WorldWideScience

Sample records for experimentally watered plants

  1. Experimentally studied laser fluorescence method for remote sensing of plant stress situation induced by improper plants watering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. V. Fedotov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Stressful situations of plants can be caused by a lack of nutrients; mechanical damages; diseases; low or high temperatures; lack of illumination; insufficient or excess humidity of the soil; soil salinization; soil pollution by oil products or heavy metals; the increased acidity of the soil; use of pesticides, herbicides, insecticides, etc.At early stages it is often difficult to detect seemingly that the plants are in stressful situations caused by adverse external factors. However, the fluorescent analysis potentially allows detection of the stressful situations of plants by deformation of laser-induced fluorescence spectra. The paper conducts experimental investigations to learn the capabilities of the laser fluorescent method to monitor plant situations at 532nm wavelength of fluorescence excitation in the stressful situations induced by improper watering (at excess of moisture in the soil and at a lack of moisture.Researches of fluorescence spectra have been conducted using a created laboratory installation. As a source to excite fluorescence radiation the second harmonica of YAG:Nd laser is used. The subsystem to record fluorescence radiation is designed using a polychromator and a highly sensitive matrix detector with the amplifier of brightness.Experimental investigations have been conducted for fast-growing and unpretentious species of plants, namely different sorts of salad.Experimental studies of laser-induced fluorescence spectra of plants for 532nm excitement wavelength show that the impact of stressful factors on a plant due to the improper watering, significantly distorts a fluorescence spectrum of plants. Influence of a stressful factor can be shown as a changing profile of a fluorescence spectrum (an identifying factor, here, is a relationship of fluorescence intensities at two wavelengths, namely 685 nm and 740 nm or (and as a changing level of fluorescence that can be the basis for the laser method for monitoring the plant

  2. Operation, Maintenance and Performance Evaluation of the Potomac Estuary Experimental Water Treatment Plant. Appendix. Volume 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-09-01

    D.T. detention time ECD electron capture detector EEWTP Estuary Experimental Water Treatment Plant EPA Environmental Protection Agency ERL Environmental...36 .0047 - .0093 .0062 - .013 Phthalates 31 (2-ethYl hexy ) hthal ate Me. of Times Detected / No. of Samples 0 / 9 0 / a 1 / 9 0 / 9 Ranse of...Concentrations NO ND .204 ND Diethyl phthalate No. of Times Detected / No. of Samples 1 / 9 0 / a 0 / 9 0 / 9 Rane of Concentrations .429 ND ND ND Dtbutyl

  3. Experimental and kinetic modelling studies on the acid-catalysed hydrolysis of the water hyacinth plant to levulinic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Girisuta, B.; Danon, B.; Manurung, R.; Janssen, L. P. B. M.; Heeres, H. J.

    2008-01-01

    A comprehensive experimental and modelling study on the acid-catalysed hydrolysis of the water hyacinth plant (Eichhornia crassipes) to optimise the yield of levulinic acid (LA) is reported (T = 150-175 degrees C, C-H2SO4 - 0.1-1 M, water hyacinth intake = 1-5 wt%). At high acid concentrations (>

  4. Experimental Process Identification for Industrial Water De-carbonization in Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MSc. Lutfi Bina

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Water Treatment Plant (or WTP is the most important part of the Power Plant, because it produces vital-water it needs for steam production. Power Plants are the biggest air, ground and groundwater pollutants. Bad water quality directly impacts machine duration. Polluted water from Water Treatment Plant has a negative effect on people, flora and fauna, thus better waste management programs should be put in place to eliminate this problem.  In this paper we are going to present the de-carbonization process of raw water as a part of water treatment plant, within coal fired power plants. De-carbonizing water is a time consuming process. We are going to present an advanced method for process identification with big time delay. The results are compared and one of the most appropriate methods is selected as identification method for this process. Further research and possibilities in this area are going to be presented by the end of the paper. Progress in identifying the process by which we work in this paper may serve as a new way to identify highly nonlinear processes. The used algorithm for identification of the process that is outlined in this paper can be applied, and it will be the basis for the creation of the software for the application of microcomputer techniques. Here we are applying the relevant software which can be applied in the form of programming packages for identification. This has to do with passive identification methods.

  5. Experimental Investigation of climate change effects on plant available water on rocky desert slopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Nikolaus; Hikel, H.; Schwanghart, W.; Yair, Aaron

    2010-05-01

    Deserts and semi-deserts cover more than one-third of the global land surface, affecting about 49 million km2 with aridity. In many arid regions, slopes are characterized by sparse and patchy soil and vegetation cover, forming so called 'fertility islands'. The mosaic of soil and vegetation is dynamically interdependent, controlled by adaption of the ecosystem to limited and spatially as well as temporarily variable precipitation. Commonly, the role of the pattern of rocks and soil is considered to act as a natural water harvesting system. In an ideal system, the rocky area supplying water matches the soil's infiltration capacity for the given rainfall magnitude. This approach limits the assessment of plant water supply to the amount and intensity of rainfall events, i.e. the supply of water. In reality, the demand of water by the plants also requires consideration. Therefore, the volume of soil storing water is equally important to the ration of soil to rock. Soil volume determines the absolute amount of water stored in the soil and is thus indicative of the time period during which plants do not experience drought related stress between rainfall events. With climate change likely affecting the temporal pattern of rainfall events, a detailed understanding of soil-water interaction, including the storage capacity of patchy soils on rocky slopes, is required. The aim of the study is to examine the relationship between climate change and plant available water on patchy soils in the Negev desert. Thirteen micro-catchments near Sede Boqer were examined. For each micro-catchment, soil volume and distribution was estimated by laser scanning before and after soil excavation. Porosity was estimated by weighing the excavated soil. Before excavation, sprinkling experiments were conducted. Rainfall of 18mm/h was applied to an area of 1m2 each. The experiments lasted 25 to 40 minutes, until equilibrium runoff rates were achieved. Based on these data, rainfall required for soil

  6. Experimental investigation on the relationship between sluice caisson shape of tidal power plant and the water discharge capability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dal Soo; Oh, Sang-Ho; Yi, Jin-Hak; Park, Woo-Sun [Coastal Engineering and Ocean Energy Research Department, Korea Ocean Research and Development Institute, Ansan 426-744 (Korea); Cho, Hyu-Sang; Kim, Duk-Gu; Ahn, Suk-Jin [Technology Research and Development Institute, Hyein E and C Co. Ltd., Seoul 157-861 (Korea); Eom, Hyun-Min [Global Environment System Research Laboratory, National Institute of Meteorological Research/KMA, Seoul 156-720 (Korea)

    2010-10-15

    The change of water discharge capability of the sluice caisson of tidal power plant according to the change of geometrical shape of the sluice caisson was investigated by performing laboratory experiments. The major design parameters that constitute general shape of the sluice caisson were deduced and a total of 32 different shapes of sluice caisson models were subjected to the hydraulic experiments. For every sluice caisson model, the water discharge capability was estimated with five different flow rates and three different water level conditions. The experiments were carried out in an open channel flume with a great care to measure flow rate and water level accurately, which are key physical quantities in estimating the water discharge capability of the sluice caisson models. By analyzing the experimental results, influence of the respective design parameters on the performance of the sluice caisson was examined and the general guidelines to enhance the water discharge capability were suggested. The discharge coefficient of the best sluice caisson model ranged from 2.3 to 3.1 depending on the experimental conditions, which is far higher than the values that were adopted in the past feasibility studies in Korea. (author)

  7. Operation, Maintenance and Performance Evaluation of the Potomac Estuary Experimental Water Treatment Plant. Main Volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-09-01

    olfactory bulbs when swimming or playing in water Helminths Ascaris Host: Man. Habitat: Soil Fever, allergic reactions, lumbricoides and contaminated...Naegleria gruberi cysts, Ascaris eggs, Hookworm eggs and Trichuris trichiura eggs. The presense of unidentified larval worms was also recorded. Salmonella A... Ascaris , Hookworm and Trichuris trichiura. The results of the blended influent sample analyses are presented in Table 8.2-11. All results for the finished

