, P M


    Decision-making processes and their outcomes were investigated in six consensus development conferences at the National Institutes of Health in which panels of experts evaluated new medical technologies. One hundred seventy-seven self-administered questionnaires were obtained from participants in these conferences. Questionnaire data were analyzed along with data derived from content analyses of the six consensus statements (CS) produced by the conferences. Results of these analyses provide considerable support for the hypotheses that the quality of the outcome (i.e., the CS) is determined by the existence of an interaction process, a decision procedure, and a chairperson, which facilitate the exchange of relevant information. Strong disagreements among the panelists appear to inhibit such exchange and harm the quality of the CS. Personal satisfaction appears to be more strongly related to the quality of the process and of the information disseminated than to the quality of the outcome. A clear relation was found between the panelists' status and expertise, their participation in the process, and their contribution to the CS. The pattern of these findings is quite similar to that obtained in laboratory studies. The role of preconference organizational factors, such as the selection of conference questions, panel, and speakers, and the characteristics of the technology are discussed.

  12. An expert system for diagnosing environmentally induced spacecraft anomalies (United States)

    Rolincik, Mark; Lauriente, Michael; Koons, Harry C.; Gorney, David


    A new rule-based, machine independent analytical tool was designed for diagnosing spacecraft anomalies using an expert system. Expert systems provide an effective method for saving knowledge, allow computers to sift through large amounts of data pinpointing significant parts, and most importantly, use heuristics in addition to algorithms, which allow approximate reasoning and inference and the ability to attack problems not rigidly defined. The knowledge base consists of over two-hundred (200) rules and provides links to historical and environmental databases. The environmental causes considered are bulk charging, single event upsets (SEU), surface charging, and total radiation dose. The system's driver translates forward chaining rules into a backward chaining sequence, prompting the user for information pertinent to the causes considered. The use of heuristics frees the user from searching through large amounts of irrelevant information and allows the user to input partial information (varying degrees of confidence in an answer) or 'unknown' to any question. The modularity of the expert system allows for easy updates and modifications. It not only provides scientists with needed risk analysis and confidence not found in algorithmic programs, but is also an effective learning tool, and the window implementation makes it very easy to use. The system currently runs on a Micro VAX II at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The inference engine used is NASA's C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS).

  13. Diagnosa Gangguan Perkembangan Anak Dengan Metode Fuzzy Expert System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diki Arisandi


    Full Text Available AbstrakAnak-anak dibawah umur 10 tahun merupakan fase yang sangat perlu diperhatikan perkembangannya oleh orang tua dan dibantu oleh pakar, apakah mengalami gangguan perkembangan atau tidak. Gangguan perkembangan anak dapat didiagnosis dari perilaku yang diperlihatkan oleh anak dengan cara observasi oleh seorang pakar psikologi anak. Hasil diagnosa dari observasi yang dilakukan beberapa pakar bisa saja berbeda. Hal ini membuat para orang tua menjadi kebingungan terhadap tindak lanjut yang harus dilakukan kepada anak mereka. Untuk mempermudah mendiagnosis gangguan perkembangan pada anak perlu adanya sebuah sistem pakar berbasis Fuzzy. Metode Fuzzy yang diterapkan didasari atas rentang logika berpikir manusia seperti dingin dan panas, tinggi dan rendah, dan lainnya.  Diharapkan dengan adanya sistem pakar berbasis fuzzy ini, hasil diagnosa dapat menghasilkan solusi seperti nalar manusia dari sehingga didapatkan solusi untuk tindak lanjut pada gangguan anak. Kata kunci: Diagnosa, Fuzzy, Fungsi Keanggotaan, Gangguan perkembangan, Sistem Pakar. AbstractChildren under 10 years is a critical phase of their developmental and should be noticed by parents and assisted by experts, whether experiencing developmental disruption or not. Children developmental disruption can be diagnosed from behaviors shown by children by observation by a psychologist. Diagnosis results from observations made by some experts may be different. This makes the parents become confused about the follow-up to be done to their children. A Fuzzy-based expert system is needed to overcome the children developmental disruption. The applied Fuzzy method is based on the logical range of human thinking such as cold and hot, high and low, and others. With the fuzzy-based expert system, the diagnostic results can produce solutions such as human reasoning from that obtained a solution to following up on children disruption. Keywords: Diagnosis, Fuzzy, Membership Function, Developmental

  14. Adaptive control with an expert system based supervisory level. Thesis (United States)

    Sullivan, Gerald A.


    Adaptive control is presently one of the methods available which may be used to control plants with poorly modelled dynamics or time varying dynamics. Although many variations of adaptive controllers exist, a common characteristic of all adaptive control schemes, is that input/output measurements from the plant are used to adjust a control law in an on-line fashion. Ideally the adjustment mechanism of the adaptive controller is able to learn enough about the dynamics of the plant from input/output measurements to effectively control the plant. In practice, problems such as measurement noise, controller saturation, and incorrect model order, to name a few, may prevent proper adjustment of the controller and poor performance or instability result. In this work we set out to avoid the inadequacies of procedurally implemented safety nets, by introducing a two level control scheme in which an expert system based 'supervisor' at the upper level provides all the safety net functions for an adaptive controller at the lower level. The expert system is based on a shell called IPEX, (Interactive Process EXpert), that we developed specifically for the diagnosis and treatment of dynamic systems. Some of the more important functions that the IPEX system provides are: (1) temporal reasoning; (2) planning of diagnostic activities; and (3) interactive diagnosis. Also, because knowledge and control logic are separate, the incorporation of new diagnostic and treatment knowledge is relatively simple. We note that the flexibility available in the system to express diagnostic and treatment knowledge, allows much greater functionality than could ever be reasonably expected from procedural implementations of safety nets. The remainder of this chapter is divided into three sections. In section 1.1 we give a detailed review of the literature in the area of supervisory systems for adaptive controllers. In particular, we describe the evolution of safety nets from simple ad hoc techniques, up

  15. Howard University Energy Expert Systems Institute Summer Program (EESI) (United States)

    Momoh, James A.; Chuku, Arunsi; Abban, Joseph


    Howard University, under the auspices of the Center for Energy Systems and Controls runs the Energy Expert Systems Institute (EESI) summer outreach program for high school/pre-college minority students. The main objectives are to introduce precollege minority students to research in the power industry using modern state-of-the-art technology such as Expert Systems, Fuzzy Logic and Artificial Neural Networks; to involve minority students in space power management, systems and failure diagnosis; to generate interest in career options in electrical engineering; and to experience problem-solving in a teamwork environment consisting of faculty, senior research associates and graduate students. For five weeks the students are exposed not only to the exciting experience of college life, but also to the inspiring field of engineering, especially electrical engineering. The program consists of lectures in the fundamentals of engineering, mathematics, communication skills and computer skills. The projects are divided into mini and major. Topics for the 1995 mini projects were Expert Systems for the Electric Bus and Breast Cancer Detection. Topics on the major projects include Hybrid Electric Vehicle, Solar Dynamics and Distribution Automation. On the final day, designated as 'EESI Day' the students did oral presentations of their projects and prizes were awarded to the best group. The program began in the summer of 1993. The reaction from the students has been very positive. The program also arranges field trips to special places of interest such as the NASA Goddard Space Center.

  16. Expert System Diagnosis Dental Disease Using Certainty Factor Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whisnu Ulinnuha Setiabudi


    Full Text Available Technological development is growing rapidly among with the increasing of human needs especially in mobile technology where the technology that often be used is android. The existence of this android facilitates the user in access of information. This android can be used for healthy needs, for example is detecting dental disease. One of the branches of computer science that can help society in detecting dental disease is expert system. In this research, making expert system to diagnosis dental disease by using certainty factor method. Dental disease diagnosis application can diagnose the patient based on griping of the patient about dental disease so it can be obtained diseases possibility of the patient itself. This application is an expert system application that operates on android platform. Furthermore, in the measurement accuracy of the system test performed by 20 patients, there were 19 cases of corresponding and 1 cases that do not fit. So, from system testing performed by 20 patients resulted in a 95% accuracy rate. 

  17. Expert Systems in Medicine: Academic Illusion or Real Power?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KS Metaxiotis


    Full Text Available From the very earliest moments in the modern history of the computer, scientists have dreamed of creating advanced systems that would simulate human thinking and reasoning. Of all the modern technological quests, research to create artificially intelligent computer systems has been one of the most ambitious and fascinating. Although attempts were made more than thirty years ago to develop and apply such systems to the medical sciences, the field languished for decades. In this context, this paper aims to share thoughts about and assessments of the important role of expert systems in medicine and address their future as well as the trends that are foreseen in this area.

  18. An expert display system and nuclear power plant control rooms (United States)

    Beltracchi, L.


    General topics for consideration when designing expert display systems and nuclear power plant control room displays are summarized. A system is proposed in which the display of segments (a combined series of graphic primitives or a reusable collection of graphic primitives and primitives attributes stored in memory) controls a cathode-ray-tube's screen to form an image of plant operations. The image consists of an icon of: (1) the process (heat engine cycle), (2) plant control systems, and (3) safety systems. A set of data-driven, forward-chaining computer-stored rules control the display segments. As plant operation changes, measured plant data are processed through the rules, and the results control the deletion and addition of segments to the display format. The icon contains information needed by control rooms operators to monitor plant operations. One example of an expert display is illustrated for the operator's task of monitoring leakage from a safety valve in a steam line of a boiling water reactor (BWR). In another example, the use of an expert display to monitor plant operations during pre-trip, trip, and post-trip operations is discussed as a universal display.

  19. Analysis of the application of decontamination technologies to radioactive metal waste minimization using expert systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayrakal, Suna [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)


    Radioactive metal waste makes up a significant portion of the waste currently being sent for disposal. Recovery of this metal as a valuable resource is possible through the use of decontamination technologies. Through the development and use of expert systems a comparison can be made of laser decontamination, a technology currently under development at Ames Laboratory, with currently available decontamination technologies for applicability to the types of metal waste being generated and the effectiveness of these versus simply disposing of the waste. These technologies can be technically and economically evaluated by the use of expert systems techniques to provide a waste management decision making tool that generates, given an identified metal waste, waste management recommendations. The user enters waste characteristic information as input and the system then recommends decontamination technologies, determines residual contamination levels and possible waste management strategies, carries out a cost analysis and then ranks, according to cost, the possibilities for management of the waste. The expert system was developed using information from literature and personnel experienced in the use of decontamination technologies and requires validation by human experts and assignment of confidence factors to the knowledge represented within.

  20. A distributed clinical decision support system architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaker H. El-Sappagh


    Full Text Available This paper proposes an open and distributed clinical decision support system architecture. This technical architecture takes advantage of Electronic Health Record (EHR, data mining techniques, clinical databases, domain expert knowledge bases, available technologies and standards to provide decision-making support for healthcare professionals. The architecture will work extremely well in distributed EHR environments in which each hospital has its own local EHR, and it satisfies the compatibility, interoperability and scalability objectives of an EHR. The system will also have a set of distributed knowledge bases. Each knowledge base will be specialized in a specific domain (i.e., heart disease, and the model achieves cooperation, integration and interoperability between these knowledge bases. Moreover, the model ensures that all knowledge bases are up-to-date by connecting data mining engines to each local knowledge base. These data mining engines continuously mine EHR databases to extract the most recent knowledge, to standardize it and to add it to the knowledge bases. This framework is expected to improve the quality of healthcare, reducing medical errors and guaranteeing the safety of patients by helping clinicians to make correct, accurate, knowledgeable and timely decisions.

  1. User's guide for the thermal analyst's help desk expert system (United States)

    Ormsby, Rachel A.


    A guide for users of the Thermal Analyst's Help Desk is provided. Help Desk is an expert system that runs on a DOS based personal computer and operates within the EXSYS expert system shell. Help Desk is an analysis tool designed to provide users having various degrees of experience with the capability to determine first approximations of thermal capacity for spacecraft and instruments. The five analyses supported in Help Desk are: surface area required for a radiating surface, equilibrium temperature of a surface, enclosure temperature and heat loads for a defined position in orbit, enclosure temperature and heat loads over a complete orbit, and selection of appropriate surface properties. The two geometries supported by Help Desk are a single flat plate and a rectangular box enclosure.

  2. Developments in REDES: The Rocket Engine Design Expert System (United States)

    Davidian, Kenneth O.


    The Rocket Engine Design Expert System (REDES) was developed at NASA-Lewis to collect, automate, and perpetuate the existing expertise of performing a comprehensive rocket engine analysis and design. Currently, REDES uses the rigorous JANNAF methodology to analyze the performance of the thrust chamber and perform computational studies of liquid rocket engine problems. The following computer codes were included in REDES: a gas properties program named GASP; a nozzle design program named RAO; a regenerative cooling channel performance evaluation code named RTE; and the JANNAF standard liquid rocket engine performance prediction code TDK (including performance evaluation modules ODE, ODK, TDE, TDK, and BLM). Computational analyses are being conducted by REDES to provide solutions to liquid rocket engine thrust chamber problems. REDES was built in the Knowledge Engineering Environment (KEE) expert system shell and runs on a Sun 4/110 computer.

  3. An expert system for national economy model simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roljić Lazo


    Full Text Available There are some fundamental economic uncertainties. We cannot forecast economic events with a very high scientific precision. It is very clear that there does not exist a unique 'general' model, which can yield all answers to a wide range of macroeconomic issues. Therefore, we use several different kinds of models on segments of the macroeconomic problem. Different models can distinguish/solve economy desegregation, time series analysis and other subfactors involved in macroeconomic problem solving. A major issue becomes finding a meaningful method to link these econometric models. Macroeconomic models were linked through development of an Expert System for National Economy Model Simulations (ESNEMS. ESNEMS consists of five parts: (1 small-scale short-term national econometric model, (2 Methodology of Interactive Nonlinear Goal Programming (MINGP, (3 data-base of historical macro-economic aggregates, (4 software interface for interactive communications between a model and a decision maker, and (5 software for solving problems. ESNEMS was developed to model the optimum macro-economic policy of a developing country (SFRY-formerly Yugoslavia. Most econometric models are very complex. Optimizing of the economic policy is typically defined as a nonlinear goal programming problem. To solve/optimize these models, a new methodology, MINGP, was developed as a part of ESNEMS. MINGP is methodologically based on linear goal programming and feasible directions method. Using Euler's Homogeneous Function Theorem, MINGP linearizes nonlinear homogeneous functions. The highest priorities in minimizing the objective function are the growth of gross domestic product and the decrease of inflation. In the core of the optimization model, MINGP, there is a small-scale econometric model. This model was designed through analysis of the causal relations in the SFRY's social reproduction process of the past 20 years. The objective of the econometric model is to simulate

  4. A center for commercial development of space: Real-time satellite mapping. Remote sensing-based agricultural information expert system (United States)

    Hadipriono, Fabian C.; Diaz, Carlos F.; Merritt, Earl S.


    The research project results in a powerful yet user friendly CROPCAST expert system for use by a client to determine the crop yield production of a certain crop field. The study is based on the facts that heuristic assessment and decision making in agriculture are significant and dominate much of agribusiness. Transfer of the expert knowledge concerning remote sensing based crop yield production into a specific expert system is the key program in this study. A knowledge base consisting of a root frame, CROP-YIELD-FORECAST, and four subframes, namely, SATELLITE, PLANT-PHYSIOLOGY, GROUND, and MODEL were developed to accommodate the production rules obtained from the domain expert. The expert system shell Personal Consultant Plus version 4.0. was used for this purpose. An external geographic program was integrated to the system. This project is the first part of a completely built expert system. The study reveals that much effort was given to the development of the rules. Such effort is inevitable if workable, efficient, and accurate rules are desired. Furthermore, abundant help statements and graphics were included. Internal and external display routines add to the visual capability of the system. The work results in a useful tool for the client for making decisions on crop yield production.

  5. A CLIPS expert system for clinical flow cytometry data analysis (United States)

    Salzman, G. C.; Duque, R. E.; Braylan, R. C.; Stewart, C. C.


    An expert system is being developed using CLIPS to assist clinicians in the analysis of multivariate flow cytometry data from cancer patients. Cluster analysis is used to find subpopulations representing various cell types in multiple datasets each consisting of four to five measurements on each of 5000 cells. CLIPS facts are derived from results of the clustering. CLIPS rules are based on the expertise of Drs. Stewart, Duque, and Braylan. The rules incorporate certainty factors based on case histories.

  6. Artificial intelligence, expert systems, computer vision, and natural language processing (United States)

    Gevarter, W. B.


    An overview of artificial intelligence (AI), its core ingredients, and its applications is presented. The knowledge representation, logic, problem solving approaches, languages, and computers pertaining to AI are examined, and the state of the art in AI is reviewed. The use of AI in expert systems, computer vision, natural language processing, speech recognition and understanding, speech synthesis, problem solving, and planning is examined. Basic AI topics, including automation, search-oriented problem solving, knowledge representation, and computational logic, are discussed.

  7. Hematology Expert System (HES) For Tonsillectomy/Adenoidectomy Patients (United States)

    Pizzi, Nicolino J.; Kapoor, Sandhya; Gerrard, Jon M.


    The purpose of this expert system is to assess a predisposition to bleeding in a patient undergoing a tonsillectomy and/or adenoidectomy as may occur with patients who have certain blood conditions such as hemophilia and von Willebrand's disease. This goal is achieved by establishing a correlation between the patients' responses to a medical questionnaire and the relative quantities of blood lost during the operation.

  8. The nature and evaluation of commercial expert system building tools (United States)

    Gevarter, William B.


    This memorandum reviews the factors that constitute an Expert System Building Tool (ESBT) and evaluates current tools in terms of these factors. Evaluation of these tools is based on their structure and their alternative forms of knowledge representation, inference mechanisms and developer/end-user interfaces. Next, functional capabilities, such as diagnosis and design, are related to alternative forms of mechanization. The characteristics and capabilities of existing commercial tools are then reviewed in terms of these criteria.

  9. Using Expert Systems in Evaluation of the State of High Voltage Machine Insulation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Záliš


    Full Text Available Expert systems are used for evaluating the actual state and future behavior of insulating systems of high voltage electrical machines and equipment. Several rule-based expert systems have been developed in cooperation with top diagnostic workplaces in the Czech Republic for this purpose. The IZOLEX expert system evaluates diagnostic measurement data from commonly used offline diagnostic methods for the diagnostic of high voltage insulation of rotating machines, non-rotating machines and insulating oils. The CVEX expert system evaluates the discharge activity on high voltage electrical machines and equipment by means of an off-line measurement. The CVEXON expert system is for evaluating the discharge activity by on-line measurement, and the ALTONEX expert system is the expert system for on-line monitoring of rotating machines. These developed expert systems are also used for educating students (in bachelor, master and post-graduate studies and in courses which are organized for practicing engineers and technicians and for specialists in the electrical power engineering branch. A complex project has recently been set up to evaluate the measurement of partial discharges. Two parallel expert systems for evaluating partial dischatge activity on high voltage electrical machines will work at the same time in this complex evaluating system.

  10. Expert systems and the CPI product substitution review: A needs analysis for the US Bureau of Labor Statistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arrowood, L.F.; Tonn, B.E.


    This report presents recommendations relative to the use of expert systems and machine learning techniques by the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) to substantially automate product substitution decisions associated with the Consumer Price Index (CPI). Thirteen commercially available, PC-based expert system shells have received in-depth evaluations. Various machine learning techniques were also reviewed. Two recommendations are given: (1) BLS should use the expert system shell LEVEL5 OBJECT and establish a software development methodology for expert systems; and (2) BLS should undertake a small study to evaluate the potential of machine learning techniques to create and maintain the approximately 350 ELI-specific knowledge bases to be used in CPI product substitution review.

  11. Voting systems for environmental decisions. (United States)

    Burgman, Mark A; Regan, Helen M; Maguire, Lynn A; Colyvan, Mark; Justus, James; Martin, Tara G; Rothley, Kris


    Voting systems aggregate preferences efficiently and are often used for deciding conservation priorities. Desirable characteristics of voting systems include transitivity, completeness, and Pareto optimality, among others. Voting systems that are common and potentially useful for environmental decision making include simple majority, approval, and preferential voting. Unfortunately, no voting system can guarantee an outcome, while also satisfying a range of very reasonable performance criteria. Furthermore, voting methods may be manipulated by decision makers and strategic voters if they have knowledge of the voting patterns and alliances of others in the voting populations. The difficult properties of voting systems arise in routine decision making when there are multiple criteria and management alternatives. Because each method has flaws, we do not endorse one method. Instead, we urge organizers to be transparent about the properties of proposed voting systems and to offer participants the opportunity to approve the voting system as part of the ground rules for operation of a group. © 2014 The Authors. Conservation Biology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc., on behalf of the Society for Conservation Biology.

  12. An expert system for PWR core operation management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ida, Toshio; Masuda, Masahiro; Nishioka, Hiromasa


    Planning for restartup after planned or unplanned reactor shutdown and load-follow operations is an important task in the core operation management of pressurized water reactors (PWRs). These planning problems have been solved by planning experts using their expertise and the computational prediction of core behavior. Therefore, the quality of the plan and the time consumed in the planning depend heavily on the skillfulness of the planning experts. A knowledge engineering approach has been recently considered as a promising means to solve such complicated planning problems. Many knowledge-based systems have been developed so far, and some of them have already been applied because of their effectiveness. The expert system REPLEX has been developed to aid core management engineers in making a successful plan for the restartup or the load-follow operation of PWRs within a shorter time. It can maintain planning tasks at a high-quality level independent of the skillfulness of core management engineers and enhance the efficiency of management. REPLEX has an explanation function that helps user understanding of plans. It could be a useful took, therefore, for the training of core management engineers.

  13. Acute asthma severity identification of expert system flow in emergency department (United States)

    Sharif, Nurul Atikah Mohd; Ahmad, Norazura; Ahmad, Nazihah; Desa, Wan Laailatul Hanim Mat


    Integration of computerized system in healthcare management help in smoothening the documentation of patient records, highly accesses of knowledge and clinical practices guideline, and advice on decision making. Exploit the advancement of artificial intelligent such as fuzzy logic and rule-based reasoning may improve the management of emergency department in terms of uncertainty condition and medical practices adherence towards clinical guideline. This paper presenting details of the emergency department flow for acute asthma severity identification with the embedding of acute asthma severity identification expert system (AASIES). Currently, AASIES is still in preliminary stage of system validation. However, the implementation of AASIES in asthma bay management is hope can reduce the usage of paper for manual documentation and be a pioneer for the development of a more complex decision support system to smoothen the ED management and more systematic.

  14. Rule groupings: An approach towards verification of expert systems (United States)

    Mehrotra, Mala


    Knowledge-based expert systems are playing an increasingly important role in NASA space and aircraft systems. However, many of NASA's software applications are life- or mission-critical and knowledge-based systems do not lend themselves to the traditional verification and validation techniques for highly reliable software. Rule-based systems lack the control abstractions found in procedural languages. Hence, it is difficult to verify or maintain such systems. Our goal is to automatically structure a rule-based system into a set of rule-groups having a well-defined interface to other rule-groups. Once a rule base is decomposed into such 'firewalled' units, studying the interactions between rules would become more tractable. Verification-aid tools can then be developed to test the behavior of each such rule-group. Furthermore, the interactions between rule-groups can be studied in a manner similar to integration testing. Such efforts will go a long way towards increasing our confidence in the expert-system software. Our research efforts address the feasibility of automating the identification of rule groups, in order to decompose the rule base into a number of meaningful units.

  15. Intelligent technology for construction of tutoring integrated expert systems: new aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina V. Rybina


    Full Text Available The main aim of this paper is to acquaint readers of the journal “Open Education” with the accumulated experience of construction and practical use in the educational process of Cybernetics Department of the National Research Nuclear University MEPhI of a special class of intelligent tutoring systems, based on the architectures of tutoring integrated expert systems. The development is carried out on the problem-oriented methodology basis and intelligent software environment of AT-TECHNOLOGY workbench. They provide automation of support of all the stages of construction and maintenance of the life cycle of such systems.In the context of basic models, methods, algorithms and tools that implement the conceptual foundations of a problem-oriented methodology, and which are evolutionarily developed and experimentally investigated in the process of constructing various architectures of training integrated expert systems, including webbased ones, some features of the generalized model of intellectual learning and its components are considered (in particular, the competence-based model of the trainee, the adaptive tutoring model, the ontology model of the course /discipline et al. as well as methods and means of their realization in the current versions of tutoring integrated expert systems.In current versions of tutoring integrated expert systems examples of implementation of typical intelligent tutoring problems are described for the generalized ontology “Intelligent systems and technologies” (individual planning of the method of studying the training course, intelligent analysis of training tasks, intelligent support for decision making.A brief description of the conceptual foundations of the model of the intelligent software environment of the AT-TECHNOLOGY workbench is given and a description of some components of the model is presented with a focus on the basic components – intelligent planner, standard design procedures and reusable

  16. Expert System Models for Forecasting Forklifts Engagement in a Warehouse Loading Operation: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan Mirčetić


    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the problem of forklifts engagement in warehouse loading operations. Two expert system (ES models are created using several machine learning (ML models. Models try to mimic expert decisions while determining the forklifts engagement in the loading operation. Different ML models are evaluated and adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system (ANFIS and classification and regression trees (CART are chosen as the ones which have shown best results for the research purpose. As a case study, a central warehouse of a beverage company was used. In a beverage distribution chain, the proper engagement of forklifts in a loading operation is crucial for maintaining the defined customer service level. The created ES models represent a new approach for the rationalization of the forklifts usage, particularly for solving the problem of the forklifts engagement incargo loading. They are simple, easy to understand, reliable, and practically applicable tool for deciding on the engagement of the forklifts in a loading operation.

  17. Artificial intelligence and expert systems in-flight software testing (United States)

    Demasie, M. P.; Muratore, J. F.


    The authors discuss the introduction of advanced information systems technologies such as artificial intelligence, expert systems, and advanced human-computer interfaces directly into Space Shuttle software engineering. The reconfiguration automation project (RAP) was initiated to coordinate this move towards 1990s software technology. The idea behind RAP is to automate several phases of the flight software testing procedure and to introduce AI and ES into space shuttle flight software testing. In the first phase of RAP, conventional tools to automate regression testing have already been developed or acquired. There are currently three tools in use.

  18. Including values in evidence-based policy making for breast screening: An empirically grounded tool to assist expert decision makers. (United States)

    Parker, Lisa


    Values are an important part of evidence-based decision making for health policy: they guide the type of evidence that is collected, how it is interpreted, and how important the conclusions are considered to be. Experts in breast screening (including clinicians, researchers, consumer advocates and senior administrators) hold differing values in relation to what is important in breast screening policy and practice, and committees may find it difficult to incorporate the complexity and variety of values into policy decisions. The decision making tool provided here is intended to assist with this process. The tool is modified from more general frameworks that are intended to assist with ethical decision making in public health, and informed by data drawn from previous empirical studies on values amongst Australian breast screening experts. It provides a structured format for breast screening committees to consider and discuss the values of themselves and others, suggests relevant topics for further inquiry and highlights areas of need for future research into the values of the public. It enables committees to publicly explain and justify their decisions with reference to values, improving transparency and accountability. It is intended to act alongside practices that seek to accommodate the values of individual women in the informed decision making process for personal decision making about participation in breast screening. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Expert-view creation system for data base design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Storey, V.C.


    The process of generating user views during logical data base design is formalized and expressed as a set of rules that comprise the knowledge base of an expert system. This system, called the View Creation System, engages the user in a dialogue to determine information requirements. These requirements are then translated into a set of Fourth Normal Form relations representing a view. The data model on which the system is based is the Entity-Relationship Model. Using this model, the system elicits entities, attributes, and relationships while trying to detect and rectify inconsistencies and ambiguities in the user's input. With the aid of the user, functional dependencies are isolated and resolved before the final set of relations is produced.

  20. Customer Decision Support Systems: Resources for Student Decision Making


    Cara Okleshen Peters, Ph.D.; David A. Bradbard, Ph.D.; Mary C. Martin, Ph.D.


    This paper highlights the potential of customer decision support systems (CDSS) to assist students in education-related decision making. Faculty can use these resources to more effectively advise students on various elements of college life, while students can employ them to more actively participate in their own learning and improve their academic experience. This conceptual paper summarizes consumer decision support systems (CDSS) concepts and presents exemplar websites students could utili...

