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Sample records for experimentations nucleaires aspects

  1. The atolls of Mururoa and Fangataufa (French Polynesia). The nuclear testings. Radiological aspects; Les atolls de Mururoa et de Fangataufa (Polynesie Francaise). Les experimentations nucleaires. Aspects radiologiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, G

    2007-07-01

    This report provides a review of the radiological measures implemented during the thirty year period of French nuclear tests in Polynesian atolls of Mururoa and Fangataufa. It presents full details of the practices deployed throughout these tests, including, in particular, aspects concerning radiological protection for the population and the environment. It contains all the scientific results and measurements of radioactivity performed during this period, providing concrete facts that can be used to assess the consequences these tests have had on the personnel involved, the population and the environment. (author)

  2. The experimental nuclear reactor: AQUILON; Le reacteur nucleaire experimental: AQUILON

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girard, Y; Koechlin, J C; Moreau, J M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    'Aquilon' is an experimental reactor specially designed for the neutronic study of heterogeneous multiplying media with solid fuel and liquid moderator. Since this study is in general incompatible with energy production, the power of the reactor has been limited to a minimum so as to be able to obtain a simple and compact structure, easy access, good handling and great flexibility of operation and utilisation. (author) [French] 'Aquilon' est un reacteur experimental specialement concu pour l'etude neutronique de milieux multiplicateurs heterogenes a combustible solide et ralentisseur liquide. Cette etude etant en general incompatible avec la production d'energie, on a limite au minimum la puissance du reacteur pour pouvoir obtenir une structure simple et peu encombrante, un acces facile, une bonne maniabilite et une grande souplesse de fonctionnement et d'utilisation. (auteur)

  3. Some aspects of the nuclear fission process; Quelques aspects du processus de fission nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Netter, F [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    In the following report one can find first a short general view on the present situation of our knowledge concerning the nuclear fission process, namely on the nucleus going through the saddle-point. Then there are some aspects connected with the excitation energy of the fissioning nucleus. The measurements made at Saclay on the fast neutron fission cross-section of U{sup 233}, U{sup 235}, Pu{sup 239}, U{sup 238} are described at the beginning of this work. It appears that for U{sup 233} there is some characteristic shape modulation of the cross-section curve, in relation with the collective excited state of the deformed nucleus at the saddle-point. Good evidence of this is also given by the study of the relative fission rate with emission of long-range particles; it appears also that this ternary fission rate does not change substantially for neutron between thermal energy and 2 MeV, but that is very lower for the compound nucleus U{sup 239} than for even-even compound nuclei. At the end there are some experiments on the strong 4,5 MeV gamma-ray originated by slow neutron absorption in U{sup 235}. Time-of-flight device is used to establish that this 4,5 MeV gamma-ray seems mostly connected with radiative capture. (author) [French] Le present travail debute par un apercu de l'etat actuel de nos connaissances sur le processus de fission nucleaire, notamment sur le passage par le point-seuil. Puis sont evoques des aspects lies au niveau d'energie d'excitation auquel est porte le noyau qui subit la fission. Les mesures de sections efficaces de fission induite dans {sup 233}U, {sup 235}U, {sup 239}Pu et {sup 238}U par des neutrons rapides effectuees a Saclay sont decrites en premier lieu; elles font apparaitre pour {sup 233}U une ondulation caracteristique du role des etats collectifs d'excitation du noyau deforme au point-seuil. Des experiences sur la fission avec emission de particules de long parcours confirment cet aspect tout en demontrant que la frequence

  4. Knockout reactions: experimental aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortina Gil, D. [Santiago de Compostela Univ. (Spain)

    2007-07-01

    The availability of radioactive beams has given rise to intense activity in the field of direct reactions. The removal of one(two)-nucleon (referred to as nucleon knockout in this text) from a fast exotic projectile has been extensively investigated. This lecture provides a general overview of the experimental results achieved using this technique. The sensitivity of the method to different experimental aspects is illustrated with a few examples. Special attention is given to the application of nucleon-knockout reactions as a general purpose spectroscopic tool. (author)

  5. Knockout reactions: experimental aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortina Gil, D.

    2007-01-01

    The availability of radioactive beams has given rise to intense activity in the field of direct reactions. The removal of one(two)-nucleon (referred to as nucleon knockout in this text) from a fast exotic projectile has been extensively investigated. This lecture provides a general overview of the experimental results achieved using this technique. The sensitivity of the method to different experimental aspects is illustrated with a few examples. Special attention is given to the application of nucleon-knockout reactions as a general purpose spectroscopic tool. (author)

  6. Administrative Aspects of Human Experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine, George W.

    1992-01-01

    The following administrative aspects of scientific experimentation with human subjects are discussed: the definition of human experimentation; the distinction between experimentation and treatment; investigator responsibility; documentation; the elements and principles of informed consent; and the administrator's role in establishing and…

  7. Some fundamental aspects of boiling in nuclear reactors; Quelques aspects fondamentaux de l'ebullition dans les reacteurs nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mondin, H; Lavigne, P; Semeria, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    oscillation, the conditions of burnout are compared with those obtained under steady conditions. The burn-out flux following uniform 'stopped' heating has been studied in a channel containing still water. The flux shows a maximum as a function of unsaturation. The influence of the geometry and the nature of the metal was investigated. 4 - Output Oscillations: Using a low pressure (8 atm) loop, the influence of various parameters on the periods of output oscillations in a boiling channel on the thresholds at which they appear, was studied. Some new aspects of this complex phenomena were observed and are reported. (authors) [French] On indique les principaux resultats obtenus a Grenoble depuis quatre ans dans le domaine des mecanismes de l'ebullition et des phenomenes connexes dans les reacteurs nucleaires. 1 - OBSERVATION DE L'EBULLITION: Par photographie et cinematographie ultrarapide (8000 images par seconde maximum) on a observe l'ebullition en vase ou en canal jusqu'a 140 kg/cm{sup 2}. On a denombre les populations de germes (sites) generateurs de bulles et obtenu une correlation donnant leur nombre par unite de surface en fonction du flux thermique et de la pression. Le diametre des bulles se detachant de la paroi a ete etudie jusqu'a 140 kg/cm{sup 2}. On a mis en evidence trois types de bulles: - Les bulles en equilibre dont le diametre suit la formule de Fritz et Ende, - Les bulles d'ebullition dont le diametre diminue rapidement avec la pression (1/100 mm a 140 kg/cm{sup 2}), - Les coalescences apparaissant en liquide sature au-dessus de 15 W/cm{sup 2} et dont la proportion est independante de la pression. Par visualisation en strioscopie on observe les mouvements du film thermique associes a l'amorcage des germes, au depart et a la condensation des bulles; les mecanismes responsables de l'excellent transfert de chaleur ont pu ainsi etre precises. 2 - PERTES DE PRESSION EN ECOULEMENT DIPHASE: On a etabli un modele de variation continue du taux de vide dans un canal

  8. Experimental Aspects of Nuclear Interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slaus, I. [Institute ' ' Rudjer Boskovic' ' , Zagreb, Yugoslavia (Croatia)

    1970-07-15

    1. Introduction; 2. Basic features of nuclear interaction; 3. How accurate is our present knowledge of phase parameters? 4. Experimental problems in N-N scattering studies; 5. N-N potential models; 6. Some open problems in nuclear interaction studies. (author)

  9. Aspects of experimental particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCubbin, N.A.

    1986-11-01

    The paper contains three lectures on Experimental Particle Physics which were given at the 16th British Universities Summer School for Theoretical and Elementary Particle Physics, Durham, 1986. The first lecture briefly reviews the physics which underpins all particle detectors, and the second lecture describes how this physics influences a modern detector. The last lecture is concerned with the topics of beams and computers, and includes the physics of stochastic cooling and the Halting theorem. (U.K.)

  10. Systemic lupus erythematosus: Clinical and experimental aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smolen, J.S.

    1987-01-01

    This text covers questions related to the history, etiology, pathogenesis, clinical aspects and therapy of systematic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Both animal models and human SLE are considered. With regard to basic science, concise information on cellular immunology, autoantibodies, viral aspects and molecular biology in SLE is provided. Clinical topics then deal with medical, dermatologic, neurologic, radiologic, pathologic, and therapeutic aspects. The book not only presents the most recent information on clinical and experimental insights, but also looks at future aspects related to the diagnosis and therapy of SLE

  11. Exotic nuclei: another aspect of nuclear structure; Les noyaux exotiques: un autre regard sur la structure nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobaczewski, J [Warsaw Univ., Institute of Theoretical Physics (Poland); Blumenfeld, Y; Flocard, H; Garcia Borge, M J; Nowacki, F; Rombouts, S; Theisen, Ch; Marques, F M; Lacroix, D; Dessagne, P; Gaeggeler, H

    2002-07-01

    This document gathers the lectures made at the Joliot Curie international summer school in 2002 whose theme that year was exotic nuclei. There were 11 contributions whose titles are: 1) interactions, symmetry breaking and effective fields from quarks to nuclei; 2) status and perspectives for the study of exotic nuclei: experimental aspects; 3) the pairing interaction and the N = Z nuclei; 4) borders of stability region and exotic decays; 5) shell structure of nuclei: from stability to decay; 6) variational approach of system with a few nucleons; 7) from heavy to super-heavy nuclei; 8) halos, molecules and multi-neutrons; 9) macroscopic approaches for fusion reactions; 10) beta decay: a tool for spectroscopy; 11) the gas phase chemistry of super-heavy elements.

  12. New features of nuclear excitation by {alpha} particles scattering; Nouveaux aspects de l'excitation nucleaire par diffusion de particules {alpha}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saudinos, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1962-07-01

    Inelastic scattering of medium energy a particles by nuclei is known to excite preferentially levels of collective character. We have studied the scattering of isotopically enriched targets of Ca, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn. In part I, we discuss the theoretical features of the interaction. In part II, we describe the experimental procedure. Results are presented and analysed in part III. {alpha} particles scattering by Ca{sup 40} is showed to excite preferentially odd parity levels. In odd nuclei we have observed multiplets due to the coupling of the odd nucleon with the even-even core vibrations. For even-even nuclei, a few levels are excited with lower cross-sections between the well-known first 2{sup +} and 3{sup -} states. Some could be members of the two phonon quadrupole excitation and involve a double nuclear excitation process. (author) [French] On sait que la diffusion inelastique des particules alpha de moyenne energie excite preferentiellement des niveaux de caractere collectif. Nous avons etudie la diffusion des particules alpha de 44 MeV du cyclotron de Saclay par des isotopes separes de Ca, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn. Dans la premiere partie nous exposons les theories de cette interaction. Dans la seconde nous decrivons le systeme experimental. Les resultats sont donnes dans la troisieme partie. Nous montrons que les niveaux excites preferentiellement pour {sup 40}Ca par diffusion ({alpha},{alpha}') sont de parite negative. Dans les noyaux pair-impair nous avons observe des multiplets dus au couplage du nucleon celibataire avec les vibrations du coeur pair-pair. Pour les noyaux pair-pair nous avons pu etudier entre le premier niveau 2{sup +} et le niveau 3{sup -} deja bien connus certains etats plus faiblement excites. Il semble qu'ils sont dus a une excitation quadrupolaire a deux phonons et impliquent un processus de double excitation nucleaire. (auteur)

  13. Some aspects of nuclear graphite production in France; Etude generale sur les graphites nucleaires produits en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gueron, J; Hering, H [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Legendre, A [Pechiney, 75 - Paris (France)

    1958-07-01

    1) Manufacturing: A summary and results on the CEA-Pechiney purification process are given. Variations in the preparation of green pastes and their effects on graphitized material are described. 2) Physical and mechanical properties: Results are given on: - Statistics of dimensional variatior products having square cross-section. - Statistical variation of thermal expansion coefficients and of electrical conductivity. - Density of normals to carbon layer planes and their connexion with thermal expansion. - Stress-strain cycles and conclusions drawn therefrom. - Mechanical resistance and gas permeability of items for supporting fuel elements. 3) Behaviour under radiation: Alteration under radiation of French graphites irradiated either in G1 pile or in experimental piles, and thermal annealing of those alterations, are given. (author)Fren. [French] 1) Fabrication: On resume le procede d'epuration CEA-PECHINEY, ainsi que diverses modalites de preparation des pates et on expose les resultats obtenus. 2) Proprietes physiques et mecaniques: On indique le resultat d'etudes sur: - la statistique des dimensions de produits a section carree. - celle des variations des coefficients de dilatation thermique et de la conductibilite electrique. - la densite des normales aux plans graphitiques et leur connexion avec la dilatation thermique. - la compression mecanique du graphite. - la solidite mecanique et la permeabilite aux gaz de pieces destinees a supporter des cartouches de combustible. 3) Tenue sous rayonnement: Modification sous rayonnement des graphites fran is irradies soit dans la pile G1, soit dans des piles experimentales, et guerison thermique de ces modifications. (auteur)

  14. Recombinant vaccines: experimental and applied aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Niels

    1999-01-01

    Development of vaccines for aquaculture fish represent an important applied functional aspect of fish immunology research. Particularly in the case of recombinant vaccines, where a single antigen is usually expected to induce immunity to a specific pathogen, knowledge of mechanisms involved...... in induction of a protective immune response may become vital. The few recombinant vaccines licensd so far, despite much research during the last decade, illustrate that this is not a straightforward matter. However, as vaccine technology as well as our knowledge of the fish immune system is steadily improved......, these fields will open up a number of interesting research objectives of mutual benefit. Recent aspects of recombinant protein vaccines, live recombinant vaccines and DNA vaccines are discussed....

  15. Pancreatic islet transplantation. Experimental and clinical aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yderstræde, Knud Bonnet

    1987-01-01

    interest has been shown in transplantation of isolated islets either directly, introduced intraportally, intramuscularly, inter alia, or encapsulated in artificial devices providing an immuno-isolation. Clinical application has revealed promising results concerning the immunological aspects. However......, quantitative assessment points to a difficulty in achieving satisfactory amounts of islets to attain normoglycaemia. Work with fetal pancreata has shown these to possess a growth potential in vitro thus, possibly, aiding the quantification of islets in transplantation models. In the field of pancreatic islet...... transplantation, future models include microencapsulation and hybrid artificial devices, both of which provide immuno-isolation - thus the ability of allo- as well as xeno-transplantation. The obvious advantage of immuno-isolated islet transplant, as opposed to segmentally engrafted pancreas, is stressed...

  16. Instrumental and ethical aspects of experimental research with animal models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirian Watanabe

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Experimental animal models offer possibilities of physiology knowledge, pathogenesis of disease and action of drugs that are directly related to quality nursing care. This integrative review describes the current state of the instrumental and ethical aspects of experimental research with animal models, including the main recommendations of ethics committees that focus on animal welfare and raises questions about the impact of their findings in nursing care. Data show that, in Brazil, the progress in ethics for the use of animals for scientific purposes was consolidated with Law No. 11.794/2008 establishing ethical procedures, attending health, genetic and experimental parameters. The application of ethics in handling of animals for scientific and educational purposes and obtaining consistent and quality data brings unquestionable contributions to the nurse, as they offer subsidies to relate pathophysiological mechanisms and the clinical aspect on the patient.

  17. Experimental aspects concerning the laser action on the living tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciuchita, Tavi; Antipa, Ciprian; Stanescu, Constantin S.; Anghel, Sorin; Calugareanu, Mircea

    2001-06-01

    The paper presents some experimental methods of the treatment and investigation aspects and results concerning the interaction of the low energy laser (LEL) with living tissue in the treatment of some skin diseases: lichen ruber planus (LP) and infectious finger pulpits (IFP), scalp alopecia (SA) and crural ulcers (CU). We concluded that LEL therapy is a useful complementary method in the treatments of these skin diseases .

  18. Contribution to the experimental survey of the nuclear isomerism. Application of the deferred coincidences method to research and to the survey of metastable states of short period; Contribution a l'etude experimentale de l'isomerie nucleaire. Application de la methode des coincidences differees a la recherche et a l'etude d'etats metastables de periode courte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballini, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1953-06-15

    Various methods of the physics brought many informations on the nuclear elements which one can arrange some ponderable quantities, what is the case of the steady elements and some, unsteady elements, as most of natural radioelements. On the other hand, elements of shorter life duration, and notably those that are carried to an excited state, are more badly known, and one can get information to their consideration that by the mediator of the properties of the transitions that they undergo, when they give birth has best-known nuclear cash: among these transitions represent the isomeric transitions. The goal of this work is the survey of the isomeric transitions from metastable states of short period, included in the domain of the microsecond to some milliseconds. The method of the deferred coincidences has been put to the point and applied in this goal while using the advantages of the selectors to several channels, under two main aspects where the device to several channels was either a selector of time, either a selector of amplitudes. This method served to study the working of Geiger-Muller counter and to measure with precision the period of {sup 181}Ta{sup *} in of the varied experimental conditions. The adopted value is 17,2 {+-}0,2 {mu}s. This work also found an immediate practical application to the setting in evidence of very weak quantities of hafnium in zirconium, of which it constitutes a tenacious and difficult impurity to analyze by the ordinary ways. (M.B.) [French] Les diverses methodes de la physique ont apporte de nombreux renseignements sur les especes nucleaires dont on peut disposer en quantites ponderables, ce qui est le cas des especes stables et de certaines especes instables, comme la plupart des radioelements naturels. Par contre, les noyaux de duree de vie plus courte, et notamment ceux qui sont portes a un etat excite, sont plus mal connus, et on ne peut obtenir de renseignements a leur egard que par l'intermediaire des proprietes des

  19. Plutonium, nuclear fuel; Le plutonium, combustible nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grison, E [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay aux Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires, Saclay

    1960-07-01

    A review of the physical properties of metallic plutonium, its preparation, and the alloys which it forms with the main nuclear metals. Appreciation of its future as a nuclear fuel. (author) [French] Apercu sur les proprietes physiques du plutonium metallique, sa preparation, ses alliages avec les principaux metaux nucleaires. Consideration sur son avenir en tant que combustible nucleaire. (auteur)

  20. Experimental aspects of hypernuclear physics at CEBAF [Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mecking, B.A.

    1987-01-01

    The general features of the electromagnetic excitation of hypernuclei are outlined. Experimental aspects of investigating these reactions at CEBAF are discussed. Two specific experimental set-ups are compared. 17 refs., 6 figs

  1. Experimental gingivitis during pregnancy and post-partum: immunohistochemical aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raber-Durlacher, J. E.; Leene, W.; Palmer-Bouva, C. C.; Abraham-Inpijn, L.

    1993-01-01

    The histoimmunological response of 8 individuals was studied longitudinally in relation to the development of experimental gingivitis during pregnancy and post-partum. At day 0 as well as at day 14 of experimental gingivitis the mean periodontal pocket bleeding index (PPBI) was higher during

  2. The distribution coefficient concept and aspects on experimental distribution studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allard, B.; Andersson, K.; Torstenfelt, B.

    1983-01-01

    Aspects on the distribution coefficient concept, sorption mechanisms and measurements of sorption phenomena are given. The distribution constant was shown to be pH-dependent. The temperature dependence of the sorption has been studied. The influence of the liquid/solid ratio has been studied for Cs and Sr. (G.B.)

  3. some nutritional aspects of haemonchosis in experimentally infested ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    nutritional aberration has been described as anorexia in both pure (Evans, Blunt & Southcott, 1963) and mixed infestations where Haemonchus contortus was prominent. (Clark, Ortlepp, Bosman, Laurence, Groenewald & Quin,. 1951; Shumard et al. 1957). Further observations on nutritional aspects of a pure infestation of ...

  4. Some pathogenetic aspects of experimental pneumococcal meningitis in acute period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Pilipenko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Morphological displays of cerebral microcirculation derangements in a brain cortex with their semiquantitative estimation have been studied in experimental mice model of the first 24-72 hours period of pneumococcal meningitis.Also displays oxidative stress and activity antioxidative protectional system by means of definition of markers of these processes – malondialdehide, reduced glutathione and glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase activity have been investigated. The received results testify to morphological signs of the expressed derangements of cerebral microcirculation in a brain cortex already by first 24 hour of an experimental meningitis. The maximum expressiveness oxidative stress and activity antioxidative protectional system of reduced glutathione with the max activity of glucose-6-phosphatedehydrogenase in a mice brain cortex was noted at first 48hour durations of experimental disease. Signs of irreversible changes of mice cortex neurons are not revealed at 24–72-hour duration of experimental pneumococcal meningitis.

  5. Temperature dependence of OSL decay curves: Experimental and theoretical aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McKeever, S.W.S.; Bøtter-Jensen, L.; Agersnap Larsen, N.

    1997-01-01

    ; (2) thermally assisted optical stimulation; (3) thermal quenching; and (4) localized donor-acceptor type recombination. Experimental OSL data from natural quartz and feldspars, stimulated with both green and infra-red light, are examined in the light of the theoretical considerations. (C) 1997...

  6. The Giant Dipole Resonance in hot nuclei. Experimental aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alamanos, N.; Auger, F.

    1994-12-01

    Some of the most recent experimental results on the GDR in hot nuclei are presented. All data on the γ-decay of the GDR show a saturation of the apparent width and a saturation of the yield. However, it is not clear until now, if these effects are related to a GDR width which either saturates or increases continuously with the excitation energy. Very new data associated to selected exit channels could help to clarify the situation. (author). 14 refs., 7 figs

  7. Study of thick, nuclear-compensated silicon detectors; Etude des detecteurs epais au silicium compense nucleairement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Coroller, Y. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-09-01

    A study is made here, from the point of view of the realization and the performance, of thick nuclear-compensated silicon detectors. After recalling the need for compensation and reviewing the existing methods, the author describes in detail the controlled realization of thick detectors by nuclear compensation from the theoretical and experimental points of view. The practical precautions which should be observed are given: control of the homogeneity of the starting material, control of the evolution of the compensation, elimination of parasitic processes. The performances of the detectors obtained are then studied: electrical characteristics (current, life-time) on the one hand, detection and spectrometry of penetrating radiations on the other hand. The results show, that the compensated diodes having an effective thickness of two millimeters operate satisfactorily as detectors for applied voltages of about 500 volts. The resolutions observed are then about 2 per cent for mono-energetic electrons and about 4 per cent for the gamma; they can be improved by the use of a pre-amplifier of very low background noise. (author) [French] Les detecteurs epais au silicium compense nucleairement sont etudies ici du double point de vue realisation et performances. Apres un rappel sur la necessite de la compensation et les procedes existants, la realisation controlee des detecteurs epais par compensation nucleaire est decrite en detail sous l'aspect theorique et l'aspect experimental. On met en evidence les precautions a prendre dans la pratique: controle de l'homogeneite du materiau de base, controle de l'evolution de la compensation, elimination des processus parasites. On etudie ensuite les performances de detecteurs obtenus : caracteristiques electriques (courant, duree de vie) d'une part, d'autre part detection et spectrometrie des rayonnements penetrants. Les resultats montrent que les diodes compensees ayant une epaisseur utile de deux

  8. Study of thick, nuclear-compensated silicon detectors; Etude des detecteurs epais au silicium compense nucleairement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Coroller, Y [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-09-01

    A study is made here, from the point of view of the realization and the performance, of thick nuclear-compensated silicon detectors. After recalling the need for compensation and reviewing the existing methods, the author describes in detail the controlled realization of thick detectors by nuclear compensation from the theoretical and experimental points of view. The practical precautions which should be observed are given: control of the homogeneity of the starting material, control of the evolution of the compensation, elimination of parasitic processes. The performances of the detectors obtained are then studied: electrical characteristics (current, life-time) on the one hand, detection and spectrometry of penetrating radiations on the other hand. The results show, that the compensated diodes having an effective thickness of two millimeters operate satisfactorily as detectors for applied voltages of about 500 volts. The resolutions observed are then about 2 per cent for mono-energetic electrons and about 4 per cent for the gamma; they can be improved by the use of a pre-amplifier of very low background noise. (author) [French] Les detecteurs epais au silicium compense nucleairement sont etudies ici du double point de vue realisation et performances. Apres un rappel sur la necessite de la compensation et les procedes existants, la realisation controlee des detecteurs epais par compensation nucleaire est decrite en detail sous l'aspect theorique et l'aspect experimental. On met en evidence les precautions a prendre dans la pratique: controle de l'homogeneite du materiau de base, controle de l'evolution de la compensation, elimination des processus parasites. On etudie ensuite les performances de detecteurs obtenus : caracteristiques electriques (courant, duree de vie) d'une part, d'autre part detection et spectrometrie des rayonnements penetrants. Les resultats montrent que les diodes compensees ayant une epaisseur utile de deux millimetres fonctionnent

  9. Functional aspects of developmental toxicity of polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons in experimental animals and human infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, A.; Ahlborg, U. G.; van den Berg, M.; Birnbaum, L. S.; Boersma, E. R.; Bosveld, B.; Denison, M. S.; Gray, L. E.; Hagmar, L.; Holene, E.

    1995-01-01

    A scientific evaluation was made of functional aspects of developmental toxicity of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in experimental animals and in human infants. Persistent neurobehavioral, reproductive and

  10. Aspects of resistance to experimental infection with Trypanosoma cruzi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, Viviane Liotti

    2010-01-01

    Chagas disease, a zoonosis caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, has a wide distribution in Latin America and extends from the southern part of the United States to Argentina. A number of 10 million of infected people is estimated and another 25 million exposed to the risk. Although discovered over a century, Chagas disease is still a serious infection that causes great socioeconomic impact, with no effective treatment at the chronic phase and in which, a lack of scientific knowledge can be observed. The main goal of this work was that obtaining and using consomic strain of mice, the resistance could be investigated. Consomic strains were produced by programmed mating, in which the animals were monitored with DNA polymorphic markers, and one of his chromosomes was replaced by his homologue from another strain. As parental, were used, the inbred strains C57BL/6/J Unib with resistant phenotype (donor) and as receiver, the A/JUnib strain, that has a susceptible phenotype. These models were used to produce five consomic strains: for the chromosomes 7 (CSs7), 11 (CSs11), 14 (CSs14), 17 (CSs17) and 19 (CSs19), described by Passos et al. (2003) as important in controlling infection caused by the Y strain of T. cruzi. In experimental testing, the consomics were inoculated intraperitoneally at doses of 10 1 , 10 2 , 10 3 and 10 4 using as control, animals from both parental lines. In all consomics, resistance was higher than that observed in the susceptible parental. In a second protocol, the consomics were mated with scheduled associations and the progenies were challenged with inocula employing increasing doses of trypomastigotes. The resistance observed in this group was also higher than that observed in the parental with susceptible phenotype. The observed results demonstrate that the use of the consomic strains that were produced order to assess the contribution of each chromosome in the resistance, as well as the effects of association between chromosomes are an

  11. Experimental study of the hydrodynamic instabilities occurring in boiling-water reactors; Etude experimentale des instabilites hydrodynamiques survenant dans les reacteurs nucleaires a ebullition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabreca, S. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-10-01

    The subjects is an experimental out-of pile loop study of the hydrodynamic oscillations occurring in boiling-water reactors. The study was carried out at atmospheric pressure and at pressure of about 8 atmospheres, in channels heated electrically by a constant and uniform specified current. In the test at 8 atmospheres the channel was a round tube of approximately 6 mm interior diameter. At 1 atmosphere a ring-section channel was used, 10 * 20 mm in diameter, with an inner heating tube and an outer tube of pyrex. It was possible to operate with natural convection and also with forced convection with test-channel by-pass. The study consists of 3 parts: 1. Preliminary determination of the laws governing pressure-drop during boiling. 2. Determination of the fronts at which oscillation appears, within a wide range of the parameters involved. 3. A descriptive study of the oscillations and measurement of the periods. The report gives the oscillation fronts with natural and forced convection for various values of the singular pressure drop at the channel inlet and for various riser lengths. The results are presented in non-dimensional form, which is available, in first approximation, for all geometric scales and for all fluids. Besides the following points were observed: - the wall (nature and thickness) can be an important factor ; - oscillation can occur in a horizontal channel. (author) [French] II a ete effectue une etude experimentale, en boucle hors-pile, des oscillations hydrodynamiques survenant dans les reacteurs a ebullition. L'etude a ete effectuee a la pression atmospherique et a une pression voisine de 8 atmospheres dans des canaux chauffes electriquement a puissance imposee constante et uniforme. Dans les essais a 8 atmospheres le canal etait un tube circulaire de diametre interieur 6 mm environ. A 1 atmosphere le canal etait de section annulaire 10 * 20 mm avec un tube interieur chauffant et un tube exterieur en pyrex. Le fonctionnement etait possible

  12. Experimental study of the hydrodynamic instabilities occurring in boiling-water reactors; Etude experimentale des instabilites hydrodynamiques survenant dans les reacteurs nucleaires a ebullition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabreca, S [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-10-01

    The subjects is an experimental out-of pile loop study of the hydrodynamic oscillations occurring in boiling-water reactors. The study was carried out at atmospheric pressure and at pressure of about 8 atmospheres, in channels heated electrically by a constant and uniform specified current. In the test at 8 atmospheres the channel was a round tube of approximately 6 mm interior diameter. At 1 atmosphere a ring-section channel was used, 10 * 20 mm in diameter, with an inner heating tube and an outer tube of pyrex. It was possible to operate with natural convection and also with forced convection with test-channel by-pass. The study consists of 3 parts: 1. Preliminary determination of the laws governing pressure-drop during boiling. 2. Determination of the fronts at which oscillation appears, within a wide range of the parameters involved. 3. A descriptive study of the oscillations and measurement of the periods. The report gives the oscillation fronts with natural and forced convection for various values of the singular pressure drop at the channel inlet and for various riser lengths. The results are presented in non-dimensional form, which is available, in first approximation, for all geometric scales and for all fluids. Besides the following points were observed: - the wall (nature and thickness) can be an important factor ; - oscillation can occur in a horizontal channel. (author) [French] II a ete effectue une etude experimentale, en boucle hors-pile, des oscillations hydrodynamiques survenant dans les reacteurs a ebullition. L'etude a ete effectuee a la pression atmospherique et a une pression voisine de 8 atmospheres dans des canaux chauffes electriquement a puissance imposee constante et uniforme. Dans les essais a 8 atmospheres le canal etait un tube circulaire de diametre interieur 6 mm environ. A 1 atmosphere le canal etait de section annulaire 10 * 20 mm avec un tube interieur chauffant et un tube exterieur en pyrex. Le fonctionnement etait possible en

  13. Demographic aspects of Chrysomya megacephala (Diptera, Calliphoridae) adults maintained under experimental conditions: reproductive rate estimates

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, Marcelo Henrique de; Von Zuben, Claudio José

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate some aspects of the populational ecology of Chrysomya megacephala, analyzing demographic aspects of adults kept under experimental conditions. Cages of C. megacephala adults were prepared with four different larval densities (100, 200, 400 and 800). For each cage, two tables were made: one with demographic parameters for the life expectancy estimate at the initial age (e0), and another with the reproductive rate and average reproduction age estimates...

  14. Experimental labor markets and policy considerations: Incomplete contracts and macroeconomic aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Casoria Fortuna; Riedl Arno

    2012-01-01

    This survey focuses on experimental labor markets investigating two aspects that deem us important for a better understanding of labor market relations and the consequences for labor market policies. The first part of the survey is dedicated to papers that assess the prevalence of reciprocal considerations in incomplete labor contracts. The second part summarizes the relatively small but growing experimental literature exploring labor issues in a macroeconomics and public finance setting and ...

  15. Economic Aspects of Air and Gas Cleaning for Nuclear Energy Processes; Aspects Economiques de l'Epuration de l'Air et des Gaz au Cours des Operations Nucleaires; 042d 041a 041e 041d 041e 0414 0; Aspectos Economicos de la Depuracion del Aire y de los Gases en los Procesos de Obtencion de Energia Nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silverman, Leslie [Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA (United States)

    1960-07-01

    In this paper the basic requirements for control of gaseous and particulate effluents are given as applied to problems of feed material production, isotope separation, fuel element fabrication, fuel recovery and reactor operation. There are also instances where non-radioactive nuclear materials with toxic or nuisance effluents such as from beryllium and zirconium production are of concern and these too must be controlled at reasonable costs. The factors involved in capital and operating costs of gas cleaning equipment and the types of applications in the United States are described in some detail. Gaseous effluent problems have, of course, been attacked and controlled by several types of device but their performance has been measured on a comparable basis. It is thus possible to judge operating characteristics on an economic basis as related to power consumption, adsorbent costs, space charges, corrosion problems and other operational factors. The United States Atomic Energy Commission through its contract with the Harvard University Air Cleaning Laboratory has initiated an evaluation program with cooperation, from the various facilities and contractors to the Commission. In this study the basic factors necessary to obtain quantitative cost delineation and evaluation have been outlined and some preliminary findings will be presented. The paper also presents a review of other economic studies made in the United States on particular process or facility applications. (author) [French] Le memoire definit les regles fondamentales auxquelles doit obeir le controle des effluents gazeux et particulaires dans les domaines suivants : production des matieres destinees a alimenter les reacteurs, separation des isotopes, fabrication des cartouches de combustible, recuperation du combustible et fonctionnement des reacteurs. De plus - et c'est notamment ce qui se passe avec la production de beryllium et de zirconium -- il y a des cas ou des matieres nucleaires non radioactives

  16. Experimental aspect of solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance studies of biomaterials such as bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Chandan; Rai, Ratan Kumar; Sinha, Neeraj

    2013-01-01

    Solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (SSNMR) spectroscopy is increasingly becoming a popular technique to probe micro-structural details of biomaterial such as bone with pico-meter resolution. Due to high-resolution structural details probed by SSNMR methods, handling of bone samples and experimental protocol are very crucial aspects of study. We present here first report of the effect of various experimental protocols and handling methods of bone samples on measured SSNMR parameters. Various popular SSNMR experiments were performed on intact cortical bone sample collected from fresh animal, immediately after removal from animal systems, and results were compared with bone samples preserved in different conditions. We find that the best experimental conditions for SSNMR parameters of bones correspond to preservation at -20 °C and in 70% ethanol solution. Various other SSNMR parameters were compared corresponding to different experimental conditions. Our study has helped in finding best experimental protocol for SSNMR studies of bone. This study will be of further help in the application of SSNMR studies on large bone disease related animal model systems for statistically significant results. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Theoretical aspects and experimental of neutronic interaction of multiplying media; Aspects theoriques et experimentaux de l'interaction neutronique entre milieux multiplicateurs de neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mougniot, J C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-07-01

    A theoretical study of neutronic interaction of multiplying media is presented. The use of the surface multiplication constant and of the effective multiplication constant is considered. Three classical methods of interaction calculations are studied in parallel and the application of the Keff method to problems of nuclear safety is discussed. (authors) [French] Une etude theorique de l'interaction neutronique entre milieux multiplicateurs de neutrons est presentee. L'utilisation du coefficient de multiplication de surface et du coefficient de multiplication effectif est envisagee. Trois methodes classiques de calcul d'interaction sont etudiees parallelement et l'adaptation de la methode du Keff, aux problemes de securite nucleaire est ensuite discutee. (auteurs)

  18. Aspects of 238Pu production in the experimental fast reactor JOYO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osaka, Masahiko; Koyama, Shin-ichi; Tanaka, Kenya; Itoh, Masahiko; Saito, Masaki

    2005-01-01

    Experimental determination of 238 Pu in 237 Np samples irradiated in the experimental fast reactor JOYO was done as part of the demonstration of 238 Pu production from 237 Np in fast reactors within the framework of the protected Pu production project, which aims at reinforcement of proliferation resistance of Pu by increasing the 238 Pu isotopic ratio. 238 Pu production amount in the irradiated 237 Np samples was determined by a radioanalytical technique. Aspects of 238 Pu production were examined on the basis of the present radioanalysis. The 238 Pu production amount depends on the neutron spectrum which can range from that of a typical fast reactor to a nearly epi-thermal spectrum. It is concluded that the fast reactor has not only high potential for use in protected Pu production, but also as an incinerator for excess Pu

  19. Polymer-based surface plasmon resonance biochip: construction and experimental aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleumar da Silva Moreira

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Surface plasmon resonance biosensors are high sensitive analytical instruments that normally employ glass materials at the optical substrate layer. However, the use of polymer-based substrates is increasing in the last years due to favorable features, like: disposability, ease to construction and low-cost design. Review Recently, a polymer-based SPR biochip was proposed by using monochromatic and polychromatic input sources. Its construction and experimental considerations are detailed here. Experimental considerations and results, aspects from performance characteristics (resonance parameters, sensitivity and full width at half maximum – FWHM – calculations are presented for hydrophilic and hydrophobic solutions. It is included also a brief description of the state of the art of polymer-based SPR biosensors.

  20. Processing considerations with plasma-based ion implantation of polymers: theoretical aspects, limitations, and experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacoste, A.; Pelletier, J.

    2003-01-01

    Processing of polymers using plasma-based ion implantation techniques (PBII) has general implications in terms of plasma specifications and pulse characteristics. In particular, the different aspects of the processing of polymer layers are discussed as functions of plasma density, pulse duration, and layer characteristics (thickness and permittivity). Clearly, severe limitations (true implantation energy, arcing) may appear for high-density plasmas as well as for long pulse durations, when processing polymer layers with thickness in the mm range. A review of the experimental results of ion implantation in polymeric materials via PBII processing is presented. The experimental results demonstrate the possibility of processing polymer layers with the PBII technique, but with severe limitations resulting from the process itself

  1. Material movement of medium surrounding an underground nuclear explosion; Mouvement materiel du milieu environnant une explosion nucleaire souterraine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerrini, C; Garnier, J L [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France). Centre d' Etudes

    1969-07-01

    The results of measurements of the mechanical effects in the, intermediate zone around underground nuclear explosions in Sahara granite are presented. After a description of the main characteristics of the equipment used, the laws drawn up using experimental results for the acceleration, the velocity, and the material displacement are presented. These laws are compared to those published in other countries for nuclear tests in granite, in tuff and in alluvial deposits. (authors) [French] Les resultats de mesures d'effets mecaniques en zone intermediaire autour d'essais nucleaires souterrains dans le granite du Sahara sont exposes. Apres avoir decrit, dans leurs grandes lignes, les materiels utilises, on presente les lois etablies avec les resultats experimentaux pour l'acceleration, la vitesse et le deplacement materiel. Ces lois sont comparees a celles publiees a l'etranger pour des essais nucleaires dans le granite, le tuf et les alluvions. (auteur)

  2. Experimental and analytical studies of the thermal aspects of deep geologic disposal of commercial nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, R.N.; Kulacki, F.A.; Keyhani, M.; Hsieh, S.S.; Osborne, R.; Keyhani, V.

    1987-11-01

    Effects of smooth and rough surfaces on an underground nuclear waste repository were studied using a rectangular duct to simulate thermal and hydraulic conditions at a nuclear waste repository. Experiments performed on smooth walls revealed that increasing the aspect ratio increases the air velocity, which leads to an increase in convective heat transfer coefficients and a decrease in the temperature difference between the air stream and the heated wall. The heated length required for fully developed heat transfer was also determined for various aspect ratios. In experiments involving rough walls, two surface roughnesses were characterized by the average height and the pitch-to-height ratio. A combination of two roughness heights and three pitches was constructed covering the ranges 0.088 to 0.12 and 2.0 to 4.7, respectively. A friction factor correlation was developed based on the velocity distribution and pressure drop measurements. Heat transfer data at the downstream end of the test section were correlated as a function of the Reynolds number. A heat momentum analogy was correlated using temperature and velocity distribution measurements. An approximate analytical solution through numerical analysis for correlating the Nusselt numbers at the downstream end of the test section was compared with corresponding experimental results. 47 refs., 105 figs., 33 tabs

  3. Dynamics of Rn-222 daughter size distribution evolution: modelling and experimental aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tymen, G.; El Moussaoui, B.; Renoux, A.

    1989-01-01

    Size distribution of short lived radon daughters is considered as a fundamental parameter in radiation protection in so far as about 40% of human exposure is due to inhalation of such radioactive particles, in mines as well as in indoor environments. Many experiments have been carried out in various conditions: controlled atmospheres, uranium mine atmospheres, atmospheric air, and more recently in houses because of the increasing interest in exposure to natural radiation. From an experimental point of view, previous measurements dealt with the cumulative size distribution of radon progeny alpha activity. Then, in spite of the difficulty in comparing data of different investigators, it was often found that a significant part of the activity was associated with particles above 0.1 μm in diameter. Otherwise, a bimodality was often observed in the case of airborne radioactive particles. The attachment of small radioactive ions or atoms produced by the radon decay on ambient particles has been studied. Differences arise in the calculation of the attachment coefficient and in the choice of the natural particle size distribution. This paper presents our investigation in this field by studying the theoretical and experimental aspects of the radon daughter behaviour in a cylindrical vessel simultaneously. (author)

  4. Contribution to the study of thermal mixing between nuclear spin systems; Contribution a l'etude du melange thermique entre systemes de spins nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldmann, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-02-15

    This work describes methods of dynamic nuclear polarization in solids based on the thermal mixing between nuclear spin systems. The description of the thermal mixing processes involves most of the fundamental aspects of the spin temperature theory. The experiments, conducted with paradichlorobenzene and para-dibromobenzene, yield a detailed confirmation of the theoretical predictions. (author) [French] Ce travail decrit des methodes de polarisation dynamique nucleaire dans les solides basees sur le melange thermique entre systemes de spins nucleaires. La description des processus de melange thermique met en jeu la plupart des aspects fondamentaux de la theorie de la temperature de spin. Les experiences, realisees avec du paradichlorobenzene et du paradibromobenzene, apportent une confirmation detaillee des previsions theoriques. (auteur)

  5. Demographic aspects of Chrysomya megacephala (Diptera, Calliphoridae adults maintained under experimental conditions: reproductive rate estimates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Henrique de Carvalho

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate some aspects of the populational ecology of Chrysomya megacephala, analyzing demographic aspects of adults kept under experimental conditions. Cages of C. megacephala adults were prepared with four different larval densities (100, 200, 400 and 800. For each cage, two tables were made: one with demographic parameters for the life expectancy estimate at the initial age (e0, and another with the reproductive rate and average reproduction age estimates. Populational parameters such as the intrinsic growth rate (r and the finite growth rate (lambda were calculated as well.Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius (Diptera, Calliphoridae é uma espécie de mosca-varejeira de considerável importância médico-sanitária que foi introduzida acidentalmente no Brasil nos anos 70. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar alguns aspectos da ecologia populacional desta espécie, analisando aspectos demográficos de adultos mantidos sob condições experimentais. Gaiolas de C. megacephala foram montadas com quatro diferentes densidades larvais (100, 200, 400 e 800. Para cada gaiola, foram confeccionadas duas tabelas: uma com parâmetros demográficos para a estimativa da expectativa de vida na idade inicial (e0, e outra com as estimativas de taxa reprodutiva e idade média de reprodução. Parâmetros populacionais tais como a taxa intrínseca de crescimento (r e a taxa finita de crescimento (lambda foram também calculados.

  6. THEORETICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL ASPECTS OF PLASTIC DEFORMATION AND DESTRUCTION OF ROCKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Zhabko

    2018-03-01

    physical interpretation of the proposed dependences to determine the fundamental parameter of the hierarchy of mountain ranges is given. The scale factor of the phenomenon of zonal disintegration of rocks around the workings in the strongly stressed mountain ranges is represented as well. The relation between these parameters and constants characterizing the orbital distances of the solar system planets is indicated. Summary. This paper presents an experimental confirmation of the previously proposed theory of plastic deformation and fracture of rocks; some theoretical aspects are given in the continuation of the mentioned theory.

  7. New aspects of the antioxidant properties of phenolic acids: a combined theoretical and experimental approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anouar, E; Kosinová, P; Kozlowski, D; Mokrini, R; Duroux, J L; Trouillas, P

    2009-09-21

    Ferulic acid is widely distributed in the leaves and seeds of cereals as well as in coffee, apples, artichokes, peanuts, oranges and pineapples. Like numerous other natural polyphenols it exhibits antioxidant properties. It is known to act as a free radical scavenger by H atom transfer from the phenolic OH group. In the present joint experimental and theoretical studies we studied a new mechanism to explain such activities. Ferulic acid can indeed act by radical addition on the alpha,beta-double bond. On the basis of the identification of metabolites formed in an oxidative radiolytic solution and after DFT calculations, we studied the thermodynamic and kinetic aspects of this reaction. Addition and HAT reactions were treated as competitive reactions. The possibility of dimer formation was also investigated from a theoretical point of view; the high barriers we obtained contribute to explaining why we did not observe those compounds as major radiolytic compounds. The DPPH free radical scavenging capacity of ferulic acid and the oxidative products was measured and is discussed on the basis of DFT calculations (BDEs and spin densities).

  8. Associative memories in nuclear physics; Les memoires associatives en physique nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanca, E; Carriere, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-07-01

    Experiments in nuclear physics involve the use of large size 'memories'. After showing the difficulties arising from the use of such memories, the authors give the principles of the various programming methods which make it possible to operate the memories associatively thus benefiting from a reduction in size and better operational conditions. They attempt to estimate the shape and dimensions of an associative memory with cable connections which could be designed specially for nuclear research, contrary to those actually in service. (authors) [French] Les experiences de physique nucleaire necessitent l'emploi de 'memoires' de grandes dimensions. Apres avoir montre les inconvenients que presente l'utilisation de telles memoires, les auteurs exposent les principes des diverses methodes de programmation qui permettent d'assurer un fonctionnement des memoires sur le mode associatif donc une reduction de leurs dimensions et un meilleur usage. Ils tentent d'evaluer le format d'une memoire associative cablee qui, contrairement a celles qui existent actuellement, serait prevue specialement pour l'experimentation nucleaire. (auteurs)

  9. Proceedings of the second United Nations international conference on the peaceful uses of atomic energy. V. 31. Theoretical and experimental aspects of controlled nuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1958-01-01

    The main topics covered by the Conference are: possibility of controlled fusion and status of the research programmes in different countries (USSR, Germany, USA, UK); theoretical aspects of plasma physics; experimental aspects of plasma physics

  10. Siloette, Siloe mock-up; Siloette, modele nucleaire de siloe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delcroix, V; Jeanne, G; Mitault, G; Schulhof, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    Siloette is the Siloe mock-up. The main installations are described: various tanks, building, auxiliaries, control systems... Precis ions are given about precautions taken for using spent fuel elements. (authors) [French] Siloette est le modele nucleaire de SILOE. On decrit ses diverses installations: bassins, batiments, auxiliaires, controle... Des precisions sont donnees sur les precautions prises pour y utiliser des elements uses. (auteurs)

  11. Experimental investigation of the effects of aqueous species on the dissolution kinetics of R7T7 glass; Etude experimentale de l`influence d`especes aqueuses sur la cinetique de dissolution du verre nucleaire R7T7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gin, S

    1994-10-01

    This contribution to the study of aqueous corrosion of the French ``R7T7`` reference nuclear containment glass includes a bibliographic survey of prior investigations, highlighting the problems encountered in interpreting the interactions in systems containing clay materials in contact with the glass. An experimental methodology is proposed to investigate the effects of inorganic aqueous species separately from those of a few organic acids on the dissolution mechanisms and kinetics of R7T7 glass at 90 deg. C. The experimental results discussed support the idea that several glass network forming elements may have a kinetically limiting role. The most likely hypothesis to account for the absence of saturation conditions with respect to the glass in certain clay media involves the formation of complexes with kinetically limiting metallic elements such as aluminum released by glass corrosion. This work contributes to a better understanding of the basic mechanisms of nuclear glass dissolution in a geological repository environment. It facilitates the interpretation of glass alteration studies in realistic or actual solutions and may contribute to specifying near field chemical barriers in the form of additives (amorphous silica, aluminum hydroxides or phosphates) around the glass disposal package to enhance the stability of the glass matrix. (author). 148 refs., 40 figs., 32 tabs., 1 append.

  12. Relationship between the nuclear resonance of cobalt metal and its ferromagnetic properties; Relations entre la resonance nucleaire du cobalt metallique et ses proprietes ferromagnetiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aubrun, J.N. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-05-15

    Theoretical study of nuclear magnetic resonance in ferromagnetic metals shows the near dependence of ferromagnetic properties and unusual feature of this nuclear resonance. This results from a strong interaction between nuclei and magnetic electrons. They excite the nuclei, and, in Bloch walls, submit them to a RF field much stronger than those directly applied. The parameters of the resonance are determined from wall movement and depend consequently of ferromagnetic constants. The theory is enable to provide quantitatively some peculiar effects, specially those of a continuous magnetic field and of temperature. Experimental study was made on cobalt powders, and is in good agreement with theory. However one must take the skin-effect into consideration and accordingly adjust, the theory. This can explain some observed divergences, as well as the influence at particles size and magnetic field over the line shape. Original informations have been obtained about some typical ferromagnetic properties of cobalt, when studying magnetic field effect, and it has been able to apply this method to other ferromagnetic materials. In consideration of the peculiar characteristics of this nuclear resonance, which occurs without external magnetic field and whose line width is large, new models of spectrographs have been realized and have permitted accurate measures of the line shape. The weak intensity of the signals obtained in some cases, has induced the elaboration of an original method of extraction whose theory and practical uses are described here. The whole of this experiment reveals the nuclear resonance as a strong way for the study of ferromagnetism, which is able to detect microscopic phenomenons, not easily accessible by classical methods. (author) [French] L'etude theorique de la resonance magnetique nucleaire dans les metaux ferromagnetiques revele l'etroite liaison entre les proprietes ferromagnetiques et l'aspect inhabituel de cette resonance. Ceci

  13. Relationship between the nuclear resonance of cobalt metal and its ferromagnetic properties; Relations entre la resonance nucleaire du cobalt metallique et ses proprietes ferromagnetiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aubrun, J N [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-05-15

    Theoretical study of nuclear magnetic resonance in ferromagnetic metals shows the near dependence of ferromagnetic properties and unusual feature of this nuclear resonance. This results from a strong interaction between nuclei and magnetic electrons. They excite the nuclei, and, in Bloch walls, submit them to a RF field much stronger than those directly applied. The parameters of the resonance are determined from wall movement and depend consequently of ferromagnetic constants. The theory is enable to provide quantitatively some peculiar effects, specially those of a continuous magnetic field and of temperature. Experimental study was made on cobalt powders, and is in good agreement with theory. However one must take the skin-effect into consideration and accordingly adjust, the theory. This can explain some observed divergences, as well as the influence at particles size and magnetic field over the line shape. Original informations have been obtained about some typical ferromagnetic properties of cobalt, when studying magnetic field effect, and it has been able to apply this method to other ferromagnetic materials. In consideration of the peculiar characteristics of this nuclear resonance, which occurs without external magnetic field and whose line width is large, new models of spectrographs have been realized and have permitted accurate measures of the line shape. The weak intensity of the signals obtained in some cases, has induced the elaboration of an original method of extraction whose theory and practical uses are described here. The whole of this experiment reveals the nuclear resonance as a strong way for the study of ferromagnetism, which is able to detect microscopic phenomenons, not easily accessible by classical methods. (author) [French] L'etude theorique de la resonance magnetique nucleaire dans les metaux ferromagnetiques revele l'etroite liaison entre les proprietes ferromagnetiques et l'aspect inhabituel de cette resonance. Ceci resulte du

  14. Experimental simulation of air quality in street canyon under changes of building orientation and aspect ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassin, Mohamed F; Ohba, Masaake

    2012-09-01

    To assist validation of numerical simulations of urban pollution, air quality in a street canyon was investigated using a wind tunnel as a research tool under neutral atmospheric conditions. We used tracer gas techniques from a line source without buoyancy. Ethylene (C(2)H(4)) was used as the tracer gas. The street canyon model was formed of six parallel building rows of the same length. The flow and dispersion field was analyzed and measured using a hot-wire anemometer with split fiber probe and fast flame ionization detector. The diffusion flow field in the boundary layer within the street canyon was examined at different locations, with varying building orientations (θ=90°, 112.5°, 135° and 157.5°) and street canyon aspect ratios (W/H=1/2, 3/4 and 1) downwind of the leeward side of the street canyon model. Results show that velocity increases with aspect ratio, and with θ>90°. Pollutant concentration increases as aspect ratio decreases. This concentration decreases exponentially in the vertical direction, and decreases as θ increases from 90°. Measured pollutant concentration distributions indicate that variability of building orientation and aspect ratio in the street canyon are important for estimating air quality in the canyon. The data presented here can be used as a comprehensive database for validation of numerical models.

  15. The 1989 annual report of the Institut de Physique Nucleaire-Orsay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The activity report of the Institut de Physique Nucleaire (Orsay-France) from 1 Sep 1988 to 1 Aug 1989 is presented. Theoretical and experimental investigations were carried out in the following fields: light and medium exotic nuclei, on line spectroscopy, discrete high spin states, new radioactivities, thermal fission, detection systems, giant resonances, high excitation energy structure, reaction mechanisms at energies below 10 MeV/u and at 200 MeV/u and their evolution between 10 and 100 MeV/u, meson production, transfer reactions, spin modes in nuclei, dibaryonic resonances, inelastic scattering of polarized protons. Research programs in the field of radiochemistry and relating to inter-disciplinary fields are included. The activities involving teaching, the lists of publications conferences, seminars and theses are presented [fr

  16. Ultrastructural aspects of experimental cryptosporidiosis in pigs Aspectos ultraestruturais da criptosporidiose experimental em suínos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P.F.R.L. Bracarense

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to determine ultrastructural changes on the intestinal mucosa and associated lymphoid tissues after an experimental infection with Cryptosporidium sp. Twelve piglets dosed orally with 1×10(6 oocysts were slaughtered on days 3, 6, 9 and 12 after inoculation. The ultrastructural lesions in the intestinal cells were irregular with thickened microvilli, cytoplasmic protrusions and vacuolation, swollen mitochondria, hypertrophic organelles and nuclei. The lymphocytes of the Peyer’s patches occasionally were mitotic with a larger number of lymphoblasts in the inoculated animals.O presente estudo teve por objetivo investigar as alterações ultraestruturais da mucosa intestinal e do tecido linfóide associado na inoculação experimental de Cryptosporidium sp. Doze leitões foram inoculados experimentalmente por via oral com 1×10(6 oocistos e sacrificados 3, 6, 9 e 12 dias depois. Ao exame ultraestrutural de células intestinais observou-se espessamento e irregularidade de microvilosidades, citoplasma vacuolizado e com protrusões, edema mitocondrial, hipertrofia de organelas citoplasmáticas e do núcleo. Nas placas de Peyer observou-se ocasionalmente mitose de células linfóides, verificando-se maior número de células blásticas.

  17. French research in the field of nuclear agronomy; Les recherches francaises en agronomie nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerin De Montgareuil, P. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Cadarache (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    , industrial firms, university laboratories scientific institutes. The role of the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique is defined: on the one hand it supplies information and support, and on the other hand it takes charge of specifically nuclear aspects of the work. Its part in the field has recently found expression in the creation, within the Biology Department, of a Radio-agronomy Section; its objective are described,, as well as the, means placed att its disposal at the Centre d'etudes Nucleaires, Cadarache. (author) [French] On propose un bilan des travaux les plus significatifs effectues en France depuis la deuxieme conference internationale en matiere d'agronomie nucleaire et qui vont d'une recherche apparemment desinteressee a l'application la plus directe. Une telle differenciation recouvre de moins en moins, au fur et a mesure de l'evolution des programmes, la distinction qui est faite dans l'expose entre l'action biologique des rayonnements et les autres emplois des techniques nucleaires. C'est ainsi que les recherches do radiogenetique agricole sont poursuivies dans deux directions: d'un point de vue theorique et methodologique avec l'etude comparative de l'action des divers types de rayonnements, l'influence du debit de dose et de la temperature, l'action des agents mutagenes chimiques, la production de chimeres sous irradiation gamma; et d'autre part, sous un aspect pratique aboutissant a la creation de varietes nouvelles plus resistantes ou plus precoces (riz, mil, arachide). Les problemes de destruction des insectes (eradication) et de conservation des denrees sous irradiation se trouvent egalement abordes par des voies et avec des objectifs tres divers. A la demarche globale representee par une irradiation pure et simple (grains humides, pommes de terre...) sont parfois associees des etudes souvent originales, d'ordre biochimique ou microbiologique (par exemple: alteration de l

  18. French research in the field of nuclear agronomy; Les recherches francaises en agronomie nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerin De Montgareuil, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Cadarache (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    , industrial firms, university laboratories scientific institutes. The role of the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique is defined: on the one hand it supplies information and support, and on the other hand it takes charge of specifically nuclear aspects of the work. Its part in the field has recently found expression in the creation, within the Biology Department, of a Radio-agronomy Section; its objective are described,, as well as the, means placed att its disposal at the Centre d'etudes Nucleaires, Cadarache. (author) [French] On propose un bilan des travaux les plus significatifs effectues en France depuis la deuxieme conference internationale en matiere d'agronomie nucleaire et qui vont d'une recherche apparemment desinteressee a l'application la plus directe. Une telle differenciation recouvre de moins en moins, au fur et a mesure de l'evolution des programmes, la distinction qui est faite dans l'expose entre l'action biologique des rayonnements et les autres emplois des techniques nucleaires. C'est ainsi que les recherches do radiogenetique agricole sont poursuivies dans deux directions: d'un point de vue theorique et methodologique avec l'etude comparative de l'action des divers types de rayonnements, l'influence du debit de dose et de la temperature, l'action des agents mutagenes chimiques, la production de chimeres sous irradiation gamma; et d'autre part, sous un aspect pratique aboutissant a la creation de varietes nouvelles plus resistantes ou plus precoces (riz, mil, arachide). Les problemes de destruction des insectes (eradication) et de conservation des denrees sous irradiation se trouvent egalement abordes par des voies et avec des objectifs tres divers. A la demarche globale representee par une irradiation pure et simple (grains humides, pommes de terre...) sont parfois associees des etudes souvent originales, d'ordre biochimique ou microbiologique (par exemple: alteration de l'amidon, metabolisme glucidique des tubercules irradies, radioresistance des levures

  19. Anorexia in human and experimental animal models: physiological aspects related to neuropeptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Mitsuhiro; Uezono, Yasuhito; Ueta, Yoichi

    2015-09-01

    Anorexia, a loss of appetite for food, can be caused by various physiological and pathophysiological conditions. In this review, firstly, clinical aspects of anorexia nervosa are summarized in brief. Secondly, hypothalamic neuropeptides responsible for feeding regulation in each hypothalamic nucleus are discussed. Finally, three different types of anorexigenic animal models; dehydration-induced anorexia, cisplatin-induced anorexia and cancer anorexia-cachexia, are introduced. In conclusion, hypothalamic neuropeptides may give us novel insight to understand and find effective therapeutics strategy essential for various kinds of anorexia.

  20. Aspects of resistance to experimental infection with Trypanosoma cruzi; Aspectos da resistencia a infecao experimental com Trypanosoma cruzi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias, Viviane Liotti

    2010-07-01

    Chagas disease, a zoonosis caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, has a wide distribution in Latin America and extends from the southern part of the United States to Argentina. A number of 10 million of infected people is estimated and another 25 million exposed to the risk. Although discovered over a century, Chagas disease is still a serious infection that causes great socioeconomic impact, with no effective treatment at the chronic phase and in which, a lack of scientific knowledge can be observed. The main goal of this work was that obtaining and using consomic strain of mice, the resistance could be investigated. Consomic strains were produced by programmed mating, in which the animals were monitored with DNA polymorphic markers, and one of his chromosomes was replaced by his homologue from another strain. As parental, were used, the inbred strains C57BL/6/J Unib with resistant phenotype (donor) and as receiver, the A/JUnib strain, that has a susceptible phenotype. These models were used to produce five consomic strains: for the chromosomes 7 (CSs7), 11 (CSs11), 14 (CSs14), 17 (CSs17) and 19 (CSs19), described by Passos et al. (2003) as important in controlling infection caused by the Y strain of T. cruzi. In experimental testing, the consomics were inoculated intraperitoneally at doses of 10{sup 1}, 10{sup 2}, 10{sup 3} and 10{sup 4} using as control, animals from both parental lines. In all consomics, resistance was higher than that observed in the susceptible parental. In a second protocol, the consomics were mated with scheduled associations and the progenies were challenged with inocula employing increasing doses of trypomastigotes. The resistance observed in this group was also higher than that observed in the parental with susceptible phenotype. The observed results demonstrate that the use of the consomic strains that were produced order to assess the contribution of each chromosome in the resistance, as well as the effects of association between

  1. Experimental aspects of ion acceleration and transport in the Earth's magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, D.T.

    1985-01-01

    Major particle population within the Earth's magnetosphere have been studied via ion acceleration processes. Experimental advances over the past ten to fifteen years have demonstrated the complexity of the processes. A review is given here for areas where composition experiments have expanded perception on magnetospheric phenomena. 64 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  2. Experimental liver fibrosis research: update on animal models, legal issues and translational aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Liver fibrosis is defined as excessive extracellular matrix deposition and is based on complex interactions between matrix-producing hepatic stellate cells and an abundance of liver-resident and infiltrating cells. Investigation of these processes requires in vitro and in vivo experimental work in animals. However, the use of animals in translational research will be increasingly challenged, at least in countries of the European Union, because of the adoption of new animal welfare rules in 2013. These rules will create an urgent need for optimized standard operating procedures regarding animal experimentation and improved international communication in the liver fibrosis community. This review gives an update on current animal models, techniques and underlying pathomechanisms with the aim of fostering a critical discussion of the limitations and potential of up-to-date animal experimentation. We discuss potential complications in experimental liver fibrosis and provide examples of how the findings of studies in which these models are used can be translated to human disease and therapy. In this review, we want to motivate the international community to design more standardized animal models which might help to address the legally requested replacement, refinement and reduction of animals in fibrosis research. PMID:24274743

  3. 'Mind genomics': the experimental, inductive science of the ordinary, and its application to aspects of food and feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskowitz, Howard R

    2012-11-05

    The paper introduces the empirical science of 'mind genomics', whose objective is to understand the dimensions of ordinary, everyday experience, identify mind-set segments of people who value different aspects of that everyday experience, and then assign a new person to a mind-set by a statistically appropriate procedure. By studying different experiences using experimental design of ideas, 'mind genomics' constructs an empirical, inductive science of perception and experience, layer by layer. The ultimate objective of 'mind genomics' is a large-scale science of experience created using induction, with the science based upon emergent commonalities across many different types of daily experience. The particular topic investigated in the paper is the experience of healthful snacks, what makes a person 'want' them, and the dollar value of different sensory aspects of the healthful snack. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Role of deep inelastic processes in nuclear physics: experimental and theoretical aspects of deep inelastic reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moretto, L.G.