  8. The combined effects of a long-term experimental drought and an extreme drought on the use of plant-water sources in a Mediterranean forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbeta, Adrià; Mejía-Chang, Monica; Ogaya, Romà; Voltas, Jordi; Dawson, Todd E; Peñuelas, Josep

    2015-03-01

    Vegetation in water-limited ecosystems relies strongly on access to deep water reserves to withstand dry periods. Most of these ecosystems have shallow soils over deep groundwater reserves. Understanding the functioning and functional plasticity of species-specific root systems and the patterns of or differences in the use of water sources under more frequent or intense droughts is therefore necessary to properly predict the responses of seasonally dry ecosystems to future climate. We used stable isotopes to investigate the seasonal patterns of water uptake by a sclerophyll forest on sloped terrain with shallow soils. We assessed the effect of a long-term experimental drought (12 years) and the added impact of an extreme natural drought that produced widespread tree mortality and crown defoliation. The dominant species, Quercus ilex, Arbutus unedo and Phillyrea latifolia, all have dimorphic root systems enabling them to access different water sources in space and time. The plants extracted water mainly from the soil in the cold and wet seasons but increased their use of groundwater during the summer drought. Interestingly, the plants subjected to the long-term experimental drought shifted water uptake toward deeper (10-35 cm) soil layers during the wet season and reduced groundwater uptake in summer, indicating plasticity in the functional distribution of fine roots that dampened the effect of our experimental drought over the long term. An extreme drought in 2011, however, further reduced the contribution of deep soil layers and groundwater to transpiration, which resulted in greater crown defoliation in the drought-affected plants. This study suggests that extreme droughts aggravate moderate but persistent drier conditions (simulated by our manipulation) and may lead to the depletion of water from groundwater reservoirs and weathered bedrock, threatening the preservation of these Mediterranean ecosystems in their current structures and compositions. © 2014

  9. The production of hot sanitary water by condensing boilers: Analysis of the seasonal experimental results of a central heating plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caliari, R.; Cirillo, E.; Lazzarin, R.; Piccininni, F.

    1988-12-01

    The use of condensing boilers in the production of hot sanitary water clearly evidences their advantages, since the highest operating temperatures are only around 60/degree/C. This paper examines performance test results relevant to a central heating plant (serving a residential area in Rovereto, Italy) with 112 kW of thermal power. The analysis reveals the excellent performance characteristics of the condensing boilers and points out the importance of proper management of the recirculation system.

  10. Cleaning and reusing backwash water of water treatment plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skolubovich, Yury; Voytov, Evgeny; Skolubovich, Alexey; Ilyina, Lilia

    2017-10-01

    The article deals with the treatment of wash water of water treatment plants open water sources. The results of experimental studies on the choice of effective reagent, cleaning and disposal of wash water of filters. The paper proposed a new two-stage purification technology and multiple reuse of wash water of water purification stations from open surface sources

  11. NMR, water and plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    As, van H.

    1982-01-01

    This Thesis describes the application of a non-destructive pulsed proton NMR method mainly to measure water transport in the xylem vessels of plant stems and in some model systems. The results are equally well applicable to liquid flow in other biological objects than plants, e.g. flow of blood and

  12. Experimental biofilms within drinking water treatment plant origin; evaluation of nutrient concentration and temperature influences upon their development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca FARKAS

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available From the planktonic free-floating state, microorganisms pass to the solid state, the biofilm, cells being strongly attached to each other and usually to the interface. This changing in cells’ behavior induces surface colonization and complex interactions development within the biofilm. If the biofilm’s role into the natural aquatic habitats is, undoubtedly, a positive one, consisting in water self-purification, drinking water pipe networks biofouling can be responsible for a wide range of water quality and operational problems. This exploratory experiment was performed in order to investigate, in a time interval of 7 days, the influence of certain environmental factors such as nutrient concentration and temperature upon in vitro biofilm’s development, origin in the biofilm of water treatment plant. The method used for in vitro biofilm growth monitoring is the colorimetric measurement of the biomass. Descriptive analyses, including the mean value, variability, trends, correlations and graphic displays were performed. The correlation analysis shown that the biofilm development in the discussed experiment was influenced as by the origin source as by the temperature, time and nutrients concentration. The biomass increment was significantly different for the biofilms with clarifier and sand filter sites origin, grown at 22 oC, while at 8 oC, the differences were not significant from a statistical point of view. For all the dilutions, moments and temperatures considered, the biofilm’s development with clarifier origin registered was significantly higher than the biofilm with sand filter origin.

  13. A water pumping control system with a programmable logic controller (PLC) and industrial wireless modules for industrial plants--an experimental setup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayindir, Ramazan; Cetinceviz, Yucel

    2011-04-01

    This paper describes a water pumping control system that is designed for production plants and implemented in an experimental setup in a laboratory. These plants contain harsh environments in which chemicals, vibrations or moving parts exist that could potentially damage the cabling or wires that are part of the control system. Furthermore, the data has to be transferred over paths that are accessible to the public. The control systems that it uses are a programmable logic controller (PLC) and industrial wireless local area network (IWLAN) technologies. It is implemented by a PLC, an communication processor (CP), two IWLAN modules, and a distributed input/output (I/O) module, as well as the water pump and sensors. Our system communication is based on an Industrial Ethernet and uses the standard Transport Control Protocol/Internet Protocol for parameterisation, configuration and diagnostics. The main function of the PLC is to send a digital signal to the water pump to turn it on or off, based on the tank level, using a pressure transmitter and inputs from limit switches that indicate the level of the water in the tank. This paper aims to provide a convenient solution in process plants where cabling is not possible. It also has lower installation and maintenance cost, provides reliable operation, and robust and flexible construction, suitable for industrial applications. Copyright © 2010 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Experimental assessment of the water quality influence on the phosphorus uptake of an invasive aquatic plant: biological responses throughout its phenological stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldy, Virginie; Thiebaut, Gabrielle; Fernandez, Catherine; Sagova-Mareckova, Marketa; Korboulewsky, Nathalie; Monnier, Yogan; Perez, Thierry; Tremolieres, Michele

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how an invasive plant can colonize a large range of environments is still a great challenge in freshwater ecology. For the first time, we assessed the relative importance of four factors on the phosphorus uptake and growth of an invasive macrophyte Elodea nuttallii (Planch.) St. John. This study provided data on its phenotypic plasticity, which is frequently suggested as an important mechanism but remains poorly investigated. The phosphorus uptake of two Elodea nuttallii subpopulations was experimentally studied under contrasting environmental conditions. Plants were sampled in the Rhine floodplain and in the Northern Vosges mountains, and then maintained in aquaria in hard (Rhine) or soft (Vosges) water. Under these conditions, we tested the influence of two trophic states (eutrophic state, 100 μg x l(-1) P-PO4(3-) and hypertrophic state, 300 μg x l(-1) P-PO4(3-)) on the P metabolism of plant subpopulations collected at three seasons (winter, spring and summer). Elodea nuttallii was able to absorb high levels of phosphorus through its shoots and enhance its phosphorus uptake, continually, after an increase of the resource availability (hypertrophic > eutrophic). The lowest efficiency in nutrient use was observed in winter, whereas the highest was recorded in spring, what revealed thus a storage strategy which can be beneficial to new shoots. This experiment provided evidence that generally, the water trophic state is the main factor governing P uptake, and the mineral status (softwater > hardwater) of the stream water is the second main factor. The phenological stage appeared to be a confounding factor to P level in water. Nonetheless, phenology played a role in P turnover in the plant. Finally, phenotypic plasticity allows both subpopulations to adapt to a changing environment.