  1. Multi-criteria decision analysis for health technology assessment in Canada: insights from an expert panel discussion. (United States)

    Diaby, Vakaramoko; Goeree, Ron; Hoch, Jeffrey; Siebert, Uwe


    Multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA), a decision-making tool, has received increasing attention in recent years, notably in the healthcare field. For Canada, it is unclear whether and how MCDA should be incorporated into the existing health technology assessment (HTA) decision-making process. To facilitate debate on improving HTA decision-making in Canada, a workshop was held in conjunction with the 8th World Congress on Health Economics of the International Health Economics Association in Toronto, Canada in July 2011. The objective of the workshop was to discuss the potential benefits and challenges related to the use of MCDA for HTA decision-making in Canada. This paper summarizes and discusses the recommendations of an expert panel convened at the workshop to discuss opportunities and concerns with reference to the implementation of MCDA in Canada.

  2. Knowledge-based decision support systems: social significance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bendifallah, S.


    Methodologies applied in the utilization of computer systems for decision support reflect the twin facets of automation: the use of computers as knowledge technologies which facilitate or even take over human labor, and the often Tayloristic situations within which they are used. The paper is concerned with non-Tayloristic, convivial and congenial methodologies for the acquisition, accumulation and utilization of knowledge. It emphasizes the contribution of artificial intelligence research in knowledge engineering as exemplified by knowledge-based (expert) systems, distributed problem solving architectures, and goal-directed decision structuring systems. 20 references.

  3. Development research of expert system for diagnosis of landslide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshikawa, Toru; Soeda, Yoshio; Nakamura, Hirohisa (Kansai Electric Power Co. Inc., Osaka (Japan))


    Measures against landslides are based upon a judgment to be made by combined application of professional knowledge of the scientific fields such as topography and geology, etc. and Kansai Electric Power Co. tried to construct a technical support system for preliminary diagnosis of landslide with which field engineers can easily utilize expert knowledge and to which artificial intelligence (AI) is applied. This system is to diagnose preliminarily the existence of such a landslide-prone area which is likely to hamper the project concerned at its early stage and after examination, those considered to be appropriate for the purpose were selected from among the artificial intelligence tools already developed. And as the knowledge base, knowledge was arranged in order with regard to the common features of landslide-prone areas, classification of landslide spots, landslide-prone topography and confusing topography, and procedures as well as remarks to be taken in reading the landslide topography, and was transformed as rule in order to input as the knowledge base into a computer. The system used the aerial photography interpretation theory as the base for its expert knowledge base and the materials necessary therefore were confined to easily obtainable aerial photographs and topographical maps. The system was prepared with a general purpose personal computer. 4 figs., 1 tab.

  4. The Specification of an Expert System for Building Bylaws Compliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sania Bhatti


    Full Text Available An Expert System is a computer program that simulates the human intelligence and behaviour in specific and limited domains. It is used to solve problems with tricks, shortcuts and heuristics i.e. rules of thumb. Checking a Plan (Map to verify its compliance with building bylaws is a complex task mainly due to various rules and the exceptions to those rules. Humans are prone to make errors in such situations. Due to the problems faced by Building Control Department, HDA ( Hyderabad Development Authority there is a strong need to develop a computerized system. In this research we have developed a prototype named as ESBBC (Expert System for Building Bylaws Compliance for HDA that can help in their building plan checking system. The proposed solution is merging three frameworks, i.e. Java an OOP (Object Oriented Programming language, Prolog- a rule based language and MS Access- for database. The solution is fulfilling the three main requirements of the HDA, i.e. Determination of whether a particular plan is in compliance with predefined building bylaws or not. (2 Offering search facility. (3 Maintaining records of plans which are entered for compliance checking. We have checked plans of 20 properties according to HDA building regulations using ESBBC and presented their results. The results show that ESBBC has capability to identify errors made by humans.

  5. A CLIPS expert system for maximizing alfalfa (Medicago Sativa L.) production (United States)

    Engel, B. A.; Jones, D. D.; Rhykerd, R. L.; Rhykerd, L. M.; Rhykerd, C. L., Jr.; Rhykerd, C. L.


    An alfalfa management expert system originally developed by Purdue University agricultural scientists on the PC Plus expert system shell from Texas Instrument has been updated and successfully converted to CLIPS (C Language Integrated Production System). This reduces the cost and legal restrictions associated with making the expert system available to agribusiness industries, extension personnel and farm managers and operators. The expert system includes recommendations concerning soil drainage, liming, P and K fertilization, weed control, variety selection and seeding rate including pure live seeds.

  6. Revamping Grooving Process for Sustainability using Fuzzy Expert System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iqba Asif


    Full Text Available The article presents an application of a fuzzy expert system for renovating a metal cutting process to cope with the sustainability requirements. The work seeks a sustainable balance between energy consumption, productivity and tool damage. Cylindrical grooving experiments were performed to generate data related to quantification of the effects of material hardness, cutting speed, width of cut and feed rate on the aforementioned sustainability measures. A fuzzy knowledge-base was developed that suggests the most suitable adjustments of the controlled variables that would lead to achievement of various combinations of the objectives.

  7. Artificial intelligence and expert systems in the steel industry (United States)

    Carayannis, Gregory


    This article was prepared in an effort to determine the state of the art with respect to the use of artificial intelligence and expert system technologies within the steel industry. A number of important developments have been reported and most of them resulted in significant savings. Mathematical modeling is quite important both for understanding and for controlling a process. However, most steelmaking operations are extremely complex and cannot be described mathematically. They are, however, adequately controlled by human operators on the basis of their knowledge and expertise. Because of this, artificial intelligence is an ideal technology for the automation of many steelmaking-related processes.

  8. Expert-System Development in Soar: A Tutorial (United States)


    Task Description This description was derived from a formal description of a larger set of problems in me shipment scheduling domain ( Filman , 1988a...The formal description is for the problem used as an example in a recent expert systems paper ( Filman , 1988b). 2.1. Description The Big Giant Trucking...m trips ’tizu-sp~ េ) (operator 4.) doe4-task) (oal 461) ’operator <*I>6) 57 References Filman , R. E. (1988). The Big Giant Trucking Problem

  9. Time-based air traffic management using expert systems (United States)

    Tobias, L.; Scoggins, J. L.


    A prototype expert system was developed for the time scheduling of aircraft into the terminal area. The three functions of the air traffic control schedule advisor are as follows: first, for each new arrival, it develops an admissible flight plan for that aircraft. Second, as the aircraft progresses through the terminal area, it monitors deviations from the flight plan and provides advisories to return the aircraft to its assigned schedule. Third, if major disruptions such as missed approaches occur, it develops a revised plan. The advisor is operational on a Symbolics 3600, and is programed in MRS (a logic programming language), Lisp, and FORTRAN.

  10. PERSON-Personalized Expert Recommendation System for Optimized Nutrition. (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Han; Karvela, Maria; Sohbati, Mohammadreza; Shinawatra, Thaksin; Toumazou, Christofer


    The rise of personalized diets is due to the emergence of nutrigenetics and genetic tests services. However, the recommendation system is far from mature to provide personalized food suggestion to consumers for daily usage. The main barrier of connecting genetic information to personalized diets is the complexity of data and the scalability of the applied systems. Aiming to cross such barriers and provide direct applications, a personalized expert recommendation system for optimized nutrition is introduced in this paper, which performs direct to consumer personalized grocery product filtering and recommendation. Deep learning neural network model is applied to achieve automatic product categorization. The ability of scaling with unknown new data is achieved through the generalized representation of word embedding. Furthermore, the categorized products are filtered with a model based on individual genetic data with associated phenotypic information and a case study with databases from three different sources is carried out to confirm the system.

  11. The network management expert system prototype for Sun Workstations (United States)

    Leigh, Albert


    Networking has become one of the fastest growing areas in the computer industry. The emergence of distributed workstations make networking more popular because they need to have connectivity between themselves as well as with other computer systems to share information and system resources. Making the networks more efficient and expandable by selecting network services and devices that fit to one's need is vital to achieve reliability and fast throughput. Networks are dynamically changing and growing at a rate that outpaces the available human resources. Therefore, there is a need to multiply the expertise rapidly rather than employing more network managers. In addition, setting up and maintaining networks by following the manuals can be tedious and cumbersome even for an experienced network manager. This prototype expert system was developed to experiment on Sun Workstations to assist system and network managers in selecting and configurating network services.

  12. Using expert decision-making to establish indicators of urban friendliness for walking environments: a multidisciplinary assessment. (United States)

    Chiang, Yen-Cheng; Lei, Han-Yu


    Numerous studies have suggested that friendly walking environments positively affect physical activity and health. Creating friendly walking environments in urban areas is a complex and wide-ranging topic, and no study has yet established a set of assessment indicators by drawing on the expertise of various disciplines. This study uses a multiple-criteria decision-making technique to elucidate the environmental factors that affect the friendliness of the walking environment. We conducted a two-phase expert questionnaire survey. Experts from the government sector, as well as the academic disciplines of urban planning, transportation, architecture, and landscape design, were recruited to establish a set of walking environment indicators; the degrees of importance assigned to these indicators by the experts were subsequently compared. In phase 1, the fuzzy Delphi method was used by 20 experts, whose responses were used to identify four dimensions and 22 indicators. In phase 2, an analytical network process approach was performed by 16 experts to determine the weights of the dimensions and indicators. The results revealed that all of the experts ranked the four dimensions in the order of safety > facilities > aesthetics > land use mix. Of the 22 indicators, land use-diversity, land use-access, sidewalk width, sidewalk continuity, and cleanliness were considered the most important. The results provide a reference for the management of walking environments by promoting pedestrian-oriented environments and public health.

  13. Using expert decision-making to establish indicators of urban friendliness for walking environments: a multidisciplinary assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Cheng Chiang


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Numerous studies have suggested that friendly walking environments positively affect physical activity and health. Creating friendly walking environments in urban areas is a complex and wide-ranging topic, and no study has yet established a set of assessment indicators by drawing on the expertise of various disciplines. This study uses a multiple-criteria decision-making technique to elucidate the environmental factors that affect the friendliness of the walking environment. Methods We conducted a two-phase expert questionnaire survey. Experts from the government sector, as well as the academic disciplines of urban planning, transportation, architecture, and landscape design, were recruited to establish a set of walking environment indicators; the degrees of importance assigned to these indicators by the experts were subsequently compared. In phase 1, the fuzzy Delphi method was used by 20 experts, whose responses were used to identify four dimensions and 22 indicators. In phase 2, an analytical network process approach was performed by 16 experts to determine the weights of the dimensions and indicators. Results The results revealed that all of the experts ranked the four dimensions in the order of safety > facilities > aesthetics > land use mix. Of the 22 indicators, land use–diversity, land use–access, sidewalk width, sidewalk continuity, and cleanliness were considered the most important. Conclusions The results provide a reference for the management of walking environments by promoting pedestrian-oriented environments and public health.

  14. Customer Decision Support Systems: Resources for Student Decision Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cara Okleshen Peters, Ph.D.


    Full Text Available This paper highlights the potential of customer decision support systems (CDSS to assist students in education-related decision making. Faculty can use these resources to more effectively advise students on various elements of college life, while students can employ them to more actively participate in their own learning and improve their academic experience. This conceptual paper summarizes consumer decision support systems (CDSS concepts and presents exemplar websites students could utilize to support their education-related decision making. Finally, the authors discuss the potential benefits and drawbacks such resources engender from a student perspective and conclude with directions for future research.

  15. An Expert System for Determining the Emotional Change on a Critical Event Using Handwriting Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bora Uğurlu


    Full Text Available An individual may sometimes feel anxious when a critical event happens. Job interview, wedding, moving in a new city/country can result this occurrence. Examinations taken in school are also that kind of events. Since our handwriting is controlled by brain, it is possible to see clear changes in handwriting style during examinations. In our study, an expert system is developed which considers handwriting features to predict student’s exam anxiety state. 210 handwriting samples are collected and classification is made by using J48 decision tree algorithm. The average of Precision, Recall and F-Measure metrics are 71%, 66% and 67%, respectively.

  16. Expert systems in power substation operation and control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Guilherme Moutinho; Lambert-Torres, Germano; Silva, Alexandre P. Alves da [Escola Federal de Engenharia de Itajuba, MG (Brazil)


    With digital technology being increasingly adopted in power substations (SE), perspectives are created for integration of supervision, control and protection systems in addition to making its process automation feasible. Once a SE is digitalized, the systems which previously were implemented physically will be able to be implemented by means of computer programs (software), allowing the expansion of its scope of operation. Studies and research performed at the international level have pointed to the utilization of Expert Systems (ES) as a more suitable alternative for representation and solution of the operation and control problems, especially those which do not have an established theory, which are provided with diagnosis characteristics and that associate themselves with fuzzy data and information. (author) 4 refs., 3 figs.

  17. Tuberculosis-Diagnostic Expert System: an architecture for translating patients information from the web for use in tuberculosis diagnosis. (United States)

    Osamor, Victor C; Azeta, Ambrose A; Ajulo, Oluseyi O


    Over 1.5-2 million tuberculosis deaths occur annually. Medical professionals are faced with a lot of challenges in delivering good health-care with unassisted automation in hospitals where there are several patients who need the doctor's attention. To automate the pre-laboratory screening process against tuberculosis infection to aid diagnosis and make it fast and accessible to the public via the Internet. The expert system we have built is designed to also take care of people who do not have access to medical experts, but would want to check their medical status. A rule-based approach has been used, and unified modeling language and the client-server architecture technique were applied to model the system and to develop it as a web-based expert system for tuberculosis diagnosis. Algorithmic rules in the Tuberculosis-Diagnosis Expert System necessitate decision coverage where tuberculosis is either suspected or not suspected. The architecture consists of a rule base, knowledge base, and patient database. These units interact with the inference engine, which receives patient' data through the Internet via a user interface. We present the architecture of the Tuberculosis-Diagnosis Expert System and its implementation. We evaluated it for usability to determine the level of effectiveness, efficiency and user satisfaction. The result of the usability evaluation reveals that the system has a usability of 4.08 out of a scale of 5. This is an indication of a more-than-average system performance. Several existing expert systems have been developed for the purpose of supporting different medical diagnoses, but none is designed to translate tuberculosis patients' symptomatic data for online pre-laboratory screening. Our Tuberculosis-Diagnosis Expert System is an effective solution for the implementation of the needed web-based expert system diagnosis. © The Author(s) 2013.

  18. The influence of expert testimony on legal decisions regarding the civil liability of doctors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Nosocomial infection is notoriously one of the primary problems faced by healthcare insti-tutions and by professionals who work for them. This fact is demonstrated by the growing number of legal actions proposed in the legal system by patients and users of the health care system. Because of this scenario, the phenomenon of civil liability has arisen in cases of noso-comial infection. The legal implications of this phenomenon are varied and involve issues of the institutional environment and of professional conduct. Thus, the current study seeks to analyze the literature on the decisions taken by Brazilian courts regarding civil liability in cases of nosocomial infection. Conceptual aspects that define this healthcare problem are listed, as are the types of civil liability, the legal directives that guide conduct regarding this topic, and the decisions of Brazilian courts that consider civil liability in these cases. It was determined that the courts have been supported by the distinction between objective civil liability and subjective civil liability; additionally, it was determined that these courts are guided by the understanding of the existing service relationship between the institution or health care professional and the patient or user of the health care system.

  19. Reference manual for the Thermal Analyst's Help Desk Expert System (United States)

    Ormsby, Rachel A.


    This document provides technical information and programming guidance for the maintenance and future development of the Thermal Analyst's Help Desk. Help Desk is an expert system that operates within the EXSYSTM expert system shell, and is used to determine first approximations of thermal capacity for spacecraft and instruments. The five analyses supported in Help Desk are: (1) surface area required for a radiating surface, (2) equilibrium temperature of a surface, (3) enclosure temperature and heat loads for a defined position in orbit, (4) enclosure temperature and heat loads over a complete orbit and, (5) selection of appropriate surface properties. The two geometries supported by Help Desk are a single flat plate and a rectangular box enclosure. The technical information includes the mathematical approach and analytical derivations used in the analyses such as: radiation heat balance, view factor calculation, and orbit determination with coordinate transformation. The programming guide for developers describes techniques for enhancement of Help Desk. Examples are provided showing the addition of new features, user interface development and enhancement, and external program interfaces.

  20. A heuristic expert system for forest fire guidance in Greece. (United States)

    Iliadis, Lazaros S; Papastavrou, Anastasios K; Lefakis, Panagiotis D


    Forests and forestlands are common inheritance for all Greeks and a piece of the national wealth that must be handed over to the next generations in the best possible condition. After 1974, Greece faces a severe forest fire problem and forest fire forecasting is the process that will enable the Greek ministry of Agriculture to reduce the destruction. This paper describes the basic design principles of an Expert System that performs forest fire forecasting (for the following fire season) and classification of the prefectures of Greece into forest fire risk zones. The Expert system handles uncertainty and uses heuristics in order to produce scenarios based on the presence or absence of various qualitative factors. The initial research focused on the construction of a mathematical model which attempted to describe the annual number of forest fires and burnt area in Greece based on historical data. However this has proven to be impossible using regression analysis and time series. A closer analysis of the fire data revealed that two qualitative factors dramatically affect the number of forest fires and the hectares of burnt areas annually. The first is political stability and national elections and the other is drought cycles. Heuristics were constructed that use political stability and drought cycles, to provide forest fire guidance. Fuzzy logic was applied to produce a fuzzy expected interval for each prefecture of Greece. A fuzzy expected interval is a narrow interval of values that best describes the situation in the country or a part of the country for a certain time period. A successful classification of the prefectures of Greece in forest fire risk zones was done by the system, by comparing the fuzzy expected intervals to each other. The system was tested for the years 1994 and 1995. The testing has clearly shown that the system can predict accurately, the number of forest fires for each prefecture for the following year. The average accuracy was as high as 85

  1. Development experience with a simple expert system demonstrator for pilot emergency procedures (United States)

    Vannorman, M.; Mackall, D. A.


    Expert system techniques, a major application area of artificial intelligence (AI), are examined in the development of pilot associate to handle aircraft emergency procedures. The term pilot associate is used to describe research involving expert systems that can assist the pilot in the cockpit. The development of expert systems for the electrical system and flight control system emergency procedures are discussed. A simple, high-level expert system provides the means to choose which knowledge domain is needed. The expert systems were developed on a low-cost, FORTH-based package, using a personal computer.

  2. Optimal Systems for Information and Decision, (United States)


  3. Perspectives of policy and political decision makers on access to formal dementia care: expert interviews in eight European countries. (United States)

    Broda, Anja; Bieber, Anja; Meyer, Gabriele; Hopper, Louise; Joyce, Rachael; Irving, Kate; Zanetti, Orazio; Portolani, Elisa; Kerpershoek, Liselot; Verhey, Frans; Vugt, Marjolein de; Wolfs, Claire; Eriksen, Siren; Røsvik, Janne; Marques, Maria J; Gonçalves-Pereira, Manuel; Sjölund, Britt-Marie; Woods, Bob; Jelley, Hannah; Orrell, Martin; Stephan, Astrid


    As part of the ActifCare (ACcess to Timely Formal Care) project, we conducted expert interviews in eight European countries with policy and political decision makers, or representatives of relevant institutions, to determine their perspectives on access to formal care for people with dementia and their carers. Each ActifCare country (Germany, Ireland, Italy, The Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Sweden, United Kingdom) conducted semi-structured interviews with 4-7 experts (total N = 38). The interview guide addressed the topics "Complexity and Continuity of Care", "Formal Services", and "Public Awareness". Country-specific analysis of interview transcripts used an inductive qualitative content analysis. Cross-national synthesis focused on similarities in themes across the ActifCare countries. The analysis revealed ten common themes and two additional sub-themes across countries. Among others, the experts highlighted the need for a coordinating role and the necessity of information to address issues of complexity and continuity of care, demanded person-centred, tailored, and multidisciplinary formal services, and referred to education, mass media and campaigns as means to raise public awareness. Policy and political decision makers appear well acquainted with current discussions among both researchers and practitioners of possible approaches to improve access to dementia care. Experts described pragmatic, realistic strategies to influence dementia care. Suggested innovations concerned how to achieve improved dementia care, rather than transforming the nature of the services provided. Knowledge gained in these expert interviews may be useful to national decision makers when they consider reshaping the organisation of dementia care, and may thus help to develop best-practice strategies and recommendations.

  4. Expert operator preferences in remote manipulator control systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundstrom, E. [Human Machine Interfaces, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States); Draper, J.V. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Fausz, A.; Woods, H. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)


    This report describes a survey of expert remote manipulator operators designed to identify features of control systems related to operator efficiency and comfort. It provides information for designing the control center for the Single-Shell Tank Waste Retrieval Manipulator System (TWRMS) Test Bed, described in a separate report. Research questions concerned preferred modes of control, optimum work sessions, sources of operator fatigue, importance of control system design features, and desired changes in control rooms. Participants comprised four expert remote manipulator operators at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, who individually have from 9 to 20 years of experience using teleoperators. The operators had all used rate and position control, and all preferred bilateral (force-reflecting) position control. They reported spending an average of 2.75 h in control of a teleoperator system during a typical shift. All were accustomed to working in a crew of two and alternating control and support roles in 2-h rotations in an 8-h shift. Operators reported that fatigue in using remote manipulator systems came mainly from watching TV monitors and making repetitive motions. Three of four experienced symptoms, including headaches and sore eyes, wrists, and back. Of 17 features of control rooms rated on importance, highest ratings went to comfort and support provided by the operator chair, location of controls, location of video monitors, video image clarity, types of controls, and control modes. When asked what they wanted to change, operators said work stations designed for comfort; simpler, lighter hand-controls; separate controls for each camera; better placement of remote camera; color monitors; and control room layouts that support crew interaction. Results of this small survey reinforced the importance of ergonomic factors in remote manipulation.

  5. Essential Nutrition and Food Systems Components for School Curricula: Views from Experts in Iran. (United States)

    Sadegholvad, Sanaz; Yeatman, Heather; Omidvar, Nasrin; Parrish, Anne-Maree; Worsley, Anthony


    This study aimed to investigate food experts' views on important nutrition and food systems knowledge issues for education purposes at schools in Iran. In 2012, semi-structured, face-to-face or telephone interviews were conducted with twenty-eight acknowledged Iranian experts in food and nutrition fields. Participants were selected from four major provinces in Iran (Tehran, Isfahan, Fars and Gilan). Open-ended interview questions were used to identify nutrition and food systems knowledge issues, which experts considered as important to be included in school education programs. Qualitative interviews were analyzed thematically using NVivo. A framework of knowledge that would assist Iranian students and school-leavers to make informed decisions in food-related areas was developed, comprising five major clusters and several sub-clusters. Major knowledge clusters included nutrition basics; food production; every day food-related practices; prevalent nutritional health problems in Iran and improvement of students' ethical attitudes in the food domain. These findings provide a guide to curriculum developers and policy makers to assess current education curricula in order to optimize students' knowledge of nutrition and food systems.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boghean Florin


    Full Text Available Generalised uncertainty, a phenomenon that today’s managers are facing as part of their professional experience, makes it impossible to anticipate the way the business environment will evolve or what will be the consequences of the decisions they plan to implement. Any decision making process within the company entails the simultaneous presence of a number of economic, technical, juridical, human and managerial variables. The development and the approval of a decision is the result of decision making activities developed by the decision maker and sometimes by a decision support team or/and a decision support system (DSS. These aspects related to specific applications of decision support systems in risk management will be approached in this research paper. Decisions in general and management decisions in particular are associated with numerous risks, due to their complexity and increasing contextual orientation. In each business entity, there are concerns with the implementation of risk management in order to improve the likelihood of meeting objectives, the trust of the parties involved, increase the operational safety and security as well as the protection of the environment, minimise losses, improve organisational resilience in order to diminish the negative impact on the organisation and provide a solid foundation for decision making. Since any business entity is considered to be a wealth generator, the analysis of their performance should not be restricted to financial efficiency alone, but will also encompass their economic efficiency as well. The type of research developed in this paper entails different dimensions: conceptual, methodological, as well as empirical testing. Subsequently, the conducted research entails a methodological side, since the conducted activities have resulted in the presentation of a simulation model that is useful in decision making processes on the capital market. The research conducted in the present paper

  7. An Expert System for Monitoring the Daily Production Process in Aviary Systems for Laying Hens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lokhorst, C.; Lamaker, E.J.J.


    An expert system (ES) for monitoring aberrations related to feed consumption, ambient temperature and disease detection was developed in order to support day-to-day management on aviary farms for laying hens. Knowledge of five experts was stored in the knowledge base, which consisted of aberration

  8. Understanding ethics guidelines using an internet-based expert system. (United States)

    Shankar, G; Simmons, A


    National and international guidelines outlining ethical conduct in research involving humans and animals have evolved into large and complex documents making the process of gaining ethics approval a complicated task for researchers in the area. Researchers, in particular those who are relatively new to the ethics approval process, can struggle to understand the parts of an ethics guideline that apply to their research and the nature of their ethical obligations to trial participants. With the scope of medical research likely to continue to expand in the future, it is clear that ethics guidelines will only increase in complexity and number. This paper describes one possible solution to the the use of an internet-based expert system to intelligently and interactively distribute the information stored in ethics guidelines to individual researchers. This paper also details how one such system was designed and tested with respect to Australian medical research ethics guidelines.

  9. An Expert Fitness Diagnosis System Based on Elastic Cloud Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin C. Tseng


    Full Text Available This paper presents an expert diagnosis system based on cloud computing. It classifies a user’s fitness level based on supervised machine learning techniques. This system is able to learn and make customized diagnoses according to the user’s physiological data, such as age, gender, and body mass index (BMI. In addition, an elastic algorithm based on Poisson distribution is presented to allocate computation resources dynamically. It predicts the required resources in the future according to the exponential moving average of past observations. The experimental results show that Naïve Bayes is the best classifier with the highest accuracy (90.8% and that the elastic algorithm is able to capture tightly the trend of requests generated from the Internet and thus assign corresponding computation resources to ensure the quality of service.

  10. An expert fitness diagnosis system based on elastic cloud computing. (United States)

    Tseng, Kevin C; Wu, Chia-Chuan


    This paper presents an expert diagnosis system based on cloud computing. It classifies a user's fitness level based on supervised machine learning techniques. This system is able to learn and make customized diagnoses according to the user's physiological data, such as age, gender, and body mass index (BMI). In addition, an elastic algorithm based on Poisson distribution is presented to allocate computation resources dynamically. It predicts the required resources in the future according to the exponential moving average of past observations. The experimental results show that Naïve Bayes is the best classifier with the highest accuracy (90.8%) and that the elastic algorithm is able to capture tightly the trend of requests generated from the Internet and thus assign corresponding computation resources to ensure the quality of service.

  11. Expert systems for adaptive control of large space structures (United States)

    Gartrell, Charles F.


    It is expected that space systems for the future will evolve to structures of unprecedented size with associated extreme control requirements. A method is necessary that is sufficiently general to initiate stable control of a vehicle and subsequently learn the true nature of the structure. It is suggested that a suitable constructed expert system (ES) would be capable of learning by appending observations to a knowledge base. To verify that an ES can control a large space structure, numerical simulations of a simple structure subjected to periodic vibrations and the performance of a classical controllers were performed. The ES was then exercised to show its ability to truthfully mimic nominal control and to demonstrate its superiority to the classical controller, given sensor failures. An ES generating software package, The Intelligent Machine Model, was employed. It uses the pattern matching technique. Results of this program are discussed.

  12. Regional brain changes occurring during disobedience to "experts" in financial decision-making.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Y M Suen

    Full Text Available It is well recognized that individuals follow "Expert" advice, even when flawed and offers no advantage, and sometimes leads to disadvantages. The neurobiology underlying this is uncertain, and in particular there is an incomplete understanding of which brain regions are most involved when individuals chose to disobey an expert. To study this we examined functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI differences during an investment game where subjects received differentially credible investment advice. Participants (n = 42; 32 males played an investment game, in which they could Buy or Not Buy a sequence of stocks. The better they did, the more money they made. Participants received either "Expert" advice or "Peer" advice. Those receiving Expert advice were told the advice came from a certified financial "Expert". Those receiving Peer Advice were told the advice was that of the student administering the scans, who deliberately dressed and acted casually. Both streams of advice were predetermined and identical. The advice was scripted to be helpful initially, but progressively worse as the task continued, becoming 100% wrong by the end of the task. Subjects receiving Expert Advice followed the advice significantly longer on average, even though this was progressively worse advice. Thus, following Expert advice had poorer consequences for individuals, but this did not dissuade them from continuing to follow the advice. In contrast, when subjects disobeyed Expert advice they exhibited significant anterior cingulate cortex (ACC and superior frontal gyrus activation relative to those disobeying Peer advice. These findings may suggest that in subjects who defy authority, or believe they are doing so (in this case by disobeying an "Expert" there is increased activation of these two brain regions. This may have relevance to several areas of behavior, and the potential role of these two brain regions in regard to disobedience behavior requires further

  13. SWAN: An expert system with natural language interface for tactical air capability assessment (United States)

    Simmons, Robert M.