    1979-03-01

    The collective modes excited in deep-inelastic reactions and their natural hierarchy provided by their characteristic relaxation times is described. The relaxation of the mass asymmetry mode is discussed in terms of a diffusion process. Charge distributions and angular distributions as a function of Z calculated with this model are in good agreement with experimental data. This diffusion model also treats the transfer of energy and angular momentum in terms of particle transfer, and is successfully compared with experimental γ-ray multiplicities as a function of both Q-value and mass asymmetry. The angular momentum transfer is again considered in connection with the sequential fission of heavy, deep-inelastic fragments and the excitation of collective modes in the exit channel is considered. The role of the giant E1 mode in the equilibration of the neutron-to-proton ratio is discussed. 39 references

  5. THEORETICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL ASPECTS OF PLASTIC DEFORMATION AND DESTRUCTION OF ROCKS

    OpenAIRE

    A. V. Zhabko

    2018-01-01

    The urgency of the problem. The main process in mining is the process of destruction of rocks, so the establishment of laws and criteria for plastic deformation and destruction of rocks is the most important and fundamental object. Purpose of the work. The work is devoted to the establishment of laws of plastic deformation of rocks (solids). Methods of research. Analytical and experimental research methods are widely used in this work. Results. On the basis of the earlier studies, wh...

  6. Horror movie aspects and experimentation in Michael Jackson’s Thriller music video

    OpenAIRE

    Vargas, Herom; Universidade Municipal de São Caetano do Sul - USCS; Gonçalves, Rafael; Universidade Municipal de São Caetano do Sul - USCS

    2016-01-01

    This article analyzes the use of elements from the horror fi lm genre in the music video Thriller (1982), by Michael Jackson, as experimentation within the field of pop music. Based on the semiotics of culture, grounded on the concepts of cultural text, semiosphere, border and modeling, developed by Iuri Lotman, the analysis identified innovations in the use of horror as humor and, in the music, modeling of creatures, moving among horror, the fantastic and the reality.Keywords: horror, music ...

  7. The experimental research on electrodischarge drilling of high aspect ratio holes in Inconel 718

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipiec, Piotr; Machno, Magdalena; Skoczypiec, Sebastian

    2018-05-01

    In recent years the drilling operations become important area of electrodischarge machining (EDM) application. This especially concerns drilling of, small (D 10) holes in difficult-to-cut materials (i.e. nickel or titanium alloys). Drilling of such a holes is significantly beyond mechanical drilling capabilities. Therefore electrodischarge machining is good and cost efficient alternative for such application. EDM gives possibility to drill accurate, burr free and high aspect ratio holes and is applicable to machine wide range of conductive materials, irrespective of their hardness and toughness. However it is worth to underline its main disadvantages such as: significant tool wear, low material removal rate and poor surface integrity. The last one is especially important in reliable applications in aircraft or medical industry.

  8. Optical waveguiding and applied photonics technological aspects, experimental issue approaches and measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Massaro, Alessandro

    2012-01-01

    Optoelectronics--technology based on applications light such as micro/nano quantum electronics, photonic devices, laser for measurements and detection--has become an important field of research. Many applications and physical problems concerning optoelectronics are analyzed in Optical Waveguiding and Applied Photonics.The book is organized in order to explain how to implement innovative sensors starting from basic physical principles. Applications such as cavity resonance, filtering, tactile sensors, robotic sensor, oil spill detection, small antennas and experimental setups using lasers are a

  9. Experimental aspects of S.H.I.C. (Swift Heavy Ion Channeling)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andriamonje, S.; Castro Faria, N.V. de; Chevallier, M.; Gaillard, M.J.; Genre, R.; Farizon-Mazuy, B.; Poizat, J.C.; Remillieux, J.; Hage-Ali, M.; Cohen, C.; L'Hoir, A.; Moulin, J.; Schmaus, D.

    1989-01-01

    The mean stopping power experienced by the ions of exit charge Z and the charge distribution are measured. The experimental set up description is summarized. The experiments were performed at GANIL, using hydrogenoid Xenon ions, with 25 MeV/u on a silicon crystal target. The ion channeling and energy losses are measured. The results concerning the Lyman alpha lines intensity and Xe36 + transmission as a function of the crystal orientation are presented. The suitability of LISE device, for investigating crystalline effects in heavy ion charge exchange phenomena, is confirmed

  10. POLYMERIC MATERIALS FOR SOLAR ENERGY UTILIZATION: A COMPARATIVE EXPERIMENTAL STUDY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Doroshenko

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Full-scale metal solar collectors and solar collectors fabricated from polymeric materials are studied in present research. Honeycomb multichannel plates made from polycarbonate were chosen to create a polymeric solar collector. Polymeric collector is 67.8% lighter than metal solar collector. It was experimentally shown that the efficiency of a polymeric collector is 7–14% lower than a traditional collector. An ecologically based Life Cycle Assessment showed the advantages of the application of polymeric materials in the construction of solar collectors.

  11. Experimental investigation of low aspect ratio, large amplitude, aeroelastic energy harvesting systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschmeier, Benjamin; Summerour, Jacob; Bryant, Matthew

    2017-04-01

    Interest in clean, stable, and renewable energy harvesting devices has increased dramatically with the volatility of petroleum markets. Specifically, research in aero/hydro kinetic devices has created numerous new horizontal and vertical axis wind turbines, and oscillating wing turbines. Oscillating wing turbines (OWTs) differ from their wind turbine cousins by having a rectangular swept area compared to a circular swept area. The OWT systems also possess a lower tip speed that reduces the overall noise produced by the system. OWTs have undergone significant computational analysis to uncover the underlying flow physics that can drive the system to high efficiencies for single wing oscillations. When two of these devices are placed in tandem configuration, i.e. one placed downstream of the other, they either can constructively or destructively interact. When constructive interactions occurred, they enhance the system efficiency to greater than that of two devices on their own. A new experimental design investigates the dependency of interaction modes on the pitch stiffness of the downstream wing. The experimental results demonstrated that interaction modes are functions of convective time scale and downstream wing pitch stiffness. Heterogeneous combinations of pitch stiffness exhibited constructive and destructive lock-in phenomena whereas the homogeneous combination exhibited only destructive interactions.

  12. Absorption of negative pions resting on nuclei of the 1p layer. Theoretical and experimental aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coupat, Bernard

    1981-01-01

    As the probability of capture of π- resting on 12 C with emission of a single proton which has been measured on the Saclay Linear Accelerator (ALS), is relatively high, it was obvious that this reaction type was based on a mechanism involving two nucleons. Due to the lack of theoretical interpretation for the emission of a single nucleon, a model has been developed in which the pion is absorbed by a correlated proton-proton pair, only one of these both protons being emitted. The first part of this research thesis addresses the calculation of absorption on a pair of nucleons with emission of these nucleons. It comprises the detailed presentation of the theoretical model, its comparison with other published calculations, and the comparison with results obtained by experiments of emission of nucleon pairs from carbon and oxygen. The second part proposes an overview of the great number of experimental results obtained by capture of π- resting on carbon. It reports the measurement of the emission of a single nucleon, the presentation of the elaborated theoretical model which has been developed to interpret this measurement. The author also compares the results of his calculation with the experimentally measured probability for the (π - p) process and the results published on the measurement of the (π - n).reaction [fr

  13. Experimental Aspects in the Vibration-Based Condition Monitoring of Large Hydrogenerators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Carvalho Brito Junior

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on experimental observations on a set of twenty 700 MW hydrogenerators, compiled from several technical reports issued over the last three decades and collected from the reprocessing of the vibration signals recorded during the last commissioning tests, this paper shows that the accurate determination of the journal bearings operating conditions may be a difficult task. It shows that the outsize bearing brackets of large hydrogenerators are subject to substantial dimensional changes caused by external agents, like the generator electromagnetic field and the bearing cooling water temperature. It also shows that the shaft eccentricity of a journal bearing of a healthy large hydrogenerator, operating in steady-state condition, may experience unpredictable, sudden, and significant changes without apparent reasons. Some of these phenomena are reproduced in ordinary commissioning tests or may be noticed even during normal operation, while others are rarely observed or are only detected through special tests. These phenomena modify journal bearings stiffness and damping, changing the hydrogenerator dynamics, creating discrepancies between theoretical predictions and experimental measurements, and making damage detection and diagnostics difficult. Therefore, these phenomena must be analyzed and considered in the application of vibration-based condition monitoring to these rotating machines.

  14. Experimental models in predicting topical antifungal efficacy: practical aspects and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, J; Maibach, H I

    2009-01-01

    What are efficient screening models for improved topical antifungals? The use of minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) as one such parameter is discussed; we focus on the use of animal membranes for in vitro testing while highlighting the pros and cons of each model, exploring alternatives and discussing the importance of data transferability to humans and the influence of penetration kinetics in topical antifungal efficacy. Ultimately, the gold standard of testing is in vivo in humans; however, initiating with human testing, especially for novel topical antifungal agents, may be impractical, which is why we seek the ideal experimental model that most closely mimics human skin. We conclude that the pig may be an appropriate model membrane for topical antifungal testing based on its similarities in anatomical structure, physiology and permeation to human skin. Most importantly, pig and human skins appear equally permeable to several antifungals in prior in vitro and in vivo work. We do not discuss all prior work but highlight important issues in designing the protocol and parameters of the ideal experimental model for topical antifungals. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Experimental Aspects of Colloidal Interactions in Mixed Systems of Liposome and Inorganic Nanoparticle and Their Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Gradzielski

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In the past few years, growing attention has been devoted to the study of the interactions taking place in mixed systems of phospholipid membranes (for instance in the form of vesicles and hard nanoparticles (NPs. In this context liposomes (vesicles may serve as versatile carriers or as a model system for biological membranes. Research on these systems has led to the observation of novel hybrid structures whose morphology strongly depends on the charge, composition and size of the interacting colloidal species as well as on the nature (pH, ionic strength of their dispersing medium. A central role is played by the phase behaviour of phospholipid bilayers which have a tremendous influence on the liposome properties. Another central aspect is the incorporation of nanoparticles into vesicles, which is intimately linked to the conditions required for transporting a nanoparticle through a membrane. Herein, we review recent progress made on the investigations of the interactions in liposome/nanoparticle systems focusing on the particularly interesting structures that are formed in these hybrid systems as well as their potential applications.

  16. Thermodynamic aspects of an LNG tank in fire and experimental validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulsbosch-Dam, Corina; Atli-Veltin, Bilim; Kamperveen, Jerry; Velthuis, Han; Reinders, Johan; Spruijt, Mark; Vredeveldt, Lex

    Mechanical behaviour of a Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) tank and the thermodynamic behaviour of its containment under extreme heat load - for instance when subjected to external fire source as might occur during an accident - are extremely important when addressing safety concerns. In a scenario where external fire is present and consequent release of LNG from pressure relief valves (PRV) has occurred, escalation of the fire might occur causing difficulty for the fire response teams to approach the tank or to secure the perimeter. If the duration of the tank exposure to fire is known, the PRV opening time can be estimated based on the thermodynamic calculations. In this paper, such an accidental scenario is considered, relevant thermodynamic equations are derived and presented. Moreover, an experiment is performed with liquid nitrogen and the results are compared to the analytical ones. The analytical results match very well with the experimental observations. The resulting analytical models are suitable to be applied to other cryogenic liquids.

  17. Weak interactions and exchange currents in light nuclei. Theoretical and experimental aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guichon, P.

    1980-01-01

    The influence of meson exchange currents in the nuclear weak interaction is investigated theoretically and experimentally. The hypothesis of current algebra and partial conservation of axial current are used, through Adler-Dothan theorem, to derive the one pion exchange correction to the impulse approximation. Calculations are performed for partial transitions in the 1p-shell nuclei and in 16 O. The corrections are generally small except for the (0 + →0 - ) transition in 16 O where the large correction to the time component of the axial current can show up, due to selection rules. The measurement of the muon capture rate for this transition is described and an interpretation in term of exchange currents is proposed [fr

  18. A methodology for evacuation design for urban areas: theoretical aspects and experimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, F.; Vitetta, A.

    2009-04-01

    of models for evacuation simulation; (c) to calibrate and validate system of model for evacuation simulation from a real experimentation. In relation to the proposed objectives in this paper: (a) a general framework about risk analysis is reported in the first part, with specific methods and models to analyze urban transportation system performances in emergency conditions when exogenous phenomena occur and for the specification of the risk function; (b) a formulation of the general evacuation problem in the standard simulation context of "what if" approach is specified in the second part with reference to the model considered for the simulation of transportation system in ordinary condition; (c) a set of models specified in the second part are calibrated and validated from a real experimentation in the third part. The experimentation was developed in the central business district of an Italian village and about 1000 inhabitants were evacuated, in order to construct a complete data-base. Our experiment required that socioeconomic information (population, number employed, public buildings, schools, etc.) and ‎transport supply characteristics (infrastructures, etc.) be measured before and during experimentation. The real data of evacuation were recorded with 30 video cameras for laboratory analysis. The results are divided into six strictly connected tasks: Demand models; Supply and supply-demand interaction models for users; Simulation of refuge areas for users; Design of path choice models for emergency vehicles; Pedestrian outflow models in a building; Planning process and guidelines.

  19. Theoretical and experimental aspects of laser cutting with a direct diode laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa Rodrigues, G.; Pencinovsky, J.; Cuypers, M.; Duflou, J. R.

    2014-10-01

    Recent developments in beam coupling techniques have made it possible to scale up the power of diode lasers with a laser beam quality suitable for laser cutting of metal sheets. In this paper a prototype of a Direct Diode Laser (DDL) source (BPP of 22 mm-mrad) is analyzed in terms of efficiency and cut performance and compared with two established technologies, CO2 and fiber lasers. An analytical model based on absorption calculations is used to predict the performance of the studied laser source with a good agreement with experimental results. Furthermore results of fusion cutting of stainless steel and aluminium alloys as well as oxygen cutting of structural steel are presented, demonstrating that industrial relevant cutting speeds with high cutting quality can now be achieved with DDL.

  20. Nuclear energy: exit or revival? International aspects; Energie nucleaire: sortie ou relance? Aspects internationaux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-11-01

    This colloquium took place less than 1 year after the decision of the US of revival of their nuclear program. Thus the international context has changed, even if nuclear contestation remains as strong as in the past. Among governments, some positions preach the banishment of nuclear energy while others consider the nuclear option as the only solution to meet the growing up energy demand and the future environmental and economical stakes. This report makes a synthesis of the different talks given by the participants during the 3 round tables of the colloquium on the future of nuclear energy: the ecological stake, the democratic stake, and the energy policy stake. Four talks of French government representatives open and conclude the debates of the different round tables. (J.S.)

  1. Thermodynamic aspects of an LNG tank in fire and experimental validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hulsbosch-Dam Corina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical behaviour of a Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG tank and the thermodynamic behaviour of its containment under extreme heat load – for instance when subjected to external fire source as might occur during an accident - are extremely important when addressing safety concerns. In a scenario where external fire is present and consequent release of LNG from pressure relief valves (PRV has occurred, escalation of the fire might occur causing difficulty for the fire response teams to approach the tank or to secure the perimeter. If the duration of the tank exposure to fire is known, the PRV opening time can be estimated based on the thermodynamic calculations. In this paper, such an accidental scenario is considered, relevant thermodynamic equations are derived and presented. Moreover, an experiment is performed with liquid nitrogen and the results are compared to the analytical ones. The analytical results match very well with the experimental observations. The resulting analytical models are suitable to be applied to other cryogenic liquids.

  2. Radioactivity in the scrap recycling process: Radiation protection aspects and experimental monitoring problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sacco, D.; Ruggeri, F.; Bindi, G.; Bonanni, A.; Casciardi, S.; Delia, R.; Loppa, A.; Rossi, P.; Venturini, L.

    1996-01-01

    The steel scrap recycling by steel mill is increasing moved by profits and by purpose of protection of environmental resources. Besides the use of radioactive sources in several fields (medical, industrial and in scientific researches) on one hand, and the disposal of made radioactive materials from nuclear reactors on the other one, makes the likelihood no more negligible that some radionuclides could be found, accidental y or fraudulently, in steel recycling scrap. Radiation protection problems for surveillance both employees in the production cycle and of people and environment in general arose. First of all, we characterize different type of radioactive materials that can found in scraps, pointing out the potential hazards from exposure of workers and people and from environmental contamination, related to physical and chemical specifications of the involved radionuclides. Some suitable monitoring equipment for scrap recycling facilities are discussed, related to the different step of production cycle (transport, storage, manipulation and melting). At last experimental data, taken in some periods of the monitoring campaign made at the Italian border on imported scraps, are presented. (author)

  3. Experimental storage of high-level radioactive wastes in the Asse salt mine - technical aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gies, H.; Rothfuchs, T.; Feddersen, H.; Graefe, V.; Gross, S.; Hente, B.; Jockwer, N.; Kessels, W.; Schwaegermann, H.

    1988-01-01

    The work performed under this project in the Asse salt mine is an important milepost within the framework schedule of the 'Gorleben Poject' of Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB). The project phase I (1982 - June 30, 1985) is about to be concluded at the time this report is published. The main points of interest of this project phase cover the planning of the experimental work, the design of experiments, and the first activities for developing the systems for handling the high-level radioactive wastes. The engineering development work has been advanced to the point where construction and manufacture of equipment can be started (transport containers Asse, TB1, collective transport containers, borehole gates, transport vehicles, waste positioning equipment, and borehole casing). Testing of the pipes for the last mentioned task with regard to the material's deformation behaviour will be done by the Dutch ECN as a sub-contractor. First laboratory experiments have been carried out on radiolysis gas formation, to complement the engineering work and the in-situ measuring programmes. (orig./RB) [de

  4. Experimental studies of fundamental aspects of Auger emission process in Cu(100) and Ag(100)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joglekar, Prasad Vivek

    Auger spectra at the low energies are accompanied by large contributions unrelated to the Auger transition. The Auger unrelated contributions can obscure the Auger peak and affect the quantitative analysis of the materials under investigation. In this dissertation we present a methodology to measure experimentally the Auger unrelated contributions and eliminate it from the Auger spectrum for obtaining an Auger spectrum inherent to the Auger transition. We used Auger Photoelectron Coincidence Spectroscopy (APECS) to obtain the Auger spectrum. APECS measures the Auger spectrum in coincidence with the core energy level and thus discriminating the contributions arising from secondary electrons and electrons arising from the non-Auger transition. Although APECS removes most of the Auger unrelated contributions, it cannot distinguish the contribution which is measured in coincidence with the inelastically scattered valence band electrons emitted at the core energy. To measure this inelastically scattered valence band contribution we did a series of measurements on Ag(100) to study NVV Auger spectrum in coincidence with 4p energy level and Cu(100) to study MVV Auger spectrum in coincidence with 3p energy level. The coincidence detection of the core and Auger-valence electrons was achieved by the two cylindrical mirror analyzers (CMAs). One CMA was fixed over a range of energies in between VB and core energy level while other CMA scanned corresponding low energy electrons from 0 to70eV. The spectrums measured were fit to a parameterized function which was extrapolated to get an estimate of inelastically scattered valence band electrons. The estimated contribution was subtracted for the Ag and Cu APECS spectrum to obtain a spectrum solely due to Auger transition with inelastically scattered Auger electron and multi Auger decay contributions associated with the transition. In the latter part of this dissertation, we propose a theoretical model based on the spectral intensity

  5. Integrated Experimental and Model-based Analysis Reveals the Spatial Aspects of EGFR Activation Dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shankaran, Harish; Zhang, Yi; Chrisler, William B.; Ewald, Jonathan A.; Wiley, H. S.; Resat, Haluk

    2012-10-02

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) belongs to the ErbB family of receptor tyrosine kinases, and controls a diverse set of cellular responses relevant to development and tumorigenesis. ErbB activation is a complex process involving receptor-ligand binding, receptor dimerization, phosphorylation, and trafficking (internalization, recycling and degradation), which together dictate the spatio-temporal distribution of active receptors within the cell. The ability to predict this distribution, and elucidation of the factors regulating it, would help to establish a mechanistic link between ErbB expression levels and the cellular response. Towards this end, we constructed mathematical models for deconvolving the contributions of receptor dimerization and phosphorylation to EGFR activation, and to examine the dependence of these processes on sub-cellular location. We collected experimental datasets for EGFR activation dynamics in human mammary epithelial cells, with the specific goal of model parameterization, and used the data to estimate parameters for several alternate models. Model-based analysis indicated that: 1) signal termination via receptor dephosphorylation in late endosomes, prior to degradation, is an important component of the response, 2) less than 40% of the receptors in the cell are phosphorylated at any given time, even at saturating ligand doses, and 3) receptor dephosphorylation rates at the cell surface and early endosomes are comparable. We validated the last finding by measuring EGFR dephosphorylation rates at various times following ligand addition both in whole cells, and in endosomes using ELISAs and fluorescent imaging. Overall, our results provide important information on how EGFR phosphorylation levels are regulated within cells. Further, the mathematical model described here can be extended to determine receptor dimer abundances in cells co-expressing various levels of ErbB receptors. This study demonstrates that an iterative cycle of

  6. Experimental envenomation with Crotalus durissus terrificus venom in dogs treated with antiophidic serum - part II: laboratory aspects, electrocardiogram and histopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. B. Nogueira

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work shows laboratory aspects, electrocardiogram and histopathology results during experimental envenomation by Crotalus durissus terrificus in dogs treated with antiophidic serum. Twenty-one dogs were divided into three groups of seven animals each. Group I received 1mg/kg venom (sc; Group II received 1mg/kg venom (sc, 50mg antiophidic serum (iv and fluid therapy including 0.9% NaCl solution (iv; and Group III received 1mg/kg venom (sc, 50mg antiophidic serum (iv and fluid therapy including 0.9% NaCl solution containing sodium bicarbonate diluted to the dose of 4mEq/kg. Urinalysis showed brown urine, proteinuria, occult blood and myoglobinuria. Respiratory acidosis and hypotension were also observed. At the venom inoculation site, there was discreet edema, popliteal lymph node response, musculature presenting whitish areas and necrotic myositis with myoregenerative activity. There was not evidence of electrocardiographical and biochemical alterations.

  7. Incident factor as a learning aspect to enhance safety culture in the experimental fuel element installation of PTBN - BATAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heri Hardiyanti; Agus Sartono; Bambang Herutomo; AS Latief

    2013-01-01

    The safety of a nuclear facility depends not only on the fulfillment of all technical requirements, but also on the role of non-technical aspects. The primary causation of incidents or accidents in a nuclear facility is human error which is non-technical. Therefore, in order to enhance safety, efforts from the technical aspects are as important as efforts to deal with the human factor which can be done through the application of safety culture in the facility. Incidents that took place in the Experimental Fuel Element Installation (EFEI) of PTBN - BATAN from 2011 to 2012 were caused by aging instruments and human error. In order to prevent accidents and to enhance safety, non-technical efforts that were done in the EFEI were, interalia, the obligations on all personnel to attend the pre-lab briefing, to prepare a work proposal, to compose a HIRADC (hazard identification, risk assessment, and determining control) document, to utilize self protection devices, to perform a routine maintenance, and to practice safe behavior. All personnel were involved in all those efforts. Safety is the first priority and can always be improved in the facility. A strong commitment of and cooperation between the top management and the staff are needed. (author)

  8. Economic consequences of the Swiss 'Sortir du nucleaire' and 'Moratoire-plus' popular initiatives - Analysis using a balanced model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, A.; Wickart, M.; Van Nieuwkoop, R.

    2001-01-01

    This article is a short version of the ENET number 210359. This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a study made to assess the economic consequences of two models for the opting out of nuclear energy in Switzerland, as proposed in two popular initiatives. The 'Sortir du nucleaire' (electricity without atomic power) initiative calls for the shutting down of the existing nuclear power stations and the 'Moratoire-plus' initiative calls for a stop on the building of new atomic power stations for 10 years. The method used for assessing the costs and benefits resulting if the initiatives were accepted in a public vote is described. Basic assumptions made on further factors concerning the electricity and energy markets are discussed. Results of analyses made for various scenarios with respect to CO 2 emissions are presented and include discussions on risk costs, effects on employment and welfare aspects

  9. Experimental aspects of supersymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baer, H.

    1998-01-01

    In this talk, I review the present status of the event generator ISAJET for simulating weak scale supersymmetry at collider experiments. I note especially the recent ISAJET 7.29 upgrade that allows the large tan β region of SUSY parameter space to be explored. I also discuss promising signatures for the minimal supergravity (mSUGRA) model at LEP2, the Tevatron and upgrades, the CERN LHC pp collider, and the NLC, a future e + e - linear collider. In addition, I comment upon recent work on restrictions on the mSUGRA model from i.) b→sγ decays, and ii.) the relic density of neutralinos. I finally point out how direct detection of SUSY dark matter can be very much complementary to collider searches: for large tan β, where collider searches are most difficult, direct detection experiments are most promising. (orig.)

  10. Aspects of Experimental Hepatocarcinogenesis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1974-06-29

    Jun 29, 1974 ... these included relatively well-differentiated trabecular car- cinomas but adenocarcinomas and mixed tumours were also present. All the livers showed .... only a small percentage acquire autonomous growth charac- teristics and give rise to tumours. In contrast to this,. Reuber noted that after discontinuation ...

  11. Aspects of Experimental Hepatocarcinogenesis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1974-06-22

    Jun 22, 1974 ... arose in the cirrhotic livers of rats fed p-dimethylamino- ... Department of Pathology, University of Cape Town. A. H. TIMME, M.B. CH.B., M.MED. (PATH.) .... 10. Merkow, L. P., Epstein, S. M., Farber, E., Pardo, M. and Bartus, B.

  12. Aspects of Experimental Hepatocarcinogenesis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1974-06-22

    Jun 22, 1974 ... Few lysosomes and autophagic vacuoles were present. Fig. 4. Prominent Golgi bodies in the perinuclear area. (x 30000). DISCUSSION. In the cirrhotic livers of animals-exposed to p-DAB, the hyperplastic nodules display a wide range of histological appearances and those described in this article are com-.

  13. The 9. European nuclear conference; La 9. conference nucleaire europeenne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurel, V.; Lewis, D.; Smirnov, V.P.; Gutierrez, J.E.; Paulin, Ph.; Markov, D.V.; Smirnov, A.V.; Polenok, V.S.; Horhoianu, G.; Olteanu, G.; Van der Schaaf, B.; Gavillet, D.; Lapena, J.; Ohms, C.; Roth, A.; Van Dyck, St.; Mardon, J.P.; Thomas, A.; Cipiere, M.F.; Faidy, C.; Hedin, F.; Delnondedieu, M.; Chassignole, B.; Doudet, L.; Dupond, O.; Kang, K.; Park, K.; Kim, K.; Ha, J.; Hoon-Seok, Jung; Yong-koo, Lee; Kwang-Ho, Kim; Seungwoo, Paek; Heui-Joo, Choi; Do-Hee, Ahn; Kwang-Rag, Kim; Minsoo, Lee; Sung-Paal, Yim; Hongsuk, Chung; Detroux, P.; Meessen, O.; Defloor, J.; Lars-Erik, Holm; Barescut, J.C.; Vacquier, B.; Laurier, D.; Caer, S.; Quesne, B.; Oudalova, A.; Geras' kin, St.; Dikarev, V.; Dikareva, N.; Chernonog, E.; Yang-Geun, Chung; Gab-Bock, Lee; Sun-Young, Bang; Yong-Sun, Lee; Bolognese-Milsztajn, T.; Frank, D.; Lacoste, V.; Pihet, P.; Lacronique, J.F.; Chauliac, C.; Verwaerde, D.; Pavageau, O.; Zaetta, A.; Varaine, F.; Warin, D.; Hudelot, J.P.; Bioux, Ph.; Klann, R.; Petruzzi, A.; D' auria, F.; Yung Kwon, Jin; Chul Jin, Chol; Mihalache, M.; Radu, V.; Pavelescu, M.; Schneidesch, Ch.R.; Jinzhao, Zhang; Dalleur, J.P.; Nuttin, A.; Meplan, O.; Wilson, J.; Perdu, F.; Campioni, G.; Mounier, C.; Sigrist, J.F.; Laine, Ch.; Broc, D.; Robbe, M.F.; Cariou, Y.; Seok-Kyun, Yoon; Win, Naing; Myung-Hyun, Kim; Kyung, Hee; Fridman, E.; Shwageraus, E.; Galperin, A.; Meplan, O.; Laulan, O.; Mechel-Sendis, F.; Belgaid, M.; Kadem, F.; Amokrane, A.; Hamidouche, T.; El-Khider, Si-Ahmed

    2005-11-15

    This issue gathers the abstracts of the papers presented at the ninth European nuclear conference (ENC-2005). The main part of the conference is split into 20 sessions. These sessions cover all technical aspects of nuclear power, from reactor design to waste management, without forgetting experimental and research reactors, reactor dismantling, economy, resources, safety, radioprotection and education issues. Perspectives of a nuclear renaissance are clearly visible in the world. This renaissance, mainly due to political, economical, societal and ecological factors, is fuelled by scientific and technical progress. This conference was the opportunity to present together these aspects of nuclear power and to analyze their mutual interactions.

  14. Micromorphological Aspects of Forensic Geopedology II: Ultramicroscopic vs Microscopic Characterization of Phosphatic Impregnations on Soil Particles in Experimental Burials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ern, S. I. E.; Trombino, L.; Cattaneo, C.

    2012-04-01

    Grows up the importance of the role played by soil scientists in the modern forensic sciences, in particular when buried human remains strongly decomposed or skeletonized are found in different environment situations. Among the different techniques normally used in geopedology, it is usefull to apply in such forensic cases, soil micromorphology (including optical microscopy and ultramicroscopy) that has been underused up today, for various kind of reasons. An interdisciplinary Italian-team, formed by earth scientists and legal medicine, is working on several sets of experimental burial of pigs and piglets in different soil types and for different times of burial, in order to get new evidences on environmental behaviour related to the burial, focalising on geopedological and micropedological aspects. The present work is focused on: - ultramicroscopic (SEM-EDS) characterization of the phosphatic impregnation (by body fluids) on soils sampled under the dead bodies of five couples of pigs, buried respectively for one month, six month, one year, two years and two years and half in two different areas; - microscopic (petrographic microscope) and ultramicroscopic (SEM-EDS) cross characterization of the phosphatic impregnation (by body fluids) on soils sampled under the dead bodies of several piglets, buried for twenty months. The first results show trends of persistency of such phosphatic features, mainly related to the grain size of the impregnated soil particles and weather conditions (or seasons) of exhumation, while apparently time since burial is only marginally effective for the investigated burial period. Further experiments are in progress in order to clarify the pathways of phosphorus precipitation and leaching for longer times of burial and different seasons of exhumation, both from the microscopic and the pedological/chemical point of view.

  15. The nuclear refugees; Les refugies du nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linton, M.

    2011-06-15

    The authors propose a report on the various situations of people who had to be evacuated after the Fukushima accident. Along with examples of people who left their homes with taking with them a single object, the authors describe and comment how this evacuation occurred, the problems faced by the authorities for refugee reception and accommodation. This evacuation has been either organised or spontaneous. Hospitals had to be evacuated as well. Then, local authorities faced food shortage. Some animals have been saved, other starved to death. Dead animals are covered with lime. Dead bodies are decontaminated before being given back to families. Tests are regularly performed to assess people contamination. A second article discussed the bad news concerning the different Fukushima reactors with their melted cores. The geophysical aspects of the earthquake are evoked in a last article

  16. Calculation of the shock-wave in the region close to an underground nuclear explosion (method Cades); Calcul de l'onde de choc en zone proche d'une explosion nucleaire souterraine (methode cades)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Supiot, F; Brugies, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France). Centre d' Etudes

    1969-07-01

    The outline of a method is presented for calculating the characteristics of a shock wave produced by an underground nuclear explosion (pressure, wave velocity, velocity of the medium, energy left in the medium by the shock, etc.). By means of an application to a granitic medium and of a comparison with results obtained during French nuclear explosions, it has been possible to show the good agreement existing between the calculations and the experimental results. The advantages of such a method for studying the industrial applications of underground nuclear explosions are stressed. (authors) [French] On expose les grandes lignes d'une methode de calcul des caracteristiques de l'onde de choc issue d'une explosion nucleaire souterraine (pression, vitesse de l'onde, vitesse du milieu, energie deposee par le choc dans le milieu...). Une application a un milieu granitique et une comparaison aux resultats obtenus au cours d'explosions nucleaires francaises permet de montrer la bonne concordance entre le calcul et les resultats experimentaux. On souligne l'interet d'une telle, methode pour l'etude d'applications industrielles des explosions nucleaires souterraines. (auteurs)

  17. The 'Pole Nucleaire Bourgogne' for developing the nuclear components industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kottmann, G.

    2012-01-01

    The 'Pole Nucleaire Bourgogne' (PNB) is a high-technology and heavy industries cluster in Burgundy with an international calling. It aims at innovating, educating and federating in order to place the French nuclear industry in a leading position. PNB gathers 76 small-, and medium-sized enterprises, most of them operating in the metal sector, in design and in the control/measuring sector. The aim of PNB is to make enterprises work and cooperate on specific topics according to their sectors of activities and their skills. PNB has identified 3 domains of strategical innovations: -) ecological manufacturing and durability of heavy components, -) controls for high performance components, and -) maintenance and dismantling techniques in hostile environments. The various industry sectors represented in PNB allows a cross-fertilization between high-tech industries (aeronautics, energy, transportation)

  18. Treatment of effluent at the Saclay Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires (1960); Le traitement des effluents du Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay (1960)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wormser, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    The Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires at Saclay possesses several installations from which liquid radioactive effluent is rejected, and it has thus been found necessary to construct a station for the purification of radioactive liquids and to settle various chemical, analytical and technological problems. This report describes, in the following order: - the disposal possibilities at the Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires, Saclay, - the effluents produced at the centre, - the set-up for collecting effluent, - treatment of the effluent, - results of these treatments. (author) [French] La presence, au Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, de plusieurs installations susceptibles de rejeter des effluents liquides radioactifs a necessite la construction d'une station d'epuration d'eaux radioactives et la mise au point de differents problemes chimiques, analytiques et technologiques. Dans ce rapport, nous exposerons successivement: - les possibilites de rejet du Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, - les effluents du centre, - le dispositif de collecte des effluents, - le traitement de ces effluents, - les resultats de ces traitements. (auteur)

  19. Experimental study of the topological aspect of the ergodic divertor in Tore-supra tokamak; Etude experimentale des aspects topologiques du divertor ergodique de Tore Supra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costanzo, L

    2001-10-01

    The control of power deposition onto plasma facing components in tokamaks is a determining factor for future thermonuclear fusion reactors. Plasma surface interaction can be performed using limiters or divertors. The ergodic divertor installed on Tore Supra is an atypical example of a magnetic divertor. It consists in applying a magnetic perturbation which establishes a particular topology of the plasma in contact with the wall (edge plasma). We carried out dedicated experiments in order to study parallel heat flux which strike the divertor neutralizers. This quantitative and qualitative analysis of heat flux as a function of experimental conditions allows to determine the profiles of power deposition along the neutralizers. The influence of plasma electron density, additional heating, impurities and injected gas was established. An experimental study of the sheath heat transmission factor {gamma} was carried out by correlating measurements made with Langmuir probes and infrared imaging. This study gave rise to a major conclusion: for ohmic discharges with deuterium injection and most of the time with helium, it was experimentally confirmed that {gamma}=7 in agreement with classical sheath theory. However, an increase of this factor with additional power has been shown. Detached plasma, which is an attractive regime in order to reduce the power deposition, requires an optimized control. A new measurement of the detachment onset has been developed. It is based on the variation of heat flux onto the plates derived from infrared measurements. A detachment cartography with the determination of a new 2D 'IR' Degree of Detachment was carried out allowing to locate the zone where the detachment starts. We can apply this concept both to other tokamaks such as JET and ITER. A comparison between the axisymmetric divertor and the ergodic divertor is also presented concerning the power deposition in the two configurations. Low heat flux with the ergodic divertor is a

  20. Comparison of analytical and experimental subsonic steady and unsteady pressure distributions for a high-aspect-ratio-supercritical wing model with oscillating control surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccain, W. E.

    1982-01-01

    The results of a comparative study using the unsteady aerodynamic lifting surface theory, known as the Doublet Lattice method, and experimental subsonic steady- and unsteady-pressure measurements, are presented for a high-aspect-ratio supercritical wing model. Comparisons of pressure distributions due to wing angle of attack and control-surface deflections were made. In general, good correlation existed between experimental and theoretical data over most of the wing planform. The more significant deviations found between experimental and theoretical data were in the vicinity of control surfaces for both static and oscillatory control-surface deflections.

  1. Micromorphological aspects of forensic geopedology: time-dependent markers of decomposition and permanence in soil in experimental burials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zangarini, Sara; Cattaneo, Cristina; Trombino, Luca

    2014-05-01

    The importance of the role played by soil scientists grows up in the modern forensic sciences, in particular when buried human remains strongly decomposed or skeletonized are found in different environment situations. An interdisciplinary team, formed by earth and legal medicine researchers from the University of Milan is working on several sets of experimental burial of pigs in different soil types and for different times of burial, in order to get new evidences on environmental responses to the burial, focusing specifically on geopedological and micropedological aspects. The present work is aimed at the micromorphological (petrographic microscope) and ultramicroscopic (SEM) cross characterization of bone tissue in buried remains, in order to describe bone alteration pathways due both to decomposition and to permanence in soil. These methods allow identifying in the tissues of analysed bones: - Unusual concentrations of metal oxides (i.e. Fe, Mn), in the form of violet-blue colorations (in XPL), which seem to be related to chemical conditions in the burial area; their presence could be a method to discriminate permanence in soil rather than a different environment of decomposition. - Magnesium phosphate (i.e. Mg3(PO4)2 ) crystallizations, usually noticed in bones buried from 7 to 103 weeks; their presence seems to be related to the decomposition both of the bones themselves and of soft tissues. - The presence of significant sulphur levels (i.e. SO3) in bones buried for over 7 weeks, which seem to be related to the transport and fixation of soft tissues decomposition fluids. These results point out that micromorphological techniques coupled with spatially resolved chemical analyses allow identifying both indicators of the permanence of the remains into the soil (i.e. metal oxides concentrations) and time-dependent markers of decomposition (i.e. significant sulphur levels and magnesium phosphate) in order to determine PMI (post-mortem-interval) and TSB (time

  2. Chemical Effects of Nuclear Recoil in Organic Halide Systems: A New Theoretical Treatment and Experimental Verification of the Theory; Effets Chimiques du Recul Nucleaire dans des Systemes Organiques Halogenes: Nouveau Traitement Theorique et Verification Experimentale de la Theorie; Khimicheskie vozdejstviya yadernoj otdachi v organicheskikh galoidnykh sistemakh: novoe teoreticheskoe tolkovanie i ehksperimental'noe podtverzhdenie teorii; Efectos Quimicos del Retroceso Nuclear en Sistemas de Haluros Organicos: Nuevo Tratamiento Teorico y Verificacion Experimental de la Teoria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kontis, S. S.; Sanitwongs, P.; Weston, M. [Londonderry Laboratory for Radiochemistry, University of Durham, Durham (United Kingdom)

    1965-04-15

    Methods have been developed for calculating the organic retention of radiohalogen to be expected following neutron activation of mixtures of two organic halides and the corresponding free halogen. The methods are based on the concepts of the Libby ''billiard-ball'' process of hot-atom labelling and retentions are expressed in terms of two types of parameters: (1) the fractional chance that collision of a hot radiohalogen atom with a particular molecule will lead to retention of the hot atom in that molecule; (2) the upper and lower energy limits for what is termed a hot bromine atom. It is shown how the former type of parameter may be derived from experiments with binary mixtures of an organic halide and the corresponding free halogen: the second type of parameter must be deduced from nuclear and chemical data. These methods have been tested by studies on the systems C{sub 2}H{sub 5}Br/CCl{sub 4}/Br{sub 2} and C{sub 2}H{sub 5}Br/C{sub 6}H{sub 5}Br/Br{sub 2}. The calculated retentions (using parameters derived from studies of the systems C{sub 2}H{sub 5}Br/Br{sub 2}, CCl{sub 4}/Br{sub 2} and C{sub 6}H{sub 5}Br/Br{sub 2}) are in good agreement with those found experimentally in mixtures with a bromine mole-fraction greater than about 0.1. It is therefore considered that the Libby mechanism is adequate to explain the observed organic retentions in such mixtures. As the bromine mole-fraction is reduced, below 0.1 the observed retentions become progressively higher than calculated values. This is attributed to there being additional modes of hot-atom labelling which become operative when the bromine concentration is not high enough to give adequate radical scavenging. (author) [French] Lesauteuts ont mis au point des methodes pour calculer la retention organique du radiohalogene a laquelle on peut s'attendre apres activation par les neutrons de melanges de deux halogenures organiques et de l'halogene libre correspondant. Ces methodes sont basees sur les principes du

  3. Nuclear explosion and internal contamination; Explosion nucleaire et contamination interne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aeberhardt, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1956-07-01

    By the study of the conditions of internal contamination due to the radioactive mixture produced by a nuclear explosion, the parts played by the relative weights of the different elements and the mode of expression of the doses are considered. Only the knowledge of the weight composition of the contamination mixture and of its evolution as a function of time can provide the required basis for the study of its metabolism in the organism. The curves which give the composition of the fission product mixture - in number of nuclei - - as a function of time - have been established. These curves are applied to some practical examples, particularly relative to the nature of contamination, radiotoxicity of some elements and assessment of hazards. (author) [French] Etudiant les modalites de la contamination interne par les elements radioactifs apparus lors d'une explosion nucleaire, le role de la 'masse' et le mode d'expression des doses sont envisages. La connaissance de la composition en 'masse' du melange contaminant et de son evolution en fonction du temps peut seule apporter les bases necessaires a l'etude de son comportement dans l'organisme. Les courbes donnant la composition du melange de produits de fission - en nombre de noyaux - - en fonction du temps - ont ete etablies. Quelques applications pratiques, relatives en particulier a la nature de la contamination, a la radiotoxicite de certains elements et a l'evaluation de risque, sont envisagees a titre d'exemple. (auteur)

  4. Nuclear study of Melusine; Etude nucleaire de Melusine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherot, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-07-01

    In this report are reviewed - with respect to starting of experiments - the main nuclear characteristics of a 20 per cent enriched uranium lattice, with light water as moderator and reflector. The reactor is to operate at 1 MW. 1) Study of various critical masses. 2) Control. Effectiveness of cadmium. Control rods and of a stainless steel regulating rod. 3) Study of the effect on reactivity of disturbances in the core center. 4) Study of xenon and samarium poisoning. 5) Temperature factor. 6) Heat exchanges in a fuel element. (author) [French] On etudie, dans ce rapport, les principales proprietes nucleaires d'un reseau a uranium enrichi (20 pour cent), dont le moderateur et le reflecteur sont l'eau legere en vue des experiences de demarrage. Ce reacteur devra fonctionner a 1 MW. 1) Etude de diverses masses critiques. 2) Controle. Efficacite des barres de controle en cadmium et d'une barre de reglage en acier inoxydable. 3) Etude de l'effet sur la reactivite de perturbation au centre du coeur. 4) Etude de l'empoisonnement xenon et samarium. 5) Coefficient de temperature. 6) Echanges thermiques dans un element. (auteur)

  5. Forensic aspects of gene expression signatures for age determination in bruises as evaluated in an experimental porcine model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barington, Kristiane; Jensen, Henrik Elvang; Skovgaard, Kerstin

    2017-01-01

    Determining the age of bruises and the force used to inflict the trauma is of crucial importance in both human and veterinary forensic pathology. In the present study, the expression of more than 50 different genes in subcutaneous fat and muscle tissue from experimental bruises in pigs...... provide valuable information in human forensic science....

  6. Mechanistic Aspects of the Reversible Binding of SO2 on Arylplatinum Complexes: Experimental and ab Initio Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koten, G. van; Albrecht, M.A.; Gossage, R.A.; Frey, H.; Ehlers, A.W.; Baerends, E.J.; Merbach, A.E.

    2001-01-01

    The detailed mechanism of the reversible binding and fast exchange of SO2 on the organoplatinum(II) complex [PtI(NCN)], 1, has been studied experimentally in solution (C2F4Br2) using low-temperature NMR spectroscopy and theoretically by ab initio calculations. Direct bonding of SO2 and formation of

  7. Factors and uncertainties in the profitability of using nuclear energy in desalination of water; Facteurs et incertitudes de la rentabilite du recours a l'energie nucleaire dans le dessalement des eaux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiriet, L; Lievre, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    One of the economic advantages of nuclear energy consists of the small proportional element in its cost structure. Economies of scale favour the nuclear station as compared with the conventional thermal one, and when the demand for electricity and heat, in particular for desalination, are sufficient, nuclear energy may, subject to certain conditions, prove advantageous. The object of this paper is to discuss the validity of the conclusions reached according to the hypotheses adopted. In the first part, the different kind of uncertainties connected with technical, economic and financial data (the various transmission coefficients, the life of equipment according to the choice of materials, changes in prices, the form of price functions and interest rates), and with the various constraints, are examined and discussed. In the second part the uncertainties connected with the method of optimisation used and the criterion of selection adopted are examined and discussed. It is shown thereby that it is usually extremely difficult to assume absolutely the competitiveness, or conversely the non-competitiveness, of using nuclear energy in the desalination of water, and that a large number of aspects have to be carefully examined. (author) [French] On sait que l'un des avantages economiques de l'energie nucleaire reside dans la faible part proportionnelle dans la structure de son cout. Les economies d'echelle favorisent le nucleaire par rapport au thermique classique, et lorsque les demandes d'electricite et de chaleur, notamment pour le dessalement, sont suffisantes on peut envisager favorablement, sous certaines hypotheses, le recours a l'energie nucleaire. L'objet de cette communication est de discuter la validite des conclusions auxquelles on parvient selon les hypotheses envisagees. Dans une premiere partie, on etudie et on discute les differentes sortes d'incertitudes, liees aux donnees techniques, economiques et financieres (les divers coefficients de transmission, les

  8. Nuclear purity and the production of uranium (1962); La purete nucleaire et la fabrication de l'uranium (1962)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verte, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Centre du Bouchet, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1962-07-01

    When the production of 'nuclear grade' uranium is dealt with, it is difficult, the author of this study points out, to separate its chemical, technical, and economical bearings. While recalling the evolution of chemical processes in various countries and describing the technic of uranium manufacture in the plant of the French 'Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique' at Le Bouchet, the author outlines the effect of economical contingencies on the problems the chemists and engineer are faced with. The question of cost price is also considered here with particular attention. (author) [French] Lorsqu'il s'agit de la production d'uranium de 'qualite nucleaire', il est difficile, souligne l'auteur de cette etude, de separer les aspects chimique, technique et economique. Aussi, en retracant l'evolution des procedes chimiques dans divers pays et decrivant les techniques de fabrication de l'uranium a l'usine du Bouchet du Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique, l'auteur ne manque-t-il pas de rappeler les incidences de la conjoncture economique sur les problemes posees au chimiste et a l'ingenieur. La question du prix de revient, egalement, est traitee ici avec une attention particuliere. (auteur)

  9. Possibilities and limitations of analogue methods for studying the dynamics of nuclear power stations; Possibilites et limitations du calcul analogique pour les etudes dynamiques de centrales nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caillet, C; Deat, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    1. Introduction: the present paper is devoted to analog simulation of problems related to nuclear reactors other than the simulation of the kinetic equations which is well known. 2. Thermodynamic problems: various problems relative to temperature evolution in a reactor, in a pipe, in an exchanger, in a turbine, are studied, and simulation techniques used by earlier authors are critically reviewed. 3. Pipe simulators: it is shown that this problem can be solved by the use of specialized simulators which will be described and analysed. 4. Rotating machine simulators: the particular aspect of rotating machine calculations introducing frequent use of diagrams is emphasized. A simulator requiring both digital and analogue methods is described. 5. The study of a nuclear power station: as an example it is proposed to discuss problems a rising in connection with the preceding elements (a, b, c, d) when simulating the behaviour of large nuclear plants. The part played by ordinary computing elements for the simulation of the different servomechanism transfer functions is considered and process of regulation is outlined. 6. Conclusion: the necessity of the use of high quality simulators and computers is underlined and the accuracy of the solutions is discussed. (author)Fren. [French] 1. Cinetique des reacteurs: la simulation des equations cinetiques d'un reacteur nucleaire ne pose desormais plus de probleme. II est donc possible de faire le point des differentes applications de la technique analogique dans ce domaine. 2. Les problemes thermodynamiques: on discute les differents problemes poses par l'evolution des temperatures dans un reacteur, dans une tuyauterie, dans un echangeur, dans une turbine, et on passe en revue les techniques de simulation proposees jusqu'a ce jour. 3s simulateurs de tuyauteries: on montre comment les differents problemes poses ci-dessus peuvent etre resolus, pour une classe tres vaste de reacteurs par l'emploi de simulateurs speciaux que l

  10. Experimental infection and transmission of Leishmania by Lutzomyia cruzi (Diptera: Psychodidae: Aspects of the ecology of parasite-vector interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Everton Falcão de Oliveira

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Several parameters should be addressed before incriminating a vector for Leishmania transmission. Those may include its ability to become infected by the same Leishmania species found in humans, the degree of attractiveness for reservoirs and humans and capacity to sustain parasite infection under laboratory conditions. This study evaluated the vectorial capacity of Lutzomyia cruzi for Leishmania infantum and gathered information on its ability to harbor L. amazonensis. Laboratory-reared Lu. cruzi were infected experimentally by feeding them on dogs infected naturally with L. infantum and hamsters infected with L. amazonensis. Sand fly attractiveness to dogs and humans was determined using wild caught insects. The expected daily survival of infected Lu. cruzi, the duration of the gonotrophic cycle, and the extrinsic incubation period were also investigated for both parasites. Vector competence was investigated for both Leishmania species. The mean proportion of female sand flies that fed on hosts was 0.40. For L. infantum and L. amazonensis, Lu. cruzi had experimental infection rates of 10.55% and 41.56%, respectively. The extrinsic incubation period was 3 days for both Leishmania species, regardless of the host. Survival expectancy of females infected with L. infantum and L. amazonensis after completing the gonotrophic cycle was 1.32 and 0.43, respectively. There was no association between L. infantum infection and sand fly longevity, but L. amazonensis-infected flies had significantly greater survival probabilities. Furthermore, egg-laying was significantly detrimental to survival. Lu. cruzi was found to be highly attracted to both dogs and humans. After a bloodmeal on experimentally infected hosts, both parasites were able to survive and develop late-stage infections in Lu. cruzi. However, transmission was demonstrated only for L. amazonensis-infected sand flies. In conclusion, Lu. cruzi fulfilled several of the requirements of vectorial

  11. Experimental infection and transmission of Leishmania by Lutzomyia cruzi (Diptera: Psychodidae): Aspects of the ecology of parasite-vector interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcão de Oliveira, Everton; Oshiro, Elisa Teruya; Fernandes, Wagner de Souza; Murat, Paula Guerra; Medeiros, Márcio José de; Souza, Alda Izabel; Oliveira, Alessandra Gutierrez de; Galati, Eunice Aparecida Bianchi

    2017-02-01

    Several parameters should be addressed before incriminating a vector for Leishmania transmission. Those may include its ability to become infected by the same Leishmania species found in humans, the degree of attractiveness for reservoirs and humans and capacity to sustain parasite infection under laboratory conditions. This study evaluated the vectorial capacity of Lutzomyia cruzi for Leishmania infantum and gathered information on its ability to harbor L. amazonensis. Laboratory-reared Lu. cruzi were infected experimentally by feeding them on dogs infected naturally with L. infantum and hamsters infected with L. amazonensis. Sand fly attractiveness to dogs and humans was determined using wild caught insects. The expected daily survival of infected Lu. cruzi, the duration of the gonotrophic cycle, and the extrinsic incubation period were also investigated for both parasites. Vector competence was investigated for both Leishmania species. The mean proportion of female sand flies that fed on hosts was 0.40. For L. infantum and L. amazonensis, Lu. cruzi had experimental infection rates of 10.55% and 41.56%, respectively. The extrinsic incubation period was 3 days for both Leishmania species, regardless of the host. Survival expectancy of females infected with L. infantum and L. amazonensis after completing the gonotrophic cycle was 1.32 and 0.43, respectively. There was no association between L. infantum infection and sand fly longevity, but L. amazonensis-infected flies had significantly greater survival probabilities. Furthermore, egg-laying was significantly detrimental to survival. Lu. cruzi was found to be highly attracted to both dogs and humans. After a bloodmeal on experimentally infected hosts, both parasites were able to survive and develop late-stage infections in Lu. cruzi. However, transmission was demonstrated only for L. amazonensis-infected sand flies. In conclusion, Lu. cruzi fulfilled several of the requirements of vectorial capacity for L. infantum

  12. Experimental and numerical researches of duplex burnishing process in aspect of achieved productive quality of the product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patyk, Radoslaw; Kukielka, Leon; Kaldunski, Pawel; Bohdal, Lukasz; Chodor, Jaroslaw; Kulakowska, Agnieszka; Kukielka, Krzysztof; Nagnajewicz, Slawomir

    2018-05-01

    The paper presents the results of experimental researches and numerical simulations of the duplex burnishing process. During duplex burnishing process the treatment is carry out in two stages. In the first stage - on the semi-fabrication surface, the regular asperities are embossed with triangular, symmetrical, periodic outline. In the second stage the asperities are burnished (smooth burnishing) till the needed asperities equalized, resulting in a smooth and strengthened surface layer. The implementation of such technology results in receiving of a new surface layer characterized by favorable functional properties, particularly increased resistance to fatigue wear.

  13. Comparative analysis of internalisation, haemolytic, cytotoxic and antibacterial effect of membrane-active cationic peptides: aspects of experimental setup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horváti, Kata; Bacsa, Bernadett; Mlinkó, Tamás; Szabó, Nóra; Hudecz, Ferenc; Zsila, Ferenc; Bősze, Szilvia

    2017-06-01

    Cationic peptides proved fundamental importance as pharmaceutical agents and/or drug carrier moieties functioning in cellular processes. The comparison of the in vitro activity of these peptides is an experimental challenge and a combination of different methods, such as cytotoxicity, internalisation rate, haemolytic and antibacterial effect, is necessary. At the same time, several issues need to be addressed as the assay conditions have a great influence on the measured biological effects and the experimental setup needs to be optimised. Therefore, critical comparison of results from different assays using representative examples of cell penetrating and antimicrobial peptides was performed and optimal test conditions were suggested. Our main goal was to identify carrier peptides for drug delivery systems of antimicrobial drug candidates. Based on the results of internalisation, haemolytic, cytotoxic and antibacterial activity assays, a classification of cationic peptides is advocated. We found eight promising carrier peptides with good penetration ability of which Penetratin, Tat, Buforin and Dhvar4 peptides showed low adverse haemolytic effect. Penetratin, Transportan, Dhvar4 and the hybrid CM15 peptide had the most potent antibacterial activity on Streptococcus pneumoniae (MIC lower than 1.2 μM) and Transportan was effective against Mycobacterium tuberculosis as well. The most selective peptide was the Penetratin, where the effective antimicrobial concentration on pneumococcus was more than 250 times lower than the HC 50 value. Therefore, these peptides and their analogues will be further investigated as drug delivery systems for antimicrobial agents.

  14. Aspects of welding of zircaloy thin tube to end plugin the experimental welding facility of fuel element fabrication laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafy, M.; El-Hakim, E.

    1997-01-01

    The work was achieved within the scope of developing egyptian nuclear fuel fabrication laboratory in inshas. It showed the results of developing a welding facility for performing a qualified zircaloy-2 and 4 thin tubes to end weld joints. The welding chamber design was developed to get qualified weld for both PWR and CANDU fuel rod configurations. Experimental works for optimizing the welding parameters of tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding and electron beam (EB) welding processes were achieved. The ld penetration deeper than the wall tube thickness can be obtained for qualified end plug weld joints. It recommended to use steel compensating block for radiographic inspection of end plug weld joints. The predominate defects that can be expected in end plug weld joints, are lack of penetration and cavity. The microstructure of the fusion zone and heat affected zones are Widmanstaetten structure and its grain size is drastically sensible to the heat generation and removal of arc welding. 16 figs

  15. Searching possibilities of a composite structure of quarks from the jet studies in the ATLAS experiment: physical and experimental aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brette, Ph.

    1996-01-01

    This thesis presents the searching possibilities of a composite structure of quark from the jet studies in the ATLAS experiment. ATLAS is one of the major detectors on the LHC, the next proton-proton collider at CERN. The general physic framework of the quark compositeness is first introduced, the its expected search from the contact terms in the channel 2 → 2 is explained. After a description of the ATLAS apparatus and of the prototype of the hadronic scintillating tiles calorimeter, various experimental properties of the hadron calorimeter with respect to the jet measurement are studied. The effect of the non-linearity of the calorimeter response is particularly discussed, including the light red out with the photomultipliers. The laser monitoring system enables a full control of the gain stability of the photomultipliers and of their non-linearity for large signals. Its design and the measured performance are shown. Finally, by considering both the expected performances of the ATLAS detector and the theoretical uncertainties, it appears that the compositeness scale controlled at the LHC, for quarks, should reach 15 to 20 TeV depending upon the luminosity, from jet measurement up to 3 TeV. (author)

  16. Toxicological Aspects of Bound 14 C-Pirimiphos - methyl (Actellic) in Stored faba Beans to Experimental Mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TahA, H.

    2006-01-01

    The misuse of the insecticides in the environment always represents a high risk for living organisms. however, to take about hazardous effects of it, there is a need to detect their toxicity in the living organism; so the persistence of bound 14 C-pirimiphos methyl, an organophosphorus insecticide in stored faba beans and its toxicological effects to experimental animals (mice) were investigated. Seeds of faba beans were treated with the 14 C-pirimiphos-methyl insecticide at a dose of 30 mg insecticide/kg seeds and stored for 24 weeks under condition simulating these used locally. the level of the total extractable and bound insecticide represented about 95.5% of the actual dose. feeding experiments on mice for 90 days with a diet containing the bound pesticide at a dose of 1.12 ppm/day/mouse caused significant symptoms of toxicity during the experiment period. the cholinesterase activity of both plasma and red blood cells was decreased during the first 15 days. the hemoglobin concentration, erythrocyte and leucocyte count showed slightly significant differences from control values. A significant increase in both of liver and kidney enzymes was observed at the end of the experiment

  17. Synergistic effects of semiconductor substrate and noble metal nano-particles on SERS effect both theoretical and experimental aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chen; Liang, Pei; Tang, Lisha; Zhou, Yongfeng; Cao, Yanting; Wu, Yanxiong; Zhang, De; Dong, Qianmin; Huang, Jie; He, Peng

    2018-04-01

    As a means of chemical identification and analysis, Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), with the advantages of high sensitivity and selectivity, non-destructive, high repeatability and in situ detection etc., has important significance in the field of composition detection, environmental science, biological medicine etc. Physical model of coupling effect between different semiconductor substrates and noble metal particles were investigated by using 3D-FDTD method. Mechanism and the effects of excitation wavelength, particle spacing and semiconductor substrate types on the SERS effect were discussed. The results showed that the optimal excitation wavelengths of three noble metals of Ag, Au, Cu, were located at 510, 600 and 630 nm, respectively; SERS effect of Ag, Au, Cu increases with the decreasing of the inter distance of particles, while the distance of the NPs reaches the critical value of 3 nm, the strength of SERS effect will be greatly enhanced. For the four different types of substrate of Ge, Si, SiO2 (glass) and Al2O3, the SERS effect of Ag on SiO2 > Ge > Al2O3 > Si. For Au and Cu nanoparticles, the SERS effect of them on oxide substrate is stronger than that on non-oxide substrate. In order to verify FDTD simulations, taking silver nanoparticles as an example, and silver nanoparticles prepared by chemical method were spinning coating on the four different substrates with R6G as probe molecules. The results show that the experimental results are consistent with FDTD theoretical simulations, and the SERS enhancement effect of Ag-SiO2 substrate is best. The results of this study have important theoretical significance to explain the variations of SERS enhancement on different noble metals, which is also an important guide for the preparation of SERS substrates, especially for the microfluidics. The better Raman effect can be realized by choosing proper substrate type, particle spacing and excitation wavelength, result in expanding the depth and width

  18. Theoretical and Experimental Aspects of Acoustic Modelling of Engine Exhaust Systems with Applications to a Vacuum Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhara, Basavapatna Sitaramaiah

    In an internal combustion engine, the engine is the noise source and the exhaust pipe is the main transmitter of noise. Mufflers are often used to reduce engine noise level in the exhaust pipe. To optimize a muffler design, a series of experiments could be conducted using various mufflers installed in the exhaust pipe. For each configuration, the radiated sound pressure could be measured. However, this is not a very efficient method. A second approach would be to develop a scheme involving only a few measurements which can predict the radiated sound pressure at a specified distance from the open end of the exhaust pipe. In this work, the engine exhaust system was modelled as a lumped source-muffler-termination system. An expression for the predicted sound pressure level was derived in terms of the source and termination impedances, and the muffler geometry. The pressure source and monopole radiation models were used for the source and the open end of the exhaust pipe. The four pole parameters were used to relate the acoustic properties at two different cross sections of the muffler and the pipe. The developed formulation was verified through a series of experiments. Two loudspeakers and a reciprocating type vacuum pump were used as sound sources during the tests. The source impedance was measured using the direct, two-load and four-load methods. A simple expansion chamber and a side-branch resonator were used as mufflers. Sound pressure level measurements for the prediction scheme were made for several source-muffler and source-straight pipe combinations. The predicted and measured sound pressure levels were compared for all cases considered. In all cases, correlation of the experimental results and those predicted by the developed expressions was good. Predicted and measured values of the insertion loss of the mufflers were compared. The agreement between the two was good. Also, an error analysis of the four-load method was done.

  19. Nuclear program of Iran. Towards de-escalation of a nuclear crisis. Advisory letter; Nucleair programma van Iran. Naar de-escalatie van een nucleaire crisis. Briefadvies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-04-15

    The Dutch government, partly at the request of the House of Representatives (Second Chamber), the AIV asked to give an opinion about the position of Iran in the region and the role of the nuclear program of Iran in the geopolitical relations, in view of the most recent developments [Dutch] De Nederlandse regering heeft, mede op verzoek van de Tweede Kamer der Staten-Generaal, de AIV gevraagd advies uit te brengen over de positie van Iran in de regio en de rol van het nucleaire programma van Iran in de geopolitieke verhoudingen hierin, mede gelet op de meest recente ontwikkelingen.

  20. Experimental studies of the mechanisms and the kinetic and thermodynamic aspects of the uranium reduction by sedimentary organic materials from ligneous origin under diagenetic or hydrothermal conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakashima, S.