  15. Experimental biofilms within drinking water treatment plant origin; evaluation of nutrient concentration and temperature influences upon their development

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Anca FARKAS; Brînduşa BOCOS; Stefan TIGAN; Corina MURESAN; Romeo CHIRA

    2009-01-01

    .... If the biofilm’s role into the natural aquatic habitats is, undoubtedly, a positive one, consisting in water self-purification, drinking water pipe networks biofouling can be responsible for a wide range of water...

  16. Optimal plant water economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Thomas N; Sack, Lawren; Farquhar, Graham D

    2017-06-01

    It was shown over 40 years ago that plants maximize carbon gain for a given rate of water loss if stomatal conductance, gs , varies in response to external and internal conditions such that the marginal carbon revenue of water, ∂A/∂E, remains constant over time. This theory has long held promise for understanding the physiological ecology of water use and for informing models of plant-atmosphere interactions. Full realization of this potential hinges on three questions: (i) Are analytical approximations adequate for applying the theory at diurnal time scales? (ii) At what time scale is it realistic and appropriate to apply the theory? (iii) How should gs vary to maximize growth over long time scales? We review the current state of understanding for each of these questions and describe future research frontiers. In particular, we show that analytical solutions represent the theory quite poorly, especially when boundary layer or mesophyll resistances are significant; that diurnal variations in hydraulic conductance may help or hinder maintenance of ∂A/∂E, and the matter requires further study; and that optimal diurnal responses are distinct from optimal long-term variations in gs , which emerge from optimal shifts in carbon partitioning at the whole-plant scale. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Experimental water toxicology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrushaytis, G.P. (ed.)

    1984-01-01

    The problem of water toxicology and marine ectoxicology, particularly in the Baltic Sea and the Gulf of Riga, are discussed. Emphasis is placed on the problem of creating artificial controlled marine ecosystems for the purpose of utilizing them in ecotoxicological studies and for solving problems in the intensification of bioproduction processes and predicting the functional state of water ecosystems under conditions of water pollution by toxic substances. Investigations were conducted on the effects of pesticides, phenols, and heavy metal ions on planktonic crustacea and fish. Studies were also concerned with the effect of gonadotoxic substances, including detergents, on the gametogenesis process in fish. Morphological changes in the ovicells of fish can lead to a reduction in the sensitivity of the receptor zones of the follicular casings to hormonal substances, as well as infertility.

  18. Plant Watering Autonomous Mobile Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hema Nagaraja

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Now days, due to busy routine life, people forget to water their plants. In this paper, we present a completely autonomous and a cost-effective system for watering indoor potted plants placed on an even surface. The system comprises of a mobile robot and a temperature-humidity sensing module. The system is fully adaptive to any environment and takes into account the watering needs of the plants using the temperature-humidity sensing module. The paper describes the hardware architecture of the fully automated watering system, which uses wireless communication to communicate between the mobile robot and the sensing module. This gardening robot is completely portable and is equipped with a Radio Frequency Identification (RFID module, a microcontroller, an on-board water reservoir and an attached water pump. It is capable of sensing the watering needs of the plants, locating them and finally watering them autonomously without any human intervention. Mobilization of the robot to the potted plant is achieved by using a predefined path. For identification, an RFID tag is attached to each potted plant. The paper also discusses the detailed implementation of the system supported with complete circuitry. Finally, the paper concludes with system performance including the analysis of the water carrying capacity and time requirements to water a set of plants.

  19. Water Filtration Using Plant Xylem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Valerie; Venkatesh, Varsha; Karnik, Rohit

    2014-01-01

    Effective point-of-use devices for providing safe drinking water are urgently needed to reduce the global burden of waterborne disease. Here we show that plant xylem from the sapwood of coniferous trees – a readily available, inexpensive, biodegradable, and disposable material – can remove bacteria from water by simple pressure-driven filtration. Approximately 3 cm3 of sapwood can filter water at the rate of several liters per day, sufficient to meet the clean drinking water needs of one person. The results demonstrate the potential of plant xylem to address the need for pathogen-free drinking water in developing countries and resource-limited settings. PMID:24587134

  20. Ionic behavior of treated water at a water purification plant

    OpenAIRE

    Yanagida, Kazumi; Kawahigashi, Tatsuo

    2012-01-01

    [Abstract] Water at each processing stage in a water purification plant was extracted and analyzed to investigate changes of water quality. Investigations of water at each processing stage at the water purification plant are discussed herein.

  1. Development of waste water reuse water system for power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, K.K.; Kim, D.H.; Weon, D.Y.; Yoon, S.W.; Song, H.R. [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    1. Status of waste water discharge at power plants 2. Present status of waste water reuse at power plants 3. Scheme of waste water reuse at power plants 4. Standardization of optimum system for waste water reuse at power plants 5. Establishment of low cost zero discharge system for waste water 6. Waste water treatment technology of chemical cleaning. (author). 132 figs., 72 tabs.

  2. Can we remove iodine-131 from tap water in Japan by boiling? - Experimental testing in response to the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagami, K; Uchida, S

    2011-08-01

    Iodine-131 concentrations in tap water higher than 100 BqL(-1) were reported by several local governments in Japan following the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. Some individuals in the emergency-response community recommended the boiling of tap water to remove iodine-131. However, the tap water boiling tests in this study showed no iodine-131 loss from the tap water with either short-term boiling (1-10 min) or prolonged boiling (up to 30 min) resulting in up to 3-fold volume reductions. In this situation, boiling was shown to be not effective in removing iodine-131 from tap water; indeed even higher concentrations may result from the liquid-volume reduction accompanying this process. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Wet water glass production plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Mirjana S.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The IGPC Engineering Department designed basic projects for a wet hydrate dissolution plant, using technology developed in the IGPC laboratories. Several projects were completed: technological, machine, electrical, automation. On the basis of these projects, a production plant of a capacity of 75,000 t/y was manufactured, at "Zeolite Mira", Mira (VE, Italy, in 1997. and 1998, increasing detergent zeolite production, from 50,000 to 100,000 t/y. Several goals were realized by designing a wet hydrate dissolution plant. The main goal was increasing the detergent zeolite production. The technological cycle of NaOH was closed, and no effluents emitted, and there is no pollution (except for the filter cake. The wet water glass production process is fully automatized, and the product has uniform quality. The production process can be controlled manually, which is necessary during start - up, and repairs. By installing additional process equipment (centrifugal pumps and heat exchangers technological bottlenecks were overcome, and by adjusting the operation of autoclaves, and water glass filters and also by optimizing the capacities of process equipment.

  4. MINI PILOT PLANT FOR DRINKING WATER RESEARCH

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Water Supply & Water Resources Division (WSWRD) has constructed 2 mini-pilot plant systems used to conduct drinking water research. These two systems each have 2 parallel trains for comparative research. The mini-pilot plants are small conventional drinking water treatment ...

  5. US drinking water: fluoridation knowledge level of water plant operators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalumandier, J A; Hernandez, L C; Locci, A B; Reeves, T G

    2001-01-01

    We determined the knowledge level of water plant operators who fluoridate drinking water, and we compared small and large water plants. A pretested survey was sent to 2,381 water plant operators in 12 states that adjust the fluoride concentration of drinking water. A z-test for proportion was used to test for statistical difference between small and large plants at alpha = 0.05. Small water plants were those treating less than 1 million gallons of water daily. Eight hundred small and 480 large water plant operators responded, resulting in a response rate of 54 percent. Two-thirds of water plant operators correctly identified the optimal fluoride level, but more than 20 percent used a poor source for choosing the optimal level. Only one-fourth of operators were able to maintain the fluoride concentration to within 0.1 mg/L of the optimal concentration. A significantly greater proportion of operators at large water plants than at small water plants reported that they were able to maintain a fluoride concentration to within 0.1 mg/L of the optimal concentration (33.5% vs 21.3%, z = 4.74, P fluoride level, small water plant operators were less likely to use accurate reasoning for choosing that level and in maintaining fluoride concentrations within 0.1 mg/L of that level than large water plant operators.