    SWAN is an expert system and natural language interface for assessing the war fighting capability of Air Force units in Europe. The expert system is an object oriented knowledge based simulation with an alternate worlds facility for performing what-if excursions. Responses from the system take the form of generated text, tables, or graphs. The natural language interface is an expert system in its own right, with a knowledge base and rules which understand how to access external databases, models, or expert systems. The distinguishing feature of the Air Force expert system is its use of meta-knowledge to generate explanations in the frame and procedure based environment.

  14. Intelligent decision support system for home energy retrofit adoption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Duah


    Full Text Available Despite the well-established benefits of home energy retrofits (HER, its adoption has faced huge challenges. Though homeowners typically depend on energy practitioners for HER advice, previous work by the researchers has identified the inadequateness of such information as a barrier. Using an earlier developed information model, an energy retrofit intelligent decision support system (ERIDSS, that integrates expert knowledge with quantitative information to provide homeowners with accurate information for decision-making, was developed. This paper identifies the key components of the proposed ERIDSS, develops rules for relevant energy retrofit expert knowledge to be employed in the knowledge-based system of the proposed ERIDSS, develops the ERIDSS for decision-making for home energy retrofits, and demonstrates the application of the ERIDSS using a pilot system on two test homes. The quantitative information was obtained from published sources and the U.S. Department of Energy’s cost database, and the expert knowledge was obtained through the application of the modified Delphi technique and job shadowing of energy auditors and retrofit contractors. The research contributes to improving the adoption of energy retrofits by homeowners, assisting industry practitioners with the corroboration of knowledge/information they provide to homeowners in order to reduce homeowner bias, providing a good understanding of available implicit domain knowledge through the development of six knowledge-based modules, and the development of a system and approach that may be replicated in other domains.

  15. Voting Systems for Environmental Decisions (United States)



    Voting systems aggregate preferences efficiently and are often used for deciding conservation priorities. Desirable characteristics of voting systems include transitivity, completeness, and Pareto optimality, among others. Voting systems that are common and potentially useful for environmental decision making include simple majority, approval, and preferential voting. Unfortunately, no voting system can guarantee an outcome, while also satisfying a range of very reasonable performance criteria. Furthermore, voting methods may be manipulated by decision makers and strategic voters if they have knowledge of the voting patterns and alliances of others in the voting populations. The difficult properties of voting systems arise in routine decision making when there are multiple criteria and management alternatives. Because each method has flaws, we do not endorse one method. Instead, we urge organizers to be transparent about the properties of proposed voting systems and to offer participants the opportunity to approve the voting system as part of the ground rules for operation of a group. Sistemas de Votación para Decisiones Ambientales Resumen Los sistemas de votación agregan preferencias eficientemente y muy seguido se usan para decidir prioridades de conservación. Las características deseables de un sistema de votación incluyen la transitividad, lo completo que sean y la optimalidad de Pareto, entre otras. Los sistemas de votación que son comunes y potencialmente útiles para la toma de decisiones ambientales incluyen simple mayoría, aprobación y votación preferencial. Desafortunadamente, ningún sistema de votación puede garantizar un resultado y a la vez satisfacer un rango de criterios de desempeño muy razonable. Además, los métodos de votación pueden manipularse por los que toman las decisiones y votantes estratégicos si tienen el conocimiento de los patrones de votación y de las alianzas entre miembros dentro de las poblaciones votantes. Las

  16. Adaptive security systems -- Combining expert systems with adaptive technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Argo, P.; Loveland, R.; Anderson, K. [and others


    The Adaptive Multisensor Integrated Security System (AMISS) uses a variety of computational intelligence techniques to reason from raw sensor data through an array of processing layers to arrive at an assessment for alarm/alert conditions based on human behavior within a secure facility. In this paper, the authors give an overview of the system and briefly describe some of the major components of the system. This system is currently under development and testing in a realistic facility setting.

  17. Expert Systems for Real-Time Volcano Monitoring (United States)

    Cassisi, C.; Cannavo, F.; Montalto, P.; Motta, P.; Schembra, G.; Aliotta, M. A.; Cannata, A.; Patanè, D.; Prestifilippo, M.


    In the last decade, the capability to monitor and quickly respond to remote detection of volcanic activity has been greatly improved through use of advanced techniques and semi-automatic software applications installed in most of the 24h control rooms devoted to volcanic surveillance. Ability to monitor volcanoes is being advanced by new technology, such as broad-band seismology, microphone networks mainly recording in the infrasonic frequency band, satellite observations of ground deformation, high quality video surveillance systems, also in infrared band, improved sensors for volcanic gas measurements, and advances in computer power and speed, leading to improvements in data transmission, data analysis and modeling techniques. One of the most critical point in the real-time monitoring chain is the evaluation of the volcano state from all the measurements. At the present, most of this task is delegated to one or more human experts in volcanology. Unfortunately, the volcano state assessment becomes harder if we observe that, due to the coupling of highly non-linear and complex volcanic dynamic processes, the measurable effects can show a rich range of different behaviors. Moreover, due to intrinsic uncertainties and possible failures in some recorded data, precise state assessment is usually not achievable. Hence, the volcano state needs to be expressed in probabilistic terms that take account of uncertainties. In the framework of the project PON SIGMA (Integrated Cloud-Sensor System for Advanced Multirisk Management) work, we have developed an expert system approach to estimate the ongoing volcano state from all the available measurements and with minimal human interaction. The approach is based on hidden markov model and deals with uncertainties and probabilities. We tested the proposed approach on data coming from the Mt. Etna (Italy) continuous monitoring networks for the period 2011-2013. Results show that this approach can be a valuable tool to aid the

  18. Land cover classification with an expert system approach using Landsat ETM imagery: a case study of Trabzon. (United States)

    Kahya, Oguzhan; Bayram, Bulent; Reis, Selcuk


    The main objective of this study is to generate a knowledge base which is composed of user-defined variables and included raster imagery, vector coverage, spatial models, external programs, and simple scalars and to develop an expert classification using Landsat 7 (ETM+) imagery for land cover classification in a part of Trabzon city. Expert systems allow for the integration of remote-sensed data with other sources of geo-referenced information such as land use data, spatial texture, and digital elevation model to obtain greater classification accuracy. Logical decision rules are used with the various datasets to assign class values for each pixel. Expert system is very suitable for the work of image interpretation as a powerful means of information integration. Landsat ETM data acquired in the year 2000 were initially classified into seven classes for land cover using a maximum likelihood decision rule. An expert system was constructed to perform post-classification sorting of the initial land cover classification using additional spatial datasets such as land use data. The overall accuracy of expert classification was 95.80%. Individual class accuracy ranged from 75% to 100% for each class.

  19. Extensions to the time-oriented database model to support temporal reasoning in medical expert systems. (United States)

    Kahn, M G; Fagan, L M; Tu, S


    Physicians faced with diagnostic and therapeutic decisions must reason about clinical features that change over time. Database-management systems (DBMS) can increase access to patient data, but most systems are limited in their ability to store and retrieve complex temporal information. The Time-Oriented Databank (TOD) model, the most widely used data model for medical database systems, associates a single time stamp with each observation. The proper analysis of most clinical data requires accounting for multiple concurrent clinical events that may alter the interpretation of the raw data. Most medical DBMSs cannot retrieve patient data indexed by multiple clinical events. We describe two logical extensions to TOD-based databases that solve a set of temporal reasoning problems we encountered in constructing medical expert systems. A key feature of both extensions is that stored data are partitioned into groupings, such as sequential clinical visits, clinical exacerbations, or other abstract events that have clinical decision-making relevance. The temporal network (TNET) is an object-oriented database that extends the temporal reasoning capabilities of ONCOCIN, a medical expert system that provides chemotherapy advice. TNET uses persistent objects to associate observations with intervals of time during which "an event of clinical interest" occurred. A second object-oriented system called the extended temporal network (ETNET), is both an extension and a simplification of TNET. Like TNET, ETNET uses persistent objects to represent relevant intervals; unlike the first system, however, ETNET contains reasoning methods (rules) that can be executed when an event "begins", and that are withdrawn when that event "concludes". TNET and ETNET capture temporal relationships among recorded information that are not represented in TOD-based databases. Although they do not solve all temporal reasoning problems found in medical decision making, these new structures enable patient

  20. An Expert System for Computer-aided Volcano Monitoring on Mt. Etna (United States)

    Cannavo', Flavio; Cannata, Andrea; Cassisi, Carmelo; Di Grazia, Giuseppe; Montalto, Placido; Prestifilippo, Michele; Privitera, Eugenio; Gambino, Salvatore; Coltelli, Mauro


    Constant estimation of the state of potentially hazardous volcanos plays a crucial role for civil protection purposes. In particular, the importance of monitoring volcanic activity, especially for paroxysms that usually come with tephra emissions, is crucial not only for hazards to the local population but also for airline traffic. Indeed, At present, real-time surveillance of most volcanoes worldwide is essentially deputized to one or more human experts in volcanology, who interpret data coming from different kind of monitoring networks. Unfavourably, the coupling of highly nonlinear and complex volcanic dynamic processes leads to measurable effects that can show a large variety of different behaviours. Moreover, due to intrinsic uncertainties and possible failures in some recorded data, the volcano state needs to be expressed in probabilistic terms, thus making the fast volcano state assessment sometimes impracticable for the personnel on duty at the control rooms. With the aim of aiding the personnel on duty in volcano surveillance, we present an expert system based on a probabilistic graphical model to estimate automatically the ongoing volcano state from all the available different kind of measurements. The system consists of a decision network able to represent a set of variables and their conditional dependencies via a directed acyclic graph. The model variables are both the measurements and the possible states of the volcano through the time. The model output is the most likely volcanic state. We tested the expert system on the Mt. Etna (Italy) case study by considering a long record of multivariate data from 2011 to 2015 and cross-validated it. Results indicate that the proposed model is effective and of great power for decision making purposes.

  1. Generation of test tasks in the expert-training systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Игорь Леонидович Братчиков


    Full Text Available The article describes methods of generating test tasks that use the knowledge bases of academic disciplines that are formed on the basis of a knowledge production model as well as the apparatus of formal grammars. We present two experimental expert-training systems Formula Tutor and Teoretik, focused mainly on studying the exact sciences. In the Formula Tutor system generation of tasks carried out in two stages: first, by applying the production rules, and then, if necessary, using the outputs in context-free formal grammar. To give tasks to the student familiar forms the apparatus of templates is used. The analysis of student answers is performed by comparing them with the correct answers. If the answer is a mathematical formula it is converted то standard form before comparison. In the Teoretik system production model is also applied. Unlike the first system production rules are used to fix the dependencies of terms of educational discipline. For example, in the course Geometry Ray Dot, Geometric figure shows that to understand the definition of angle the student should know the definition of the ray, dot and geometric figure. The tasks in the system formed by mixing pieces of definitions and provide selectively-constructed answers. Examples in the paper illustrate advantages of described methods.

  2. Advanced Launch System (ALS) Space Transportation Expert System Study (United States)


    Systems • atu,, NCS Imuguq: C 9 Pqu i’-tih𔃺. Apollo fnded Apolloby: JONE86 mador Jones, Michael B. and Richard F. Rashid title: Mach and Matchmaker...STAL77 ,.&or, Stallman ,R. SussmanG. title. Forward Reasoning and Dependency-Directed Backtracking in a System for Computer-Aided Circuit Analysis 6-32

  3. Cultural Factors in Systems Design Decision Making and Action

    CERN Document Server

    Proctor, Robert W; Yih, Yuehwern


    This book brings together an interdisciplinary group of experts to provide increased understanding of the ways in which cultural differences may influence decision making and action. It brings together current knowledge about decision processes, culture and cognition, design of products and interfaces for human interaction with machines and organizational processes culled from a wide variety of sources and puts them into one comprehensive resource. It examines how to design systems used by individuals from different cultures and accommodate the varied backgrounds that affect the users' decisio

  4. SSME component assembly and life management expert system (United States)

    Ali, M.; Dietz, W. E.; Ferber, H. J.


    The space shuttle utilizes several rocket engine systems, all of which must function with a high degree of reliability for successful mission completion. The space shuttle main engine (SSME) is by far the most complex of the rocket engine systems and is designed to be reusable. The reusability of spacecraft systems introduces many problems related to testing, reliability, and logistics. Components must be assembled from parts inventories in a manner which will most effectively utilize the available parts. Assembly must be scheduled to efficiently utilize available assembly benches while still maintaining flight schedules. Assembled components must be assigned to as many contiguous flights as possible, to minimize component changes. Each component must undergo a rigorous testing program prior to flight. In addition, testing and assembly of flight engines and components must be done in conjunction with the assembly and testing of developmental engines and components. The development, testing, manufacture, and flight assignments of the engine fleet involves the satisfaction of many logistical and operational requirements, subject to many constraints. The purpose of the SSME Component Assembly and Life Management Expert System (CALMES) is to assist the engine assembly and scheduling process, and to insure that these activities utilize available resources as efficiently as possible.

  5. Decision Support Systems: The Need, The Challenge. (United States)

    Roberts, Michael M.


    The evolution of decision support systems (DSS) has enabled computer and information technology to assist the management process of decision making. Decision support systems are designed to look forward in time, to forecast outcomes of uncertain events. A 70-item bibliography is included. (MLW)

  6. The common principles established to expert's preparation by a remote methods in the Earth sciences field, and their decision (United States)

    Kudzh, S.; Trofimov, S.

    Modern socially economic situation in the country and in an education system is those, that traditional forms of getting education and training model cannot satisfy all needs for the educational services usually concentrated in the big cities, and so - the increased interest to new, progressive specialities has received the development in electronic - training systems. The attitude to education on the part of the states, the governments, societies has changed also. Education began to be considered as the major factor of economic growth and social development of the countries, the decision of some global problems connected to survival of mankind. In this connection, recently development and practical introduction of technologies of remote and open education are conducted in the different countries, the especial attention is given to the systems, capable to comprise, transfer and analyze huge streams of information. The experience which has been saved up by foreign colleagues, shows, that the sanction of this technological conflict lays, generally, in sphere of creation of a wide network of remote training, and, in narrow, both quality and quantity of a substantial part, also it is necessary not to forget about a choice of electronic-training systems with their reference to various areas. And an occurrence of the computer equipment in the user's end, development of existing ways and means of data transmission, functional expansion of already existing and creation of absolutely new hardware-software complexes, and many other things has begun occurrence of new scientific directions in such basic area of sciences as the Earth - science. (These are geoinformation systems, research of natural resources by space methods, organization and technology of data protection in geoinformation systems etc.) Clearly, that new specialities impose the certain conditions for preparation of experts, and, carrying out the analysis of already existing electronic training systems in the

  7. An Expert System And Simulation Approach For Sensor Management & Control In A Distributed Surveillance Network (United States)

    Leon, Barbara D.; Heller, Paul R.


    , driven by a forward chaining inference engine, makes decisions based on the global database. The global database contains current track and sensor information supplied by the simulation. At present, the rule base emphasizes the surveillance features with rules grouped into three main categories: maintenance and enhancing track on prioritized targets; filling coverage holes and countering jamming; and evaluating sensor status. The paper will describe the architecture used for the expert system and the reasons for selecting the chosen methods. The SM&C simulation produces a graphical representation of sensors and their associated tracks such that the benefits of the sensor management and control expert system are evident. Jammer locations are also part of the display. The paper will describe results from several scenarios that best illustrate the sensor management and control concepts.

  8. Health literacy skills for informed decision making in colorectal cancer screening: Perceptions of screening invitees and experts. (United States)

    Woudstra, Anke J; Timmermans, Daniëlle R M; Uiters, Ellen; Dekker, Evelien; Smets, Ellen M A; Fransen, Mirjam P


    The process of informed decision making (IDM) requires an adequate level of health literacy. To ensure that all individuals have equal opportunity to make an informed decision in colorectal cancer (CRC) screening, it is essential to gain more insight into which health literacy skills are needed for IDM. Our aims were (i) to explore how individuals make a decision about CRC screening and (ii) to explore which skills are needed for IDM in CRC screening and (iii) to integrate these findings within a conceptual framework. We conducted 3 focus groups with individuals eligible for CRC screening (n = 22) and 2 focus groups with experts in the field of health literacy, oncology and decision making, including scientific researchers and health-care professionals (n = 17). We used framework analysis to analyse our data. We identified and specified ten health literacy skills, which varied from the ability to read and understand CRC screening information to the ability to weigh up pros and cons of screening for personal relevance. The skills were linked to 8 decision-making stages in CRC screening within a conceptual framework. We found differences in perceptions between screening invitees and experts, especially in the perceived importance of CRC screening information for IDM. This study provides insight into the decision-making stages and health literacy skills that are essential for IDM in CRC screening. The proposed conceptual framework can be used to inform the development of context-based measurement of health literacy and interventions to support IDM in cancer screening. © 2017 The Authors Health Expectations published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. DAQExpert - An expert system to increase CMS data-taking efficiency

    CERN Document Server

    Andre, Jean-marc Olivier; Branson, James; Chaze, Olivier; Cittolin, Sergio; Contescu, Cristian; Darlea, Georgiana Lavinia; Deldicque, Christian; Demiragli, Zeynep; Dobson, Marc; Doualot, Nicolas; Erhan, Samim; Fulcher, Jonathan Richard; Gigi, Dominique; Gladki, Maciej Szymon; Glege, Frank; Gomez Ceballos, Guillelmo; Hegeman, Jeroen Guido; Holzner, Andre Georg; Janulis, Mindaugas; Lettrich, Michael; Meijers, Franciscus; Meschi, Emilio; Mommsen, Remigius; Morovic, Srecko; O'Dell, Vivian; Orn, Samuel Johan; Orsini, Luciano; Papakrivopoulos, Ioannis; Paus, Christoph Maria Ernst; Petrova, Petia; Petrucci, Andrea; Pieri, Marco; Rabady, Dinyar Sebastian; Racz, Attila; Reis, Thomas; Sakulin, Hannes; Schwick, Christoph; Simelevicius, Dainius; Vougioukas, Michail; Zejdl, Petr


    The efficiency of the Data Acquisition (DAQ) of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment for LHC Run 2 is constantly being improved. A~significant factor affecting the data taking efficiency is the experience of the DAQ operator. One of the main responsibilities of the DAQ operator is to carry out the proper recovery procedure in case of failure of data-taking. At the start of Run 2, understanding the problem and finding the right remedy could take a considerable amount of time (up to many minutes). Operators heavily relied on the support of on-call experts, also outside working hours. Wrong decisions due to time pressure sometimes lead to an additional overhead in recovery time. To increase the efficiency of CMS data-taking we developed a new expert system, the DAQExpert, which provides shifters with optimal recovery suggestions instantly when a failure occurs. DAQExpert is a~web application analyzing frequently updating monitoring data from all DAQ components and identifying problems based on expert knowl...

  10. Geospatial decision support systems for societal decision making (United States)

    Bernknopf, R.L.


    While science provides reliable information to describe and understand the earth and its natural processes, it can contribute more. There are many important societal issues in which scientific information can play a critical role. Science can add greatly to policy and management decisions to minimize loss of life and property from natural and man-made disasters, to manage water, biological, energy, and mineral resources, and in general, to enhance and protect our quality of life. However, the link between science and decision-making is often complicated and imperfect. Technical language and methods surround scientific research and the dissemination of its results. Scientific investigations often are conducted under different conditions, with different spatial boundaries, and in different timeframes than those needed to support specific policy and societal decisions. Uncertainty is not uniformly reported in scientific investigations. If society does not know that data exist, what the data mean, where to use the data, or how to include uncertainty when a decision has to be made, then science gets left out -or misused- in a decision making process. This paper is about using Geospatial Decision Support Systems (GDSS) for quantitative policy analysis. Integrated natural -social science methods and tools in a Geographic Information System that respond to decision-making needs can be used to close the gap between science and society. The GDSS has been developed so that nonscientists can pose "what if" scenarios to evaluate hypothetical outcomes of policy and management choices. In this approach decision makers can evaluate the financial and geographic distribution of potential policy options and their societal implications. Actions, based on scientific information, can be taken to mitigate hazards, protect our air and water quality, preserve the planet's biodiversity, promote balanced land use planning, and judiciously exploit natural resources. Applications using the

  11. An Integrated Expert System for Linear Scheduling Heavy Earthmoving Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nizar Markiz


    Full Text Available Heavy earthmoving operations are repetitive in nature and vulnerable to time-related restraints and uncertainties. Therefore, at the conceptual stage, scheduling these operations can take a linear form, known as linear schedule or line of balance (LOB. In such type of work, generating a preliminary line of balance for variable sequencing of activities is crucial. In this paper, an integrated expert system for determining preliminary linear schedules for heavy earthmoving operations at the conceptual stage is presented. The proposed system incorporates numerous factors that influence the analysis of earthmoving operations, which include geological and topographical parameters used to determine productivity rates at the conceptual stage. Also, the proposed system is capable of automatically generating a line of balance based on a stochastic scheduling technique via the metaheuristic simulated annealing intelligent approach to incorporate randomness and uncertainties in performing the associated activities. A parametric analysis is conducted in order to quantify the system’s degree of accuracy. An actual case project is then utilized to illustrate its numerical capabilities. Generating accurate linear schedules for heavy earthmoving operations at the conceptual design stage is anticipated to be of major significance to infrastructure project stakeholders, engineers, and construction managers by detecting schedule’s conflicts early in order to enhance overall operational logistics.

  12. Space power system scheduling using an expert system (United States)

    Bahrami, K. A.; Biefeld, E.; Costello, L.; Klein, J. W.


    A most pressing problem in space exploration is timely spacecraft power system sequence generation, which requires the scheduling of a set of loads given a set of resource constraints. This is particularly important after an anomaly or failure. This paper discusses the power scheduling problem and how the software program, Plan-It, can be used as a consultant for scheduling power system activities. Modeling of power activities, human interface, and two of the many strategies used by Plan-It are discussed. Preliminary results showing the development of a conflict-free sequence from an initial sequence with conflicts is presented. It shows that a 4-day schedule can be generated in a matter of a few minutes, which provides sufficient time in many cases to aid the crew in the replanning of loads and generation use following a failure or anomaly.

  13. Decision strategy research: system analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carle, B


    The objective of SCK-CEN's R and D programme on decision strategies is (1) to develop theories, methods and software tools which help decision makers shape, analyse and understand their decisions; (2) to study group processes in decision making; (3) to apply theories, methods and tools in a context related to nuclear emergency preparedness and more generally to support in a context dealing with ionising radiation; (4) to increase SCK-CEN's knowledge on general emergency preparedness and to introduce SCK-CEN staff to computer supported decision techniques. Ongoing R and D has two components: (1) the study of the use of information and knowledge transfer in group decision processes, and more specific studying important factors when computers are used as information source and communication tool; and (2) the study of preference modelling individually and during group decision processes. Principal achievements in 1999 are described.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Оleh Shevchuk


    Full Text Available The paper reports on the design of a multi-component architecture of distributed hybrid expert training system that can be used for the study of knowledge base of both internal and external expert systems and artificial intelligence systems that are distributed on Internet servers and other computer networks. Expert training system is based on three groups of basic principles: cybernetic, reflecting experience of previous research of systems of artificial intelligence, expert training systems; pedagogical, determining the principles, on which pedagogical design and use of expert training systems are based; psychological, determining preconditious and understanding of pupils psychics, on which the processes of design and use of expert training systems in professional training of future specialists are based.It accounts for the efficient training through the distributed knowledge via the Internet, which greatly increases the didactic capabilities of the system.

  15. Empirical Demonstration of Isoperformance Methodology Preparatory of an Interactive Expert Computerized Decision Aid (United States)


    videogames than women (Jones, 1984). In this case, therefore, gender can be used to index aptitude in the same way that selection tests would...THE ROLE OF SUBJECT-MATTER EXPERTS ................................. 22 SPECIFIC APPLICATIONS .............................................. 24...proficiency (80%) on two different jobs ............ 12 6. Average number of target hits over trials as a function of aptitude ( gender ) and session of

  16. Diagnostic thinking and information used in clinical decision-making: a qualitative study of expert and student dental clinicians. (United States)

    Maupomé, Gerardo; Schrader, Stuart; Mannan, Saurabh; Garetto, Lawrence; Eggertsson, Hafsteinn


    It is uncertain whether the range and frequency of Diagnostic Thinking Processes (DTP) and pieces of information (concepts) involved in dental restorative treatment planning are different between students and expert clinicians. We video-recorded dental visits with one standardized patient. Clinicians were subsequently interviewed and their cognitive strategies explored using guide questions; interviews were also recorded. Both visit and interview were content-analyzed, following the Gale and Marsden model for clinical decision-making. Limited tests used to contrast data were t, chi2, and Fisher's. Scott's pi was used to determine inter-coder reliability. Fifteen dentists and 17 senior dental students participated in visits lasting 32.0 minutes (+/- 12.9) among experts, and 29.9 +/- 7.1 among students; contact time with patient was 26.4 +/- 13.9 minutes (experts), and 22.2 +/- 7.5 (students). The time elapsed between the first and the last instances of the clinician looking in the mouth was similar between experts and students. Ninety eight types of pieces of information were used in combinations with 12 DTPs. The main differences found in DTP utilization had dentists conducting diagnostic interpretations of findings with sufficient certainty to be considered definitive twice as often as students. Students resorted more often to more general or clarifying enquiry in their search for information than dentists. Differences in diagnostic strategies and concepts existed within clearly delimited types of cognitive processes; such processes were largely compatible with the analytic and (in particular) non-analytic approaches to clinical decision-making identified in the medical field. Because we were focused on a clinical presentation primarily made up of non-emergency treatment needs, use of other DTPs and concepts might occur when clinicians evaluate emergency treatment needs, complex rehabilitative cases, and/or medically compromised patients.

  17. Development of an Expert System for Representing Procedural Knowledge (United States)

    Georgeff, Michael P.; Lansky, Amy L.


    A high level of automation is of paramount importance in most space operations. It is critical for unmanned missions and greatly increases the effectiveness of manned missions. However, although many functions can be automated by using advanced engineering techniques, others require complex reasoning, sensing, and manipulatory capabilities that go beyond this technology. Automation of fault diagnosis and malfunction handling is a case in point. The military have long been interested in this problem, and have developed automatic test equipment to aid in the maintenance of complex military hardware. These systems are all based on conventional software and engineering techniques. However, the effectiveness of such test equipment is severely limited. The equipment is inflexible and unresponsive to the skill level of the technicians using it. The diagnostic procedures cannot be matched to the exigencies of the current situation nor can they cope with reconfiguration or modification of the items under test. The diagnosis cannot be guided by useful advice from technicians and, when a fault cannot be isolated, no explanation is given as to the cause of failure. Because these systems perform a prescribed sequence of tests, they cannot utilize knowledge of a particular situation to focus attention on more likely trouble spots. Consequently, real-time performance is highly unsatisfactory. Furthermore, the cost of developing test software is substantial and time to maturation is excessive. Significant advances in artificial intelligence (AI) have recently led to the development of powerful and flexible reasoning systems, known as expert or knowledge-based systems. We have devised a powerful and theoretically sound scheme for representing and reasoning about procedural knowledge.

  18. A fuzzy expert system to Trust-Based Access Control in crowdsourcing environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olusegun Folorunso


    Full Text Available Crowdsourcing has been widely accepted across a broad range of application areas. In crowdsourcing environments, the possibility of performing human computation is characterized with risks due to the openness of their web-based platforms where each crowd worker joins and participates in the process at any time, causing serious effect on the quality of its computation. In this paper, a combination of Trust-Based Access Control (TBAC strategy and fuzzy-expert systems was used to enhance the quality of human computation in crowdsourcing environment. A TBAC-fuzzy algorithm was developed and implemented using MATLAB 7.6.0 to compute trust value (Tvalue, priority value as evaluated by fuzzy inference system (FIS and finally generate access decision to each crowd-worker. In conclusion, the use of TBAC is feasible in improving quality of human computation in crowdsourcing environments.

  19. Rule-based expert system for maritime anomaly detection (United States)

    Roy, Jean


    Maritime domain operators/analysts have a mandate to be aware of all that is happening within their areas of responsibility. This mandate derives from the needs to defend sovereignty, protect infrastructures, counter terrorism, detect illegal activities, etc., and it has become more challenging in the past decade, as commercial shipping turned into a potential threat. In particular, a huge portion of the data and information made available to the operators/analysts is mundane, from maritime platforms going about normal, legitimate activities, and it is very challenging for them to detect and identify the non-mundane. To achieve such anomaly detection, they must establish numerous relevant situational facts from a variety of sensor data streams. Unfortunately, many of the facts of interest just cannot be observed; the operators/analysts thus use their knowledge of the maritime domain and their reasoning faculties to infer these facts. As they are often overwhelmed by the large amount of data and information, automated reasoning tools could be used to support them by inferring the necessary facts, ultimately providing indications and warning on a small number of anomalous events worthy of their attention. Along this line of thought, this paper describes a proof-of-concept prototype of a rule-based expert system implementing automated rule-based reasoning in support of maritime anomaly detection.