    1984-01-01

    This research thesis reports experimental studies of fixation and reduction of the uranyl cation by sedimentary organic materials from ligneous origin in order to understand the mechanisms and quantitative aspects of these processes in diagenetic or hydrothermal conditions. Two fixation mechanisms have been identified. Reduction appears to be governed by the oxidation of hydroxyl functions and the dehydrogenation of aliphatic hydro-carbonated entities. A kinetic study of this reduction process is reported, as well as a simulation of these processes by simple organic compounds (alcohols, aliphatic hydrocarbons). The assessment of thermodynamic parameters of the reduction process is discussed, and the obtained thermodynamic data show that almost the totality of uranium present in natural waters precipitates under the form of uraninite in presence of lignite. The extension of the obtained results to all sedimentary organic materials is finally discussed [fr

  1. France's nuclear power programme; Le programme nucleaire francais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabanius, J [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France); Horowitz, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    -increasing importance, by using the country's resources of natural uranium, and later plutonium, to the best ends. (authors) [French] Les perspectives d'evolution de la consommation d'energie electrique francaise confirment l'aggravation du deficit des ressources energetiques metropolitaines. Les centrales nucleaires doivent permettre de diminuer ce deficit si un certain nombre d'incertitudes actuelles sont levees. Le premier programme presente par MM AILLERET et TARANGER a la Conference de Geneve en 1955 visait la mise en service pour 1965 de 850 MWe; il a ete consacre au developpement de la filiere uranium naturel - graphite - gaz et s'acheve avec la realisation d'EDF 3, premiere unite capable de 500 MWe engagee dans le monde. Avant de passer du stade des prototypes a celui des duplications, ELECTRICITE DE FRANCE a decide, en accord avec le COMMISSARIAT A L'ENERGIE ATOMIQUE, la realisation d'EDF 4 qui, en reprenant la partie reacteur d'EDF 3 ainsi que l'appareil de chargement et de dechargement, l'ensemble de controle et divers materiels, apporte une innovation importante en incorporant les echangeurs et les soufflantes a l'interieur du caisson en beton precontraint contenant le coeur. En meme temps, les etudes se poursuivent dans cette meme filiere et laissent entrevoir les possibilites d'utiliser un nouvel element combustible annulaire dont l'emploi ameliorerait notablement les performances d'EDF 5. Dans la filiere eau lourde, la realisation d'EL 4 a Brennilis par le COMMISSARIAT A L'ENERGIE ATOMIQUE et ELECTRICITE DE FRANCE se poursuit. Les etudes d'un reacteur de 500 MWe de cette filiere ont deja commence. Dans la filiere a eau pressurisee, la centrale de CHOOZ est realisee en association par ELECTRICITE DE FRANCE et les Producteurs Belges. Enfin, le COMMISSARIAT A L'ENERGIE ATOMIQUE poursuit a Cadarache la realisation du surgenerateur 'Rapsodie' et les etudes d'un reacteur de puissance plus important. Ainsi, les connaissances techniques et economiques acquises dans ces diverses

  2. Liability for the nuclear risk; Aansprakelijkheid voor het nucleaire risico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faure, M. [ed.] [Rijksuniversiteit Limburg, Maastricht (Netherlands); Govaerts, P.; Malbrain, C.; Veuchelen, L. [Centre d`Etude de l`Energie Nucleaire, Mol (Belgium); Spriet, B. [Katholieke Univ. Leuven (Belgium). Inst. voor Strafrecht; Heldeweg, M.; Hertogs, M.; Van Maanen, G.; De Roos, T.; Seerden, R. [Maastrichts Europees Instituut voor Transnationaal Rechtswetenschappelijk Onderzoek METRO, Rijksuniversiteit Limburg, Maastricht (Netherlands)

    1993-12-31

    Results of a cooperative research project on the juridical aspects of nuclear risk (criminal, civil and administrative aspects), according to the Belgian and Dutch laws, are presented. In this multi-disciplinary project also attention is paid to the economic impacts and positive-scientific aspects of the nuclear risk regarding radioactive waste problems and nuclear accidents. The liability for and the decision-making regarding the site selection of nuclear power plants is dealt with as well. 9 figs., 23 tabs., 198 refs.

  3. Alteration of 'R7T7' type nuclear glasses: statistical approach, experimental validation, local evolution model; Alteration des verres nucleaires de type 'R7T7': demarche statistique, validation experimentale, modele local d'evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thierry, F

    2003-02-01

    The aim of this work is to propose an evolution of nuclear (R7T7-type) glass alteration modeling. The first part of this thesis is about development and validation of the 'r(t)' model. This model which predicts the decrease of alteration rates in confined conditions is based upon a coupling between a first-order dissolution law and a diffusion barrier effect of the alteration gel layer. The values and the uncertainties regarding the main adjustable parameters of the model ({alpha}, Dg and C*) have been determined from a systematic study of the available experimental data. A program called INVERSION has been written for this purpose. This work lead to characterize the validity domain of the 'r(t)' model and to parametrize it. Validation experiments have been undertaken, confirming the validity of the parametrization over 200 days. A new model is proposed in the second part of this thesis. It is based on an inhibition of glass dissolution reaction by silicon coupled with a local description of silicon retention in the alteration gel layer. This model predicts the evolutions of boron and silicon concentrations in solution as well as the concentrations and retention profiles in the gel layer. These predictions have been compared to measurements of retention profiles by the secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) method. The model has been validated on fractions of gel layer which reactivity present low or moderate disparities. (author)

  4. Technique of nuclear reactors controls; Technique des controles des reacteurs nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weill, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1953-12-15

    This report deal about 'Techniques of control of the nuclear reactors' in the goal to achieve the control of natural uranium reactors and especially the one of Saclay. This work is mainly about the measurement into nuclear parameters and go further in the measurement of thermodynamic variables,etc... putting in relief the new features required on behalf of the detectors because of their use in the thermal neutrons flux. In the domain of nuclear measurement, we indicate the realizations and the results obtained with thermal neutron detectors and for the measurement of ionizations currents. We also treat the technical problem of the start-up of a reactor and of the reactivity measurement. We give the necessary details for the comprehension of all essential diagrams and plans put on, in particular, for the reactor of Saclay. (author) [French] Nous avons aborde le probleme de la ''Technique du Controle des reacteurs nucleaires'' dans le but de realiser le controle du reacteur de Saclay. C'est ainsi que nous avons ete amene a etudier le probleme dans son ensemble, tel qu'il se pose pour tout reacteur a uranium naturel. Ce travail traite principalement du domaine des mesures a caractere nucleaire et s'etend dans le domaine des mesures thermodynamque de niveaux, etc... mettant en relief les caracteristiques nouvelles exigees de la part des detecteurs du fait de leur utilisation dans le flux de neutrons thermiques. Dans le domaine de mesures nucleaires, nous indiquons principalement les realisations et les resultats obtenus pour les detecteurs de neutrons thermiques et pour la mesure de courants d'ionisations. Nous traitons egalement du probleme technique du demarrage d'un reacteur et du probleme de la mesure de la reactivite. Nous donnons les details necessaires a la comrehension de tous les schemas et plans de cablages essentiels mis au point, en particulier, pour le reacteur de Saclay. (auteur)

  5. An absolute nuclear magnetic resonance magnetometer; Magnetometre absolu a resonance magnetique nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salvi, A [Commisariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-10-15

    After an introduction in which the various work undertaken since the discovery of nuclear magnetic resonance is rapidly reviewed, the author describes briefly In the first chapter three types of NMR magnetometers, giving the advantages and disadvantages of each of them and deducing from this the design of the apparatus having the greatest number of qualities Chapter II is devoted to the crossed coil nuclear oscillator which operates continuously over a wide range (800 gamma). To avoid an error due to a carrying over the frequency, the measurement is carried out using bands of 1000 {gamma}. Chapter III deals with frequency measurements. The author describes an original arrangement which makes possible the frequency-field conversion with an accuracy of {+-} 5 x 10{sup -6}, and the differential measurement between two nuclear oscillators. The report finishes with a conclusion and a few recordings. (author) [French] Apres une introduction rappelant les divers travaux effectues en resonance magnetique nucleaire depuis sa mise en evidence, l'auteur decrit sommairement dans le premier chapitre trois types de magnetometre a R.M.N. enumerant les avantages et les inconvenients de chacun a partir desquels il projet, l'appareillage reunissant le maximum de qualites. Le chapitre II est consacre a l'oscillateur nucleaire a bobines croisees permettant un fonctionnement continu dons une large plage (800 gamma). Pour eviter une erreur due a l'entrainement de frequence, la mesure s'effectue par bandes de 1000 {gamma} chacune. Le chapitre III traite la mesure de frequence. L'auteur expose un montage original permettant la traduction frequence-champ avec une precision egale a {+-} 5.10{sup -6}, et la mesure differentielle entre deux oscillateurs nucleaires. Une conclusion et quelques enregistrements terminent ce travail. (auteur)

  6. Spectral content of seismic movements produced by underground nuclear explosions; Contenu spectral des mouvements seismiques dus aux explosions nucleaires souterraines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albaret, A; Duclaux, F [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France). Centre d' Etudes

    1969-07-01

    After a summary of available data, both theoretical and experimental, concerning the spectral content of seismic movements, a description is given of the experiments carried out during the French nuclear explosions in the Sahara, and of the results obtained on the volume waves. A comparison is then made with certain American results. A new method is described for studying the amplitude spectra; it has made it possible to show that the amount of low frequencies in the spectrum increases with the power of the explosion, and decreases with the distance to the zero point and with the filtering effect of the weathered zone. A calculation is then made of the low cut-off ground filter, this giving a better representation of the initial seismic phenomenon. (authors) [French] Apres avoir resume les connaissances disponibles, aussi bien theoriques qu'experimentales, sur le contenu spectral des mouvements seismiques, on decrit les experiences effectuees a l'occasion des explosions nucleaires francaises du Sahara et les resultats obtenus sur les ondes de volume. Puis on les compare avec certains resultats americains. On decrit une nouvelle methode d'etude des spectres d'amplitudes qui montre que le spectre est d'autant plus riche en basses frequences que la puissance de l'explosion est grande, que la distance au point zero est faible et qu'il est moins filtre par la zone alteree superficielle. Puis on calcule le filtre terrain coupe-bas qui permet de donner une representation plus fidele du phenomene seismique initial. (auteurs)

  7. Nuclear biological studies in France; Les etudes de biologie nucleaires en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coursaget, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    On the occasion of a colloquium on radiobiological research programmes, a number of documents dealing with French accomplishments and projects in this field were collected together. We felt that it would be useful to assemble these papers in one report; although they are brief and leave gaps to be filled in, they provide certain data, give an overall view of the situation, and can also suggest a rough plan for the general policy to adopt in the field of 'nuclear' biological research; i.e. research based on the nuclear tracer method or devoted to the action of ionising radiations. (author) [French] Un colloque sur les programmes de recherche en radiobiologie nous a donne l'occasion de reunir des documents sur les realisations et les projets francais dans ce domaine. Il nous a semble utile de reunir en un rapport l'ensemble de ces documents, qui, malgre leur brievete et malgre les lacunes qu'ils comportent, donnent un certain nombre d'informations, permettent une vue d'ensemble et peuvent dessiner aussi l'ebauche d'une politique coherente en matiere de recherches biologiques 'nucleaires', c'est-a-dire de recherches basees sur la methode des indicateurs nucleaires ou consacrees a l'action des rayonnements ionisants. (auteur)

  8. The formation of scientists and technicians at the 'Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires' at Saclay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debiesse, J.

    1958-01-01

    The considerable needs in research workers and scientists which are asked by the nuclear energy obliged the Commissariat a l'Energie atomique to deal with a particular effort to increase the quantitative and qualitative formation of scientists. Most various ways have been used. 1- A National Institute of Nuclear Sciences and Nuclear Techniques was created, by a joint decree of the Prime Minister and the Minister for National Education (june 18, 1957). This Institute of Higher Teaching (250 students) indulges in the following matters: atomic engineering, quantum mechanics, theory and technic of particle accelerators, special metallurgy, radiobiology, thermic and mechanics of fluids. 2- An associated centre of the 'Conservatoire National des Arts et Metiers' was created (200 students) for technical assistants, drawers, etc. 3- In contribution with both electronic industry and Ministry of Work, the Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires contributes to an accelerated formation of technical assistants into Professional Centres. Conclusion: Training of scientists and research workers is one of the most important activities of the Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay. Without losing its technical efficiency, it has supplied and varied means adapted to the various purposes that we shall reach. (author) [fr

  9. Nuclear biological studies in France; Les etudes de biologie nucleaires en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coursaget, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    On the occasion of a colloquium on radiobiological research programmes, a number of documents dealing with French accomplishments and projects in this field were collected together. We felt that it would be useful to assemble these papers in one report; although they are brief and leave gaps to be filled in, they provide certain data, give an overall view of the situation, and can also suggest a rough plan for the general policy to adopt in the field of 'nuclear' biological research; i.e. research based on the nuclear tracer method or devoted to the action of ionising radiations. (author) [French] Un colloque sur les programmes de recherche en radiobiologie nous a donne l'occasion de reunir des documents sur les realisations et les projets francais dans ce domaine. Il nous a semble utile de reunir en un rapport l'ensemble de ces documents, qui, malgre leur brievete et malgre les lacunes qu'ils comportent, donnent un certain nombre d'informations, permettent une vue d'ensemble et peuvent dessiner aussi l'ebauche d'une politique coherente en matiere de recherches biologiques 'nucleaires', c'est-a-dire de recherches basees sur la methode des indicateurs nucleaires ou consacrees a l'action des rayonnements ionisants. (auteur)

  10. Analytic index for nuclear physicians uses; Repertoire analytique a l'usage des physiciens nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballini, R.; Barloutaud, R.; Bernas, R.; Bretonneau, P.; Chaminade, R.; Cohen, R.; Conjeaud, M.; Cotton, E.; Faraggi, H.; Grjebine, T.; Joffre, H.; Laboulaye, H. de; Lesueur, C.; Leveque, A.; Moreau, J.; Naggiar, V.; Papineau, L.; Prugne, P.; Schuhl, C.; Studinowski, FJ.; Netter, F.; Raievski, V.; Valladas, G. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Lab. du Fort de Chatillon, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Marty, N.; Renard, G. [College de France, Lab. de Chimie Nucleaire (France)

    The problem of the documentation in nuclear physics becomes constantly more complex. Every week brings its share of new publications, always more numerous and more varied. To remedy to this facts that we tried, in the service of Nuclear Physics of the CEA, to give to the documentation a character of a collective and systematized work. The present report covers the literature appeared between first January 1950 and first July 1951. (Volume 1: CEA report number 120; Volume 2: CEA report number 184). (M.B.) [French] Le probleme de la documentation en physique nucleaire devient sans cesse plus complexe. Chaque semaine apporte son lot de publications, toujours plus nombreuses et plus diversifiees. C'est pour essayer de porter remede a cet etat de choses que nous avons essaye, au service de Physique Nucleaire du C.E.A., de donner a la documentation le caractere d'un travail collectif systematise. Le present rapport couvre la litterature parue entre le premier Janvier 1950 et le premier Juillet 1951. (Tome 1: Rapport CEA numero 120; Tome 2: Rapport CEA numero 184). (M.B.)

  11. The Technical Training Programme for Nuclear Power Station Personnel; Programme de formation technique du personnel des centrales nucleaires; Programma tekhnicheskoj podgotovki personala yadernoj ehlektrostantsii; El programa de formacion tecnica del personal de una central nucleoelectrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howey, G. R. [Hydro-Electric Power Commission of Ontario, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    1963-10-15

    requis. Des examens independants pour le personnel ont ete organises par l'Atomic Energy Control Board, organisme federal distinct. Le personnel se divise en cinq grandes categories: a) cadres superieurs: ingenieurs charges du fonctionnement, de l'entretien et de l'administration de la centrale; un systeme de roulement leur donne la possibilite de se mettre au courant de cous les aspects de l'exploitation de la centrale; b) operateurs: quatre echelons, selon les qualifications requises pour le travail envisage; c) electrotechniciens: quatre echelons, responsables de l'entretien de tous les instruments, des appareils de controle et des installations electriques; d) mecaniciens: echelons et qualifications variables (soudure, usinage, ajustage, etc.), charges de l'entretien de toutes les installations mecaniques et e) autre personnel d'entretien: charge de toute une serie de taches moins specialisees n'exigeant pas d'aptitudes particulieres. A ces diverses categories, il faut ajouter quelques specialistes tels que les chimistes et radioprotectionnistes. Le memoire passe en revue l'organisation du personnel de la NPD et examine les problemes de formation a resoudre en vue de repondre aux futurs besoins en energie. (author) [Spanish] La Central Nucleoelectrica Experimental del Canada (NPD) fue construida por un organismo federal, la Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, pero la explota con personal propio la Hydro-Electric Power Commission of Ontario. Esta ultima tuvo dificultades para seleccionar y formar el personal necesario debido a que hasta hace poco la demanda de electricidad en Ontario se cubria con los abundantes recursos hidroelectricos de que dispone esta provincia. El incremento de la produccion de las centrales termicas, iniciado en 1950, dio lugar a una gran escasez de personal experimentado. Para hacer frente a esta situacion se estimulo la formacion de especialistas para las centrales nucleoelectricas. Se siguieron las siguientes etapas: a) Se selecciono un grupo

  12. The formation of scientists and technicians at the 'Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires' at Saclay; Formation des scientifiques et des techniciens au Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debiesse, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    The considerable needs in research workers and scientists which are asked by the nuclear energy obliged the Commissariat a l'Energie atomique to deal with a particular effort to increase the quantitative and qualitative formation of scientists. Most various ways have been used. 1- A National Institute of Nuclear Sciences and Nuclear Techniques was created, by a joint decree of the Prime Minister and the Minister for National Education (june 18, 1957). This Institute of Higher Teaching (250 students) indulges in the following matters: atomic engineering, quantum mechanics, theory and technic of particle accelerators, special metallurgy, radiobiology, thermic and mechanics of fluids. 2- An associated centre of the 'Conservatoire National des Arts et Metiers' waeated (200 students) for technical assistants, drawers, etc. 3- In contribution with both electronic industry and Ministry of Work, the Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires contributes to an accelerated formation of technical assistants into Professional Centres. Conclusion: Training of scientists and research workers is one of the most important activities of the Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay. Without losing its technical efficiency, it has supplied and varied means adapted to the various purposes that we shall reach. (author)Fren. [French] Les besoins considerables actuels et previsibles en chercheurs et scientifiques necessites par l'avevement de l'energie nucleaire imposaient au Commissariat a I'Energie atomique un effort particulier pour augmenter la formation quantitative et qualitative des scientifiques. Les moyens les plus divers ont ete mis en oeuvre: 1- Creation de l'Institut National des Sciences et Techniques Nucleaires par decret de la Presidence du Conseil et de l'Education Nationale en date du 18.6.57. Cet Institut d'Enseignement Superieur (250 etudiants) donne des cours en: genie atomique, mecanique quantique, theorie et technique des Accelerateurs de particules, metallurgie speciale, radiobiologie

  13. Health problems raised by the elimination of radioactive wastes and nuclear accidents; Problemes sanitaires poses par l'elimination des dechets radioactifs et par les accidents nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jammet, H; Mechali, D; Dousset, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    The rapid development of nuclear energy demands an urgent solution to the health problems arising from the discharge into the environment of radioactive residues produced by nuclear installations. - To be able to evaluate the risks run by the population and to fix tolerance limits for waste discharge, it is necessary to possess an exact knowledge of the course taken by the radioelements discharged, from their source until they reach man. The incorporation of radioelements in food cycles is the first risk to take into consideration. The factors involved in all stages of this transmission must be foreseen, whether they concern physical or biological media, because of their continuity and their interdependence. Finally, socio-economic and dietetic data must be collected in order that the risks and tolerance levels estimated are based on concrete and experimental rather than theoretical knowledge. The risk of nuclear accidents in the atomic industry, although very improbable, must be taken into consideration because of the seriousness of their consequences. The health problems arise in the field of professional hygiene on the one hand and in that of public hygiene on the other. In the first field the risk is two-fold and involves irradiation and contamination. The public sphere is reduced essentially to the risk of contamination by radioactive substances accidentally released in the surrounding medium. The health studies to be conducted in this field therefore include research not only on irradiation or contamination therapeutics but also on the transfer of radioelements from the accident site to man, mainly through food cycles, in their physical and in their biological components. Studies of this kind form the basis of decisions in the health field which would have to be taken in the case of an accident. (authors) [French] Le developpement rapide de l'energie nucleaire rend urgente la solution des problemes sanitaires poses par le rejet dans le milieu ambiant des

  14. Nuclear law; Le droit nucleaire 2006-2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bringuier, P. [Montpellier-1 Univ., Droit International Public, UMR 5815, 34 (France)

    2009-10-15

    The object of this report is to present the evolution of the nuclear law during the period from 2006 to 2008, period that was characterized in France by a real rewriting from the implementation of a control authority. The prescriptive backing of nuclear activities has been deeply changed by numerous texts. In this first part are presented: (1) the institutional aspects, (2) openness and public information, (7) radioactive wastes and (9) liability and insurance. In a next publication will be treated: (3) safety and radiation protection; (4) nuclear matter, inspection, physical protection; (5) transports; (6) trade, non-proliferation; (8) radiological accidents. (N.C.)

  15. French Senate debate on nuclear deterrence; Dissuasion nucleaire francaise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vincon, S. [UMP Cher (France); Bentegeat, H. [Cema, 75 - Paris (France); Verwaerde, D. [CEA Bruyeres le Chatel, 91 (France); Quinlan, M. [IISS, Londre (United Kingdom); Tertrais, B. [Fondation pour la Recherche Strategique (FRS), 75 - Paris (France)

    2006-07-15

    The Senate committee on foreign affairs, defence and the Armed Forces met at a round table session on 14 June 2006 to discuss French nuclear deterrence. Serge Vincon presided the discussion, which covered three aspects of the subject: first, an analysis of the current and medium-term future strategic contexts and their consequences for the role of deterrence, and thus whether or not current doctrine is matched to current and future threats; second, the assets dedicated to deterrence, how well they reflect doctrine and how they fit in with other defence priorities; and finally an examination of Britain position within NATO along with future possibilities arising from closer European defence cooperation. (author)

  16. Exit this way; Par ici la sortie du nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This paper aims to inform the public on the nuclear power phaseout necessity. The fist part presents the hazards bound the nuclear activities, from the uranium mines to the radioactive wastes disposal and the reasons of a necessary phaseout. The second part recalls the historical aspects of the nuclear power implementation in the french energy policy and the today government attitude to value its choice. The last part presents the advantages of other energies sources and scenario of nuclear power phaseout. (A.L.B.)

  17. Contribution to the study of several chemical hazards in the Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires of Fontenay-aux-Roses; Contribution a l'etude de quelques nuisances chimiques au centre d'etudes nucleaires de Fontenay-aux-Roses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Megemont, C; Grau, C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-10-01

    From the checking of 2750 index cards of hazards, the study relates the distribution of the chemical hazards in the Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires of Fontenay-aux-Roses. Those concerning the greatest number of agents in the Centre are classified according to the categories corresponding to the different conditions of working. Thus, the most important are put forward. Then, the authors rapidly make a review of hazards which may have some special interest because they appear more specific of the nuclear energy or because they are the most frequently noted on the index cards of hazards. The case of the tributylphosphate is studied more precisely. (authors) [French] A partir de l'examen de 2750 fiches de nuisances, l'etude porte sur la repartition des nuisances chimiques au Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Fontenay-aux-Roses. Celles qui concernent le plus grand nombre d'agents du Centre sont classees selon les categories correspondant aux differentes conditions de travail. Les plus importantes d'entre elles sont ainsi mises en evidence. | Les auteurs passent ensuite en revue, rapidement, les nuisances qui peuvent presenter un interet particulier soit parce qu'elles semblent plus specifiques de l'Energie Nucleaire, soit parce qu'on les rencontre le plus frequemment sur les fiches de nuisances. Le cas du tributylphosphate est envisage de facon plus detaillee. (auteurs)

  18. Comparison of analytical and experimental steadyand unsteady-pressure distributions at Mach number 0.78 for a high-aspect-ratio supercritical wing model with oscillating control surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccain, W. E.

    1984-01-01

    The unsteady aerodynamic lifting surface theory, the Doublet Lattice method, with experimental steady and unsteady pressure measurements of a high aspect ratio supercritical wing model at a Mach number of 0.78 were compared. The steady pressure data comparisons were made for incremental changes in angle of attack and control surface deflection. The unsteady pressure data comparisons were made at set angle of attack positions with oscillating control surface deflections. Significant viscous and transonic effects in the experimental aerodynamics which cannot be predicted by the Doublet Lattice method are shown. This study should assist development of empirical correction methods that may be applied to improve Doublet Lattice calculations of lifting surface aerodynamics.

  19. Evolution of nuclear chemical industry in France; Evolution de l'industrie chimique nucleaire en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fould, M H [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-07-01

    'impulsion du CEA, mais aussi de maitres d'oeuvres tels qu'Electricite de France et la Marine Marchande, l'effort nucleaire fran is atteint pour les annees 1957-1961, environ 600 milliards de francs: plus de la moitie de cette somme sera depensee par l'industrie chimique en recherches, installations pilotes, constructions d'usines et livraisons. Faire bien, vite et rentable sont les buts recherches. Ces objectifs sont atteints grace a une collaboration intime des grands services de l'etat et de l'industrie privee. Ce gros effort s'exerce principalement dans les voies suivantes: - Un traitement chimique pousse de tonnages croissants des minerais de l'Union fran ise, visant a produire un uranium pur, abondant et bon marche. - Une preparation soigneuse de combustibles nucleaires economiques et parfaitement adaptes aux divers types de reacteurs en fonctionnement ou en construction. - Un retraitement des combustibles irradies pour en extraire le plutonium de facon complete ainsi que l'uranium et certains produits de fission. - Une fabrication industrielle des materiaux nucleairement purs ou resistants a la corrosion exiges par la technologie des reacteurs producteurs d'energie et de recherches. - La fourniture aux multiples utilisateurs etrangers et fran is d'isotopes et de traceurs radioactifs reclames par la medecine, l'industrie et l'agriculture en nombre toujours croissant. - Un traitement chimique meticuleux des effluents gazeux ou liquides dans des stations au controle rigoureux afin de rendre les reacteurs et leurs annexes parfaitement surs d'emploi. Cet expose aura montre l'ampleur de l'effort deploye par une industrie chimique nucleaire jeune, dynamique et en plein essor. Ayant assure ses techniques, realise de nombreuses installations, elle est largement en etat de faire face au programme atomique fran is. En outre, elle est capable et desireuse d'etre associee aux developpements de l'industrie atomique etrangere notamment dans te cadre de l'Euratom et d

  20. Direct interaction in nuclear reactions: a theory; L'interaction directe dans les reactions nucleaires: theorie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dominicis, C.T. de [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-07-01

    General treatment of the foundations of direct interaction in nuclear reactions; representation of the instantaneous elastic scattering amplitude by the scattering amplitude due to a complex potential; expansion of the instantaneous inelastic scattering amplitude and discussion of the 1. Bohr approximation (distorted waves) contribution to individual and collective states of excitation. (author) [French] Expose general sur les fondements de l'interaction directe dans les reactions nucleaires; representation de l'amplitude de diffusion instantanee elastique par celle due a un potentiel complexe; developpement de l'amplitude de diffusion instantanee inelastique et discussion de la contribution de la premiere approximation de Bohr (sur des distendues) a l'excitation d'etats individuels et collectifs. (auteur)

  1. Mechanics and electronics as auxiliary techniques in nuclear research and exploitation; Mecanique et electronique auxiliaires de la recherche et de l'exploitation nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weill, J. [Commissariat a l' energie atomique et aux energies alternatives - CEA, Centre d' Etudes nucleaires de Saclay, Departement Electronique, Groupe Controle des Reacteurs (France)

    1959-07-01

    Electronics and mechanics form the basic techniques used in the field of measurement and control in nuclear physics experiments, and in nuclear machine installations. The delegate describes some instruments typical of the use of these techniques in the fields of calculation, detection, amplification and nuclear Installations. Reprint of a paper published in 'Bulletin S.F.M.' n. 25 (3. quarter 1957) [French] L'electronique et la mecanique constituent les techniques de base utilisees clans le domaine des mesures et du controle effectues dans les experiences de physique nucleaire et dans les installations des engins nucleaires. Le Conferencier decrit plusieurs appareils caracteristiques de l'emploi de ces techniques dans les domaines du calcul, des detecteurs, de l'amplification et des lnstallations nucleaires. Reproduction d'un article publie dans le 'Bulletin S.F.M.' n. 25 (3e trimestre 1957)

  2. Aspects of strangeness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dover, C.B.

    1995-01-01

    We review various aspects of strangeness production in relativistic heavy ion collisions from AGS to CERN energies. The experimental data are briefly summarized and various possible theoretical interpretations of these data are evaluated, such as quark-gluon- plasma (QGP), hadron gas (HG) thermal models, or event generators (cascade models). Some comments on the production of strange clusters are offered

  3. USGS Workshop on Scientific Aspects of a Long-Term Experimental Plan for Glen Canyon Dam, April 10-11, 2007, Flagstaff, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2008-01-01

    Executive Summary Glen Canyon Dam is located in the lower reaches of Glen Canyon National Recreation Area on the Colorado River, approximately 15 miles upriver from Grand Canyon National Park (fig. 1). In 1992, Congress passed and the President signed into law the Grand Canyon Protection Act (GCPA; title XVIII, sec. 1801?1809, of Public Law 102-575), which seeks ?to protect, mitigate adverse impacts to, and improve the values for which Grand Canyon National Park and Glen Canyon National Recreation Area were established.? The Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program (GCDAMP) was implemented as a result of the 1996 Record of Decision on the Operation of Glen Canyon Dam Final Environmental Impact Statement to ensure that the primary mandate of the GCPA is met through advances in information and resources management (U.S. Department of the Interior, 1995). On November 3, 2006, the Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation) announced it would develop a long-term experimental plan environmental impact statement (LTEP EIS) for operational activities at Glen Canyon Dam and other management actions on the Colorado River. The purpose of the long-term experimental plan is twofold: (1) to increase the scientific understanding of the ecosystem and (2) to improve and protect important downstream resources. The proposed plan would implement a structured, longterm program of experimentation to include dam operations, potential modifications to Glen Canyon Dam intake structures, and other management actions such as removal of nonnative fish species. The development of the long-term experimental plan continues efforts begun by the GCDAMP to protect resources downstream of Glen Canyon Dam, including Grand Canyon, through adaptive management and scientific experimentation. The LTEP EIS will rely on the extensive scientific studies that have been undertaken as part of the adaptive management program by the U.S. Geological Survey?s (USGS) Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center (GCMRC

  4. Biomass gasification in fixed bed type down draft: theoretical and experimental aspects; Gasificacao de biomassa em leito fixo tipo concorrente: aspectos teoricos e experimentais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Juan Daniel; Andrade, Rubenildo Vieira; Lora, Electo Eduardo Silva [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil). Inst. de Engenharia Mecanica. Nucleo de Excelencia em Geracao Termeletrica e Distribuida

    2008-07-01

    Actually are recognizing the advantages of biomass in reducing dependence on fossil fuels and significant reduction in emissions of greenhouse effect gases such as Co2. Also are known the different conversion of biomass routes for their use or exploitation, such as thermochemical process (gasification, pyrolysis and combustion), the biological process (fermentation and transesterification) and the physical process (densification, reducing grain and mechanical pressing). In this sense, the gasification is regarded as the most promising mechanism to obtain a homogeneous gaseous fuel with sufficient quality in the small scale distributed generation. This work presents some aspects of biomass gasification in fixed bed, as well as some preliminary results in the evaluation and operation of fixed bed down draft gasifier with double stage air supply of the NEST, identifying the adequate air supply quantity (equivalence ratio in the range of 0,35 to 0,45) for obtaining a fuel gas with lower heating value around 4 MJ/N m3. (author)

  5. Experimental observations of electron-backscatter effects from high-atomic-number anodes in large-aspect-ratio, electron-beam diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooperstein, G; Mosher, D; Stephanakis, S J; Weber, B V; Young, F C [Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC (United States); Swanekamp, S B [JAYCOR, Vienna, VA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Backscattered electrons from anodes with high-atomic-number substrates cause early-time anode-plasma formation from the surface layer leading to faster, more intense electron beam pinching, and lower diode impedance. A simple derivation of Child-Langmuir current from a thin hollow cathode shows the same dependence on the diode aspect ratio as critical current. Using this fact, it is shown that the diode voltage and current follow relativistic Child-Langmuir theory until the anode plasma is formed, and then follows critical current after the beam pinches. With thin hollow cathodes, electron beam pinching can be suppressed at low voltages (< 800 kV) even for high currents and high-atomic-number anodes. Electron beam pinching can also be suppressed at high voltages for low-atomic-number anodes as long as the electron current densities remain below the plasma turn-on threshold. (author). 8 figs., 2 refs.

  6. Neutron noise in nuclear reactors; Le bruit neutronique des reacteurs nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaquiere, A. [Institut National des Sciences et Techniques Nucleaires (France); Pachowska, R. [Universite Technique de Varsovie (Poland)

    1961-06-15

    The power of a nuclear reactor, in the operating conditions, presents fluctuations due to various causes. This random behaviour can be included in the study of 'noises'. Among other sources of noise, we analyse hereafter the fluctuations due: a) to the discontinuous emissions of neutrons from an independent source; b) to the multiplication of neutrons inside the reactor. The method which we present makes use of the analogies between the rules governing a nuclear reactor in operation and a number of radio-electrical systems, in particular the feed-back loops. The reactor can be characterized by its 'passing band' and is described as a system submitted to a sequence of random pulses. In non linear operating condition, the effect of neutron noise is defined by means of a non-linear functional, this theory is thus related to previous works the references of which are given at the end of the present report. This leads us in particular in the case of nuclear reactors to some results given by A. Blaquiere in the case of radio-electrical loops. (author) [French] La puissance d'un reacteur nucleaire, dans les conditions du regime, est affectee de fluctuations dont les causes sont tres diverses. Ce comportement aleatoire rentre dans le cadre general de l'etude des 'bruits'. Entre autres sources ce bruit, nous analysons ici les fluctuations dues: a) a l'emission discontinue des neutrons provenant d'une source autonome; b) a la multiplication des neutrons au sein du reacteur. La methode que nous introduisons exploite les analogies entre les lois qui regissent un reacteur nucleaire au regime et certains systemes radioelectriques, en particulier les circuits a boucle de reaction. Le reacteur est caracterise par sa 'bande passante' et est decrit comme un systeme soumis a une succession d'impulsions aleatoires. Dans les conditions de fonctionnement non lineaires, l'effet du bruit neutronique est precise en utilisant une fonctionnelle non lineaire, ce qui relie cette theorie a

  7. Organizational aspects of an experimental program for physical education with a strengthened course in professional and applied physical training of future electrical engineers in the railway sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anzhelika Yefremova

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to develop an optimized program for physical education with a strengthened course in professional and applied physical training (PAPT for students of railway universities. Material & Methods: analysis and generalization of scientific sources and program-normative documentation on physical education of the higher educational institution of railway transport, survey. Results: the results of the survey of railroad specialists are given. Pilot studies have determined the nature and conditions of professional activity of electrical engineers of railway transport. The experimental program on physical education with the strengthened course of the PAPT of students of railway universities was developed and theoretically justified. Conclusion: structure of the experimental program on physical education with the strengthened course of the PAPT included a theoretical section (8 hours, methodical and practical exercises (6 hours, a practical section (114 hours and a control section (12 hours. The program focuses on improving professionally important physical and psycho-physiological qualities and functions, psychomotor skills and physical performance. The basis of the practical section was the physical exercises from different sections of the current basic curriculum.

  8. Organization aspect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grefen, P.W.P.J.; Mehandjiev, N.; Mehandjiev, N.; Grefen, P.W.P.J.

    2010-01-01

    Following the BOAT framework discussed in Chapter 1, this chapter describes the organization aspect of the CrossWork approach. It shows how the business requirements identified in the previous chapter can be fulfilled by dynamic organization structures and business processes in Networks of

  9. The Young's modulus of high-aspect-ratio carbon/carbon nanotube composite microcantilevers by experimental and modeling validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Peng; Yang, Xiao; He, Liang; Hao, Zhimeng; Luo, Wen; Xiong, Biao; Xu, Xu; Niu, Chaojiang; Yan, Mengyu; Mai, Liqiang

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports the Young's modulus of a carbon nanotube (CNT)-reinforced carbon/CNT (C/CNT) composite microcantilevers measured by laser Doppler vibrometer and validated by finite element method. Also, the microfabrication process of the high-aspect-ratio C/CNT microcantilever arrays based on silicon micromolding and pyrolysis is presented in detail. With the in-plane natural resonant frequencies of the microcantilevers measured by a laser Doppler vibrometer, a single degree of freedom (SDoF) model based on Euler-Bernoulli (E-B) beam theory is used to calculate the Young's modulus of this composite. To figure out whether this SDoF model can be applied to these composite microcantilevers, the finite element (FE) simulation of these microcantilevers was performed. The Young's modulus of C/CNT composite microcantilevers fabricated by the pyrolysis process at 600 °C is 9391 MPa, and a good agreement between the results from experiments and FE simulation is obtained

  10. Annual report ''nuclear safety in France''; Le rapport annuel ''la surete nucleaire en France''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This document is the 2001 annual report of the French authority of nuclear safety (ASN). It summarizes the highlights of the year 2000 and details the following aspects: the nuclear safety in France, the organization of the control of nuclear safety, the regulation relative to basic nuclear facilities, the control of facilities, the information of the public, the international relations, the organisation of emergencies, the radiation protection, the transport of radioactive materials, the radioactive wastes, the PWR reactors, the experimental reactors and other laboratories and facilities, the nuclear fuel cycle facilities, and the shutdown and dismantling of nuclear facilities. (J.S.)

  11. Validations of calibration-free measurements of electron temperature using double-pass Thomson scattering diagnostics from theoretical and experimental aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tojo, H., E-mail: tojo.hiroshi@qst.go.jp; Hiratsuka, J.; Yatsuka, E.; Hatae, T.; Itami, K. [National Institutes for Quantum and Radiological Science and Technology, 801-1 Mukoyama, Naka 311-0193 (Japan); Yamada, I.; Yasuhara, R.; Funaba, H.; Hayashi, H. [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi-cho, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Ejiri, A.; Togashi, H.; Takase, Y. [Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Kashiwa 277-8561 (Japan)

    2016-09-15

    This paper evaluates the accuracy of electron temperature measurements and relative transmissivities of double-pass Thomson scattering diagnostics. The electron temperature (T{sub e}) is obtained from the ratio of signals from a double-pass scattering system, then relative transmissivities are calculated from the measured T{sub e} and intensity of the signals. How accurate the values are depends on the electron temperature (T{sub e}) and scattering angle (θ), and therefore the accuracy of the values was evaluated experimentally using the Large Helical Device (LHD) and the Tokyo spherical tokamak-2 (TST-2). Analyzing the data from the TST-2 indicates that a high T{sub e} and a large scattering angle (θ) yield accurate values. Indeed, the errors for scattering angle θ = 135° are approximately half of those for θ = 115°. The method of determining the T{sub e} in a wide T{sub e} range spanning over two orders of magnitude (0.01–1.5 keV) was validated using the experimental results of the LHD and TST-2. A simple method to provide relative transmissivities, which include inputs from collection optics, vacuum window, optical fibers, and polychromators, is also presented. The relative errors were less than approximately 10%. Numerical simulations also indicate that the T{sub e} measurements are valid under harsh radiation conditions. This method to obtain T{sub e} can be considered for the design of Thomson scattering systems where there is high-performance plasma that generates harsh radiation environments.

  12. An Experimental Investigation of the Effect of a Canard Control on the Lift, Drag, and Pitching Moment of an Aspect-Ratio 2.0 Triangular Wing Incorporating a Form of Conical Camber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menees, Gene P.; Boyd, John W.

    1959-01-01

    The results of an experimental investigation to determine the effect of a canard control on the lift, drag, and pitching-moment characteristics of an aspect-ratio-2.0 triangular wing incorporating a form of conical camber are presented. The canard had a triangular plan form of aspect ratio 2.0 and was mounted in the extended chord plane of the wing. The ratio of the area of the exposed canard panels to the total wing area was 6.9 percent, and the ratio of the total areas was 12.9 percent. Data were obtained at Mach numbers from 0.70 to 2.22 through an angle-of-attack range from -6 deg to +18 deg with the canard on, and with the canard off. To provide a basis for comparison, the canard was also tested with a symmetrical wing having the same plan form, aspect ratio, and thickness distribution as the cambered wing. The results of the investigation showed that at the high subsonic speeds the gain in maximum lift-drag ratio achieved by camber was considerably reduced by the addition of a canard. At the supersonic speeds, the addition of the canard did not change the effect of camber on the maximum lift-drag ratios.

  13. Statistical pulses generator. Application to nuclear instrumentation (1962); Generateur d'impulsions aleatoires. Application a l'instrumentation nucleaire (1962)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beranger, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1962-07-01

    This report describes a random pulses generator adapted to nuclear instrumentation. After a short survey on the statistical nature of electronic signals, the different ways for generating pulses with a Poisson's time-distribution are studied. The final generator built from a gaseous thyratron in a magnetic field is then described. Several tests are indicated : counting-rate stability, Pearson's criterion, distribution of time-intervals. Applications of the generator in 'whole testing' of nuclear instrumentation are then indicated for sealers, dead time measurements, time analyzers. In this application, pulse-height spectrums have been made by Poissonian sampling of a recurrent or random low-frequency signal. (author) [French] Cette etude decrit un generateur d'impulsions aleatoires et ses applications a l'instrumentation nucleaire. Apres un bref rappel sur la nature statistique des signaux en electronique nucleaire, sont passes en revue les principaux moyens d'obtenir des impulsions distribuees en temps suivant une loi de Poisson. Le generateur utilisant un thyratron a gaz dans un champ magnetique est ensuite decrit; diverses methodes de test sont appliquees (stabilite du taux de comptage, criterium de Pearson, spectre des intervalles ds temps). Les applications du generateur a l'electronique nucleaire dans le domaine des 'essais globaux' sont indiques: test des echelles de comptage et mesure des temps morts, test des analyseurs en temps apres division du taux de comptage par une puissance de deux, test des analyseurs multicanaux en amplitude. Pour cette derniere application, on a realise des spectres d'amplitudes suivant une loi connue, par echantillonnage poissonien d'un signal basse frequence recurrent ou aleatoire. (auteur)

  14. Contribution to the study of solid helium-3 by nuclear magnetic resonance; Contribution a l'etude de l'helium trois solide par resonance magnetique nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landesman, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-07-01

    Due to the unusually large zero point motion of helium three atoms in the solid, the overlap of the atomic wave functions is very important. As a consequence, there are exchange interactions, the theoretical calculation and the experimental measurement of which are discussed. Nuclear magnetic resonance is especially well suited for the latter.A detailed theory is given for both exchange narrowing and Zeeman-exchange cross relaxation, which phenomena are used to measure the exchange interaction as a function of molar volume. The alignment temperature is thus known; it goes down when the pressure goes up and is never higher than three milli degrees. An influence of helium four impurities on the exchange interactions between helium three atoms which are neighbours of the substitutional He is shown. (author) [French] Par suite de l'amplitude exceptionnelle des mouvements de point zero dans l'helium trois solide, le recouvrement des fonctions d'onde atomiques est tres important. Il en resulte des interactions d' echange dont on discute l'evaluation theorique et la mise en evidence experimentale. Cette derniere peut se faire par resonance magnetique; on etudie theoriquement les phenomenes de retrecissement par echange et de relaxation Zeeman-echange que l'on met a profit pour determiner les interactions d'echange en fonction du volume molaire. On en deduit que la temperature d'alignement nucleaire diminue quand on comprime le solide et est au plus de 3x10{sup -3} K. L'influence des impuretes d'helium quatre sur les interactions d'echange entre atomes {sup 3}He voisins de {sup 4}He est mise en evidence. (auteur)

  15. Molten salts in nuclear reactors; Les sels fondus dans les reacteurs nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dirian, J; Saint-James, [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-07-01

    Collection of references dealing with the physicochemical studies of fused salts, in particular the alkali and alkali earth halides. Numerous binary, ternary and quaternary systems of these halides with those of uranium and thorium are examined, and the physical properties, density, viscosity, vapour pressure etc... going from the halides to the mixtures are also considered. References relating to the corrosion of materials by these salts are included and the treatment of the salts with a view to recuperation after irradiation in a nuclear reactor is discussed. (author) [French] Bibliographie regroupant l'etude physico-chimique des sels fondus, en particulier des halogenures alcalins et alcalino-terreux. On etudie de nombreux systemes binaires, ternaires et quaternaires de ces halogenures avec des halogenures d'uranium, et de thorium. On etudie egalement les proprietes physiques des halogenures ou des melanges d'halogenures (densite, viscosite, tension de vapeur, etc...). On donne egalement des references quant a la corrosion des materiaux par ces sels, et le traitement de ceux-ci en vue de recuperation, apres irradiation dans un reacteur nucleaire. (auteur)

  16. Piles used for the nuclear control of materials; Empilements pour le controle nucleaire des materiaux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raievski, V; Sautiez, B; Bailly du Bois, B; Tretiakoff, O; Thome, P; Vidal, R; Koppel Martelly, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    The devices which make it possible to check on the nuclear qualities of the materials used in reactor construction are described. These verifications bear on substantial masses of materials, following the last stage of their machining. The components found in all these are a graphite pile into which the material to be investigated is inserted, a source of neutrons made up of an Ra-Be system, and a proportional BF{sub 3} counter. The devices described here bear on checking graphite, beryllium oxide and uranium absorption, as well as on a verification of the {sup 235}U content of fuel elements. (author)Fren. [French] On decrit des dispositifs permettant de controler les qualites nucleaires de materiaux utilises dans la construction des piles. Ce controle s'effectue sur des masses importantes de materiaux apres la phase finale d'usinage. Ces dispositifs ont en commun un empilement de graphite recevant le materiau a etudier, une source de neutrons de Ra-Be et un compteur proportionnel a BF{sub 3}. Les dispositifs decrits concernent le controle de l'absorption du graphite, de la glucine et de l'uranium, ainsi que le controle de la teneur en {sup 235}U des elements de combustion. (auteur)

  17. Underground nuclear explosions. Geological survey of the cavities; Explosions nucleaires souterraines etude geologique des cavites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faure, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France). Centre d' Etudes

    1969-07-01

    A geological survey of underground nuclear explosions makes it possible to determine the main characteristics of the cavity formed. The lower portion is spherical; the same was very likely true of the roof, which collapses in the majority of media with the exception of rock-salt. Its radius, for a given bomb size, can vary by a factor of two according to the type of rock. The lay-out of its contents depends on the characteristics of the solid and liquid products at the moment of the roof collapse; according to the medium involved, mixing of the rubble and the mud-flow occurs (granite) or does not occur (tuff and alluvia). In all media, the average physical properties can be evaluated. (author) [French] L'etude geologique d'explosions nucleaires souterraines permet de determiner les principaux caracteres de la cavite creee. Sa partie inferieure est spherique; il en etait vraisemblablement de meme de sa voute, effondree dans la plupart des milieux a l'exception du sel gemme. Son rayon, a energie d'engin egale, varie selon les roches du simple au double. La disposition de son contenu depend des caracteristiques des produits solides et liquides au moment de la chute du toit; selon le cas, il n'y a pas (tuf et alluvions) ou il y a (granite) melange des eboulis et des laves. Dans tous les milieux, les proprietes physiques moyennes peuvent etre evaluees. (auteur)

  18. Production of nuclear graphite in France; Production de graphite nucleaire en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legendre, P; Mondet, L [Societe Pechiney, 74 - Chedde (France); Arragon, Ph; Cornuault, P; Gueron, J; Hering, H [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1955-07-01

    The graphite intended for the construction of the reactors is obtained by the usual process: confection of a cake from coke of oil and tar, cooked (in a electric oven) then the product of cook is graphitized, also by electric heating. The use of the air transportation and the control of conditions cooking and graphitization have permitted to increase the nuclear graphite production as well as to better control their physical and mechanical properties and to reduce to the minimum the unwanted stains. (M.B.) [French] Le graphite destine a la construction des reacteurs est obtenu par le procede usuel: confection d'une pate a partir de coke de petrole et de brai, cuisson de cette pate (au four electrique) puis graphitation du produit cuit, egalement par chauffage electrique. L'usage du transport pneumatique et le controle des conditions cuisson et de graphitation ont permit d'augmenter la production de graphite nucleaire ainsi que de mieux controler ses proprietes physiques et mecaniques et de reduire au minimum les souillures accidentelles. (M.B.)

  19. Contribution to the study of nuclear resonance in magnetic media (1963); Contribution a l'etude de la resonance nucleaire dans les milieux magnetique (1963)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartmann-Boutron, F [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1963-06-15

    An attempt is made to interpret the results of nuclear magnetic resonance experiments made by various workers on ferro and ferrimagnetic compounds of the iron group. The problems encountered are the following: effects of the dipolar fields and the hyperfine structure anisotropy; signal intensity; frequency pulling due to the Suhl-Nakamura interaction between nuclear spins ; nuclear relaxation and ferrimagnetic resonance in single domain samples of impure YIG; nuclear relaxation in the Bloch walls of insulators. The results of our calculations are generally in good agreement with experiment. (author) [French] On se propose d'interpreter les resultats d'experiences de resonance magnetique nucleaire fates par divers auteurs sur des composes ferro et ferrimagnetiques du groupe du fer. Les problemes abordes sont les suivants: effets des champs dipolaires et de l'anisotropie de structure hyperfine; intensite des signaux; deplacement de frequence du a l'interaction de Suhl-Nakamura entre spins nucleaires; relaxation nucleaire et resonance ferrimagnetique dans les echantillons monodomaines de grenat de fer et d'yttrium impur; relaxation nucleaire dans les parois de Bloch des isolants. Les resultats des calculs sont generalement en bon accord avec l'experience. (auteur)

  20. Contribution to the study of nuclear resonance in magnetic media (1963); Contribution a l'etude de la resonance nucleaire dans les milieux magnetique (1963)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartmann-Boutron, F. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1963-06-15

    An attempt is made to interpret the results of nuclear magnetic resonance experiments made by various workers on ferro and ferrimagnetic compounds of the iron group. The problems encountered are the following: effects of the dipolar fields and the hyperfine structure anisotropy; signal intensity; frequency pulling due to the Suhl-Nakamura interaction between nuclear spins ; nuclear relaxation and ferrimagnetic resonance in single domain samples of impure YIG; nuclear relaxation in the Bloch walls of insulators. The results of our calculations are generally in good agreement with experiment. (author) [French] On se propose d'interpreter les resultats d'experiences de resonance magnetique nucleaire fates par divers auteurs sur des composes ferro et ferrimagnetiques du groupe du fer. Les problemes abordes sont les suivants: effets des champs dipolaires et de l'anisotropie de structure hyperfine; intensite des signaux; deplacement de frequence du a l'interaction de Suhl-Nakamura entre spins nucleaires; relaxation nucleaire et resonance ferrimagnetique dans les echantillons monodomaines de grenat de fer et d'yttrium impur; relaxation nucleaire dans les parois de Bloch des isolants. Les resultats des calculs sont generalement en bon accord avec l'experience. (auteur)

  1. Some aspects of the combined mutagenic utilization of ionizing radiation and chemical mutagens in the experimental mutagenesis with Chlorella vulgaris B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mekhandzhiev, A.D.; Chankova, S.G.; Petkova, S.D.

    1979-01-01

    The influence of mutagen dose and cell cycle phase in combined mutagenic effects of ionizing radiation and EMS was experimentally studied on Chlorella vulgaris B. The duration of the cell cycle phases was determined from autoradiographic data on the kinetics of the incorporated labelled precursor ( 3 H-thymidine). The mutagenic effect was evaluated on the 10th or 11th day by the induced pigment mutations on a total of 450,105 colonies. It was found that the combining of 2, 6 or 15 krad gamma rays with EMC in doses 0.002, 0.125 or 0.5 M on the 4th, 12th, 11th, 16th or 18th hour of the cell cycle has a different effect, depending on mutagen dose and cell cycle phase. In this way, combining three different doses of gamma rays with 0.5 M EMC(LDsub(90-99)) at the onset of G 1 induces a distinct rise in the percentage of pigment mutations, as compared to the theoretically expected. The superadditive effect in this case however was associated with limitation of the mutation spectrum. Treatment with average lethal combination (6 krad gamma rays + 0.002 M EMC or 6 krad gamma rays + 0.125 M EMC) was not very effective, but the induced mutations had a rather broader spectrum (8-9 types). A comparison of the theoretically expected yield of pigment mutations with the actually obtained one shows a superadditibility only in cells treated in G 1 (LD 60 ) and in the mid S-phase (LD 40 ). (A.B.)

  2. Aspects of B physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaillard, M.K.

    1987-01-01

    Various aspects of weak decays are commented on. Probing of the standard model and of phenomena beyond the standard model are discussed, followed by a theoretical view of B mesons and some experimental observations on B mesons. The point is made that any data on B decay would be interesting in that it would provide powerful new constraints in analyses of the standard model and extensions thereof

  3. Contribution to the study of the evolution of radiation induced He in Be O; Etudes sur l'evolution de l'helium produit par reactions nucleaires dans l'oxyde de beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bareau, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-11-15

    The purpose of this work in-pile investigation of He formed by (n, 2n) and (n, {alpha}) nuclear reactions, released from irradiated BeO, in the temperature range 1000 - 1350 deg. C. The experimental results show that, for an instantaneous neutron fast flux of 10{sup 13} n cm{sup -2} sec{sup -1}, an equilibrium is attempted, after several days, for a part lower than 20 per cent of the quantity of He formed, theoretically calculated from the neutron cross sections of nuclear reactions, and from the analytical form of the neutron fast flux, releases from the solid. The validity of the values of calculated helium and the gas chromatographic analytical method are also verified by dissolution of the BeO pellets in cryolite. A new fast neutron flux measuring method may be so defined. The discussion of the experimental results enables to establish that the processus of He release is characterized by two phenomena: the first one which controls the release of He atoms out of the solid and the second which reveals a capture processus, connected to the irradiation and probably due to the vacancies induced in the lattice. (author) [French] On etudie en pile le degagement de l'helium forme par reactions nucleaires (n, 2 n) et (n, {alpha}) dans l'oxyde de beryllium irradie entre 1000 et 1350 deg. C. Les resultats experimentaux montrant que, pour un flux rapide instantane de 10{sup 13} n{sub r} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}, on aboutit, au bout de quelques jours, a un etat d'equilibre pour lequel une partie, inferieure a 20 pour cent de la quantite d'helium forme, calculee theoriquement a partir des sections efficaces des reactions nucleaires et de la forme analytique du flux rapide, s'echappe du solide. On verifie egalement par dissolution des echantillons de BeO dans la cryolithe la validite du calcul de l'helium et de la methode de dosage par chromatographie en phase gazeuse. On peut ainsi definir une methode nouvelle de mesure des flux rapides. La discussion des resultats experimentaux

  4. Contribution to the study of the evolution of radiation induced He in Be O; Etudes sur l'evolution de l'helium produit par reactions nucleaires dans l'oxyde de beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bareau, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-11-15

    The purpose of this work in-pile investigation of He formed by (n, 2n) and (n, {alpha}) nuclear reactions, released from irradiated BeO, in the temperature range 1000 - 1350 deg. C. The experimental results show that, for an instantaneous neutron fast flux of 10{sup 13} n cm{sup -2} sec{sup -1}, an equilibrium is attempted, after several days, for a part lower than 20 per cent of the quantity of He formed, theoretically calculated from the neutron cross sections of nuclear reactions, and from the analytical form of the neutron fast flux, releases from the solid. The validity of the values of calculated helium and the gas chromatographic analytical method are also verified by dissolution of the BeO pellets in cryolite. A new fast neutron flux measuring method may be so defined. The discussion of the experimental results enables to establish that the processus of He release is characterized by two phenomena: the first one which controls the release of He atoms out of the solid and the second which reveals a capture processus, connected to the irradiation and probably due to the vacancies induced in the lattice. (author) [French] On etudie en pile le degagement de l'helium forme par reactions nucleaires (n, 2 n) et (n, {alpha}) dans l'oxyde de beryllium irradie entre 1000 et 1350 deg. C. Les resultats experimentaux montrant que, pour un flux rapide instantane de 10{sup 13} n{sub r} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}, on aboutit, au bout de quelques jours, a un etat d'equilibre pour lequel une partie, inferieure a 20 pour cent de la quantite d'helium forme, calculee theoriquement a partir des sections efficaces des reactions nucleaires et de la forme analytique du flux rapide, s'echappe du solide. On verifie egalement par dissolution des echantillons de BeO dans la cryolithe la validite du calcul de l'helium et de la methode de dosage par chromatographie en phase gazeuse. On peut ainsi definir une methode nouvelle de mesure des flux rapides. La

  5. Can-rupture detection in gas-cooled nuclear reactors; La detection des ruptures de gaine dans les piles nucleaires refroidies par gaz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roguin, A. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-07-01

    Can-rupture detection (DRG) is one important aspect of pile safety, more particularly so in the case of gas-cooled reactors. A rapid and sure detection constitutes also an improvement as far as the efficiency of electricity-producing nuclear power stations are concerned. Among the numerous can-rupture detection methods, that based on the measurement of the concentration of short-lived fission gases in the heat-carrying fluid has proved to be the most sensitive and the most rapid. A systematic study of detectors based on the electrostatic collection of the daughter products of fission gases has been undertaken with a view to equip the reactors EL 2, G 3, EDF 1, EDF 2 and EDF 3, the gas loops of PEGASE and EL 4. The different parameters are studied in detail in order to obtain a maximum sensitivity and to make it possible to construct detection devices having the maximum operational reliability and requiring the minimum maintenance. The primary applications of these devices are examined in the case of the above-mentioned reactors. (author) [French] La Detection des Ruptures de Gaines (D. R. G.) est un aspect important de la securite des piles et plus particulierement des piles refroidies par un gaz. Une detection rapide et sure constitue aussi un element d'amelioration du rendement des centrales nucleaires productrices d'energie electrique. Parmi les nombreuses methodes de detection des ruptures de gaines, la mesure de la concentration dans le fluide caloporteur des gaz de fission a vie courte s'est revelee comme la plus sensible et la plus rapide. Une etude systematique des detecteurs a collection electrostatique des descendants des gaz de fission a ete entreprise en vue d'equiper les piles EL 2, G 3, EDF 1, EDF 2 et EDF 3, les boucles a gaz de la pile Pegase et la pile EL 4. Les divers parametres sont etudies en detail pour obtenir une sensibilite maximum et permettre la realisation de dispositifs de detection ayant le maximum de securite de

  6. Can-rupture detection in gas-cooled nuclear reactors; La detection des ruptures de gaine dans les piles nucleaires refroidies par gaz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roguin, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-07-01

    Can-rupture detection (DRG) is one important aspect of pile safety, more particularly so in the case of gas-cooled reactors. A rapid and sure detection constitutes also an improvement as far as the efficiency of electricity-producing nuclear power stations are concerned. Among the numerous can-rupture detection methods, that based on the measurement of the concentration of short-lived fission gases in the heat-carrying fluid has proved to be the most sensitive and the most rapid. A systematic study of detectors based on the electrostatic collection of the daughter products of fission gases has been undertaken with a view to equip the reactors EL 2, G 3, EDF 1, EDF 2 and EDF 3, the gas loops of PEGASE and EL 4. The different parameters are studied in detail in order to obtain a maximum sensitivity and to make it possible to construct detection devices having the maximum operational reliability and requiring the minimum maintenance. The primary applications of these devices are examined in the case of the above-mentioned reactors. (author) [French] La Detection des Ruptures de Gaines (D. R. G.) est un aspect important de la securite des piles et plus particulierement des piles refroidies par un gaz. Une detection rapide et sure constitue aussi un element d'amelioration du rendement des centrales nucleaires productrices d'energie electrique. Parmi les nombreuses methodes de detection des ruptures de gaines, la mesure de la concentration dans le fluide caloporteur des gaz de fission a vie courte s'est revelee comme la plus sensible et la plus rapide. Une etude systematique des detecteurs a collection electrostatique des descendants des gaz de fission a ete entreprise en vue d'equiper les piles EL 2, G 3, EDF 1, EDF 2 et EDF 3, les boucles a gaz de la pile Pegase et la pile EL 4. Les divers parametres sont etudies en detail pour obtenir une sensibilite maximum et permettre la realisation de dispositifs de detection ayant le maximum de securite de fonctionnement et le

  7. Analytic catalog for the use of the nuclear physicists; Repertoire analytique a l'usage des physiciens nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballini, R.; Barloutaud, R.; Bernas, R.; Chaminade, R.; Cohen, R.; Conjeaud, M.; Cotton, E.; Faraggi, H.; Grjebine, T.; Laboulaye, H. de; Lehmann, P.; Leveque, A.; Levi, C.; Moreau, J.; Naggiar, V.; Olkowsky, J.; Papineau, L.; Papineau, L.; Prugne, P.; Schuhl, C.; Szteinsznaider, D.; Tzara, C.; Valladas, G. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay(France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Marty, N.; Renard, G. [College de France, Lab. de Chimie Nucleaire (France)

    1952-07-01

    The problem of the documentation in nuclear physics becomes constantly more complex. Every week brings its share of publications, always more numerous and more varied. To remedy to this problem, we tried, at the Nuclear Physics Services of the CEA, to give to the documentation the character of a collective and systematized work. The present report covers the literature appeared between January 1, 1950 and July 1, 1951. (Volume 1: CEA report number 120; Volume 2: CEA report number 184). (M.B.) [French] Le probleme de la documentation en physique nucleaire devient sans cesse plus complexe. Chaque semaine apporte son lot de publications, toujours plus nombreuses et plus diversifiees. C'est pour essayer de porter remede a cet etat de choses que nous avons essaye, au service de Physique Nucleaire du C.E.A., de donner a la documentation le caractere d'un travail collectif systematise. Le present rapport couvre la litterature parue entre le 1 Janvier 1950 et le 1 Juillet 1951. (Tome 1: Rapport CEA numero 120; Tome 2: Rapport CEA numero 184). (M.B.)

  8. Analytic catalog for the use of the nuclear physicists; Repertoire analytique a l'usage des physiciens nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballini, R; Barloutaud, R; Bernas, R; Chaminade, R; Cohen, R; Conjeaud, M; Cotton, E; Faraggi, H; Grjebine, T; Laboulaye, H de; Lehmann, P; Leveque, A; Levi, C; Moreau, J; Naggiar, V; Olkowsky, J; Papineau, L; Papineau, L; Prugne, P; Schuhl, C; Szteinsznaider, D; Tzara, C; Valladas, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay(France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Marty, N; Renard, G [College de France, Lab. de Chimie Nucleaire (France)

    1952-07-01

    The problem of the documentation in nuclear physics becomes constantly more complex. Every week brings its share of publications, always more numerous and more varied. To remedy to this problem, we tried, at the Nuclear Physics Services of the CEA, to give to the documentation the character of a collective and systematized work. The present report covers the literature appeared between January 1, 1950 and July 1, 1951. (Volume 1: CEA report number 120; Volume 2: CEA report number 184). (M.B.) [French] Le probleme de la documentation en physique nucleaire devient sans cesse plus complexe. Chaque semaine apporte son lot de publications, toujours plus nombreuses et plus diversifiees. C'est pour essayer de porter remede a cet etat de choses que nous avons essaye, au service de Physique Nucleaire du C.E.A., de donner a la documentation le caractere d'un travail collectif systematise. Le present rapport couvre la litterature parue entre le 1 Janvier 1950 et le 1 Juillet 1951. (Tome 1: Rapport CEA numero 120; Tome 2: Rapport CEA numero 184). (M.B.)