  6. Water-Conserving Plant-Growth System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreschel, Thomas W.; Brown, Christopher S.

    1993-01-01

    Report presents further information about plant-growth apparatus described in "Tubular Membrane Plant-Growth Unit" (KSC-11375). Apparatus provides nutrient solution to roots of seedlings without flooding. Conserves water by helping to prevent evaporation from plant bed. Solution supplied only as utilized by seedlings. Device developed for supporting plant growth in space, also has applications for growing plants with minimum of water, such as in arid environments.

  7. Purification of Water by Aquatic Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Morimitsu, Katsuhito; Kawahigashi, Tatsuo

    2013-01-01

    [Abstract] Water quality purification of many water systems including those occurring in rivers depends to a great degree on water quality purification activities of aquatic plants and microbes. This paper presents a discussion of results, based on laboratory experiments, of purification by aquatic plants.

  8. Contrasting trait responses in plant communities to experimental and geographic variation in precipitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandel, Brody Steven; Goldstein, Leah; Kraft, Nathan

    2010-01-01

    between these approaches. We synthesized results from four experimental water addition studies with a correlative analysis of community changes across a large natural precipitation gradient in the United States. We investigated whether community composition, summarized with plant functional traits...

  9. Water Treatment Technology - General Plant Operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on general plant operations provides instructional materials for seven competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: water supply regulations, water plant…

  10. Regulation of Water in Plant Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowles, Richard V.

    2010-01-01

    Cell water relationships are important topics to be included in cell biology courses. Differences exist in the control of water relationships in plant cells relative to control in animal cells. One important reason for these differences is that turgor pressure is a consideration in plant cells. Diffusion and osmosis are the underlying factors…

  11. Development of an experimental approach to study coupled soil-plant-atmosphere processes using plant analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trautz, Andrew C.; Illangasekare, Tissa H.; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio; Heck, Katharina; Helmig, Rainer

    2017-04-01

    The atmosphere, soils, and vegetation near the land-atmosphere interface are in a state of continuous dynamic interaction via a myriad of complex interrelated feedback processes which collectively, remain poorly understood. Studying the fundamental nature and dynamics of such processes in atmospheric, ecological, and/or hydrological contexts in the field setting presents many challenges; current experimental approaches are an important factor given a general lack of control and high measurement uncertainty. In an effort to address these issues and reduce overall complexity, new experimental design considerations (two-dimensional intermediate-scale coupled wind tunnel-synthetic aquifer testing using synthetic plants) for studying soil-plant-atmosphere continuum soil moisture dynamics are introduced and tested in this study. Validation of these experimental considerations, particularly the adoption of synthetic plants, is required prior to their application in future research. A comparison of three experiments with bare soil surfaces or transplanted with a Stargazer lily/limestone block was used to evaluate the feasibility of the proposed approaches. Results demonstrate that coupled wind tunnel-porous media experimentation, used to simulate field conditions, reduces complexity, and enhances control while allowing fine spatial-temporal resolution measurements to be made using state-of-the-art technologies. Synthetic plants further help reduce system complexity (e.g., airflow) while preserving the basic hydrodynamic functions of plants (e.g., water uptake and transpiration). The trends and distributions of key measured atmospheric and subsurface spatial and temporal variables (e.g., soil moisture, relative humidity, temperature, air velocity) were comparable, showing that synthetic plants can be used as simple, idealized, nonbiological analogs for living vegetation in fundamental hydrodynamic studies.

  12. 27 CFR 19.65 - Experimental distilled spirits plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... spirits plants. 19.65 Section 19.65 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions Activities Not Subject to This Part § 19.65 Experimental distilled spirits plants. The...

  13. Topographic, edaphic, and vegetative controls on plant-available water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dymond, Salli F.; Bradford, John B.; Bolstad, Paul V.; Kolka, Randall K.; Sebestyen, Stephen D.; DeSutter, Thomas S.

    2017-01-01

    Soil moisture varies within landscapes in response to vegetative, physiographic, and climatic drivers, which makes quantifying soil moisture over time and space difficult. Nevertheless, understanding soil moisture dynamics for different ecosystems is critical, as the amount of water in a soil determines a myriad ecosystem services and processes such as net primary productivity, runoff, microbial decomposition, and soil fertility. We investigated the patterns and variability in in situ soil moisture measurements converted to plant-available water across time and space under different vegetative cover types and topographic positions at the Marcell Experimental Forest (Minnesota, USA). From 0 – 228.6 cm soil depth, plant-available water was significantly higher under the hardwoods (12%), followed by the aspen (8%) and red pine (5%) cover types. Across the same soil depth, toeslopes were wetter (mean plant-available water = 10%) than ridges and backslopes (mean plant-available water was 8%), although these differences were not statistically significant (p effects, we found that cover type, soil texture, and time were related to plant-available water and that topography was not significantly related to plant-available water within this low-relief landscape. Additionally, during the three-year monitoring period, red pine and quaking aspen sites experienced plant-available water levels that may be considered limiting to plant growth and function. Given that increasing temperatures and more erratic precipitation patterns associated with climate change may result in decreased soil moisture in this region, these species may be sensitive and vulnerable to future shifts in climate.

  14. Water/Wastewater Treatment Plant Operator Qualifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water and Sewage Works, 1979

    1979-01-01

    This article summarizes in tabular form the U.S. and Canadian programs for classification of water and wastewater treatment plant personnel. Included are main characteristics of the programs, educational and experience requirements, and indications of requirement substitutions. (CS)

  15. Crow Nation Water Treatment Plant NPDES Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Under NPDES permit MT-0030538, the U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs is authorized to discharge from the Crow Agency water treatment plants via the wastewater treatment facility located in Bighorn County, Montana to the Little Bighorn River.

  16. Experimental demonstration of water based tunable metasurface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odit, Mikhail; Kapitanova, Polina; Andryieuski, Andrei

    2016-01-01

    A simple dynamically tunable metasurface (two-dimensional metamaterial) operating at microwave frequencies is developed and experimentally investigated. Conceptually, the simplicity of the approach is granted by reconfigurable properties of unit cells partially filled with distilled water....... The transmission spectra of the metasurface for linear and circular polarizations of the incident wave were experimentally measured under the metasurface rotation around a horizontal axis. The changes in the transmission coefficient magnitude up to 8 dB at 1.25 GHz are reported while rotating the metasurface...

  17. A method to determine plant water source using transpired water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menchaca, L. B.; Smith, B. M.; Connolly, J.; Conrad, M.; Emmett, B.

    2007-04-01

    A method to determine the stable isotope ratio of a plant's water source using the plant's transpired water is proposed as an alternative to standard xylem extraction methods. The method consists of periodically sampling transpired waters from shoots or leaves enclosed in sealed, transparent bags which create a saturated environment, preclude further evaporation and allow the progressive mixing of evaporated transpired water and un-evaporated xylem water. The method was applied on trees and shrubs coexisting in a non-irrigated area where stable isotope ratios of local environmental waters are well characterized. The results show Eucalyptus globulus (tree) and Genista monspessulana (shrub) using water sources of different isotopic ratios congruent with groundwater and soil water respectively. In addition, tritium concentrations indicate that pine trees (Pinus sylvestris) switch water source from soil water in the winter to groundwater in the summer. The method proposed is particularly useful in remote or protected areas and in large scale studies related to water management, environmental compliance and surveillance, because it eliminates the need for destructive sampling and greatly reduces costs associated with laboratory extraction of xylem waters from plant tissues for isotopic analyses.

  18. Water retention capacity of tissue cultured plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klerk, de G.J.M.; Wijnhoven, F.