  20. Bayesian Islamic medication expert system (B-IMES) (United States)

    Daud, Hanita; Razali, Radzuan; Jung, Low Tan; Zaida, Shahnaz


    This paper discusses on the development of an expert system (ES) that applies Bayesian Probability concept for Islamic Medication practice that is made available on web platform. This ES allows user to choose sickness such as headache, stomachache, toothache and etc that he/she may have and list of symptoms related to the sickness will appear for the user to choose. Once symptom(s) is/are chosen the diagnosis is being carried out to suggest percentage of possible specific sickness such as classic migraine, common migraine, tension headache and etc if headache was chosen. This diagnosis is being carried out using Bayes' Theorem and the ES will suggest the treatments or therapy that he/she needs to perform in reference to Muslim Holy Quran and Hadith. This ES was developed to preserve Islamic medication and to create awareness among the young generation and make it accessible at anytime and anywhere and to save users time to meet Islamic Medication practitioners who are not easily available in Malaysia and other parts of the world.

  1. Expert testimony pertaining to battered woman syndrome: its impact on jurors' decisions. (United States)

    Schuller, Regina A; Rzepa, Sara


    Participants (N = 200) were presented with a criminal homicide trial involving a battered woman who had killed her abuser. Within the trial, both the response history (passive, active) and presence of expert testimony pertaining to battered woman syndrome (present, absent) were systematically varied. As well, half of the participants in each of these conditions were provided with a nullification instruction informing them that they were free to disregard the law and acquit should a strict application of the law result in an unjust verdict. Results indicated that, compared to the passive response condition, the mock jurors were no less receptive to the expert testimony in the active response condition. The impact of the testimony on participants' verdicts, however, was moderated by the nullification instruction. That is, although the presence of the testimony did result in greater verdict leniency, this only occurred when the mock jurors had been released from a strict application of the law. The implications of these findings are discussed.

  2. Herbert Simon's decision-making approach: Investigation of cognitive processes in experts


    Campitelli, G; Gobet, F.


    This is a post print version of the article. The official published can be obtained from the links below - PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved. Herbert Simon's research endeavor aimed to understand the processes that participate in human decision making. However, despite his effort to investigate this question, his work did not have the impact in the “decision making” community that it had in other fields. His rejection of the assumption of perfect rationality, made ...

  3. A neural network architecture for implementation of expert systems for real time monitoring (United States)

    Ramamoorthy, P. A.


    Since neural networks have the advantages of massive parallelism and simple architecture, they are good tools for implementing real time expert systems. In a rule based expert system, the antecedents of rules are in the conjunctive or disjunctive form. We constructed a multilayer feedforward type network in which neurons represent AND or OR operations of rules. Further, we developed a translator which can automatically map a given rule base into the network. Also, we proposed a new and powerful yet flexible architecture that combines the advantages of both fuzzy expert systems and neural networks. This architecture uses the fuzzy logic concepts to separate input data domains into several smaller and overlapped regions. Rule-based expert systems for time critical applications using neural networks, the automated implementation of rule-based expert systems with neural nets, and fuzzy expert systems vs. neural nets are covered.

  4. Expert systems for C3I. Volume 1. A user's introduction (United States)

    Clapp, J. A.; Hockett, S. M.; Prelle, M. J.; Tallant, A. M.; Triant, D. D.


    There has been a tremendous burgeoning of interest in artificial intelligence (AI) over the last few years. Investments of commercial and government sponsors reflect a widespread belief that AI is now ready for practical applications. The area of AI currently receiving the greatest attention and investment is expert system technology. Most major high tech corporations have begun to develop expert systems, and many software houses specializing in expert system tools and applications have recently appeared. The defense community is one of the heaviest investors in expert system technology, and within this community one of the application areas receiving greatest attention is C3I. Many ESD programs are now beginning to ask whether expert system applications for C3I are ready for incorporation into ESD-developed systems, and, if so, what are the potential benefits and risks of doing so. This report was prepared to help ESD and MITRE personnel working on acquisition programs to address these issues and to gain a better understanding of what expert systems are all about. The primary intention of this report is to investigate what expert systems are and the advances that are being made in expert system technology for C3I applications. The report begins with a brief tutorial on expert systems, emphasizing how they differ from conventional software systems and what they are best at doing.

  5. SeTES, a Self-Teaching Expert System for the analysis, design and prediction of gas production from shales and a prototype for a new generation of Expert Systems in the Earth Sciences (United States)

    Kuzma, H. A.; Boyle, K.; Pullman, S.; Reagan, M. T.; Moridis, G. J.; Blasingame, T. A.; Rector, J. W.; Nikolaou, M.


    A Self Teaching Expert System (SeTES) is being developed for the analysis, design and prediction of gas production from shales. An Expert System is a computer program designed to answer questions or clarify uncertainties that its designers did not necessarily envision which would otherwise have to be addressed by consultation with one or more human experts. Modern developments in computer learning, data mining, database management, web integration and cheap computing power are bringing the promise of expert systems to fruition. SeTES is a partial successor to Prospector, a system to aid in the identification and evaluation of mineral deposits developed by Stanford University and the USGS in the late 1970s, and one of the most famous early expert systems. Instead of the text dialogue used in early systems, the web user interface of SeTES helps a non-expert user to articulate, clarify and reason about a problem by navigating through a series of interactive wizards. The wizards identify potential solutions to queries by retrieving and combining together relevant records from a database. Inferences, decisions and predictions are made from incomplete and noisy inputs using a series of probabilistic models (Bayesian Networks) which incorporate records from the database, physical laws and empirical knowledge in the form of prior probability distributions. The database is mainly populated with empirical measurements, however an automatic algorithm supplements sparse data with synthetic data obtained through physical modeling. This constitutes the mechanism for how SeTES self-teaches. SeTES’ predictive power is expected to grow as users contribute more data into the system. Samples are appropriately weighted to favor high quality empirical data over low quality or synthetic data. Finally, a set of data visualization tools digests the output measurements into graphical outputs.

  6. Strategies for adding adaptive learning mechanisms to rule-based diagnostic expert systems (United States)

    Stclair, D. C.; Sabharwal, C. L.; Bond, W. E.; Hacke, Keith


    Rule-based diagnostic expert systems can be used to perform many of the diagnostic chores necessary in today's complex space systems. These expert systems typically take a set of symptoms as input and produce diagnostic advice as output. The primary objective of such expert systems is to provide accurate and comprehensive advice which can be used to help return the space system in question to nominal operation. The development and maintenance of diagnostic expert systems is time and labor intensive since the services of both knowledge engineer(s) and domain expert(s) are required. The use of adaptive learning mechanisms to increment evaluate and refine rules promises to reduce both time and labor costs associated with such systems. This paper describes the basic adaptive learning mechanisms of strengthening, weakening, generalization, discrimination, and discovery. Next basic strategies are discussed for adding these learning mechanisms to rule-based diagnostic expert systems. These strategies support the incremental evaluation and refinement of rules in the knowledge base by comparing the set of advice given by the expert system (A) with the correct diagnosis (C). Techniques are described for selecting those rules in the in the knowledge base which should participate in adaptive learning. The strategies presented may be used with a wide variety of learning algorithms. Further, these strategies are applicable to a large number of rule-based diagnostic expert systems. They may be used to provide either immediate or deferred updating of the knowledge base.

  7. Using computerised decision-support systems. (United States)

    Dowding, Dawn

    Decision support is an extension of electronic health record or electronic patient record systems. As well as enabling health professionals to look up information about individual patients stored in the system and to consult evidence-based guidance, they give advice on the treatment and management most appropriate for that patient. They are designed to help with the process of clinical decision making. Computerised decision-support systems match patient characteristics to a computerised knowledge base to produce patient-specific assessments or recommendations. Decision support can be paper-based, but computerised systems have the advantage of being able to quickly process patient-specific information and match it to computerised decision rules or algorithms. This article discusses the benefits and limitations of using decision-support technology, which is becoming increasingly important as the use of health information technology systems becomes more common across healthcare.

  8. Guidelines for the verification and validation of expert system software and conventional software: Survey and documentation of expert system verification and validation methodologies. Volume 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groundwater, E.H.; Miller, L.A.; Mirsky, S.M. [Science Applications International Corp., McLean, VA (United States)


    This report is the third volume in the final report for the Expert System Verification and Validation (V&V) project which was jointly sponsored by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Electric Power Research Institute. The ultimate objective is the formulation of guidelines for the V&V of expert systems for use in nuclear power applications. The purpose of this activity was to survey and document techniques presently in use for expert system V&V. The survey effort included an extensive telephone interviewing program, site visits, and a thorough bibliographic search and compilation. The major finding was that V&V of expert systems is not nearly as established or prevalent as V&V of conventional software systems. When V&V was used for expert systems, it was almost always at the system validation stage after full implementation and integration usually employing the non-systematic dynamic method of {open_quotes}ad hoc testing.{close_quotes} There were few examples of employing V&V in the early phases of development and only weak sporadic mention of the possibilities in the literature. There is, however, a very active research area concerning the development of methods and tools to detect problems with, particularly, rule-based expert systems. Four such static-testing methods were identified which were not discovered in a comprehensive review of conventional V&V methods in an earlier task.

  9. The effect of modelling expert knowledge and uncertainty on multicriteria decision making: a river management case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, Judith; Krol, Martinus S.; Schielen, Ralph Mathias Johannes; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert


    To support decision making on complex environmental issues, models are often used to explore the potential impacts of different management alternatives on the environmental system. We explored how different model outcomes affect decision making. Two topics have our particular interest, namely (1)

  10. A statistical modeling approach to build expert credit risk rating systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waagepetersen, Rasmus


    This paper presents an efficient method for extracting expert knowledge when building a credit risk rating system. Experts are asked to rate a sample of counterparty cases according to creditworthiness. Next, a statistical model is used to capture the relation between the characteristics of a cou......This paper presents an efficient method for extracting expert knowledge when building a credit risk rating system. Experts are asked to rate a sample of counterparty cases according to creditworthiness. Next, a statistical model is used to capture the relation between the characteristics...... of a counterparty and the expert rating. For any counterparty the model can identify the rating, which would be agreed upon by the majority of experts. Furthermore, the model can quantify the concurrence among experts. The approach is illustrated by a case study regarding the construction of an application score...

  11. Applications of geographic information system and expert system for urban runoff and water quality management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Beum-Hee [Pai Chai University, Taejeon(Korea)


    It is very important to select appropriate methods of collecting, predicting, and analyzing information for the development of urban water resources and the prevention of disasters. Thus, in this study an accurate data generation method is developed using Geographic Information System (GIS) and Remote Sensing (RS). The methods of development and application of an expert system are suggested to solve more efficiently the problems of water resources and quality induced by the rapid urbanization. The time-varying data in a large region, the An-Yang Cheon watershed, were reasonably obtained by the application of the GIS using ARC/INFO and RS data. The ESPE (Expert System for Parameter Estimation), an expert system is developed using the CLIPS 6.0. The simulated results showed agreement with the measured data globally. These methods are expected to efficiently simulate the runoff and water quality in the rapidly varying urban area. (author). 10 refs., 4 tabs., 10 figs.

  12. A Scalable Architecture for Rule Engine Based Clinical Decision Support Systems. (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Soumi; Banerjee, Ansuman; Banerjee, Nilanjan


    Clinical Decision Support systems (CDSS) have reached a fair level of sophistication and have emerged as the popular system of choice for their aid in clinical decision making. These decision support systems are based on rule engines navigate through a repertoire of clinical rules and multitudes of facts to assist a clinical expert to decide on the set of actuations in response to a medical situation. In this paper, we present the design of a scalable architecture for a rule engine based clinical decision system.

  13. When does atopic dermatitis warrant systemic therapy? Recommendations from an expert panel of the International Eczema Council. (United States)

    Simpson, Eric L; Bruin-Weller, Marjolein; Flohr, Carsten; Ardern-Jones, Michael R; Barbarot, Sebastien; Deleuran, Mette; Bieber, Thomas; Vestergaard, Christian; Brown, Sara J; Cork, Michael J; Drucker, Aaron M; Eichenfield, Lawrence F; Foelster-Holst, Regina; Guttman-Yassky, Emma; Nosbaum, Audrey; Reynolds, Nick J; Silverberg, Jonathan I; Schmitt, Jochen; Seyger, Marieke M B; Spuls, Phyllis I; Stalder, Jean-Francois; Su, John C; Takaoka, Roberto; Traidl-Hoffmann, Claudia; Thyssen, Jacob P; van der Schaft, Jorien; Wollenberg, Andreas; Irvine, Alan D; Paller, Amy S


    Although most patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) are effectively managed with topical medication, a significant minority require systemic therapy. Guidelines for decision making about advancement to systemic therapy are lacking. To guide those considering use of systemic therapy in AD and provide a framework for evaluation before making this therapeutic decision with the patient. A subgroup of the International Eczema Council determined aspects to consider before prescribing systemic therapy. Topics were assigned to expert reviewers who performed a topic-specific literature review, referred to guidelines when available, and provided interpretation and expert opinion. We recommend a systematic and holistic approach to assess patients with severe signs and symptoms of AD and impact on quality of life before systemic therapy. Steps taken before commencing systemic therapy include considering alternate or concomitant diagnoses, avoiding trigger factors, optimizing topical therapy, ensuring adequate patient/caregiver education, treating coexistent infection, assessing the impact on quality of life, and considering phototherapy. Our work is a consensus statement, not a systematic review. The decision to start systemic medication should include assessment of severity and quality of life while considering the individual's general health status, psychologic needs, and personal attitudes toward systemic therapies. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A Fuzzy Rule-Based Expert System for Evaluating Intellectual Capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hossein Fazel Zarandi


    Full Text Available A fuzzy rule-based expert system is developed for evaluating intellectual capital. A fuzzy linguistic approach assists managers to understand and evaluate the level of each intellectual capital item. The proposed fuzzy rule-based expert system applies fuzzy linguistic variables to express the level of qualitative evaluation and criteria of experts. Feasibility of the proposed model is demonstrated by the result of intellectual capital performance evaluation for a sample company.

  15. An Expert System for Analysis and Reporting of First Pass Radionuclide Ventriculograms


    Lesser, Michael F.


    The Exercise First Pass Radionuclide Ventriculogram is a sophisticated imaging technique which is used in the diagnosis and management of coronary artery disease, the nations leading cause of death. An expert system, using rule based heuristics developed under the GURU (TM, MDBS) environment is described. This expert system produces completed, transcribed reports which concur with expert (Board Certified Cardiologists) cardiovascular opinions, approximately 95% of the time. Operator independe...

  16. Decision Support Systems and Public Policy Analysis. (United States)

    Hall, Owen P., Jr.


    This article outlines an approach for developing and applying computerized decision support systems to the formulation and evaluation of public policy. To meet the challenge of financial resource limitations, new management systems must be developed to improve both governmental efficiency and decision-making effectiveness. (Author/BS)

  17. A user perspective on the gap between science and decision-making. Local administrators’ views on expert knowledge in urban planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stigt, van Rien; Driessen, P.J.; Spit, Tejo


    The role of expert knowledge of the environment in decision-making about urban development has been intensively debated. Most contributions to this debate have studied the use of knowledge in the decision-making process from the knowledge providers’ point of view. In this paper, we reverse the

  18. OFMspert - Inference of operator intentions in supervisory control using a blackboard architecture. [operator function model expert system (United States)

    Jones, Patricia S.; Mitchell, Christine M.; Rubin, Kenneth S.


    The authors proposes an architecture for an expert system that can function as an operator's associate in the supervisory control of a complex dynamic system. Called OFMspert (operator function model (OFM) expert system), the architecture uses the operator function modeling methodology as the basis for the design. The authors put emphasis on the understanding capabilities, i.e., the intent referencing property, of an operator's associate. The authors define the generic structure of OFMspert, particularly those features that support intent inferencing. They also describe the implementation and validation of OFMspert in GT-MSOCC (Georgia Tech-Multisatellite Operations Control Center), a laboratory domain designed to support research in human-computer interaction and decision aiding in complex, dynamic systems.

  19. Helping operators improve plant performance emdash HEATXPRT; An on-line expert system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henry, R.E.; Sopocy, D.M.; Montanus, J.A. (Sargent and Lundy, Chicago, IL (US)); Blanco, M.A. (Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (US)); Bleakley, K.W. (Northern Indiana Public Service Co., Hammond, IN (US)); Perry, S.A. (Will County Station, Commonwealth Edison Co., Romeoville, IL (US))


    An on-line expert system for fossil fuel power plants, Heat Rate Degradation Advisor, or HEATXPRT, is being developed. This expert system will be used to automate the interpretation of plant operating data using available on-line plant physical and performance data, along with manual input of additional measurements and observations when necessary. This expert system will operate on a microcomputer and will interface with existing plant data acquisition and/or thermal performance monitoring systems, which presents a variety of design challenges. Several significant features of this expert system are discussed in this paper, including the design of a modular expert system architecture, design of a consistent user interface, development of a standard specification for information transfer, application of sensor validation techniques, and development of a knowledge base suitable for the interpretation of on-line data.

  20. Decision Support Systems for Launch and Range Operations Using Jess (United States)

    Thirumalainambi, Rajkumar


    The virtual test bed for launch and range operations developed at NASA Ames Research Center consists of various independent expert systems advising on weather effects, toxic gas dispersions and human health risk assessment during space-flight operations. An individual dedicated server supports each expert system and the master system gather information from the dedicated servers to support the launch decision-making process. Since the test bed is based on the web system, reducing network traffic and optimizing the knowledge base is critical to its success of real-time or near real-time operations. Jess, a fast rule engine and powerful scripting environment developed at Sandia National Laboratory has been adopted to build the expert systems providing robustness and scalability. Jess also supports XML representation of knowledge base with forward and backward chaining inference mechanism. Facts added - to working memory during run-time operations facilitates analyses of multiple scenarios. Knowledge base can be distributed with one inference engine performing the inference process. This paper discusses details of the knowledge base and inference engine using Jess for a launch and range virtual test bed.

  1. An online infertility clinical decision support system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Diniz de Souza


    Full Text Available Objective: To explore some possibilities of computer applications in medicine, and to discuss an online infertility clinical decision support system. Methods: Retrospective data were obtained from 52 couples, and then entered into the online tool. Both its results and the initial diagnoses obtained by the treating physicians were compared with the final diagnoses established by laparoscopy and other diagnostic tests (semen analysis, hormone analysis, endometrial biopsy, ultrasound and hysteroscopy. The initial hypothesis of the research was that the online tool’s output was statistically associated with the final diagnoses. In order to verify that hypothesis, a chi-square (氈2 test with Yates’ correction for continuity (P<0.05 was performed to verify if the online tool’s and the doctor’s diagnoses were statistically associated with the final diagnoses. Results: Four etiological factors were present in more than 50% of the couples (ovarian, tubal-peritoneal, uterine, and endometriosis. The statistical results confirmed the research hypothesis for eight out of the nine etiological factors (ovarian, tubal-peritoneal, uterine, cervical, male, vaginal, psychosomatic, and endometriosis; P<0.05. Since there were no cases related to the immune factor in the sample, further clinical data are necessary in order to assess the online tool’s performance for that factor. Conclusions: The online tool tends to present more false-positives than false negatives, whereas the expert physician tends to present more false-negatives than false-positives. Therefore, the online tool and the doctor seem to complement each other. Finally, the obtained results suggest that the infertility online tool discussed herein might be a useful research and instructional tool.

  2. The Suitability of Expert System Application in Czech Small and Medium‑Sized Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Khitilova


    Full Text Available Small and medium-sized enterprises play an important role in the economy of Czech Republic. Expert systems are one of the alternatives evaluated the effectiveness of the relationship between supplier and customer. Currently, measurement and increase in efficiency of supplier-customer relations is very topical subject. The requirements for tools the improvement supplier- customer relationship can be specified on the base the literature analysis. The article defines basic requirements for expert system. The presentation of expert system and its suitability in the surroundings of small and medium sized enterprises is the part of this article. The comparison of the expert system possibilities and the compiled requirements leads to suitability analysis of selected solution. Actual questions and the way of future work are derived from current results, presented in the paper. The article defined the directions of development this expert system.

  3. Expert Seeker: A People-Finder Knowledge Management System (United States)

    Becerra-Fernandez, Irma


    The first objective for this report was to perform a comprehensive research of industry models currently being used for similar purposes, in order to provide the Center with ideas of what is being done in area by private companies and government agencies. The second objective was to evaluate the use of taxonomies or ontologies to describe and catalog the areas of expertise at GSFC. The creation of a knowledge taxonomy is necessary for information extraction in order for The Expert Seeker to adequately search and find experts in a particular area of expertise. The requirements to develop a taxonomy are: provide minimal descriptive text; have the appropriate level of abstration; facilitate browsing; ease of use and speed of data entry are critical for success; customized to the organization and its culture; extent of knowledge areas; expandable, so new skills could be develop; could be complemented with free text fields to allow users the option to describe their knowledge in detail.

  4. Assessment on EXPERT Descent and Landing System Aerodynamics (United States)

    Wong, H.; Muylaert, J.; Northey, D.; Riley, D.


    EXPERT is a re-entry vehicle designed for validation of aero-thermodynamic models, numerical schemes in Computational Fluid Dynamics codes and test facilities for measuring flight data under an Earth re-entry environment. This paper addresses the design for the descent and landing sequence for EXPERT. It includes the descent sequence, the choice of drogue and main parachutes, and the parachute deployment condition, which can be supersonic or subsonic. The analysis is based mainly on an engineering tool, PASDA, together with some hand calculations for parachute sizing and design. The tool consists of a detailed 6-DoF simulation performed with the aerodynamics database of the vehicle, an empirical wakes model and the International Standard Atmosphere database. The aerodynamics database for the vehicle is generated by DNW experimental data and CFD codes within the framework of an ESA contract to CIRA. The analysis will be presented in terms of altitude, velocity, accelerations, angle-of- attack, pitch angle and angle of rigging line. Discussion on the advantages and disadvantages of each parachute deployment condition is included in addition to some comparison with the available data based on a Monte-Carlo method from a Russian company, FSUE NIIPS. Sensitivity on wind speed to the performance of EXPERT is shown to be strong. Supersonic deployment of drogue shows a better performance in stability at the expense of a larger G-load than those from the subsonic deployment of drogue. Further optimization on the parachute design is necessary in order to fulfill all the EXPERT specifications.

  5. Practical Applications of Artificial Intelligence, Expert Systems at NAVSEA, (United States)


    rules out astrology . and probably selecting stock portfolios, * Rule out those problems where the experts always argue about whether the answer is...process of identifying issues with a high probability of adjustment on individual 1040-type tax returns." (Sullivan, July 1986). This area of...facts and tens of thousands of rules. The present software and hardware are not capable of this level and probably won’t be for another AI generation

  6. Xpros: a Fuzzy Expert System for Prospect Appraisal XPROS : un système expert flou pour l'évaluation de prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li L. H.


    Full Text Available We have developed a fuzzy expert system (XPROS based on the fuzzy multicriteria decision-making paradigm for prospect evaluation. XPROS considers all available information, which are usually fragmentary and imprecise - the kind of information which cannot be incorporated in traditional methods. In essence, XPROS employs fuzzy implications to gauge satisfaction levels associated with each measure of the characteristics associated with the source rock, reservoir, trap, and seal. In this paper we describe XPROS illustrated with a case study. Nous avons développé un système expert flou, XPROS, qui s'appuie sur le paradigme de la prise de décision multicritères en univers incertain pour évaluer un prospect. XPROS utilise l'ensemble des informations disponibles, qu'on ne peut en général prendre en compte dans les méthodes conventionnelles, car elles sont souvent partielles et imprécises. XPROS exploite des implications floues pour calculer les niveaux de satisfaction associés aux diverses mesures des caractéristiques du prospect : roche-mère, réservoir, piège, couverture. Cet article contient la description de XPROS et une illustration sur un cas d'application.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. S. Staricov


    Full Text Available Objectives. The presented research problem concerns data regularities for an unspecified time series based on an approach to the expert formalisation of knowledge integrated into a decision-making mechanism. Method. A context-free grammar, consisting of a modification of universal temporal grammar, is used to describe regularities. Using the rules of the developed grammar, an expert can describe patterns in the group of time series. A multi-dimensional matrix pattern of the behaviour of a group of time series is used in a real-time decision-making regime in the expert system to implements a universal approach to the description of the dynamics of these changes in the expert system. The multidimensional matrix pattern is specifically intended for decision-making in an expert system; the modified temporal grammar is used to identify patterns in the data. Results. It is proposed to use the temporal relations of the series and fix observation values in the time interval as ―From-To‖, ―Before‖, ―After‖, ―Simultaneously‖ and ―Duration‖. A syntactically oriented converter of descriptions is developed. A schema for the creation and application of matrix patterns in expert systems is drawn up. Conclusion. The advantage of the implementation of the proposed hybrid approaches consists in a reduction of the time taken for identifying temporal patterns and an automation of the matrix pattern of the decision-making system based on expert descriptions verified using live data derived from relationships in the monitoring data. 

  8. Evaluation of Expert System at Forensic Document Examinations in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevzat Alkan


    Full Text Available Forensic document examination is one of the most important fields of Forensic Sciences. Purpose of our study is to analyse how. with whom and with which agencies and principles of expert applications related with forensic document examinations are made in our country. With this purpose, it is discussed by examining law paragraphs including expertise, legal expert organizations that work in this subject, forensic document examination laboratories occupied in these organizations, work responsibilities, technical and worker capacities and principles applied to choose their workers, private expert applications in forensic document examination and codes of The Society of Forensic Medicine Specialists and The Society of Forensic Sciences. The data we obtained showed that new legal arrengements are necessary for forensic document examinations in our country. In this way, certain work standards and educational rules will be formulated in application and sufficient controls will be ensured to avoid exploitation. Besides legal arrangements this will be possible with internal arrangements of the professional societies. Keywords: Forensic Medicine, Forensic Sciences. Forensic Document Examination, Graphology, Calligraphy


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Олександр Михайлович ВОЗНИЙ


    Full Text Available There have been proposed the model of the expert system for the assessment of research projects in higher educational institutions, based on estimates of probability. It allows to rank alternative projects and scenarios. The model is implemented through the software "Small expert system." The principle of calculating the probability of approval of research projects, which form the basis of the expert system, is based on Bayes' theorem. Expert system calculates the probability of approval of research projects by Ministry of Science and Education on the basis of the responses to questions about the content of the request for the execution of research projects. Questions are formed on the basis of the criteria by which experts of state authorities evaluate scientific research projects.

  10. CLIPS based decision support system for water distribution networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Sandeep


    Full Text Available The difficulty in knowledge representation of a water distribution network (WDN problem has contributed to the limited use of artificial intelligence (AI based expert systems (ES in the management of these networks. This paper presents a design of a Decision Support System (DSS that facilitates "on-demand'' knowledge generation by utilizing results of simulation runs of a suitably calibrated and validated hydraulic model of an existing aged WDN corresponding to emergent or even hypothetical but likely scenarios. The DSS augments the capability of a conventional expert system by integrating together the hydraulic modelling features with heuristics based knowledge of experts under a common, rules based, expert shell named CLIPS (C Language Integrated Production System. In contrast to previous ES, the knowledge base of the DSS has been designed to be dynamic by superimposing CLIPS on Structured Query Language (SQL. The proposed ES has an inbuilt calibration module that enables calibration of an existing (aged WDN for the unknown, and unobservable, Hazen-Williams C-values. In addition, the daily run and simulation modules of the proposed ES further enable the CLIPS inference engine to evaluate the network performance for any emergent or suggested test scenarios. An additional feature of the proposed design is that the DSS integrates computational platforms such as MATLAB, open source Geographical Information System (GIS, and a relational database management system (RDBMS working under the umbrella of the Microsoft Visual Studio based common user interface. The paper also discusses implementation of the proposed framework on a case study and clearly demonstrates the utility of the application as an able aide for effective management of the study network.

  11. Expert system development methodology and the transition from prototyping to operations: FIESTA, a case study (United States)

    Happell, Nadine; Miksell, Steve; Carlisle, Candace


    A major barrier in taking expert systems from prototype to operational status involves instilling end user confidence in the operational system. The software of different life cycle models is examined and the advantages and disadvantages of each when applied to expert system development are explored. The Fault Isolation Expert System for Tracking and data relay satellite system Applications (FIESTA) is presented as a case study of development of an expert system. The end user confidence necessary for operational use of this system is accentuated by the fact that it will handle real-time data in a secure environment, allowing little tolerance for errors. How FIESTA is dealing with transition problems as it moves from an off-line standalone prototype to an on-line real-time system is discussed.