  9. Study of the chimney produced by an underground nuclear explosion; Etude de la cheminee creee par une explosion nucleaire souterraine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derlich, S [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France). Centre d' Etudes

    1969-07-01

    Underground nuclear explosions lead to the formation of a cavity which is roughly of spherical shape. The roof of this cavity is unstable and collapses in most cases, leading to the formation of a chimney. The height and the diameter depend on the energy of the charge and on the nature of the surroundings. The chronology of the various stages can be determined by seismic observations. The interior of the chimney is filled, either partially or completely, with rubble earth. This phenomenon is of great importance as far as the use of nuclear explosions for industrial applications is concerned. (author) [French] Les explosions nucleaires souterraines creent une cavite de forme grossierement spherique. La voute de cette cavite est instable et s'effondre dans la plupart des cas, donnant lieu a la formation d'une cheminee. La hauteur et le diametre sont fonction de l'energie du tir et de la nature du milieu. La chronologie des evenements peut etre determinee par des observations seismiques. L'interieur des cheminees est occupe, en partie ou en totalite, par des eboulis. Ce phenomene presente un grand interet pour l'utilisation des explosions nucleaires a des fins industrielles. (auteur)

  10. Aspects of Reactor Physics Research at the Victoria University of Manchester; Quelques Aspects des Experiences de Physique des Reacteurs a l'Universite Victoria de Manchester; Aspekty ehksperimental'nykh issledovanij po fizike reaktorov v universitete viktorii v manchestere; Trabajos de Fisica Experimental con Reactores Efectuados en la Universidad Victoria de Manchester

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, M. J.; Walton, D. G. [Victoria University of Manchester (United Kingdom)

    1964-02-15

    The Nuclear Engineering Department at Manchester University was established in 1959. Since that time post-graduate reactor physics studies have gradually enlarged and developed, starting virtually from scratch; experimental studies have concentrated on light-water systems and centred on the accelerator-driven, natural-uranium, light-water exponential. The paper contains a survey of the work to date, discussion of the results obtained, outlines of proposed future work, and, as they arise in the text, descriptions of various low-cost, labour-saving experimental techniques which have been adopted. The various divisions of the work are described below. The authors have studied neutron diffusion in light water using both pulsed source and steady source methods. In the former method they have particularly stressed full harmonic analysis to the extent of actually studying the higher modes as opposed to most former work which has tried only to eliminate them. In the study of steady source methods they have concentrated on eliminating all effects from finite source and detector size, resonance activation, flux perturbation and so on. The results of both are discussed and compared. A very careful measurement of absorption cross-sections by the pulsed technique, taking care to eliminate harmonic and other effects likely to lead to error is also in progress and is described. Thermal neutron spectra in ''poisoned'' light water are being measured as a means of investigating and developing integral detector techniques. This discussion includes some interesting time- and cost-saving examples. Large foil activation and counting techniques for measuring spatially averaged neutron densities, and hence a number of reactor parameters, have been studied. Some interesting points have arisen, particularly with regard to spectrum measurement. The method makes possible many reactor physics investigations with limited resources. A low-cost natural uranium, light-water exponential has been

  11. Health problems raised by the elimination of radioactive wastes and nuclear accidents; Problemes sanitaires poses par l'elimination des dechets radioactifs et par les accidents nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jammet, H.; Mechali, D.; Dousset, M. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    The rapid development of nuclear energy demands an urgent solution to the health problems arising from the discharge into the environment of radioactive residues produced by nuclear installations. - To be able to evaluate the risks run by the population and to fix tolerance limits for waste discharge, it is necessary to possess an exact knowledge of the course taken by the radioelements discharged, from their source until they reach man. The incorporation of radioelements in food cycles is the first risk to take into consideration. The factors involved in all stages of this transmission must be foreseen, whether they concern physical or biological media, because of their continuity and their interdependence. Finally, socio-economic and dietetic data must be collected in order that the risks and tolerance levels estimated are based on concrete and experimental rather than theoretical knowledge. The risk of nuclear accidents in the atomic industry, although very improbable, must be taken into consideration because of the seriousness of their consequences. The health problems arise in the field of professional hygiene on the one hand and in that of public hygiene on the other. In the first field the risk is two-fold and involves irradiation and contamination. The public sphere is reduced essentially to the risk of contamination by radioactive substances accidentally released in the surrounding medium. The health studies to be conducted in this field therefore include research not only on irradiation or contamination therapeutics but also on the transfer of radioelements from the accident site to man, mainly through food cycles, in their physical and in their biological components. Studies of this kind form the basis of decisions in the health field which would have to be taken in the case of an accident. (authors) [French] Le developpement rapide de l'energie nucleaire rend urgente la solution des problemes sanitaires poses par le rejet dans le milieu ambiant des

  12. General phenomenology of underground nuclear explosions; Phenomenologie generale des explosions nucleaires souterraines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derlich, S; Supiot, F [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France). Centre d' Etudes

    1969-07-01

    An essentially qualitatively description is given of the phenomena related to underground nuclear explosions (explosion of a single unit, of several units in line, and simultaneous explosions). In the first chapter are described the phenomena which are common to contained explosions and to explosions forming craters (formation and propagation of a shock-wave causing the vaporization, the fusion and the fracturing of the medium). The second chapter describes the phenomena related to contained explosions (formation of a cavity with a chimney). The third chapter is devoted to the phenomenology of test explosions which form a crater; it describes in particular the mechanism of formation and the different types of craters as a function of the depth of the explosion and of the nature of the ground. The aerial phenomena connected with explosions which form a crater: shock wave in the air and focussing at a large distance, and dust clouds, are also dealt with. (authors) [French] On donne une description essentiellement qualitative des phenomenes lies aux explosions nucleaires souterraines (explosion d'un seul engin, d'engins en ligne et explosions simultanees). Dans un premier chapitre sont decrits les phenomenes communs aux explosions contenues et aux explosions formant un cratere (formation et propagation d'une onde de choc provoquant la vaporisation, la fusion et la fracturation du milieu). Le deuxieme chapitre decrit les phenomenes lies aux tirs contenus (formation d'une cavite et d'une cheminee). Le troisieme chapitre est consacre a la phenomenologie des tirs formant un cratere et decrit notamment le mecanisme de formation et les differents types de crateres en fonction de la profondeur d'explosion et de la nature du terrain. Les phenomenes aeriens lies aux explosions formant un cratere: onde de pression aerienne et focalisation a grande distance, nuages de poussieres, sont egalement abordes. (auteurs)

  13. Instrumental aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qureshi Navid

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Every neutron scattering experiment requires the choice of a suited neutron diffractometer (or spectrometer in the case of inelastic scattering with its optimal configuration in order to accomplish the experimental tasks in the most successful way. Most generally, the compromise between the incident neutron flux and the instrumental resolution has to be considered, which is depending on a number of optical devices which are positioned in the neutron beam path. In this chapter the basic instrumental principles of neutron diffraction will be explained. Examples of different types of experiments and their respective expectable results will be shown. Furthermore, the production and use of polarized neutrons will be stressed.

  14. Experimental Aspects and Implementation of HPTLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Rashmin B.; Patel, Mrunali R.; Batel, Bharat G.

    High-Performance Thin-Layer Chromatography (HPTLC) is a sophisticated instrumentation technique. It has been reported in many publications to provide excellent separation and qualitative and quantitative analysis of a wide range of compounds, such as herbal and botanical dietary supplements, nutraceuticals, traditional western medicines, traditional Chinese medicines, and Ayurvedic (Indian) medicines (Sharma 2008). Comparative studies have often found that HPTLC is superior to High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) in terms of total cost and time required for analysis. HPTLC is an off-line process in which the various stages are carried out independently. Important features of HPTLC are the ability to analyze cruder samples containing multicomponents; application of large number of sample and a series of standards using the spray-on technique; choice of solvents for the HPTLC development is wide as the mobile phases are fully evaporated before the detection step; processing of standards and samples identically on the same plate, leading to better accuracy and precision of quantification; different and universal selective detection methods, and in situ spectra recording in sequence to obtain positive identification of fractions; storage of total sample on layer, without time constrains. In addition, it minimizes exposure risks and significantly reduces disposal problems of toxic organic effluents; thereby, reduce possibilities of environment pollution. In view of this, HPTLC-based methods could be considered as a good alternative as they are being explored as an important tool in routine analysis. This chapter provides detailed information regarding HPTLC-based analytical method development (Renger 1993; Renger 1998; Patel and Patel 2008; Patel et al. 2010).

  15. Clinical and experimental aspects of hepatic encephalopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Groeneweg (Michael)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractHepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a neuropsychiatnc syndrome associated with severe liver disease. Clinical symptoms range from minimal changes in mental state and neuromuscular defects to unresponsive coma. 1-' The syndrome of HE can be divided into three major groups: HE associated with

  16. Some experimental aspects of optimality theoretic pragmatics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blutner, R.; Németh T., E.; Bibok, K.

    2010-01-01

    The article has three main concerns: (i) it gives a concise introduction into optimality-theoretic pragmatics; (ii) it discusses the relation to alternative accounts (relevance theory and Levinson's theory of presumptive meanings); (iii) it reviews recent findings concerning the psychological

  17. Intoxicações natural e experimental por amitraz em eqüídeos: aspectos clínicos Natural and experimental poisoning by amitraz in horses and donkey: clinical aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Dutra Duarte

    2003-09-01

    capilar e mucosas congestas, estridor, taquipnéia, dispnéia, secreção nasal, bradipnéia e respiração abdominal. Todos os três casos naturais ocorreram após aspersão do amitraz. Os primeiros sintomas foram observados 2 e 3 dias após o banho. A evolução foi de 6, 7 e 17 dias. Um animal manifestou a maioria dos sinais referentes ao sistema nervoso observados nos experimentos, com exceção dos sinais de cruzamento dos membros ao caminhar, bocejos, lábios flácidos e exposição do pênis. Outro animal, intoxicado espontaneamente, manifestou somente sintomas digestivos como rolar, ''patear'', hipomotilidade/atonia intestinal e impactação do intestino grosso. Um terceiro animal, inicialmente manifestou sintomas digestivos caracterizados por patear, rolar, atonia intestinal e impactação do intestino grosso, com conseqüente desenvolvimento de laminite; na fase final exibiu acentuada sintomatologia nervosa mostrando compressão da cabeça contra obstáculos, incoordenação motora com cruzamento dos membros ao caminhar e relutância em se movimentar. Baseados no quadro clínico observado, são sugeridos possíveis locais de lesão no sistema nervoso.Poisoning by amitraz was experimentally reproduced in 17 horses and a donkey. First symptoms were observed between 15 min. and 2 h 5 min. after oral administration, and between 6 h 28 min. and 8 h 38 min. after spraying with amitraz. The course of poisoning after oral administration was 4 to 9 days, and after spraying 5 to 6 days. Death of experimental animals occurred only after oral administration. One animal was euthanized after spraying. Doses of 5.5 mg/kg (1 administration, 5.8 mg/kg (2 administrations and doses which varied between 7.2 and 36.4 mg/kg (5 administrations were used when amitraz was given by mouth, all causing symptoms of poisoning. When the administration of amitraz was by spraying, poisoning was reproduced with solutions of 0.1 and 0.2 % . Regarding the nervous system, the main signs observed

  18. Aspectos clínico-patológicos e laboratoriais do envenenamento crotálico experimental em bovinos Clinical and pathological aspects of experimental Crotalus poisoning in cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio A.S. Graça

    2008-06-01

    -americanas em bovinos não cursa com mioglobinúria e que o quadro marcado de paralisia flácida mimetiza o observado no botulismo. Adicionalmente foram feitas observações sobre o diagnóstico do envenenamento crotálico e sua diferenciação com enfermidades que cursam com paralisia e necrose muscular em bovinos do Brasil.Crotalus poisoning was experimentally reproduced by subcutaneous inoculation of Crotalus durissus terrificus (South American rattlesnake venom into 10 clinically healthy mixed bred 12 to 36-month-old cattle, weighing 125 to 449 kg. Two animals were used as controls. The animal that received a dose of 0.03mg/kg body weight died 7h40min after inoculation. A 0.015mg/kg dose provoked death in 4 out of 7 young oxen. Two animals given 0.0075mg/kg became slightly sick and recovered. Onset of symptoms occurred from 1h30min to 13h45min after inoculation. The clinical course varied from 5h25min to 45h for animals that died, and from 33h15min to 17 days for animals that recovered. The main nervous signs observed were diminished response to external stimuli, hypotonic reflexes, dragging of the hooves, apathy, difficulties in moving around obstacles, ocular globe paralysis, lateral and sternal decubitus, and tongue paralysis. Adipsia and sometimes petechiae in the conjunctival and vaginal mucosa were observed. A slight to moderate increase in bleeding time was noted in 6 animals, and a moderate increase in partial thromboplastin time was found in 7 others. Moderate leukocytosis with neutrophilia, relative lymphopenia, eosinopenia, and monocytosis was found. There was a significant increase in creatine kinase serum levels of a ten-fold order. No significant alterations were revealed by urinalysis. Necropsy revealed minimal edema at the inoculation site, few petechiae and equimoses in the epicardium, omentum, biliary vesicle and bladder mucosa of some animals. Histopathological examination revealed necrosis (hyalinization of groups or isolated myocytes in different

  19. A mathematical model for cost of maritime transport. Application to competitiveness of nuclear vessels; Modele mathematique du cout de transport maritime application a la competitivite du navire nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorval, C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, 75 - Paris (France)

    1966-05-01

    In studying the competitiveness of a nuclear merchant vessel, economic assessments in terms of figures were discarded in favor of a simplified model, which gives a clearer idea of the mechanism of the comparison between alternative vessels and the particular influence of each parameter. An expression is formulated for the unit cost per ton carried over a given distance as a function of the variables (speed and deadweight tonnage) and is used to determine the optima for conventional and nuclear vessels. To represent the freight market involved in the optimization studies, and thus in the competitiveness computation, two cases are taken into account: the tonnage to be carried annually is limited, and the tonnage to be carried annually is not limited. In both cases the optima are calculated and compared for a conventional and a nuclear vessel. Competitiveness curves are plotted as a function of the ratios of nuclear and conventional fuel costs and nuclear and conventional marginal power costs. These curves express the limiting values of the above two ratios for which the transport costs of the nuclear and conventional vessels are equal. The competitiveness curves vary considerably according to the hypothesis adopted for the freight market and the limit of tonnage carried annually. (author) [French] Pour etudier la competitivite du navire marchand nucleaire, plutot que de nous livrer a des evaluations economiques chiffrees, discutables dans l'etat actuel des etudes, nous utilisons un modele simplifie permettant de mieux saisir le mecanisme de la comparaison des navires et l'influence particuliere de chaque parametre. Nous etablissons une expression du cout unitaire de la tonne transportee sur un parcours donne en fonction des variables vitesse et port en lourd. Et nous l'utilisons pour determiner les optima des navires classiques et nucleaires. Pour representer le marche du fret qui intervient dans les etudes d'optimisation, et donc dans la recherche de la

  20. Review of Development Status of Nuclear Superheat; Expose sur l'etat actuel des travaux concernant la surchauffe nucleaire; Obzor razrabotki voprosa o yadernykh peregrevatelyakh; Estudio de los progresos realizados en niateria de sobrecalentamiento nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imhoff, D. H.; Pennington, R. T. [General Electric Company, San Jose, CA (United States)

    1963-10-15

    fuel irradiation performance, in-pile and out-of-pile uniform and localized corrosion evaluations, results from thermal superheat critical experiments, results from experimental heat-transfer testing and a brief appraisal of the economic incentives of the separate superheat reactor, integral superheat reactor, and mixed-spectrum superheat reactor design studies. (b) A brief description is given of the USAEC-Sponsored ESADA-VESR nuclear superheat fuel development programme. The development tasks, the initial core superheat fuel-element design, the range of experimental variables, and the expected results for the three-year fuel development programme are discussed. (author [French] Depuis 1959, la Societe General Electric s'occupe activement de mettre au point la surchauffe nucleaire dans les reacteurs ralentis a l'eau ordinaire. A cette epoque, le ''Superheat Advance Demonstration Experiment'' (SADE), finance par la societe, a permis d'obtenir, pour la premiere fois aux Etats-Unis, de la vapeur surchauffee par un dispositif nucleaire. Les auteurs du memoire font le point de la situation actuelle concernant la surchauffe nucleaire. Ils decrivent, dans une premiere partie, les trois principales installations de surchauffe nucleaire utilisees par la General Electric et, dans la seconde, les deux principaux programmes de recherches sur la surchauffe ainsi que les resultats les plus importants obtenus jusqu'ici dans ce domaine. 1. Principales installations pour les experiences de surchauffe: a) Breve description du SADE utilise dans le reacteur a eau bouillante de Vallecitos (VBWR), avec tableaux des conditions dans lesquelles se deroulent les experiences, et des elements combustibles irradies pendant la periode comprise entre mai 1959 et juin 1962; puis examen critique des resultats les plus importants ainsi obtenus. b) Breve description de l' ''Expanded Superheat Advance Demonstration Experiment'' (E-SADE) installe dans le reacteur de Vallecitos, avec tableaux des

  1. Some Aspects of Diffusion Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Pignedoli, A

    2011-01-01

    This title includes: V.C.A. Ferraro: Diffusion of ions in a plasma with applications to the ionosphere; P.C. Kendall: On the diffusion in the atmosphere and ionosphere; F. Henin: Kinetic equations and Brownian motion; T. Kahan: Theorie des reacteurs nucleaires: methodes de resolution perturbationnelles, interactives et variationnelles; C. Cattaneo: Sulla conduzione del calore; C. Agostinelli: Formule di Green per la diffusione del campo magnetico in un fluido elettricamente conduttore; A. Pignedoli: Transformational methods applied to some one-dimensional problems concerning the equations of t

  2. The decommissioning of nuclear facilities; Le demantelement des installations nucleaires de base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niel, J.Ch.; Rieu, J.; Lareynie, O.; Delrive, L.; Vallet, J.; Girard, A.; Duthe, M.; Lecomte, C.; Rozain, J.P.; Nokhamzon, J.G.; Davoust, M.; Eyraud, J.L.; Bernet, Ph.; Velon, M.; Gay, A.; Charles, Th.; Leschaeva, M.; Dutzer, M.; Maocec, Ch.; Gillet, G.; Brut, F.; Dieulot, M.; Thuillier, D.; Tournebize, F.; Fontaine, V.; Goursaud, V.; Birot, M.; Le Bourdonnec, Th.; Batandjieva, B.; Theis, St.; Walker, St.; Rosett, M.; Cameron, C.; Boyd, A.; Aguilar, M.; Brownell, H.; Manson, P.; Walthery, R.; Wan Laer, W.; Lewandowski, P.; Dorms, B.; Reusen, N.; Bardelay, J.; Damette, G.; Francois, P.; Eimer, M.; Tadjeddine, A.; Sene, M.; Sene, R

    2008-11-15

    ,; the fifth part presents the external points of view on dismantling with: the decommissioning of Saint-Laurent A, as seen by the local information committee, decommissioning: the urge for a public consultation, an evaluation of the work of the 'conseil superieur de la surete et de linformation nucleaire' (C.S.S.I.N.) - a consultative body dealing with information in the field of nuclear safety) on the issue of decommissioning basic nuclear installations, monitoring the decommissioning of nuclear facilities and examining applications. (N.C.)

  3. Statistical treatment of data. Application to nuclear electronics; Traitement des informations en regime statistique. Applications a l'electronique nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sicard, F [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    In this report the data of probability calculations are applied to the analyses of counting losses in experiments on chance events encountered in nuclear physics. The distribution of time intervals according to Poisson's law is studied and various applications of this are given: calculation of counting losses on a scale preceded by a fast de-multiplying circuit, decrease of the counting rate on the multichannel selectors, recording of statistical distribution phenomena on magnetic bands. (author) [French] Ce rapport applique les donnees du calcul des probabilites a l'analyse des pertes de comptage dans les experiences sur des evenements aleatoires rencontres en physique nucleaire. La distribution des intervalles de temps suivant une loi de Poisson est etudiee et differentes applications en sont donnees: calcul des pertes de comptage sur une echelle precedee d'un circuit de demultiplication rapide, diminution du taux de comptage sur les selecteurs multicanaux, enregistrement de phenomenes a distribution statistique sur bandes magnetiques. (auteur)

  4. Dosimeter calibration facilities and methods at the Radiation Measurement Laboratory of the Centre d'etudes nucleaires, Grenoble

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choudens, H. de; Herbaut, Y.; Haddad, A.; Giroux, J.; Rouillon, J.; CEA Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Grenoble, 38

    1975-01-01

    At the Centre d'etudes nucleaires, Grenoble, the Radiation Measurement Laboratory, which forms part of the Environmental Protection and Research Department, serves the entire Centre for purposes of dosimetry and the calibration of dose meters. The needs of radiation protection are such that one must have facilities for checking periodically the calibration of radiation-monitoring instruments and developing special dosimetry techniques. It was thought a good idea to arrange for the dosimetry and radiation protection team to assist other groups working at the Centre - in particular, the staff of the biology and radiobiology laboratories - and also bodies outside the framework of the French Commissariat a l'energie atomique. Thus, technical collaboration has been established with, for example, Grenoble's Centre hospitalier universitaire (university clinic), which makes use of the facilities and skills available at the Radiation Measurement Laboratory for solving special dosimetry problems. With the Laboratory's facilities it is possible to calibrate dose meters for gamma, beta and neutron measurements

  5. Experimental animal studies of radon and cigarette smoke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross, F.T.; Dagle, G.E.; Gies, R.A.; Smith, L.G.; Buschbom, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    Cigarette-smoking is a dominant cause of lung cancer and confounds risk assessment of exposure to radon decay products. Evidence in humans on the interaction between cigarette-smoking and exposure to radon decay products, although limited, indicates a possible synergy. Experimental animal data, in addition to showing synergy, also show a decrease or no change in risk with added cigarette-smoke exposures. This article reviews previous animal data developed at Compagnie Generale des Matieres Nucleaires and Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) on mixed exposures to radon and cigarette smoke, and highlights new initiation-promotion-initiation (IPI) studies at PNL that were designed within the framework of a two-mutation carcinogenesis model. Also presented are the PNL exposure system, experimental protocols, dosimetry, and biological data observed to date in IPI animals

  6. Nuclear Materials Management and its Relationship to Nuclear Safety and Criticality Control; La Gestion des Matieres Nucleaires et ses Rapports avec la Securite Nucleaire et le Controle de la Criticite; Obrashchenie s yadernymi materialami i ego svyaz' s yadernoj bezopasnost'yu i kontrolem nad kritichnost'yu; La Administracion de Materiales Nucleares y sus Relaciones con la Seguridad Nuclear y el Control de la Criticidad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tingey, F. H. [Phillips Petroleum Company, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1966-02-15

    The preclusion of those conditions which would result in an inadvertent collection of fissionable material in quantity, geometry and environment to produce a neutron chain reaction is of fundamental importance to all those actively engaged in the nuclear industry. It is of particular concern to those individuals who are. responsible for the handling, transfer and storage of the fissionable materials in the performance of their various tasks. These same people are part of the nuclear materials management (NMM) system. They are the individuals who are primarily responsible for generating and receiving the SS accountability data channelled through the NMM office and as such must depend upon that office for valid and timely information in discharging their responsibility. Basically the responsibility for preventing inadvertent criticality in any area of plant operation lies with line supervision. In devising preventative measures at least three different types of problems need be considered. These are: (a) The scientific or technical problems connected with evaluating the hazard presented by a proposed quality of fissile material in a given geometry and environment; (b) The engineering problems presented by the restrictions dictated from the scientific or technical considerations; (c) The purely administrative problems presented in implementing the restrictions and requirements imposed from the technical and engineering considerations. To assist the supervisor in the successful discharge of this responsibility, some organizations provide certain groups or committees specialized in particular areas. Usually the technical problems are submitted to criticality specialists, commonly called a Nuclear Safety Committee, who are familiar with the experimental data of critical systems and can by theoretical calculation extend this experience to the problems at hand. Support in the engineering problems is given by plant engineering groups made cognizant of the requirements

  7. The use of an experimental device for disposal into the ground at the Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires at Saclay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amavis, R.; Vaccarezza, J.

    1960-01-01

    This report presents the results of the 3 H and 90 Sr percolation tests carried out with Saclay soil, both in the laboratory in the ground itself. The extrapolation using the parameters introduced by Hiester and Vermeulen, as well as by W.J. Kaufman, appear satisfactory when the soil sample is homogeneous. (author) [fr

  8. Dynamical origin of nuclear multifragmentation; Origine dynamique de la multifragmentation nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tirel, O. [Caen Univ., 14 (France)

    1998-12-01

    The study of the peripheral and semi-peripheral collisions in the reaction Xe+Sn at 50 A.MeV has lead to the identification of the role of out-of-equilibrium aspects in the production of intermediate mass fragments (IMF). First, it is shown that the experimental observations are incompatible with a model in which a very hot layer of matter is primarily responsible for the production of IMF at intermediate velocity. Next, the same data are compared with a calculation using the quantum molecular dynamics approach (QMD). the quality of agreement with the predictions of this model allows to draw conclusions concerning the production mechanism of fragments. The IMF originate from region that is intermediate between the projectile and the target. It is furthermore shown that this region is not in thermal equilibrium, that the fragments are pre-formed and that their velocity and composition strongly depend on the initial conditions of the reaction. The quasi-projectile and the quasi-target, on the other hand, are only mildly influenced by the collision and their excitation energies are estimated to be below the limit at which multifragmentation will take place. In parallel, an analysis is carried out which correlates he multiplicity of the IMF with the violence of the collision. This shows that a proper analysis of a process as complex as nuclear multifragmentation must simultaneously involve kinetic variables (velocity, energy,...) as well as static ones (multiplicity. charge distribution,...). (author)

  9. Experimentation with PEC channel prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caponetti, R.; Iacovelli, M.

    1984-01-01

    Experimentation on prototypes of PEC components is presently being carried out at Casaccia CRE. This report shows the results of the first cycle of experimentation of the central channel, concerning the aspects of sodium removal after experimentation

  10. Neurochemical aspects of childhood autism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.B. Minderaa (Ruud)

    1985-01-01

    textabstractThe topic of this thesis is neurochemical aspects of infantile autism. The experimental work is centered around the most robust and consistant neurochemical finding in child psychiatry, namely that group mean whole blood serotonin (5-Hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) values are

  11. Cooperation in the Event of Nuclear Accidents; Cooperation en Matiere d'Accidents Nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bresson, G. [CEA, Centre d' etudes nucleaires, de Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)

    1969-10-15

    This paper is concerned only with the action to be taken in respect of an individual directly affected by an accident and not with the more general measures relating to the population as a whole. Keeping the same sequence of ideas, the paper deals with nuclear establishments and cites criteria for classifying them; hence only the relationship between the establishment and the hospital, and between the radiation protection experts and medical personnel, is discussed. The complex organization of emergency measures, reception of the victim of the accident, and the treatment possibly required should be based on standard practice and published material, both national and international, allowance being made for the characteristics of each sector. A ''flexible'' plan of co-ordination is given as an illustration. Action must be taken in such cases at the site of the accident, inside and outside the establishment, and above all at the hospital. All categories of persons are involved in the process, i.e. fellow-workers, management, specialized services, and medical personnel, each with their own part to play. The manpower and equipment brought into service therefore vary, and depend upon the internal and external relations maintained by the establishment. The measures envisaged should provide for the transport, reception and treatment of those involved in the accident. An existing organization of this kind is described as an illustration. Finally, no action can be of value without full knowledge of the facts and thorough training of the personnel. Some clearly defined ideas on the.subject are considered under this heading. (author) [French] Le memoire ne traite que de la conduite a tenir envers un accidente et non du probleme, plus general, des mesures relatives a une population. Dans le meme ordre d'idees, l'etude porte sur les etablissements nucleaires et leurs criteres de classement; il ne s'agit donc que des liaisons entre retablissement et l'hopital et entre les

  12. AspectKE*

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Fan; Masuhara, Hidehiko; Aotani, Tomoyuki

    2010-01-01

    Enforcing security policies to distributed systems is difficult, in particular, when a system contains untrusted components. We designed AspectKE*, a distributed AOP language based on a tuple space, to tackle this issue. In AspectKE*, aspects can enforce access control policies that depend......KE*, and demonstrate usefulness of AspectKE* through a security aspect for a distributed chat system....

  13. Nuclear developments at the international inter govern mental level (1961); Developpements nucleaires sur le plan international intergouvernemental (1961)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waynbaum, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    The United Nations organisation and nuclear energy rose simultaneously, in 1945, to occupy an important place in the public eye. The spiritual succession of the League of Nations which had foundered during the war was taken up by the new organisation which sought to implant its political ideal in a more tangible reality, so that it might thereby be inspired by concrete and substantial objectives. This is one of the reasons for the existence of the dozen specialized agencies created by the family of the United Nations and dealing with Health, Culture, Agriculture, Finance, etc. Nuclear energy is one of these techniques. Becoming suddenly an important power factor and exploiting for itself the prestige of Science, it became the favorite domain for the growth of this new spirit, as much in its universal form in 1945 as in its more regional form which it was later to adopt. The achievements are numerous and of varying importance; they deserve te be studied carefully. (author) [French] L'organisation des Nations Unies et le nucleaire ont ete places simultanement, en 1945, au premier plan de la scene mondiale. La Societe des Nations ayant sombre pendant la guerre, son heritage spirituel fut recueilli par la nouvelle organisation qui chercha a enraciner son ideal politique dans une realite plus materielle, de facon a y puiser une nourriture concrete et substantielle. C'est une des raisons d'existence de la douzaine d'institutions specialisees gravitant dans la famille des Nations Unies et s'occupant de Sante, de Culture, d'Agriculture, de Finances, etc. Le nucleaire est l'une de ces techniques. Devenu soudainement un facteur primordial de puissance, Cristallisant a son benefice le prestige de la Science, c'etait un terrain de predilection pour le developpement du nouvel esprit, aussi bien sous la forme universelle de 1945, que sous les formes regionales qui ont vu le jour ensuite. Les travaux realises que nombreux, d'importance tres inegale. Ils meritent qu'on les examine

  14. Nuclear developments at the international inter govern mental level (1961); Developpements nucleaires sur le plan international intergouvernemental (1961)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waynbaum, M. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    The United Nations organisation and nuclear energy rose simultaneously, in 1945, to occupy an important place in the public eye. The spiritual succession of the League of Nations which had foundered during the war was taken up by the new organisation which sought to implant its political ideal in a more tangible reality, so that it might thereby be inspired by concrete and substantial objectives. This is one of the reasons for the existence of the dozen specialized agencies created by the family of the United Nations and dealing with Health, Culture, Agriculture, Finance, etc. Nuclear energy is one of these techniques. Becoming suddenly an important power factor and exploiting for itself the prestige of Science, it became the favorite domain for the growth of this new spirit, as much in its universal form in 1945 as in its more regional form which it was later to adopt. The achievements are numerous and of varying importance; they deserve te be studied carefully. (author) [French] L'organisation des Nations Unies et le nucleaire ont ete places simultanement, en 1945, au premier plan de la scene mondiale. La Societe des Nations ayant sombre pendant la guerre, son heritage spirituel fut recueilli par la nouvelle organisation qui chercha a enraciner son ideal politique dans une realite plus materielle, de facon a y puiser une nourriture concrete et substantielle. C'est une des raisons d'existence de la douzaine d'institutions specialisees gravitant dans la famille des Nations Unies et s'occupant de Sante, de Culture, d'Agriculture, de Finances, etc. Le nucleaire est l'une de ces techniques. Devenu soudainement un facteur primordial de puissance, Cristallisant a son benefice le prestige de la Science, c'etait un terrain de predilection pour le developpement du nouvel esprit, aussi bien sous la forme universelle de 1945, que sous les formes regionales qui ont vu le jour ensuite. Les travaux realises que nombreux, d

  15. Aspects and Polymorphism in AspectJ

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenz, David Harel; Ernst, Erik

    2003-01-01

    There are two important points of view on inclusion or subtype polymorphism in object-oriented programs, namely polymorphic access and dynamic dispatch. These features are essential for object-oriented programming, and it is worthwhile to consider whether they are supported in aspect-oriented......J as the basis for the presentation. The results are not exclusive to AspectJ---aspectual polymorphism may make aspects in any comparable AOSD language more expressive and reusable across programs, while preserving safety....

  16. Terrorist threat, chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear medical approach; Menace terroriste, approche medicale nucleaire, radiologique, biologique, chimique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Revel, Th. de [Hopital d' Instruction des Armees Percy, 92 - Clamart (France); Gourmelon, P. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), 92 - Clamart (France); Vidal, D. [Centre de Recherche du Service de Sante des Armees, 38 - La Tronche (France); Renaudeau, C. [Ecole du Val de Grace, 92 - Clamart (France)

    2005-07-01

    The different aspects linked to the use of nuclear, radiological, biological and or chemical weapons are gathered in this work. They concern history, fundamental aspect, diagnosis, therapy and prevention. The part devoted to the nuclear aspect concern the accidents in relation with ionizing radiations, the radiation syndrome, the contribution and limits of dosimetry, the treatment of medullary aplasia, the evaluation and treatment of an internal contamination, new perspectives on the use of cytokine for the treatment of accidental irradiated persons, alternative to the blood transfusion. (N.C.)

  17. Toxicological aspects of fuel and exhaust gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avella, F.

    1993-01-01

    Some aspects concerning fuels (gasoline) and gas exhaust vehicle emissions toxicology are briefly examined in light of the results reported in recent literature on this argument. Many experimental studies carried out on animals and men turn out incomplete and do not allow thorough evaluations, for every aspect, of the risk to which men and the environment are subjected

  18. The atomic energy course of the 'Institut National des Sciences et Techniques nucleaires' at the centre d'Etudes Nucleaires at Saclay; L'enseignement de genie atomique de l'Institut national des Sciences et Techniques nucleaires au Centre d'Etudes nucleaires de Saclay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baissas, H [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    foreign students. 8- Annexe: list of courses, practical work, pile projects drawn up by the 1957 students. (author)Fren. [French] 1- Les raisons de sa creation. L'electricite de France et l'industrie interessee par le developpement de l'Energie atomique ont demande au Commissariat a l'Energie atomique de former des ingenieurs capables d'etudier des projets de piles et de diriger leur construction. 2- Recrutement et Droits d'inscription. Les demandes d'inscription ont toujours depasse les possibilites. Cette annee, les cours sont suivis par 74 eleves permanents, dont 20 etrangers, et une centaine d'auditeurs libres. Tous les elevont deja ingenieurs ou nantis de grades universitaires eleves. Droit d'inscription: 250 000 F pour les eleves, 125 000 F pour les auditeurs. 3- Organisation de l'Enseignement. II comprend deux options: physique et chimie et dans chaque option: une centaine de conferences, une trentaine de travaux pratiques, des stages dans les services, l'etude d'un projet de reacteur par un groupe de 4 ou 5 eleves. L'ensemble occupe l'annee universitaire du 1 novembre au 14 juillet. 4- Sanction. Un examen final combinant les notes de deux epreuves theoriques, des travaux pratiques, du stage, et du projet conduit a un diplome d'ingenieur en genie atomique. Il n'est pas cree en realite de nouveaux ingenieurs; une mention nouvelle est seulement ajoutee a un diplome deja acquis. Les resultats ont toujours ete excellents. Le pourcentage des echecs est tres faible. 5- Placement des Diplomes. Ils reviennent tous dans leurs industries d'origine qui ont paye leurs salaires et les droits d'inscription en se privant de leurs services pendant les neuf mois de duree des cours. 6- Creations analogues. Un cours analogue a ete cree au Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Grenoble. Tandis que celui de SACLAY s'adresse plus specialement aux ingenieurs deja en fonctions, celui de Grenoble est, en principe, destine aux jeunes ingenieurs sortant des ecoles. 7- Conclusion. L

  19. Public debate about the EPR nuclear power plant at Flamanville; Debat public sur la centrale nucleaire EPR a Flamanville

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The project of building of he EPR reactor at Flamanville (Manche, France) has been submitted to the public debate. This document includes a presentation of the project and of the rules of the public debate, a synthesis of the file made by the prime contractor (EDF), a synthesis of the collective book of national actors concerned by the project (a group of associations for environment protection, Areva company, the ministries of economy and ecology, Global Chance, association of pro-nuclear ecologists (AEPN), 'Sortir du Nucleaire' (out-of nuclear) network, group of scientists for the information about nuclear (GSIEN), association for the promotion of the Flamanville site (Proflam), French nuclear energy society (SFEN) in association with 'Sauvons le Climat' (let's save climate), regional collective association 'EPR non merci, ni ailleurs, ni ici' (EPR, no thanks, neither elsewhere, nor here), NegaWatt), and 5 detailed books of actors: ACRO (association for the control of radioactivity in Western France), CFDT and CGT syndicates, the economic and social council of Basse Normandie region, and Proflam. (J.S.)

  20. French achievements in the field of nuclear electronics; Realisations francaises dans le domaine de l'electronique nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doireau, M; Fabre, R; Guillon, H; Guyot, C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    Nuclear electronic equipment used by the french Atomic Energy Commission has been developed, with an increasing participation of the radioelectric industry (manufacture under AEC license, contracts for prototypes). The equipment for general use has been standardized and satis the technical specification sheets in which are specified more particularly, the conditions for construction, the choice of the spare parts and the conditions for acceptance by the french AEC at factory. The electronic equipment is classified in nine classes, and a brief description of the principal instruments is given in each class. The reliability of the equipment in use is satisfactory, as it is shown by the mean frequency of faults per 1000 hours operation. (author)Fren. [French] L'appareillage d'electronique nucleaire utilise au Commissariat a l'Energie atomique fran is a ete developpe en demandant un concours de plus en plus important a l'industrie radioelectrique (fabrications sous licence CEA, marches de prototypes, etc...). Le materiel d'emploi courant a ete standardise et repond aux specifications de cahiers des charges ou sont precises en particulier les conditions de realisation du materiel, le choix des pieces detachees et les conditions de recette en usine. L'appareillage electronique est classe en neuf rubriques et une description sommaire des principaux appareils est donnee dans chacune des rubriques. La tenue en service du materiel est satisfaisante, ainsi que le montre la frequence moyenne des pannes observees par 1000 heures de fonctionnement. (auteur)

  1. The dangers of irradiate uranium in nuclear reactors; Les dangers de l'uranium irradie dans les reacteurs nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jammet, H; Joffre, H [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1955-07-01

    The danger of the uranium cans sur-activated by the use in the nuclear reactors is triple: - Irradiation from afar, during manipulations of the cans. - Contamination of air when decladding. - Contamination of air by fire of uranium in a reactor in function The first two dangers are usual and can be treated thanks to the rules of security in use in the atomic industry. The third has an accidental character and claimed for the use of special and exceptional rules, overflowing the industrial setting, to reach the surrounding populations. (authors) [French] Le danger des cartouches d'uranium suractive par utilisation dans les reacteurs nucleaires est triple: - Irradiation a distance, lors des manipulations des cartouches. - Contamination de l'air au moment de leur degainage. - Contamination de l'air par incendie d'uranium dans un reacteur en fonctionnement. Les deux premiers dangers sont habituels et peuvent etre traites grace aux regles de securite en usage dans l'industrie atomique. Le troisieme revet un caractere accidentel et reclame l'emploi de regles speciales et exceptionnelles, debordant le cadre industriel, pour atteindre celui des populations environnantes. (auteurs)

  2. Public debate about the EPR nuclear power plant at Flamanville; Debat public sur la centrale nucleaire EPR a Flamanville

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The project of building of he EPR reactor at Flamanville (Manche, France) has been submitted to the public debate. This document includes a presentation of the project and of the rules of the public debate, a synthesis of the file made by the prime contractor (EDF), a synthesis of the collective book of national actors concerned by the project (a group of associations for environment protection, Areva company, the ministries of economy and ecology, Global Chance, association of pro-nuclear ecologists (AEPN), 'Sortir du Nucleaire' (out-of nuclear) network, group of scientists for the information about nuclear (GSIEN), association for the promotion of the Flamanville site (Proflam), French nuclear energy society (SFEN) in association with 'Sauvons le Climat' (let's save climate), regional collective association 'EPR non merci, ni ailleurs, ni ici' (EPR, no thanks, neither elsewhere, nor here), NegaWatt), and 5 detailed books of actors: ACRO (association for the control of radioactivity in Western France), CFDT and CGT syndicates, the economic and social council of Basse Normandie region, and Proflam. (J.S.)

  3. Excitations in superfluid systems: contributions of the nuclear structure; Excitations dans les systemes superfluides: contributions de la structure nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, E

    2005-12-15

    The author presents successively the theoretical aspect, the experimental aspect and the applied aspect of excitations in nuclear structures. The quasi-particle random phase approximation (QRPA) tool is first described. Recent approaches on QRPA are based on the theory of the density function where the ground state and excited states are described from the same nucleon-nucleon interaction. 2 methods for measuring the collective excitations are then presented: the proton scattering that has the potentiality to investigate the evolution of magicity, the second method is in fact a new method for measuring the giant mono-polar resonance (GMP) in exotic nuclei. Nuclear reactions are considered as a compulsory step on the way from observables like cross-sections to nuclear structure. The author highlights the assets of the convolution model that can generate the optical potential from the effective nucleon-nucleon interaction and from proton and neutron densities of the nuclei involved. R-processes in nucleosynthesis and neutron stars are reviewed as applications of collective excitations in the field of nuclear astrophysics. (A.C.)

  4. Estudo do comportamento de RSU em uma célula experimental e suas correlações com aspectos microbiológicos, físicos e químicos Behavior study of MSW in an experimental cell and its correlations with microbiological, physical and chemical aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veruschka Escarião Dessoles Monteiro

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Células experimentais (lisímetros possibilitam entender o comportamento de aterros de RSU e representam uma técnica bastante interessante para obter parâmetros de projetos, dimensionamento e construção de aterros, além do mais pode fornecer contribuições na área de saneamento através de monitoramento de processos. O objetivo deste trabalho é avaliar o processo biodegradativo dos resíduos depositados em uma célula experimental correlacionando parâmetros como recalque, temperatura e contagem de microrganismos. O monitoramento mostrou que há uma relação entre estes parâmetros. Verificou-se que a temperatura no lisímetro variou no decorrer do processo possivelmente devido às mudanças de fases de decomposição dos resíduos. Os estudos vislumbram uma nova abordagem para recalques em RSU mostrando a ocorrência de três fazes distintas de deformações verticais e a íntima ligação de processos biodegradativos e aspectos mecânicos.Experimental cells (lysimeters make possible to understand the landfill behavior of MSW and represent a very interesting technique for the obtainment of projects parameters, design and constructions of landfills. Besides that, they provide contributions to the sanitation area through processes monitoring. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the solid waste biodegradation process deposited in an experimental cell correlating parameters like settlement, temperature and microorganisms counting. The monitoring showed that there is a relation between these parameters. It was observed that the temperature in the lysimeter varied in the course of the process, possibly because of the changes in the stages of the solid waste decomposition. The studies descry a new approach to settlements in MSW showing that there are three different stages of vertical deformations and the close connection of biodegradation processes and mechanical aspects.

  5. Ethics in Animal Experimentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Ergun

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Experimental animals are frequently used to obtain information for primarily scientific reasons. In the present review, ethics in animal experimentation is examined. At first, the history of animal experimentation and animal rights is outlined. Thereafter, the terms in relation with the topic are defined. Finally, prominent aspects of 3Rs constituting scientific and ethical basis in animal experimentation are underlined. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2010; 19(4.000: 220-235

  6. HTC Experimental Program: Validation and Calculational Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernex, F.; Ivanova, T.; Bernard, F.; Letang, E. [Inst Radioprotect and Surete Nucl, F-92262 Fontenay Aux Roses (France); Fouillaud, P. [CEA Valduc, Serv Rech Neutron and Critcite, 21 - Is-sur-Tille (France); Thro, J. F. [AREVA NC, F-78000 Versailles (France)

    2009-05-15

    In the 1980's a series of the Haut Taux de Combustion (HTC) critical experiments with fuel pins in a water-moderated lattice was conducted at the Apparatus B experimental facility in Valduc (Commissariat a I'Energie Atomique, France) with the support of the Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire and AREVA NC. Four series of experiments were designed to assess profit associated with actinide-only burnup credit in the criticality safety evaluation for fuel handling, pool storage, and spent-fuel cask conditions. The HTC rods, specifically fabricated for the experiments, simulated typical pressurized water reactor uranium oxide spent fuel that had an initial enrichment of 4. 5 wt% {sup 235}U and was burned to 37.5 GWd/tonne U. The configurations have been modeled with the CRISTAL criticality package and SCALE 5.1 code system. Sensitivity/uncertainty analysis has been employed to evaluate the HTC experiments and to study their applicability for validation of burnup credit calculations. This paper presents the experimental program, the principal results of the experiment evaluation, and modeling. The HTC data applicability to burnup credit validation is demonstrated with an example of spent-fuel storage models. (authors)

  7. Study of some continuous spectra produced by nuclear reactions with light nuclei; Etude de quelques spectres continus produits par reactions nucleaires avec des noyaux legers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marquez, L

    1966-07-01

    The continuous spectra coming from several nuclear reactions with light nuclei were measured. The spectra can be explained by a two-step reaction mechanism; however, the reactions produced by {sup 6}Li are different. A mechanism was proposed to explain their spectra based on the following assumptions: {sup 6}Li makes a nuclear molecule with the target which subsequently breaks up in such a way that an {alpha} particle comes out with the kinetic energy that it has in the molecule. The calculated spectra and those measured are in good agreement. (author) [French] Nous avons mesure les spectres continus produits dans plusieurs reactions nucleaires avec des noyaux legers. A l'exception des spectres produits par {sup 6}Li, on a trouve qu'on pouvait expliquer ces spectres par le mecanisme des reactions en deux etapes. Nous avons propose un mecanisme pour expliquer les spectres produits par {sup 6}Li. On suppose que {sup 6}Li forme une molecule nucleaire avec la cible qui eclate ensuite de facon telle qu'une particule alpha de la molecule sort avec l'energie cinetique de son mouvement propre dans la molecule. Les spectres calcules avec ces hypotheses et les spectres mesures sont en bon accord. (auteur)

  8. Radioactive wastes: a world problem. Les dechets nucleaires: un probleme mondial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schapira, J P [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 75 - Paris (FR)

    1991-02-01

    In all countries endowed with nuclear program, radioactive wastes disposal asks scientific and public acceptance problems. This paper describes several aspects: technical problem; ethic problem and responsibility towards future generations at very long-term; political problem. Different politics followed by concerned countries and recent controversy in France is also entered upon radioactive wastes underground site selection, in deep geological formations.

  9. Declassification and restoration of nuclear sites; Declassement et restauration des sites nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noynaert, L; Rahier, A; Deboodt, P; Massaut, V

    1998-09-01

    The report describes the legal and technical aspects of the declassification and restoration of nuclear sites. This involves a number of technical and administrative operations. Different declassification strategies are discussed. The evaluation of the risks and impact on the environment are discussed as well as research and development needs, costs and possible sources for funding.

  10. The nuclear power stations of the French atomic energy programme (1960); Les centrales nucleaires de puissance du programme francais (1960)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leduc, C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Roux, J P [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France)

    1960-07-01

    After recalling the entry of nuclear energy into energy production in France, the paper emphasizes the evolution of techniques applied in the designing of French nuclear power plants and describes the means employed for reducing costs per kWh of EDF2 and EDF3 compared with EDF1: the electric power per ton of uranium varies from 493 kW/t for EDF1 to 970 kW/t for EDF3. For this purpose the thermal power and electric power of units are changed respectively from 290 MWt for EDF1 to 1200 or 1600 MWt for EDF3 and from 28 to 250 MW. The results are obtained by an improvement in neutronic characteristics, developments in nuclear fuel technology, and simplification of the system of charging the reactor, whose means of maintenance are increased; the EDF2 heat-exchangers have been so designed as to increase the unit power of the elements, which will attain 9 MWt, as against 3 for EDF1. For EDF3 an advance project forecasts a thermodynamic layout with only one pressure stage. The paper ends with a description of the burst-slug detection systems, and an appendix gives a detailed comparative table of EDF1, EDF2 and EDF3 plant characteristics. (author) [French] Apres avoir rappele l'integration de l'energie nucleaire parmi les moyens de production de l'energie en France, les auteurs se penchent surtout sur l'evolution des techniques appliquees dans l'equipement des centrales nucleaires francaises et decrivent les moyens mis en oeuvre pour reduire les prix de revient du kWh d'EDF2 et d'EDF3 par rapport a EDF1: la puissance electrique par tonne d'uranium varie de 493 kW/t pour EDF1 a 970 kW/t pour EDF3. C'est dans ce but que les puissances thermiques et la puissance unitaire des groupes turbo-alternateurs passent respectivement de 290 MWt pour EDF1 a 1200 ou 1600 MWt pour EDF3 et de 82 a 250 MW. Les resultats sont obtenus par une amelioration des caracteristiques neutroniques, des progres realises sur la technologie des elements combustibles, une simplification du systeme de

  11. Optimal sizes and siting of nuclear fuel reprocessing plants; Tailles et localisations optimales des usines de retraitement des combustibles nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiriet, L; Deledicq, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Siege (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-07-01

    The expansion of a nuclear economy entails the development of fuel process and reprocessing plant programmes. The model proposed makes it possible to select the size, the site and the start-up schedule of the plants in such a way as to minimize the total freight and reprocessing costs. As an illustration, we have approached the problem of burnt natural uranium processing plants related to natural uranium-graphite as nuclear power stations. The sites and annual output of the reactors, the possible plant sites and cost functions (freight and reprocessing) are supposed to be known. The method consists in first approaching the process plant problem as a Dynamic Programming problem, increasing programme slices (total reactor output) being explored sequentially. When the quantities of burnt natural uranium to be reprocessed are fixed, the minimization of the transport cost is then also carried out as a dynamic programming problem. The neighbourhood of the optimum process cost is explored in order to find the minimum summation of a suboptimal processing cost and corresponding optimal transport cost. As the reprocessing problem can be represented on a sequential graph, in order to compute the sub-optima, we developed and used a 'reflexion algorithm'. The method can be interpreted as a general mechanism for determining the optimum when to a sequential dynamic problem (for example an equipment programme) is added a complementary problem (transport, for instance). It also makes it possible to estimate the economic losses which result from the choice of a non optimal policy for other than economic reasons. (author) [French] L'expansion de l'economie nucleaire se traduit par un developpement des programmes d'usines d'elaboration et de retraitement des combustibles. Le modele propose permet de choisir la taille, la localisation et la cadence de mise en service des usines de maniere a minimiser le total des frais de transport et de retraitement. A titre d'exemple nous avons

  12. The nuclear energy in the United Kingdom; L'energie nucleaire au Royaume-Uni

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-02-15

    With challenges like the climatic change, the hydrocarbons prices increase and the energy supply security, the nuclear park is becoming a decisive and an urgent question in the United Kingdom. The author proposes an historical aspect of the nuclear energy in UK, the actors of the today nuclear industry and the technologies used in 2006, the radioactive wastes management, the programs of the future and the british opinion on the nuclear. (A.L.B.)

  13. abc: The AspectBench Compiler for AspectJ

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allan, Chris; Avgustinov, Pavel; Christensen, Aske Simon

    2005-01-01

    abc is an extensible, optimising compiler for AspectJ. It has been designed as a workbench for experimental research in aspect-oriented programming languages and compilers. We outline a programme of research in these areas, and we review how abc can help in achieving those research goals...

  14. Animal experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolar, Roman

    2006-01-01

    Millions of animals are used every year in often times extremely painful and distressing scientific procedures. Legislation of animal experimentation in modern societies is based on the supposition that this is ethically acceptable when certain more or less defined formal (e.g. logistical, technical) demands and ethical principles are met. The main parameters in this context correspond to the "3Rs" concept as defined by Russel and Burch in 1959, i.e. that all efforts to replace, reduce and refine experiments must be undertaken. The licensing of animal experiments normally requires an ethical evaluation process, often times undertaken by ethics committees. The serious problems in putting this idea into practice include inter alia unclear conditions and standards for ethical decisions, insufficient management of experiments undertaken for specific (e.g. regulatory) purposes, and conflicts of interest of ethics committees' members. There is an ongoing societal debate about ethical issues of animal use in science. Existing EU legislation on animal experimentation for cosmetics testing is an example of both the public will for setting clear limits to animal experiments and the need to further critically examine other fields and aspects of animal experimentation.

  15. The nuclear in Italy - state of the art; Le nucleaire en Italie - etat des lieux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schifano, F.; Ziller, T

    2007-02-15

    This report aims to evaluate the italian situation in matter of the nuclear, following the referendum of 1987 which decided to stop the nuclear power plants in the country. The first part is devoted to the historical aspects of the nuclear sector in Italy. The second chapter presents the institutional and legislative framework. The third chapter discusses the today situation and the italian actors of the nuclear, from the radioactive wastes management and the dismantling of nuclear installations to the engineering service realized in other countries. It discusses also the research and development programs. The last chapter proposes perspectives of the debate around a possible restart of the nuclear activity in Italy.

  16. Aspect-Oriented Programming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergmans, Lodewijk; Videira Lopes, Cristina; Moreira, Ana; Demeyer, Serge

    1999-01-01

    Aspect-oriented programming is a promising idea that can improve the quality of software by reduce the problem of code tangling and improving the separation of concerns. At ECOOP'97, the first AOP workshop brought together a number of researchers interested in aspect-orientation. At ECOOP'98, during

  17. Back end of the nuclear fuel cycle; Aval du cycle du combustible nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dognon, J.P.; Rabbe, C.; Beudaert, Ph.; Lamare, V.; Wipff, G.; Moisy, Ph.; Charrin, N.; Blanc, P.; Den Auwer, Ch.; Revel, R.; Charbonnel, M.C.; Presson, M.T.; Cau Dit Coumes, C.; Chopin-Dumas, J.; Devisme, F.; Rat, B.; Hill, C.; Guillaneux, D.; Madic, C.; Carrera, A.; Dozol, J.F.; Rouquette, H.; Allain, F.; Virelizier, H.; Moulin, Ch.; Lemort, F.; Orlhac, X.; Fillet, C.; Carpena, J.; Advocat, T.; Leturcq, G.; Lacombe, J.; Bonnetier, A.; Ribet, I.; Poitou, S.; Richaud, D.; Fiquet, O.; Gramondi, P.; Massit, H.; Meyer, D.; Conocar, O.; Pettier, J.L.; Raphael, T.; Bouniol, P.; Sercombe, J.; Badouix, P.; Adenot, F.; Le Bescop, P.; Mazoin, C.; Motellier, S.; Charles, Y.; Richet, C.; Ayache, R.; Pitsch, H.; Ly, J.; Beaucaire, C.; Devol-Brown, I.; Libert, M.F.; Besnainou, B

    1999-07-01

    In this chapter of the DCC 1999 scientific report, the following theoretical studies are detailed: electronic structure of lanthanides or actinides complexes, forecasting of the stoichiometry of europium nitrate complexes, actinides aqueous solutions analytical and thermodynamical chemistry, actinides complexes structural determination. It also provides experimental studies: actinides and lanthanides separation, radioactive wastes processing and conditioning, plasma torch vitrification process, simulation of the wastes packages characterization, wastes storage with concrete behaviour and biodegradation. (A.L.B.)

  18. Nuclear energy: what scenarios for the future?; Nucleaire: quels scenarios pour le futur?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatelier, Michel; Criqui, Patrick; Heuer, Daniel; Huet, Sylvestre

    2012-01-20

    Because of its energetic, environmental, economical, social, safety, political, and even ideological aspects, the nuclear energy is a major society stake. It is a technical and complex topic as well which merits a democratic, well argued and transparent debate. This book supplies to the reader all the necessary information for a thorough analysis of this much disputed energy source without any bias: why France is one of the most nuclearized country in the world? Can we get out of nuclear energy? How and at what price? Wastes and safety: what can we expect (or not) from the next generations of reactors? Should we have a referendum? In this book, two researchers of the nuclear domain, an economist and a journalist invite us to consider the problem from all angles. (J.S.)

  19. Information report nuclear energy in Europe; Rapport d'information energie nucleaire en Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montesquiou, A de

    2002-07-01

    This report takes stock on the nuclear energy situation in Europe. The European Union with more than 40% of the nuclear power capacity in the world, is already confronted with the nuclear energy place and stakes in the future energy policy. The report si presented in two main parts. The first part, ''the assets and the weaknesses of the nuclear energy'', deals with the economical aspects which historically based the choice of the nuclear energy and the induced impacts on the environment. The competitiveness of the nuclear energy but also the wastes management problem are discussed. The second part, ''the diplomatic and juridical framework of the nuclear energy development'', details and presents the limits of the EURATOM treaty. (A.L.B.)

  20. Dictionary of nuclear sciences and techniques; Dictionnaire des sciences et techniques nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bigot, B.; Santarini, G. [CEA Saclay (HC), 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2008-07-01

    This reference book has been totally reworked in its fourth edition, in order to answer the needs of the numerous sectors of activity concerned by nuclear sciences and technologies: radiation protection, cancerology, neurology and pharmacology in the medical sector, power generation and more generally energy production, micro-electronics, quality control and on-line analysis in many industrial sectors, patrimony preservation, food safety, environmental and paleo-climate studies in relation with climate prospective, etc. This complete overview of the nuclear world integrates the regulatory aspects, necessary to shade light on it, and many other technological innovations. Elaborated with harmonization, clarification and exhaustiveness concerns, this dictionary is the result of a large consensus among the French-speaking nuclear community. It includes some 4800 entries with more than 250 color illustrations and an English-French glossary. Its aim is to offer to everyone a precise vocabulary, fully shared by everybody and necessary for exchanges and debates clarity. (J.S.)

  1. Information report nuclear energy in Europe; Rapport d'information energie nucleaire en Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montesquiou, A. de

    2002-07-01

    This report takes stock on the nuclear energy situation in Europe. The European Union with more than 40% of the nuclear power capacity in the world, is already confronted with the nuclear energy place and stakes in the future energy policy. The report si presented in two main parts. The first part, ''the assets and the weaknesses of the nuclear energy'', deals with the economical aspects which historically based the choice of the nuclear energy and the induced impacts on the environment. The competitiveness of the nuclear energy but also the wastes management problem are discussed. The second part, ''the diplomatic and juridical framework of the nuclear energy development'', details and presents the limits of the EURATOM treaty. (A.L.B.)

  2. The world nuclear market and its prospects; Le marche mondial du nucleaire et ses perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2010-07-15

    This market study of the nuclear industry presents: 1 - the dynamics of nuclear markets: organisation of the nuclear industry (fuel cycle, reactors), market analysis and key figures (uranium production, conversion and enrichment, fuel fabrication, reactor manufacturing, spent fuel reprocessing), strengths in presence and competition structure (companies ranking, market shares, positioning); 2 - nuclear renaissance and its basis: a suitable answer to the present day energy and environmental challenges (carbon-free energy and low volatility of fuel price), conjunction of favourable conditions (security of fuel supplies, political support, necessity of plants renewal), three main uncertainties (waste management, safety aspect, public opinion weight); 3 - perspectives of development at the 2030 prospects: data (scope of renaissance, market size), sector reconfiguration scenarios (evolution of competition, reconfiguration paths, concentration trend); 4 - analysis of the strategy of 13 companies, suppliers of the nuclear industry, with their key figures, positioning and strategy (production capacity, partnerships, external growth investments, new technical developments etc.). (J.S.)

  3. Corrosion by cooling gases in nuclear reactors; la corrosion par les gaz caloporteurs dans les reacteurs nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darras, R. [Commissariat a l' energie atomique et aux energies alternatives - CEA, Centre de Saclay, Section d' etude de la corrosion par gaz et metaux liquides (France)

    1960-07-01

    This article begins with a review of the various materials which can be used and the cooling gases in which they may be heated, emphasis being placed on the importance of reaching temperatures as high as possible. This is followed by a few general remarks on the dry oxidation of metals and alloys, particularly with regard to diffusion phenomena and their various possible mechanisms, and also the methods of investigation employed. Finally, the behaviour of the chief nuclear materials heated in the various gases is studied successively. Materials used for fuel (metallic uranium, uranium oxide, carbides and silicides), canning materials (magnesium, aluminium, zirconium, beryllium, stainless and refractory steels), structural materials (ordinary or slightly alloyed steels), and finally moderators (graphite, beryllium oxide) are deal with in this way. This account is backed up both by the results obtained at the CEA and by work published outside or abroad up to the present day. In conclusion, every effort has been made to direct future research on the basis of the foregoing. Reprint of a paper published in Industries Atomiques - no. 9/10, 1959, p. 3-23 [French] Dans cet article, on passe tout d'abord en revue les divers materiaux utilisables et les gaz de refroidissement dans lesquels ils peuvent etre chauffes, en insistant sur l'interet d'atteindre des temperatures aussi elevees que possible. On rappelle ensuite quelques generalites sur l'oxydation seche des metaux et alliages, notamment en ce qui concerne les phenomenes de diffusion et leurs divers mecanismes possibles ainsi que les methodes d'etude. Enfin, le comportement des principaux materiaux nucleaires chauffes dans les divers gaz est etudie successivement. On traita ainsi des materiaux combustibles (uranium metallique, oxyde, carbures et siliciures d'uranium), des materiaux de gainage (magnesium, aluminium, zirconium, beryllium, aciers inoxydables et refractaires), des materiaux de structure (aciers ordinaires

  4. A study of switch circuits for use as safety devices in nuclear reactors; Etude de circuits de commutation destines a la securite des reacteurs nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hantcherian, V [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-12-15

    The author reviews briefly a few basic assemblies using electromagnetic relays for safety circuits in nuclear reactors; he then studies the use of static relays with a shorter time of response, based on impedance changes in a self-inductance consisting of a coil with a magnetic core having a rectangular hysteresis cycle. The author examines in particular the way in which it functions and the method of determining the parameters. (author) [French] L'auteur apres avoir examine sommairement en revue quelques montages de base des circuits de securite des reacteurs nucleaires utilisant des relais electromecaniques, etudie l'emploi des relais statiques a plus grande vitesse de reponse bases sur la variation d'impedance que presente une self-inductance realisee a l'aide d'une bobine enroulee autour d'un noyau magnetique a cycle d'hysteresis rectangulaire. En particulier, il en examine le mode de fonctionnement et la determination des parametres. (auteur)

  5. Description of methods for making activation detectors for use in nuclear reactors; Description des procedes de fabrication des detecteurs d'activation utilises dans les reacteurs nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbalat, R; Le Coguie, R; Leger, P; Salon, L; Thierry, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-07-01

    A brief description of methods currently used for making activation detectors, thin films and various deposits used in nuclear reactors. The thicknesses required vary from about a few tenths of a micron to a few tenths of a millimeter. Different techniques are used for fixing the large variety of elements: rolling, moulding, painting, electrolysis, vacuum deposition, thin films, wires, enamels, protective linings, etc. (authors) [French] Expose succinct des procedes actuellement mis en oeuvre pour la realisation des detecteurs d'activation, feuilles minces et depots divers utilises dans les reacteurs nucleaires. La gamme des epaisseurs necessaires s'etendant approximativement des dixiemes de micrometre aux dixiemes de millimetre. La diversite des elements a fixer justifiant les techniques differentes selon les cas: laminage, moulage, peinture, electrolyse, depot sous vide, couches minces, fils, emaux, revetements protecteurs, etc. (auteurs)

  6. Installation and testing of the 150keV high current pulsed accelerator installed at the Service de Physique Nucleaire in Bruyeres-le-Chatel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dandine, Andre; Sinopoli, Louis.