    2005-01-01

    Leaves rapidly close their stomata after detachment resulting in a strong reduction of water loss. It has been reported that detached leaves of in vitro produced plants show continuous water loss indicating that they are unable to close the stomata properly and/or that their cuticle is

  19. Active condensation of water by plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prokhorov Alexey Anatolievich

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to some peculiarities of water condensation on the surface of plants . Arguments in support of the hypothesis that in decreasing temperature of leaves and shoots below the dew point, the plant can actively condense moisture from the air, increasing the duration of dewfall are presented. Evening dewfall on plant surfaces begins before starting the formation of fog. Morning condensation continues for some time after the air temperature exceeds the dew point . The phenomenon in question is found everywhere, but it is particularly important for plants in arid ecosystems.

  20. Continuous monitoring of plant water potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, N L; Trickett, E S; Ceresa, A; Barrs, H D

    1986-05-01

    Plant water potential was monitored continuously with a Wescor HR-33T dewpoint hygrometer in conjunction with a L51 chamber. This commercial instrument was modified by replacing the AC-DC mains power converter with one stabilized by zener diode controlled transistors. The thermocouple sensor and electrical lead needed to be thermally insulated to prevent spurious signals. For rapid response and faithful tracking a low resistance for water vapor movement between leaf and sensor had to be provided. This could be effected by removing the epidermis either by peeling or abrasion with fine carborundum cloth. A variety of rapid plant water potential responses to external stimuli could be followed in a range of crop plants (sunflower (Helianthus annuus L., var. Hysun 30); safflower (Carthamus tinctorious L., var. Gila); soybean (Glycine max L., var. Clark); wheat (Triticum aestivum L., var. Egret). These included light dark changes, leaf excision, applied pressure to or anaerobiosis of the root system. Water uptake by the plant (safflower, soybean) mirrored that for water potential changes including times when plant water status (soybean) was undergoing cyclical changes.

  1. for the Waste Water Cleaning Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Grigorieva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A model of a waste water treatment plant is investigated. The model is described by a nonlinear system of two differential equations with one bounded control. An optimal control problem of minimizing concentration of the polluted water on the given time interval is stated and solved analytically with the use of the Pontryagin Maximum Principle and Green's Theorem. Computer simulations of a model of an industrial waste water treatment plant show the advantage of using our optimal strategy. Possible applications are discussed.

  2. DISEÑO CONCEPTUAL DE UNA ESTACIÓN EXPERIMENTAL DE TRATAMIENTO DE AGUAS RESIDUALES DOMÉSTICAS ORIENTADA A MUNICIPIOS CON POBLACIÓN MENOR A 30.000 HABITANTES CONCEPTUAL DESIGN OF AN EXPERIMENTAL HOUSEHOLD WASTE WATER TREATMENT PLANT ADDRESSED TO MUNICIPALITIES WITH A POPULATION LOWER THAN 30,000 INHABITANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis González Manosalva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el diseño conceptual de una planta experimental de tratamiento de aguas residuales para poblaciones menores de 30.000 habitantes. El diseño integra seis esquemas de tratamiento interconectados, incluyendo sistemas convencionales y no convencionales, con disposición final del efluente a un cuerpo de agua o infiltración lenta en el terreno, cumpliendo con la norma vigente en Colombia. El proceso incluyó una revisión del estado del arte, el diseño de plantas de este tipo como la planta de Carrión de los Céspedes (Andalucía-España, la planta UFMG/COPASA (Minas Gerais-Brasil, los trabajos realizados en Colombia del IDEAM-CINARA-UTP y los ensayos realizados por Madera, Silva y Peña del CINARA en planta piloto. El área estimada para la construcción de los esquemas propuestos es de 18.000 m² y los costos fijos de construcción de la planta se estiman en 850 millones de pesos para tratar un caudal de 1,5 l/s de agua residual doméstica.Conceptual design of an experimental waste water treatment plant for populations lower than 30,000 inhabitants is presented. The design integrates six interconnected treatment systems, including conventional and non-conventional systems with final disposal of the effluent to a water body or slow infiltration in the soil, complying with Colombian norms in force. The process included a state-of-the-art revision, design of this kind of plants (such as Carrión de los Céspedes in Andalucía, Spain; UFMG/COPASA plant in Minas Gerais-Brazil, works conducted in Colombia (IDEAM-CINARA-UTP, and tests performed by Madera, Silva, and Peña from CINARA in a pilot plant. Area estimated for construction of systems proposed reaches 18,000 m² and fixed costs for construction of the plant is estimated in 850 million Colombian pesos for treating a 1.5 l/s flow of household waste water.

  3. Review of 'plant available water' aspects of water use efficiency ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Commission 40-Year Celebration Conference, Kempton Park,. 31 August - 1 September 2011. * To whom all correspondence should be addressed. ☎ +27 51 401-2957; fax: +27 51 401-2212; e-mail: vrensbl@ufs.ac.za. Review of 'plant available water' aspects of water use efficiency under irrigated and dryland conditions.

  4. Water treatment plants assessment at Talkha power plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sebaie, Olfat D; Abd El-Kerim, Ghazy E; Ramadan, Mohamed H; Abd El-Atey, Magda M; Taha, Sahr Ahmed

    2002-01-01

    Talkha power plant is the only power plant located in El-Mansoura. It generates electricity using two different methods by steam turbine and gas turbine. Both plants drew water from River Nile (208 m3 /h). The Nile raw water passes through different treatment processes to be suitable for drinking and operational uses. At Talkha power plant, there are two purification plants used for drinking water supply (100 m3/h) and for water demineralization supply (108 m3/h). This study aimed at studying the efficiency of the water purification plants. For drinking water purification plant, the annual River Nile water characterized by slightly alkaline pH (7.4-8), high annual mean values of turbidity (10.06 NTU), Standard Plate Count (SPC) (313.3 CFU/1 ml), total coliform (2717/100 ml), fecal coliform (0-2400/100 ml), and total algae (3 x 10(4) org/I). The dominant group of algae all over the study period was green algae. The blue green algae was abundant in Summer and Autumn seasons. The pH range, and the annual mean values of turbidity, TDS, total hardness, sulfates, chlorides, nitrates, nitrites, fluoride, and residual chlorine for purified water were in compliance with Egyptian drinking water standards. All the SPC recorded values with an annual mean value of 10.13 CFU/1 ml indicated that chlorine dose and contact time were not enough to kill the bacteria. However, they were in compliance with Egyptian decree (should not exceed 50 CFU/1 ml). Although the removal efficiency of the plant for total coliform and blue green algae was high (98.5% and 99.2%, respectively), the limits of the obtained results with an annual mean values of 40/100 ml and 15.6 org/l were not in compliance with the Egyptian decree (should be free from total coliform, fecal coliform and blue green algae). For water demineralization treatment plant, the raw water was characterized by slightly alkaline pH. The annual mean values of conductivity, turbidity, and TDS were 354.6 microS/cm, 10.84 NTU, and 214

  5. Improving plant bioaccumulation science through consistent reporting of experimental data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fantke, Peter; Arnot, Jon A.; Doucette, William J.

    2016-01-01

    Experimental data and models for plant bioaccumulation of organic contaminants play a crucial role for assessing the potential human and ecological risks associated with chemical use. Plants are receptor organisms and direct or indirect vectors for chemical exposures to all other organisms. As new...... experimental data are generated they are used to improve our understanding of plant-chemical interactions that in turn allows for the development of better scientific knowledge and conceptual and predictive models. The interrelationship between experimental data and model development is an ongoing, never......-ending process needed to advance our ability to provide reliable quality information that can be used in various contexts including regulatory risk assessment. However, relatively few standard experimental protocols for generating plant bioaccumulation data are currently available and because of inconsistent...