  12. Expert system development methodology and the transition from prototyping to operations - Fiesta, a case study (United States)

    Happell, Nadine; Miksell, Steve; Carlisle, Candace


    A major barrier in taking expert systems from prototype to operational status involves instilling end user confidence in the operational system. The software of different life cycle models is examined and the advantages and disadvantages of each when applied to expert system development are explored. The Fault Isolation Expert System for Tracking and data relay satellite system Applications (FIESTA) is presented as a case study of development of an expert system. The end user confidence necessary for operational use of this system is accentuated by the fact that it will handle real-time data in a secure environment, allowing little tolerance for errors. How FIESTA is dealing with transition problems as it moves from an off-line standalone prototype to an on-line real-time system is discussed.

  13. Using a CLIPS expert system to automatically manage TCP/IP networks and their components (United States)

    Faul, Ben M.


    A expert system that can directly manage networks components on a Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) network is described. Previous expert systems for managing networks have focused on managing network faults after they occur. However, this proactive expert system can monitor and control network components in near real time. The ability to directly manage network elements from the C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS) is accomplished by the integration of the Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) and a Abstract Syntax Notation (ASN) parser into the CLIPS artificial intelligence language.

  14. A Placement Heuristic for a Commercial Decision Support System for Container Vessel Stowage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delgado-Ortegon, Alberto; Jensen, Rune Møller; Guilbert, Nicolas


    Decision support systems have become a viable approach to tackle complex optimization problems. The combination of experts' know-how and efficient optimization algorithms can dramatically improve solution quality and reduce work time. Some of these systems rely on continuous interaction with thei...

  15. An agent architecture for an integrated forest ecosystem management decision support system (United States)

    Donald Nute; Walter D. Potter; Mayukh Dass; Astrid Glende; Frederick Maier; Hajime Uchiyama; Jin Wang; Mark Twery; Peter Knopp; Scott Thomasma; H. Michael Rauscher


    A wide variety of software tools are available to support decision in the management of forest ecosystems. These tools include databases, growth and yield models, wildlife models, silvicultural expert systems, financial models, geographical informations systems, and visualization tools. Typically, each of these tools has its own complex interface and data format. To...

  16. Expert assessment of the current state of the energy management system in the company (United States)

    Minnullina, Anna; Abdrazakov, Rais


    The authors’ expert assessment of the current state of the energy management system in the company is proposed in the article. The experts are invited to assess the status of the energy management system in the following categories: energy policy, organizational structure, training, motivation, control, communication, investment, and energy consumption culture. For the purposes of interpretation of the results of the expert evaluation obtained, a gradation based on a possible range of values is proposed. The expert evaluation allows representing the status of the energy management system in general and at each of its individual levels, which makes it possible to identify the problem areas more accurately. To confirm the applied nature of the proposed methodology, the authors assessed the opinions of 8 experts, employed by the road construction company of the Tyumen Region and related in one way or another to the process of energy consumption in the company due to the nature of their activities.

  17. Multiple risk expert systems interventions: impact of simultaneous stage-matched expert system interventions for smoking, high-fat diet, and sun exposure in a population of parents. (United States)

    Prochaska, James O; Velicer, Wayne F; Rossi, Joseph S; Redding, Colleen A; Greene, Geoffrey W; Rossi, Susan R; Sun, Xiaowu; Fava, Joseph L; Laforge, Robert; Plummer, Brett A


    Three stage-based expert system interventions for smoking, high-fat diet, and unsafe sun exposure were evaluated in a sample of 2,460 parents of teenagers. Eighty-four percent of the eligible parents were enrolled in a 2-arm randomized control trial, with the treatment group receiving individualized feedback reports for each of their relevant behaviors at 0, 6, and 12 months as well as a multiple behavior manual. At 24 months, the expert system outperformed the comparison condition across all 3 risk behaviors, resulting in 22% of the participants in action or maintenance for smoking (vs. 16% for the comparison condition), 34% for diet (vs. 26%), and 30% for sun exposure (vs. 22%). Proactive, home-based, and stage-matched expert systems can produce significant multiple behavior changes in at-risk populations where the majority of participants are not prepared to change. ((c) 2004 APA, all rights reserved)

  18. EDNA-An expert software system for comparison and evaluation of DNA profiles in forensic casework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haldemann, B.; Dornseifer, S.; Heylen, T.


    eDNA is an expert software system for DNA profile comparison, match interpretation and automated report generation in forensic DNA casework. Process automation and intelligent graphical representation maximise reliability of DNA evidence, while facilitating and accelerating the work of DNA experts....

  19. Expert evaluation of innovation projects of mining enterprises on the basis of methods of system analysis and fuzzy logics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pimonov Alexander


    Full Text Available This paper presents the multipurpose approach to evaluation of research and innovation projects based on the method of analysis of hierarchies and fuzzy logics for the mining industry. The approach, implemented as part of a decision support system, can reduce the degree of subjectivity during examinations by taking into account both quantitative and qualitative characteristics of the compared innovative alternatives; it does not depend on specific conditions of examination and allows engagement of experts of various fields of knowledge. The system includes the mechanism of coordination of several experts’ views. Using of fuzzy logics allows evaluating the qualitative characteristics of innovations in the form of formalized logical conclusions.

  20. Maintenance decision support system deployment guide (United States)


    This is a guide for transportation professionals on why and how to deploy winter Maintenance Decision Support Systems (MDSS). Adverse winter weather can cause traffic delays and crashes. Treating the effects of winter weather can also have impacts on...

  1. A Decision Support System for Academic Scheduling. (United States)

    Burleson, Donald K.; Leivano, Rodrigo J.


    Describes the use of a decision support system to operate on a database for academic scheduling. Discusses the scheduling environment, database subsystem, dialog subsystem, modeling subsystem, and output formats. (JM)

  2. Software Acquisition Manager’s Knowledge-Based Expert System. (United States)


    acquisition documents such as Mission Element Need Statement (MENS), Navy Decision Coordinating Paper (NDCP), Master Information Paper Summary ( MINIMIPS ...Coordinating Paper (NDCP) - supports the user in creating an NDCP. (4) Master Information Paper Summary ( MINIMIP ) - supports the user in creating a... MINIMIP . (5) Acquisition Strategy - supports the user in creating an acquisition strategy. (6) Program Objectives Memorandum (POM) - sup- ports the user in

  3. Expert system for economic evaluation of technological projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bohumil Hlavenka


    Full Text Available Apart from the technical level, a basic tool for decision-making and realization of the technical innovation project is also its economic effectiveness. It is assessed by comparing expenses and effects with respect to all-society interests and standards valid in a relevant period for the areas of technology, economy, ecology, safety of work, etc.

  4. Expert and patient consensus on a dynamic model for shared decision-making in frail older patients. (United States)

    van de Pol, Marjolein H J; Fluit, Cornelia R M G; Lagro, Joep; Slaats, Yvonne H P; Olde Rikkert, Marcel G M; Lagro-Janssen, Antoine L M


    Shared decision-making (SDM) is widely recommended as a way to support patients in making healthcare choices. Due to an ageing population, the number of older patients will increase. Existing models for SDM are not sufficient for this patient group, due to their multi-morbidity, the lack of guidelines and evidence applicable to the numerous combinations of diseases. The aim of this study was to gain consensus on a model for SDM in frail older patients with multiple morbidities. We used a three-round Delphi study to reach consensus on a model for SDM in older patients with multiple morbidities. The expert panel consisted of 16 patients (round 1), and 59 professionals (rounds 1-3). In round 1, the SDM model was introduced, rounds 2 and 3 were used to validate the importance and feasibility of the SDM model. Consensus for the proposed SDM model as a whole was achieved for both importance (91% panel agreement) and feasibility (76% panel agreement). SDM in older patients with multiple morbidities is a dynamic process. It requires a continuous counselling dialogue between professional and patient or proxy decision maker. The developed model for SDM in clinical practice may help professionals to apply SDM in the complex situation of the care for older patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The use of earth observation and decision support systems for the restoration of open-cast nickel mines in Evia, central Greece

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ganas, A.; Aerts, J.C.J.H.; Astaras, T.; de Vente, J.; Frogoudakis, E.; Labrinos, N.


    We have developed a decision support system (DSS) for open mining areas which reflects and simulates the major decision steps of a mining expert (engineer, manager) during the formulation of a restoration plan. The software supports the mining expert to structure the various restoration alternatives

  6. Decision support systems for plant disease and insect management in commercial nurseries in the Midwest: A perspective review (United States)

    Decision-support systems (DDSs) are techniques that help decision makers utilize models to solve problems under complex and uncertain conditions. Predicting conditions that warrant intervention is a key tenet of the concept of integrated pest management (IPM) with the use of expert systems and pest ...

  7. Detection of Roller Bearing Defects Using Expert System and Fuzzy Logic (United States)

    Liu, T. I.; Singonahalli, J. H.; Iyer, N. R.


    A fuzzy expert system, Bearing_Expert, has been developed. This expert system is PC-based. It is menu driven and it is very user-friendly. This expert system offers specific knowledge of various aspects about bearing monitoring, such as diagnostic methods, defect frequencies, feature selection, fuzzy bearing classification etc. By responding to different questions successively, the user can obtain very specific knowledge via the shortest path. In order to demonstrate the effectiveness of Bearing_Expert, experiments have been conducted. Radial accelerations have been measured and analysed. Feature selection has been performed effectively by the integration of Bearing_Expert and a computer program. The average of the top five values of frequency response in the high frequency region (5-22 kHz) has been found to be the best feature for the detection of roller bearing defects. Fuzzy reasoning has also been used via Bearing_Expert. Piecewise linear membership functions have been developed. A 100% reliability has been achieved for the detection of roller bearing defects via fuzzy reasoning. Bearing_Expert is very beneficial for factory automation and preventive maintenance.

  8. A Survey of Algorithms and Systems for Expert Location in Social Networks (United States)

    Lappas, Theodoros; Liu, Kun; Terzi, Evimaria

    Given a particular task and a set of candidates, one often wants to identify the right expert (or set of experts) that can perform the given task. We call this problem the expert-location problem and we survey its different aspects as they arise in practice. For example, given the activities of candidates within a context (e.g., authoring a document, answering a question), we first describe methods for evaluating the level of expertise for each of them. Often, experts are organized in networks that correspond to social networks or organizational structures of companies. We next devote part of the chapter for describing algorithms that compute the expertise level of individuals by taking into account their position in such a network. Finally, complex tasks often require the collective expertise of more than one experts. In such cases, it is more realistic to require a team of experts that can collaborate towards a common goal. We describe algorithms that identify effective expert teams within a network of experts. The chapter is a survey of different algorithms for expertise evaluation and team identification. We highlight the basic algorithmic problems and give some indicative algorithms that have been developed in the literature. We conclude the chapter by providing a comprehensive overview of real-life systems for expert location.

  9. Cloud Detection from Satellite Imagery: A Comparison of Expert-Generated and Automatically-Generated Decision Trees (United States)

    Shiffman, Smadar


    Automated cloud detection and tracking is an important step in assessing global climate change via remote sensing. Cloud masks, which indicate whether individual pixels depict clouds, are included in many of the data products that are based on data acquired on- board earth satellites. Many cloud-mask algorithms have the form of decision trees, which employ sequential tests that scientists designed based on empirical astrophysics studies and astrophysics simulations. Limitations of existing cloud masks restrict our ability to accurately track changes in cloud patterns over time. In this study we explored the potential benefits of automatically-learned decision trees for detecting clouds from images acquired using the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) instrument on board the NOAA-14 weather satellite of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. We constructed three decision trees for a sample of 8km-daily AVHRR data from 2000 using a decision-tree learning procedure provided within MATLAB(R), and compared the accuracy of the decision trees to the accuracy of the cloud mask. We used ground observations collected by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Clouds and the Earth s Radiant Energy Systems S COOL project as the gold standard. For the sample data, the accuracy of automatically learned decision trees was greater than the accuracy of the cloud masks included in the AVHRR data product.

  10. An Expert System for Supporting the Design and Selection of Mechanical Equipment for Recreational Crafts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Gonciarz


    Full Text Available Expert Systems can be defined as computer programs, whose main task is to simulate a human expert, usually in a narrow field of expertise. Expert Systems have experienced tremendous growth and popularity since their commercial introduction in the early 1970’s. Today, Expert Systems are used in business, science, engineering, manufacturing and other engineering applications such as planning, scheduling, diagnosing equipment failures and are used in almost every stage of the manufacturing process and also in medicine and many other fields. Expert Systems belong to the field of artificial intelligence. An intelligent computer program that uses knowledge and inference procedures to solve problems that are difficult enough to require significant human expertise for the solution. The purpose of this paper is to present an Expert System which assists with the design of yachts and supports the selection of mechanical equipment for yachts and includes knowledge in the field of yachting engineering. Using the presented Expert System reduces the time during the design and production preparation process.

  11. Knowledge acquisition from natural language for expert systems based on classification problem-solving methods (United States)

    Gomez, Fernando


    It is shown how certain kinds of domain independent expert systems based on classification problem-solving methods can be constructed directly from natural language descriptions by a human expert. The expert knowledge is not translated into production rules. Rather, it is mapped into conceptual structures which are integrated into long-term memory (LTM). The resulting system is one in which problem-solving, retrieval and memory organization are integrated processes. In other words, the same algorithm and knowledge representation structures are shared by these processes. As a result of this, the system can answer questions, solve problems or reorganize LTM.

  12. [Expert investigation on food safety standard system framework construction in China]. (United States)

    He, Xiang; Yan, Weixing; Fan, Yongxiang; Zeng, Biao; Peng, Zhen; Sun, Zhenqiu


    Through investigating food safety standard framework among food safety experts, to summarize the basic elements and principles of food safety standard system, and provide policy advices for food safety standards framework. A survey was carried out among 415 experts from government, professional institutions and the food industry/enterprises using the National Food Safety Standard System Construction Consultation Questionnaire designed in the name of the Secretariat of National Food Safety Standard Committee. Experts have different advices in each group about the principles of food product standards, food additive product standards, food related product standards, hygienic practice, test methods. According to the results, the best solution not only may reflect experts awareness of the work of food safety standards situation, but also provide advices for setting and revision of food safety standards for the next. Through experts investigation, the framework and guiding principles of food safety standard had been built.

  13. A system of system lenses for leadership decision-making. (United States)

    Cady, Phil


    The sheer volume and dynamics among system agents in healthcare makes decision-making a daunting task at all levels. Being clear about what leaders mean by "healthcare system" is critical in aligning system strategy and leadership decision-making. This article presents an emerging set of lenses (ideology and beliefs, rational and irrational information processing, interpersonal social dynamics, process and value creation, and context) to help frame leadership decision-making in healthcare systems. © 2015 The Canadian College of Health Leaders.

  14. A Tool for Automatic Verification of Real-Time Expert Systems (United States)

    Traylor, B.; Schwuttke, U.; Quan, A.


    The creation of an automated, user-driven tool for expert system development, validation, and verification is curretly onoging at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. In the new age of faster, better, cheaper missions, there is an increased willingness to utilize embedded expert systems for encapsulating and preserving mission expertise in systems which combine conventional algorithmic processing and artifical intelligence. The once-questioned role of automation in spacecraft monitoring is now becoming one of increasing importance.

  15. Neural Network Expert System in the Application of Tower Fault Diagnosis (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoyang; Xia, Zhongwu; Tao, Zhiyong; Zhao, Zhenlian

    For the corresponding fuzzy relationship between the fault symptoms and the fault causes in the process of tower crane operation, this paper puts forward a kind of rapid new method of fast detection and diagnosis for common fault based on neural network expert system. This paper makes full use of expert system and neural network advantages, and briefly introduces the structure, function, algorithm and realization of the adopted system. Results show that the new algorithm is feasible and can achieve rapid faults diagnosis.

  16. Research on architecture of intelligent design platform for artificial neural network expert system (United States)

    Gu, Honghong


    Based on the review of the development and current situation of CAD technology, the necessity of combination of artificial neural network and expert system, and then present an intelligent design system based on artificial neural network. Moreover, it discussed the feasibility of realization of a design-oriented expert system development tools on the basis of above combination. In addition, knowledge representation strategy and method and the solving process are given in this paper.

  17. Designing a fuzzy expert system for selecting knowledge management strategy


    Ameneh Khadivar; Shohreh Nasri Nasr Abadi; Elham Fallah


    knowledge management strategy is mentioned as one of the most important success factors for implementing knowledge management. The KM strategy selection is a complex decision that requires consideration of several factors. For evaluation and selection of an appropriate knowledge management strategy in organizations, many factors must be considered. The identified factors and their impact on knowledge management strategy are inherently ambiguous. In this study, an overview of theoretical found...

  18. Combined expert system/neural networks method for process fault diagnosis (United States)

    Reifman, Jaques; Wei, Thomas Y. C.


    A two-level hierarchical approach for process fault diagnosis is an operating system employs a function-oriented approach at a first level and a component characteristic-oriented approach at a second level, where the decision-making procedure is structured in order of decreasing intelligence with increasing precision. At the first level, the diagnostic method is general and has knowledge of the overall process including a wide variety of plant transients and the functional behavior of the process components. An expert system classifies malfunctions by function to narrow the diagnostic focus to a particular set of possible faulty components that could be responsible for the detected functional misbehavior of the operating system. At the second level, the diagnostic method limits its scope to component malfunctions, using more detailed knowledge of component characteristics. Trained artificial neural networks are used to further narrow the diagnosis and to uniquely identify the faulty component by classifying the abnormal condition data as a failure of one of the hypothesized components through component characteristics. Once an anomaly is detected, the hierarchical structure is used to successively narrow the diagnostic focus from a function misbehavior, i.e., a function oriented approach, until the fault can be determined, i.e., a component characteristic-oriented approach.

  19. Combined expert system/neural networks method for process fault diagnosis (United States)

    Reifman, J.; Wei, T.Y.C.


    A two-level hierarchical approach for process fault diagnosis of an operating system employs a function-oriented approach at a first level and a component characteristic-oriented approach at a second level, where the decision-making procedure is structured in order of decreasing intelligence with increasing precision. At the first level, the diagnostic method is general and has knowledge of the overall process including a wide variety of plant transients and the functional behavior of the process components. An expert system classifies malfunctions by function to narrow the diagnostic focus to a particular set of possible faulty components that could be responsible for the detected functional misbehavior of the operating system. At the second level, the diagnostic method limits its scope to component malfunctions, using more detailed knowledge of component characteristics. Trained artificial neural networks are used to further narrow the diagnosis and to uniquely identify the faulty component by classifying the abnormal condition data as a failure of one of the hypothesized components through component characteristics. Once an anomaly is detected, the hierarchical structure is used to successively narrow the diagnostic focus from a function misbehavior, i.e., a function oriented approach, until the fault can be determined, i.e., a component characteristic-oriented approach. 9 figs.

  20. Accounting Information Systems for Decision Making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mancini, D.; Vaassen, E.H.J.; Dameri, R.P.


    ​This book contains a collection of research papers on accounting information systems including their strategic role in decision processes, within and between companies. An accounting system is a complex system composed of a mix of strictly interrelated elements such as data, information, human

  1. Decision Support System integrated with Geographic Information ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 124; Issue 1. Decision Support System integrated with Geographic Information System to target restoration actions in watersheds of arid environment: A case study of Hathmati watershed, Sabarkantha district, Gujarat. Dhruvesh P Patel Prashant K Srivastava ...

  2. Human-Computer Interaction with Medical Decisions Support Systems (United States)

    Adolf, Jurine A.; Holden, Kritina L.


    Decision Support Systems (DSSs) have been available to medical diagnosticians for some time, yet their acceptance and use have not increased with advances in technology and availability of DSS tools. Medical DSSs will be necessary on future long duration space missions, because access to medical resources and personnel will be limited. Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) experts at NASA's Human Factors and Ergonomics Laboratory (HFEL) have been working toward understanding how humans use DSSs, with the goal of being able to identify and solve the problems associated with these systems. Work to date consists of identification of HCI research areas, development of a decision making model, and completion of two experiments dealing with 'anchoring'. Anchoring is a phenomenon in which the decision maker latches on to a starting point and does not make sufficient adjustments when new data are presented. HFEL personnel have replicated a well-known anchoring experiment and have investigated the effects of user level of knowledge. Future work includes further experimentation on level of knowledge, confidence in the source of information and sequential decision making.

  3. An expert system for diagnostics and estimation of steam turbine components condition (United States)

    Murmansky, B. E.; Aronson, K. E.; Brodov, Yu. M.


    The report describes an expert system of probability type for diagnostics and state estimation of steam turbine technological subsystems components. The expert system is based on Bayes’ theorem and permits to troubleshoot the equipment components, using expert experience, when there is a lack of baseline information on the indicators of turbine operation. Within a unified approach the expert system solves the problems of diagnosing the flow steam path of the turbine, bearings, thermal expansion system, regulatory system, condensing unit, the systems of regenerative feed-water and hot water heating. The knowledge base of the expert system for turbine unit rotors and bearings contains a description of 34 defects and of 104 related diagnostic features that cause a change in its vibration state. The knowledge base for the condensing unit contains 12 hypotheses and 15 evidence (indications); the procedures are also designated for 20 state parameters estimation. Similar knowledge base containing the diagnostic features and faults hypotheses are formulated for other technological subsystems of turbine unit. With the necessary initial information available a number of problems can be solved within the expert system for various technological subsystems of steam turbine unit: for steam flow path it is the correlation and regression analysis of multifactor relationship between the vibration parameters variations and the regime parameters; for system of thermal expansions it is the evaluation of force acting on the longitudinal keys depending on the temperature state of the turbine cylinder; for condensing unit it is the evaluation of separate effect of the heat exchange surface contamination and of the presence of air in condenser steam space on condenser thermal efficiency performance, as well as the evaluation of term for condenser cleaning and for tube system replacement and so forth. With a lack of initial information the expert system enables to formulate a diagnosis

  4. Development of a knowledge acquisition tool for an expert system flight status monitor (United States)

    Disbrow, J. D.; Duke, E. L.; Regenie, V. A.


    Two of the main issues in artificial intelligence today are knowledge acquisition and knowledge representation. The Dryden Flight Research Facility of NASA's Ames Research Center is presently involved in the design and implementation of an expert system flight status monitor that will provide expertise and knowledge to aid the flight systems engineer in monitoring today's advanced high-performance aircraft. The flight status monitor can be divided into two sections: the expert system itself and the knowledge acquisition tool. This paper discusses the knowledge acquisition tool, the means it uses to extract knowledge from the domain expert, and how that knowledge is represented for computer use. An actual aircraft system has been codified by this tool with great success. Future real-time use of the expert system has been facilitated by using the knowledge acquisition tool to easily generate a logically consistent and complete knowledge base.

  5. Expert System for support of natural gas network management; Sistema especialista para gerenciamento de redes de gas natural: SEGRED

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Jonny Carlos da [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Hirano, Eduardo Wulff [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Lab. de Hidraulica e Pneumatica (LASHIP); Moura, Newton Reis de [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Freire, Luiz Gustavo de Melo [PETROBRAS S.A., Pojuca, BA (Brazil). Unidade de Negocios de Gas Natural (UNGN)


    This work reports on the SEGRED project, which aims to develop an expert system for management of natural gas transportation networks. The system is currently being developed by LASHIP-UFSC in partnership with PETROBRAS/CENPES and TBG. The SEGRED system consists of an environment designed to support natural gas pipeline management by means of remote supervision of process parameters and analysis of the mutual interactions of those parameters by an expert system integrated to a dynamic simulator. The system is deployed through a process that contributes to making available for use the knowledge about functions such as line packing analysis and line break detection, thus enhancing the quality of execution of these tasks, which are related to the management of natural gas transportation network. The main benefits consist of promoting efforts to acquire and organize expert knowledge. This process contributes to the generation of a knowledge base with corporate technical memory, which can be made available in a permanent, expansible and useful way for decision-making. (author)

  6. Incorporation of expert variability into breast cancer treatment recommendation in designing clinical protocol guided fuzzy rule system models. (United States)

    Garibaldi, Jonathan M; Zhou, Shang-Ming; Wang, Xiao-Ying; John, Robert I; Ellis, Ian O


    It has been often demonstrated that clinicians exhibit both inter-expert and intra-expert variability when making difficult decisions. In contrast, the vast majority of computerized models that aim to provide automated support for such decisions do not explicitly recognize or replicate this variability. Furthermore, the perfect consistency of computerized models is often presented as a de facto benefit. In this paper, we describe a novel approach to incorporate variability within a fuzzy inference system using non-stationary fuzzy sets in order to replicate human variability. We apply our approach to a decision problem concerning the recommendation of post-operative breast cancer treatment; specifically, whether or not to administer chemotherapy based on assessment of five clinical variables: NPI (the Nottingham Prognostic Index), estrogen receptor status, vascular invasion, age and lymph node status. In doing so, we explore whether such explicit modeling of variability provides any performance advantage over a more conventional fuzzy approach, when tested on a set of 1310 unselected cases collected over a fourteen year period at the Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust, UK. The experimental results show that the standard fuzzy inference system (that does not model variability) achieves overall agreement to clinical practice around 84.6% (95% CI: 84.1-84.9%), while the non-stationary fuzzy model can significantly increase performance to around 88.1% (95% CI: 88.0-88.2%), psystems in any application domain. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Design of the expert system to analyze disease in Plant Teak using Forward Chaining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poningsih Poningsih


    Full Text Available Teak is one kind of plant that is already widely known and developed by the wider community in the form of plantations and community forests. This is because until now Teak wood is a commodity of luxury, high quality, the price is expensive, and high economic value. Expert systems are a part of the method sciences artificial intelligence to make an application program disease diagnosis teak computerized seek to replace and mimic the reasoning process of an expert or experts in solving the problem specification that can be said to be a duplicate from an expert because science knowledge is stored inside a database  Expert System for the diagnosis of disease teak using forward chaining method aims to explore the characteristics shown in the form of questions in order to diagnose the disease teak with web-based software. Device keel expert system can recognize the disease after consulting identity by answering some of the questions presented by the application of expert systems and can infer some kind of disease in plants teak. Data disease known customize rules (rules are made to match the characteristics of teak disease and provide treatment solutions.

  8. Pavement Evaluation and Maintenance Decisions Based on Fuzzy Inference Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beltrán-Calvo Gloria Inés


    Full Text Available The remaining service life and maintenance decisions of existing pavements are highly dependent on stiffness and deterioration conditions throughout their operation. A non-conventional fuzzy logic based methodology is proposed in this work to address the stiffness-deterioration condition and conservation decisions, by means of three Fuzzy Inference Systems. Analysis were conducted using a database gathered from field tests performed on three and four layer pavement systems, that included traditional layer structuring and pavements having a subbase stiffer than their granular base. Information about layer thicknesses, magnitude and severity of structural distresses, and parameters and indicators derived from deflection testing by impulse load devices were used. The developed systems, allowed representing expert knowledge and linguistic variables of subjective and qualitative nature, commonly used to describe the severity levels of deterioration; thus they can be involved into structural characterization of pavements. Results were also expressed linguistically, to facilitate their interpretation and understanding. Based on the high quality of results obtained, it seems reasonable to conclude that the proposed systems could be used confidently for assessing and making decisions about pavement conservation, with low computational cost.

  9. Survey on Krishi-Mitra: Expert System for Farmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prachi Sawant


    Full Text Available In agricultural sector, farmers in rural areas faced major problems because of illiteracy. They cannot take the advantage of internet to access the information related to farming. The information represented in icons will help the farmers to take the important decisions. Also there will be additional benefit to farmer as there is speech based interaction in Indian language with icons. According to UNESCO report, 64% population in India cannot use the internet due to lack of technical knowledge. Here, we are extending the approach from computer devices to small mobile devices application.

  10. An Expert System-based Context-Aware Ubiquitous Learning Approach for Conducting Science Learning Activities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Po-Han Wu; Gwo-Jen Hwang; Wen-Hung Tsai


    .... In this study, an expert system-based guidance approach is proposed for conducting effective context-aware ubiquitous learning activities based on the domain knowledge provided by experienced teachers...

  11. Parallel object-oriented decision tree system (United States)

    Kamath,; Chandrika, Cantu-Paz [Dublin, CA; Erick, [Oakland, CA


    A data mining decision tree system that uncovers patterns, associations, anomalies, and other statistically significant structures in data by reading and displaying data files, extracting relevant features for each of the objects, and using a method of recognizing patterns among the objects based upon object features through a decision tree that reads the data, sorts the data if necessary, determines the best manner to split the data into subsets according to some criterion, and splits the data.