    1976-01-01

    A 150keV accelerator installed at the Service de Physique Nucleaires in Bruyeres-le-Chatel is described which has been equipped especially for the preparation of the nuclear experiments carried out with the EN 7MV tandem Van de Graaff, and for the completion of totally independent experiments. Details of the ion optical arrangement and the pulsing system are presented; unanalysed beams of intensity 1 to 2mA are obtained accelerating either protons or deuterons. In the pulsed mode, at 1.25 MHz or 2.5MHz, the average intensity of the analysed beam is 8 to 10μA and the pulse length is 2ns [fr

  7. Organisational aspects, research required, educational aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rueterjans, H.

    1987-01-01

    In addition to the clinical testing of NMR imaging, there were activities for studying the basic principles of NMR spectroscopy, also for routine applications in university clinics and larger hospitals. Equipment is available now at different places; research projects should be coordinated in order to ensure direct access to the equipment for a sufficient, task-specific period of time. There is demand for research in this field in the Federal Republic of Germany. Education and further training should be organised taking into account physical and medical aspects. (TRV) [de

  8. Seismic behavior of reinforced concrete structures: non linear calculation and experimental verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauvain, J.; Hoffmann, A.; Jeandidier, C.; Livolant, M.

    1978-01-01

    This study presents the tests of a reinforced concrete beam conducted by the Department of Mechanical and Thermal Studies at the Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, France. The actual behavior of nuclear power plant buildings submitted to seismic loads is generally non linear even for moderate seismic levels. The non-linearity is specially important for reinforced concrete type buildings. To estimate the safety factors when the building is designed by standard methods, accurate non linear calculations are necessary. For such calculations one of the most difficult point is to define a correct model for the behavior of a reinforced concrete beam subject to reversed loads. For that purpose, static and dynamic experimental tests on a shaking table have been carried out and a model reasonably accurate has been established and checked on the test results [fr

  9. AGOR: A superconducting cyclotron for light and heavy ions plans for experimental facilities and physics program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gales, S.

    1991-01-01

    The construction of the K600 superconducting cyclotron AGOR, a joint undertaking of the KVI Groningen and the Institut de Physique Nucleaire at Orsay, has reached the stage where the assembly of major subsystems is underway. Field measurements are scheduled to start in the fall of this year, beam tests should start at Orsay by the end of 1992 before AGOR final installation at Groningen. The beam guiding system, the location and equipments of the main experimental areas are currently being designed. Taking advantage of the broad range of ions and energies that AGOR will made available (from 200 MeV protons to 100 MeV/A α down to 6 MeV/A Pb ions), the first ideas about the physics research to be done will be presented. (author) 28 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs

  10. Transparency associated with the nuclear fuel cycle; Transparence associee au cycle du combustible nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    This document presents the different fuel cycle stages with which the CEA is associated, the annual flow of materials and wastes produced at these different stages, and the destiny of these produced materials and wastes. These information are given for the different CEA R and D activities: experimentation hot laboratories (activities, fuel cycle stages, list of laboratories, tables giving annual flows for each of them), research reactors (types of reactors, fuel usage modes, annual flows of nuclear materials for each reactor), spent fuel management (different types of used materials), spent fuels and radioactive wastes with a foreign origin (quantities, processes)

  11. Summary on Theoretical Aspects

    CERN Document Server

    Soffer, Jacques

    2010-01-01

    During the five days of this conference a very dense scientific program has enlighted our research fields, with the presentation of large number of interesting lectures. I will try to summarize the theoretical aspects of some of these new results.

  12. General safety aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    In this part next aspects are described: (1) Priority to safety; (2) Financial and human resources;; (3) Human factor; (4) Operator's quality assurance system; (5) Safety assessment and Verification; (6) Radiation protection and (7) Emergency preparedness

  13. Fission Product Experimental Program: Validation and Computational Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leclaire, N.; Ivanova, T.; Letang, E. [Inst Radioprotect and Surete Nucl, F-92262 Fontenay Aux Roses (France); Girault, E. [CEA Valduc, Serv Rech Neutron and Critcite, 21 - Is-sur-Tille (France); Thro, J. F. [AREVA NC, F-78000 Versailles (France)

    2009-02-15

    From 1998 to 2004, a series of critical experiments referred to as the fission product (FP) experimental program was performed at the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique Valduc research facility. The experiments were designed by Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN) and funded by AREVA NC and IRSN within the French program supporting development of a technical basis for burnup credit validation. The experiments were performed with the following six key fission products encountered in solution either individually or as mixtures: {sup 103}Rh, {sup 133}Cs, {sup nat}Nd, {sup 149}Sm, {sup 152}Sm, and {sup 155}Gd. The program aimed at compensating for the lack of information on critical experiments involving FPs and at establishing a basis for FPs credit validation. One hundred forty-five critical experiments were performed, evaluated, and analyzed with the French CRISTAL criticality safety package and the American SCALE5. 1 code system employing different cross-section libraries. The aim of the paper is to show the experimental data potential to improve the ability to perform validation of full burnup credit calculation. The paper describes three Phases of the experimental program; the results of preliminary evaluation, the calculation, and the sensitivity/uncertainty study of the FP experiments used to validate the APOLLO2-MORET 4 route in the CRISTAL criticality package for burnup credit applications. (authors)

  14. Criminal aspects domestic violence

    OpenAIRE

    Smetanová, Kristina

    2013-01-01

    Smetanová, Kristina. Criminal aspects of domestic violence The topic of this thesis is the criminal aspects of domestic violence. The aim of the thesis is to describe this dangerous and complicated social problem and focus on outlining the possibilities of protection under Czech criminal law. The thesis consists of eight chapters. The first chapter explains what the domestic violence is and which sources, types and characters does it have.The second chapter shows who can be the violent person...

  15. Foundational aspects of security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chatzikokolakis, Konstantinos; Mödersheim, Sebastian Alexander; Palamidessi, Catuscia

    2014-01-01

    This Special Issue of the Journal of Computer Security focuses on foundational aspects of security, which in recent years have helped change much of the way we think about and approach system security.......This Special Issue of the Journal of Computer Security focuses on foundational aspects of security, which in recent years have helped change much of the way we think about and approach system security....

  16. Elecnuc. Nuclear power plants in the world; Elecnuc. Les centrales nucleaires dans le monde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    This small booklet summarizes in tables all the numerical data relative to the nuclear power plants worldwide. These data come from the French CEA/DSE/SEE Elecnuc database. The following aspects are reviewed: 1999 highlights; main characteristics of the reactor types in operation, under construction or on order; map of the French nuclear power plants; worldwide status of nuclear power plants at the end of 1999; nuclear power plants in operation, under construction and on order; capacity of nuclear power plants in operation; net and gross capacity of nuclear power plants on the grid and in commercial operation; grid connection forecasts; world electric power market; electronuclear owners and share holders in EU, capacity and load factor; first power generation of nuclear origin per country, achieved or expected; performance indicator of PWR units in France; worldwide trend of the power generation indicator; 1999 gross load factor by operator; nuclear power plants in operation, under construction, on order, planned, cancelled, shutdown, and exported; planning of steam generators replacement; MOX fuel program for plutonium recycling. (J.S.)

  17. Elecnuc. Nuclear power plants in the world; Elecnuc. Les centrales nucleaires dans le monde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This small booklet summarizes in tables all data relative to the nuclear power plants worldwide. These data come from the IAEA's PRIS and AREVA-CEA's GAIA databases. The following aspects are reviewed: 2007 highlights; Main characteristics of reactor types; Map of the French nuclear power plants on 2007/01/01; Worldwide status of nuclear power plants (12/31/2007); Units distributed by countries; Nuclear power plants connected to the Grid- by reactor type groups; Nuclear power plants under construction on 2007; Evolution of nuclear power plants capacities connected to the grid; First electric generations supplied by a nuclear unit in each country; Electrical generation from nuclear power plants by country at the end 2007; Performance indicator of French PWR units; Evolution of the generation indicators worldwide by type; Nuclear operator ranking according to their installed capacity; Units connected to the grid by countries at 12/31/2007; Status of licence renewal applications in USA; Nuclear power plants under construction at 12/31/2007; Shutdown reactors; Exported nuclear capacity in net MWe; Exported and national nuclear capacity connected to the grid; Exported nuclear power plants under construction; Exported and national nuclear capacity under construction; Nuclear power plants ordered at 12/31/2007; Long term shutdown units at 12/31/2007; COL (combined licences) applications in the USA; Recycling of Plutonium in reactors and experiences; Mox licence plants projects; Appendix - historical development; Meaning of the used acronyms; Glossary.

  18. 1984. Annual progress report of the Institut de Physique Nucleaire at Orsay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    The first part of this report presents the work of the year 1984 of research in the Division of experimental physics of the Institute of Nuclear Physics in Orsay, the activities are conducted in six axes: nuclear structure, high excitation energy nuclear states, heavy ion collision phenomena, intermediate energy nuclear physics, radiochemistry and perinuclear research. The second part presents the studies of the theoretical physics division of the Institute for Nuclear Physics in Orsay in 1984. The different research axes are the following: nuclear physics, intermediate energy nuclear physics, elementary particles. The third part presents a compilation of the work done by the technical groups of the laboratory. The different axes are: operation and development of accelerators, design studies on new superconducting cyclotron project equipment and instrumental projects, technical developments used for specific research [fr

  19. Prospective economical study of the nuclear power file; Etude economique prospective de la filiere electrique nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charpin, J M [Commissariat General du Plan, 75 - Paris (France); Dessus, B [Ecodev-CNRS, 92 - Meudon (France); Pellat, R [CEA, 75 - Paris (France)

    2000-07-01

    On May 7, 1999 an economical study of the overall nuclear file, and in particular, of the back-end part of the fuel cycle and including the reprocessing, was requested by the French Prime Minister. This study includes the cost comparisons with the other means of power production and takes into consideration the environmental costs. The study is shared into five chapters dealing with: 1 - the legacy of the past: todays park of nuclear plants, economical and material status; 2 - the international evolution: the dynamics of nuclear policies worldwide (existing parks and R and D programs), the rise of environmental problems worldwide (CO{sub 2} and the climate convention, nuclear risks, attempts of including environment in the power costs), the choices made for the management of spent fuels in the main countries; 3 - the technological prospects for the power production and use: technologies for the mastery of power demand (residential, industrial and tertiary sectors, power transportation), technologies of power production (production from nuclear, fossil and renewable energies); 4 - prospective scenarios for France: two demand scenarios at the year 2050 vista (energy, electric power), power supply (supply structure with respect to scenarios, nuclear parks, power capacities), environmental aspects (CO{sub 2} emissions, plutonium and minor actinides production); 5 - the economical status of the different scenarios: data preparation, fossil fuel price scenarios, investment and operation costs of the different power production means (nuclear, fossil and renewable energies, natural gas and power distribution networks), comparison between fluxes and cumulated economic costs linked with the different scenarios (investments, exploitation, fuels, R and D, status for 2000 to 2050), time structure of expenditures with respect to the different scenarios (chronology, statuses, kWh costs, sensitivity with respect to the rate of discount, valorization of existing parks in 2050

  20. Interdisciplinary Aspects of Learning: Physics and Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleg, Yavoruk

    2015-01-01

    The article deals with interdisciplinary aspects of learning in the case of physics and psychology. It describes the lab-based academic course focused on: observation and experimentation; discovery of new scientific facts; measurement; identification of errors; the study of psychological characteristics of people (time perception, the reaction…

  1. An approach for the assessment of the statistical aspects of the SEA coupling loss factors and the vibrational energy transmission in complex aircraft structures: Experimental investigation and methods benchmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouhaj, M.; von Estorff, O.; Peiffer, A.

    2017-09-01

    In the application of Statistical Energy Analysis "SEA" to complex assembled structures, a purely predictive model often exhibits errors. These errors are mainly due to a lack of accurate modelling of the power transmission mechanism described through the Coupling Loss Factors (CLF). Experimental SEA (ESEA) is practically used by the automotive and aerospace industry to verify and update the model or to derive the CLFs for use in an SEA predictive model when analytical estimates cannot be made. This work is particularly motivated by the lack of procedures that allow an estimate to be made of the variance and confidence intervals of the statistical quantities when using the ESEA technique. The aim of this paper is to introduce procedures enabling a statistical description of measured power input, vibration energies and the derived SEA parameters. Particular emphasis is placed on the identification of structural CLFs of complex built-up structures comparing different methods. By adopting a Stochastic Energy Model (SEM), the ensemble average in ESEA is also addressed. For this purpose, expressions are obtained to randomly perturb the energy matrix elements and generate individual samples for the Monte Carlo (MC) technique applied to derive the ensemble averaged CLF. From results of ESEA tests conducted on an aircraft fuselage section, the SEM approach provides a better performance of estimated CLFs compared to classical matrix inversion methods. The expected range of CLF values and the synthesized energy are used as quality criteria of the matrix inversion, allowing to assess critical SEA subsystems, which might require a more refined statistical description of the excitation and the response fields. Moreover, the impact of the variance of the normalized vibration energy on uncertainty of the derived CLFs is outlined.

  2. Cognitive aspects of color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derefeldt, Gunilla A. M.; Menu, Jean-Pierre; Swartling, Tiina

    1995-04-01

    This report surveys cognitive aspects of color in terms of behavioral, neuropsychological, and neurophysiological data. Color is usually defined as psychophysical color or as perceived color. Behavioral data on categorical color perception, absolute judgement of colors, color coding, visual search, and visual awareness refer to the more cognitive aspects of color. These are of major importance in visual synthesis and spatial organization, as already shown by the Gestalt psychologists. Neuropsychological and neurophysiological findings provide evidence for an interrelation between cognitive color and spatial organization. Color also enhances planning strategies, as has been shown by studies on color and eye movements. Memory colors and the color- language connections in the brain also belong among the cognitive aspects of color.

  3. Organisational aspects of care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomfield, Jacqueline; Pegram, Anne

    2015-03-04

    Organisational aspects of care, the second essential skills cluster, identifies the need for registered nurses to systematically assess, plan and provide holistic patient care in accordance with individual needs. Safeguarding, supporting and protecting adults and children in vulnerable situations; leading, co-ordinating and managing care; functioning as an effective and confident member of the multidisciplinary team; and managing risk while maintaining a safe environment for patients and colleagues, are vital aspects of this cluster. This article discusses the roles and responsibilities of the newly registered graduate nurse. Throughout their education, nursing students work towards attaining this knowledge and these skills in preparation for their future roles as nurses.

  4. Is animal experimentation fundamental?

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Acampora, Armando José; Rossi, Lucas Félix; Ely, Jorge Bins; de Vasconcellos, Zulmar Acciolli

    2009-01-01

    The understanding about the utilization of experimental animals in scientific research and in teaching is many times a complex issue. Special attention needs to be paid to attain the understanding by the general public of the importance of animal experimentation in experimental research and in undergraduate medical teaching. Experimental teaching and research based on the availability of animals for experimentation is important and necessary for the personal and scientific development of the physician-to-be. The technological arsenal which intends to mimic experimentation animals and thus fully replace their use many times does not prove to be compatible with the reality of the living animal. The purpose of this paper is to discuss aspects concerning this topic, bringing up an issue which is complex and likely to arouse in-depth reflections.

  5. Atomic Transport Problems of Interest in Nuclear Systems; Problemes de Transport Atomique Presentant un Interet dans les Systemes Nucleaires; Problemy perenosa atomov, predstavlyayushchie interes v yadernykh sistemakh; Problemas de Transporte Atomico de Interes para la Ingenieria Nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundy, T. S.; Winslow, F. R. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (United States)

    1966-02-15

    Several problems encountered in the application of basic diffusion data to systems of practical interest such as those encountered in nuclear engineering will be discussed. These problems will include isothermal diffusion experiments, thermal gradient diffusion and radiation effects on diffusion processes. Most of the reliable information on diffusion in solids has been obtained from cases where there is essentially no concentration gradient of the diffusing species. In systems of interest to nuclear engineers, however, concentration gradients are almost invariably present. Thus, a working knowledge of the relation between self- and chemical-diffusion coefficients is necessary in order to estimate the proper coefficients to use in a given situation. Knowledge of thermodynamic activity coefficients as functions of compositions is necessary additional information. Recently it has been clearly demonstrated that indiscriminate use of an Arrhenius-type expression to describe the temperature dependence of diffusion data may lead to large errors in the prediction of diffusion coefficients. The ramifications of this finding will be discussed with emphasis on refractory, body-centred cubic systems. We have studied, both theoretically and experimentally, the effect of a thermal gradient on the redistribution of substitutional impurities in a metal. Such work has led to an increased appreciation of the importance of this effect in systems of interest in the nuclear field. The enhancement of diffusion by radiation fields remains a problem of justified interest. We have made the first successful direct measurements of the effect of fast-particle bombardment on diffusion in a metal. Our results correlate well with predictions based on a model of the annihilation of excess point defects (vacancies and interstitials) by three mechanisms - migration to homogeneously-distributed fixed sinks such as dislocations, migration to a free surface, and recombination of defects. (author

  6. Permeability Damage Due to Asphaltene Deposition : Experimental and Modeling Aspects Endommagement d'un milieu poreux par dépôts d'asphaltènes : expériences et modélisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minssieux L.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The flow properties of several asphaltenic crudes were studied at reservoir temperature in rocks of different morphology and mineralogy. The experiments performed showed a progressive reduction in permeability to oil during injection, varying in rate according to the system considered. The existence of organic deposits was verified by Rock-Evalpyrolysis measurements made on sections of samples taken at the end of flow at different distances from the entry face. This technique enables the profile of the deposits to be quantified. The interpretation of the permeability damage experiments and their simulation are treated by comparing the asphaltenes in oil to colloidal particles in suspension, capable of being deposited at the surface of the pores and thus reducing the permeability of the porous medium. The first simulations were carried out using the PARISIFP particle damage model, which has recently been extended to the case of multi-layer deposition. A satisfactory qualitative agreement is observed with the experimental results. Les propriétés d'écoulement de plusieurs bruts asphalténiques ont été étudiées à la température du réservoir d'origine dans des roches de morphologie et minéralogie différentes. Les expériences réalisées mettent en évidence une réduction progressive de la perméabilité à l'huile au cours de l'injection, plus ou moins rapide selon les cas. L'existence de dépôts organiques a été vérifiée par des mesures de pyrolyse Rock-Evaleffectuées sur des sections d'échantillons prélevées en fin d'écoulement à différentes distances de la face d'entrée. Cette technique permet de quantifier le profil des dépôts. L'interprétation des expériences de colmatage et leur simulation sont traitées en assimilant les asphaltènes dans l'huile à des particules colloïdales en suspension, susceptibles de se déposer à la surface des pores et ainsi de réduire la perméabilité du milieu poreux. Les premi

  7. Special Nuclear Material Control by the Power Reactor Operator; Controle des Matieres Nucleaires Speciales par l'Exploitant d'une Centrale Nucleaire; Spetsial'nyj kontrol' nalichiya yadernykh materialov operatorom ehnergeticheskogo reaktora; Control de Materiales Nucleares Especiales por Parte de Quienes Operan el Reactor de Potencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordin, R. A. [Yankee Atomic Electric Company, Boston, MA (United States)

    1966-02-15

    insurance programme. (author) [French] L'uranium, combustible relativement nouveau et extremement interessant pour la production d'electricite, doit faire l'objet d'un controle tres strict depuis le moment ou l'exploitant de la centrale en devient financierement responsable jusqu'a celui oti, sous forme de combustible partiellement epuise, la matiere est transferee dans une autre installation et oti l'on recupere ce qui reste de sa valeur initiale. La plupart des exploitants de centrales nucleaires dirigeaient des centrales alimentees par des combustibles fossiles avant l'avenement de l'energie nucleaire et ils ont etabli depuis longtemps un controle etendu et efficace de ces combustibles fossiles. L'exploitant d'une centrale nucleaire doit exercer un controle non moins efficace sur les matieres nucleaires speciales utilisees dans son installation. La technique de l'exploitation des centrales nucleaires n'est pas ancienne et, au cours de, son existence relativement breve, les ingenieurs et hommes de science des Etats-Unis ont constamment ameliore les plans des centrales et les methodes d'exploitation afin de reduire les couts et de permettre aux centrales nucleaires de concurrencer les centrales classiques. La gestion des matieres nucleaires doit etre aussi moderne et efficace que possible pour assurer que les progres technologiques grace auxquels les prix on pu etre reduits ne soient pas mis en echec par des insuffisances dans la manipulation du combustible nucleaire et la tenue de la comptabilite des stocks. Pour assurer la gestion des matieres nucleaires, il faut que l'exploitant de la centrale etablisse et tienne a jour une comptabilite complete et detaillee, sans etre necessairement complexe pour autant; en fait, la simplicite est extremement souhaitable. Bien que le combustible nucleaire soit nouveau et qu'il n'ait rien de commun avec les combustibles classiques, aucun secret ne doit s'y attacher. Le controle des matieres nucleaires dans le cadre de la gestion des

  8. Biomechanical aspects of playing surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigg, B M; Yeadon, M R

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss some biomechanical aspects of playing surfaces with special focus on (a) surface induced injuries, (b) methodologies used to assess surfaces and (c) findings from various sports. The paper concentrates primarily on questions related to load on the athlete's body. Data from epidemiological studies suggest strongly that the surface is an important factor in the aetiology of injuries. Injury frequencies are reported to be significantly different for different surfaces in several sports. The methodologies used to assess surfaces with respect to load or performance include material tests and tests using experimental subjects. There is only little correlation between the results of these two approaches. Material tests used in many standardized test procedures are not validated which suggests that one should exercise restraint in the interpretation of these results. Point elastic surfaces are widely studied while area elastic surfaces have received little attention to date. Questions of energy losses on sport surfaces have rarely been studied scientifically.

  9. THEORETICAL ASPECTS OF FILMMUSIC STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egorova Tatiana K.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article, author analyzes the theoretical aspects of the film music study taking into account with modern realities in the development of world film-process and attempts to its scientific understanding. Need for innovation in this area is long overdue, because the existing on this topic nonfiction no longer meets the new aesthetic and art-practical achievements and innovations in the film music development at the XXI century. Related to the phenomenon of music in screen arts a number of new terms and concepts require a certain adjustment as well. Their range of action is not yet fully defined. Author of the article offered her version of their content-semantic interpretation (largely experimental designed to promote new research methods for the film music study.

  10. Tense, aspect, and modality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pfau, R.; Steinbach, M.; Woll, B.; Pfau, R.; Steinbach, M.; Woll, B.

    2012-01-01

    Cross-linguistically, the grammatical categories tense, aspect, and modality - when they are overtly expressed - are generally realized by free morphemes (such as adverbials and auxiliaries) or by bound inflectional markers. The discussion in this chapter will make clear that this generalization

  11. Toxicological aspects of water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Puertas, P.

    1991-01-01

    Different toxicological aspects of water have been studied, remarking the activity of various chemical substances in the organism. These substances are divided in: trace metals (Sb, As, Cd, Zn, Cu, Cr, Fe, Mn, Hg, Ni, Pb, Se), other contaminants (CN-, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, phenols, pesticides, detergents) and radioactivity. Finally, some considerations on this subject are made [es

  12. Aspect-Oriented Programming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopes, C.; Bergmans, Lodewijk; Lopes, C.

    1999-01-01

    Aspect-oriented programming is a promising idea that can improve the quality of software by reduce the problem of code tangling and improving the separation of concerns. At ECOOP’97, the first AOP workshop brought together a number of researchers interested in aspectorientation. At ECOOP’98, during

  13. Gout. Radiological aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Restrepo Suarez, Jose Felix; Pena Cortes, Mario; Rondon Herrera, Federico; Iglesias Gamarra, Antonio; Calvo Paramo, Enrique

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we reviewed the clinical and radiological aspects of gout, showing the most frequent radiological findings that can guide to the correct diagnosis of the disease. The cases that we presented here have been analyzed for many years in our rheumatology service, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Hospital San Juan de Dios, Bogota

  14. Medical Aspects of Surfing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renneker, Mark

    1987-01-01

    The medical aspects of surfing include ear and eye injuries and sprains and strains of the lower back and neck, as well as skin cancer from exposure to the sun. Treatment, rehabilitation, and prevention of these problems are discussed. Surfing is recommended as part of an exercise program for reasonably healthy people. (Author/MT)

  15. Phenomenological aspects of unified theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peccei, R.D.

    1987-01-01

    The author briefly discusses two new phenomena of recent interest, the 5/sup th/ force and variant axions. The former, for its elucidation, will require further gravitational experiments, but the author concludes that variant axions are now definitely rules out experimentally. Various aspects of superstring phenomenology are then addressed, including some of the generic predictions of superstrings and some of its generic problems. In particular, he discusses some of the phenomenological consequences of having an extra Z 0 boson and the circumstances under which this excitation is a genuine prediction of superstrings. Since it is likely that a more reliable relic of superstrings will be provided by the presence of superpartners at low energy (≤ TeV), he discusses some of the bounds for squarks and gluinos obtained at the SppS collider and the expectations for their production at the Tevatron. As a final topic, he touches upon some of the consequences that result from having the Fermi scale arise from an underlying theory. Some aspects of the composite Higgs model and of the strongly coupled standard model are briefly reviewed

  16. Thermophysical aspects of WWER safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolochko, Vladimir N.

    1999-01-01

    The paper presents a review of the main thermophysical aspects of NPPs safety and efficiency increase applied to WWERs. Improvement of operating WWER units is the main short-term and medium-term tasks of the utilities in Ukraine. The new generation of reactors for increasing the reactor facilities efficiency should utilize achievements of thermo physics research results. The thermophysical aspects of NPPs safety and efficiency are envisaged in the context of the atomic energy development strategy. The analysis of thermophysical processes occurring in the core shows that a number of problems concerning boiling crisis and heat exchange intensification during transient and accidents are not solved in spite of numerous calculations and experimental research. The up-to-date safety conception includes severe accidents consideration for safety assessment. Review of severe accidents management is presented. Additional validation of the West advanced thermal hydraulic codes which are applied for WWERs reassessment calculations is required. Contribution of the processes which might occur in WWER containment to safety problems solving is considered as well. (author)

  17. Experimental approaches and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Crasemann, Bernd

    1975-01-01

    Atomic Inner-Shell Processes, Volume II: Experimental Approaches and Applications focuses on the physics of atomic inner shells, with emphasis on experimental aspects including the use of radioactive atoms for studies of atomic transition probabilities. Surveys of modern techniques of electron and photon spectrometry are also presented, and selected practical applications of inner-shell processes are outlined. Comprised of six chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the general principles underlying the experimental techniques that make use of radioactive isotopes for inner-sh

  18. Modern aspects of electrochemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Vayenas, Constantinos G

    2007-01-01

    This book covers a broad range of topics in Electrochemistry in an authoritative manner by internationally renowned specialists. Topics include a chapter on the survey of experimental techniques and devices of solid state electrochemistry begun in Volume 39.

  19. Theoretical and Experimental Aspects of Quenching Variables from Biomedical Samples in Liquid Scintillator Systems; Aspects Theoriques et Experimentaux des Parametres d'Extinction Etudies sur des Echantillons Biomedicaux dans des Systemes a Scintillateur Liquide; Teoreticheskie i ehksperimental'nye aspekty peremennykh gasheniya iz biomeditsinskikh prob v zhidkikh stsintillyatsionnykh sistemakh; Estudio Teorico y Experimental de las Variables de Extincion en el Recuento de Sustancias Biological por Centelleo Liquido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, H. H. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1965-10-15

    Until recently, it has not been possible to separate the individual quenching variables in liquid scintillator systems. Although conventional methods for quench correction enable the determination of the total quenching in a particular sample, the absolute contribution of colour and fluorescence quenching cannot be determined. This information is of great importance in the design of new and more efficient scintillator systems and in the critical evaluation of older systems for possible improvements. Two independent methods have been developed recently by the author to evaluate the individual quenching variables in liquid systems. The first method shows that a general mathematical model can be used to accurately predict the degree of colour quenching in any given sample using spectrophotometric data. This treatment is analogous to one for the total light absorption of a multicomponent system and finally results in an integral equation of the type Q = {integral}{sup {lambda}{sub n{sub {lambda}{sub {sub l}}}}} (K)(A)d{lambda}, which can be easily simplified for use. This technique is capable of giving accurate information for evaluating the combined effects of colour and fluorescence quenching and gives a good deal of insight into the exact factors that cause colour quenching. However, a worker faced with large numbers of routine samples will find the experimental procedure somewhat tedious. A second study describes a new experimental technique of colour-quench correction using an ''isolated internal standard''. Using this technique, in conjunction with any of the other methods for total quench correction, the separate effects of colour and chemical quenching are easily resolved. The isolated internal standard technique is based on the absorption of light photons in a colour-quenched liquid scintillator sample. However, in contrast to the above spectrophotometric method, the light source consists of a small ampoule containing an unquenched liquid scintillator spiked

  20. Delusion disorder: Neuropsychological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leposavić Ivana

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies concerned with neuropsychological aspect of delusions, were mainly focused on specific forms of this disorder. Comparatively small number of investigations were concerned with cognitive deficiencies accompanying the delusions. The substance of this study includes the detection of neuropsychological disfunctions in patients with persistent delusion disorder, and in tracing of these cognitive distortions to appropriate brain regions. Besides, characteristics of attribution style in these patients are analysed, from the aspect of their connections with unadjusted localized input for their reasoning system. The investigation is designed as a comparative study. The sample includes: a group of patients with persistent delusion disorder; a group of patients with paranoid schizophrenia; a group of healthy individuals. The participants have been tested by a neuropsychological battery that represents the following cognitive functions: attention, memory, vizuospatial and vizuoconstruction organization, executive ability, verbal divergent thinking. Projective Rorschach's method was used for estimation of attribution style.

  1. Behavioural aspects of terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leistedt, Samuel J

    2013-05-10

    Behavioural and social sciences are useful in collecting and analysing intelligence data, understanding terrorism, and developing strategies to combat terrorism. This article aims to examine the psychopathological concepts of terrorism and discusses the developing roles for behavioural scientists. A systematic review was conducted of studies investigating behavioural aspects of terrorism. These studies were identified by a systematic search of databases, textbooks, and a supplementary manual search of references. Several fundamental concepts were identified that continue to influence the motives and the majority of the behaviours of those who support or engage in this kind of specific violence. Regardless of the psychological aspects and new roles for psychiatrists, the behavioural sciences will continue to be called upon to assist in developing better methods to gather and analyse intelligence, to understand terrorism, and perhaps to stem the radicalisation process. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. LNG project - contractual aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, Bruno Almeida

    2008-07-01

    This paper intends to provide from the legal point of view an outline of the main challenges of a LNG project in the upstream, regulatory aspects, liquefaction, financing and midstream through a basic checklist; an overview of the contractual complexity of a LNG project; some basic discussion of particular LNG contract clauses; and a comparative analysis between the classic clauses of a Gas Transportation Agreement (GTA) through a gas pipeline and LNG logistic. (author)

  3. Rectenna session: Micro aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutmann, R. J.

    1980-01-01

    Two micro aspects of rectenna design are discussed: evaluation of the degradation in net rectenna RF to DC conversion efficiency due to power density variations across the rectenna (power combining analysis) and design of Yagi-Uda receiving elements to reduce rectenna cost by decreasing the number of conversion circuits (directional receiving elements). The first of these involves resolving a fundamental question of efficiency potential with a rectenna, while the second involves a design modification with a large potential cost saving.

  4. MARKETING MIX THEORETICAL ASPECTS

    OpenAIRE

    Margarita Išoraitė

    2016-01-01

    Aim of article is to analyze marketing mix theoretical aspects. The article discusses that marketing mix is one of the main objectives of the marketing mix elements for setting objectives and marketing budget measures. The importance of each element depends not only on the company and its activities, but also on the competition and time. All marketing elements are interrelated and should be seen in the whole of their actions. Some items may have greater importance than others; it depends main...

  5. Futurological aspects of globalisation

    OpenAIRE

    Kostić Aleksandar V.

    2013-01-01

    The author examines futurological aspects of globalization having in mind various models of historical processes. He describes the changes as "futuroshock", thus presenting a dilemma whether the changes are only a momentum or a pre-planned concept. He especially stresses the Toffler’s conclusion that turns a new page in futurology - examining the dangers that follow the changes. According to him, predictions are made with the help of practically all the sciences in two basic directions: explo...

  6. ETHICAL ASPECTS OF SUSTAINABILITY

    OpenAIRE

    Amantova-Salmane, Liene

    2015-01-01

    Ethics can be defined as a reflection on nature and a definition of “the good”. Individuals value qualities and things dissimilarly, most visibly, but they also value their goods in different ways, in different relations to each other, for different reasons, and to different ends. These differences are very applicable to sustainability. In other words, sustainability cannot be achieved without attention to its ethical dimensions. The aim of this research is to examine the ethical aspects of s...

  7. Experimental study and modelling of transient boiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baudin, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    A failure in the control system of the power of a nuclear reactor can lead to a Reactivity Initiated Accident in a nuclear power plant. Then, a power peak occurs in some fuel rods, high enough to lead to the coolant film boiling. It leads to an important increase of the temperature of the rod. The possible risk of the clad failure is a matter of interest for the Institut de Radioprotection et de Securite Nucleaire. The transient boiling heat transfer is not yet understood and modelled. An experimental set-up has been built at the Institut de Mecanique des Fluides de Toulouse (IMFT). Subcooled HFE-7000 flows vertically upward in a semi annulus test section. The inner half cylinder simulates the clad and is made of a stainless steel foil, heated by Joule effect. Its temperature is measured by an infrared camera, coupled with a high speed camera for the visualization of the flow topology. The whole boiling curve is studied in steady state and transient regimes: convection, onset of boiling, nucleate boiling, critical heat flux, film boiling and rewetting. The steady state heat transfers are well modelled by literature correlations. Models are suggested for the transient heat flux: the convection and nucleate boiling evolutions are self-similar during a power step. This observation allows to model more complex evolutions, as temperature ramps. The transient Hsu model well represents the onset of nucleate boiling. When the intensity of the power step increases, the film boiling begins at the same temperature but with an increasing heat flux. For power ramps, the critical heat flux decreases while the corresponding temperature increases with the heating rate. When the wall is heated, the film boiling heat transfer is higher than in steady state but it is not understood. A two-fluid model well simulates the cooling film boiling and the rewetting. (author)

  8. Development of mercury porosimeter. Application to nuclear graphite studies (1961); Mise au point d'un porosimetre a mercure. Application a l'etude des graphites nucleaires (1961)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bocquet, M; Genisson, J; Sailleau, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    A mercury porosimeter, model IFP-CEA, has been developed for application to nuclear graphite studies. The apparatus is based on the capillary depression phenomenon. The relationship between the radius of a pore and the pressure at which mercury fills it is pr = -2 {sigma} cos {theta} ( {sigma} is the surface tension, {theta} the angle of contact of the mercury). After some theoretical consideration, the apparatus is described. The mercury pressure is increased step-wise from 0 to 1000 kg/cm{sup 2} thus yielding the complete distribution of pores from 92 {mu} to 75 A. Results are, then presented concerning nuclear graphites which show the evolution of the porous structure under the effect of bitumen impregnation. In general, the volume of the large pores decreases while that of the small pores increases. The structure of impregnated products appears to depend to a certain extent on that of the starting materials. It has also been possible to study other products with this porosimeter; the range of measurements possible is such that it may be used for the study of the majority of porous materials. (authors) [French] Un porosimetre a mercure modele IFP-CEA a ete mis au point en vue de son application a l'etude de graphites nucleaires. Le fonctionnement de l'appareil repose sur le phenomene de depression capillaire. On etablit la relation existant entre le rayon r d'un pore et la pression p pour laquelle le mercure peut y penetrer: pr = -2 {sigma} cos {theta} ( {sigma} tension superficielle, {theta} angle de contact du mercure). Apres quelques considerations theoriques, l'appareil utilise est decrit. Il permet de faire varier par palier la pression du mercure entre 0 et 1000 kg/cm{sup 2} et d'etablir ainsi la distribution complete des rayons de pores compris entre 92 {mu} et 75 A. Les resultats d'une etude faite sur des graphites nucleaires sont alors presentes faisant apparaitre l'evolution de la structure poreuse sous l'effet des impregnations au brai. D'une facon

  9. Annual report ''nuclear safety in France''; Le rapport annuel ''la surete nucleaire en France''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This document is the 2001 annual report of the French authority of nuclear safety (ASN). It summarizes the highlights of the year 2000 and details the following aspects: the nuclear safety in France, the organization of the control of nuclear safety, the regulation relative to basic nuclear facilities, the control of facilities, the information of the public, the international relations, the organisation of emergencies, the radiation protection, the transport of radioactive materials, the radioactive wastes, the PWR reactors, the experimental reactors and other laboratories and facilities, the nuclear fuel cycle facilities, and the shutdown and dismantling of nuclear facilities. (J.S.)

  10. An overview of some experimental and theoretical aspects of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Permutation symmetry of the wave functions of a quantum system, consisting of ... enhanced in an in-vacuum power-build-up optical cavity. The light–atom interac- tion in the first interaction region occurs in the presence of orthogonal electric and ... This is equivalent to testing the reliability of the state-of-the-art atomic.

  11. Experimental aspects of deterministic secure quantum key distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walenta, Nino; Korn, Dietmar; Puhlmann, Dirk; Felbinger, Timo; Hoffmann, Holger; Ostermeyer, Martin [Universitaet Potsdam (Germany). Institut fuer Physik; Bostroem, Kim [Universitaet Muenster (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Most common protocols for quantum key distribution (QKD) use non-deterministic algorithms to establish a shared key. But deterministic implementations can allow for higher net key transfer rates and eavesdropping detection rates. The Ping-Pong coding scheme by Bostroem and Felbinger[1] employs deterministic information encoding in entangled states with its characteristic quantum channel from Bob to Alice and back to Bob. Based on a table-top implementation of this protocol with polarization-entangled photons fundamental advantages as well as practical issues like transmission losses, photon storage and requirements for progress towards longer transmission distances are discussed and compared to non-deterministic protocols. Modifications of common protocols towards a deterministic quantum key distribution are addressed.

  12. Experimental aspects of high T/sub c/ superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, K.E.

    1988-01-01

    The incredible growth of the field of high-T/sub c/ superconductivity makes it difficult for this paper to be extensive or even up-to-date by the time it is published. The references list is in no way complete, but rather gives representative examples known to the author. The discussion in this paper is restricted to the YBa 2 Cu 3 O/sub 7-x/ compound (denoted also as YBCO) which exhibits superconductivity at about 90 K, i.e., above liquid nitrogen temperature of 77 K, since such an increase in operating temperature seems to be the major reason for considering these materials for rf applications. An overview of the various fabrication methods is given, which include bulk samples made by ceramic processing and thin films made by MBE/electron beam co-evaporation/co-sputtering/pulsed excimer laser evaporation/etc. Particularly interesting examples include single crystals and epitaxial thin films. Although these are not expected to be useful in cavity applications, they provide them with the best information on the intrinsic properties of the material, from which they can project its potential usefulness if these properties can be duplicated using more practical fabrication methods. This brief review will include examples of microstructure, traditional superconducting properties like T/sub c/, H/sub c2/ and J/sub c/, specific heat, thermal conductivity, photoemission, infra-red(ir) reflectance, tunneling and Raman scattering. Four important considerations for rf cavity work will emerge: the transport critical current density; the energy gap; impurity phases; and potential surface problems especially related to oxygen deficiencies. 37 references, 8 figures

  13. Some aspects of experimental investigation of the RPV material properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipka, J.; Hascik, J.; Groene, R.; Slugen, V.; Vitazek, K.; Hinca, R.; Toth, I.; Kupca, L.

    1996-01-01

    Moessbauer spectra (MS) and Electron-Positron Annihilation (EPA) spectra at room temperature have been measured on the samples from Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV). Both types of measurements showed that the changes associated with the effects of neutron irradiation, as well as thermal treatment, can be detected by Moessbauer and Electron-Positron Annihilation spectroscopy. On base of a positive results achieved in MS and EPA measurements the complementary surveillance specimen program for the Reactor Pressure Vessel Materials Study of the third and fourth units NPP Jaslovske Bohunice has been prepared. The complementary surveillance specimen program has started in May 1995. The samples with proper design from basic and welded RPV materials were measured by MS and EPA before placing into the reactor. After neutron irradiation the samples become radioactive because of 59 Co content. To eliminate the influence of 60 Co gamma radiation on the EPA angular correlation and time spectra a three detectors spectrometer has been introduced. (author)

  14. Aspects of artificial neural networks and experimental noise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derks, E.P.P.A.

    1997-01-01

    About a decade ago, artificial neural networks (ANN) have been introduced to chemometrics for solving problems in analytical chemistry. ANN are based on the functioning of the brain and can be used for modeling complex relationships within chemical data. An ANN-model can be obtained by earning or

  15. (e,e'p) reactions at Saclay. Experimental aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mougey, J.

    1978-01-01

    Two high resolution, large solid angle and large momentum acceptance spectrometers are used since 1974 at the Saclay 600 MeV electron Linac ALS to perform coincidence (e,e'p) experiments, together with elastic and inelastic electron scattering. The essential features of this apparatus are given here. Some special problems concerning coincidence experiments are discussed

  16. Criminal Aspects of Artificial Abortion

    OpenAIRE

    Hartmanová, Leona

    2016-01-01

    Criminal Aspects of Artificial Abortion This diploma thesis deals with the issue of artificial abortion, especially its criminal aspects. Legal aspects are not the most important aspects of artificial abortion. Social, ethical or ideological aspects are of the same importance but this diploma thesis cannot analyse all of them. The main issue with artificial abortion is whether it is possible to force a pregnant woman to carry a child and give birth to a child when she cannot or does not want ...

  17. AspectJ in action practical aspect-oriented programming

    CERN Document Server

    Laddad, Ramnivas

    2003-01-01

    A guide to aspect-oriented programming and the AspectJ language, this book provides code examples that enable quick implementation of functionality in a system. Thorough introductions to AOP and AspectJ will help developers learn or advance their knowledge of AspectJ. Examples of everyday situations in which AspectJ solutions can be applied, such as logging, policy enforcement, resource pooling, business logic, thread-safety, authentication and authorization, and transaction management are provided. In addition, design patterns and idioms are covered, as is business rule implementation. The latest technologies, such as JEES, JAAS, and log4j, are explained and connected with AspectJ.

  18. Strategic Aspects of Bundling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podesta, Marion

    2008-01-01

    The increase of bundle supply has become widespread in several sectors (for instance in telecommunications and energy fields). This paper review relates strategic aspects of bundling. The main purpose of this paper is to analyze profitability of bundling strategies according to the degree of competition and the characteristics of goods. Moreover, bundling can be used as price discrimination tool, screening device or entry barriers. In monopoly case bundling strategy is efficient to sort consumers in different categories in order to capture a maximum of surplus. However, when competition increases, the profitability on bundling strategies depends on correlation of consumers' reservations values. (author)

  19. Aspects of nuclear science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hageboe, E.; Salbu, B.

    1987-01-01

    The aspects of nuclear science presented in this book result from a symposium that was held in Oslo in October 1985. On this special occasion the rapid development of nuclear science as an interdisciplinary field was illustrated with brief presentations of some selected areas. These areas represent parts of the main interests of the Section for Nuclear Chemistry in the Department of Chemistry at the University of Oslo. This section has for decades been among the leading laboratories for nuclear chemistry in Scandinavia, thanks to its founder and inspiring leader professor Alexis C. Pappas

  20. Ethical aspects of business

    OpenAIRE

    Konečná, Lucie

    2013-01-01

    This thesis covers the topic of the ethical aspects of business. The paper defines what an ethics and a business ethics are and it describes selected tools of business ethics. The practical part focuses on building company called Skanska and on its view of business ethics. This part consists of an interview with managing director of Skanska SK a.s. and of a questionnaire survey. The main goal of this thesis is to analyze the level of the business ethics in this building company. The main rese...

  1. Analytic aspects of convexity

    CERN Document Server

    Colesanti, Andrea; Gronchi, Paolo

    2018-01-01

    This book presents the proceedings of the international conference Analytic Aspects in Convexity, which was held in Rome in October 2016. It offers a collection of selected articles, written by some of the world’s leading experts in the field of Convex Geometry, on recent developments in this area: theory of valuations; geometric inequalities; affine geometry; and curvature measures. The book will be of interest to a broad readership, from those involved in Convex Geometry, to those focusing on Functional Analysis, Harmonic Analysis, Differential Geometry, or PDEs. The book is a addressed to PhD students and researchers, interested in Convex Geometry and its links to analysis.

  2. Radiographic aspects of xeroradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, G.U.V.; Fatouros, P.P.

    1980-01-01

    The quality of a conventional radiographic image can be characterized in terms of five basic parameters; density, contrast, latitude, resolution and noise. Since xeroradiographic images exhibit very limited broad area contrasts, and image formation is predominantly due to edge enhancement, a straightforward description of image quality using the same five parameters is not adequate. A detailed study was made of the radiographic aspects of xeroradiography with special reference to mammography, and a summary of major findings to date with appropriate references to published papers is presented

  3. Radiological aspects of Arthroplasties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, Sara Eugenia; Barragan, John Henry; Narvaez, Jorge Andres

    2008-01-01

    The development of new surgical techniques, of new prosthetic materials, and the increase in life expectancy with greater coverage of health services has ugmented the performance of hip replacements in our country. The radiologist should be familiar with the different surgical techniques and prosthetic devices, the evaluation of its components and associated complications. The most frequently performed arthroplasties are: shoulder, elbow, hip and knee replacement. This article reviews the most frequent prosthetic devices used, the radiological aspects of arthroplasties and their most common complications.

  4. Energy and social aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, D.; Gomez, Y.

    2008-01-01

    In this section, the social aspects of Cuba's energy system are described, based on the accessibility and availability of energy services and the affordability and acceptance of these energy services by the population. Accessibility refers to the existence of modern energy services and supporting infrastructures that allow the population, regardless of income level, place of residence, race, religion, etc., the use of modern fuels. Logistics and the economy determine the amount and kinds of energy and energy services available in each place. Even if energy services are accessible to the population, problems with their availability during particular time periods may exist; thus, this section discusses the problems of availability of modern fuels in Cuba. Affordability relates to the ability of the population to pay for the energy services that are accessible and available. Energy prices should be low enough (without affecting the profitability of the producing companies) to enable everyone's minimum requirements for modern energy services to be satisfied. Acceptability concerns the social and/or environmental problems related to energy chains, ranging from production and use to the disposal of waste generated by energy production. Making an assessment of the acceptability of an energy option is often difficult and sometimes involves many issues, including social, environmental, cultural, economic and religious aspects at local and regional levels

  5. Diabetic patients: Psychological aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adili, Fatemeh; Larijani, Bagher; Haghighatpanah, Mohammadreza

    2006-11-01

    This study was undertaken to consider the psychological aspect of diabetes with regard to improving clinical outcomes. The review was limited to literature reports on the causes, solutions, and treatments of some common psychological problems known to complicate diabetes management. A literature search was undertaken using Pub-Med, CINAHL, Proquest, Elsevier, Blackwell Synergy, Ovid, Ebsco, Rose net, and Google websites, including studies published in English journals between 1995 and 2006. Therefore about 88 articles were selected based on the inclusion criteria. In earlier studies, relatively little empirical research was found to substantiate the effect of psychological counseling in complicated diabetes. The greatest deficits were seen in areas of mental health, self-esteem parent impact, and family cohesion. There were some different factors, which influence the psychological aspect of diabetic patients, such as age, gender, place of living, familial and social support, motivation, energy, life satisfaction, and lifestyle. There are various types of solutions for coping with the psychological problems in diabetic clients. The most essential solution lies in educating the patients and healthcare providers on the subject. Before initiating each educational intervention, a thorough assessment would be crucial. Treatment plans may benefit from cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), behavior family therapy, improving family communication, problem-solving skills, and providing motivation for diabetic patients. Moreover, it seems that the close collaboration between diabetologists and psychologists would be fruitful.

  6. Nuclear energy; Le nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This digest document was written by members of the union of associations of ex-members and retired people of the Areva group (UARGA). It gives a comprehensive overview of the nuclear industry world, starting from radioactivity and its applications, and going on with the fuel cycle (front-end, back-end, fuel reprocessing, transports), the nuclear reactors (PWR, BWR, Candu, HTR, generation 4 systems), the effluents from nuclear facilities, the nuclear wastes (processing, disposal), and the management and safety of nuclear activities. (J.S.)

  7. Nuclear wastes; Dechets nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    Here is made a general survey of the situation relative to radioactive wastes. The different kinds of radioactive wastes and the different way to store them are detailed. A comparative evaluation of the situation in France and in the world is made. The case of transport of radioactive wastes is tackled. (N.C.)

  8. Differential measurement of the earth's magnetic field by nuclear magnetic resonance; Mesure differentielle du champ magnetique terrestre par resonance magnetique nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robach, F [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, 38 - Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-07-01

    MNR transducers using proton dynamic polarisation allows to convert into a phase measurement any variation of the earth magnetic field. There exist several versions of the instrument corresponding to various models of MNR transducers, which the author analyses in detail, devoting an important place to influence of their alignment with respect to the earth's magnetic field. The sensibility obtained is of one hundredth of a gamma over a bandwidth of (0-0,1 Hz). - This instrument is designed for measuring field gradients in airborne magnetic surveying, for detecting nearly magnetic anomalies, and for distinguishing between nearly and distant magnetic phenomena. (author) [French] L'emploi de capteurs, bases sur la resonance magnetique nucleaire des protons en presence de polarisation dynamique, permet de traduire une difference de champ magnetique terrestre en une mesure de phase. L'appareil existe sous plusieurs versions avec des capteurs de modeles differents dont l'auteur fait une analyse detaillee en accordant une part importante a l'influence de l'orientation des capteurs par rapport au champ magnetique terrestre. La sensibilite est de 1/100 {gamma} pour une bande passante de (0 - 0,1 Hz). Cet appareil s'applique a la mesure du gradient en prospection magnetique aeroportee, a la detection d'anomalies magnetiques proches, a la differentiation d'effets magnetiques proches et lointains. (auteur)

  9. Staff Organization in Nuclear Power Stations; Organisation du personnel des centrales nucleaires; Organizatsiya personala na atomnykh ehlektrostantsiyakh; Organizacion del personal de las centrales nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scuricini, G. B. [Comitato Nazionale Energia Nucleare, Roma (Italy)

    1963-10-15

    This paper deals with the organization of operating and maintenance staff at nuclear power stations in Italy and manpower variations, either because the plants themselves differ or are organized in some special way. Staff doing jobs for which a specific training is required are given special consideration in the paper. (author) [French] Dans le memoire, on examine l'organisation du personnel d'exploitation et d'entretien des centrales nucleaires italiennes et les differences existant dans les effectifs, differences dues soit aux caracteristiques des centrales memes, soit aux particularites d'organisation des entreprises. Le personnel charge de fonctions determinees pour lesquelles un entrainement special est requis, fait l'objet d'une attention particuliere. (author) [Spanish] En la memoria se examina la organizacion del personal de explotacion y conservacion de las centrales nucleares italianas y las diferencias que existen entre sus efectivos, diferencias que se deben a las caracteristicas de las mismas centrales o a las particularidades de organizacion de las empresas. El autor dedica especial atencion al personal encargado de funciones que requieren una formacion profesional especial. (author) [Russian] Issleduyutsya voprosy organizatsii personala, zanimayushchegosya ehkspluatatsiej ital'yanskikh atomnykh ehlektrostantsij i ukhodom za nimi, a takkhe razlichiya v sostave personala, vytekayushchie libo iz kharakternykh osobennostej samikh stantsij, libo iz osobennostej organizatsii predpriyatij. Osoboe vnimanie udelyaetsya personalu, kotoromu porucheny opredelennye funktsii, trebuyushchie spetsial'noj pod go tovki. (author)

  10. Damage caused to houses and equipment by underground nuclear explosions; Degats dus aux explosions nucleaires souterraines sur les habitations et les equipements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delort, F; Guerrini, C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France). Centre d' Etudes

    1969-07-01

    A description is given of the damaged caused to various structures, buildings, houses, mechanical equipment and electrical equipment by underground nuclear explosions in granite. For each type of equipment or building are given the limiting distances for a given degree of damage. These distances have been related to a parameter characterizing the movement of the medium; it is thus possible to generalize the results obtained in granite, for different media. The problem of estimating the damage caused at a greater distance from the explosion is considered. (authors) [French] Les degats sur diverses structures, constructions, habitations, equipements mecaniques et materiels electriques provoques par des explosions nucleaires souterraines dans le granite sont decrits. On a indique pour chaque type de materiel ou de construction, les distances limites correspondant a un degre de gravite de dommage observe. Ces distances ont ete reliees a un parametre caracterisant le mouvement du milieu, permettant ainsi de generaliser les resultats obtenus dans le granite, a differents milieux. Le probleme de la prevision des degats en zone lointaine a ete aborde. (auteurs)

  11. Contribution to the Study of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance in Ferromagnets; Contribution a l'etude de la resonance nucleaire dans les corps ferromagnetiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert, C. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    1962-07-01

    Properties of nuclear magnetic resonance in the field acting on the nucleus in a ferromagnet were studied. Nuclei were {sup 57}Fe in iron and yttrium iron garnet. Static properties of resonance (frequency, line-width, dipolar structure) were investigated and compared with magnetic behavior and magnetic structure of the materials. Relaxation in garnet points out importance of long range fluctuations induced by impurities in a ferromagnetic lattice. (author) [French] Nous avons etudie les proprietes de la resonance nucleaire dans le champ existant a remplacement d'un noyau dans un corps ferromagnetique (champ local). Les noyaux etaient ceux de {sup 57}Fe dans le fer et dans le grenat d'yttrium et de fer. Les proprietes statiques de la resonance (frequence de resonance, largeur de la raie, structures dues a l'interaction dipolaire) ont ete etudiees et reliees aux caracteristiques magnetiques et a la structure de ces corps. La relaxation dans le grenat a mis en evidence les fluctuations a longue distance induites par des impuretes dans un reseau ferromagnetique. (auteur)

  12. Contribution to the Study of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance in Ferromagnets; Contribution a l'etude de la resonance nucleaire dans les corps ferromagnetiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert, C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    1962-07-01

    Properties of nuclear magnetic resonance in the field acting on the nucleus in a ferromagnet were studied. Nuclei were {sup 57}Fe in iron and yttrium iron garnet. Static properties of resonance (frequency, line-width, dipolar structure) were investigated and compared with magnetic behavior and magnetic structure of the materials. Relaxation in garnet points out importance of long range fluctuations induced by impurities in a ferromagnetic lattice. (author) [French] Nous avons etudie les proprietes de la resonance nucleaire dans le champ existant a remplacement d'un noyau dans un corps ferromagnetique (champ local). Les noyaux etaient ceux de {sup 57}Fe dans le fer et dans le grenat d'yttrium et de fer. Les proprietes statiques de la resonance (frequence de resonance, largeur de la raie, structures dues a l'interaction dipolaire) ont ete etudiees et reliees aux caracteristiques magnetiques et a la structure de ces corps. La relaxation dans le grenat a mis en evidence les fluctuations a longue distance induites par des impuretes dans un reseau ferromagnetique. (auteur)

  13. Thermal energy of nuclear origin produced in non-fissile materials (1962); Energie calorifique d'origine nucleaire degagee dans les materiaux non fissiles (1962)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naudet, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Millies, P; Berger, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1962-07-01

    A first part is devoted to the description of the interaction phenomena between elementary particles and material that may be observed during the irradiation process in a nuclear reactor: nuclear reactions due to neutrons, production of gamma rays and absorption of those gamma rays through various processes. In a second part the phenomena producing calorific energy in irradiated material are quantitatively examined. In the third part results are summed up in a formulary. The fourth part presents tables and figures giving to the reader all the numerical values necessary for practical calculations. (authors) [French] Une premiere partie est consacree a l'examen des principaux phenomenes d'interaction des particules avec la matiere qui interviennent lors d'une irradiation dans un reacteur: reactions nucleaires dues aux neutrons, production des rayons gamma et absorption de ces derniers par les divers processus. Une deuxieme partie etudie quantitativement les phenomenes qui conduisent a l'apparition d'energie calorifique dans le materiau irradie. En troisieme partie, un formulaire resume les resultats etablis. Dans une quatrieme partie, des tableaux et des courbes fournissent a l'experimentateur toutes les valeurs numeriques necessaires aux calculs pratiques. (auteurs)

  14. Nuclear magnetic resonance of iron-57 nuclei in local fields in yttrium and iron garnets; Resonance magnetique nucleaire des noyaux du fer 57 dans les champs locaux du grenat d'yttrium et de fer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert, C. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    We have demonstrated the nuclear resonance of {sup 57}Fe nuclei in the local field of each of the two magnetic sub-lattices of yttrium and iron garnets. The resonance frequencies and the relaxation times have been measured as a function of the temperature. (author) [French] Nous avons mis en evidence la resonance nucleaire des noyaux de {sup 57}Fe dans le champ local de chacun des deux sous-reseaux magnetiques du grenat d'yttrium et de fer. Les frequences de resonances et les temps de relaxation ont ete mesures en fonction de la temperature. (auteur)

  15. Is it possible to recycle nuclear wastes? Costs, risks and stakes of the plutonium industry; Peut-on recycler les dechets nucleaires? Couts, risques et enjeux de l'industrie du plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    This document, published by the French association 'Sortir du nucleaire' (Get out of nuclear), gives some information on the chain reaction from uranium to plutonium, the difference between reprocessing (which does not reduce waste volumes but multiply waste types) and recycling, the high risks associated with plutonium transport, La Hague as the most dangerous nuclear site in France, reprocessing as the alibi for the French nuclear industry, Areva as an expert in propaganda, reprocessing as an absurd world strategy, plutonium as a fuel for proliferation, the myth of unlimited energy with the breeder reactors, and so on

  16. Atomic complex. Political history of nuclear energy. Le complexe atomique. Histoire politique de l'energie nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldschmidt, B

    1980-01-01

    The political aspects of the growth of the two facets of the atomic complex have been dealt with in a distinct manner. Hence, this treatise is divided into two parts -two historical accounts- the first 'The explosion' dealing with the arm and the second 'The combustion' linked to the first part and devoted to the production of recoverable energy. Each part seeks to give an overall view of the unfolding of this extraordinary adventure whilst reserving a special destiny to the French aspects.

  17. MACROECONOMIC ASPECTS OF COMPETITIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Hooke

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In the process of globalization of world economic processes, the role of individual national economies increases, comparative advantages of the development of a country are formed, and their competitiveness is ensured. That is why it is worth emphasizing the importance of increasing the competitiveness of each individual country, based on its internal capacity. In a broad aspect, the competitiveness of the national economy is perceived as the ability of the country to ensure the balance of its external proportions and to avoid those constraints imposed by the foreign economic sphere, to self-organizing the improvement of their world economic ties. The competitiveness of the economy at the macro level is associated with the duration of the cycle of reproduction of the main productive assets and, accordingly, the jobs, productive forces of society and determined by the overall economic efficiency of investment. The criteria of competitiveness of the national economy are the growth of social productivity of labor, increase of social and economic efficiency of production and standard of living of the population. The competitiveness of the national economy determines sustainable socio-economic development of the country, as well as sustainable development predetermines the competitiveness of not only the country, but also all its levels. Scientific results are obtained using special methods of research of economic objects and phenomena, that is, based on the correlation and regressive, comparative analysis (establishing the relationship between the indicator factor, as well as economic modeling. Findings. Generalizing analysis and the importance of the macroeconomic aspect of competitiveness were used in the research paper, which will allow to better respond to the economic situation, in accordance with the trends of the “green” transformation of the economy; which in turn will solve important problems of the development and implementation of its

  18. Political and economic aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Neil, C.

    1997-01-01

    The political and socio-economic aspects of oil and gas exploration in Canada's Arctic and the Beaufort Sea were reviewed. The federal government was very interested in developing the North because they saw oil and gas development in the North as a means of strengthening sovereignty claims. The projected profits from Northern oil and gas development were also very attractive, and after dealing with environmental and social concerns, the government granted the necessary drilling permits. The federal government also made allowances for huge tax incentives for the oil and gas companies to encourage exploration. Although oil has been found, large-scale production in the Beaufort Sea never materialized. During the period from 1984 to 1988, world prices for oil fell and it was no longer economical to undertake frontier production. Beaufort Sea operation were shut down as the oil industry changed its focus to more cost-effective reservoirs in southern Canada. 1 fig

  19. Technological Aspects: High Voltage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faircloth, D C

    2013-01-01

    This paper covers the theory and technological aspects of high-voltage design for ion sources. Electric field strengths are critical to understanding high-voltage breakdown. The equations governing electric fields and the techniques to solve them are discussed. The fundamental physics of high-voltage breakdown and electrical discharges are outlined. Different types of electrical discharges are catalogued and their behaviour in environments ranging from air to vacuum are detailed. The importance of surfaces is discussed. The principles of designing electrodes and insulators are introduced. The use of high-voltage platforms and their relation to system design are discussed. The use of commercially available high-voltage technology such as connectors, feedthroughs and cables are considered. Different power supply technologies and their procurement are briefly outlined. High-voltage safety, electric shocks and system design rules are covered. (author)

  20. Formal aspects of resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana-Maria Drigă

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept of resilience has represented during the recent years a leading concern both in Romania, within the European Union and worldwide. Specialists in economics, management, finance, legal sciences, political sciences, sociology, psychology, grant a particular interest to this concept. Multidisciplinary research of resilience has materialized throughout the time in multiple conceptualizations and theorizing, but without being a consensus between specialists in terms of content, specificity and scope. Through this paper it is intended to clarify the concept of resilience, achieving an exploration of the evolution of this concept in ecological, social and economic environment. At the same time, the paper presents aspects of feedback mechanisms and proposes a formalization of resilience using the logic and mathematical analysis.

  1. CUSTOMER LOYALTY THEORETICAL ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita IŠORAITĖ

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Customer loyalty - is a voluntary user solution for a long time to build relationships with the company. Loyalty is the user's desire for a long time to continue their relationship with a particular company, because loyal customers are those who purchase goods/services of the company from time to time. Loyalty can be treated as a customer desire, willingness to be a regular customer for a long time, buying and using the goods of the chosen companies by recommending them to friends and colleagues. Loyalty can be seen as a multi-dimension, covering behavioral and positional components, where positional aspect reflects customers' approach to business, while the behavioral dimension reveals a frequent and regular shopping, purchase quantity, size, range, availability, etc.

  2. Pecan cultivation: general aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diniz Fronza

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Given the increasing investment in the pecan production in southern Brazil, it becomes necessary researches, assisting in solve problems and proposition of technical and methodology to enhance this production chain. Thus, the present review aimed to survey the existing information about the culture, both on the world and the Brazilian scene. Issues related to botany, climate and soil requirements, alignment and planting density, cultivars, pests and diseases, among other technical aspects of this culture will be addressed. Pecan nut presents nutraceutical properties that are beneficial to human health, which has increased its demand from consumers. However, there are few research results with pecan nut in Brazil and there are many gaps in scientific knowledge about this culture, especially as regards the management of pests and diseases control, irrigation and nutrition, in Brazilian conditions.