  6. The plant microbiome explored: implications for experimental botany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, Gabriele; Rybakova, Daria; Grube, Martin; Köberl, Martina

    2015-11-07

    The importance of microbial root inhabitants for plant growth and health was recognized as early as 100 years ago. Recent insights reveal a close symbiotic relationship between plants and their associated microorganisms, and high structural and functional diversity within plant microbiomes. Plants provide microbial communities with specific habitats, which can be broadly categorized as the rhizosphere, phyllosphere, and endosphere. Plant-associated microbes interact with their host in essential functional contexts. They can stimulate germination and growth, help plants fend off disease, promote stress resistance, and influence plant fitness. Therefore, plants have to be considered as metaorganisms within which the associated microbes usually outnumber the cells belonging to the plant host. The structure of the plant microbiome is determined by biotic and abiotic factors but follows ecological rules. Metaorganisms are coevolved species assemblages. The metabolism and morphology of plants and their microbiota are intensively connected with each other, and the interplay of both maintains the functioning and fitness of the holobiont. Our study of the current literature shows that analysis of plant microbiome data has brought about a paradigm shift in our understanding of the diverse structure and functioning of the plant microbiome with respect to the following: (i) the high interplay of bacteria, archaea, fungi, and protists; (ii) the high specificity even at cultivar level; (iii) the vertical transmission of core microbiomes; (iv) the extraordinary function of endophytes; and (v) several unexpected functions and metabolic interactions. The plant microbiome should be recognized as an additional factor in experimental botany and breeding strategies.

  7. Validation of a spatial–temporal soil water movement and plant water uptake model

    KAUST Repository

    HEPPELL, J.

    2014-06-01

    © 2014, (publisher). All rights reserved. Management and irrigation of plants increasingly relies on accurate mathematical models for the movement of water within unsaturated soils. Current models often use values for water content and soil parameters that are averaged over the soil profile. However, many applications require models to more accurately represent the soil–plant–atmosphere continuum, in particular, water movement and saturation within specific parts of the soil profile. In this paper a mathematical model for water uptake by a plant root system from unsaturated soil is presented. The model provides an estimate of the water content level within the soil at different depths, and the uptake of water by the root system. The model was validated using field data, which include hourly water content values at five different soil depths under a grass/herb cover over 1 year, to obtain a fully calibrated system for plant water uptake with respect to climate conditions. When compared quantitatively to a simple water balance model, the proposed model achieves a better fit to the experimental data due to its ability to vary water content with depth. To accurately model the water content in the soil profile, the soil water retention curve and saturated hydraulic conductivity needed to vary with depth.

  8. Physiology of Plants, Science (Experimental): 5315.41.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, William C.

    This unit of instruction deals with the physiological activities of plants. Attention is focused on the principles which underlie the activities of the typical green land plant. Emphasis is placed on biological processes such as photosynthesis, water transport, light responses, mineral nutrition, reproduction, and growth. The prerequisite for…

  9. The plant microbiome explored: implications for experimental botany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Gabriele; Rybakova, Daria; Grube, Martin; Köberl, Martina

    2016-02-01

    The importance of microbial root inhabitants for plant growth and health was recognized as early as 100 years ago. Recent insights reveal a close symbiotic relationship between plants and their associated microorganisms, and high structural and functional diversity within plant microbiomes. Plants provide microbial communities with specific habitats, which can be broadly categorized as the rhizosphere, phyllosphere, and endosphere. Plant-associated microbes interact with their host in essential functional contexts. They can stimulate germination and growth, help plants fend off disease, promote stress resistance, and influence plant fitness. Therefore, plants have to be considered as metaorganisms within which the associated microbes usually outnumber the cells belonging to the plant host. The structure of the plant microbiome is determined by biotic and abiotic factors but follows ecological rules. Metaorganisms are co-evolved species assemblages. The metabolism and morphology of plants and their microbiota are intensively connected with each other, and the interplay of both maintains the functioning and fitness of the holobiont. Our study of the current literature shows that analysis of plant microbiome data has brought about a paradigm shift in our understanding of the diverse structure and functioning of the plant microbiome with respect to the following: (i) the high interplay of bacteria, archaea, fungi, and protists; (ii) the high specificity even at cultivar level; (iii) the vertical transmission of core microbiomes; (iv) the extraordinary function of endophytes; and (v) several unexpected functions and metabolic interactions. The plant microbiome should be recognized as an additional factor in experimental botany and breeding strategies. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH OF THE INFLUENCE OF VARIOUS TYPES OF SOLAR COLLECTORS FOR PERFORMANCE SOLAR DESALINATION PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakhmatulin I.R.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the possibility of using renewable energy for water purification. Results of analysis of a preferred energy source for a water purification using installed in places where fresh water shortages and a lack of electrical energy. The possibility of desalination of salt water using solar energy for regions with temperate climate. Presented desalination plant working on energy vacuum solar collectors, principles of action developed by the desalination plant. The experimental results of a constructed distiller when working with vacuum glass tubes and vacuum tubes with copper core inside. Conclusions about the possibility of using solar collectors for water desalination, are tips and tricks to improve the performance of solar desalination plant.

  11. Analysis of biogas transformation in experimental biogas plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Jelínková

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The topic of this paper is the analysis of anaerobic fermentation in an experimental biogas plant. Technological processes and operation parameters were monitored; these processes and parameters include, for example, the optimal structure of the input material and the consideration of the prolonging of the duration of the fermentation process. The goal of prolonging the fermentation process is to obtain higher biogas (and methane production and to decrease the fermentation residue effluvial emissions. Emphasis is also laid on the mutual co-fermentation of substrates with regard to further use of the results in solving technological problems in other biogas plants. This technological process was first monitored in 2009; that is, before the planned intensification and modernization of the experimental biogas plant. Thus, the evaluation of the process could become part of the planned intensification and modernization of the chosen biogas plant (extended by the addition of the second stage of methanogenesis. The results obtained from the experimental biogas plant, which is one of the pioneering biogas plants in the Czech Republic, may serve, to other biogas operators, as a base for the preparation of suitable input, and for improving the efficiency of anaerobic fermentation within their biogas plants. The goal of the improvement of the fermentation process is to fulfill the ecological aspects; that is, to cut down CO2 emissions and to reduce the negative impact of the fermentation process on the environment (reduction of effluvium and noise originating in biogas plants.

  12. Water Movement in Vascular Plants: A Primer

    CERN Document Server

    Sane, Sanjay P

    2011-01-01

    The origin of land plants was one of the most important events in evolutionary history of earth in terms of its broad impact on metazoan life and the biotic environment. Because vascular tissues enabled land plants to meet the challenges of terrestrial life, it is important to understand the mechanistic basis of water transport through these tissues from soil to the canopy of trees, in some cases almost 100 meters high. The answers to these questions involve not only the biology of plant vasculature, but also the physical properties of water that enable such transport. Although early researchers proposed the hypothesis of cohesion-tension of water as the likely mechanism for sap ascent, the exact mechanism of transport continues to be a hotly debated topic in the field of plant physiology. This debate continues to be enriched with several sophisticated studies on plants of various morphologies growing in diverse habitats. Although a wealth of evidence has upheld the cohesion-tension theory as being fundamenta...

  13. Parameterizing the soil - water - plant root system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feddes, R.A.; Raats, P.A.C.