  12. Guidelines for the verification and validation of expert system software and conventional software: Bibliography. Volume 8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, L.A.; Hayes, J.E.; Mirsky, S.M. [Science Applications International Corp., McLean, VA (United States)


    This volume contains all of the technical references found in Volumes 1-7 concerning the development of guidelines for the verification and validation of expert systems, knowledge-based systems, other AI systems, object-oriented systems, and conventional systems.

  13. Enhancing an adaptive e-learning system with didactic test assessment using an expert system (United States)

    Bradáč, Vladimír; Kostolányová, Kateřina


    The paper deals with a follow-up research on intelligent tutoring systems that were studied in authors' previous papers from the point of view of describing their advantages. In this paper, the authors make use of the fuzzy logic expert system, which assesses student's knowledge, and integrate it into the intelligent tutoring system called Barborka. The goal is to create an even more personal student's study plan, which is tailored both to student's sensory/learning preferences and the level of knowledge of the given subject.

  14. An expert system for valvular heart disease using MRI and its clinical applications


    中川, 富夫


    MRI is a valuable tool for diagnosing heart disease today. The cardiac blood flow is determined by an MRI image analysis and expert system. Image data are taken by a TV camera and digitalized. After gray level thresholding and region segmentation, the boundary of the regurgitant flow region is precisely extracted. Using this expert system, a doctor can easily make an accurate diagnosis of the valvular heart disease. This method should prove useful for the diagnosis of various heart diseases.

  15. Expanding the domain of a prototype expert system with an eye on future maintenance - The FIESTA case study (United States)

    Happell, Nadine; Miksell, Steven G.


    The methods by which an expert system architecture can support such key elements of domain expansion and maintenance as knowledge acquisition, representation, addition, and modification, are presently illustrated by the Fault Isolation Expert System for TDRSS Applications (FIESTA). FIESTA highlights such similarities between conventional software engineering and expert system development as the benefits that accrue to loose coupling, modularity, and documentation. A major difference, however, is the set of opportunities afforded automated end-user maintenance by expert system technology.

  16. An outline of a model-based expert system to identify optimal remedial strategies for restoring contaminated acquatic ecosystems: The project ``moira``

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appelgren, A.; Bergstrom, U. [Studsvik Eco and AB, Nykoping (Sweden); Brittain, J. [Oslo Univ. (Norway). LFI Zoological Museum; Gallego Diaz, E. [Madrid Universidad Politecnica (Spain). Dept. de Ingenieria Nuclear; Hakanson, L. [KEMA Nuclear, Arnhem (Niger); Monte, L. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dip. Ambiente


    The present report describes the fundamental principles of the research programme MOIRA (a model based computerized system for management support to Identify optimal remedial strategies for Restoring radionuclide contaminated Aquatic ecosystems and drainage areas) financed by the EC (European Community) (Contract N F14P-CT96-0036). The interventions to restore radionuclides contaminated aquatic systems may result in detrimental ecological, social and economical effects. Decision makers must carefully evaluate these impacts. The main aim of the MOIRA project is the development of an expert system based on validated models predicting the evolution of the radioactive contamination of fresh water systems following countermeasure applications and their relevant ecological, social and economical impacts. The expert system will help decision makers, that are not necessarily gifted with experience in environmental modeling, to identify optimal remedial strategies for restoring contaminated fresh water systems.

  17. Comparative study of four maxillofacial trauma scoring systems and expert score. (United States)

    Chen, Chen; Zhang, Yi; An, Jin-gang; He, Yang; Gong, Xi


    To select a scoring system suitable for the scoring of maxillofacial trauma by comparing 4 commonly used scoring systems according to expert scoring. Twenty-eight subjects who had experienced maxillofacial trauma constituted the study cohort. Four commonly used systems were selected: New Injury Severity Score (NISS), Facial Injury Severity Scale (FISS), Maxillofacial Injury Severity Score (MFISS), and Maxillofacial Injury Severity Score (MISS). Each patient was graded using these 4 systems. From the experience of our trauma center, an expert scoring table was created. After the purpose and scheme of the study had been explained, 35 experts in maxillofacial surgery were invited to grade the injury of the 28 patients using the expert scoring table according to their clinical experience. The results of the 4 scoring systems and expert score were compared. The results of the 4 scoring systems and expert score demonstrated a normal distribution. All results demonstrated significant differences (P maxillofacial injuries. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A Belief Rule-Based (BRB) Decision Support System for Assessing Clinical Asthma Suspicion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hossain, Mohammad Shahadat; Hossain, Emran; Khalid, Md. Saifuddin


    such as vagueness; imprecision; randomness; ignorance and incompleteness. Consequently; traditional disease diagnosis; which is performed by a physician; cannot deliver accurate results. Therefore; this paper presents the design; development and application of a decision support system for assessing asthma under...... conditions of uncertainty. The Belief Rule-Based Inference Methodology Using the Evidential Reasoning (RIMER) approach was adopted to develop this expert system; which is named the Belief Rule-Based Expert System (BRBES). The system can handle various types of uncertainty in knowledge representation...... and inference procedures. The knowledge base of this system was constructed by using real patient data and expert opinion. Practical case studies were used to validate the system. The system-generated results are more effective and reliable in terms of accuracy than the results generated by a manual system....


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This report provides the conclusions of the tank farm interim pretreatment technology decision process. It documents the methodology, data, and results of the selection of cross-flow filtration and ion exchange technologies for implementation in project W-551, Interim Pretreatment System. This selection resulted from the evaluation of specific scope criteria using quantitative and qualitative analyses, group workshops, and technical expert personnel.

  20. Development of an expert system for hazard/emergency control and training

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aubrey, J.; Nemes-Nemeth, Z.; Beatty, J.; Hamment, J.; Wright, L. (Australian Coal Industry Research Labs. Ltd., North Ryde, NSW (Australia))


    The objective was to create and demonstrate an expert system in hazard and emergency control capable of: diagnosing the likely causes of the problem and advising mine management of optimum choices before the arrival of the rescue team; and using the information to assist the rescue team. The resultant system can also be used for training mining personnel and rescue teams in correct procedures under emergency or hazard conditions. The methodology consisted of collating existing expertise in the field of mine hazard and emergency control and sorting this in a knowledge-based computer system. Information was gathered from interviews with known authorities, documented procedures and regulations, disaster reports, conferences and texts. The most useful forms of disseminating the gathered knowledge were also investigated. Initially a prototype allowed testing of the knowledge-representation structures and the reasoning mechanism of the system. From this prototype, the user interface was designed to be as straight-forward to use as possible, and features mouse control, nested menus and touch screen technology. The completed system, the Emergency Control Advisory System (ECAS), can assist mining personnel and management before the arrival of the mines rescue team by giving cool and comprehensive advice, and ensuring nothing is overlooked. It is also able to inform the mines rescue team about decisions taken before their arrival, and give general information of the status of the emergency. It also serves as an invaluable educational training facility. The work was recognised in an award from the American Association for Artificial Intelligence for Innovation of an Artificial Intelligence Application.

  1. Collaborative Control Theory and Decision Support Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimon Y. Nof


    Full Text Available Collaborative Decision Support Systems, CDSS, depend on cost-effective collaboration among the decision participants. Those may include, in addition to human decision makers, non-human entities such as robots, software and hardware agents, sensors, and autonomous instruments. The purpose of this article is to explore the impact that CCT, the Collaborative Control Theory, has on cyber supported augmentation of collaboration in general, and its proven and potential impacts on CDSS in particular. Three recent case studies are discussed. The correlation between CDSS decision process and quality; and the level of CCT-based collaboration augmentation and the resulting level of Collaborative Intelligence, CI, is presented. It is concluded that while there are clear positive impacts of CCT based augmentation and level of CI, they need to be measured and optimized, not maximized. Further research in this area is also described.

  2. A Web-Based Rice Plant Expert System Using Rule-Based Reasoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Setiawan Honggowibowo


    Full Text Available Rice plants can be attacked by various kinds of diseases which are possible to be determined from their symptoms. However, it is to recognize that to find out the exact type of disease, an agricultural expert’s opinion is needed, meanwhile the numbers of agricultural experts are limited and there are too many problems to be solved at the same time. This makes a system with a capability as an expert is required. This system must contain the knowledge of the diseases and symptom of rice plants as an agricultural expert has to have. This research designs a web-based expert system using rule-based reasoning. The rule are modified from the method of forward chaining inference and backward chaining in order to to help farmers in the rice plant disease diagnosis. The web-based rice plants disease diagnosis expert system has the advantages to access and use easily. With web-based features inside, it is expected that the farmer can accesse the expert system everywhere to overcome the problem to diagnose rice diseases.

  3. Flexible Early Warning Systems with Workflows and Decision Tables (United States)

    Riedel, F.; Chaves, F.; Zeiner, H.


    are usually only suited for rigid processes. We show how improvements can be achieved by using decision tables and rule-based adaptive workflows. Decision tables have been shown to be an intuitive tool that can be used by domain experts to express rule sets that can be interpreted automatically at runtime. Adaptive workflows use a rule-based approach to increase the flexibility of workflows by providing mechanisms to adapt workflows based on context changes, human intervention and availability of services. The combination of workflows, decision tables and rule-based adaption creates a framework that opens up new possibilities for flexible and adaptable workflows, especially, for use in early warning and crisis management systems.

  4. The basics of formation of expert systems for industry and science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidyaev Igor G.


    Full Text Available This paper considers the basics of development of a practice-oriented information system of examination of industrial and scientific projects realized in the field of machine building. The first part of the paper is devoted to the main problems which are necessary to solve while designing such systems. The methods of self-organisation and adaptation, the use of expert evaluations and other approaches, for instance, those connected with the study of various fundamental and applied aspects of intelligence control systems, were considered. The main problems that are solved when creating an effective system of the expert selection were structured and expounded. In addition, the information, based both on already existing models (DFD, BPMN and on modern approaches (a system approach, Delphi technique, artificial neural networks, concerning the creation of an effective system of expert evaluations was presented. A combination of the approved methods and new approaches allows adapting the system to different conditions of use.

  5. Qpais: A Web-Based Expert System for Assistedidentification of Quarantine Stored Insect Pests (United States)

    Huang, Han; Rajotte, Edwin G.; Li, Zhihong; Chen, Ke; Zhang, Shengfang

    Stored insect pests can seriously depredate stored products causing worldwide economic losses. Pests enter countries traveling with transported goods. Inspection and Quarantine activities are essential to prevent the invasion and spread of pests. Identification of quarantine stored insect pests is an important component of the China's Inspection and Quarantine procedure, and it is necessary not only to identify whether the species captured is an invasive species, but determine control procedures for stored insect pests. With the development of information technologies, many expert systems that aid in the identification of agricultural pests have been developed. Expert systems for the identification of quarantine stored insect pests are rare and are mainly developed for stand-alone PCs. This paper describes the development of a web-based expert system for identification of quarantine stored insect pests as part of the China 11th Five-Year National Scientific and Technological Support Project (115 Project). Based on user needs, textual knowledge and images were gathered from the literature and expert interviews. ASP.NET, C# and SQL language were used to program the system. Improvement of identification efficiency and flexibility was achieved using a new inference method called characteristic-select-based spatial distance method. The expert system can assist identifying 150 species of quarantine stored insect pests and provide detailed information for each species. The expert system has also been evaluated using two steps: system testing and identification testing. With a 85% rate of correct identification and high efficiency, the system evaluation shows that this expert system can be used in identification work of quarantine stored insect pests.

  6. Communication barriers in the decision-making process : System Language and System Thinking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schinagl, S.; Paans, R.


    A major problem in the decision-making process is poor communication regarding threats and risks between information security experts and decision makers. By their nature, experts have a strong interest in operational details and limited insight into the purpose of the organization as they may not

  7. A Knowledge-Based Systems Approach to Design of Spatial Decision Support Systems for Environmental Management (United States)

    Zhu; Healey; Aspinall


    / This paper describes a framework for designing spatial decision support systems for environmental management using a knowledge-based systems approach. An architecture for knowledge-based spatial decision supportsystems (KBSDSS) is presented that integrates knowledge-based systems with geographical information systems (GIS) and other problem-solving techniques. A method based on spatial influence diagrams is developed for representation of environmental problems. The spatial influence diagram provides an interface through which knowledge-based systems techniques can be applied to build capabilities for problem formulation, automated design, and execution of a solution process. In addition to the flexibility and developmental advantages of knowledge-based systems, the KBSDSS incorporates expert knowledge to provide assistance for structuring spatial influence diagrams and executing a solution process that automatically integrates the GIS, data base, knowledge base, and different types of models. The framework is illustrated with a system, known as the Islay Land Use Decision Support System (ILUDSS), designed to assist planners in strategic planning of land use for the development of the island of Islay, off the west coast of Scotland.KEY WORDS: Geographical information systems; Spatial decision support systems; Knowledge-based systems; Spatial influence diagrams; Environmental management

  8. Mining balance disorders' data for the development of diagnostic decision support systems. (United States)

    Exarchos, T P; Rigas, G; Bibas, A; Kikidis, D; Nikitas, C; Wuyts, F L; Ihtijarevic, B; Maes, L; Cenciarini, M; Maurer, C; Macdonald, N; Bamiou, D-E; Luxon, L; Prasinos, M; Spanoudakis, G; Koutsouris, D D; Fotiadis, D I


    In this work we present the methodology for the development of the EMBalance diagnostic Decision Support System (DSS) for balance disorders. Medical data from patients with balance disorders have been analysed using data mining techniques for the development of the diagnostic DSS. The proposed methodology uses various data, ranging from demographic characteristics to clinical examination, auditory and vestibular tests, in order to provide an accurate diagnosis. The system aims to provide decision support for general practitioners (GPs) and experts in the diagnosis of balance disorders as well as to provide recommendations for the appropriate information and data to be requested at each step of the diagnostic process. Detailed results are provided for the diagnosis of 12 balance disorders, both for GPs and experts. Overall, the reported accuracy ranges from 59.3 to 89.8% for GPs and from 74.3 to 92.1% for experts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Workflow Agents vs. Expert Systems: Problem Solving Methods in Work Systems Design (United States)

    Clancey, William J.; Sierhuis, Maarten; Seah, Chin


    During the 1980s, a community of artificial intelligence researchers became interested in formalizing problem solving methods as part of an effort called "second generation expert systems" (2nd GES). How do the motivations and results of this research relate to building tools for the workplace today? We provide an historical review of how the theory of expertise has developed, a progress report on a tool for designing and implementing model-based automation (Brahms), and a concrete example how we apply 2nd GES concepts today in an agent-based system for space flight operations (OCAMS). Brahms incorporates an ontology for modeling work practices, what people are doing in the course of a day, characterized as "activities." OCAMS was developed using a simulation-to-implementation methodology, in which a prototype tool was embedded in a simulation of future work practices. OCAMS uses model-based methods to interactively plan its actions and keep track of the work to be done. The problem solving methods of practice are interactive, employing reasoning for and through action in the real world. Analogously, it is as if a medical expert system were charged not just with interpreting culture results, but actually interacting with a patient. Our perspective shifts from building a "problem solving" (expert) system to building an actor in the world. The reusable components in work system designs include entire "problem solvers" (e.g., a planning subsystem), interoperability frameworks, and workflow agents that use and revise models dynamically in a network of people and tools. Consequently, the research focus shifts so "problem solving methods" include ways of knowing that models do not fit the world, and ways of interacting with other agents and people to gain or verify information and (ultimately) adapt rules and procedures to resolve problematic situations.

  10. Big-Data Based Decision-Support Systems to Improve Clinicians' Cognition. (United States)

    Roosan, Don; Samore, Matthew; Jones, Makoto; Livnat, Yarden; Clutter, Justin


    Complex clinical decision-making could be facilitated by using population health data to inform clinicians. In two previous studies, we interviewed 16 infectious disease experts to understand complex clinical reasoning. For this study, we focused on answers from the experts on how clinical reasoning can be supported by population-based Big-Data. We found cognitive strategies such as trajectory tracking, perspective taking, and metacognition has the potential to improve clinicians' cognition to deal with complex problems. These cognitive strategies could be supported by population health data, and all have important implications for the design of Big-Data based decision-support tools that could be embedded in electronic health records. Our findings provide directions for task allocation and design of decision-support applications for health care industry development of Big data based decision-support systems.

  11. Expert System for Competences Evaluation 360° Feedback Using Fuzzy Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Alfonso Aguilar Lasserre


    Full Text Available Performance evaluation (PE is a process that estimates the employee overall performance during a given period, and it is a common function carried out inside modern companies. PE is important because it is an instrument that encourages employees, organizational areas, and the whole company to have an appropriate behavior and continuous improvement. In addition, PE is useful in decision making about personnel allocation, productivity bonuses, incentives, promotions, disciplinary measures, and dismissals. There are many performance evaluation methods; however, none is universal and common to all companies. This paper proposes an expert performance evaluation system based on a fuzzy logic model, with competences 360° feedback oriented to human behavior. This model uses linguistic labels and adjustable numerical values to represent ambiguous concepts, such as imprecision and subjectivity. The model was validated in the administrative department of a real Mexican manufacturing company, where final results and conclusions show the fuzzy logic method advantages in comparison with traditional 360° performance evaluation methodologies.

  12. Prototype expert system to assist with the stabilization of neonates prior to transport. (United States)

    Heermann, L K; Thompson, C B


    The transport of sick or premature newborns from community hospitals to acute care facilities is often necessary for the infants to receive the level of care required. Prior stabilization of these infants is imperative to a successful transport. The knowledge required to treat and stabilize sick and premature newborns is specialized and may not be available in community hospitals. "The S.T.A.B.L.E. Assistant" is a prototype rule based decision support system based on the educational program "Transporting Newborns the S.T.A.B.L.E. Way". "The S.T.A.B.L.E. Assistant" accepts clinical information related to an infant's breathing status, blood glucose status and selected lab values and provides instructions as to what interventions are needed to stabilize and prepare the infant for transport. The computerized program was evaluated using data collected from 19 charts of newborns requiring transport from a community hospital to a tertiary care center. Patient data were entered into the computerized program and the subsequent instructions were reviewed by a group of neonatology and neonatal transport experts. Reviewers evaluated "The S.T.A.B.L.E. Assistant" for the safety of the program, the extent to which the computerized program follows the educational program guidelines and the degree to which the instructions generated are within the scope of community caregivers' practice. Results were positive, indicating "The S.T.A.B.L.E. Assistant" prototype is safe, and within the guidelines of neonatal clinical practice.

  13. An Integrated GIS-Expert System Framework for Live Hazard Monitoring and Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven M. Rozic


    Full Text Available In the context of hazard monitoring, using sensor web technology to monitor anddetect hazardous conditions in near-real-time can result in large amounts of spatial data thatcan be used to drive analysis at an instrumented site. These data can be used for decisionmaking and problem solving, however as with any analysis problem the success ofanalyzing hazard potential is governed by many factors such as: the quality of the sensordata used as input; the meaning that can be derived from those data; the reliability of themodel used to describe the problem; the strength of the analysis methods; and the ability toeffectively communicate the end results of the analysis. For decision makers to make use ofsensor web data these issues must be dealt with to some degree. The work described in thispaper addresses all of these areas by showing how raw sensor data can be automaticallytransformed into a representation which matches a predefined model of the problem context.This model can be understood by analysis software that leverages rule-based logic andinference techniques to reason with, and draw conclusions about, spatial data. These toolsare integrated with a well known Geographic Information System (GIS and existinggeospatial and sensor web infrastructure standards, providing expert users with the toolsneeded to thoroughly explore a problem site and investigate hazards in any domain.

  14. Belief-rule-based expert systems for evaluation of e-government

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hossain, Mohammad Shahadat; Zander, Pär-Ola Mikael; Kamal, Md Sarwar


    , it requires continuous evaluation of the overall e-government system as well as evaluation of its various dimensions such as determinants, characteristics and results. E-government development is often complex, with multiple stakeholders, large user bases and complex goals. Consequently, even experts have......Little knowledge exists on the impact and results associated with e-government projects in many specific-use domains. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate the efficiency and effectiveness of e-government systems. Because the development of e-government is a continuous process of improvement...... difficulties in evaluating these systems, especially in an integrated and comprehensive way, as well as on an aggregate level. Expert systems are a candidate solution to evaluate such complex e-government systems. However, it is difficult for expert systems to cope with uncertain evaluation data that are vague...

  15. Expert Meeting: Optimized Heating Systems Using Condensing Boilers and Baseboard Convectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arena, L.


    On August 11, 2011, in Denver, CO, a Building America Expert Meeting was held in conjunction with the Building America Residential Energy Efficiency Technical Update Meeting, to review and discuss results and future plans for research to improve the performance of hydronic heating systems using condensing boilers and baseboard convectors. A meeting objective was to provide an opportunity for other Building America teams and industry experts to provide feedback and specific suggestions for the planned research.

  16. Expert Meeting. Optimized Heating Systems Using Condensing Boilers and Baseboard Convectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arena, L. [Steven Winter Associates, Inc., Norwalk, CT (United States)


    On August 11, 2011, in Denver, CO, a Building America Expert Meeting was held in conjunction with the Building America Residential Energy Efficiency Technical Update Meeting, to review and discuss results and future plans for research to improve the performance of hydronic heating systems using condensing boilers and baseboard convectors. A meeting objective was to provide an opportunity for other Building America teams and industry experts to provide feedback and specific suggestions for the planned research.

  17. A Reasoning Technique for Taxonomy Expert System of Living Organisms


    Desiani, Anita; Firdaus, Firdaus; Maiyanti, Sri Indra


    Taxonomy of living organisms can help scientists to sort organisms in order and help them to identify new organisms by finding out which their groups. It also is easier to study organisms when they are sorted in groups. Taxonomy of living organisms system is a important basic part of ecology system. Researcher should know about any organisms that they noted in an ecology. Integration between classification taxonomy of Living Organisms and technology information will have many advantages for ...

  18. Expert System Architecture for Rocket Engine Numerical Simulators: A Vision (United States)

    Mitra, D.; Babu, U.; Earla, A. K.; Hemminger, Joseph A.


    Simulation of any complex physical system like rocket engines involves modeling the behavior of their different components using mostly numerical equations. Typically a simulation package would contain a set of subroutines for these modeling purposes and some other ones for supporting jobs. A user would create an input file configuring a system (part or whole of a rocket engine to be simulated) in appropriate format understandable by the package and run it to create an executable module corresponding to the simulated system. This module would then be run on a given set of input parameters in another file. Simulation jobs are mostly done for performance measurements of a designed system, but could be utilized for failure analysis or a design job such as inverse problems. In order to use any such package the user needs to understand and learn a lot about the software architecture of the package, apart from being knowledgeable in the target domain. We are currently involved in a project in designing an intelligent executive module for the rocket engine simulation packages, which would free any user from this burden of acquiring knowledge on a particular software system. The extended abstract presented here will describe the vision, methodology and the problems encountered in the project. We are employing object-oriented technology in designing the executive module. The problem is connected to the areas like the reverse engineering of any simulation software, and the intelligent systems for simulation.

  19. Decision Making Based On Management Information System and Decision Support System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şükrü Ada


    Full Text Available Information hasbecome an essentialresource for managing modern organizations. This is so because today’sbusiness environment is volatile, dynamic, turbulent and necessitates the burgeoning demand for accurate, relevant, complete,timely and economical information needed to drive the decision-making process in order to accentuate organizational abilities to manage opportunities and threat. MIS work on online mode with an average processing speed. Generally, it is used by low level management. Decision support system are powerful tool that assist corporate executives, administrators and other senior officials in making decision regarding the problem. Management Information Systems is a useful tool that provided organized and summarized information in a proper time to decision makers and enable making accurate decision for managers in organizations. This paper will discuss the concept, characteristics, types of MIS, the MIS model, and in particular it will highlight the impact and role of MIS on decision making.

  20. The role of the system developer/knowledge engineer in the development of materials performance expert systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lichti, K.A. [Industrial Research Ltd., Lower Hutt (New Zealand)


    The system developer typically co-ordinates expert system development teams and ensures goals and objectives are met in a timely fashion. A spiral model of expert system software development procedures incorporating Quality Assurance principles for determining documentation requirements is advocated to aid the system developer in his co-ordination role. Efficient use of documentation and inter-team consultation can ensure Quality Control and Quality Assurance by exposing each stage of the development to reasoned criticism.

  1. Development of an expert system for power quality advisement using CLIPS 6.0 (United States)

    Chandrasekaran, A.; Sarma, P. R. R.; Sundaram, Ashok


    Proliferation of power electronic devices has brought in its wake both deterioration in and demand for quality power supply from the utilities. The power quality problems become apparent when the user's equipment or systems maloperate or fail. Since power quality concerns arise from a wide variety of sources and the problem fixes are better achieved from the expertise of field engineers, development of an expert system for power quality advisement seems to be a very attractive and cost-effective solution for utility applications. An expert system thus developed gives an understanding of the adverse effects of power quality related problems on the system and could help in finding remedial solutions. The paper reports the design of a power quality advisement expert system being developed using CLIPS 6.0. A brief outline of the power quality concerns is first presented. A description of the knowledge base is next given and details of actual implementation include screen output from the program.

  2. CQR; A hybrid expert system for security assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christie, R.D. (Carnegie-Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (USA)); Talukdar, S.N. (Carnegie-Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (USA). Engineering Design Research Center); Nixon, J.C. (Allegheny Power System Corp., New York, NY (USA))


    An off-line prototype, called CQR, of a system for on-line security assessment has been built and tested in conjunction with a western Pennsylvania utility. CQR is a hybrid of rule based programs written in OPS5 and numerical tools written in FORTRAN. CQR uses the utility's full power system model, accepts arbitrary operating conditions, evaluates the base case, evaluates a contingency list using distribution factors, selects and evaluates a small number of AC contingencies, makes an explicit assessment of power system security, and presents results to the operator in a compact and understandable report. Security is decomposed into components that are evaluated independently, allowing separate criteria to be applied to the base case and contingencies. Transient stability is dealt with through dynamically imposed operating limits. CQR's strong points are the correctness, consistency and compactness of its reports. Run times are acceptable for real time operation.

  3. Fuzzy logic applications to expert systems and control (United States)

    Lea, Robert N.; Jani, Yashvant


    A considerable amount of work on the development of fuzzy logic algorithms and application to space related control problems has been done at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) over the past few years. Particularly, guidance control systems for space vehicles during proximity operations, learning systems utilizing neural networks, control of data processing during rendezvous navigation, collision avoidance algorithms, camera tracking controllers, and tether controllers have been developed utilizing fuzzy logic technology. Several other areas in which fuzzy sets and related concepts are being considered at JSC are diagnostic systems, control of robot arms, pattern recognition, and image processing. It has become evident, based on the commercial applications of fuzzy technology in Japan and China during the last few years, that this technology should be exploited by the government as well as private industry for energy savings.

  4. Design of operating rules in complex water resources systems using historical records, expert criteria and fuzzy logic (United States)

    Pulido-Velazquez, Manuel; Macian-Sorribes, Hector; María Benlliure-Moreno, Jose; Fullana-Montoro, Juan


    Water resources systems in areas with a strong tradition in water use are complex to manage by the high amount of constraints that overlap in time and space, creating a complicated framework in which past, present and future collide between them. In addition, it is usual to find "hidden constraints" in system operations, which condition operation decisions being unnoticed by anyone but the river managers and users. Being aware of those hidden constraints requires usually years of experience and a degree of involvement in that system's management operations normally beyond the possibilities of technicians. However, their impact in the management decisions is strongly imprinted in the historical data records available. The purpose of this contribution is to present a methodology capable of assessing operating rules in complex water resources systems combining historical records and expert criteria. Both sources are coupled using fuzzy logic. The procedure stages are: 1) organize expert-technicians preliminary meetings to let the first explain how they manage the system; 2) set up a fuzzy rule-based system (FRB) structure according to the way the system is managed; 3) use the historical records available to estimate the inputs' fuzzy numbers, to assign preliminary output values to the FRB rules and to train and validate these rules; 4) organize expert-technician meetings to discuss the rule structure and the input's quantification, returning if required to the second stage; 5) once the FRB structure is accepted, its output values must be refined and completed with the aid of the experts by using meetings, workshops or surveys; 6) combine the FRB with a Decision Support System (DSS) to simulate the effect of those management decisions; 7) compare its results with the ones offered by the historical records and/or simulation or optimization models; and 8) discuss with the stakeholders the model performance returning, if it's required, to the fifth or the second stage

  5. SOFTM: a software maintenance expert system in Prolog

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pau, L.; Negret, J. M.


    A description is given of a knowledge-based system called SOFTM, serving the following purposes: (1) assisting a software programmer or analyst in his application code maintenance tasks, (2) generating and updating automatically software correction documentation, (3) helping the end user register......-output, or procedural errors normally detected by the syntactic analyzer, compiler, or by the operating system environment. SOFTM relies on a unique ATN network-based code description, on diagnostic inference procedure based on context-based pattern classification, on maintenance log report generators...