  3. Technological Aspects: High Voltage

    CERN Document Server

    Faircloth, D.C.

    2013-12-16

    This paper covers the theory and technological aspects of high-voltage design for ion sources. Electric field strengths are critical to understanding high-voltage breakdown. The equations governing electric fields and the techniques to solve them are discussed. The fundamental physics of high-voltage breakdown and electrical discharges are outlined. Different types of electrical discharges are catalogued and their behaviour in environments ranging from air to vacuum are detailed. The importance of surfaces is discussed. The principles of designing electrodes and insulators are introduced. The use of high-voltage platforms and their relation to system design are discussed. The use of commercially available high-voltage technology such as connectors, feedthroughs and cables are considered. Different power supply technologies and their procurement are briefly outlined. High-voltage safety, electric shocks and system design rules are covered.

  4. Aspects, Wrappers and Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filman, Robert E.

    2003-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides information on Object Infrastructure Framework (OIF), an Aspect-Oriented Programming (AOP) system. The presentation begins with an introduction to the difficulties and requirements of distributed computing, including functional and non-functional requirements (ilities). The architecture of Distributed Object Technology includes stubs, proxies for implementation objects, and skeletons, proxies for client applications. The key OIF ideas (injecting behavior, annotated communications, thread contexts, and pragma) are discussed. OIF is an AOP mechanism; AOP is centered on: 1) Separate expression of crosscutting concerns; 2) Mechanisms to weave the separate expressions into a unified system. AOP is software engineering technology for separately expressing systematic properties while nevertheless producing running systems that embody these properties.

  5. ADTT safety aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thedeen, T.

    1997-01-01

    Beside the technical problems of ADTT which remain to be solved it is crucial for the ADTT progress that safety and economical aspects are considered already during the research and planning phases. Safety here stands for the converse of risk, negative consequences for human life and health and the environment together with the corresponding probabilities. The system to be considered includes all phases of an ADTT plant, a life cycle analysis (LCA). The risk analysis is useful for two purposes: comparison with other ways of handling nuclear waste, e.g. geological repository and for valuation of different construction designs. Due to lack of precise plans and adequate data the analysis will be more of a qualitative than quantitative type. The main risks appear in connection with repair and replacement work. 2 refs., 1 fig

  6. Legal aspects of dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pomarola, H.

    1976-01-01

    The use of ionizing radiations is regulated in France in all fields of application. The main principles governing inspection activities in the food industry are outlined. Conventional preservation methods are mentioned, after which a discussion is devoted to the preservation of food products by irradiation treatment and the increasing importance given to this technique. Consumer protection automatically implies the obligatory use of dosimetry by inspection organisms if the irradiated merchandise is likely to serve for human or animal consumption. Irradiation treatment permits are granted in a context of specific statutory texts mentioned here. Supervision is constant, but always both realistic and flexible. Each aspect of this treatment is discussed in maximum detail if not quite exhaustively, with special emphasis on dosimetry as an indispensable safety factor [fr

  7. Psychiatric aspects of burn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalal P

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Burn injuries and their subsequent treatment cause one of the most excruciating forms of pain imaginable. The psychological aspects of burn injury have been researched in different parts of the world, producing different outcomes. Studies have shown that greater levels of acute pain are associated with negative long-term psychological effects such as acute stress disorder, depression, suicidal ideation, and post-traumatic stress disorder for as long as 2 years after the initial burn injury. The concept of allostatic load is presented as a potential explanation for the relationship between acute pain and subsequent psychological outcomes. A biopsychosocial model is also presented as a means of obtaining better inpatient pain management and helping to mediate this relationship.

  8. ROBOTIC SURGERY: BIOETHICAL ASPECTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira-Batista, Rodrigo; Souza, Camila Ribeiro; Maia, Polyana Mendes; Siqueira, Sávio Lana

    2016-01-01

    The use of robots in surgery has been increasingly common today, allowing the emergence of numerous bioethical issues in this area. To present review of the ethical aspects of robot use in surgery. Search in Pubmed, SciELO and Lilacs crossing the headings "bioethics", "surgery", "ethics", "laparoscopy" and "robotic". Of the citations obtained, were selected 17 articles, which were used for the preparation of the article. It contains brief presentation on robotics, its inclusion in health and bioethical aspects, and the use of robots in surgery. Robotic surgery is a reality today in many hospitals, which makes essential bioethical reflection on the relationship between health professionals, automata and patients. A utilização de robôs em procedimentos cirúrgicos tem sido cada vez mais frequente na atualidade, o que permite a emergência de inúmeras questões bioéticas nesse âmbito. Apresentar revisão sobre os aspectos éticos dos usos de robôs em cirurgia. Realizou-se revisão nas bases de dados Pubmed, SciELO e Lilacs cruzando-se os descritores "bioética", "cirurgia", "ética", "laparoscopia" e "robótica". Do total de citações obtidas, selecionou-se 17 artigos, os quais foram utilizados para a elaboração do artigo. Ele contém breve apresentação sobre a robótica, sua inserção na saúde e os aspectos bioéticos da utilização dos robôs em procedimentos cirúrgicos. A cirurgia robótica é uma realidade, hoje, em muitas unidades hospitalares, o que torna essencial a reflexão bioética sobre as relações entre profissionais da saúde, autômatos e pacientes.

  9. Historical seismicity in Morocco: methodological aspects and cases of multidisciplinary evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elmrabet, T.; Ramdani, M.; Tadili, B.

    1989-05-01

    Within the framework of a cooperative agreement between Sofratome and the Office National d'Electricite of Morocco, the Centre National de la Recherche of Rabat, with the collaboration of the French Institut de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire, was put in charge of compiling a revised catalogue of the historical seismicity of Morocco. The method adopted calls for the participation of several different disciplines in view of situating each earthquake in its own geographical and historical context. The approach entails, during the first stage involving primarily the historian, gathering together the original sources of data and subjecting them to a critical analysis in order to assess their reliability. The second stage consists in interpreting the information so as to define those earthquake characteristics that are requisite to seismic hazard studies. This latter evaluation must be the fruit of a multidisciplinary effort. This is particularly true for earthquakes of past centuries, the observations of which are frequently incompatible or biased and accordingly need to be substantiated by referring to information of a varying nature and, wherever possible, calibrated using accurate data from recent events. In a number of instances, duplications are encountered, or lumped effects for distinct events due to calendar misreckonings, erroneous copying, or misconceptions relative to the geological or historical context. A particularly significant example of the interference of these diverse aspects is afforded by the assessment of the destructive effects in Morocco of the 1755 'Lisbon' earthquake: a method is proposed for calibrating its intensities by comparing them with those of the recent 1969 event of similar origin

  10. Astroparticle aspects of supersymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, John

    2001-01-01

    After recalling the motivations for expecting supersymmetry to appear at energies < or approx. 1 TeV, the reasons why the lightest supersymmetric particle is an ideal candidate for cold dark matter are reviewed from a historical perspective. Recent calculations of the relic density including coannihilations and rapid annihilations through direct-channel Higgs boson poles are presented. The experimental constraints from LEP and elsewhere on supersymmetric dark matter are reviewed, and the prospects for its indirect or direct detection are mentioned. The potential implications of a Higgs boson weighing about 115 GeV and the recent measurement of the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon are summarized

  11. Astroparticle Aspects of Supersymmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, Jonathan Richard

    2001-01-01

    After recalling the motivations for expecting supersymmetry to appear at energies below 1 TeV, the reasons why the lightest supersymmetric particle is an ideal candidate for cold dark matter are reviewed from a historical perspective. Recent calculations of the relic density including coannihilations and rapid annihilations through direct-channel Higgs boson poles are presented. The experimental constraints from LEP and elsewhere on supersymmetric dark matter are reviewed, and the prospects for its indirect or direct detection are mentioned. The potential implications of a Higgs boson weighing about 115 GeV and the recent measurement of the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon are summarized.

  12. The United States Atomic Energy Commission Programme of Nuclear Materials Management; Le Programme de Gestion des Matieres Nucleaires Applique par L'USAEC; Programma komissii po atomnoj ehnergii ssha v oblasti obrashcheniya s yadernymi materialami; El Programa de Administracion de Materiales Nucleares de la Comision de Energia Atomica de los Estados Unidos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George, D. E. [United States Atomic Energy Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1966-02-15

    Nuclear materials management as conceived by the US Atomic Energy Commission is defined and its development traced from 1943 to the present time. The general programme is outlined and its principal features discussed. Emphasis is placed on administration of those portions of the USAEC programme which pertain to the development and maintenance of quantity data, the establishment of internal controls and the evaluation of performance. The current techniques whereby transfer data are recorded and processed within the USAEC are discussed in some detail, as are the techniques for presentation of material balance reports which periodically summarize the transactions and the results of operations. The techniques used by the USAEC to ascertain the effectiveness of the nuclear materials management programmes of its operating contractors are also discussed. In addition to material being held by contractors which operate USAEC-owned plants and laboratories, there are large quantities of special nuclear material held under a wide variety of financial and administrative arrangements, e.g. under lease, private ownership, under contract with the USAEC where the user is financially liable for losses, as well as those where the risk of losses is taken by the USAEC. This divergence of circumstances causes significant variation in the emphasis and approach used by the AEC and this variation is noted. A brief summary of unresolved problem areas concludes the presentation. (author) [French] L'auteur definit la gestion des matieres nucleaires telle qu'elle est concue par l'USAEC et decrit son evolution depuis 1943 jusqu'a nos jours. Il expose le programme general et discute ses principales caracteristiques. Le memoire souligne les aspects administratifs des parties du programme qui ont trait a la preparation et la tenue a jour des donnees relatives aux quantites, a l'application de controles internes et a l'evaluation de l'efficacite des mesures prises. L'auteur commente en detail la

  13. Aspects of B decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faller, Sven

    2011-01-01

    B-meson decays are a good probe for testing the flavour sector of the standard model of particle physics. The standard model describes at present all experimental data satisfactorily, although some ''tensions'' exist, i.e. two to three sigma deviations from the predictions, in particular in B decays. The arguments against the standard model are thus purely theoretical. These tensions between experimental data and theoretical predictions provide an extension of the standard model by new physics contributions. Within the flavour sector main theoretical uncertainties are related to the hadronic matrix elements. For exclusive semileptonic anti B → D (*) l anti ν decays QCD sum rule techniques, which are suitable for studying hadronic matrix elements, however, with substantial, but estimable hadronic uncertainties, are used. The exploration of new physics effects in B-meson decays is done in an twofold way. In exclusive semileptonic anti B → D (*) l anti ν decays the effect of additional right-handed vector as well as left- and right-handed scalar and tensor hadronic current structures in the decay rates and the form factors are studied at the non-recoil point. As a second approach one studied the non-leptonic B 0 s →J/ψφ and B 0 →J/ψK S,L decays discussing CP violating effects in the time-dependent decay amplitudes by considering new physics phase in the B 0 - anti B 0 mixing phase. (orig.)

  14. Aspect Βased Classification Model for Social Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Mir

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Aspect based opinion mining investigates deeply, the emotions related to one’s aspects. Aspects and opinion word identification is the core task of aspect based opinion mining. In previous studies aspect based opinion mining have been applied on service or product domain. Moreover, product reviews are short and simple whereas, social reviews are long and complex. However, this study introduces an efficient model for social reviews which classifies aspects and opinion words related to social domain. The main contributions of this paper are auto tagging and data training phase, feature set definition and dictionary usage. Proposed model results are compared with CR model and Naïve Bayes classifier on same dataset having accuracy 98.17% and precision 96.01%, while recall and F1 are 96.00% and 96.01% respectively. The experimental results show that the proposed model performs better than the CR model and Naïve Bayes classifier.

  15. Psychiatric Aspects of Infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hacer Sezgin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Infertility can be defined as a crisis with cultural, religious, and class related aspects, which coexists with medical, psychiatric, psychological, and social problems. Relation between psychiatric and psychological factors stem from a mutual interaction of both. Family is an important institution in maintaining human existence and raising individuals in line with society's expectations. Fertility and reproduction are seen as universal functions unique to women with raising children as the expected result of the family institution. Incidence of infertility has increased recently and can become a life crisis for a couple. Even though not being able to have a child affects both sexes emotionally, women feel greater amounts of stress, pressure, anxiety, and depression.Consequences of infertility arise from short and long-term devastating effects on both individual's physical and mental health, and marital system. Many studies focus on infertility related psychological and psychiatric disorders (depression, anxiety, grief, marital conflict, gender differences, relation between the causes of infertility and psychopathology, the effects of psychiatric evaluation and intervention -when necessaryon the course of infertility treatment, pregnancy rates, and childbirth. The most important underlying causes of high levels of stress and anxiety that infertile women experience are the loss of maternity, reproduction, sense of self, and genetic continuity. In this review article is to investigate the relationship between medically unexplained symptoms and psychiatric symptoms. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2014; 6(2.000: 165-185

  16. Gestational surrogacy: Psychosocial aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolás Ruiz-Robledillo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Innovation in assisted reproductive technologies together with increased infertility and new family structures are increasing the use of gestational surrogacy as a means to have children. Before, during and after the process, it is necessary to study the psychosocial characteristics of triad members: the gestational surrogate, intended parents, and offspring. Research has indicated positive adaptation to the process and benefits for all members of the triad. Altruism is the main motivation of surrogates. Notably, psychological well-being has been found to be higher in individuals who have become parents through surrogacy than in those who have used egg donation or have followed a natural process of conception. Moreover, no differences in psychosocial characteristics have been observed in the offspring, compared with children born through natural conception or egg donation. Results highlight the positive aspects of surrogacy. Future research should investigate psychosocial factors that modulate the process, acting as risk and protective factors for well-being of the triad members, and identify the optimal profiles of surrogates for the process to be a success.

  17. Epistemological risk aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardashkin I.B.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers risk in the context of the main characteristics of non-classical epistemology. It states that non-classical epistemology is characterized by transformation, according to which the major priority of cognitive activity shifts the focus from the present to the past. In this situation a subject is keen not on what he or she has learnt but on what can be learnt. Truth being a crucial criterion of scientific knowledge is becoming of less priority, while risk is becoming more and more significant and acts as one of the major epistemology measurements. Risk is gaining the status of epistemological phenomenon, which shows a growing degree of uncertainty as a cognitive process background and the necessity for a subject to learn the world (make decisions under the conditions of uncertainty degree strengthening. The author states that risk is a comprehensive notion and it obtains a base value for all other aspects of its application, specifically, in the role of epistemological phenomenon.

  18. Neutronic and thermalhydraulic aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, J.B. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Dept. de Mecanique et de Technologie; Bergeonneau, P. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. d`Etudes des Reacteurs

    1995-12-31

    Precise computation of neutron flux in the core of a nuclear reactor represents one of the basic aspects of reactor design and operation. Neutron flux is computed by solving Boltzmann`s linear equation. Anyway, the direct solution of the equation involves too great a number of operations for practical application, leading up to TeraFlops or even PetaFlops supercomputing capabilities. Physical and mathematical models are then required to handle the extensive variety of configurations encountered. Numerical methods must be adapted to the rapid evolution of computer power, as also computer architecture: sequential, vector or parallel. Physical and mathematical models must allow for very fast estimation for online control and monitoring, adequate quantification for industrial studies and high-precision, best estimate computations. Coupling of neutronics to mechanics and two-phase flow thermohydraulics must be implemented in order to improve the accuracy in best-estimate computation schemes and to take into account the transient behaviour of the plant during normal operation or incidents. In this field of continuous improvement, the new methods applied in Reactor Physics lead obviously to good results and provide the improvements required in the future for the needs of efficiency, safety and advanced fuel cycle. This trend and the ``evolutionary`` implementation in large and modular software systems will be illustrated by the example of the SAPHYR system. (authors). 3 tabs.

  19. Neutronic and thermalhydraulic aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, J.B.; Bergeonneau, P.

    1995-01-01

    Precise computation of neutron flux in the core of a nuclear reactor represents one of the basic aspects of reactor design and operation. Neutron flux is computed by solving Boltzmann's linear equation. Anyway, the direct solution of the equation involves too great a number of operations for practical application, leading up to TeraFlops or even PetaFlops supercomputing capabilities. Physical and mathematical models are then required to handle the extensive variety of configurations encountered. Numerical methods must be adapted to the rapid evolution of computer power, as also computer architecture: sequential, vector or parallel. Physical and mathematical models must allow for very fast estimation for online control and monitoring, adequate quantification for industrial studies and high-precision, best estimate computations. Coupling of neutronics to mechanics and two-phase flow thermohydraulics must be implemented in order to improve the accuracy in best-estimate computation schemes and to take into account the transient behaviour of the plant during normal operation or incidents. In this field of continuous improvement, the new methods applied in Reactor Physics lead obviously to good results and provide the improvements required in the future for the needs of efficiency, safety and advanced fuel cycle. This trend and the ''evolutionary'' implementation in large and modular software systems will be illustrated by the example of the SAPHYR system. (authors). 3 tabs

  20. HISTORICAL ASPECTS OF PHALLOPLASTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. S. Kyzlasov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Reconstruction of the penis in transgender operations, amputation of the penis, congenital deformities and anomalies of the penis was and remains today an important issue in plastic surgery of the urogenital region. The only method to restore the penis is phalloplasty. In general, over the past decades, generations of clinicians have different ways and flaps for total fallouretheral reconstruction. Thus was formulated the characteristics of an ideal flap for the formation of neophallos, which should be safe, sensitive, without hair, and with long leg. However, despite the fact that the characteristics of a perfect flap, nowadays there is no “gold standard” in the formation of neophallos, as phalloplasty is a fairly complicated surgery, and the choice of method depends on many factors. The choice of methodology is determined by the plastics surgeon and to each patient is individual, depends on the etiology of the disease and the possibility of choosing the form of the donor’s transplant. This article presents a literature review devoted to the historical aspects of phalloplasty. In the article, in chronological order reflected the evolution of the different forming methods neofallos, phallourethrоplasty, describes their advantages and disadvantages.

  1. [Economic aspects of epilepsy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argumosa, A; Herranz, J L

    2000-06-01

    The economic magnitude of epilepsy is determined by its effect on the employment status of the patients, the cost of drug treatment for them and the healthcare system and the repercussion worldwide. Studies of the cost of the disease show that it has economic importance due to the sum of the direct and indirect costs caused by it. In the case of epilepsy, the results of studies in various countries led to the creation of a Commission on Economic Aspects of Epilepsy. The lack of epidemiological studies regarding epilepsy in Spain may explain the lack of publications on this subject in our country. The percentage of the total cost due to antiepileptic drugs is considerable and will probably increase in the future. The pharmaco-economic evaluation made by cost-benefit, cost-effectiveness, cost-usefulness analysis and studies to minimize costs should serve to use healthcare resources in the most effective manner and justify the rational use of the new antiepileptic drugs. The economic impact of epilepsy is added to the repercussion of the disease itself on the patient and his family. The different distribution of costs in children and adults with epilepsy suggest the need for intervention at an early age to try to reduce the long term economic and personal repercussions. The pharmaco-economic evaluation of the new antiepileptic drugs will make it clear whether their considerable cost is worth paying for their greater effectivity.

  2. Electrical aspects of rainout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenkilde, C.E.

    1981-01-01

    Rainout commonly denotes the aggregate of phenomena associated with precipitation scavenging of radioactivity from a cloud of nuclear debris that is within a natural rain cloud. (In contrast, the term, washout, is applicable when the nuclear cloud is below the rain cloud and the term, fallout, commonly denotes the direct gravitational settling of contaminated solid material from a nuclear cloud.) Nuclear debris aerosols may be scavenged within natural clouds by a variety of different physical processes which may involve diffusion, convection, impaction, nucleation, phoresis, turbulence, and/or electricity among others. Processes which involve electrical aspects are scrutinized for their susceptibility to the intimate presence of the radioactive-cloud environment. This particular choice of electrical processes is not accidental. Nearly all of the listed processes were examined earlier by Williams. His rough estimates suggested that electrical effects, and to a lesser extent turbulence, could enhance the scavenging of those submicron aerosols which reside in the size-range that bridges the minimum in the scavenging rate coefficient which is commonly called the Greenfield gap. This minimum in the scavenging-rate coefficient is created by the simultaneous reduction of scavenging via diffusion and the reduction of scavenging via inertial impaction. However, Williams omitted the specific influence of a radioactive environment. This report aims to remedy this omission

  3. Professional Nuclear Materials Management; Gestion Industrielle des Matieres Nucleaires; Obrashchenie s yadernymi materialami na professional'nom urovne; Administracion Eficiente de Materiales Nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forcella, A. A.; O' Leary, W. J. [Allis-Chalmers Manufacturing Company, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    1966-02-15

    . (author) [French] Le memoire expose en quoi consiste la gestion des matieres nucleaires dans une centrale nucleaire type, aux Etats-Unis. Comme le reacteur en question est partiellement finance a l'aide de capitaux prives, l'une des principales obligations de l'exploitant est d'assurer la protection et la rentabilite des investissements. Etant donne que les matieres nucleaires sont d'une valeur intrinseque elevee, il faut constamment proceder a des controles appropries allant au-dela des mesures de securite et de la comptabilite interessant les matieresnucleaires proprement dites afin de reduire les pertes au minimum. Il faut faire preuve de clairvoyance et planifier judicieusement pour prevenir toute perte supplementaire de capital provenant de frais inutiles ou d'un manque a gagner dans divers secteurs de l'exploitation. C'est ainsi que le gestionnaire de matieres nucleaires doit prendre des dispositions pour garantir la bonne marche des operations et assurer le respect des plans d'execution par une liaison et un controle constants, dans les domaines suivants? a) acquisition du combustible et des elements combustibles, b) utilisation des elements combustibles dans le reacteur et c) recuperation, dans le combustible irradie, des produits et matieres presentant de l'interet. Pendant la periode qui precede l'utilisation du reacteur, il faut faire une place importante dans la planification et les travaux preparatoires aux considerations d'economie dans la conception des elements combustibles, en ce qui concerne leur fabrication, leur manutention, leur transport et leur remplacement. Les differentes etapes de la fabrication doivent etre planifiees de facon a reduire au minimum le manque a gagner du a des periodes improductives d'entreposage de matieres tres couteuses. Pendant la marche du reacteur, il faut assurer une combustion maximale de la matiere fissile par des redistributions appropriees du combustible dans le coeur du reacteur. Parallelement, les temps morts dus a

  4. The pulsed neutron method applied to the determination of the nuclear constants of graphite (1961); La methode des neutrons pulses appliquee a la determination des constantes nucleaires du graphite (1961)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lalande, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    A method for determining the nuclear constants {sigma}{sub a} and {lambda}{sub t} of a moderator is described. The disappearance of a burst of neutrons introduced into a finite medium is studied as a function of time. This decrease in the thermal neutron density is the product of two exponentials; one representing the absorption, the other the leakage. By varying one or other of these factors, the constants of the factor left unvaried can be determined, and from this the nuclear constant values are deduced. (author) [French] On decrit une methode permettant de determiner les constantes nucleaires {sigma}{sub a} et {lambda}{sub t} d'un moderateur. On etudie la decroissance dans le temps d'une bouffee de neutrons introduite dans un milieu fini. Cette decroissance de la densite en neutrons thermiques est le produit de deux exponentielles; l'une represente l'absorption, l'autre les fuites. Par variation de l'un ou l'autre de ces facteurs, on determine les constantes du facteur laisse invariant dont on deduit les valeurs des constantes nucleaires. (auteur)

  5. General problems arising from the analogical resolution of the kinetic equations of nuclear reactors (1961); Problemes generaux poses par la resolution analogique des equations cinetiques des reacteurs nucleaires (1961)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caillet, C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    The author reviews precisely the analogical techniques used for the resolution of the kinetic equations of nuclear reactors. Prior to this, he recalls the reasons which oblige physicians and engineers, even today, to use electronic machines in this domain. The author then considers the technological problems posed by the range of values which the various nuclear parameters adopt. In each case, he shows that a compromise is possible allowing an optimum precision. He compares the results to those obtained by arithmetic calculation and uses the examples chosen in a critical analysis of the present possibilities of the two methods of calculation. (author) [French] L'auteur cherche a faire un point aussi exact que possible des techniques analogiques utilisees pour resoudre les equations cinetiques des reacteurs nucleaires. Il rappelle auparavant les raisons pour lesquelles physiciens et ingenieurs sont obliges, encore aujourd'hui, de faire appel aux machines electroniques dans ce domaine. Puis il etudie les problemes technologiques que souleve le champ des valeurs prises par les differents parametres nucleaires. Dans chacun des cas, il montre l'existence d'un compromis qui permet d'atteindre une precision optimum. Il compare les resultats obtenus a ceux provenant de calculateurs arithmetiques et profite des exemples choisis pour faire une analyse critique des possibilites actuelles offertes par les deux modes de calcul. (auteur)

  6. Intoxicação experimental pelas favas de Stryphnodendron obovatum (Leg. Mimosoideae em bovinos. 1. Caracterização do quadro clínico Experimental poisoning by the burs of Stryphnodendron obovatum (Leg. Mimosoideae in cattle. 1. Clinical aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilene F. Brito

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de melhor caracterizar o quadro clínico na intoxicação experimental por Stryphnodendron obovatum Benth., procedeu-se a administração das favas, por via oral, a seis bovinos, em doses únicas e a 11 outros, em doses repetidas. Doses únicas de 10 e 20g/kg não provocaram sintomas. Doses únicas de 30 e 40g/kg provocaram quadros clínicos desde leves até graves, porém só morreu o animal que ingeriu 60g/kg. Os animais que ingeriram doses repetidas de 2,5g/kg por 30 dias adoeceram levemente, já os que receberam 5g/kg durante 13 e 14 dias mostraram sintomatologia moderada e grave, respectivamente. Um bovino que recebeu 10g/kg por 8 dias, outro que ingeriu 20g/kg por 3 dias e dois outros que receberam 30 e 40g/kg por 2 dias morreram da intoxicação. Os outros três bovinos que receberam doses repetidas (dois com doses de 10g/kg por 20 e 6 dias, outro com dose de 20 g/kg por 2 dias adoeceram, mas se recuperaram. Os primeiros sintomas de intoxicação, em ambos os grupos, foram observados a partir do primeiro dia do experimento e a evolução variou de 3 a 63 dias. Os sintomas consistiram em anorexia, fezes levemente ressecadas a líquidas, distensão do abdômen, sem timpanismo, perda de fluido ruminal durante a ruminação, atonia e acidose ruminal, cólica, sialorréia, apatia, emagrecimento, fraqueza, erosões e úlceras na cavidade oral. Em alguns animais foram observadas congestão de mucosas visíveis (sem icterícia e de partes despigmentadas da pele, do córion laminar e da região interdigital dos quatro membros, áreas de alopecia focal e/ou hipotricose nas regiões axilares, na face lateral das coxas e membros e perda dos pêlos da ponta da cauda, alterações estas que podem ser interpretadas como as de leve fotossensibilização. Em três bovinos se observaram relaxamento intermitente do prepúcio, micção freqüente e em gotejamento e, por vezes, gemidos ao eliminar a urina que, em geral, se apresentava turva,

  7. The french nuclear industry is looking for an american partner; Le nucleaire francais cherche un allie americain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    In the same time of the nuclear industry revival in USA by the President Bush, TOPCO the holding society which is going to group the main french nuclear society, is looking for an american partner. This report deals with the economic and political aspects of the situation. (A.L.B.)

  8. Nuclear physics: Macroscopic aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swiatecki, W.J.

    1993-12-01

    A systematic macroscopic, leptodermous approach to nuclear statics and dynamics is described, based formally on the assumptions ℎ → 0 and b/R << 1, where b is the surface diffuseness and R the nuclear radius. The resulting static model of shell-corrected nuclear binding energies and deformabilities is accurate to better than 1 part in a thousand and yields a firm determination of the principal properties of the nuclear fluid. As regards dynamics, the above approach suggests that nuclear shape evolutions will often be dominated by dissipation, but quantitative comparisons with experimental data are more difficult than in the case of statics. In its simplest liquid drop version the model exhibits interesting formal connections to the classic astronomical problem of rotating gravitating masses

  9. Aspects of B decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faller, Sven

    2011-03-04

    B-meson decays are a good probe for testing the flavour sector of the standard model of particle physics. The standard model describes at present all experimental data satisfactorily, although some ''tensions'' exist, i.e. two to three sigma deviations from the predictions, in particular in B decays. The arguments against the standard model are thus purely theoretical. These tensions between experimental data and theoretical predictions provide an extension of the standard model by new physics contributions. Within the flavour sector main theoretical uncertainties are related to the hadronic matrix elements. For exclusive semileptonic anti B {yields} D{sup (*)}l anti {nu} decays QCD sum rule techniques, which are suitable for studying hadronic matrix elements, however, with substantial, but estimable hadronic uncertainties, are used. The exploration of new physics effects in B-meson decays is done in an twofold way. In exclusive semileptonic anti B {yields} D{sup (*)}l anti {nu} decays the effect of additional right-handed vector as well as left- and right-handed scalar and tensor hadronic current structures in the decay rates and the form factors are studied at the non-recoil point. As a second approach one studied the non-leptonic B{sup 0}{sub s}{yields}J/{psi}{phi} and B{sup 0}{yields}J/{psi}K{sub S,L} decays discussing CP violating effects in the time-dependent decay amplitudes by considering new physics phase in the B{sup 0}- anti B{sup 0} mixing phase. (orig.)

  10. Cultural Aspects of Suicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hari D. Maharajh

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Undefined cultural factors cannot be dismissed and significantly contribute to the worldwide incidence of death by suicide. Culture is an all embracing term and defines the relationship of an individual to his environment. This study seeks to investigate the effect of culture on suicide both regionally and internationally. Culture-bound syndrome with suicidal behaviours specific to a particular culture or geographical region are discussed. Opinions are divided as to the status of religious martyrs. The law itself is silent on many aspects of suicidal behaviour and despite decriminalization of suicide as self-murder, the latter remains on the statutes of many developing countries. The Caribbean region is of concern due to its steady rise in mean suicide rate, especially in Trinidad and Tobago where socio-cultural factors are instrumental in influencing suicidal behaviour. These include transgenerational cultural conflicts, psycho-social problems, media exposure, unemployment, social distress, religion and family structure. The methods used are attributed to accessibility and lethality. Ingestion of poisonous substances is most popular followed by hanging. The gender differences seen with regard to suicidality can also be attributed to gender related psychopathology and psychosocial differences in help-seeking behaviour. These are influenced by the cultural environment to which the individual is exposed. Culture provides coping strategies to individuals; as civilization advances many of these coping mechanisms are lost unclothing the genetic predisposition of vulnerable groups. In the management of suicidal behaviour, a system of therapeutic re-culturation is needed with an emphasis on relevant culture- based therapies.

  11. SOCIAL ASPECTS OF COMPETITIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klimova A. V.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important conditions of the existence of every organization, every enterprise is to insure the long-term sustainable development, one of the conditions of which is the increase of an organizational competitiveness. In modern economic conditions, social aspects of competitiveness are now in the foreground of interest, because just the strategy of social responsibility (SSR of modern enterprises can assure some commercial benefits, in responding, at the same time, to the social demands and in creating its well-being. Such an approach is in the basis of the notion of competitiveness. Along with «rigid parameters», such as price characteristics, the capability to deal with competitors, effective financial and production policies, «flexible factors» of competitiveness are of a big importance: a personnel potential, individual and collective competencies, organizational and managerial capabilities. As a result, we have formulated a research hypothesis: the organizational competitiveness is defined by individual and collective competencies of an organization, is based on socially responsible actions, confirms the demand for the object and insures its sustainable long-term development. Any organization should base all its actions aimed to increase its competitiveness on its intellectual potential, or on the management of individual and collective competencies that assure the sustainable development and the goal achievement. For every organizational strategic action, an effective combination of these competencies exists. So, we suggest a new definition of competitiveness: it is a social and economic category of understanding of the social responsibility, having as a central element individual and collective competencies, based on socially responsible actions of an enterprise, insuring its long-term sustainable development.

  12. INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION: PSYCHOLINGUISTIC ASPECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitrofanova, I.I.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article considers language as the organization of the speech of any person in any situation, without which it is impossible to characterize the internal structure of the speech stream. Language is exactly a system of guidelines necessary for the activity in the social world. Communication is primarily nothing but as a way of making one or another correction in the image of the interlocutor’s world. In order for a language to serve as a means of communication, it must have a single or a similar understanding of reality behind it. Conversely, the unity of understanding the reality and the unity of coherence presuppose the possibility of adequate communication. A mandatory component of communication is the communicative act, that is, the act of sharing information between people. The speech, i.e. the natural sound language is an important means of conveying information that defines this aspect of the communication process as verbal communication. The idea of dialogue as the space, in which the exchange of information takes place, is defined as initial. Essentially, it is the dialogue that in this case acts as the backbone principle in dealing with problems of language. It is here that the essence of social and psychological transition to the analysis of communication is most visibly concentrated. An individual essentially "lives" in the world of Another person’s worlds, and studying the words of this person, he or she studies the "world" of Another person. Thus, the dialogue is not merely the interaction (verbal with another person, but, ultimately, the interaction with the world of culture.

  13. Sociological aspects of rhinoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babuccu, Orhan; Latifoğlu, Osman; Atabay, Kenan; Oral, Nursen; Coşan, Behçet

    2003-01-01

    Although the psychological aspect of the rhinoplasty operation has been a subject of interest for a long time, with the exception of a few studies, sociological factors have been almost totally ignored. In this prospective study the personality characteristics and socioeconomic backgrounds of 216 rhinoplasty patients were evaluated. Between 1994 and 2000, a questionnaire and the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) were given preoperatively to 157 females and 59 males. The MMPI was also given to age-matched people as a control. Six months after surgery, patients were called on the telephone and asked to rate their satisfaction. According to questionnaire, a great majority of the rhinoplasty patients were young, unmarried women with high education levels. In the rhinoplasty group, one or more scales of the inventory were not in the normal ranges in 45% of the patients, whereas this proportion in the control group was 28% (p childish, highly active, impulsive, competitive, reactive, perfectionistic about themselves, talkative, and emotionally superficial. Male patients could be described as rigid, stubborn, over-sensitive, suspicious, perfectionistic, pessimistic, over-reactive, and having somatizations. Tension and anxiety with feelings of inferiority were found to be characteristics of the male patients. The satisfaction rate after six months was reported as 72%. There was no significant correlation between MMPI results and demographic variables, nor satisfaction rate. In conclusion, the rhinoplasty patients in our study are young people at the very beginning of their careers. It could be that their personalities and socioeconomic backgrounds combine to make aesthetic surgery rewarding enough, both socially and personally, to encourage them to follow through.

  14. Pointing Out Main Factors from Design, Construction and Operating Experience of Existing Nuclear Plants for Assisting in Shaping Future Nuclear Power Programmes; Les principaux criteres degages de l'etude, de la construction et de l'exploitation des centrales nucleaires existantes et leur interet pour l'elaboration des futurs programmes d'energie d'origine nucleaire; Ukazanie osnovnykh faktorov proektirovaniya, stroitel'stva i opyta ehkspluatatsii sushchestvuyutsikh atomnykh ehlektrostantsij, chto dolzhno pomoch' pri sostavlenii budushchikh programm atomnoj ehnergetiki; Principales consideraciones relativas al diseno, construccion y explotacion de centrales nucleares, encaminadas a facilitar la preparacion de programas futuros de energia nucleoelectrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalla Volta, F. [Comitato Nazionale per l' Energia Nucleare, Rome (Italy)

    1963-10-15

    enseignements qui ont ete fournis, aux points de vue technique et economique, par l'etude, la construction et l'exploitation des premieres centrales nucleaires, et qui peuvent etre particulierement utiles pour l'implantation de nouvelles centrales de ce genre dans l'avenir, notamment eu egard aux conditions qui regnent en Italie. La technologie actuelle des reacteurs et les progres qu'elle continue de faire revelent une tendance marquee vers la reduction du cout, non seulement des cycles de combustible, mais aussi des elements de la centrale. Cette evolution se trouve d'ailleurs favorisee par la tendance croissante a construire des centrales plus grandes et par le fait que l'etude du developpement du reseau electrique semble indiquer que, sur le plan economique, il y a plus d' avantage ainstaller des centrales nucleaires plus puissantes que d'augmenter la puissance des centrales classiques. Se fondant sur l'experience acquise concernant l'etu de, la construction et l'essai des divers types de centrales existantes, l'auteur donne un apercu des principaux facteurs dont il convient de tenir compte lors de l'etablissement des programmes futurs. Il insiste sur le probleme de l'isolement, vu les incidences favorables que peut avoir sur le choix du site de la centrale la mise au point d'ecrans de protection tres surs, qui puissent etre construits sans augmentation sensible du prix de revient, en tirant notamment parti, pour resoudre certains aspects de ce probleme, des conditions particulieres qui se trouvent reunies en Italie. Quant a l'experience du fonctionnement de certaines centrales d'un modele eprouve, l'auteur examine dans quelle mesure ces installations peuvent etre construites sans difficulte et satisfaire la demande du reseau; il se refere ici egalement au role croissant qu'il est prevu d'attribuer a l'energie d'origine nucleaire en Italie. Enfin, l'auteur souligne a quel point le rassemblement et l'interpretation des donnees relatives aux trois centrales, qui doivent

  15. General trends in the use of uranium in the nuclear industry; Tendances generales d'emploi de l'uranium dans les industries nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salesse, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    It can be seen from a consideration of the development of the military and civil needs for uranium that, in the long run, the main outlet for the metal will be provided by its industrial applications. The technical uncertainties concerning the best method of producing atomic energy are still numerous and in fact reflect the hesitation in choosing one of two classes of fuel: that based on the metal and that based on the oxide. Four main factors should influence the choice: - the neutron reactivity and the enrichment of the uranium; - the operating temperature; - the resistance to radiation effects; - the chemical stability; but in actual fact, when the choice for a particular use has to be made, it will be another type of factor, such as the cost price, and weight and space considerations which will determine the choice of either metallic uranium or uranium oxide reactors. (author) [French] D'apres le developpement des besoins militaires ou civils en uranium, on voit que les usages industriels de ce metal constituent, a long terme, le debouche essentiel. Les incertitudes techniques, sur le procede optimum pour faire de l'energie nucleaire, restent nombreuses, et se traduisent finalement par une hesitation entre deux grandes classes de combustibles: ceux a base de metal et ceux a base d'oxyde: la preference a l'une ou l'autre de ces deux categories doit s'inspirer de quatre considerations: - la reactivite neutronique et l'enrichissement de l'uranium; - la temperature de fonctionnement; - la resistance aux effets du rayonnement; - la stabilite chimique; mais en definitive, lorsqu'il s'agira d'une application determinee, ce seront des considerations d'un autre ordre, comme le prix de revient, le poids et l'encombrement, qui determineront le choix entre piles a uranium metallique et piles a oxyde d'uranium. (auteur)

  16. The design and construction of a nuclear free-precession magnetometer; Etude et realisation d'un magnetometre a precession libre nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baconnier, Y [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-10-15

    After presenting the advantages of nuclear magnetic resonance with respect to electromagnetic processes, as far as the measurement of the earths' magnetic field is concerned, we deal with the macroscopic theory for the Bloch model and analyse Packard and Varions' experiment. The development of a particular absolute free-precession magnetometer is studied, and the conditions are determined for obtaining a maximum amplitude signal as a function of the geometrical form of the detector coil, of the method of cut-off, and of the coupling between various parts of the system. After having described in detail the technology of amplifiers, we consider the problem of the measurement of the frequency of precession for which an original solution, of analogy form, is proposed and discussed. Complete plans of the equipment are given in an appendix. (author) [French] Apres avoir presente les avantages de la resonance magnetique nucleaire relativement aux procedes electromagnetiques, en ce qui concerne la mesure du champ magnetique terrestre, on traite de la theorie macroscopique dans le modele de Bloch et analyse l'experience de Packard et Varian. On etudie une realisation particuliere d'un magnetometre absolu a precession libre et determine les conditions d'obtention d'un signal d'amplitude maximale en fonction de la forme geometrique du bobinage detecteur, de la methode de coupure, et du couplage entre les differents elements du montage. Apres avoir decrit en detail la technologie des amplificateurs, on aborde le probleme de la mesure de la frequence de precession, pour laquelle une solution originale, sous forme analogique, est proposee et discutee. En annexe est joint un dossier complet des plans de la realisation. (auteur)

  17. Contribution to the study of nuclear fuel materials with a metallic uranium base; Contribution a l'etude des materiaux combustibles nucleaires a base d'uranium metallique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Englander, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1957-11-15

    In a power reactor destined to supply industrially recoverable thermal energy, the most economical source of heat still consists of natural metallic uranium. However, the nuclear fuel material, most often employed in the form of rods of 20 to 40 mm diameter, is subjected to a series of stresses which lead to irreversible distortions usually incompatible with the substructure of the reactor. As a result the fuel material must possess at the outset a certain number of qualities which must be determined. Investigations have therefore been carried out, first on the technological characters peculiar to each of the three allotropic phases of pure uranium metal, and on their interactions on the stabilisation of the material which consists of either cast uranium or uranium pile-treated in the {gamma} phase. (author) [French] Dans un reacteur de puissance destine a fournir de l'energie thermique industriellement recuperable, la source de chaleur la plus economique reste constituee par de l'uranium metallique naturel. Or, le materiau combustible nucleaire, employe le plus souvent sous forme de barreaux de 20 a 40 mm de diametre, se trouve soumis a un ensemble de contraintes qui provoque des deformations irreversibles, le plus souvent incompatibles avec l'infrastructure du reacteur. Par consequent, le materiau combustible doit presenter a l'origine un certain nombre de qualites qu'il est necessaire de determiner. Aussi a-t-on d'abord etudie les caracteres technologiques propres a chacune des trois phases allotropiques de l'uranium-metal pur et leurs interactions sur la stabilisation du materiau constitue soit par de l'uranium coule, soit par de l'uranium traite en pile en phase {gamma}. (auteur)

  18. Large Aspect Ratio Tokamak Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, R.L.; Holmes, J.A.; Houlberg, W.A.; Peng, Y.K.M.; Strickler, D.J.; Brown, T.G.; Wiseman, G.W.

    1980-06-01

    The Large Aspect Ratio Tokamak Study (LARTS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) investigated the potential for producing a viable longburn tokamak reactor by enhancing the volt-second capability of the ohmic heating transformer through the use of high aspect ratio designs. The plasma physics, engineering, and economic implications of high aspect ratio tokamaks were assessed in the context of extended burn operation. Using a one-dimensional transport code plasma startup and burn parameters were addressed. The pulsed electrical power requirements for the poloidal field system, which have a major impact on reactor economics, were minimized by optimizing the startup and shutdown portions of the tokamak cycle. A representative large aspect ratio tokamak with an aspect ratio of 8 was found to achieve a burn time of 3.5 h at capital cost only approx. 25% greater than that of a moderate aspect ratio design tokamak

  19. QCD-instantons at LHC. Theoretical aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petermann, M.

    2007-06-01

    Instantons are nonperturbative, topologically nontrivial field configurations, which occur in every nonabelian gauge theory. They can be understood as tunneling processes between topologically distinct vacua. Although being a basic theoretical aspect of the Standard Model, a direct experimental verification of instanton processes is still lacking. In this thesis the general discovery potential for QCD-instantons at the LHC is studied in detail by means of instanton perturbation theory. In this context the close correspondence between the leading instanton induced processes at HERA and at LHC becomes important. Essential aspects and differences to deep inelastic scattering can already be revealed by studying the simplest process. Based on these results inclusive cross sections are calculated including the emission of final state gluons. Compared to deep inelastic scattering, a large enhancement of the cross section is found. (orig.)

  20. Obesity: epigenetic aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushik, Prashant; Anderson, James T

    2016-06-01

    Epigenetics, defined as inheritable and reversible phenomena that affect gene expression without altering the underlying base pair sequence has been shown to play an important role in the etiopathogenesis of obesity. Obesity is associated with extensive gene expression changes in tissues throughout the body. Epigenetics is emerging as perhaps the most important mechanism through which the lifestyle-choices we make can directly influence the genome. Considerable epidemiological, experimental and clinical data have been amassed showing that the risk of developing disease in later life is dependent on early life conditions, mainly operating within the normative range of developmental exposures. In addition to the 'maternal' interactions, there has been increasing interest in the epigenetic mechanisms through which 'paternal' influences on offspring development can be achieved. Nutrition, among many other environmental factors, is a key player that can induce epigenetic changes not only in the directly exposed organisms but also in subsequent generations through the transgenerational inheritance of epigenetic traits. Overall, significant progress has been made in the field of epigenetics and obesity and the first potential epigenetic markers for obesity that could be detected at birth have been identified. Fortunately, epigenetic phenomena are dynamic and rather quickly reversible with intensive lifestyle changes. This is a very promising and sustainable resolution to the obesity pandemic.

  1. Postharvest aspects of roses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elka Fabiana Aparecida Almeida

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate respiratory activity, color changes and fresh weight variation of ‘Carola’ (red, ‘Avalanche’ (white and ‘Avalanche Chá’ (tea roses for seven days after harvest. Respiratory activity, coloration of petals and fresh weight loss were evaluated. Treatments were composed of three rose cultivars and seven days of evaluation, in a 3 x 7 factorial and a completely randomized design with four replicates of two flowers per plot. To determine the respiratory activity, in addition to the four replicates, an “experimental control” was used as a fifth replicate without roses. ‘Avalanche’ and ‘Avalanche Chá’ roses with petals of similar luminosity showed no browning during days after harvest, but are distinct in terms of chromaticity. ‘Carola’ rose has less shiny petals. On harvest day, the respiratory activity is elevated and reduces later until the fourth day, in which there is elevation of this parameter again coinciding with high fresh weight loss. During days after harvest, small changes in the color of petals were observed; however, the main changes were observed in respiratory activity and fresh weight loss.

  2. Criminological aspects of crime recidivism

    OpenAIRE

    Lelková, Helena

    2015-01-01

    Criminological aspects of criminal recidivism The topic of this thesis are the criminological aspects of criminal recidivism and goal is to present a complete outline of some of the basic ideas related to the concept of criminal recidivism and to introduce the reader to its selected criminological aspects. This thesis is divided into four chapters. The introductory chapter is focused on the concept of criminal recidivism itself, and similarly defines the various concepts with emphasis on the ...

  3. Financial aspects of decommissioning (key aspects of decommissioning costing)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danska, V.

    2009-01-01

    In this presentation the following aspects of NPPs decommissioning are discussed: Requirements and purpose of decommissioning costing; Decommissioning costing methodologies; Standardised decommissioning cost structure; Input data for cost estimate process; Waste management in cost estimate process; Grading aspects in cost estimating; Cost control in decommissioning projects; Summary of the cost estimation process; Conclusions and recommendations.

  4. Prototyping and Composing Aspect Languages: using an Aspect Interpreter Framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havinga, W.K.; Bergmans, Lodewijk; Aksit, Mehmet

    2008-01-01

    Domain specific aspect languages (DSALs) are becoming more popular because they can be designed to represent recurring concerns in a way that is optimized for a specific domain. However, the design and implementation of even a limited domain-specific aspect language can be a tedious job. To address

  5. Prototyping and Composing Aspect Languages: using an Aspect Interpreter Framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havinga, W.K.; Bergmans, Lodewijk; Aksit, Mehmet

    2007-01-01

    Domain speci��?c aspect languages (DSALs) are becoming more popular because they can be designed to represent recurring concerns in a way that is optimized for a speci��?c domain. However, the design and implementation of even a limited domain-speci��?c aspect language can be a tedious job. To

  6. Flutter analysis of low aspect ratio wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnell, L. A.

    1986-01-01

    Several very low aspect ratio flat plate wing configurations are analyzed for their aerodynamic instability (flutter) characteristics. All of the wings investigated are delta planforms with clipped tips, made of aluminum alloy plate and cantilevered from the supporting vehicle body. Results of both subsonic and supersonic NASTRAN aeroelastic analyses as well as those from another version of the program implementing the supersonic linearized aerodynamic theory are presented. Results are selectively compared with the experimental data; however, supersonic predictions of the Mach Box method in NASTRAN are found to be erratic and erroneous, requiring the use of a separate program.

  7. Aspect Ratio Dependence of Impact Fragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inaoka, H.; Toyosawa, E.; Takayasu, H.; Inaoka, H.

    1997-01-01

    A numerical model of three-dimensional impact fragmentation produces a power-law cumulative fragment mass distribution followed by a flat tail. The result is consistent with an experimental result in a recent paper by Meibom and Balslev [Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 2492 (1996)]. Our numerical simulation also implies that the fragment mass distribution changes from a power law with a flat tail to a power law with a sudden cutoff, depending on the aspect ratio of the fractured object. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  8. Experimental Economics: Some Methodological Notes

    OpenAIRE

    Fiore, Annamaria

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this work is presenting in a self-contained paper some methodological aspects as they are received in the current experimental literature. The purpose has been to make a critical review of some very influential papers dealing with methodological issues. In other words, the idea is to have a single paper where people first approaching experimental economics can find summarised (some) of the most important methodological issues. In particular, the focus is on some methodological prac...

  9. Tense and Aspect in English

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen-Nielsen, Niels

    2013-01-01

    In the 1990's the author cooperated with Carl Bache on a grammar of English. It turned out that the views they had previously arrived at individually on tense and aspect could be combined by operating with a fused system involving four ordered choices resulting in sixteen tense-aspect forms...

  10. Achieving high aspect ratio wrinkles by modifying material network stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Cheng; Wang, Yan; McCarthy, Thomas J; Crosby, Alfred J

    2017-06-07

    Wrinkle aspect ratio, or the amplitude divided by the wavelength, is hindered by strain localization transitions when an increasing global compressive stress is applied to synthetic material systems. However, many examples from living organisms show extremely high aspect ratios, such as gut villi and flower petals. We use three experimental approaches to demonstrate that these high aspect ratio structures can be achieved by modifying the network stress in the wrinkle substrate. We modify the wrinkle stress and effectively delay the strain localization transition, such as folding, to larger aspect ratios by using a zero-stress initial wavy substrate, creating a secondary network with post-curing, or using chemical stress relaxation materials. A wrinkle aspect ratio as high as 0.85, almost three times higher than common values of synthetic wrinkles, is achieved, and a quantitative framework is presented to provide understanding the different strategies and predictions for future investigations.

  11. The experimental sodium facility NAVA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langenbrunner, H.; Grunwald, G.; May, R.

    1976-01-01

    Within the framework of preparations for the introduction of sodium cooled fast breeder reactors an experimental sodium facility was installed at the Central Institute of Nuclear Research at Rossendorf. Design, engineering aspects and operation of this facility are described; operating experience is briefly discussed. (author)

  12. Ethical aspects of radiological risks management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surgier, A.

    1996-01-01

    The complexity of the decisions to be taken by the radiation protection and safety authorities in the nuclear, medical, and industrial fields, as well as the importance of the risks involved, require consideration of the confidence that the public can have in the procedures and institutions associated with these decisions. The Technical Support Organisations that advise these authorities play an essential role in risk evaluation. They participate both in defining the scientific bases of the regulations and analysing the authorization request from the operators. The credibility of these bodies implies a clear separation between their function and that of the regulatory authorities and the operators. It also requires a guarantee of competence which is based on a high level research program and contacts with other similar organisations. The quality of the work carried out by the Technical Support Organisations must be regularly evaluated. One of the most important of the other conditions for ensuring the effectiveness of the expertise is its integration in a well defined decision-making procedure. The author has based this article on his experience as director of radiation protection in the IPSN (Institut de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire), an organisation formed in 1976, with a staff of 1,200 whose functions are to carry out research and provide expertise in health physics radioecology and nuclear safety. To reinforce its operating autonomy and authority, the status of the IPSN was thoroughly revised as strengthened in 1990. (Author)

  13. Coupling of a real time computer to nuclear detectors systems; Couplage d'un calculateur en temps reel a un ensemble experimental de detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lugol, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-06-01

    Electronic computers are now included in nuclear physics experiment systems. This corresponds to a general trend to replace conventional multichannel analyzers by on line, real time, computers. An one line computer performing nuclear data acquisition and storage, offers the advantage of reduction and calculation routines in real time. This advantage becomes a need when the number of experimental parameters increase. At the Saclay variable energy cyclotron we have connected a C 90-10 computer of C.I.I. We describe the input/output hardware features. In order to establish a dialogue with physicists, we have built a main display unit able to control many display consoles at different points: we describe them as well as some utility routines. (author) [French] Les experiences de physique nucleaire font appel, de plus en plus, a des calculateurs electroniques. Ceux-ci se substituent alors aux analyseurs multicanaux traditionnels. Un calculateur en ligne assurant l'acquisition et le stockage des donnees experimentales, presente l'avantage de pouvoir executer, en temps reel, des programmes simples de calcul et de reduction. Nous montrons la necessite de prise en charge, par un calculateur, des experiences de physique nucleaire ou le nombre des parametres experimentaux devient important. Au cyclotron a energie variable de Saclay, la solution retenue est l'emploi d'un calculateur C 90-10 de la C.I.I. Nous decrivons les interfaces necessaires au couplage. Afin d'assurer un dialogue avec les physiciens, un systeme de visualisation est realise; nous le decrivons ainsi que quelques programmes types d'utilisation de l'ensemble du systeme. (auteur)

  14. Verb aspect, alternations and quantification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetla Koeva

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Verb aspect, alternations and quantification In this paper we are briefly discuss the nature of Bulgarian verb aspect and argue that the verb aspect pairs are different lexical units with different (although related meaning, different argument structure (reflecting categories, explicitness and referential status of arguments and different sets of semantic and syntactic alternations. The verb prefixes resulting in perfective verbs derivation in some cases can be interpreted as lexical quantifiers as well. Thus the Bulgarian verb aspect is related (in different way both with the potential for the generation of alternations and with the prefixal lexical quantification. It is shown that the scope of the lexical quantification by means of verbal prefixes is the quantified verb phrase and the scope remains constant in all derived alternations. The paper concerns the basic issues of these complex problems, while the detailed description of the conditions satisfying particular alternation or particular lexical quantification are subject of a more detailed study.

  15. Large aspect ratio tokamak study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, R.L.; Holmes, J.A.; Houlberg, W.A.; Peng, Y.K.M.; Strickler, D.J.; Brown, T.G.; Sardella, C.; Wiseman, G.W.

    1979-01-01

    The Large Aspect Ratio Tokamak Study (LARTS) investigated the potential for producing a viable long burn tokamak reactor through enhanced volt-second capability of the ohmic heating transformer by employing high aspect ratio designs. The plasma physics, engineering, and economic implications of high aspect ratio tokamaks were accessed in the context of extended burn operation. Plasma startup and burn parameters were addressed using a one-dimensional transport code. The pulsed electrical power requirements for the poloidal field system, which have a major impact on reactor economics, were minimized by optimizing the field in the ohmic heating coil and the wave shape of the ohmic heating discharge. A high aspect ratio reference reactor was chosen and configured

  16. Topological Aspects of Information Retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egghe, Leo; Rousseau, Ronald

    1998-01-01

    Discusses topological aspects of theoretical information retrieval, including retrieval topology; similarity topology; pseudo-metric topology; document spaces as topological spaces; Boolean information retrieval as a subsystem of any topological system; and proofs of theorems. (LRW)

  17. Aspect of the conformal invariance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, M.

    1990-11-01

    This thesis is about the study of several physical and mathematical aspects of critical phenomena at two dimensions. These phenomena have remarkable symmetry properties in the coordonnates changes keeping the angles. They are named conformal theories

  18. Putting an end to nuclear energy: why and how; En finir avec le nucleaire: pourquoi et comment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dessus, Benjamin; Laponche, Bernard

    2011-10-06

    This short book demonstrates the necessity and possibility to put an end to nuclear energy. First, it sweeps away the fallacious reasoning of nuclear supporters, like the energy independence, the safety and security aspects, the electricity cost, the greenhouse gases abatement. Then, it replaces the ending of nuclear energy in the more general framework of a worldwide energy transition, with its constraints and risks, which has become a necessity considering the geographical disparities of energy consumption. According to the author, the particular energy situation of France would lead the country to isolation and to an energy impasse while other worldwide and regional scenarios exist which would lead to exit the crisis and to reach a new energy civilization. Finally, a reasoned scenario of nuclear energy exit is proposed for France which is based on other power generation means. Such an energy transition will require some political and social conditions which are discussed. (J.S.)

  19. The terrorist threat nuclear, radiological, biological, chemical - a medical approach; Menace terroriste nucleaire, radiologique, biologique, chimique - approche medicale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Revel, M.C. de; Gourmelon, M.C.S.; Vidal, P.C.; Renaudeau, P.C.S

    2005-07-01

    Since September 11, 2001, the fear of a large scale nuclear, biological and/or chemical terrorism is taken again into consideration at the highest level of national policies of risk prevention. The advent of international terrorism implies a cooperation between the military defense and the civil defense. The nuclear, radiological, biological and chemical (NRBC) experts of the health service of army and of civil defense will have to work together in case of major terror attack. This book presents this cooperation between civil and military experts in the NRBC domain: risk analysis, national defense plans, crisis management, syndromes and treatments. The different aspects linked with the use of nuclear, biological and chemical weapons are analyzed by the best experts from French medical and research institutes. All topics of each NRBC domain are approached: historical, basic, diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive. (J.S.)

  20. Ethical aspects of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streithofen, H.B.

    1989-01-01

    The nuclear controversy comprises many ethical aspects, e.g. the waste disposal problem. Nuclear opponents should not neglect the environmental protection aspect; for example, the use of nuclear power alone brought about an 8% reduction of the CO 2 burden in 1987. Our responsibility towards nature and humans in the Third World leaves us no alternative to nuclear power. On the other hand, the nuclear power debate should not become a matter of religious beliefs. (DG) [de

  1. Physical aspects of radioisotope brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1967-01-01

    The present report represents an attempt to provide, within a necessarily limited compass, an authoritative guide to all important physical aspects of the use of sealed gamma sources in radiotherapy. Within the report, reference is made wherever necessary to the more extensive but scattered literature on this subject. While this report attempts to cover all the physical aspects of radioisotope 'brachytherapy' it does not, of course, deal exhaustively with any one part of the subject. 384 refs, 3 figs, 6 tabs

  2. Cosmological aspects of superstring models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binetruy, P.

    1986-10-01

    I consider more specifically the cosmological aspects of supersymmetry breaking in ''superstring models'' (grand unified models which are believed to describe the effective theory obtained by compactification of superstring theories). The most interesting aspects are related to the presence of flat directions in the scalar potential (vacuum degeneracies). These flat directions are discussed both in the hidden sector of these models (do they give rise to inflation) and in the observable sector of quarks, leptons and Higgs particles, in connection with baryogenesis

  3. Determination of radioactive risks connected with the working of a nuclear plant; Evaluation des risques radioactifs lies au fonctionnement d'une installation nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavie, J M; Doury, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    Numerous problems which are posed by the evaluation of the radioactive risks linked to the working of a nuclear plant are new problems which have not yet been satisfactorily solved. In these conditions this study must be considered only as a preliminary approach whose essential aims are the following: - development and synthesis of the existing data; - rapid determination of conservative and usable orders of greatness for the security factors, both for normal working and in the case of an accident. The most probable typical accidents are reviewed together with the nature of the resulting risks and the principal factors on which these risks depend. Among these factors, one of the most important is atmospheric diffusion which is studied in some detail using the analytic model due to Sutton. A logical graphical presentation increasing the flexibility in the use of the results and presents the responsible authorities with a flexible, practical and rapid means of evaluating the risks involved starting from a sufficiently general system of initial and simultaneously valid conditions (types of accident, atmospheric conditions). (author) [French] De nombreux problemes souleves par l'evaluation des risques radioactifs lies au fonctionnement d'une installation nucleaire sont des problemes nouveaux qui n'ont pas encore recu de solution satisfaisante. Dans ces conditions cette etude ne doit etre consideree que comme une premiere approche dont les objectifs essentiels sont les suivants: - mise au point et synthese de donnees existantes; - determination rapide d'ordres de grandeur conservatifs et utilisables de valeurs de securite, tant en fonctionnement normal qu'en cas d'accident. Les accidents types les plus probables sont passes en revue ainsi que la nature des risques qui en decoulent et les principaux facteurs dont dependent ces risques. Parmi ces facteurs, l'un des plus importants est la diffusion atmospherique qui fait l'objet d'une etude particuliere a l'aide du modele

  4. SCPRI Emergency Kit for Use in the Event of a Nuclear Accident; Le Dispositif d'Intervention Rapide du SCPRI en Cas d'Accident Nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ervet, P.; Moroni, J. P.; Pellerin, P. [Service Central de Protection Contre les Rayonnements Ionisants, Ministere des Affaires Sociales, Le Vesinet (France)

    1969-10-15

    In the event of a nuclear accident necessitating implementation of the ORSEC radiation protection plan, the Service central de protection contre les rayonnements ionisants (Central Service for Protection against Ionizing Radiations), in conjunction with the Service national de la protection civile (National Civil Defence Service), has adopted the necessary measures for rapid evaluation of possible contamination as promptly as possible. With this aim in mind the Service has prepared emergency kits, which are permanently stored at airfields in the Paris region; these can be carried by aircraft together with two engineers from the Service, thereby enabling them to reach the site of the incident with the specialized equipment in a few hours at most. This paper describes the monitoring and sampling equipment as well as the conditions under which the kit is carried and used (it operates independently by having a built-in generating unit). It is basically designed to permit an initial assessment of the situation, to furnish local authorities with data on which to base decisions for the safety of the population, and to determine any additional measures that need to be adopted. (author) [French] Dans le cas d'un accident nucleaire impliquant la mise en application du plan ORSEC radiologique, en liaison avec le Service national de la protection civile, le Service central de protection contre les rayonnements ionisants a pris les dispositions necessaires pour faire une evaluation rapide, aussi preooce que possible, des contaminations eventuelles. Dans ce but, il a realise des cantines d'intervention qui sont deposees en permanence sur les aerodromes de la region parisienne, et peuvent etre embarquees par avion avec deux ingenieurs du service qui peuvent etre ainsi sur les lieux de l'incident, avec un materiel specialise, dans un delai qui n'excede pas quelques heures. Le memoire decrit le materiel de mesure et de prelevement, ainsi que les conditions de transport et d

  5. Preparation of nuclear purity beryllium oxalate tri-hydrate; Preparation d'oxalate de beryllium trihydrate de purete nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delcorte, M; Lecocq, A; Rigaud, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    In this report we have gathered the whole of the knowledge acquired by our group during the campaign for preparation of beryllium oxalate we carried out through the first half year of 1962. The reader shall find in the first place information and bibliographic data gathered by Miss OLLIVIER, documentalist of the Section d'Etudes, Recherches et Applications Chimiques. We then describe the original process perfected in the laboratories, and the production techniques we employed for the semi-large operative units. Finally, we publish the results we obtained on one hand on the chemical aspect, in the industrial meaning of the term, which is to-day concerning the ponderal output, on the other hand on the analytical aspect as you can evidently not dissociate the quantity of substance produced from its purity. (authors) [French] Nous avons reuni dans ce document l'ensemble des connaissances acquises par notre groupe pendant la campagne de preparation d'oxalate de beryllium que nous avons effectuee au cours du 1er semestre 1962. Le lecteur y trouvera en premier lieu les renseignements et donnees bibliographiques rassembles par Mlle OLLIVIER, documentaliste a la Section d'Etudes, Recherches et Applications Chimiques. Nous decrivons ensuite le procede original mis au point dans les laboratoires et les techniques de fabrication que nous avons utilisees pour des unites operatoires demi-grand. Pour terminer nous publions les resultats obtenus, d'une part sur le plan chimique, au sens industriel du terme, c'est-a-dire du point de vue rendement ponderal, d'autre part sur le plan analytique puisqu'on ne peut evidemment pas dissocier la quantite de produit fabrique, de sa purete. (auteurs)

  6. Treatment of Radioactive Effluents at the Saclay Nuclear Research Centre; Traitement des Effluents Radioactifs au Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay; 041e 0414 ; Tratamiento de los Efluentes Radiactivos en el Centro de Energia Nuclear de Saclay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wormser, G. [Service de Controle des Radiations et de Genie Radioactif, Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France)

    1960-07-01

    The Report Gives The Account Of Four Years' Experience In Operating The Treatment Plant For Effluents From The Saclay Nuclear Research Centre. It Contains Data Relating To The Origin, Volume And Treatment Of Waste. (author) [French] Ce rapport presente un bilan d'exploitation de l'installation de traitement des effluents du Centre d'etudes nucleaires de Saclay depuis quatre ans. On donne des chiffres concernant l'origine des residus, leur volume, leur traitement. (author) [Spanish] El autor hace un balance de explotacion de la instalacion de tratamiento de efluentes del centro de Saclay desde hace cuatro anos, dando las cifras correspondientes al origen de los residuos, a su volumen y a su tratamiento. (author) [Russian] V jetom dokumente podvoditsja itog chetyrehletnej jekspluatacii ustanovki po obrabotke zhidkih othotov v Centre jadernyh issledovanij v Sakle. V doklade privodjatsja dannye o proishozhdenii othodov, jh ob'eme i obrabotke. (author)

  7. Improvement of pressure-vessel surveillance of a PWR-power plant of the Societe d'Energie Nucleaire Franco-Belge des Ardennes (S.E.N.A.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bevilacqua, A.; Lloret, R.; Riehl, R.