    2004-01-01

    Root water uptake is described from the local scale, to the field scale and to the regional and global scales. The local macroscopic model can be incorporated in Soil-Plant-Atmosphere Continuum (SPAC) numerical models, like the SWAP, HYSWASOR, HYDRUS, ENVIRO-GRO and FUSSIM models. These SPAC models

  14. Recent achievements and trends in experimental plant biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strzałka, Kazimierz

    2010-04-01

    Between 21 and 25 September 2009, Krakow hosted the 4th Conference of the Polish Society of Experimental Plant Biology, co-organized with the Faculty of Biochemistry, Biophysics and Biotechnology, Jagiellonian University, Krakow, and supported by the Biochemical Society. The aim of the conference was to present and discuss the most important topics in different disciplines of plant experimental science as well as to facilitate the interaction and co-operation between scientists. To achieve this goal, about 30 top specialists in various areas of plant biology were invited to give plenary lectures in the following sessions: Plant structure and development; Plant-microbial interactions; Mitochondria and chloroplasts in cell metabolism; Stress tolerance in plants; Structural and functional organization of plant genomes; Mutants in developmental and metabolic studies; Secondary metabolites as pharmaceutics and nutraceutics; Plant membranes; and Integrating plant functions via signalling molecules: molecular mechanisms. Some of the main problems highlighted in the plenary lectures are briefly summarized in the present paper. Two poster sessions enabled a discussion of over 200 posters presented. The conference had an international character, its official language was English, and among the more than 350 participants, about 60 were from abroad. Several plenary lectures were prepared as short review papers and they are published in this issue of Biochemical Society Transactions.

  15. Purification effects of five landscape plants on river landscape water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Sun; Lei, Zheng; Mao, Qinqing; Ji, Qingxin

    2017-12-01

    Five species of landscape plants which are scindapsus aureus, water hyacinth, cockscomb, calendula officinalis and salvia splendens were used as experimental materials to study their removal effects on nitrogen, phosphorus, chemical oxygen demand (CODMn) and suspended solids (SS) in urban river water. The results show that the 5 landscape plants have good adaptability and vitality in water body, among them, water hyacinth had the best life signs than the other 4 plants, and its plant height and root length increased significantly. They have certain removal effects on the nitrogen, phosphorus, CODMn (Chemical Oxygen Demand) and SS (Suspended Substance) in the landscape water of Dalong Lake, Xuzhou. Scindapsus aureus, water hyacinth, cockscomb, calendula officinalis and salvia splendens on the removal rate of total nitrogen were 76.69%, 78.57%, 71.42%, 69.64%, 67.86%; the ammonia nitrogen removal rate were 71.06%, 74.28%, 67.85%, 63.02%, 59.81%;the total phosphorus removal rate were 78.70%, 81.48%, 73.15%, 72.22%, 68.52%;the orthophosphate removal rates were 78.37%, 80.77%, 75.96%, 75.96%, 71.15%;the removal rate of CODMn was 52.5%, 55.35%, 46.02%, 45.42%, 44.19%; the removal rate of SS was 81.4%, 86%, 79.1%, 76.7%, 74.42%.The purification effect of 5 kinds of landscape plants of Dalong Lake in Xuzhou City: water hyacinth> scindapsus aureus>cockscomb>calendula officinalis>salvia splendens.

  16. Optimizing experimental procedures for quantitative evaluation of crop plant performance in high throughput phenotyping systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junker, Astrid; Muraya, Moses M; Weigelt-Fischer, Kathleen; Arana-Ceballos, Fernando; Klukas, Christian; Melchinger, Albrecht E; Meyer, Rhonda C; Riewe, David; Altmann, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Detailed and standardized protocols for plant cultivation in environmentally controlled conditions are an essential prerequisite to conduct reproducible experiments with precisely defined treatments. Setting up appropriate and well defined experimental procedures is thus crucial for the generation of solid evidence and indispensable for successful plant research. Non-invasive and high throughput (HT) phenotyping technologies offer the opportunity to monitor and quantify performance dynamics of several hundreds of plants at a time. Compared to small scale plant cultivations, HT systems have much higher demands, from a conceptual and a logistic point of view, on experimental design, as well as the actual plant cultivation conditions, and the image analysis and statistical methods for data evaluation. Furthermore, cultivation conditions need to be designed that elicit plant performance characteristics corresponding to those under natural conditions. This manuscript describes critical steps in the optimization of procedures for HT plant phenotyping systems. Starting with the model plant Arabidopsis, HT-compatible methods were tested, and optimized with regard to growth substrate, soil coverage, watering regime, experimental design (considering environmental inhomogeneities) in automated plant cultivation and imaging systems. As revealed by metabolite profiling, plant movement did not affect the plants' physiological status. Based on these results, procedures for maize HT cultivation and monitoring were established. Variation of maize vegetative growth in the HT phenotyping system did match well with that observed in the field. The presented results outline important issues to be considered in the design of HT phenotyping experiments for model and crop plants. It thereby provides guidelines for the setup of HT experimental procedures, which are required for the generation of reliable and reproducible data of phenotypic variation for a broad range of applications.

  17. STUDY ON WASTE WATER TREATMENT PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana DUMITRU

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Biogas is more and more used as an alternative source of energy, considering the fact that it is obtained from waste materials and it can be easily used in cities and rural communities for many uses, between which, as a fuel for households. Biogas has many energy utilisations, depending on the nature of the biogas source and the local demand. Generally, biogas can be used for heat production by direct combustion, electricity production by fuel cells or micro-turbines, Combined Hest and Power generation or as vehicle fuel. In this paper we search for another uses of biogas and Anaerobe Digestion substrate, such as: waste water treatment plants and agricultural wastewater treatment, which are very important in urban and rural communities, solid waste treatment plants, industrial biogas plants, landfill gas recovery plants. These uses of biogas are very important, because the gas emissions and leaching to ground water from landfill sites are serious threats for the environment, which increase more and more bigger during the constant growth of some human communities. That is why, in the developed European countries, the sewage sludge is treated by anaerobe digestion, depending on national laws. In Romania, in the last years more efforts were destined to use anaerobe digestion for treating waste waters and management of waste in general. This paper can be placed in this trend of searching new ways of using with maximum efficiency the waste resulted in big communities.

  18. Desalination plant aids Australian water shortage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stocking, A.W.

    2010-09-15

    This article described a reverse-osmosis desalination plant that was commissioned for Adelaide, South Australia, which operates under permanent water restrictions. The plant will supplement the freshwater supply, reduce the pressure on the existing rainwater catchment system, and allow water levels to regenerate. The company that won the bid on the project used 3-dimensional modelling to get accurate cost estimates and visualize the plant impact on the environment, the community, and a culturally important site. A detailed diffusion plan was devised to mitigate the effects of saline concentrate release. As reverse osmosis is so energy intensive that it can be difficult to justify a plant on sustainability grounds. Energy recovery devices were included in the process building and outfall shaft, and solar energy panels will be installed on the process building roof. The energy recovery devices use energy stored in the brine to increase the output of the high-pressure pumps that feed the reverse osmosis units. Energy recovery units in the outfall shaft will produce electricity and provide power to the grid for the process plant to use. The 3-dimensional model was credited as a key factor in winning the bid, and the many advantages of 3-dimensional modelling were described. 3 figs.

  19. Water quality in New Zealand's planted forests: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenda R. Baillie; Daniel G. Neary

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviewed the key physical, chemical and biological water quality attributes of surface waters in New Zealand’s planted forests. The purpose was to: a) assess the changes in water quality throughout the planted forestry cycle from afforestation through to harvesting; b) compare water quality from planted forests with other land uses in New Zealand; and c)...

  20. Water chemistry practice at German BWR plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stellwag, B. [Framatome ANP GmbH, Erlangen (Germany); Staudt, U. [VGB PowerTech e.V., Essen (Germany)

    2005-02-01

    As visual examinations carried out in 1994 detected cracks in a German boiling water reactor (BWR) plant due to intergranular stress corrosion cracking in core shroud components manufactured from Nb-stabilized CrNi steel 1.4550, safety-related assessments and in-service inspections were subsequently performed for the other six German BWRs. No cracks were found in the core shrouds of these plants. The second major event in the early 1990s was the detection of cracks at various German BWRs in piping systems made of Ti-stabilized CrNi steel 1.4541 caused by thermal sensitization in the heat-affected zone of welds. Comprehensive investigations resulted in a number of remedial measures (repair, replacement) implemented at piping in contact with reactor coolant of temperatures above 200 C. Thanks to the remedial measures and according to the analyses performed, cracking in the components in question due to the considered damage mechanisms need not be expected. German operators have therefore continued operating their BWR plants on normal water chemistry with an oxidizing environment. As a precaution, more stringent reactor coolant quality requirements have been specified and the limiting values of VGB Guideline R 401 J revised. This paper gives an overview of the trends in chemistry parameters at German BWR plants in the past 10 years. In addition, other relevant experience gained from the German BWR plants operating under normal water chemistry conditions is outlined: dose rates and collective doses, fuel performance, and results of periodic in-service inspections of major components of the reactor system. In the nearly 10 years of plant operation since implementation of the remedial measures, no cracks or other indications have been detected in any of the systems and components concerned. (orig.)