  6. The Design and Implementation of an Intelligent Apparel Recommend Expert System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H. Dong


    Full Text Available Now with the rapid development of information science and technology, intelligent apparel recommend has drawn wide attention in apparel retail industry. Intelligent management and effective recommend are two issues of crucial importance for the retail store to enhance its corporate influence and increase its economic benefits. This paper proposes an intelligent recommend system design scheme for apparel retail which is based on expert system. By comprehensive utilization of database management and expert system technology, the proposed system provides a solid solution in improving the customer shopping experience. This paper presents a kind of object-oriented blackboard structure, which is applied in the apparel recommend expert system and establishes expert rule on the basis of apparel characteristic elements. Through the establishment of the rule base, the system generates personal recommend list by positive rule reasoning mechanism engine. The proposed method thus gives dress collocation scheme for the customer through the human-machine interaction from the point of view of the apparel experts. This design scheme avails the customers to experience targeted service with intellectualization, and personalization and it has certain reference significance for promoting apparel retail intelligence development.

  7. Development of an ecological decision support system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beusekom, Frits; Brazier, Frances; Schipper, Piet; Treur, Jan; del Pobil, A.P.


    In this paper a knowledge-based decision support system is described that determines the abiotic (chemical and physical) characteristics of a site on the basis of in-homogeneous samples of plant species. Techniques from the area of non-monotonic reasoning are applied to model multi-interpretable

  8. Decision support system for Wamakersvallei Winery

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Der Merwe, A


    Full Text Available models. The three features of the decision support system are first to assist in the scheduling process of assigning grapes from the different suppliers to the different tipping bins by suggesting rapidly and in an automated fashion a possible schedule...

  9. Identifying Experts and Authoritative Documents in Social Bookmarking Systems (United States)

    Grady, Jonathan P.


    Social bookmarking systems allow people to create pointers to Web resources in a shared, Web-based environment. These services allow users to add free-text labels, or "tags", to their bookmarks as a way to organize resources for later recall. Ease-of-use, low cognitive barriers, and a lack of controlled vocabulary have allowed social…

  10. An expert system based equipment diagnostics to | Olatunbosun ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper discusses the development of computerised maintenance software using Top-Down system design concept. The software was developed using objectoriented Visual Basic and Microsoft Access Software programming tools. The software package allows for the storage, processing, updating and retrieving of ...

  11. Intelligent neuro fuzzy expert system for autism recognition | Obi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Autism is a brain disorder that is associated with a wide range of developmental problems, especially in communication, social interaction and unusual repetitive behavior. However, it is ... The proposed system which is self-learning and adaptive is able to handle the uncertainties often associated with the diagnosis and ...

  12. Fuzzy expert system for the intelligent recognition of cerebral palsy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study describes a fuzzy system for intelligent recognition and estimation of possibility of suffering from cerebral palsy (CP) in children between the ages of 3 months and 2 years. The hallmark symptoms of CP are disturbances of movement and/or posture which are manifested as failure to meet appropriate motor ...

  13. Development of an expert system in econometrics. Application to energy demand modelling; Construction d`un systeme expert en econometrie. Application a la demande d`energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fauveau, A.


    The proper use of econometric softwares requires both statistical and economic skills. The main objective of this thesis is to provide the users of regression programs with assistance in the process of regression analysis by means of expert system technology. We first built an expert system providing general econometric strategy. The running principle of the program is based on a ``estimation - hypothesis check - specification improvement`` cycle. Its econometric expertise is a consistent set of statistical technics and analysis rules for estimating one equation. Then, we considered the inclusion of the economic knowledge required to produce a consistent analysis; we focused on energy demand modelling. The economic knowledge base is independent from the econometric rules, this allow us to update it easily. (author).

  14. Medical decision-making system of ultrasound carotid artery intima-media thickness using neural networks. (United States)

    Santhiyakumari, N; Rajendran, P; Madheswaran, M


    The objective of this work is to develop and implement a medical decision-making system for an automated diagnosis and classification of ultrasound carotid artery images. The proposed method categorizes the subjects into normal, cerebrovascular, and cardiovascular diseases. Two contours are extracted for each and every preprocessed ultrasound carotid artery image. Two types of contour extraction techniques and multilayer back propagation network (MBPN) system have been developed for classifying carotid artery categories. The results obtained show that MBPN system provides higher classification efficiency, with minimum training and testing time. The outputs of decision support system are validated with medical expert to measure the actual efficiency. MBPN system with contour extraction algorithms and preprocessing scheme helps in developing medical decision-making system for ultrasound carotid artery images. It can be used as secondary observer in clinical decision making.

  15. Expert systems and microwave communication systems alarms processing: A feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonn, B.; Goeltz, R.; Purucker, S.


    This report presents the results of a feasibility study conducted by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for the Bonneville Power Administration concerning the applicability of Artificial Intelligence (AI) technology to process alarms associated with Bonneville's Microwave Communication System (MCS). Specifically, the discussion focuses on the characteristics of a prototype expert system/database management system (DBMS) configuration capable of intelligently processing alarms, efficiently storing alarm-based historical data, and providing analysis and reporting tools. Such a system has the potential to improve response to critical alarms, increase the information content of a large volume of complicated data, free operators from performing routine analysis, and provide alarm information to operators, field personnel, and management through queries and automatically produced reports.

  16. A Hybrid Model for Knowledge Acquisition in Expert Systems


    Mohamed A. Shouman; Mohamed G. Abou-Ali; Ayman M. Mostafa


    Information Systems (IS) are based upon data collected by means of questionnaires, interviews, and observation. Inexperienced researchers find questionnaires and interviews attractive as a data gathering methodology. Many researchers have discovered that it is not simple to draft a good questionnaire because their answers are very superficial and impact negatively on the research quality. This paper explores a Repertory Grid technique as an alternative method for gathering meaningful data. Al...

  17. An Expert System for Classifying Stars on the MK Spectral Classification System (United States)

    Corbally, Christopher J.; Gray, R. O.


    We will describe an expert computer system designed to classify stellar spectra on the MK Spectral Classification system employing methods similar to those of humans who make direct comparison with the MK classification standards. Like an expert human classifier, MKCLASS first comes up with a rough spectral type, and then refines that type by direct comparison with MK standards drawn from a standards library using spectral criteria appropriate to the spectral class. Certain common spectral-type peculiarities can also be detected by the program. The program is also capable of identifying WD spectra and carbon stars and giving appropriate (but currently approximate) spectral types on the relevant systems. We will show comparisons between spectral types (including luminosity types) performed by MKCLASS and humans. The program currently is capable of competent classifications in the violet-green region, but plans are underway to extend the spectral criteria into the red and near-infrared regions. Two standard libraries with resolutions of 1.8 and 3.6Å are now available, but a higher-resolution standard library, using the new spectrograph on the Vatican Advanced Technology Telescope, is currently under preparation. Once that library is available, MKCLASS and the spectral libraries will be made available to the astronomical community.

  18. Expert System for Bomb Factory Detection by Networks of Advance Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlotta Ferrari


    Full Text Available (1 Background: Police forces and security administrations are nowadays considering Improvised explosives (IEs as a major threat. The chemical substances used to prepare IEs are called precursors, and their presence could allow police forces to locate a bomb factory where the on-going manufacturing of IEs is carried out. (2 Methods: An expert system was developed and tested in handling signals from a network of sensors, allowing an early warning. The expert system allows the detection of one precursor based on the signal provided by a single sensor, the detection of one precursor based on the signal provided by more than one sensor, and the production of a global alarm level based on data fusion from all the sensors of the network. (3 Results: The expert system was tested in the Italian Air Force base of Pratica di Mare (Italy and in the Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI in Grindsjön (Sweden. (4 Conclusion: The performance of the expert system was successfully evaluated under relevant environmental conditions. The approach used in the development of the expert system allows maximum flexibility in terms of integration of the response provided by any sensor, allowing to easily include in the network all possible new sensors.

  19. The Generic Spacecraft Analyst Assistant (gensaa): a Tool for Developing Graphical Expert Systems (United States)

    Hughes, Peter M.


    During numerous contacts with a satellite each day, spacecraft analysts must closely monitor real-time data. The analysts must watch for combinations of telemetry parameter values, trends, and other indications that may signify a problem or failure. As the satellites become more complex and the number of data items increases, this task is becoming increasingly difficult for humans to perform at acceptable performance levels. At NASA GSFC, fault-isolation expert systems are in operation supporting this data monitoring task. Based on the lessons learned during these initial efforts in expert system automation, a new domain-specific expert system development tool named the Generic Spacecraft Analyst Assistant (GenSAA) is being developed to facilitate the rapid development and reuse of real-time expert systems to serve as fault-isolation assistants for spacecraft analysts. Although initially domain-specific in nature, this powerful tool will readily support the development of highly graphical expert systems for data monitoring purposes throughout the space and commercial industry.

  20. Impacts of hospitals' innovativeness on information system outsourcing decisions. (United States)

    Park, Jae Sung


    The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of hospitals' innovativeness on outsourcing decision-making regarding four information system (IS) functions, namely, software programs, network maintenance, hardware systems, and PC/printer maintenance. Using the 2011 roster of the Korean Hospital Association, this study selected 311 general hospitals as a study population. After identifying the managers who were in charge of outsourcing, this study administered questionnaires. A total of 103 hospitals responded. Of the responding hospitals, 55.34% outsourced at least one IS function, whereas 88.35% outsourced at least one managerial function. IS outsourcing was motivated by the need for outside experts, but other managerial functions were outsourced for cost savings. Innovative and early adopter hospitals were 4.52 and 4.91 times more likely to outsource IS functions related with work processes (i.e., software and network maintenance) than early and late majority hospitals, respectively. IT outsourcing effectiveness significantly influenced the outsourcing decisions regarding four IS functions. Hospitals that had perceived more risks of outsourcing significantly preferred non-outsourcing on their hardware systems, but the risks of outsourcing were not significant for outsourcing decisions regarding the other IS functions. Hospitals' innovativeness also significantly explained the quantity of innovation adoptions. Innovative and early adopter hospitals did more outsourcing than early and late majority hospitals. Hospitals' innovativeness influences decision-making regarding outsourcing. Innovative hospitals are more likely to outsource their work-process-related IS functions. Thus, organizational traits, especially hospitals' innovativeness, should be considered as a key success factor for IS management.

  1. Utility Systems Operation: Optimisation ?Based Decision Making



    Abstract Utility systems provide heat and power to industrial sites. The importance of operating these systems in an optimal way has increased significantly due to the unstable and in the long term rising prices of fossil fuels as well as the need for reducing the greenhouse gas emissions. This paper presents an analysis of the problem for supporting operator decision-making under conditions of variable steam demands from the production processes on an industrial site. An optimisat...

  2. Decision Fusion System for Bolted Joint Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Liang


    Full Text Available Bolted joint is widely used in mechanical and architectural structures, such as machine tools, industrial robots, transport machines, power plants, aviation stiffened plate, bridges, and steel towers. The bolt loosening induced by flight load and environment factor can cause joint failure leading to a disastrous accident. Hence, structural health monitoring is critical for the bolted joint detection. In order to realize a real-time and convenient monitoring and satisfy the requirement of advanced maintenance of the structure, this paper proposes an intelligent bolted joint failure monitoring approach using a developed decision fusion system integrated with Lamb wave propagation based actuator-sensor monitoring method. Firstly, the basic knowledge of decision fusion and classifier selection techniques is briefly introduced. Then, a developed decision fusion system is presented. Finally, three fusion algorithms, which consist of majority voting, Bayesian belief, and multiagent method, are adopted for comparison in a real-world monitoring experiment for the large aviation aluminum plate. Based on the results shown in the experiment, a big potential in real-time application is presented that the method can accurately and rapidly identify the bolt loosening by analyzing the acquired strain signal using proposed decision fusion system.

  3. Expert Systems for United States Navy Shore Facilities Utility Operations. (United States)


    modifying the system. .. 2 𔃼’ .4.4 .4.,7 .4. TABLE 4 Characteristics of Available Microcomputers Typical CPU chips Op. Svs. Clock RAM Price 8-bit 8080 16-bit 80286 $30,000+ machines 32-bit 68020 UNIX 10-30 MHz 1-Mbytes $3000 to machines 80386 $30,000+ 32051 K = 1024 bytes M = 1024 x 1024 bytes...Speed for Some Prolog Implementations CPU Prolog Op. Svs. Speed* Machine Cost 16-bit micro-Prolog PC-DOS 240 $1,000 8088 32-bit NIP UNIX 2,500

  4. Chinese Acupuncture Expert System (CAES)-a useful tool to practice and learn medical acupuncture. (United States)

    Lam, Chi Fai David; Leung, Kwong Sak; Heng, Pheng Ann; Lim, Chi Eung Danforn; Wong, Felix Wu Shun


    This paper describes the development of a Chinese Acupuncture Expert System (CAES) that will assist the learning and practice of medical acupuncture. This was the development of a Chinese Acupuncture Expert System which incorporated eight functional modules. These modules were 1) Add Patient Record subsystem; 2) Diagnosis subsystem ; 3) Acupuncture Prescription subsystem ; 4) Needle Insertion Position Animation subsystem ; 5) Acupuncture Points Usage Statistic subsystem ; 6) History Query subsystem; 7) Acupuncture Points Query subsystem and 8) Diagnosis Remarks and Diagnosis Record Save subsystem. Two databases were built-Patient Record database and Diagnosis (Acupuncture) Knowledge database. All the Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) knowledge and acupuncture treatment prescriptions were extracted from officially used TCM textbooks and received guidance and expert advice from two acupuncturists working in this project. A Chinese Acupuncture Expert System (CAES) was built, which after the input from users of any Chinese disease symptoms and signs, it can provide a list of related TCM syndrome diagnoses based on the patients' disease symptoms and signs, and at the same time it can offer advice of the appropriate Chinese acupuncture treatment to the users. CAES also provided text descriptions and acupuncture animations showing the acupoint locations and the direction and depth of the needle insertion technique. Therefore users can easily learn acupuncture and practice it. This new acupuncture expert system will hopefully provide an easy way for users to learn and practice Chinese Acupuncture and establish its usefulness after it was fully evaluated.

  5. NKS NordDSS - report from workshop on the use of Decision Support Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyve, J.E. (Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (Norway))


    Nuclear preparedness and response authorities in the Nordic countries are using decision support systems (DSS) as part of their operational capability. A DSS compile, display and analyse data that makes up the current and future radiological state of an emergency. ARGOS and RODOS are the two most common systems in use in the Nordic region. The aim of of the NordDSS workshop was to gather Nordic and international experts on DSS, and share knowledge and experience. The workshop brought together 22 experts for two days in Copenhagen. (author)

  6. Methods of Analyzing Companies’ Performance in Accounting using Expert Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Grosu


    Full Text Available The company’s performance reflects its capacity of generating future cash-flows, by using existent resources, and the efficiency level in using new resources.The capacity of generating future cash-flows assumes that the company would have to book revenues of its activity, and the use of the existent resources needs a detailed overview of the expenses of the period. The revenues and expenses are elements strictly tied to the evaluation process of the company’s performance. This paper seeks to emphasize the efficiency level in using resources dependent on the profit (when the revenues are higher than the expenses, or on the loss (when the expenses are higher than the revenues, their first-step evaluation in the accounting process, so that the next step would evaluate them through a professional specific processing system, in order to lay out the economic result by efficiently binding the two methods.The current paper will analyze only the recognition and evaluation of companies’ revenues, with the help of the two criteria, when the revenues are higher than the expenses and therefore one will carry out an evaluation and analysis of the company’s performance in this particular field.

  7. Optimal operating rules definition in complex water resource systems combining fuzzy logic, expert criteria and stochastic programming (United States)

    Macian-Sorribes, Hector; Pulido-Velazquez, Manuel


    This contribution presents a methodology for defining optimal seasonal operating rules in multireservoir systems coupling expert criteria and stochastic optimization. Both sources of information are combined using fuzzy logic. The structure of the operating rules is defined based on expert criteria, via a joint expert-technician framework consisting in a series of meetings, workshops and surveys carried out between reservoir managers and modelers. As a result, the decision-making process used by managers can be assessed and expressed using fuzzy logic: fuzzy rule-based systems are employed to represent the operating rules and fuzzy regression procedures are used for forecasting future inflows. Once done that, a stochastic optimization algorithm can be used to define optimal decisions and transform them into fuzzy rules. Finally, the optimal fuzzy rules and the inflow prediction scheme are combined into a Decision Support System for making seasonal forecasts and simulate the effect of different alternatives in response to the initial system state and the foreseen inflows. The approach presented has been applied to the Jucar River Basin (Spain). Reservoir managers explained how the system is operated, taking into account the reservoirs' states at the beginning of the irrigation season and the inflows previewed during that season. According to the information given by them, the Jucar River Basin operating policies were expressed via two fuzzy rule-based (FRB) systems that estimate the amount of water to be allocated to the users and how the reservoir storages should be balanced to guarantee those deliveries. A stochastic optimization model using Stochastic Dual Dynamic Programming (SDDP) was developed to define optimal decisions, which are transformed into optimal operating rules embedding them into the two FRBs previously created. As a benchmark, historical records are used to develop alternative operating rules. A fuzzy linear regression procedure was employed to

  8. Using a group decision support system to make investment prioritisation decisions


    Read, Martin; Gear, Tony; Minkes, Leonard; Irving, Ann


    This paper is concerned with how decision making groups involved in making investment prioritisation decisions involving funding of technology and science projects may be supported by a group decision support system (GDSS). While interested in decision outcomes, the primary focus of this paper is the role of a group support system as an aid to developing shared understanding within a group. The paper develops the conceptual framework of decision-making, communication and group support, and de...

  9. Edusta 2011. Data processed Expert System for the Evaluation of Mast Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Lorenz


    Full Text Available The expert system EDUSTA 2011 is a new software solution designed to determinate the stability of mast-systems, like lamp-posts and anchor masts. The operators, mainly the municipalities and the cities but also operating companies at airports for instance, are responsible for the stability of there masts and the traffic safety.

  10. Design of a Fuzzy Rule Base Expert System to Predict and Classify ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main objective of design of a rule base expert system using fuzzy logic approach is to predict and forecast the risk level of cardiac patients to avoid sudden death. In this proposed system, uncertainty is captured using rule base and classification using fuzzy c-means clustering is discussed to overcome the risk level, ...

  11. Expert methods in control systems of deep oil and gas holes building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sementsov, G.; Fadeeva, I.; Chigur, I. [State Technical Univ. of Oil and Gas, Ivano-Frankivsk (Ukraine)


    Attempts to provide self-control of process of long holing on oil and gas have not given due effect owing to complication of object, it fuzzy and equivocation of the information. In this connection it is offered to use for management of drilling expert systems, which one use fuzzy models and methods of the theory of fuzzy control systems. (orig.)

  12. Online Search + Logic Programming = Subject Bibliography: An Expert Systems Approach to Bibliographic Processing. (United States)

    Lirov, Yuval; Lirov, Viktor


    Describes the development of a knowledge-based system, REX, that creates subject bibliographies by downloading reference material from an online bibliographic service. The expert systems architecture is explained, use of Prolog is described, and creation of the subject knowledge base and an author index are discussed. (10 references) (LRW)

  13. Using Ada to implement the operations management system in a community of experts (United States)

    Frank, M. S.


    An architecture is described for the Space Station Operations Management System (OMS), consisting of a distributed expert system framework implemented in Ada. The motivation for such a scheme is based on the desire to integrate the very diverse elements of the OMS while taking maximum advantage of knowledge based systems technology. Part of the foundation of an Ada based distributed expert system was accomplished in the form of a proof of concept prototype for the KNOMES project (Knowledge-based Maintenance Expert System). This prototype successfully used concurrently active experts to accomplish monitoring and diagnosis for the Remote Manipulator System. The basic concept of this software architecture is named ACTORS for Ada Cognitive Task ORganization Scheme. It is when one considers the overall problem of integrating all of the OMS elements into a cooperative system that the AI solution stands out. By utilizing a distributed knowledge based system as the framework for OMS, it is possible to integrate those components which need to share information in an intelligent manner.

  14. FaSTR DNA: a new expert system for forensic DNA analysis. (United States)

    Power, Timothy; McCabe, Brendan; Harbison, Sally Ann


    The automation of DNA profile analysis of reference and crime samples continues to gain pace driven in part by a realisation by the criminal justice system of the positive impact DNA technology can have in aiding in the solution of crime and the apprehension of suspects. Expert systems to automate the profile analysis component of the process are beginning to be developed. In this paper, we report the validation of a new expert system FaSTR DNA, an expert system suitable for the analysis of DNA profiles from single source reference samples and from crime samples. We compare the performance of FaSTR DNA with that of other equivalent systems, GeneMapper ID v3.2 (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA) and FSS-i(3) v4 (The Forensic Science Service((R)) DNA expert System Suite FSS-i(3), Forensic Science Service, Birmingham, UK) with GeneScan Analysis v3.7/Genotyper v3.7 software (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA, USA) with manual review. We have shown that FaSTR DNA provides an alternative solution to automating DNA profile analysis and is appropriate for implementation into forensic laboratories. The FaSTR DNA system was demonstrated to be comparable in performance to that of GeneMapper ID v3.2 and superior to that of FSS-i(3) v4 for the analysis of DNA profiles from crime samples.

  15. Using a blackboard architecture or expert system to identify obfuscated targets from symptoms (United States)

    Straub, Jeremy


    A variety of techniques exist for enhancing or inferring the existence and characteristics of an obscured or partially concealed target. Targets, however, may be completely blocked from view, presenting nothing to enhance and no image area to extend inferentially. Despite the difficulty, concealed (particularly intentionally) targets may be the most important to detect. This paper proposes a technique for using a Blackboard Architecture or Expert system to infer a target's existence from symptoms (maneuvers of other units, water and soil deformation, etc.) and discusses the differences between the two approaches (Blackboard Architecture and expert system) for doing so.

  16. Complex method to calculate objective assessments of information systems protection to improve expert assessments reliability (United States)

    Abdenov, A. Zh; Trushin, V. A.; Abdenova, G. A.


    The paper considers the questions of filling the relevant SIEM nodes based on calculations of objective assessments in order to improve the reliability of subjective expert assessments. The proposed methodology is necessary for the most accurate security risk assessment of information systems. This technique is also intended for the purpose of establishing real-time operational information protection in the enterprise information systems. Risk calculations are based on objective estimates of the adverse events implementation probabilities, predictions of the damage magnitude from information security violations. Calculations of objective assessments are necessary to increase the reliability of the proposed expert assessments.

  17. An information decision support system towards the formulation of a modern energy companies' environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patlitzianas, Konstantinos D.; Pappa, Anna; Psarras, John [National Technical University of Athens, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Decision Support Systems Lab (EPU-NTUA), 9, Iroon Polytechniou Street, 15773, Athens (Greece)


    The development of the renewable energy sources (RES) and the energy efficiency (EE) is related to the enhancement of the energy companies' (energy producers by RES and energy services companies - ESCOs) operational environment. The aim of this paper is to present an information decision support system, which consists of an expert subsystem, as well as a multi criteria decision making (MCDM) subsystem. The system supports the state toward the formulation of a modern environment, since it incorporates the 'new parameters' of the energy market, namely the liberalization and the climate change. The system was successfully applied in the 13 accession member states of the EU. (author)

  18. Asset Condition, Information Systems and Decision Models

    CERN Document Server

    Willett, Roger; Brown, Kerry; Mathew, Joseph


    Asset Condition, Information Systems and Decision Models, is the second volume of the Engineering Asset Management Review Series. The manuscripts provide examples of implementations of asset information systems as well as some practical applications of condition data for diagnostics and prognostics. The increasing trend is towards prognostics rather than diagnostics, hence the need for assessment and decision models that promote the conversion of condition data into prognostic information to improve life-cycle planning for engineered assets. The research papers included here serve to support the on-going development of Condition Monitoring standards. This volume comprises selected papers from the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd World Congresses on Engineering Asset Management, which were convened under the auspices of ISEAM in collaboration with a number of organisations, including CIEAM Australia, Asset Management Council Australia, BINDT UK, and Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Chin...

  19. NEUREX: a tutorial expert system for the diagnosis of neurogenic diseases of the lower limbs. (United States)

    Starita, A; Majidi, D; Giordano, A; Battaglia, M; Cioni, R


    Specialist tutors have to transfer two types of knowledge to doctors who are specialising in a particular clinic: public declarative knowledge, including facts, notions, principles in that particular field; and their own private procedural knowledge acquired in years of direct experience. Embodying this knowledge into an expert system means that this information can be shared more rapidly, and tutoring is easier. This paper presents a tutorial expert system for neurological clinics which can emulate the diagnostic process of an expert neurologist for neurogenic diseases of the lower limbs, assist users in planning the optimal sequence of NG and EMG tests, interpret the results of these tests, and help users to achieve the most suitable diagnosis.

  20. Assessment of an expert system for the automated validation of electrophoretic profiles. (United States)

    Dorizzi, Romolo M; Zanardi, Valerio; Agnoletti, Riziero; Alberelli, Anna; Babini, Alessandra; De Vita, Paolo


    The Core-lab of the Greater Romagna Area Hub Laboratory carries out about 250,000 capillary electrophoresis assays/year. The huge workload demands the assessing of an Experimental Expert System (EES) capable to sort out the negative samples. Capillarys 2 analyzer has been employed coupled with an EES (based on five simple rules) integrated with the electrophoretic test management software PhoresisCore for assessing the entire workload of a week (5,683 samples). The classification was compared with that of two expert laboratorians. The expert system automatically classified 2974 profiles as negative and no positive samples were erroneously classified as negative (negative predictive value: 100%). The EES sensitivity was 100% and the FTE required for the validation was reduced from 1.26 to 0.63. The EES could be easily implemented in routine activity embedded in a middleware or directly running in the analyzer improving the workflow.

  1. An expert system for ranking companies and investments: wood industry case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hliadis Lazaros


    Full Text Available Wood industry is a very important part of both the Greek Rural and industrial sector. The discovery of the differentiation in the level of growth and in the quality of financial management between the Greek wood companies can provide very important aid in the design of an effective rural development policy. The evaluation and ranking of Greek wood companies based on actual financial data is a very complicated task and it requires expertise knowledge and skills. On the other hand a computer expert system can perform validation and evaluation in an efficient way and can substitute human experts. An expert system was designed and developed towards this direction. It uses multicriteria analysis for each one of the wood companies based on actual financial data and it applies fundamental principles of fuzzy logic in order to calculate the expected intervals of flows for the following years. .

  2. Goal-Directed Decision Structuring Systems. (United States)


    34 Entropy , Information and Rational Decisions", International Journal of Policy Analysis and Information Systems, Vol. 3, No. 1, pp. 93-109, July 1979. 2... nMC , mAwa 0a e j LA LJa c (mLAax tiwo CD ca a) (a PDk xi least some of the subjects plotted their preferred price for the current period not,as we

  3. A systems approach to vaccine decision making. (United States)

    Lee, Bruce Y; Mueller, Leslie E; Tilchin, Carla G


    Vaccines reside in a complex multiscale system that includes biological, clinical, behavioral, social, operational, environmental, and economical relationships. Not accounting for these systems when making decisions about vaccines can result in changes that have little effect rather than solutions, lead to unsustainable solutions, miss indirect (e.g., secondary, tertiary, and beyond) effects, cause unintended consequences, and lead to wasted time, effort, and resources. Mathematical and computational modeling can help better understand and address complex systems by representing all or most of the components, relationships, and processes. Such models can serve as "virtual laboratories" to examine how a system operates and test the effects of different changes within the system. Here are ten lessons learned from using computational models to bring more of a systems approach to vaccine decision making: (i) traditional single measure approaches may overlook opportunities; (ii) there is complex interplay among many vaccine, population, and disease characteristics; (iii) accounting for perspective can identify synergies; (iv) the distribution system should not be overlooked; (v) target population choice can have secondary and tertiary effects; (vi) potentially overlooked characteristics can be important; (vii) characteristics of one vaccine can affect other vaccines; (viii) the broader impact of vaccines is complex; (ix) vaccine administration extends beyond the provider level; and (x) the value of vaccines is dynamic. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Barangay Decision Support and Mapping System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy N. Tacuban


    Full Text Available The Barangay Decision Support and Mapping System aims to address the needs of the barangay for efficient information and decision processing. It allows the record of all the barangay residents and enables the user to create and edit the barangay map using the generally-accepted symbols or icons. It automates the barangay clearances, and permits. It allows the storage and retrieval of barangay-approved ordinances, meetings and resolutions. It records environmental problems and the solutions provided. The system also records cases of domestic violence, disputes and the actions taken by the concerned officials. Moreover, the system provides the necessary reports that can be used by the barangay officials for their barangay planning activities. The system’s functionality was tested by the Barangay Officials of San Miguel, Guimaras as respondents of the study. The respondents strongly agree that the system’s functionality conforms to their needs and requirements. With regards to the ease of use of the system as perceived by the respondents, the respondents agreed that the study is easy to use and the interface of the system is well designed. The reliability and validity of the system was tested by five (5 ICT professionals using ISO 9126 standard. Based on their responses, the system’s evaluation shows that the system conforms to international standards and is therefore valid and reliable to use.