    1984-01-01

    This paper describes a new dosimetry, installed inside and outside the Pressure Vessel of CHOOZ Nuclear Power Plant of the Societe d'Energie Nucleaire Franco-Belge des Ardennes (S.E.N.A.), during its 1982-83 operation cycle. The inner dosimetry deals with a simulated capsule located under the reactor plate, and includes copper, nickel, iron, niobium, copper-cobalt, neptunium and uranium dosimeters. Its aim is to qualify the information given by the existing copper dosimetry. The spectrum used with these measurements is obtained by the 1 D ANISN Code and BIP-N 2 library. The outer dosimety is the fluence determination along the outer wall of the vessel. Two tubes, equiped by neutron dosimeters, seven meters long, were fixed along the vessel. On the median plane, the results are compared to a 2 D DOT transport calculation. Preliminary results are given which improve the vessel and specimens neutronic characterisation. (Auth.)

  8. Balance between automation and human actions in nuclear power plant operation. Results of international cooperation; Equilibre entre automatisation et action humaine dans la conduite des centrale nucleaires, resultats de la cooperation internationale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, B [CEA Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France). Dept. d' Analyse de Surete; Bastl, W [Gesellschaft fuer Reaktorsicherheit m.b.H. (GRS), Garching (Germany); Olmstead, R [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd, Mississauga (Canada); Oudiz, A [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States); Jenkinson, J [Nuclear Electric PLC, Gloucester (United Kingdom); Kossilov, A [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    1990-07-01

    Automation has long been an established feature of power plants. In some applications, the use of automation has been the significant factor which has enabled plant technology to progress to its current state. Societal demands for increased levels of safety have led to greater use of redundancy and diversity and this, in turn, has increased levels of automation. However, possibly the greatest contributory factor in increased automation has resulted from improvements in information technology. Much recent attention has been focused on the concept of inherently safe reactors, which may simplify safety system requirements and information and control system complexity. The allocation of tasks between man and machine may be one of the most critical activity in the design of new nuclear plants and major retro-fits and it therefore warrants a design approach which is commensurate in quality with the high levels of safety and production performance sought from nuclear plants. Facing this climate, in 1989 the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) formed an advisory group from member countries with extensive experience in nuclear power plant automation. The task of this group was to advise on the appropriate balance between manual and automatic actions in plant operation. (author) [French] L'automatisation a longtemps ete une caracteristique bien etablie des centrales nucleaires. Dans certaines applications, l'utilisation de l'automatisation a ete le facteur decisif qui a permis a la technologie des centrales de progresser jusqu'a son etat actuel. Les exigences de l'opinion publique en matiere de securite renforcee ont conduit a l'utilisation d'une plus grande redondance et a une plus grande diversification et ceci, en retour, a encore accru le niveau d'automatisation. Toutefois, il est possible que le facteur preponderant de cet accroissement de l'automatisation soit constitue par les progres effectues dans la technologie de l'information. Plus recemment, l'attention s

  9. Novel aspects of plasma control in ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humphreys, D.; Jackson, G.; Walker, M.; Welander, A. [General Atomics P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States); Ambrosino, G.; Pironti, A. [CREATE/University of Naples Federico II, Napoli (Italy); Vries, P. de; Kim, S. H.; Snipes, J.; Winter, A.; Zabeo, L. [ITER Organization, St. Paul Lez durance Cedex (France); Felici, F. [Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Kallenbach, A.; Raupp, G.; Treutterer, W. [Max-Planck Institut für Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Kolemen, E. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543-0451 (United States); Lister, J.; Sauter, O. [Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Lausanne (Switzerland); Moreau, D. [CEA, IRFM, 13108 St. Paul-lez Durance (France); Schuster, E. [Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania (United States)

    2015-02-15

    ITER plasma control design solutions and performance requirements are strongly driven by its nuclear mission, aggressive commissioning constraints, and limited number of operational discharges. In addition, high plasma energy content, heat fluxes, neutron fluxes, and very long pulse operation place novel demands on control performance in many areas ranging from plasma boundary and divertor regulation to plasma kinetics and stability control. Both commissioning and experimental operations schedules provide limited time for tuning of control algorithms relative to operating devices. Although many aspects of the control solutions required by ITER have been well-demonstrated in present devices and even designed satisfactorily for ITER application, many elements unique to ITER including various crucial integration issues are presently under development. We describe selected novel aspects of plasma control in ITER, identifying unique parts of the control problem and highlighting some key areas of research remaining. Novel control areas described include control physics understanding (e.g., current profile regulation, tearing mode (TM) suppression), control mathematics (e.g., algorithmic and simulation approaches to high confidence robust performance), and integration solutions (e.g., methods for management of highly subscribed control resources). We identify unique aspects of the ITER TM suppression scheme, which will pulse gyrotrons to drive current within a magnetic island, and turn the drive off following suppression in order to minimize use of auxiliary power and maximize fusion gain. The potential role of active current profile control and approaches to design in ITER are discussed. Issues and approaches to fault handling algorithms are described, along with novel aspects of actuator sharing in ITER.

  10. Convenience experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krohs, Ulrich

    2012-03-01

    Systems biology aims at explaining life processes by means of detailed models of molecular networks, mainly on the whole-cell scale. The whole cell perspective distinguishes the new field of systems biology from earlier approaches within molecular cell biology. The shift was made possible by the high throughput methods that were developed for gathering 'omic' (genomic, proteomic, etc.) data. These new techniques are made commercially available as semi-automatic analytic equipment, ready-made analytic kits and probe arrays. There is a whole industry of supplies for what may be called convenience experimentation. My paper inquires some epistemic consequences of strong reliance on convenience experimentation in systems biology. In times when experimentation was automated to a lesser degree, modeling and in part even experimentation could be understood fairly well as either being driven by hypotheses, and thus proceed by the testing of hypothesis, or as being performed in an exploratory mode, intended to sharpen concepts or initially vague phenomena. In systems biology, the situation is dramatically different. Data collection became so easy (though not cheap) that experimentation is, to a high degree, driven by convenience equipment, and model building is driven by the vast amount of data that is produced by convenience experimentation. This results in a shift in the mode of science. The paper shows that convenience driven science is not primarily hypothesis-testing, nor is it in an exploratory mode. It rather proceeds in a gathering mode. This shift demands another shift in the mode of evaluation, which now becomes an exploratory endeavor, in response to the superabundance of gathered data. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Experimental philosophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knobe, Joshua; Buckwalter, Wesley; Nichols, Shaun; Robbins, Philip; Sarkissian, Hagop; Sommers, Tamler

    2012-01-01

    Experimental philosophy is a new interdisciplinary field that uses methods normally associated with psychology to investigate questions normally associated with philosophy. The present review focuses on research in experimental philosophy on four central questions. First, why is it that people's moral judgments appear to influence their intuitions about seemingly nonmoral questions? Second, do people think that moral questions have objective answers, or do they see morality as fundamentally relative? Third, do people believe in free will, and do they see free will as compatible with determinism? Fourth, how do people determine whether an entity is conscious?

  12. Irradiation and development of the nuclear emulsions exposed to intense fluxes of thermal neutrons with {gamma} rays; Irradiation et developpement des emulsions nucleaires exposees a des flux intenses de neutrons thermiques, accompagnes de rayons {gamma}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faraggi, H; Bonnet, A; Cohen, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Lab. du Fort de Chatillon, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1952-07-01

    The thermal neutron fluxes provided by nuclear reactors permit the survey of relatively rare phenomenons, and dosage of very weak quantities of some elements. One of the most favorable detection technique are constituted by the use of the nuclear emulsions. one can mention: - the dosage of uranium by counting in the emulsion the number of traces due to fission fragments after irradiation. - The dosage of the lithium and the boron as trace amounts with the help of nuclear reactions (n, {alpha}) and thermal neutrons. - The research of reactions (n, {alpha}) or (n, p) of very weak cross section for middle or heavy elements. These different applications require however important neutrons fluxes. It had therefore obliged us to search for the most favorable irradiation and development of the emulsions conditions, to get the best visibility of the trajectories and decrease the phenomena of fog on the emulsion, which prevents any observation. (M.B.) [French] Les flux de neutrons thermiques fournis par les reacteurs nucleaires permettent l'etude de phenomenes relativement rares, et le dosage de tres faibles quantites de certains elements. Un des moyens de detection les plus favorables est constitue par l'utilisation des emulsions nucleaires. on peut citer: - le dosage de l'uranium par comptage dans l'emulsion du nombre de traces dues aux fragments de fission apres irradiation. - Le dosage du lithium et du bore a l'etat de traces a l'aide des reactions (n, {alpha}) sous l'action des neutrons thermiques. - La recherche de reactions (n,{alpha}) ou (n,p) de tres faible section efficace pour des elements moyens ou lourds. Ces differentes applications necessite cependant des flux de neutrons important. On a donc ete amene a rechercher les conditions les plus favorables d'irradiation et de developpement des emulsions, de maniere a obtenir la meilleure visibilite des trajectoires et diminuer les phenomenes de voile de l'emulsion, qui empeche toute observation. (M.B.)

  13. Quantitative measurements of small isotopic samples in gaseous mixtures by utilization of some nuclear properties; Etude des possibilites de mesures de faibles quantites de gaz radioactifs dans un melange en utilisant simultanement plusieurs proprietes nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maragnon, J; Delperie, C

    1967-12-01

    The question is to define the characteristics of a group of measurements allowing the analysis of traces of radioactive rare gases in gas mixtures of different composition. To distinguish the radioactive isotopes from each other and the activity level reaching 10{sup 6} due to their nuclear properties, the method was chosen to use several nuclear properties: gamma radiation energy, beta particle energy, lifetime of excited states. The choice of a plastic scintillator as beta detector allows to answer satisfactorilly to this demand by measurement of nuclear constants because of the short de/excitation time of this detector. Another advantage is that it can be a reservoir for the sample without any destruction nor modification of the sample. The study has been based on the mixture of Kr-85, the analysis of other rare gases follwos immediately from the adopted principle. [French] Les auteurs ont oriente leur recherche vers une solution permettant de distinguer les isotopes radioactifs les uns des autres et dans des rapports d'activite pouvant atteindre 10{sup 6}, grace a plusieurs de leurs proprietes nucleaires, energie de rayonnement gamma, energie de la particule beta, temps de vie des niveaux excites. Le choix d'un scintillateur plastique comme detecteur beta permet de repondre d'une maniere satisfaisante a la mesure des constantes nucleaires en raison du temps de de/excitation rapide de ce scintillateur. Il offre en outre l'avantage de pouvoir servir de reservoir a l'echantillon sans entrainer aucune destruction ni modification de celui-ci. L'etude a ete basee sur la mixture de Kr-85, l'analyse des autre gaz rares decoulant immediatement du principe adopte. (auteur)

  14. Linguistic aspects of eponymic professional endocrinologic terminology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.I. Bytsko

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Special linguistic researches of terminological units of different branches of medicine allow analyzing in details the ways of creating the systems of clinical terminology from different aspects: historical, scientific, cultural, linguistic and semantic. There is a wide area of terminology related to the clinical and experimental endocrino­logy within general medical terminological system. The purpose of the study: to demonstrate the structure of endocrine medical terms — eponyms through the prism of systematization of methodological researches on eponymic vocabulary. Materials and methods. The actual material received as a result of a total choice of eponyms (there were 296 terms from the “Reference dictionary for endocrinologist”, which was composed by the scientists of V. Danilevsky Institute of Endocrine Pathology Problems and Kharkiv Medical Academy of Postgraduate education — A.V. Kozakov, N.A. Kravchun, I.M. Ilyina, M.I. Zubko, O.A. Goncharova, I.V. Cherniavska has 10,000 endocrine terms, the authors successfully streamlined medical terms of the clinical and experimental endocrinology into the vocabulary. The method of total choice of terms from professional literature, the descriptive method and distributive method were used in the study that allowed distinguishing lexical and semantic features of eponymic terms in the branch of endocrinology. Results. The obtained results point out to the modernity of studies in the field of clinical and experimental endocrinology, which is due to the fact that this is the oldest terminology, by the example of which it is possible to trace the ways of formation, development and improvement of terms, the realization of semantic processes, certain trends, ways and means of word formation. Conclusions. The results of the research on the above mentioned sublanguage of clinical medicine at the level of linguistic observations of the functio­ning in dictionaries and scientific works will

  15. Experimental guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The paper proposes a model experimental design to study the effects of pesticides on particular ecosystem. It takes maize as a model crop and an alternative crop while studying the adverse effects on untargeted arthropods, residues in the soil and other plants. 5 refs, 7 figs

  16. Experimental studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowser, K.E.; Stansbury, P.S.; Poston, J.W.; Deus, S.F.; Chen, W.L.; Roswell, R.L.; Goans, R.E.; Cantrell, J.H. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Spectral fluence measurements in an adult phantom are reported. A NaI(Tl) probe was used in various locations within the phantom and pulse-height spectra were obtained for seven beam configurations and three generating potentials. Some typical spectra results are presented. A comparison of calculated dose to experimental measurements is presented

  17. Health physics problems in the context of the development of industrial uses of nuclear energy; Les problemes de radioprotection devant le developpement de l'utilisation industrielle de l'energie nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duhamel, F.; Menoux, A. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    fate of radioactive ions in the hydrosphere may be determined. - experiments and studies linked with the possibilities for disposal a underground storage of wastes. All these studies cover a complementary field, that of radioprotection, which forms the necessary link between nuclear safety proper, which concerns the actual operation of nuclear installations and medical supervision which directly concerns the health of the individual and the population. At the same time each one of the Health Physics disciplines possesses an independence which increases their efficiency on the safety level. (authors) [French] Le developpement de l'utilisation industrielle de l'energie nucleaire a mis l'accent sur la necessite de promouvoir une doctrine rationnelle et coherente en matiere de securite des installations atomiques et plus particulierement en matiere de securite des sites nucleaires. Le but principal de la securite est de diminuer, voire d'annuler les risques d'irradiation ou de contamination des travailleurs et de la population, consecutifs au fonctionnement normal ou accidentel des installations. La securite est obtenue par la mise en oeuvre d'un ensemble complexe de moyens. Parmi ces moyens les auteurs considerent essentiellement ceux qui presentent une certaine independance a l'egard du type d'installation: moyens d'alerte et de mesure et leur mise en oeuvre - preparation psychologique et technique des individus - evaluation de la capacite d'un site a absorber les rejets radioactifs sans dommage pour la population. Il est clair en effet que les consequences d'un accident sont diminuees par l'augmentation de la valeur des moyens de surveillance, de mesure et d'alerte, l'elevation du niveau technique et l'entrainement du personnel, l'education de la population. Ceci est particulierement vrai aupres d'une installation nucleaire ou l'etude des dangers presente un caractere abstrait et

  18. Health physics problems in the context of the development of industrial uses of nuclear energy; Les problemes de radioprotection devant le developpement de l'utilisation industrielle de l'energie nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duhamel, F; Menoux, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    fate of radioactive ions in the hydrosphere may be determined. - experiments and studies linked with the possibilities for disposal a underground storage of wastes. All these studies cover a complementary field, that of radioprotection, which forms the necessary link between nuclear safety proper, which concerns the actual operation of nuclear installations and medical supervision which directly concerns the health of the individual and the population. At the same time each one of the Health Physics disciplines possesses an independence which increases their efficiency on the safety level. (authors) [French] Le developpement de l'utilisation industrielle de l'energie nucleaire a mis l'accent sur la necessite de promouvoir une doctrine rationnelle et coherente en matiere de securite des installations atomiques et plus particulierement en matiere de securite des sites nucleaires. Le but principal de la securite est de diminuer, voire d'annuler les risques d'irradiation ou de contamination des travailleurs et de la population, consecutifs au fonctionnement normal ou accidentel des installations. La securite est obtenue par la mise en oeuvre d'un ensemble complexe de moyens. Parmi ces moyens les auteurs considerent essentiellement ceux qui presentent une certaine independance a l'egard du type d'installation: moyens d'alerte et de mesure et leur mise en oeuvre - preparation psychologique et technique des individus - evaluation de la capacite d'un site a absorber les rejets radioactifs sans dommage pour la population. Il est clair en effet que les consequences d'un accident sont diminuees par l'augmentation de la valeur des moyens de surveillance, de mesure et d'alerte, l'elevation du niveau technique et l'entrainement du personnel, l'education de la population. Ceci est particulierement vrai aupres d'une installation nucleaire ou l'etude des dangers presente un caractere abstrait et ou les moyens technologiques de protection sont multiples et complexes. Les etudes de

  19. Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma A. Abdel Razek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The reproductive cycle of the eared horse mussel, Modiolus auriculatus, was followed for one year from February, 2011 to January, 2012 based on 240 individuals collected from Hurghada, north coast of Red Sea, Egypt. The gonadal maturation of M. auriculatus was examined by means of macroscopic and histological preparations of the mantle. Annual cycle with periods of growth, maturity and discharge of gonadic products occurs simultaneously in both sexes. Ripe individuals were observed throughout the year. The largest number of spawning for the individuals occurred from March to June and July for the population. So, it was clear to identify one heavy spawning period for this species. Sexation of M. auriculatus did not differ significantly from 1:1. Sexes were distinguishable in all individuals at the ripe stage with a shell length greater than 3.00 cm. A direct positive correlation was observed between gonad index and water temperature.

  20. The use of an experimental device for disposal into the ground at the Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires at Saclay; Utilisation d'un dispositif experimental de rejet dans le sol au C.E.N. de Saclay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amavis, R; Vaccarezza, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    This report presents the results of the {sup 3}H and {sup 90}Sr percolation tests carried out with Saclay soil, both in the laboratory in the ground itself. The extrapolation using the parameters introduced by Hiester and Vermeulen, as well as by W.J. Kaufman, appear satisfactory when the soil sample is homogeneous. (author) [French] Ce rapport presente les resultats d'essais de percolation de {sup 3}H et de {sup 90}Sr, realises avec le sol de Saclay, en laboratoire et sur le terrain. L'extrapolation utilisant les parametres introduits par Hiester et Vermeulen, ainsi que par W.J. Kaufman, parait satisfaisante lorsque le sol en place est homogene. (auteur)

  1. A study of the fluorescence of the rare gases excited by nuclear particles. Use of the principle for the detection of nuclear radiation by scintillation; Etude de la fluorescence des gaz rares excites par des particules nucleaires. Utilisation pour la detection des rayonnements nucleaires par scintillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, L [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-12-15

    composantes, l'une tres breve due a la desexcitation directe du gaz rare, l'autre relativement plus lente, due au transfert d'energie sur les impuretes. La mesure des durees de vie des etats excites a confirme l'hypothese precedente, la partie breve de l'impulsion est extremement courte: inferieure a 2,25.10{sup -9} s dans le cas du xenon, la partie plus lente a une duree qui depend etroitement de la concentration d'azote, l'azote etant l'impurete dont le role est preponderant dans tous les cas. L'etude des gaz rares soumis a un champ electrique a permis de montrer que la quantite de lumiere produite par une particule {alpha} peut etre multipliee (par 60 dans un champ de 600 V/cm par exemple) ce qui correspond a un rendement de luminescence superieur a celui de INa TI. Dans la deuxieme partie on a etudie les caracteristiques des gaz rares comme scintillateurs, la plus importante est l'absence de saturation de la fluorescence lorsque la densite d'excitation transmise au gaz devient tres grande. Ceci joint au temps de scintillation tres court a permis d'etudier un certain nombre d'applications a la physique nucleaire (mesure d'energie des particules lourdes, etude cinetique des reacteurs nucleaires, spectroscopie des neutrons...). (auteur)

  2. Some aspects of solid track detector usage in ecological research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berzina, I.G.; Gusev, E.B.; Ivanov, V.A.

    1991-01-01

    The ability of plants to accumulate large quantities of uranium in areas with unfavorable environmental conditions caused by the open working of various deposits and the mining of uranium containing minerals is discussed. The experimental data show the need for qualitative and quantitative revisions of radiation safety levels. Aspects of the use of solid state track detectors in this research are presented. (author)

  3. Some aspects of continuum physics used in fuel pin modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bard, F.E.

    1975-06-01

    The mathematical formulation used in fuel pin modeling is described. Fuel pin modeling is not a simple extension of the experimental and interpretative methods used in classical mechanics. New concepts are needed to describe materials in a reactor environment. Some aspects of continuum physics used to develop these new constitutive equations for fuel pins are presented. (U.S.)

  4. Aspects of leak before break quantification in pressurized pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hellen, R.A.J.; Darlaston, B.J.L.; Connors, D.C.

    1980-01-01

    In fitness for purpose studies of pressurized structures containing defects, the concept of leak before break is often invoked. As the assumptions used in the concept are sometimes very pessimistic it is desirable to be able to quantify them more precisely. Two aspects are currently receiving attention; these are the way in which a crack profile develops during fatigue and what happens when the remaining ligament below the crack fails. These aspects are being evaluated experimentally and theoretically. Data are presented from tests on pipes subjected to cyclic pressure and subsequently failed. An analytical approach is proposed on the question of ligament failure, this being based on the development of some recent work on flat plates. The overall question of leak before break is considered. As the understanding and confidence increases, it is possible to reduce the range of interest and focus on specific aspects of the problem. This paper examines these aspects. (author)

  5. Separation of energy companies. Judicial aspects. Fiscal aspects of unbundling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slotboom, M.M.; Ter Heegde, A.

    2005-01-01

    There is much discussion in the Netherlands about the plan of the Dutch government to separate (unbundle) energy companies into a commercial energy supply business and a network business. In a series of articles attention will be paid to the legal aspects of the separation (unbundling) [nl

  6. Experimental insertions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandweiss, J.; Kycia, T.F.

    1975-01-01

    A discussion is given of the eight identical experimental insertions for the planned ISABELLE storage rings. Four sets of quadrupole doublets are used to match the β functions in the insertions to the values in the cells, and the total free space available at the crossing point is 40 meters. An asymmetric beam energy operation is planned, which will be useful in a number of experiments

  7. Animal experimentation

    OpenAIRE

    Laz, Alak; Cholakova, Tanya Stefanova; Vrablova, Sofia; Arshad, Naverawaheed

    2016-01-01

    Animal experimentation is a crucial part of medical science. One of the ways to define it is any scientific experiment conducted for research purposes that cause any kind of pain or suffering to animals. Over the years, the new discovered drugs or treatments are first applied on animals to test their positive outcomes to be later used by humans. There is a debate about violating ethical considerations by exploiting animals for human benefits. However, different ethical theories have been made...

  8. Economic Criteria Applied to Nuclear Materials Management; Criteres Economiques Applicables a la Gestion des Matieres Nucleaires; Ehkonomicheskie kriterii, primenyaemye pri kontrole i uchete yadernykh materialov; Criterios Economicos Aplicados a la Administracion de Materiales Nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shelley, W. J.; Kuehn, M. N. [Mallinckrodt Chemical Works, St. Charles, MS (United States)

    1966-02-15

    placed upon such personnel to accept, understand and perform the work. Such personnel selected must be thoroughly and minutely trained in the importance of their activity. Those responsible for the management of nuclear materials must be continually alert to the smallest kind of aberration in the quality and performance of the personnel, the process, the systems, procedures and techniques. Only through such alertness and willingness to revise, so as to secure improvement, does one secure the optimum balance of costs and needs. (author) [French] La gestion des matieres nucleaires doit etre subordonnee aux objectifs principaux du traitement de ces matieres, c'est-a-dire la production d'energie ou la fabrication de produits finis. Les responsables de la gestion des matieres nucleaires doivent donc tenir constamment compte des besoins de la production principale et adapter les methodes de gestion aux operations de facon a pouvoir assurer cette gestion avec un minimum de depenses. Le systeme de gestion des matieres nucleaires doit soigneusement tenir compte des divers facteurs qui influent sur son prix de revient. Il vient en complement des operations et doit entrainer le minimum de frais de personnel et d'analyse et provoquer le moins d'interruptions possible dans les operations. U doit etre integre a ces dernieres, de facon que les renseignements d'ordre quantitatif qu'il permet d'obtenir puissent etre communiques rapidement aux responsables du controle des operations. Le systeme d'enregistrement et de preparation des rapports doit fournir une quantite maximale de donnees subsidiaires. Il doit etre compatible avec les systemes utilises par les fournisseurs et les consommateurs et assurer la diffusion, partout ou cela est possible, de renseignements supplementaires concernant les lots de matieres nucleaires. Les donnees a fournir pour le controle des matieres nucleaires doivent se limiter a celles qui sont necessaires pour s'assurer qu'il n'y a pas de pertes importantes, de

  9. Influence of nuclear glasses composition on their liability to deterioration; Influence de la composition des verres nucleaires sur leur alterabilite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tovena, I

    1995-09-29

    This contributes to the study of the nuclear glasses composition influence on their liability to deterioration. The methodology of the experimental research used has lead to define between the thirty oxides which form the reference glass light water, six oxides of interest. For each of these oxides, a composition variation area has been defined. A matrix of twenty glass compositions has then been defined. The preparation of materials of these compositions has sometimes lead to materials weakly heterogeneous which have been characterized before deterioration. This study has been completed by those of three glasses in a composition variation area narrower of the light water nuclear glass : the R7T7 and two glasses at limits having respectively an initial dissolution velocity at 100 degrees Celsius theoretically maximum and minimum. Some deterioration parameters in pure water have been experimentally measured on the twenty three glasses : 1) an initial dissolution velocity at 100 degrees (Vo{sub 1}00) Celsius and another one at 90 degrees Celsius (Vo{sub 9}0) 2) a dissolution velocity in conditions near the saturation at 90 degrees Celsius 3) an apparent solubility of glass based on the ortho silicic acid activity 4) the evolution of the dissolution kinetics at 90 degrees Celsius in sub-saturated medium towards saturated medium 5) the alteration films nature developed at the glasses surface during these last alteration tests. Some thermodynamic and structural models have been studied in order to predict Vo{sub 9}0 and Vo{sub 1}00. The dissolution kinetic law developed from reference glass dissolution results has been studied with the calculation code LIXIVER. It has not been able to be used for most of the glasses compositions studied. As a consequence, the glasses dissolution control by a surface reaction which are itself controlled by the only dissolved silica is an hypothesis which is not verified for the greater part of the glasses. (O.L.). refs., figs., tabs.

  10. Myocardial Na,K-ATPase: Clinical aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjeldsen, Keld

    2003-01-01

    treatments. Digitalization has been shown to affect both parameters. Furthermore, in experimental animals, potassium loading and depletion are found to significantly affect Ke handling. The effects of potassium depletion are of special interest because this condition often occurs in patients treated with diuretics. In human congenital long QT syndrome caused by mutations in genes coding for potassium channels, exercise and potassium depletion are well known for their potential to elicit arrhythmias and sudden death. There is a need for further evaluation of the dynamic aspects of potassium handling in the heart, as well as in the periphery. It is recommended that resting plasma potassium be maintained at around 4 mmol/L. PMID:19641704

  11. Environmental aspects of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warner, Sir F.

    1984-01-01

    The paper discusses the environmental aspects of nuclear power, including the problems of waste, with special reference to the effect on humans. The following aspects are covered: the public fear of the risk of cancer, the kind of exposure that people are likely to have, what can be and is being done about it; recommendations and activities of the International Commission on Radiological Protection, the UK Health and Safety Executive, the Nuclear Installations Inspectorate, the National Radiological Protection Board and other relevant organisations; public relations in relation to nuclear facilities' operations. (U.K.)

  12. Practical Aspects of CMOS Layout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stassen, Flemming

    1996-01-01

    The topics covered in these notes are the practical aspects and limitations of layout, when random process variations result in electrical parameters, which are not constant but rather statistically distributed.The focus is on design methods for reducing or eliminating the effects. The notes cover...... three aspects:1) to introduce layout structures robust to process variations2) to present simplistic models for analog building blocks with the aim of analysing consequences of parameter variations3) to present the basic noise considerations which guide the layout of supply structures etc....

  13. Legal aspects of radiactive installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malheiros, T.M.M.; Knoefell, T.M.J.

    1988-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to discuss the main legal aspects related to the application of ionizing radiation in the industry, medicine, agriculture, scientific activities to envisage from the in force legislation the competence and responsibility for the control of radiation facilities comprising regulation, licensing and inspection. Legislation does not embrace all the aspects related to radiation facilities regarding to the specific provisions on civil liability concerning damages caused by non nuclear radiological accidents. The law nr.6.453 is applied only to nuclear accident, as defined in its rules. (author) [pt

  14. Behaviour of semiconductor nuclear-particle detectors; Comportement des semi-conducteurs comme detecteurs de particules nucleaires; Povedenie detektorov yadernykh chastits na poluprovodnikakh; Propiedades de los detectores de particulas nucleares a base de semiconductores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walter, F J; Dabbs, J W.T.; Roberts, L D [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1962-04-15

    Experimental and theoretical studies of the behaviour of semiconductor nuclear-particle detectors have been carried out over the temperature range of 0.2{sup o}K to 300{sup o}K. A simple theoretical model for the detector behaviour, which is found to describe the observed behaviour over a wide range of parameters, is presented. The importance of semiconductor purity and bias voltage in connection with pulse height, pulse rise-time and detector area is discussed. Empirical studies of noise and energy resolution indicate that for alpha particles the smallest observed peak-widths are substantially larger than those expected on the basis of electrical noise from the detector and amplifier. Equivalent noise values of {<=} 3 keV full-width at half maximum (FWHM) have been found for a 40-mm{sup 2} silicon surface-barrier detector at 77{sup o}K. Semiconductor detectors exhibit a ''pulse-height defect'' for fission fragments. There is evidence that this defect is not caused by a ''dead layer''. If electric fields which are insufficient to insure complete ''collection'' are responsible for the defect, the necessary minimum field (at the surface) is > 3 x 10{sup 4} V/cm for fission fragments, as compared to the value of 2 x 10{sup 3} V/cm which is found necessary in the case of alpha particles in Ge and Si. Detailed considerations regarding pulse rise-time at the amplifier have shown that in high-resistivity material both the ''dielectric'' relaxation time and the resistance associated with the undepleted base material can play an important role. A quantative description of the effect of detector and amplifier parameters on the shapes and rise-times associated with the pulse are presented. The advantages and problems associated with the use of surface-barrier detectors in several unique low-temperature nuclear-alignment experiments are discussed. These experiments involved fission-fragment angular distributions and resolution of alpha-fine structure with long-term stability

  15. Dynamic aspects of the tubuloglomerular feedback mechanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holstein-Rathlou, N H

    1992-01-01

    Tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF) is an important intrarenal regulatory mechanism, which acts to stabilize renal blood flow, GFR, and the tubular flow rate. The anatomical basis for this negative feedback system is the Juxtaglomerular Apparatus (JGA). This is located at the point of contact between...... of the TGF, and to use this knowledge in elucidating the role of the TGF system in the autoregulation of renal blood flow. Further, by comparing the dynamic characteristics of TGF between hypertensive and normotensive rats, to identify possible alterations in renal function that could play a role...... in the etiology and pathogenesis of hypertension. Anesthesia and surgery are unavoidable complications in experimental work in animals. It is shown that the anesthetics commonly used in micropuncture experiments in rats have different effects on various aspects of renal function, e.g. GFR, sodium excretion...

  16. Exotic nuclei: another aspect of nuclear structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobaczewski, J.; Blumenfeld, Y.; Flocard, H.; Garcia Borge, M.J.; Nowacki, F.; Rombouts, S.; Theisen, Ch.; Marques, F.M.; Lacroix, D.; Dessagne, P.; Gaeggeler, H.

    2002-01-01

    This document gathers the lectures made at the Joliot Curie international summer school in 2002 whose theme that year was exotic nuclei. There were 11 contributions whose titles are: 1) interactions, symmetry breaking and effective fields from quarks to nuclei; 2) status and perspectives for the study of exotic nuclei: experimental aspects; 3) the pairing interaction and the N = Z nuclei; 4) borders of stability region and exotic decays; 5) shell structure of nuclei: from stability to decay; 6) variational approach of system with a few nucleons; 7) from heavy to super-heavy nuclei; 8) halos, molecules and multi-neutrons; 9) macroscopic approaches for fusion reactions; 10) beta decay: a tool for spectroscopy; 11) the gas phase chemistry of super-heavy elements

  17. Practical aspects of protein co-evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, David; Pazos, Florencio

    2014-01-01

    Co-evolution is a fundamental aspect of Evolutionary Theory. At the molecular level, co-evolutionary linkages between protein families have been used as indicators of protein interactions and functional relationships from long ago. Due to the complexity of the problem and the amount of genomic data required for these approaches to achieve good performances, it took a relatively long time from the appearance of the first ideas and concepts to the quotidian application of these approaches and their incorporation to the standard toolboxes of bioinformaticians and molecular biologists. Today, these methodologies are mature (both in terms of performance and usability/implementation), and the genomic information that feeds them large enough to allow their general application. This review tries to summarize the current landscape of co-evolution-based methodologies, with a strong emphasis on describing interesting cases where their application to important biological systems, alone or in combination with other computational and experimental approaches, allowed getting new insight into these.

  18. Mathematical aspects of quantum field theories

    CERN Document Server

    Strobl, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Despite its long history and stunning experimental successes, the mathematical foundation of perturbative quantum field theory is still a subject of ongoing research. This book aims at presenting some of the most recent advances in the field, and at reflecting the diversity of approaches and tools invented and currently employed. Both leading experts and comparative newcomers to the field present their latest findings, helping readers to gain a better understanding of not only quantum but also classical field theories. Though the book offers a valuable resource for mathematicians and physicists alike, the focus is more on mathematical developments. This volume consists of four parts: The first Part covers local aspects of perturbative quantum field theory, with an emphasis on the axiomatization of the algebra behind the operator product expansion. The second Part highlights Chern-Simons gauge theories, while the third examines (semi-)classical field theories. In closing, Part 4 addresses factorization homolo...

  19. Biological aspects of tissue-engineered cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshi, Kazuto; Fujihara, Yuko; Yamawaki, Takanori; Harai, Motohiro; Asawa, Yukiyo; Hikita, Atsuhiko

    2018-04-01

    Cartilage regenerative medicine has been progressed well, and it reaches the stage of clinical application. Among various techniques, tissue engineering, which incorporates elements of materials science, is investigated earnestly, driven by high clinical needs. The cartilage tissue engineering using a poly lactide scaffold has been exploratorily used in the treatment of cleft lip-nose patients, disclosing good clinical results during 3-year observation. However, to increase the reliability of this treatment, not only accumulation of clinical evidence on safety and usefulness of the tissue-engineered products, but also establishment of scientific background on biological mechanisms, are regarded essential. In this paper, we reviewed recent trends of cartilage tissue engineering in clinical practice, summarized experimental findings on cellular and matrix changes during the cartilage regeneration, and discussed the importance of further studies on biological aspects of tissue-engineered cartilage, especially by the histological and the morphological methods.

  20. Aspects of human chlamydial infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.H. Tjiam

    1987-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis takes a closer look at three aspects of human chlamydial infections. With regard to diagnosis the influence of logistics on the sensitivity of the culture method is discussed, along with optimalization of the culture itself and an evaluation of new diagnostic methods.

  1. Aspect Composition using Composition Filters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergmans, Lodewijk; Aksit, Mehmet; Tekinerdogan, B.; Aksit, Mehmet

    2002-01-01

    This chapter first discusses a number of software reuse and extension problems in current object-oriented languages. For this purpose, a change case for a simplified mail system is presented. Each evolution step in the change case consists of the addition or refinement of certain aspects to existing

  2. Legal Aspects of the Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrull, Alexandre Lopez; Oppenheim, Charles

    2004-01-01

    Presents a literature review that covers the following topics related to legal aspects of the Web: copyright; domain names and trademarks; linking, framing, caching, and spamdexing; patents; pornography and censorship on the Internet; defamation; liability; conflict of laws and jurisdiction; legal deposit; and spam, i.e., unsolicited mails.…

  3. Hispathologic aspects of Lyme Borreliosis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, Johannes de

    1994-01-01

    As a result of the recent interest in Lyme disease a large number of papers has been published on its different aspects. The purpose of this thesis is to present a comprehensive study of the most important histopathological manifestations based on the experience obtained during the last 11 years. In

  4. Verbal aspects in West Greenlandic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trondhjem, Naja Blytmann

    2017-01-01

    In this article, lexical aspectual types in West Greenlandic are investigated in the five aspectual types, states, achievements, semelfactives, activities and accomplishments. It is shown that derivational verbalizing affixes include aspectual type congruent with the lexical aspect and how the as...

  5. Computational Aspects of Asynchronous CA

    OpenAIRE

    Chandesris, Jérôme; Dennunzio, Alberto; Formenti, Enrico; Manzoni, Luca

    2011-01-01

    This work studies some aspects of the computational power of fully asynchronous cellular automata (ACA). We deal with some notions of simulation between ACA and Turing Machines. In particular, we characterize the updating sequences specifying which are "universal", i.e., allowing a (specific family of) ACA to simulate any TM on any input. We also consider the computational cost of such simulations.

  6. Tumeurs mandibulaires : Aspects epidemiologiques et ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: Study the anatomopathological and epidemiological aspects of the tumors of the mandible in order to compare the literature data. Methodology: It is an analytic, descriptive and retrospective study conducted over a period of 10 years at the ENT and the Anatomo-pathology Departments of CHU in Lomé. Results: ...

  7. Social aspects of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koryakin, Yu.I.

    1990-01-01

    Social aspects of nuclear power crisis in the USSR are considered. It is shown that the system of economic and social stimulation and different compensations widely used abroad when locating nuclear power plants, is the effective factor, providing loyal attitude to them

  8. Crimean Referendum: International Legal Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Geistlinger

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the key aspects of the accession of the Republic of Crimea to the Russian Federation as the example of enforcement of the people’s right to self-determination, secured in UN Charter. International law basis of the accession, as well analysis of key reasons and consequences of this international precedent are under consideration.

  9. 'Shelter' object safety. Structural aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krivosheev, P.I.; Nemchinov, Yu.I.; Bambura, A.N.; Sokolov, A.P.; Shenderovich, V.Ya.; Vasyagin, R.V.; Klyuchnikov, A.A.; Shcherbin, V.N.; Rud'ko, V.M.; Tokarevskij, V.V.; Belousov, E.L.; Khejger, D.; Gorodetskij, L.

    2001-01-01

    In 1997 the group of the international experts including Ukrainian organizations and 'Shelter' Object ChNPP are developed the plan of SO transformation into ecological safe status (plan SIP). The realization of the plan was carried out on basis of international tender. The results of structural aspects of SO safety and it transformation into ecological safe state (ESS) are resented in this report

  10. Fascioliasis hepatis - computed tomography aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goebel, N.; Markwalder, K.; Siegenthaler, W.

    1984-12-01

    In a patient with liver fascioliasis (already excreting eggs with the faeces) a CT scan of the liver showed after i.v. contrast injection a relatively characteristic aspect with multiple, small, hypodense areas, partly in formations of bunches of grapes, partly in a street-like arrangement towards the portal vein - bile duct - areas. 9 months later the hypodense lesions had markedly decreased.

  11. Economical aspects of nuclear energetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celinski, Z.

    2000-01-01

    The economical aspects of nuclear power generation in respect to costs of conventional energetics have been discussed in detail. The costs and competitiveness of nuclear power have been considered on the base of worldwide trends taking into account investment and fuel costs as well as 'social' costs being result of impact of different types of energetics on environment, human health etc

  12. Nuclear medicine software: safety aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    A brief editorial discusses the safety aspects of nuclear medicine software. Topics covered include some specific features which should be incorporated into a well-written piece of software, some specific points regarding software testing and legal liability if inappropriate medical treatment was initiated as a result of information derived from a piece of clinical apparatus incorporating a malfunctioning computer program. (U.K.)

  13. International conference: nuclear power for the 21 st century; Conference internationale: L'energie nucleaire au 21. siecle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    It is widely recognised that global energy demand will rise substantially during this century. The increased industrialization and urbanization of developing countries will produce large increases in energy demand in regions that currently have very low per capita energy use. This increasing demand for energy will need to be met in order to improve living standards for at least half of the world population and to reduce the economic imbalances between countries and regions. At the same time the use of fossil fuel based energy is identified as a major cause of environmental damage. The release of greenhouse gases from burning of fossil fuel in power stations and for transport is seen as a contributor to global warming. It is widely recognised that continued exploitation of fossil fuels and release of carbon dioxide will need to be controlled. After a prolonged period of slow development of nuclear power, confined to some countries in the world, it is now being recognised that nuclear energy has a potentially significant role to play in meeting the energy needs of the planet without damaging the environment. Developments in technology make the economics of nuclear power more attractive, and they may become even more so as fossil fuel prices continue to rise.or a widespread use of nuclear power, however, there remain concerns on the safety, security, waste and proliferation aspects. The global application of safety standards and appropriate security measures are required to ensure acceptable levels of protection. Effective control measures are required to ensure that non-proliferation commitments are honored. Handling nuclear waste safely and securely is achievable, but continues to remain as a public concern. The broad strategic objectives of the Conference are the following: to review the role of nuclear power and to define the potential benefits (energy security, sustainability and improved environmental protection) that expanding nuclear power offers to meet the

  14. Experimental Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fournier, D.; Serin, L.

    1995-01-01

    Experimental techniques to be used in the new generation of high energy physics are presented. The emphasis is put on the new ATLAS and CMS detectors for the CERN LHC. For the most important elements of these detectors, a description of the underlying physics processes is given, sometimes with reference to comparable detectors used in the past. Some comparative global performances of the two detectors are also given, with reference to benchmark physics processes (detection of the Higgs boson in various mass regions, etc). (author)

  15. Thermodynamical modeling of nuclear glasses: coexistence of amorphous phases; Modelisation thermodynamique des verres nucleaires: coexistence entre phases amorphes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adjanor, G

    2007-11-15

    Investigating the stability of borosilicate glasses used in the nuclear industry with respect to phase separation requires to estimate the Gibbs free energies of the various phases appearing in the material. In simulation, using current computational resources, a direct state-sampling of a glassy system with respect to its ensemble statistics is not ergodic and the estimated ensemble averages are not reliable. Our approach consists in generating, at a given cooling rate, a series of quenches, or paths connecting states of the liquid to states of the glass, and then in taking into account the probability to generate the paths leading to the different glassy states in ensembles averages. In this way, we introduce a path ensemble formalism and calculate a Landau free energy associated to a glassy meta-basin. This method was validated by accurately mapping the free energy landscape of a 38-atom glassy cluster. We then applied this approach to the calculation of the Gibbs free energies of binary amorphous Lennard-Jones alloys, and checked the correlation between the observed tendencies to order or to phase separate and the computed Gibbs free energies. We finally computed the driving force to phase separation in a simplified three-oxide nuclear glass modeled by a Born-Mayer-Huggins potential that includes a three-body term, and we compared the estimated quantities to the available experimental data. (author)

  16. Critical experiments and nuclear calculations - LAMPRE-I; Experiences critiques et calculs nucleaires concernant le LAMPRE-I; Kriticheskie opyty i yadernye raschety - LAMPRE-I; Experimentos criticos u calculos nucleares relativos al LAMPRE-I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battat, M E [Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, University of California, Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    1962-03-15

    As part of a programme to develop plutonium fuels for fast-breeder reactors, the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory has constructed and is operating a 1-MW sodium-cooled test reactor whose core contains a molten alloy of plutonium andiron (90 at. % Pu, 10 at. % Fe, m.p. 410 deg. C). Reactivity control is provided by the use of a stainless-steel reflector and four nickel control-rods located external to the core. Experiments have been performed at core temperatures (isothermal) of 80, 160 and 480 deg. C to determine critical mass and reflector worth at each of these temperatures. Control-rod worths, from period measurements, and temperature coefficient of reactivity were also measured. Calculations have been made, using the S{sub n} method for solving the neutron transport problem, to determine the basic nuclear parameters of the system. The comparison between calculated and measured values of parameters such as temperature coefficient, control-element worths, and critical mass is also of interest in evaluating the reliability of the design calculations. (author) [French] Un reacteur d'essais de 1 MW refroidi au sodium, dont le coeur contient un alliage fondu de plutonium et defer (90 at. % Pu, 10 at. % Fe, p. f. 410 deg. C), a ete construit et est en fonctionnement au Laboratoire scientifique de Los Alamos, dans le cadre d'un programme d'etudes sur les combustibles au plutonium pour reacteurs surgenerateurs a neutrons rapides. Le controle de la reactivite est assure au moyen d'un reflecteur en acier inoxydable et de quatre barres de controle en nickel, a l'exterieur du coeur. On a fait des experiences a des temperatures du coeur de 80, 160 et 480 deg. C afin de determiner la masse critique et la quantite de reflecteur qui correspond a chacune de ces temperatures. On a aussi mesure l'efficacite des barres de controle, a partir de mesures de periode, ainsi que le coefficient thermique de reactivite. Afin de determiner les parametres nucleaires de base du reacteur, on a

  17. Experimental overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagamiya, Shoji

    1992-01-01

    Five years ago the first heavy-ion beams were accelerated at both the BNL-AGS and the CERN-SPS. This conference is the 5th anniversary in the experimental field. Currently, four experimental groups (E802/E859, E810, E814, E858) are taking data at BNL and eight groups (NA34-3, NA44, NA45, NA35, NA36, NA38, WA80/WA93, WA85) at CERN. Au and Pb beams are about to come, and a lot of activities are going on for RHIC and LHC. The purpose of this talk is to overview where we are, in particular, by looking at the past data. In this talk, the data of proton rapidity distributions are reviewed first to study nuclear transparency, then, the data of energy spectra and slopes, HBT and anti d production are discussed in connection with the evolution of the collision. Third, the data of strangeness production are described. Finally, the status of J/ψ and that of soft photons and electron pairs are briefly overviewed. (orig.)

  18. Status of safety at Areva group facilities. 2006 annual report; Etat de surete des installations nucleaires. Rapport annuel 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This report presents a snapshot of nuclear safety and radiation protection conditions in the AREVA group's nuclear installations in France and abroad, as well as of radiation protection aspects in service activities, as identified over the course of the annual inspections and analyses program carried out by the General Inspectorate in 2006. This report is presented to the AREVA Supervisory Board, communicated to the labor representation bodies concerned, and made public. In light of the inspections, appraisals and coordination missions it has performed, the General Inspectorate considers that the nuclear safety level of the AREVA group's nuclear installations is satisfactory. It particularly noted positive changes on numerous sites and efforts in the field of continuous improvement that have helped to strengthen nuclear safety. This has been possible through the full involvement of management teams, an improvement effort initiated by upper management, actions to increase personnel awareness of nuclear safety culture, and supervisors' heightened presence around operators. However, the occurrence of certain events in facilities has led us to question the nuclear safety repercussions that the changes to activities or organization on some sites have had. In these times of change, drifts in nuclear safety culture have been identified. The General Inspectorate considers that a preliminary analysis of the human and organizational factors of these changes, sized to match the impact the change has on nuclear safety, should be made to ensure that a guaranteed level of nuclear safety is maintained (allowance for changes to references, availability of the necessary skills, resources of the operating and support structures, etc.). Preparations should also be made to monitor the changes and spot any telltale signs of drift in the application phase. Managers should be extra vigilant and the occurrence of any drift should be systematically dealt with ahead of

  19. EBTS: DESIGN AND EXPERIMENTAL STUDY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PIKIN, A.; ALESSI, J.; BEEBE, E.; KPONOU, A.; PRELEC, K.; KUZNETSOV, G.; TIUNOV, M.

    2000-01-01

    Experimental study of the BNL Electron Beam Test Stand (EBTS), which is a prototype of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS), is currently underway. The basic physics and engineering aspects of a high current EBIS implemented in EBTS are outlined and construction of its main systems is presented. Efficient transmission of a 10 A electron beam through the ion trap has been achieved. Experimental results on generation of multiply charged ions with both continuous gas and external ion injection confirm stable operation of the ion trap

  20. Experimental techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roussel-Chomaz, P.

    2007-01-01

    This lecture presents the experimental techniques, developed in the last 10 or 15 years, in order to perform a new class of experiments with exotic nuclei, where the reactions induced by these nuclei allow to get information on their structure. A brief review of the secondary beams production methods will be given, with some examples of facilities in operation or under project. The important developments performed recently on cryogenic targets will be presented. The different detection systems will be reviewed, both the beam detectors before the targets, and the many kind of detectors necessary to detect all outgoing particles after the reaction: magnetic spectrometer for the heavy fragment, detection systems for the target recoil nucleus, γ detectors. Finally, several typical examples of experiments will be detailed, in order to illustrate the use of each detector either alone, or in coincidence with others. (author)

  1. Collider Aspects of Flavour Physics at High Q

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    del Aguila, F.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J.A.; Allanach, B.C.; Alwall, J.; Andreev, Yu.; Aristizabal Sierra, D.; Bartl, A.; Beccaria, M.; Bejar, S.; Benucci, L.; Bityukov, S.; Borjanovic, I.; Bozzi, G.; Burdman, G.; Carvalho, J.; Castro, N.; Clerbaux, B.; de Campos, F.; de Gouvea, A.; Dennis, C.; Djouadi, A.; /Cambridge U., DAMTP /Louvain U., CP3 /Moscow, INR /Valencia U. /Vienna U. /Salento U. /INFN, Lecce /Barcelona, Autonoma U. /Barcelona, IFAE /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /Karlsruhe U. /Sao Paulo U. /LIP, Coimbra /Brussels U. /Sao Paulo U., Guaratingueta /Northwestern U. /Oxford U. /Orsay, LPT /Athens U. /Lisbon U.

    2008-03-07

    This chapter of the report of the 'Flavour in the era of LHC' workshop discusses flavor related issues in the production and decays of heavy states at LHC, both from the experimental side and from the theoretical side. We review top quark physics and discuss flavor aspects of several extensions of the Standard Model, such as supersymmetry, little Higgs model or models with extra dimensions. This includes discovery aspects as well as measurement of several properties of these heavy states. We also present public available computational tools related to this topic.

  2. Collider aspects of flavor physics at high Q

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lari, T.; Pape, L.; Moortgat, F.; Porod, W.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J.A.; Aguila, F. del; Illana, J.; Allanach, B.C.; Raklev, A.R.; Burdman, G.; Eboli, O.J.P.; Castro, N.; Carvalho, J.; Onofre, A.; Veloso, F.; Klasen, M.; Fuks, B.; Herrmann, B.; Krasnikov, N.; Andreev, Y.; Bityukov, S.; Gninenko, S.; Matveev, V.; Toropin, A.; Krauss, F.; Weiglein, G.; Polesello, G.; Tricomi, A.; Uenel, G.; Alwall, J.; Frederix, R.; Gerard, J.M.; Giammanco, A.; Herquet, M.; Kalinin, S.; Kou, E.; Lemaitre, V.; Maltoni, F.; Sierra, D.A.; Hirsch, M.K.; Valle, J.W.F.; Villanova del Moral, A.; Bartl, A.; Hohenwarter-Sodek, K.; Kernreiter, T.; Beccaria, M.; Ventura, A.; Bejar, S.; Benucci, L.; Palla, F.; Borjanovic, I.; Bozzi, G.; Clerbaux, B.; Campos, F. de; Gouvea, A. de; Gopalakrishna, S.; Dennis, C.; Uenel, M.K.; Tseng, J.; Djouadi, A.; Ellwanger, U.; Moreau, G.; Fassouliotis, D.; Kourkoumelis, C.; Roupas, Z.; Ferreira, P.M.; Santos, R.; Goto, T.; Grzadkowski, B.; Guasch, J.; Hahn, T.; Hollik, W.; Heinemeyer, S.; Hektor, A.; Kadastik, M.; Muentel, M.; Raidal, M.; Rebane, L.; Hidaka, K.; Hou, G.W.S.; Hurth, T.; Ibarra, A.; Karafasoulis, C.; Kyriakis, A.; Vermisoglou, G.; Kirsanov, M.M.; Kraml, S.; Macorini, G.; Panizzi, L.; Verzegnassi, C.; Magro, M.B.; Majerotto, W.; Mehdiyev, R.; Misiak, M.; Muehlleitner, M.; Oezcan, E.; Penaranda, S.; Pittau, R.; Pukhov, A.; Renard, F.M.; Restrepo, D.; Schumann, S.; Siegert, F.; Servant, G.; Skands, P.; Slavich, P.; Sola, J.; Spira, M.; Sultansoy, S.

    2008-01-01

    This chapter of the ''Flavor in the era of LHC'' workshop report discusses flavor-related issues in the production and decays of heavy states at the LHC at high momentum transfer Q, both from the experimental and the theoretical perspective. We review top quark physics, and discuss the flavor aspects of several extensions of the standard model, such as supersymmetry, little Higgs models or models with extra dimensions. This includes discovery aspects, as well as the measurement of several properties of these heavy states. We also present publicly available computational tools related to this topic. (orig.)

  3. Shippingport Atomic Power Station Operating Experience, Developments and Future Plans; La centrale nucleaire de Shippingport, experience de son fonctionnement et plans pour l'avenir; Shippingportskaya atomnaya ehlektrostantsij, opyt ehkspluatatsii, usovershenstvovaniya i plany na budushchee; Central nucleoelectrica de Shippingport; experiencia adquirida con su explotacton y programa de desarrollo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feinroth, H. [Division of Reactor Development, United States Atomic Energy Commission, Washington, DC (United States); Oldham, G. M. [Shippingport Atomic Power Station, Duquesne Light Company, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Stiefel, J. T. [Bettis Atomic Power.Labora Tory, Westinghouse Electric Corporation, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1963-10-15

    design rating of 150 MW(e) gross and a first seed life of 10.000 effective full power hours (EFPH), Core 2 will have five and a half times the design energy output and twice the power density of Core 1. The Core 2 design is described and associated major developments in reactor physics, metallurgy, heat transfer and fluid flow, and fuel element manufacture, are summarized. Plans for decontamination of the reactor plant and for performing modifications to the plant in connection with the installation of the higher rated Core 2 are described. (author) [French] Les auteurs font le bilan des cinq annees de fonctionnement et d'essai de la centrale nucleaire de Shippingport; ils examinent les progres techniques actuels et l'avenir du programme de Shippingport. Ce programme vise a mettre au point la technologie fondamentale des reacteurs a eau legere pour permettre une reduction du prix de revient de l'energie d'origine nucleaire. La centrale nucleaire de Shippingport fonctionne depuis plus de 5 ans et s'est integree facilement dans un reseau d'interconnexion comme centrale de base ou comme centrale d'appoint. Les divers elements de la centrale se sont reveles d'un fonctionnement sur. Il n'y a pas eu de probleme de contamination ni d'elimination des dechets. On peut acceder facilement aux elements du circuit primaire de refroidissement pour l'entretien et, ce faisant, on a constate que les cartouches de combustible etaient intactes. Chacune des trois operations de rechargement effectuees depuis le demarrage de la centrale a pris moins de temps que la precedente. Recemment, la troisieme charge de combustible enrichi a ete mise en place en 32 journees de travail, soit environ le quart du temps necessaire pour le premier rechargement. Les auteurs exposent les conditions auxquelles doit satisfaire la formation du personnel et donnent un apercu des instructions ecrites en matiere d'administration, d'exploitation, etc., qui sont autant de facteurs essentiels du succes du programme de

  4. Toxicological aspects of energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, C.L.

    1986-01-01

    Part I reviews the principles of toxicology, describes the biological fate of chemicals in the body, discusses basic pathobiology, and reviews short-term toxicity tests. Part II describes the toxicology and pathology of pollutants in several important organ systems. The greatest emphasis is placed on the respiratory tract because of its high probability as a route of exposure to pollutants from energy technologies and its high sensitivity to pollutant related tissue damage. Part III describes the toxicological aspects of specific chemical classes associated with fossil fuels; these include polycyclic hydrocarbons, gases and metals. Part IV describes the biomedical effects associated with each energy technology, including coal and oil, fossil fuel and biomass conversions, solar and geothermal and radiological health aspects associated with uranium mining, nuclear fission and fusion, and with nonionising radiations and electromagnetic fields

  5. Selected aspects of fusion reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacroix, D.

    2003-01-01

    In this lecture, we present selected aspects of nuclear fusion. The importance of the initial geometry of the reaction and its relation to fusion barrier are first discussed. The effect of deformation leading to the notion of barrier distribution is then illustrated. After a brief overview of the advantages of macroscopic theories, the dynamics of nuclear system under large amplitude motion is reviewed. The di-nuclear concept is presented to understand the competition between fusion and quasi-fission. This concept is then generalized to account for the dissipative dynamics in multidimensional collective space. The last part of this lecture is devoted to new aspects encountered with radioactive beams specific properties of very extended neutron rich system, influence of pygmy or soft dipole resonances and charge exchange far from stability are discussed. (author)

  6. Ethical aspect price decision making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grubor Aleksandar

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Price decision making in a marketing program framework creatings is a complicated and delicated part of marketing management, especially to keep in sight culminating of mass external factors. In a market economies price policy as a marketing mix instrument rarely is regulated by the law, which opening the ethical aspect questions of price decision making process. The ethics in the price decision making means consideration of the inner law of the individual (marketing managers and/or consumers, whose irreverence does not entail any juridical sanctions, rather its application is sanctioned by the self - awareness. The acception and stability of the ethical aspect price decision making are determined by the characteristic of selected marketing environment.

  7. Liposarcome dorsal: aspect clinique rare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbessi, Odry; Arrob, Adil; Fiqhi, Kamal; Khalfi, Lahcen; Nassih, Mohammed; El Khatib, Karim

    2015-01-01

    Décrit la première fois par Virchow en 1860, le liposarcome est une tumeur mésenchymateuse rare. Cette rareté est relative car les liposarcomes représentent quand même 14 à 18% de l'ensemble des tumeurs malignes des parties molles et ils constituent le plus fréquent des sarcomes des parties molles. Pour la majorité des auteurs, il ne se développerait jamais sur un lipome ou une lipomatose préexistant. Nous rapportons un cas de volumineux liposarcome de la face dorsale du tronc. L'histoire de la maladie, l'aspect clinique inhabituel « de tumeur dans tumeur », l'aspect de la pièce opératoire nous fait évoquer la possibilité de la transformation maligne d'un lipome bénin préexistant. PMID:26113914

  8. High aspect ratio spheromak experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, S.; Schmid, P.

    1987-05-01

    The Reversatron RFP (R/a = 50cm/8cm) has been operated as an ohmically heated spheromak of high aspect ratio. We find that the dynamo can drive the toroidal field upward at rates as high as 10 6 G/sec. Discharges can be initiated and ramped upward from seed fields as low as 50 G. Small toroidal bias fields of either polarity (-0.2 < F < 0.2) do not significantly affect operation. 5 refs., 3 figs

  9. Criminal aspects of domestic violence

    OpenAIRE

    Váňová, Radka

    2013-01-01

    Criminal aspects of domestic violence SUMMARY Domestic violence is a serious social concern with high level of latency. The domestic violence victims protection is ensured by legal standarts of Civil, Administrative and Criminal Law and other legal standarts. Criminal Law is one of the important instruments for tackling of serious forms of domestic violence. However Criminal Law is an instrument "ultima ratio" which needs claiming of subsidiarity principal of the crime repression. The purpose...

  10. MODERN ASPECTS OF BRIDGES MONITORING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Kazakevych

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The major concepts of the elaboration and realization of the bridge construction monitoring systemic approach are presented in this paper. The main peculiarity of the bridge monitoring modern aspect is pointed out here, namely, the transition from the demands of providing the reliability to the demands of providing the whole complex of the structure consumer qualities. The criteria of diagnostics of the bridge exploitation reliability as the fundamental aim of monitoring are formulated here.

  11. Dual topological unitarization -- phenomenological aspect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, C.I.

    1978-01-01

    An assessment is provided on the viability of dual topological unitarization as a practical scheme for organizing and interpreting hadronic phenomena at current machine energies. Previous detailed reviews are complemented, with emphasis on phenomenological aspects and more recent developments. Diffraction scattering, a test of P--f identity hypothesis, the flavor model, the P--f identity versus the Veneziano two-jet picture, and an illustration of the new phenomenology are included. 24 references

  12. Some probabilistic aspects of fracture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, J.M.

    1982-01-01

    Some probabilistic aspects of fracture in structural and mechanical components are examined. The principles of fracture mechanics, material quality and inspection uncertainty are formulated into a conceptual and analytical framework for prediction of failure probability. The role of probabilistic fracture mechanics in a more global context of risk and optimization of decisions is illustrated. An example, where Monte Carlo simulation was used to implement a probabilistic fracture mechanics analysis, is discussed. (orig.)

  13. Psychiatric Aspects of Childhood Epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Raman Deep PATTANAYAK; Rajesh SAGAR

    2012-01-01

    How to Cite this Article: Pattanayak RD, Sagar R. Psychiatric Aspects of Childhood Epilepsy. Iran J Child Neurol 2012;6(2):9-18.Childhood epilepsy is a chronic, recurrent disorder of unprovoked seizures. Theonset of epilepsy in childhood has significant implications for brain growth anddevelopment. Seizures may impair the ongoing neurodevelopmental processes and compromise the child’s intellectual and cognitive functioning, leading totremendous cognitive, behavioral and psychosocial consequen...