  5. Practical problems in aggregating expert opinions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Booker, J.M.; Picard, R.R.; Meyer, M.A.


    Expert opinion is data given by a qualified person in response to a technical question. In these analyses, expert opinion provides information where other data are either sparse or non-existent. Improvements in forecasting result from the advantageous addition of expert opinion to observed data in many areas, such as meteorology and econometrics. More generally, analyses of large, complex systems often involve experts on various components of the system supplying input to a decision process; applications include such wide-ranging areas as nuclear reactor safety, management science, and seismology. For large or complex applications, no single expert may be knowledgeable enough about the entire application. In other problems, decision makers may find it comforting that a consensus or aggregation of opinions is usually better than a single opinion. Many risk and reliability studies require a single estimate for modeling, analysis, reporting, and decision making purposes. For problems with large uncertainties, the strategy of combining as diverse a set of experts as possible hedges against underestimation of that uncertainty. Decision makers are frequently faced with the task of selecting the experts and combining their opinions. However, the aggregation is often the responsibility of an analyst. Whether the decision maker or the analyst does the aggregation, the input for it, such as providing weights for experts or estimating other parameters, is imperfect owing to a lack of omniscience. Aggregation methods for expert opinions have existed for over thirty years; yet many of the difficulties with their use remain unresolved. The bulk of these problem areas are summarized in the sections that follow: sensitivities of results to assumptions, weights for experts, correlation of experts, and handling uncertainties. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the sources of these problems and describe their effects on aggregation.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Олег Николаевич ГУЦА


    Full Text Available State-of-the-art decision support systems (DSS used in project management are mainly based on quantitative methods. However, formal methods of modern mathematics alone are not capable of being a universal means of solving all practical problems in this area. Due to their limited capabilities and lack of statistical and other relevant information, economic-mathematical methods find limited application in management and marketing. In addition, there are few reliable validation and verification methods available. On the other hand, expert assessment methods are free of these disadvantages and are almost the only way to solve this type of problem. Advantages of this approach include simplicity of prediction in nearly every case and excellent performance in incomplete information scenarios. This work presents a new information technology which generates a DSS, based on qualitative methods of verbal decision analysis. The authors propose certain modifications to the method of ordinary classification. The proposed technology is implemented as a web application, which is used to design a system that evaluates the probability of a successful project.

  7. [Use of spreadsheets as decision support systems in health care]. (United States)

    Sabanović, Z; Masic, I


    During the last decade the spreadsheets take very important place in many different kind of theoretical and practical applications. In recent years the PC-Windows Operating System allowed us to use and develop many sorts of specialised software packages, as well as expert packages, applicable in medicine. The relationship or communication between man and computer has been improved using new hardware configuration based on fast and intelligent processors, software modification and audio-visual technology. The facts mentioned above have instantly produced circumstances for more powerful spreadsheet software. According to powerful spreadsheet features we can utilise calculation and maximise HIGM requirement for our software configuration. The investigation within large area of Tuzla-Podrinje Kanton shows us that small number of people are using spreadsheet in medical application. Very small percentage of people have limited number of applications on calculation like, subtraction, addition, multiplication, division and percentage. They have often used spreadsheet as an integral part of the following software packages, EXCEL ver. 5.0 and very little Lotus 1-2-3 because Lotus is in these days behind. The aim of this paper is to highlight application of the spreadsheet USING EXCEL software package. Apart from simple calculation and graphic presentation in "DSS-Decision making support system" can be used for model simulation, generator configuration, management monitoring, support and decision making in health care.

  8. Decision support system for structure synthesis of monitoring systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skatkov A. V.


    Full Text Available The paper is concerned with a structure synthesis of monitoring systems. In the article a decision support system for such synthesis was proposed and described. In the first phase of the process, the proposed classification of monitoring systems is used. Then adaptive algorithms, simulation and analytic modeling are used. The results of studies carried out by means of the proposed program are represented. The topicality of proposed approach was demonstrated. It should be mentioned, that algorithms were thoroughly described, the computing experiments were carried out. The authors believe that the proposed decision support system has many advantages and, consequently, is very useful in structure synthesis of monitoring systems.

  9. Integrating conventional classifiers with a GIS expert system to increase the accuracy of invasive species mapping (United States)

    Masocha, Mhosisi; Skidmore, Andrew K.


    Mapping the cover of invasive species using remotely sensed data alone is challenging, because many invaders occur as mid-level canopy species or as subtle understorey species and therefore contribute little to the spectral signatures captured by passive remote sensing devices. In this study, two common non-parametric classifiers namely, the neural network and support vector machine were used to map four cover classes of the invasive shrub Lantana camara in a protected game reserve and the adjacent area under communal land management in Zimbabwe. These classifiers were each combined with a geographic information system (GIS) expert system, in order to test whether the new hybrid classifiers yielded significantly more accurate invasive species cover maps than the single classifiers. The neural network, when used on its own, mapped the cover of L. camara with an overall accuracy of 71% and a Kappa index of agreement of 0.61. When the neural network was combined with an expert system, the overall accuracy and Kappa index of agreement significantly increased to 83% and 0.77, respectively. Similarly, the support vector machine achieved an overall accuracy of 64% with a Kappa index of agreement of 0.52, whereas the hybrid support vector machine and expert system classifier achieved a significantly higher overall accuracy of 76% and a Kappa index of agreement of 0.67. These results suggest that integrating conventional image classifiers with an expert system increases the accuracy of invasive species mapping.

  10. Reactive Software Agent Anesthesia Decision Support System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grant H. Kruger


    Full Text Available Information overload of the anesthesiologist through technological advances have threatened the safety of patients under anesthesia in the operating room (OR. Traditional monitoring and alarm systems provide independent, spatially distributed indices of patient physiological state. This creates the potential to distract caregivers from direct patient care tasks. To address this situation, a novel reactive agent decision support system with graphical human machine interface was developed. The system integrates the disparate data sources available in the operating room, passes the data though a decision matrix comprising a deterministic physiologic rule base established through medical research. Patient care is improved by effecting change to the care environment by displaying risk factors and alerts as an intuitive color coded animation. The system presents a unified, contextually appropriate snapshot of the patient state including current and potential risk factors, and alerts of critical patient events to the operating room team without requiring any user intervention. To validate the efficacy of the system, a retrospective analysis focusing on the hypotension rules were performed. Results show that even with vigilant and highly trained clinicians, deviations from ideal patient care exist and it is here that the proposed system may allow more standardized and improved patient care and potentially outcomes.

  11. Context-sensitive autoassociative memories as expert systems in medical diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivera Fernando


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The complexity of our contemporary medical practice has impelled the development of different decision-support aids based on artificial intelligence and neural networks. Distributed associative memories are neural network models that fit perfectly well to the vision of cognition emerging from current neurosciences. Methods We present the context-dependent autoassociative memory model. The sets of diseases and symptoms are mapped onto a pair of basis of orthogonal vectors. A matrix memory stores the associations between the signs and symptoms, and their corresponding diseases. A minimal numerical example is presented to show how to instruct the memory and how the system works. In order to provide a quick appreciation of the validity of the model and its potential clinical relevance we implemented an application with real data. A memory was trained with published data of neonates with suspected late-onset sepsis in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU. A set of personal clinical observations was used as a test set to evaluate the capacity of the model to discriminate between septic and non-septic neonates on the basis of clinical and laboratory findings. Results We show here that matrix memory models with associations modulated by context can perform automatic medical diagnosis. The sequential availability of new information over time makes the system progress in a narrowing process that reduces the range of diagnostic possibilities. At each step the system provides a probabilistic map of the different possible diagnoses to that moment. The system can incorporate the clinical experience, building in that way a representative database of historical data that captures geo-demographical differences between patient populations. The trained model succeeds in diagnosing late-onset sepsis within the test set of infants in the NICU: sensitivity 100%; specificity 80%; percentage of true positives 91%; percentage of true negatives 100

  12. International recommendations for national patient safety incident reporting systems: an expert Delphi consensus-building process. (United States)

    Howell, Ann-Marie; Burns, Elaine M; Hull, Louise; Mayer, Erik; Sevdalis, Nick; Darzi, Ara


    Patient safety incident reporting systems (PSRS) have been established for over a decade, but uncertainty remains regarding the role that they can and ought to play in quantifying healthcare-related harm and improving care. To establish international, expert consensus on the purpose of PSRS regarding monitoring and learning from incidents and developing recommendations for their future role. After a scoping review of the literature, semi-structured interviews with experts in PSRS were conducted. Based on these findings, a survey-based questionnaire was developed and subsequently completed by a larger expert panel. Using a Delphi approach, consensus was reached regarding the ideal role of PSRSs. Recommendations for best practice were devised. Forty recommendations emerged from the Delphi procedure on the role and use of PSRS. Experts agreed reporting system should not be used as an epidemiological tool to monitor the rate of harm over time or to appraise the relative safety of hospitals. They agreed reporting is a valuable mechanism for identifying organisational safety needs. The benefit of a national system was clear with respect to medication error, device failures, hospital-acquired infections and never events as these problems often require solutions at a national level. Experts recommended training for senior healthcare professionals in incident investigation. Consensus recommendation was for hospitals to take responsibility for creating safety solutions locally that could be shared nationally. We obtained reasonable consensus among experts on aims and specifications of PSRS. This information can be used to reflect on existing and future PSRS, and their role within the wider patient safety landscape. The role of PSRS as instruments for learning needs to be elaborated and developed further internationally. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

  13. An Application of Expert System For Diagnozing Endoparsitism Gastrointestinal Disease In Livestock Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusdi Efendi


    Full Text Available Abstract The goal of this research is to make an expert system as a tool for diagnozing endoparsitism gastrointestinal disease for cows and sheep. The knowledge base of the system has been acquired from some interviews with some doctors from the internal diseases animal's unit at Animal's Hospital, Gadjah Mada University Jogjakarta, some text books, journals, and research papers. The inference machine of the system uses Forward Chaining and uncertainty data methods using Dempster-Shafer Theory. The system has a consultation session with an interactive dialog that can be used by the users. A user gives information such as user's data, and answers the questions about the endoparsitism gastrointestinal symptoms that might be had by his animal. From the answers, the system computes the possibility of the animal to suffer from endoparsitism gastrointestinal, informs the life cycle parasites, and suggests a therapy for it. Keywords : Expert System, diagnoze, endoparsitism gastrointestinal disease, Forward chaining method, Dempster-Shafer Teary

  14. Formative evaluation of the accuracy of a clinical decision support system for cervical cancer screening. (United States)

    Wagholikar, Kavishwar Balwant; MacLaughlin, Kathy L; Kastner, Thomas M; Casey, Petra M; Henry, Michael; Greenes, Robert A; Liu, Hongfang; Chaudhry, Rajeev


    We previously developed and reported on a prototype clinical decision support system (CDSS) for cervical cancer screening. However, the system is complex as it is based on multiple guidelines and free-text processing. Therefore, the system is susceptible to failures. This report describes a formative evaluation of the system, which is a necessary step to ensure deployment readiness of the system. Care providers who are potential end-users of the CDSS were invited to provide their recommendations for a random set of patients that represented diverse decision scenarios. The recommendations of the care providers and those generated by the CDSS were compared. Mismatched recommendations were reviewed by two independent experts. A total of 25 users participated in this study and provided recommendations for 175 cases. The CDSS had an accuracy of 87% and 12 types of CDSS errors were identified, which were mainly due to deficiencies in the system's guideline rules. When the deficiencies were rectified, the CDSS generated optimal recommendations for all failure cases, except one with incomplete documentation. The crowd-sourcing approach for construction of the reference set, coupled with the expert review of mismatched recommendations, facilitated an effective evaluation and enhancement of the system, by identifying decision scenarios that were missed by the system's developers. The described methodology will be useful for other researchers who seek rapidly to evaluate and enhance the deployment readiness of complex decision support systems.

  15. Offside Decisions by Expert Assistant Referees in Association Football: Perception and Recall of Spatial Positions in Complex Dynamic Events (United States)

    Gilis, Bart; Helsen, Werner; Catteeuw, Peter; Wagemans, Johan


    This study investigated the offside decision-making process in association football. The first aim was to capture the specific offside decision-making skills in complex dynamic events. Second, we analyzed the type of errors to investigate the factors leading to incorrect decisions. Federation Internationale de Football Association (FIFA; n = 29)…

  16. Induced seismicity hazard and risk by enhanced geothermal systems: an expert elicitation approach


    Trutnevyte, Evelina; Azevedo, Ines L


    Induced seismicity is a concern for multiple geoenergy applications, including low-carbon Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS). We present results of an international expert elicitation (N=14) on EGS induced seismicity hazard and risk. Using a hypothetical scenario of an EGS plant and its geological context, we show that expert best-guess estimates of annualized exceedance probabilities of a M≥3 event range from 0.2% to 95% during reservoir stimulation and 0.2% to 100% during operation. Best-gue...

  17. Students as Expert System Developers: A Means of Eliciting and Understanding Commonsense Reasoning. (United States)

    Law, Nancy; Ogborn, Jon


    Discussion of learners' prior knowledge focuses on a method for exploring common-sense reasoning by engaging secondary school students in the development of an expert system representing their own intuitive expertise. Students' intuitive concerns are discussed; patterns of reasoning are examined; and epistemic planes are described. (23 references)…

  18. Cloud-Based Environmental Impact Assessment Expert System – A Case Study of Fiji


    Sam Goundar


    Environmental impact assessments [EIA] involve identifying, measuring, and assessing impacts. This complex process deals with considerable amount of information and requires processing and analysis of quantitative data, qualitative information as well as expert human judgements. Often, available information is incomplete, subjective, and inconsistent. This challenge of collecting, processing, analyzing, and reporting EIA information can be met by computer systems. A Cloud-based Environmental ...


    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nebojša Rašović; Adisa Vučina; Milenko Obad


    ...: CAD, expert system, additive technology, reverse engineering INTRODUCTION The design process requires multiple phases of the product development[1]. The new parts, configurations and assemblies are presented by some kind of rules, equations and schemes. Each one represents something new and unique [2]. Different approaches have been taken with the ai...

  20. Potential applications of expert systems and operations research to space station logistics functions (United States)

    Lippiatt, Thomas F.; Waterman, Donald


    The applicability of operations research, artificial intelligence, and expert systems to logistics problems for the space station were assessed. Promising application areas were identified for space station logistics. A needs assessment is presented and a specific course of action in each area is suggested.

  1. Evaluation of using expert system features in information retrieval in Iranian digital library software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzad Shahbazi


    Originality/Value: The research prepared a checklist for evaluation of Digital Library software’s in expert systems context. Also the funded results can be helpful for the software providers to resolve the weakness and reinforce the strengths of software’s.

  2. An expert system for estimating production rates and costs for hardwood group-selection harvests (United States)

    Chris B. LeDoux; B. Gopalakrishnan; R. S. Pabba


    As forest managers shift their focus from stands to entire ecosystems alternative harvesting methods such as group selection are being used increasingly. Results of several field time and motion studies and simulation runs were incorporated into an expert system for estimating production rates and costs associated with harvests of group-selection units of various size...

  3. FOREX - an expert system for managing even-aged upland oak forests on steep terrain (United States)

    Chris B. LeDoux; B. Gopalakrishnan; K. Lankalapalli


    An expert system, FOREX, was developed to access the data from the database management provided by MANAGE. For a specific site index, the user of FOREX can obtain information on present net worth, optimal thinning entry timing, optimal stand rotation age, diameter at breast height, volume by grade and value of the trees harvested, and based on the cable yarder used,...

  4. The Advantages of Abstract Control Knowledge in Expert System Design. Technical Report #7. (United States)

    Clancey, William J.

    This paper argues that an important design principle for building expert systems is to represent all control knowledge abstractly and separately from the domain knowledge upon which it operates. Abstract control knowledge is defined as the specifications of when and how a program is to carry out its operations, such as pursuing a goal, focusing,…

  5. Causal Systems Categories: Differences in Novice and Expert Categorization of Causal Phenomena (United States)

    Rottman, Benjamin M.; Gentner, Dedre; Goldwater, Micah B.


    We investigated the understanding of causal systems categories--categories defined by common causal structure rather than by common domain content--among college students. We asked students who were either novices or experts in the physical sciences to sort descriptions of real-world phenomena that varied in their causal structure (e.g., negative…

  6. Expert Meeting Report. Recommendations for Applying Water Heaters in Combination Space and Domestic Water Heating Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudd, A. [Building Science Corporation (BSC), Somerville, MA (United States); Ueno, K. [Building Science Corporation (BSC), Somerville, MA (United States); Bergey, D. [Building Science Corporation (BSC), Somerville, MA (United States); Osser, R. [Building Science Corporation (BSC), Somerville, MA (United States)


    This Building America expert meeting was held on 7/31/2011, in Westford, Massachusetts. Presentations and discussions centered on the design, performance, and maintenance of these combination systems, with the goal of developing foundational information toward the development of a Building America Measure Guideline on this topic.

  7. Collaborative update of a rule-based expert system for HIV-1 genotypic resistance test interpretation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paredes, Roger; Tzou, Philip L.; van Zyl, Gert; Barrow, Geoff; Camacho, Ricardo; Carmona, Sergio; Grant, Philip M.; Gupta, Ravindra K.; Hamers, Raph L.; Harrigan, P. Richard; Jordan, Michael R.; Kantor, Rami; Katzenstein, David A.; Kuritzkes, Daniel R.; Maldarelli, Frank; Otelea, Dan; Wallis, Carole L.; Schapiro, Jonathan M.; Shafer, Robert W.


    HIV-1 genotypic resistance test (GRT) interpretation systems (IS) require updates as new studies on HIV-1 drug resistance are published and as treatment guidelines evolve. An expert panel was created to provide recommendations for the update of the Stanford HIV Drug Resistance Database (HIVDB)

  8. Decision Performance Using Spatial Decision Support Systems: A Geospatial Reasoning Ability Perspective (United States)

    Erskine, Michael A.


    As many consumer and business decision makers are utilizing Spatial Decision Support Systems (SDSS), a thorough understanding of how such decisions are made is crucial for the information systems domain. This dissertation presents six chapters encompassing a comprehensive analysis of the impact of geospatial reasoning ability on…

  9. A development process meta-model for Web based expert systems: The Web engineering point of view

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dokas, I.M.; Alapetite, Alexandre


    raised their complexity. Unfortunately, there is so far no clear answer to the question: How may the methods and experience of Web engineering and expert systems be combined and applied in order todevelop effective and successful Web based expert systems? In an attempt to answer this question......, a development process meta-model for Web based expert systems will be presented. Based on this meta-model, a publicly available Web based expert systemcalled Landfill Operation Management Advisor (LOMA) was developed. In addition, the results of an accessibility evaluation on LOMA – the first ever reported...... on Web based expert systems – will be presented. The idea behind the presentation of theaccessibility evaluation and its conclusions is to show to Web based expert system developers, who typically have little Web engineering background, that Web engineering issues must be considered when developing Web...

  10. A Benchmark Usability Study of the Tactical Decision Making Under Stress Decision Support System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schmorrow, Dylan


    This study evaluates the usability of a U.S. Navy Decision Support System (DSS). The DSS was developed to enhance the performance of tactical decision makers within a Navy Combat Information Center...

  11. New screening system for unruptured cerebral aneurysms; Combination of an expert system and DSA examination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samejima, Hirotsugu; Ushikubo, Yukio; Mizokami, Toru (Toho Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine) (and others)


    We have designed a screening system to diagnose unruptured aneurysms, including the use of digital subtraction angiography (DSA). We surveyed 115 patients who had undergone clipping procedures after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and questioned them with regard to the subjective symptoms. Sixty-eight of 92 patients who returned the questionnaire reported, prior to rupture, headache,eye pain, and neck pain most frequently, and also impairment of extraocular movements, ptosis, visual field defects, and motor and sensory disturbances. Nineteen (47.5%) of 40 patients who had complete pain relief after surgery complained of headache from 1 week to 1 month before SAH. In addition, nine patients (22.5%) complained of headache for several years, and were also pain-free after surgery. For the indication of DSA, we employed an expert system based on fuzzy set theory. Seven groups of parameters are: Group 1, a basic questionnaire concerning age, sex, and past and family histories; Group 2, 15 warning signs selected on the basis of retrospective study; and Groups 3-7, detailed questions concerning each sign. Scoring weights assigned to each condition based on the results of the retrospective study, and threshold values were determined by several neurosurgeons. The certainty factors for intermediate hypotheses were calculated from these weights and threshold values and summed up, from which the conclusion was obtained. Twelve new cases of unruptured cerebral aneurysm were diagnosed using this screening system. This system may improve the ability to diagnose cerebral aneurysms before rupture. (author).

  12. Decision Support System for a Low Voltage Renewable Energy System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulia Stamatescu


    Full Text Available This paper presents the development of a decision support system (DSS for a low-voltage grid with renewable energy sources (photovoltaic panels and wind turbine which aims at achieving energy balance in a pilot microgrid with less energy consumed from the network. The DSS is based on a procedural decision algorithm that is applied on a pilot microgrid, with energy produced from renewable energy sources, but it can be easily generalized for any microgrid. To underline the benefits of the developed DSS two case scenarios (a household and an office building with different energy consumptions were analyzed. The results and throw added value of the paper is the description of an implemented microgrid, the development and testing of the decision support system on real measured data. Experimental results have demonstrated the validity of the approach in rule-based decision switching.

  13. The blackboard model - A framework for integrating multiple cooperating expert systems (United States)

    Erickson, W. K.


    The use of an artificial intelligence (AI) architecture known as the blackboard model is examined as a framework for designing and building distributed systems requiring the integration of multiple cooperating expert systems (MCXS). Aerospace vehicles provide many examples of potential systems, ranging from commercial and military aircraft to spacecraft such as satellites, the Space Shuttle, and the Space Station. One such system, free-flying, spaceborne telerobots to be used in construction, servicing, inspection, and repair tasks around NASA's Space Station, is examined. The major difficulties found in designing and integrating the individual expert system components necessary to implement such a robot are outlined. The blackboard model, a general expert system architecture which seems to address many of the problems found in designing and building such a system, is discussed. A progress report on a prototype system under development called DBB (Distributed BlackBoard model) is given. The prototype will act as a testbed for investigating the feasibility, utility, and efficiency of MCXS-based designs developed under the blackboard model.

  14. Intelligent decision support systems for mechanical ventilation. (United States)

    Tehrani, Fleur T; Roum, James H


    An overview of different methodologies used in various intelligent decision support systems (IDSSs) for mechanical ventilation is provided. The applications of the techniques are compared in view of today's intensive care unit (ICU) requirements. Information available in the literature is utilized to provide a methodological review of different systems. Comparisons are made of different systems developed for specific ventilation modes as well as those intended for use in wider applications. The inputs and the optimized parameters of different systems are discussed and rule-based systems are compared to model-based techniques. The knowledge-based systems used for closed-loop control of weaning from mechanical ventilation are also described. Finally, in view of increasing trend towards automation of mechanical ventilation, the potential utility of intelligent advisory systems for this purpose is discussed. IDSSs for mechanical ventilation can be quite helpful to clinicians in today's ICU settings. To be useful, such systems should be designed to be effective, safe, and easy to use at patient's bedside. In particular, these systems must be capable of noise removal, artifact detection and effective validation of data. Systems that can also be adapted for closed-loop control/weaning of patients at the discretion of the clinician, may have a higher potential for use in the future.

  15. How to guide - transit operations decision support systems (TODSS). (United States)


    Transit Operations Decision Support Systems (TODSS) are decision support systems designed to support dispatchers in real-time bus operations : management in response to incidents, special events, and other changing conditions in order to restore serv...

  16. An expert system for integrated structural analysis and design optimization for aerospace structures (United States)


    The results of a research study on the development of an expert system for integrated structural analysis and design optimization is presented. An Object Representation Language (ORL) was developed first in conjunction with a rule-based system. This ORL/AI shell was then used to develop expert systems to provide assistance with a variety of structural analysis and design optimization tasks, in conjunction with procedural modules for finite element structural analysis and design optimization. The main goal of the research study was to provide expertise, judgment, and reasoning capabilities in the aerospace structural design process. This will allow engineers performing structural analysis and design, even without extensive experience in the field, to develop error-free, efficient and reliable structural designs very rapidly and cost-effectively. This would not only improve the productivity of design engineers and analysts, but also significantly reduce time to completion of structural design. An extensive literature survey in the field of structural analysis, design optimization, artificial intelligence, and database management systems and their application to the structural design process was first performed. A feasibility study was then performed, and the architecture and the conceptual design for the integrated 'intelligent' structural analysis and design optimization software was then developed. An Object Representation Language (ORL), in conjunction with a rule-based system, was then developed using C++. Such an approach would improve the expressiveness for knowledge representation (especially for structural analysis and design applications), provide ability to build very large and practical expert systems, and provide an efficient way for storing knowledge. Functional specifications for the expert systems were then developed. The ORL/AI shell was then used to develop a variety of modules of expert systems for a variety of modeling, finite element analysis, and

  17. SESAM-DIABETE, an expert system for insulin-requiring diabetic patient education. (United States)

    Levy, M; Ferrand, P; Chirat, V


    SESAM-DIABETE is an interactive educational expert system that provides personalized advice and therapeutic recommendations for insulin-requiring diabetic patients. Because of its sophisticated explanation facilities, this system is intended to complete the more traditional educational tools for diabetic patients. It has been developed using an original essential expert system, namely SESAM, itself implemented in an upper-layer of Lisp, MBX. Its control structure uses a top-down strategy to solve a problem; i.e., it decomposes the current problem into subproblems easier to solve, this method being recursively applied to each subproblem. All information about patients is kept in a Patient Medical Record, which allows their follow-up. This system is currently available from their home for selected patients through the French telematic network TELETEL and is under clinical evaluation.

  18. Developing Expert System for Tuberculosis Diagnose to Support Knowledge Sharing in the Era of National Health Insurance System (United States)

    Lidya, L.


    National Health Insurance has been implemented since 1st January 2014. A number of new policies have been established including multilevel referral system. The multilevel referral system classified health care center into three levels, it determined that the flow of patient treatment should be started from first level health care center. There are 144 kind of diseases that must be treat in the first level which mainly consists of general physicians. Unfortunately, competence of the physician in the first level may not fulfil the standard competence yet. To improved the physisians knowledge, government has created many events to accelerate knowledge sharing. However, it still needs times and many resources to give significan results. Expert system is kind of software that provide consulting services to non-expert users in accordance with the area of its expertise. It can improved effectivity and efficiency of knowledge sharing and learning. This research was developed a model of TB diagnose expert system which comply with the standard procedure of TB diagnosis and regulation. The proposed expert system has characteristics as follows provide facility to manage multimedia clinical data, supporting the complexity of TB diagnosis (combine rule-based and case-based expert system), interactive interface, good usability, multi-platform, evolutionary.

  19. An Expert System for Diagnosis of Sleep Disorder Using Fuzzy Rule-Based Classification Systems (United States)

    Septem Riza, Lala; Pradini, Mila; Fitrajaya Rahman, Eka; Rasim


    Sleep disorder is an anomaly that could cause problems for someone’ sleeping pattern. Nowadays, it becomes an issue since people are getting busy with their own business and have no time to visit the doctors. Therefore, this research aims to develop a system used for diagnosis of sleep disorder using Fuzzy Rule-Based Classification System (FRBCS). FRBCS is a method based on the fuzzy set concepts. It consists of two steps: (i) constructing a model/knowledge involving rulebase and database, and (ii) prediction over new data. In this case, the knowledge is obtained from experts whereas in the prediction stage, we perform fuzzification, inference, and classification. Then, a platform implementing the method is built with a combination between PHP and the R programming language using the “Shiny” package. To validate the system that has been made, some experiments have been done using data from a psychiatric hospital in West Java, Indonesia. Accuracy of the result and computation time are 84.85% and 0.0133 seconds, respectively.

  20. A baseline expert control system for marine gas turbine compressor surge


    Davitt, James A.


    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited United States Navy gas turbine ships are in need of casualty control system updating to reduce demanding conditions on engineering watch standers, to increase equipment longevity, and reduce operating costs. This thesis presents a baseline computer-based expert system controller concept developed for the critical casualty control problem of gas turbine compressor surge. The controller design rests on the building-block components of re...