  14. Fascioliasis hepatis - computed tomography aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goebel, N.; Markwalder, K.; Siegenthaler, W.; Zurich Univ.

    1984-01-01

    In a patient with liver fascioliasis (already excreting eggs with the faeces) a CT scan of the liver showed after i.v. contrast injection a relatively characteristic aspect with multiple, small, hypodense areas, partly in formations of bunches of grapes, partly in a street-like arrangement towards the portal vein - bile duct - areas. 9 months later the hypodense lesions had markedly decreased. (orig.) [de

  15. Medical aspects of radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messerschmidt, O.

    1990-01-01

    Reactor accidents and nuclear bomb explosions are compared including the release of radioactivity in an accident, results of risk studies, emergency measures of nuclear power plants, and evacuation of the population. The medical aspects refer to the prophylaxies of the thyroid gland, contamination and decontamination of body surfaces, recommendations of the ICRP, radiation injury after total body exposure and medical problems after a reactor accident. (DG)

  16. Following the Social Media: Aspect Evolution of Online Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xuning; Yang, Christopher C.

    Due to the advance of Internet and Web 2.0 technologies, it is easy to extract thousands of threads about a topic of interest from an online forum but it is nontrivial to capture the blueprint of different aspects (i.e., subtopic, or facet) associated with the topic. To better understand and analyze a forum discussion given topic, it is important to uncover the evolution relationships (temporal dependencies) between different topic aspects (i.e. how the discussion topic is evolving). Traditional Topic Detection and Tracking (TDT) techniques usually organize topics as a flat structure but it does not present the evolution relationships between topic aspects. In addition, the properties of short and sparse messages make the content-based TDT techniques difficult to perform well in identifying evolution relationships. The contributions in this paper are two-folded. We formally define a topic aspect evolution graph modeling framework and propose to utilize social network information, content similarity and temporal proximity to model evolution relationships between topic aspects. The experimental results showed that, by incorporating social network information, our technique significantly outperformed content-based technique in the task of extracting evolution relationships between topic aspects.

  17. Left displacement of the abomasum in dairy cattle: recent developments in epidemiological and etiological aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winden, van S.C.L.; Kuiper, R.

    2003-01-01

    The research with respect to displacement of the abomasum (DA) in dairy cattle is reviewed. Evaluated articles describe epidemiological and experimental studies. The occurrence is elevated with regard to breed, gender, age, concurrent diseases, environmental aspects and production levels as

  18. Corrosion and alteration of materials from the nuclear industry; La Corrosion et l'alteration des materiaux du nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beauvy, M.; Berthoud, G.; Defranceschi, M.; Ducros, G.; Feron, D.; Guerin, Y.; Latge, C.; Limoge, Y.; Madic, C.; Santarini, G.; Seiler, J.M.; Vernaz, E.; Richet, C.

    2010-07-01

    , testing means, experimental techniques, internal corrosion of zircaloy sheath - the iodine effect, stress corrosion of nickel alloys - hydrogen influence, stress corrosion of stainless steels; C - wear corrosion: a coupled phenomenon, research in the framework of service life extension of the French electronuclear park; 3 - Corrosion in future reactors: A - corrosion in gas reactors: corrosion by helium impurities, oxidation resistance of silicon carbide, corrosion of graphite and carbon-carbon composites; B - corrosion in liquid metal reactors: sodium FBRs, lead and lead alloys reactors; C- corrosion in molten salt reactors: corrosion of Hastelloy N-type nickel alloys by molten fluorides, mass transfer in aniso-thermal fluoride systems, tellurium embrittlement, electrochemical study of pure metals corrosion in molten fluorides; 4 - Materials corrosion and alteration in the back-end of the fuel cycle: A - corrosion in concentrated nitric environment: materials behaviour, self-catalytic mechanism of nitric acid reduction; B - corrosion in unsaturated aqueous environment: metallic corrosion in unsaturated environment - application to the storage of waste containers, bitumens alteration, reinforced concrete behaviour and iron framework corrosion, concrete behaviour in severe thermal environment; C - Corrosion in saturated aqueous environment: metals corrosion in clayey environment, long-term behaviour of glasses, ceramics alteration, underwater concrete durability, clays transformation; D - materials biodegradation: microorganisms and nuclear wastes, biodegradation of bitumen, concretes and steels; 5 - Conclusion, glossary

  19. Experimental music for experimental physics

    CERN Multimedia

    Rosaria Marraffino

    2014-01-01

    Using the sonification technique, physicist and composer Domenico Vicinanza paid homage to CERN at its 60th anniversary ceremony. After months of hard work, he turned the CERN Convention and LHC data into music.   Click here to download the full score of the "LHChamber music". Every birthday deserves gifts and CERN’s 60th anniversary was no exception. Two gifts were very special, thanks to the hard work of Domenico Vicinanza, a physicist and composer. He created two experimental pieces by applying the sonification technique to the CERN Convention and to data recorded by the four LHC detectors during Run 1. “This technique allows us to ‘hear’ data using an algorithm that translates numbers or letters into notes. It keeps the same information enclosed in a graph or a document, but has a more aesthetic exposition,” explains Domenico Vicinanza. “The result is meant to be a metaphor for scientific cooperation, in which d...

  20. Historical and interpretative aspects of quantum mechanics: a physicists' naive approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.Berche

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Many theoretical predictions derived from quantum mechanics have been confirmed experimentally for the last 80 years. However, interpretative aspects have long been subject to debate. Among them, the question of the existence of hidden variables is still open. We review these questions, paying special attention to historical aspects, and argue that one may definitively exclude local realism based on the present experimental outcomes. Nevertheless other interpretations of Quantum Mechanics are not excluded.

  1. Study methods for the drillings around the underground nuclear explosions in the Sahara. Part 1. study of rock samples; Methodes d'etude des forages realises autour des explosions nucleaires souterraines au Sahara. Premiere partie: etude des echantillons de roche

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derlich, S [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Bruyers-le-Chatel (France). Centre d' Etudes

    1969-07-01

    An examination of the mechanical effects produced on rocks by an underground nuclear explosion calls for the use of particular means of exploration which are described in this report, special attention being paid to the equipment used in connection with the French nuclear tests in the Sahara. The drilling methods used (rotary and turbo-drilling) are adapted to the particular conditions of the sampling programme, to the radioactivity and to the temperature in the region of the explosion. A study of the samples makes it possible to obtain the new characteristics of the rock and to assess the chemical and mechanical transformations which it has undergone. An examination of the core obtained from the drilling, together with a knowledge of the drilling parameters (depth of the probe, sample recovery, etc...), makes it possible to study the extent and the characteristics of the zones which have been damaged to different degrees according to their distance from the zero point: cavity, strongly powdered zone, fractured zone, chimney, zones containing high stresses leading to a particular type of fracture of the cores. The problems connected with the interpretation of the results are also presented. (author) [French] L'examen des effets mecaniques provoques par une explosion nucleaire souterraine sur la roche necessite la mise en oeuvre de moyens d'exploration particuliers dont l'expose fait l'objet de ce rapport, essentiellement pour les moyens utilises autour des essais nucleaires francais au Sahara. Les methodes de forage (rotary et turboforage) sont adaptees aux conditions particulieres dues au programme d'echantillonnage, a la radioactivite et a la temperature regnant a proximite du point de tir. L'etude des echantillons permet la determination des nouveaux caracteres de la roche et de ses transformations chimique et mecanique. L'examen des carottes et l'utilisation des parametres de forage (cotes sondeurs, recuperation des echantillons, etc...) permettent d'etudier l

  2. Irradiation and development of the nuclear emulsions exposed to intense fluxes of thermal neutrons with {gamma} rays; Irradiation et developpement des emulsions nucleaires exposees a des flux intenses de neutrons thermiques, accompagnes de rayons {gamma}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faraggi, H.; Bonnet, A.; Cohen, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Lab. du Fort de Chatillon, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1952-07-01

    The thermal neutron fluxes provided by nuclear reactors permit the survey of relatively rare phenomenons, and dosage of very weak quantities of some elements. One of the most favorable detection technique are constituted by the use of the nuclear emulsions. one can mention: - the dosage of uranium by counting in the emulsion the number of traces due to fission fragments after irradiation. - The dosage of the lithium and the boron as trace amounts with the help of nuclear reactions (n, {alpha}) and thermal neutrons. - The research of reactions (n, {alpha}) or (n, p) of very weak cross section for middle or heavy elements. These different applications require however important neutrons fluxes. It had therefore obliged us to search for the most favorable irradiation and development of the emulsions conditions, to get the best visibility of the trajectories and decrease the phenomena of fog on the emulsion, which prevents any observation. (M.B.) [French] Les flux de neutrons thermiques fournis par les reacteurs nucleaires permettent l'etude de phenomenes relativement rares, et le dosage de tres faibles quantites de certains elements. Un des moyens de detection les plus favorables est constitue par l'utilisation des emulsions nucleaires. on peut citer: - le dosage de l'uranium par comptage dans l'emulsion du nombre de traces dues aux fragments de fission apres irradiation. - Le dosage du lithium et du bore a l'etat de traces a l'aide des reactions (n, {alpha}) sous l'action des neutrons thermiques. - La recherche de reactions (n,{alpha}) ou (n,p) de tres faible section efficace pour des elements moyens ou lourds. Ces differentes applications necessite cependant des flux de neutrons important. On a donc ete amene a rechercher les conditions les plus favorables d'irradiation et de developpement des emulsions, de maniere a obtenir la meilleure visibilite des trajectoires et diminuer les phenomenes de voile de l'emulsion, qui

  3. Regulatory aspects of food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowlan, N.V.

    1985-01-01

    The role of the Nuclear Energy Board in relation to radiation safety in Ireland is described. The Board has the duty to control by licence all activities involving ionizing radiation, as well as providing advice and information to the Government on all aspects of radiation safety. The licensing procedures used by the Board, including site approval, construction, commissioning, source loading and commercial operation, in the licensing of large irradiation facilities were described, and an outline of the proposed new legislation which may become necessary if and when the irradiation of food for commercial purposes begins in Ireland is given

  4. Aspects of agents for safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotte, U.

    1999-01-01

    With the development of the Internet and the WWW, information treatment has gained a new dimension. (Intelligent) software agents are one of the means expected to relieve human staff of the burden of information overload, and in the future to contribute to safeguards data acquisition, data evaluation and decision-making. An overview is given for the categories of Internet, intranet and desktop agents. Aspects of the potential application of agents are described in three fields: information access and delivery, collaboration and workflow management, adaptive interfaces and learning assistants. Routine application of agents is not yet in sight, but the scientific and technical progress seems to be encouraging. (author)

  5. Solar energy conversion. Chemical aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Likhtenshtein, Gertz [Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Beersheba (Israel). Dept. of Chemistry

    2012-07-01

    Finally filling a gap in the literature for a text that also adopts the chemist's view of this hot topic, Professor Likhtenshtein, an experienced author and internationally renowned scientist, considers different physical and engineering aspects in solar energy conversion. From theory to real-life systems, he shows exactly which chemical reactions take place when converting light energy, providing an overview of the chemical perspective from fundamentals to molecular harvesting systems and solar cells. This essential guide will thus help researchers in academia and industry better understand solar energy conversion, and so ultimately help this promising, multibillion euro/dollar field to expand. (orig.)

  6. Aspect-oriented programming evaluated

    CERN Document Server

    Kleinschmager, Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    Hauptbeschreibung Aspect-oriented-programming is a relatively new technique that has evolved on top of the already well-established approach of object-oriented programming. When it is used correctly, it promises to remove many redundant parts of a code that appear repeatedly in an application, essentially untangling the original code. Thus, it can lead to a cleaner, more separated software design, to greater modularity and maintainability. Time-savings in software engineering can also be huge cost-savings, and anything that increases software quality is a welcome sight in an industr

  7. Ethical aspects of transformational leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, V R; Koroll, C J

    1994-10-01

    The requirements of leadership in the current environment of health care reform necessitate a clear distinction between leadership and management, an alteration in traditional leadership roles, and an evaluation of the knowledge and skills needed to address the ethical issues that arise from such reform. Transformational leadership is well suited to the current climate in health care because of the manner in which it actively embraces and encourages innovation and change. The article explores the elements of transformational leadership, describes the need for transformational leaders to be cognizant of the ethical aspects of their roles, and outlines the responsibilities of transformational leaders as moral agents.

  8. Some aspects of international cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilera A, V.E.

    1984-01-01

    The present work deals with some aspects of International cooperation which are directly related with Science and Technology in general, but which have total validity in Nuclear Science and Technology. It is meant particularly for Latin-American countries as a whole. Some ideas meant to review the factors that act on the development of Science and Technology are briefly developed; the number of positive achievements reached in Sc. and T.; is recounted; the problems to be overcome in Sc. and T. are numbered and, finally, some propositions for increasing international cooperation in Science and Technology are exposed. (Author)

  9. Fundamental aspects of cathodic sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harman, R.

    1979-01-01

    The main fundamental aspects and problems of cathodic sputtering used mainly for thin film deposition and sputter etching are discussed. Among many types of known sputtering techniques the radiofrequency /RF/ diode sputtering is the most universal one and is used for deposition of metals, alloys, metallic compounds, semiconductors and insulators. It seems that nowadays the largest number of working sputtering systems is of diode type. Sometimes also the dc or rf triode sputtering systems are used. The problems in these processes are practically equivalent and comparable with the problems in the diode method and therefore our discussion will be, in most cases applicable for both, the diode and triode methods

  10. Psychological aspects of cosmetic rhinoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, P

    1984-07-01

    This paper summarises some of the major findings of a doctoral research entitled "Psychological Aspects of Cosmetic Rhinoplasty" carried out when the author was working in the United Kingdom on a thesis that was accepted for the degree of PhD by the University of London. From the point of view of the clinical psychologist there can be no doubt that cosmetic rhinoplasty does have largely beneficial short- and long-term psychological and behavioural effects on patients who request the operation and several observations and experiments are described to account for the efficacy and therapeutic value of this operation.

  11. Mechanical engineering aspects of TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Citrolo, J.C.

    1983-04-01

    This paper briefly presents the principles which characterize a tokamak and discusses the mechanical aspects of TFTR, particularly the toroidal field coils and the vacuum chamber, in the context of being key components common to all tokamaks. The mechanical loads on these items as well as other design requirements are considered and the solutions to these requirements as executed in TFTR are presented. Future technological developments beyond the scope of TFTR, which are necessary to bring the tokamak concept to a full fusion-power system, are also presented. Additional methods of plasma heating, current drive, and first wall designs are examples of items in this category

  12. DESIGN ASPECTS IN AIRPLANE EVOLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ENUŞ Marilena

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes to present a few important aspects from aerodynamics and aerospace technology. It also, presents important points regarding the improvement of airplanes as a result of research in shape modelling, materials, aerodynamics and 3d design. Several examples based on constructive structures are offered. The embodiment design of a traditional airplane is presented in order to offer directions of conceptual development for improving its performance parameters and shapes. The virtual scale models are created by computer in Catia V5, in order to provide the validation of the features and the performance of aerodynamic configuration in the wind tunnel.

  13. Nutritional aspects related to endometriosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Halpern

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY This literature review analyzed the evidence on nutritional aspects related to the pathogenesis and progression of endometriosis. Diets deficient in nutrients result in changes in lipid metabolism, oxidative stress and promote epigenetic abnormalities, that may be involved in the genesis and progression of the disease. Foods rich in omega 3 with anti-inflammatory effects, supplementation with Nacetylcysteine, vitamin D and resveratrol, in addition to the increased consumption of fruits, vegetables (preferably organic and whole grains exert a protective effect, reducing the risk of development and possible regression of disease. Dietary re-education seems to be a promising tool in the prevention and treatment of endometriosis.

  14. Clustering aspects in nuclear structure functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirai, M.; Saito, K.; Watanabe, T.; Kumano, S.

    2011-01-01

    For understanding an anomalous nuclear effect experimentally observed for the beryllium-9 nucleus at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, clustering aspects are studied in structure functions of deep inelastic lepton-nucleus scattering by using momentum distributions calculated in antisymmetrized (or fermionic) molecular dynamics (AMD) and also in a simple shell model for comparison. According to AMD, the 9 Be nucleus consists of two α-like clusters with a surrounding neutron. The clustering produces high-momentum components in nuclear wave functions, which affects nuclear modifications of the structure functions. We investigated whether clustering features could appear in the structure function F 2 of 9 Be along with studies for other light nuclei. We found that nuclear modifications of F 2 are similar in both AMD and shell models within our simple convolution description although there are slight differences in 9 Be. It indicates that the anomalous 9 Be result should be explained by a different mechanism from the nuclear binding and Fermi motion. If nuclear-modification slopes d(F 2 A /F 2 D )/dx are shown by the maximum local densities, the 9 Be anomaly can be explained by the AMD picture, namely by the clustering structure, whereas it certainly cannot be described in the simple shell model. This fact suggests that the large nuclear modification in 9 Be should be explained by large densities in the clusters. For example, internal nucleon structure could be modified in the high-density clusters. The clustering aspect of nuclear structure functions is an unexplored topic which is interesting for future investigations.

  15. Problems related with the power regulation of reactors by physico-chemical methods, and the behaviour of water and heavy water in nuclear reactors; Comportement de l'eau et de l'eau lourde dans les reacteurs nucleaires et problemes de la regulation de puissance par voie physico-chimique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolle, L; Conan, D; Dirian, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    Experience of the CEA heavy water reactors and a systematic study of the radiolytic decomposition of water in the core of swimming-pool reactors are described. Setting up of reactivity control by physico-chemical methods. Reactivity control by homogeneous poisoning of the reactor A comparison of the evolution of xenon poisoning with the residual anti reactivity of the poison in solution during its nuclear consumption establishes the programme which must govern the variation in its concentration if the exact compensation is to be produced The behaviour of the poison towards the reactor materials under the particular operational conditions must be taken into account. Radiolytic decomposition of water in the reactors in the presence of soluble poisons: A study of the effect of certain chemically inert salts, present in small concentrations in the water, on its radiolytic decomposition rate, has led to some new results which are discussed. The choice of a soluble poison is justified on the basis of the above results. Reactivity control by the use of a gaseous absorbent The use of a gas control rod circuit for compensation purposes, in place of solid control rods is described. The use of soluble poisons in the moderator to compensate the xenon effect, and of a gaseous absorbent in a circuit known as a gas control rod form original aspects of the reactivity control in the reactor EL 4. (authors) [French] L'observation du comportement de l'eau et de l'eau lourde dans les reacteurs en exploitation, contribue au fonctionnement sur de ceux-ci et oriente certaines etudes relatives aux techniques de controle de la reactivite par mise en oeuvre de poisons solubles. L'utilisation de poisons nucleaires dissous dans l'eau du reacteur entraine une pollution chimique de celle-ci. Les conditions d'emploi permettant d'eviter les effets indesirables de cette pollution sont etudiees. Les problemes analytiques - bien qu'importants - ne sont pas abordes dans le cadre de la communication

  16. Heavy quarks - experimental

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollebeek, R.

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of these lectures, given at the 1989 SLAC Summer School, was to discuss the experimental aspects of heavy quark production. A companion set of lectures on the theoretical point of view were to be given by Keith Ellis. An experimentalist should gather together the measurements which have been made by various groups, compare, contrast and tabulate them, and if possible point out the ways in which these measurements confirm or contradict current theories. Here the authors has tried to do this, although the reader who expects to find here the latest of all experimental measurements should probably be forewarned that the field is moving extremely rapidly. In some cases, he has added and updated materials where crucial new information became available after or during the summer of 1989, but not in all cases. He has concentrated on trying to select those measurements which are at the moment most crucial in refining our understanding of heavy quarks as opposed to those which merely measure things which are perhaps too complicated to be enlightening at the moment. While theorists worry primarily about production mechanisms, cross sections, QCD corrections, and to some extent about signatures, the experimentalist must determine which measurements he is interested in making, and which signatures for heavy quark production are realistic and likely to produce results which will shed some new light on the underlying production model without undo theoretical complications. Experimentalists also need to evaluate the available experimental equipment, both machines and detectors to find the best way to investigate the properties of heavy quarks. In many cases, the things which we would like to measure are severely restricted by what we can measure. Nevertheless, many properties of heavy quark production and decay can be measured, and the results have already taught us much about the weak interactions and QCD

  17. Software aspects of designing an online data acquisition system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandyopadhyay, A.

    1989-01-01

    The design aspect of a data acquisition system software for experimental nuclear physics applications is discussed. The features of a good data acquisition system and the techniques which are used to meet the requirements are also discussed. The suitability of different programming languages for different applications have been outlined. The operating system requirements and the difficulties encountered by the programmer for non-ideal operating system environment is also highlighted. (author)

  18. PRACTICAL ASPECTS REGARDING FIDUCIARY OPERATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazil Oglindă

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The trusts have been frequently used in the countries which function under the Anglo-Saxon law system, but it most certainly represents an innovation in the new Romanian legislation. For this reason, in this paper, we tried to highlight the main differences between the trust regulated in the Romanian Civil code and its corespondent in other legal systems. Observing that the trust in an institution that is mainly theoretical, and the reluctance of practicioners in using it, we tried to analyze the trust, regarding its practical side. In this paper, we will take into consideration the following aspects: the rights that the trustee acquires after establishing the trust, that will be explained through the new regulations regarding the division of assets, the quality of the parties and the limits in which the trustee may be held liable. Other important aspects are: the means that the new regulations provide in order to protect the interests of the creditors and at the same time, the fiduciary assets; the formalities which the law requires and the means of termination of the contract. In the end, in order to identify alternative solutions, we will compare the trust (regulated in the Civil code with the management of assets that belong to a third party.

  19. Nutritional Aspects of Dysphagia Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallegos, C; Brito-de la Fuente, E; Clavé, P; Costa, A; Assegehegn, G

    This chapter describes the nutritional aspects of dysphagia management by starting with the definition of these two conditions (dysphagia and malnutrition) that share three main clinical characteristics: (a) their prevalence is very high, (b) they can lead to severe complications, and (c) they are frequently underrecognized and neglected conditions. From an anatomical standpoint, dysphagia can result from oropharyngeal and/or esophageal causes; from a pathophysiological perspective, dysphagia can be caused by organic or structural diseases (either benign or malignant) or diseases causing impaired physiology (mainly motility and/or perception disorders). This chapter gathers up-to-date information on the screening and diagnosis of oropharyngeal dysphagia, the consequences of dysphagia (aspiration pneumonia, malnutrition, and dehydration), and on the nutritional management of dysphagic patients. Concerning this last topic, this chapter reviews the rheological aspects of swallowing and dysphagia (including shear and elongational flows) and its influence on the characteristics of the enteral nutrition for dysphagia management (solid/semisolid foods and thickened liquids; ready-to-use oral nutritional supplements and thickening powders), with special focus on the real characteristics of the bolus after mixing with human saliva. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Investigating legal aspects of cyberbullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Simone; Smith, Peter K; Blumberg, Herbert H

    2012-11-01

    In the UK schools are required by law to protect students from bullying; the responsibility of teachers to govern such behaviour has been extended outside the school setting to include cyberbullying. In this investigation, cyberbullying in secondary education is explored from the student perspective using a qualitative method of enquiry. Reported awareness and understanding about the legal aspects of cyberbullying are investigated; consideration is given to legislation, cybercrime, children's rights, school sanctions and safeguarding responsibilities. A total of 197 male and female students aged between 11 and 14 years old participated. Despite the availability of information on guidelines and legislation at national, local, and school level, this does not appear to have reached ground level of the individual student. There is a considerable gap between what students should know and what they report to be aware of with regard to legal aspects of cyberbullying. To address concerns of keeping up with the pace of change in cyberbullying, a collaborative approach is required with young people and adults sharing expertise.

  1. Neurological aspects of lead intoxication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehner, H

    1980-05-08

    This study gives a survey over the medical and scientific literature on lead intoxications, which were published until 1979. Neurologic aspects are of particular interest. At present dramatic cases of lead intoxications occur only rarely. However, there are numerous studies about cases of chronical, partly subclinical intoxications. This chronical type of lead intoxication can become manifest clinically as relatively vague symptoms, for example vertigos, insomnia, headaches and weakness. Contrary to this, serious encephalopathies, even with fatal outcome, and polyneuropathies with typical paresis of the radial nerve are preferably observed in acute lead intoxications. Besides the numerous sources of intoxication, also the different opinions found in literature are discussed, concerning the effects of lead on the human body. The fact that there are differing opinions about the limiting value of the blood-lead level at which intoxication symptoms have to be expected, becomes apparent when the determined blood-lead level values are compared and evaluated. Besides the description of general intoxication effects, the discussion of the neurologic aspects found in literature - not only those concerning the central, but also the peripheral system - are preferably concerned. Reports about neuropsychical alterations due to lead exposure, which are mainly found in children, supplement the numerous descriptions of the macroscopic and microscopic alterations of the nervous system provoked by lead. Finally the therapeutic and prophylactic measures given in the literature are discussed.

  2. Ethical aspects on rare diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera, Luis A; Galindo, Gilberto Cely

    2010-01-01

    In this chapter we discuss several of the most relevant subjects related to ethics on Rare Diseases. Some general aspects are discussed such as the socio-psychological problems that confront the patients and their families that finally lead to marginalization and exclusion of patients affected by these diseases from the health programs, even in wealthy countries. Then we address problems related to diagnosis and some ethical aspects of newborn screening, prenatal, pre-implantation diagnosis and reference centers, as well as some conditions that should be met by the persons and institutions performing such tasks. Alternatives of solutions for the most critical situations are proposed. Subsequently the orphan drugs subject is discussed not only from the availability point of view, prizes, industrial practices, and purchasing power in developed and developing societies. The research related to rare disease in children and other especially vulnerable conditions, the need for informed consent, review boards or ethics comities, confidentiality of the information, biobanks and pharmacogenetics are discussed.

  3. Aspect as a Communicative Category

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Durst-Andersen, Per

    2018-01-01

    On the basis of internal evidence from primarily the use of imperfective forms and external evidence from primarily first language acquisition, it is argued that English, Russian, and French aspect differ from one another, because they go back to an obligatory choice among three possible communic......On the basis of internal evidence from primarily the use of imperfective forms and external evidence from primarily first language acquisition, it is argued that English, Russian, and French aspect differ from one another, because they go back to an obligatory choice among three possible...... communicative directions: should a grammatical category be grounded in the speaker's experience of a situation, in the situation referred to or in the hearer as information about the situation? The progressive vs. non-progressive distinction in English is acquired in the present tense of atelic (simplex) verbs...... to the meta-distinction between atelic (simplex) and telic (complex) verbs. It is second-person oriented. The specific order arrived at reflects the Peircean categories of Firstness, Secondness, and Thirdness and their predictions. This can account for the fact that the English and Russian types can be found...

  4. CONTROVERSIAL ASPECTS REGARDING TAX EVASION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mircea-Constantin SINESCU

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Throughout the paper, we have highlighted some controversial aspects regarding the crime of tax evasion, referring to some important decisions of the High Court of Cassation and Justice and also of the Bucharest Court of Appeal. Debating upon the impunity provision stated by art. 10 of Law no. 241/2005, the study also sheds light upon the issue of the perspective of the judicial organs regarding the juridical regime of the tax due for dividends. The main focus of the paper leads to the situations when there is legal ground for the tax due for dividends to be considered part of the damage caused by tax evasion crime. The study includes a short analysis of some relevant provisions of the Romanian Fiscal Code and also some aspects deriving from decisions issued by the Administrative and Tax Litigation Chamber of The High Court of Cassation and Justice concerning the legal regime of dividends. Consequently, the authors are presenting both perspectives of the interpretation of the issue regarding the tax due for dividends to be considered part of the damage caused by tax evasion crime, resulting from two decisions of the two Criminal Sections of The Bucharest Court of Appeal, also arguing in favour of the most solid interpretation among them

  5. Experimental design verification of WWER-440 model 213 nuclear power plants. Reference plant: Bohunice V2 (Slovakia). Report of the IAEA technical co-operation project RER/9/004 on evaluation of safety aspects of WWER-440 model 213 nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    This publication addresses the experimental research supporting the design of WWER-440 model 213 plants. it is hoped that the material presented will be useful for experts working in the field of WWER safety, and in particular to those planning, executing or reviewing studies related to the subject. Refs, figs and tabs.

  6. Experimental design verification of WWER-440 model 213 nuclear power plants. Reference plant: Bohunice V2 (Slovakia). Report of the IAEA technical co-operation project RER/9/004 on evaluation of safety aspects of WWER-440 model 213 nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-07-01

    This publication addresses the experimental research supporting the design of WWER-440 model 213 plants. it is hoped that the material presented will be useful for experts working in the field of WWER safety, and in particular to those planning, executing or reviewing studies related to the subject. Refs, figs and tabs

  7. Metrological aspects of enzyme production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerber, T M; Pereira-Meirelles, F V; Dellamora-Ortiz, G M

    2010-01-01

    Enzymes are frequently used in biotechnology to carry out specific biological reactions, either in industrial processes or for the production of bioproducts and drugs. Microbial lipases are an important group of biotechnologically valuable enzymes that present widely diversified applications. Lipase production by microorganisms is described in several published papers; however, none of them refer to metrological evaluation and the estimation of the uncertainty in measurement. Moreover, few of them refer to process optimization through experimental design. The objectives of this work were to enhance lipase production in shaken-flasks with Yarrowia lipolytica cells employing experimental design and to evaluate the uncertainty in measurement of lipase activity. The highest lipolytic activity obtained was about three- and fivefold higher than the reported activities of CRMs BCR-693 and BCR-694, respectively. Lipase production by Y. lipolytica cells aiming the classification as certified reference material is recommended after further purification and stability studies

  8. Psychological aspects of cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graça Cardoso

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is accompanied by important psychological distress experienced by both patient and family. From the moment of the diagnosis on, the patient has to develop a great number of mechanisms and tasks of adjustment to the illness and its circumstances. The high prevalence of anxiety and depressive disorders during the course of cancer increases in the end stage disea‐ se. Therefore, a global plan of intervention integrating somatic and psychological/ psychiatric care throughout all the phases of the illness is crucial in the treatment of these patients. Health professionals working on this field can also experience emotional reactions to their patients’ suffering. They should be aware of the emotional aspects involved and develop training to help them intervene adequately with the patient and the family. The articulation between oncologists, palliative care professionals, and mental health care teams can be of great help in providing good quality of care to cancer patients.

  9. Morphometric aspects of Scyllarides latus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. ROMEO

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The slipper lobster, Scyllarides latus (Latreille, 1803, is the only representative species of the genusScyllarides in the Mediterranean Sea. In this study, we examined some biological aspects of this species sampled in the Straits of Messina. The specimens were sexed, measured and weighed. The relationships between body measurements (length and width of the carapace, antennal length and length-weight relationship were calculated. Furthermore, the correlation matrix (Pearson’s coefficient was calculated. Two hundred specimens were collected, ranging in size from 81 to 305 mm in total length, and between 21 and 1490 g in weight. A rare juvenile of 39 mm CL was recorded. A sex ratio of 1:1 was found. The carapace length – weight relationship was almost isometric. The wide size range sampled and the presence of a juvenile, indicate an interesting habitat for studying the presence and growth of Scyllarides latus in the Straits of Messina.

  10. Medical aspects of nuclear armament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janse, M.J.; Schene, A.; Koch, K.

    1983-01-01

    The authors highlight a few medical, biological and psycological aspects of the use of nuclear weapons, drawing attention to their viewpoint that doctors should actively participate in the fight against nuclear armament. The short and long-term radiation effects on man and ecology are presented based on the Hiroshima and Nagasaki experiences. The danger of human error within this framework is emphasised and it is suggested that it is the medical profession's duty to point out how the effect of stress and boredom can lead to a nuclear catastrophe. Medical expertise may also help in the identification of unstable personalities among those who have access to nuclear weapons and in the understanding of the psycology of international conflicts and the psychopathology of those leaders who would use nuclear war as an instrument of national policy. Finally the effects of the nuclear war threat on children and teenagers are considered. (C.F.)

  11. Sustainability aspects of biofuel production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawłowski, L.; Cel, W.; Wójcik Oliveira, K.

    2018-05-01

    Nowadays, world development depends on the energy supply. The use of fossil fuels leads to two threats: depletion of resources within a single century and climate changes caused by the emission of CO2 from fossil fuels combustion. Widespread application of renewable energy sources, in which biofuels play a major role, is proposed as a counter-measure. The paper made an attempt to evaluate to what extent biofuels meet the criteria of sustainable development. It was shown that excessive development of biofuels may threaten the sustainable development paradigms both in the aspect of: intergenerational equity, leading to an increase of food prices, as well as intergenerational equity, resulting in degradation of the environment. The paper presents the possibility of sustainable biofuels production increase.

  12. Pharyngoceles aspects in imaging exams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diniz, Fabio de Vilhena; Nakamura, Olavo Kyosen; Grassi, Caio Giometti; Barbosa Junior, Alcino Alves; Gomes, Regina Lucia Elia; Daniel, Mauro Miguel; Garcia, Marcio Ricardo Taveira; Funari, Marcelo Buarque de Gusmao

    2010-01-01

    Objective: the present study is aimed at showing the different characteristics of pharyngoceles in imaging exams (video fluoroscopic swallowing exam [VFSE] and computed tomography) and its correlation with clinical presentation. Material and method: pharyngocele cases were selected in imaging exams (video fluoroscopic swallowing exam [VFSE] and computed tomography) realized in our service, realizing clinical presentation correlation. Results: pharyngocele presents frequently with small dimensions and narrow orifice. When the size enlarges, clinical presentation is more evident and diverse, which can confuse with other cervical lesions that enlarge with Valsalva maneuver. Differential diagnosis can be done by imaging evaluation. Conclusion: we intended to demonstrate that many times pharyngocele can be presented with different aspects, not always being easy to recognize by clinics or imaging exams, but its diagnosis must be always remembered in our daily practice. (author)

  13. Immune Aspects of Female Infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Brazdova

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Immune infertility, in terms of reproductive failure, has become a serious health issue involving approximately 1 out of 5 couples at reproductive age. Semen that is defined as a complex fluid containing sperm, cellular vesicles and other cells and components, could sensitize the female genital tract. The immune rejection of male semen in the female reproductive tract is explained as the failure of natural tolerance leading to local and/or systemic immune response. Present active immune mechanism may induce high levels of anti-seminal/sperm antibodies. It has already been proven that iso-immunization is associated with infertility. Comprehensive studies with regards to the identification of antibody-targets and the determination of specific antibody class contribute to the development of effective immuno-therapy and, on the other hand, potential immuno-contraception, and then of course to complex patient diagnosis. This review summarizes the aspects of female immune infertility.

  14. Holistic aspects of quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietschmann, H.

    1987-01-01

    Aspects of quantum mechanics irreconcilable with classical physics are outlined. Quantum mechanics started with a negative statement about reality, namely: it is impossible to determine momentum and position of a particle simultaneously. Meanwhile it has generated an impressive body of predictions which can be tested and have been confirmed by suitable experiments. As a consequence a naive, local, materialistic concept of reality must be abolished and a novel approach, the holistic is introduced. This is illustrated by some examples e.g. the Pauli exclusion principle for electrons, the electron capture decay of 135 La as a model of the wavefunction reduction, the Bohr radius of the atom, electron localisation in the atom. An example from the quantum field theory is the calculation of magnetic moments of electron and muon where a particle cannot be considered separately and all other particles must be taken into account. (G.Q.)

  15. Solid surfaces : some theoretical aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, M.P.

    1978-01-01

    An appraisal of the current situation concerning some of the theoretical aspects of solid surfaces is presented. First of all the characterization of the surfaces that involves the surface geometry and atomic composition for both the clean and adsorbed surfaces is discussed. Under this, the methods for determining the surface structure (such as low energy electron diffraction, field electron and field ion microscopy, photo emission spectroscopy and atomic scattering) and methods for determining the surface composition by the Auger electron spectroscopy are outlined. In the second part, emphasis is on the electronic structure of the clean and adsorbed surfaces. The measurements of ultra-violet and X-ray photo electron spectra are shown to yield the information about the surface electronic structure. In this context the many body effects such as, shake-up and relaxation energy etc. are discussed. Finally the status of the theory in relation to the experiments on angular resolved and polarization dependent photo emission are presented. (auth.)

  16. Technical aspects of fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groenier, W.S.

    1982-02-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a brief description of fuel reprocessing and some present developments which show the reliability of nuclear energy as a long-term supply. The following topics are discussed: technical reasons for reprocessing; economic reasons for reprocessing; past experience; justification for advanced reprocessing R and D; technical aspects of current reprocessing development. The present developments are mainly directed at the reprocessing of breeder reactor fuels but there are also many applications to light-water reactor fuel reprocessing. These new developments involve totally remote operation, and maintenance. To demonstrate this advanced reprocessing concept, pilot-scale demonstration facilities are planned with commercial application occurring sometime after the year 2000

  17. Medical aspects of nuclear armament

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janse, M.J.; Schene, A.; Koch, K.

    1983-06-18

    The authors highlight a few medical, biological and psycological aspects of the use of nuclear weapons, drawing attention to their viewpoint that doctors should actively participate in the fight against nuclear armament. The short and long-term radiation effects on man and ecology are presented based on the Hiroshima and Nagasaki experiences. The danger of human error within this framework is emphasised and it is suggested that it is the medical profession's duty to point out how the effect of stress and boredom can lead to a nuclear catastrophe. Medical expertise may also help in the identification of unstable personalities among those who have access to nuclear weapons and in the understanding of the psycology of international conflicts and the psychopathology of those leaders who would use nuclear war as an instrument of national policy. Finally the effects of the nuclear war threat on children and teenagers are considered.

  18. Safety aspects of MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abart, J.; Ganssen, A.

    1995-01-01

    With the growing number of Magnetic Resonance Systems in operation in clinical practice, safety aspects gain increasing importance. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate possible risks and effects on human health. After an introduction to the basic principles and techniques involved, the various effects on human health. After an introduction to the basic principles and techniques involved, the various effects on biological systems and especially the human organism caused by the static magnetic field, the alternating magnetic fields and the high frequency fields required are described on the basis of current literature and partially also on our own experience. Basic information for the safe operation of diagnostic Magnetic Resonance Systems is presented. Limits for exposure to magnetic fields and time-dependent changes of electromagnetic fields for patients and employees as suggested by health authorities are given. (orig.) [de

  19. Aspects related to 'emission trading'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tutuianu, Ovidiu

    1999-01-01

    The paper presents the aspects of international GHG (greenhouse gases) emission trading, such as: quality of GHG emission data, possible partners, monitoring activity, market mechanisms and difficulties. The following conclusions are drown: - debates on international trade with GHG emissions are currently in a very early stage; - actions are possible and feasible, particularly after Kyoto Conference, as versatile mechanism (besides the Joint Implementation Projects) which have in view the lowering of the global emission costs in different zones of the planet; - difficulties concerning monitoring, reporting and verification, practically preclude implementing a system of emission trading covering all the GHG, all the sources and reservoirs; - an international viable system of emission trading could initiate with a limited number of participants and consideration of only emission categories easy to be confined and surveyed; - existence of a national market and corresponding institutions for monitoring which could booster an international system development

  20. Fundamental aspects of quantum theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorini, V.; Frigerio, A.

    1986-01-01

    This book presents information on the following topics: general problems and crucial experiments; the classical behavior of measuring instruments; quantum interference effect for two atoms radiating a single photon; quantization and stochastic processes; quantum Markov processes driven by Bose noise; chaotic behavior in quantum mechanics; quantum ergodicity and chaos; microscopic and macroscopic levels of description; fundamental properties of the ground state of atoms and molecules; n-level systems interacting with Bosons - semiclassical limits; general aspects of gauge theories; adiabatic phase shifts for neutrons and photons; the spins of cyons and dyons; round-table discussion the the Aharonov-Bohm effect; gravity in quantum mechanics; the gravitational phase transition; anomalies and their cancellation; a new gauge without any ghost for Yang-Mills Theory; and energy density and roughening in the 3-D Ising ferromagnet

  1. Some Elementary Aspects of Means

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mowaffaq Hajja

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We raise several elementary questions pertaining to various aspects of means. These questions refer to both known and newly introduced families of means, and include questions of characterizations of certain families, relations among certain families, comparability among the members of certain families, and concordance of certain sequences of means. They also include questions about internality tests for certain mean-looking functions and about certain triangle centers viewed as means of the vertices. The questions are accessible to people with no background in means, and it is also expected that these people can seriously investigate, and contribute to the solutions of, these problems. The solutions are expected to require no more than simple tools from analysis, algebra, functional equations, and geometry.

  2. Legal aspects of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraut, A.

    1981-01-01

    The legal basis for the use of nuclear energy is generally given by an Atomic Energy Act. Additionally, however, a system of regulations and standards has to be set up to lay down more detailed requirements. The fundamental philosophy and strategy has to be specified by governmental organizations. For the specification and implementation of the requirements some minimum organizational arrangements are necessary, which are not only restricted to governmental organizations. Furthermore procedural regulations have to be laid down before the implementation phase. This includes aspects like public participation in the licensing procedure. In practice, however, the implementation of the legal requirements always shows some weakness of the basic legal requirements. To learn from this experience some examples are presented, which gave rise to difficulties in the implementation procedure. (orig./RW)

  3. Cognitive aspect of diagnostic errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phua, Dong Haur; Tan, Nigel C K

    2013-01-01

    Diagnostic errors can result in tangible harm to patients. Despite our advances in medicine, the mental processes required to make a diagnosis exhibits shortcomings, causing diagnostic errors. Cognitive factors are found to be an important cause of diagnostic errors. With new understanding from psychology and social sciences, clinical medicine is now beginning to appreciate that our clinical reasoning can take the form of analytical reasoning or heuristics. Different factors like cognitive biases and affective influences can also impel unwary clinicians to make diagnostic errors. Various strategies have been proposed to reduce the effect of cognitive biases and affective influences when clinicians make diagnoses; however evidence for the efficacy of these methods is still sparse. This paper aims to introduce the reader to the cognitive aspect of diagnostic errors, in the hope that clinicians can use this knowledge to improve diagnostic accuracy and patient outcomes.

  4. Geological aspects of acid deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bricker, O.P.

    1984-01-01

    The general pattern of rain falling on the earth and reacting with the materials of the lithosphere (the weathering reactions so familiar to every beginning geology student) began soon after the earth was formed and has continued to the present. Anthropogenic additions to the natural acidic components of the atmosphere have increased since the time of the industrial revolution until they now rival or exceed those of the natural system. The severity of the environmental perturbations caused by these anthropogenic additions to the atmosphere has become a hotly debated topic in scientific forums and in the political arena. The six chapters in this book address various aspects of the acid deposition phenomenon from a geological perspective. It is hoped that the geological approach will be useful in bringing the problem more clearly into focus and may shed light on the geochemical processes that modify the chemical composition of acid deposition after it encounters and reacts with the materials of the lithosphere

  5. Ethical aspects of personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendelow, Gillian

    2010-11-01

    To review recent literature around the controversial diagnosis of personality disorder, and to assess the ethical aspects of its status as a medical disorder. The diagnostic currency of personality disorder as a psychiatric/medical disorder has a longstanding history of ethical and social challenges through critiques of the medicalization of deviance. More recently controversies by reflexive physicians around the inclusion of the category in the forthcoming revisions of International Classification of Diseases and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders classifications reflect the problems of value-laden criteria, with the diagnostic category being severely challenged from within psychiatry as well as from without. The clinical diagnostic criteria for extremely value-laden psychiatric conditions such as personality disorder need to be analyzed through the lens of values-based medicine, as well as through clinical evidence, as the propensity for political and sociolegal appropriation of the categories can render their clinical and diagnostic value meaningless.

  6. Environmental, legal and managerial aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-09-01

    This U.S. contribution to the syllabus for Subgroup 5C treats with environmental and ecological aspects specific to fast breeder reactors, physical protection and safeguarding of the FBR cycle, fuel cycle centers (site selection problems for different degrees of collocation) and administrative and legal problems. Decommissioning of an FBR power plant, syllabus item C.1.7, is treated in separate contribution, more information on advanced safeguards for the fast breeder fyel cycle is contained in the contribution, USA WG 5C-tbd. A key conclusion of this is that with safeguards planning initiated early in the development of the FBR fuel cycle, time is available to develop, evaluate, and implement improved safeguards techniques and incorporate them into the design phase of all FBR cycle facilities

  7. Scintillation counter, maximum gamma aspect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thumim, A.D.

    1975-01-01

    A scintillation counter, particularly for counting gamma ray photons, includes a massive lead radiation shield surrounding a sample-receiving zone. The shield is disassembleable into a plurality of segments to allow facile installation and removal of a photomultiplier tube assembly, the segments being so constructed as to prevent straight-line access of external radiation through the shield into radiation-responsive areas. Provisions are made for accurately aligning the photomultiplier tube with respect to one or more sample-transmitting bores extending through the shield to the sample receiving zone. A sample elevator, used in transporting samples into the zone, is designed to provide a maximum gamma-receiving aspect to maximize the gamma detecting efficiency. (U.S.)

  8. Health aspects of automotive pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jouan, M

    1973-01-01

    General health aspects of carbon monoxide, lead, nitrogen oxides, unburned hydrocarbons, and aldehydes are described. Unlike spark ignition engines, diesel engines emit but minimal quantities of carbon monoxide. Automotive carbon monoxide may cause chronic poisoning by its combination with hemoglobin. The threshold value beyond which physiological changes occur lies at 2.5 percent carboxyhemoglobin. Nitric oxide, and especially nitrogen dioxide cause pulmonary edema, impaired respiratory function, and chronic bronchitis in very low concentrations. According to regulations implemented in France, a CO concentration of 40 ppM/hr must occur not more than 1 percent of the time on a yearly basis. A level of 15 ppm must not be exceeded for more than 15 percent of the time in any 9-hour period. The maximum allowable 1-hour nitrogen oxide concentration is set at 0.25 ppM. The emission standards implemented, as well as favorable meteorological conditions have resulted in an abatement of the CO concentrations in Paris.

  9. [Transcultural aspects of suicidal behaviour].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calliess, I T; Machleidt, W; Ziegenbein, M; Haltenhof, H

    2007-11-01

    Due to increasing immigration in Germany the German Mental Health Care System today has to deal in a growing number with the assessment of the level of psychic functioning and the capability of self control in patients of different ethnic origin. For clinicians this is a challenge, since suicidal behaviour in terms of its frequency, meaning, motives and manner is very much dependent on the cultural context in which it occurs. Moreover, the general attitude of an individual towards suicide is embedded in the culture of origin of the immigrant. Until now there has been only little systematic research on the influence of culture on suicidal behaviour. In this review the traditions of suicidal behaviour in different cultures in their religious and historical dimensions will be reflected. The historical and cultural roots of suicidal behaviour will be put in context to a categorization of the different variants of suicide, such as institutionalized suicide versus individualized suicide. Psychodynamic aspects of suicidal ideation will be highlighted in cross-cultural perspective with a distinction between a. the wish to die, b. the wish to kill and c. the wish to be killed. It will be shown that there can be differentiated between accepted and non-accepted suicide. With respect to epidemiology there will be discussed the impact of culture on the suicide rates across cultures. The influence of culture on the psychopathology of suicidal behaviour will be summed up systematically. These aspects are of high relevance for the understanding and assessment of suicidal crisis in immigrants, since the suicidal patient even today - although subconsciously - is influenced by the deep rooted traditions of suicidal behaviour in his culture of origin.

  10. Psychosomatic aspects of Cushing's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonino, Nicoletta; Fallo, Francesco; Fava, Giovanni A

    2010-06-01

    There has been growing interest in the psychosocial aspects of Cushing's syndrome, such as the role of life stress as a pathogenetic factor, the association with affective disorders, and the presence of residual symptoms after treatment. Interestingly, a temporal relationship between stressful life events and disease onset is relevant only to pituitary-dependent Cushing's disease, and not to the pituitary-independent forms. A number of psychiatric and psychological disturbances may be associated with the active hypercortisolemic state, regardless of its etiology. Within the high frequency of mood disorders (about 60%), major depression is the most common complication. Other psychopathological aspects include mania, anxiety disorders, psychological symptoms (demoralization, irritable mood, somatization) and cognitive impairment. Cognitive symptoms are associated with brain abnormalities (mainly loss of brain volume). Quality of life may be seriously compromised during both active and post-treatment phases. Long-standing hypercortisolism may imply a degree of irreversibility of the pathological process. Recovery, thus, may be delayed and be influenced by highly individualized affective responses. Outcomes of Cushing's syndrome treatment are not fully satisfactory. Within its great complexity, a conceptual shift from a merely biomedical care to a psychosomatic consideration of the person and his/her quality of life appears to be necessary to improve effectiveness. It is time to translate the research evidence that has accumulated into clinical practice initiatives. To patients who show persistence or even worsening of psychological distress upon adequate endocrine treatment psychiatric/psychological interventions should be readily available. Applying interdisciplinary expertise and addressing the needs for rehabilitation would markedly improve final outcome.

  11. BEHAVIORAL ASPECTS IN INSURANCE MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stroe Andreea

    2013-07-01

    In this paper there are showed and debated some situation in which psychological effects like loss aversion, reference point, status-quo and framming effects can influence the deccision of the consumer and are not consistent with the standard economic model.In addition to this aspects, Cumulative Prspect Theory enhance the fact that decision makers overestimate low peobabilities and underestimate high probabilities,thus buying inadequate insurance in many situation.in thiss sense, in order to support this idea I tried to make a qualitative presentation of the model used on the insurance market using Prelec function which is the function related with the Cumulative Prospect Theory which can be used in the insurance context.The weak points of the theory of expected utility are explained through this new perspectives and nevertheless aspects like insensivity to bad news concerning incomes,elasticity of price,displacements of status-quo and default,disposition effect and equity premium are taken into consideration.As example,I chose a Kunreuther experiment about insurance decision in with is underlyined the fact that for moderate risk people buy insurance with premiums that exceed the expected loss.There are demands for low deductibles in the the markets for extended guarantees and insurances for mobile phones where was observed that the insurance underwriting rate increases with the probability of loss keeping the expected loss constant.It is better to mention that the theory and the model that are presented here comes as complementary to the economic standard theory not as a substitute.

  12. Nuclear medicine. La medecine nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanquet, P; Blanc, D

    1976-01-01

    The applications of radioisotopes in medical diagnostics are briefly reviewed. Each organ system is considered and the Nuclear medicine procedures pertinent to that system are discussed. This includes, the principle of the test, the detector and the radiopharmaceutical used, the procedure followed and the clinical results obtained. The various types of radiation detectors presently employed in Nuclear Medicine are surveyed, including scanners, gamma cameras, positron cameras and procedures for obtaining tomographic presentation of radionuclide distributions.

  13. Fluctuations in a system depending on several random parameters. Application to reactors (1962); Fluctuations d'un systeme dependant de plusieurs parametres aleatoires. Application aux reacteurs nucleaires (1962)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaquiere, A [Faculte des Sciences de Paris, 75 (France); Pachowska, R [Universite Technique de Varsovie (Poland)

    1962-07-01

    We have previously developed a method for studying neutronic fluctuations in nuclear reactors using the analogy between the behaviour of a reactor and that of certain common radioelectric circuits. The fluctuations may then be calculated by introducing into the circuit a suitable noise source. By this method we have been able to consider the overall fluctuations in a particularly simple form and we have provided a physical significance for certain results obtained more laboriously by other methods. The object of the present report is to generalise this method and in particular to extend it to the case of a reactor having a cellular structure and to apply it to fluctuations within a cell. It is thus shown that the fluctuations in a cell are the resultant of two terms: - a rapidly evolving Poissonian noise, not related to the overall fluctuations; - a slowly evolving noise, when the reactor is not too far from criticality, which is related to the overall fluctuations. The first term arises from a rapid 'ordering' of the system, during which time the cells come mutually into equilibrium. The second term is due to the coordinated evolution of all the cells, after the end of the first transitory phase. The conclusions reached show that it would be useful to complete the study with an analysis of non-linear phenomena which can considerably influence the transitory behaviour of the cells during the initial pre-equilibrium phase. This report also Stresses the relationship of the new method to the old methods. It tends also to place pile fluctuation theory in a more general framework, that of the fluctuations of a system depending on several random parameters; from this point of view, the method could easily be transposed and adapted to the study of other physical problems of this type. (authors) [French] Nous avons precedemment developpe une methode d'etude des fluctuations neutroniques des reacteurs nucleaires mettant a profit l'analogie entre le comportement d

  14. Contribution to the study of radio toxicity of aromatic and medicinal plants using solid state nuclear track detectors; Contribution a l etude de la radio toxicite des plantes aromatiques et medicinales au moyen des detecteurs solides de traces nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mortassim, A; Misdaq, M A; Naaman, A

    2009-07-01

    The concentrations of uranium (238 U), thorium (232 Th), radon (222 Rn) and thoron (220 Rn) were measured in twenty aromatic and medicinal plants in {sup f}ind a new method based on using solid state nuclear track detectors type Cr-39 and Rs-115. He emerges from this study that the verbena and salvia have higher levels of uranium (radon) higher than that of other plants while the leaves of olive and saturja have concentrations of thorium (thoron) higher than other plants therefore radio toxicity of these plants is higher than that of others and may pose a radiological hazard if the masses are incorporated by consumers high. [French] Les concentrations en uranium (238U), thorium (232Th), radon (222Rn), et thoron (220Rn) ont ete mesurees dans vingt plantes aromatiques et medicinales en utilsant une nouvelle methode basee sur l utilisation des detecteurs solides de traces nucleaires de types CR-39 et LR-115. Il en sort de cette etude que la verveine et la salvia presentent des teneurs en uranium (radon) superieurs a celle des autres plantes alors que les feuilles d olivier et la saturja presentent des concentrations en thorium (thoron) plus elevee que celles des autres plantes par consequent la radio toxicite de ces plantes est superieure a celles des autres et peuvent presenter un risque radiologique si les masses incorporees par les consommateurs sont elevees.

  15. Integration of the nuclear energy among the production facilities of energy in France; Integration de l'energie nucleaire parmi les moyens de production de l'energie en france

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ailleret, P [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France). Direction des Etudes et Recherches; Taranger, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1955-07-01

    The present report gives an overview of the present facilities of energy productions in France and their perspectives. the electric production comes for half about power stations hydraulics and for half of thermal power stations. However due to the increase of the energy consumption, France is particularly interested by the atomic energy that appears to bring a supply in due time to the hydraulics and to limit a development of the thermal power stations to which the natural resources of France in classic fuel would not permit to cope presumably. The integration of the nuclear plants to the other production facilities will make itself gradually according to the evolution of the energy needs. (M.B.) [French] Le present rapport donne un apercu des moyens actuels de productions energetiques en France et de ses perspectives. la production electrique provient pour moitie environ de centrales hydraulique et pour moitie de centrales thermiques. Cependant face a l'augmentation de la consommation energetique, la France est tres particulierement interessee par l'energie atomique qui parait devoir apporter en temps utile la releve a l'hydraulique et limiter un developpement des centrales thermiques auxquels les ressources naturelles de la France en combustible classique ne permettraient vraisemblablement pas de faire face. L'integration des centrales nucleaires aux autres moyens de production se fera graduellment en fonction de l'evolution des besoins energetiques. (M.B.)

  16. Contribution to the study of the action of electromagnetic fields on the angular correlations of nuclear radiation (1960); Contribution a l'etude de l'action des champs electromagnetiques sur les correlations angulaires des rayonnements nucleaires (1960)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehmann, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-01-15

    This work deals with the study of interaction of E.M. fields with nuclear moments of nuclei emitting gamma rays. We describe first experiments on delayed angular correlation showing the role played by statistic quadrupole interaction. We have measured the magnetic moment of the second excited state of {sup 19}F using an external magnetic field. In the case of {sup 19}O, experiments of angular distributions and angular correlations of gamma -rays taking into account the possibility of perturbations, allow us to determine the spin and parities of the three first levels. (author) [French] Le present travail concerne l'etude de l'interaction des champs electromagnetiques et des moments nucleaires de noyaux emettant des rayonnements gamma. Nous decrivons des experiences de correlation angulaire differee dont l'interpretation met en coincidence le role joue par les interactions quadrupolaires statiques. Nous avons mesure le moment magnetique de {sup 19}F dans un etat excite en utilisant un champ magnetique exterieur a la source radioactive. Enfin, dans le cas de {sup 19}O, nous montrons l'utilite d'un examen des possibilites de perturbations dans l'interpretation des resultats fournis par des correlations ou des distributions angulaires. (auteur)

  17. Study relating to the physico-chemical behaviour of heavy water in nuclear reactors; Etudes relatives au comportement physico-chimique de l'eau lourde dans les reacteurs nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chenouard, J; Dirian, G; Roth, E; Vignet, P; Platzer, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-07-01

    Chemical and isotope pollution, and radiolytic decomposition are the two most important ways in which heavy water becomes degraded in nuclear reactors. Chemical pollution has led to the creation of ion exchange purification loops specially designed for reactors: the report contains a description in detail of the application of this purification method in CEA research reactors, including the analysis required, results obtained, and their interpretation. The intelligence obtained on radiolytic decomposition with the same facilities is also discussed, as well as the recombination apparatus and control equipment utilized. Finally, investigation to date in the CEA on recombination circuits for power reactors is also discussed. (author) [French] Parmi les degradations subies par l'eau lourde dans les reacteurs nucleaires, les deux plus importantes sont la pollution chimique et isotopique et la decomposition radiolytique. La pollution chimique a conduit a mettre au point pour le cas particulier des reacteurs, des circuits d'epuration par echange d'ions. On decrit ici en detail la mise en oeuvre de cette methode dans les reacteurs de recherche du CEA; les controles qu'elle necessite, les resultats obtenus et leur interpretation. En ce qui concerne la dissociation radiolytique de l'eau, les renseignements obtenus sur ces memes reacteurs sont communiques, ainsi que les details des dispositifs de recombinaison et des moyens de controle. Enfin, on fait le point des etudes poursuivies au CEA sur ces memes problemes de recombinaison dans le cas des reacteurs de puissance. (auteur)

  18. Chemical elimination of alumina in suspension in nuclear reactors heavy water; Elimination de l'alumine en suspension dans l'eau lourde des reacteurs nucleaires par voie chimique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ledoux, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-02-01

    Corrosion of aluminium in contact with moderating water in nuclear reactor leads to the formation of an alumina hydrosol which can have an adverse effect on the operation of the reactor. Several physical methods have been used in an attempt to counteract this effect. The method proposed here consists in the elimination of the aluminium by dissolution and subsequent fixation in the ionic form on mixed-bed ion-exchange resin. In order to do this, the parameters and the values of these parameters most favorable to the dissolution process have been determined. If the moderator is heavy water, the deuterated acid can be prepared by converting a solution in heavy water to a salt of the acid using a deuterated cationic resin. (author) [French] La corrosion de l'aluminium au contact de l'eau moderatrice des reacteurs nucleaires, donne lieu a la formation d'un hydrosol d'alumine nuisible au bon fonctionnement des reacteurs. Plusieurs methodes physiques ont ete mises en oeuvre pour pallier ces inconvenients. On propose ici d'eliminer l'alumine par solubilisation pour la fixer ensuite sous forme ionique par des resines echangeuses d'ions, en lit melange. A cette fin on determine les parametres et leurs grandeurs favorables a cette solubilisation. Si le moderateur est de l'eau lourde la preparation d'acide deutere peut etre effectuee par passage d'une solution en eau lourde a un sel de l'acide sur resine cationique deuteree.

  19. Study relating to the physico-chemical behaviour of heavy water in nuclear reactors; Etudes relatives au comportement physico-chimique de l'eau lourde dans les reacteurs nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chenouard, J.; Dirian, G.; Roth, E.; Vignet, P.; Platzer, R. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-07-01

    Chemical and isotope pollution, and radiolytic decomposition are the two most important ways in which heavy water becomes degraded in nuclear reactors. Chemical pollution has led to the creation of ion exchange purification loops specially designed for reactors: the report contains a description in detail of the application of this purification method in CEA research reactors, including the analysis required, results obtained, and their interpretation. The intelligence obtained on radiolytic decomposition with the same facilities is also discussed, as well as the recombination apparatus and control equipment utilized. Finally, investigation to date in the CEA on recombination circuits for power reactors is also discussed. (author) [French] Parmi les degradations subies par l'eau lourde dans les reacteurs nucleaires, les deux plus importantes sont la pollution chimique et isotopique et la decomposition radiolytique. La pollution chimique a conduit a mettre au point pour le cas particulier des reacteurs, des circuits d'epuration par echange d'ions. On decrit ici en detail la mise en oeuvre de cette methode dans les reacteurs de recherche du CEA; les controles qu'elle necessite, les resultats obtenus et leur interpretation. En ce qui concerne la dissociation radiolytique de l'eau, les renseignements obtenus sur ces memes reacteurs sont communiques, ainsi que les details des dispositifs de recombinaison et des moyens de controle. Enfin, on fait le point des etudes poursuivies au CEA sur ces memes problemes de recombinaison dans le cas des reacteurs de puissance. (auteur)

  20. The Staffing of Central Electricity Generating Board Nuclear Power Stations; Organigramme des centrales nucleaires du central electricity generating board; Politika v oblasti kadrov na atomnykh ehlektrostantsiyakh CEGB; El personal de las plantas nucleoelectricas de la central electricity generating board.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartlett, J. S.; Shepherd, G. T. [Central Electricity Generating Board, Western Division, Bristol (United Kingdom)

    1963-10-15

    An account is given of the staffing requirements and organization at a CEBG nuclear power station. The training of staff and licensing requirements for reactoroperating staff are discussed. Experience gained to data of the outcome of pre-operating training and detailed planning in the operational sphere is given. (author) [French] Le memoire donne un apercu de l'organigramme d'une centrale nucleaire du CEGB et des conditions auxquelles doit satisfaire le personnel (formation, qualifications requises pour la fonction d'operateur). Il rend compte egalement de l'experience acquise a ce jour quant a l'interet qu'il y a a former le personnel au prealable et a etablir des plans d'operation detailles. (author) [Spanish] La memoria informa sobre la organizacion de las centrales nucleoelectricas de la CEGB y sobre la plantilla de personal que estas requieren. Discute la formacion del personal y los requisitos para obtener la licencia de operador de reactores. Describe la experiencia adquirida hasta el presente en materia de formacion previa del personal y de organizacion detallada de las operaciones. (author) [Russian] Daetsya otchet o trebovaniyakh, pred{sup y}avlyaemykh k personalu, i organizatsiya nabora personala na atomnykh ehlektrostantsiyakh Tsentral'nogo upravleniya proizvodstva ehlektroehnergii (CEGB). Obsuzhdayutsya voprosy podgotovki personala i normativnykh trebovanij, pred{sup y}avlyaemykh k ehkspluatatsionnomu personalu. Izlagaetsya opyt, nakoplennyj k nastoyashchemu vremeni v rezul'tate osushchestvleniya predehkspluatatsionnoj podgotovki i podrobnogo planirovaniya v usloviyakh ehkspluatatsii. (author)