  1. Purple pitcher plant (Sarracenia rosea Dieback and partial community disassembly following experimental storm surge in a coastal pitcher plant bog.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J Abbott

    Full Text Available Sea-level rise and frequent intense hurricanes associated with climate change will result in recurrent flooding of inland systems such as Gulf Coastal pitcher plant bogs by storm surges. These surges can transport salt water and sediment to freshwater bogs, greatly affecting their biological integrity. Purple pitcher plants (Sarracenia rosea are Gulf Coast pitcher plant bog inhabitants that could be at a disadvantage under this scenario because their pitcher morphology may leave them prone to collection of saline water and sediment after a surge. We investigated the effects of storm surge water salinity and sediment type on S. rosea vitality, plant community structure, and bog soil-water conductivity. Plots (containing ≥1 ramet of S. rosea were experimentally flooded with fresh or saline water crossed with one of three sediment types (local, foreign, or no sediment. There were no treatment effects on soil-water conductivity; nevertheless, direct exposure to saline water resulted in significantly lower S. rosea cover until the following season when a prescribed fire and regional drought contributed to the decline of all the S. rosea to near zero percent cover. There were also significant differences in plant community structure between treatments over time, reflecting how numerous species increased in abundance and a few species decreased in abundance. However, in contrast to S. rosea, most of the other species in the community appeared resilient to the effects of storm surge. Thus, although the community may be somewhat affected by storm surge, those few species that are particularly sensitive to the storm surge disturbance will likely drop out of the community and be replaced by more resilient species. Depending on the longevity of these biological legacies, Gulf Coastal pitcher plant bogs may be incapable of fully recovering if they become exposed to storm surge more frequently due to climate change.

  2. Purple pitcher plant (Sarracenia rosea) Dieback and partial community disassembly following experimental storm surge in a coastal pitcher plant bog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Matthew J; Battaglia, Loretta L

    2015-01-01

    Sea-level rise and frequent intense hurricanes associated with climate change will result in recurrent flooding of inland systems such as Gulf Coastal pitcher plant bogs by storm surges. These surges can transport salt water and sediment to freshwater bogs, greatly affecting their biological integrity. Purple pitcher plants (Sarracenia rosea) are Gulf Coast pitcher plant bog inhabitants that could be at a disadvantage under this scenario because their pitcher morphology may leave them prone to collection of saline water and sediment after a surge. We investigated the effects of storm surge water salinity and sediment type on S. rosea vitality, plant community structure, and bog soil-water conductivity. Plots (containing ≥1 ramet of S. rosea) were experimentally flooded with fresh or saline water crossed with one of three sediment types (local, foreign, or no sediment). There were no treatment effects on soil-water conductivity; nevertheless, direct exposure to saline water resulted in significantly lower S. rosea cover until the following season when a prescribed fire and regional drought contributed to the decline of all the S. rosea to near zero percent cover. There were also significant differences in plant community structure between treatments over time, reflecting how numerous species increased in abundance and a few species decreased in abundance. However, in contrast to S. rosea, most of the other species in the community appeared resilient to the effects of storm surge. Thus, although the community may be somewhat affected by storm surge, those few species that are particularly sensitive to the storm surge disturbance will likely drop out of the community and be replaced by more resilient species. Depending on the longevity of these biological legacies, Gulf Coastal pitcher plant bogs may be incapable of fully recovering if they become exposed to storm surge more frequently due to climate change.

  3. Optimizing experimental procedures for quantitative evaluation of crop plant performance in high throughput phenotyping systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid eJunker

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Detailed and standardized protocols for plant cultivation in environmentally controlled conditions are an essential prerequisite to conduct reproducible experiments with precisely defined treatments. Setting up appropriate and well defined experimental procedures is thus crucial for the generation of solid evidence and is thus indispensable for successful plant research. Non-invasive and high throughput (HT phenotyping technologies offer the opportunity to monitor and quantify performance dynamics of several hundreds of plants at a time. Compared to small scale plant cultivations, HT systems have much higher demands, from a conceptual and a logistic point of view, on experimental design, as well as the actual plant cultivation conditions, and the image analysis and statistical methods for data evaluation. Furthermore, cultivation conditions need to be designed that elicit plant performance characteristics corresponding to those under natural conditions. This manuscript describes critical steps in the optimization of procedures for HT plant phenotyping systems. Starting with the model plant Arabidopsis, HT-compatible methods were tested, and optimized with regard to growth substrate, soil coverage, watering regime, experimental design (considering environmental inhomogeneities in automated plant cultivation and imaging systems. As revealed by metabolite profiling, plant movement did not affect the plants’ physiological status. Based on these results, procedures for maize HT cultivation and monitoring were established. Variation of maize vegetative growth in the HT phenotyping system did match well with that observed in the field. The presented results outline important issues to be considered in the design of HT phenotyping experiments for model and crop plants. It thereby provides guidelines for the setup of HT experimental procedures, which are required for the generation of reliable and reproducible data of phenotypic variation for a broad

  4. Evaluation model and experimental validation of tritium in agricultural plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Hee Suk; Keum, Dong Kwon; Lee, Han Soo; Jun, In; Choi, Yong Ho; Lee, Chang Woo [KAERI, Daejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-12-15

    This paper describes a compartment dynamic model for evaluating the contamination level of tritium in agricultural plants exposed by accidentally released tritium. The present model uses a time dependent growth equation of plant so that it can predict the effect of growth stage of plant during the exposure time. The model including atmosphere, soil and plant compartments is described by a set of nonlinear ordinary differential equations, and is able to predict time-dependent concentrations of tritium in the compartments. To validate the model, a series of exposure experiments of HTO vapor on Chinese cabbage and radish was carried out at the different growth stage of each plant. At the end of exposure, the tissue free water(TFWT) and the organically bound tritium (OBT) were measured. The measured concentrations were agreed well with model predictions.

  5. Experimental plant communities develop phylogenetically overdispersed abundance distributions during assembly

    OpenAIRE

    Allan, Eric; Jenkins, Tania; Alexander J. F. Fergus; Roscher, Christiane; Fischer, Markus; Petermann, Jana; Wolfgang W Weisser; Schmid, Bernhard

    2013-01-01

    The importance of competition between similar species in driving community assembly is much debated. Recently, phylogenetic patterns in species composition have been investigated to help resolve this question: phylogenetic clustering is taken to imply environmental filtering, and phylogenetic overdispersion to indicate limiting similarity between species. We used experimental plant communities with random species compositions and initially even abundance distributions to examine the developme...

  6. Monitoring cycle water chemistry in fossil plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aschoff, A.F.; Sopocy, D.M.; Eglar, D.T. (Sargent and Lundy, Chicago, IL (United States)); Jonas, O. (Jonas, Inc., Wilmington, DE (United States)); Rice, J.K. (Rice (James K.), Chartered (United States)); Stauffer, C.C.; Allmon, W.E. (Babcock and Wilcox Co., Alliance, OH (United States))

    1991-10-01

    EPRI report CS-4629, published in 1986, contains operating cycle chemistry guidelines to assist utilities in reducing water and steam contamination and resulting corrosion, scaling, and deposition. These guidelines were based on consensus opinion utilizing information then available and were not validated through actual plant testing. The objectives of this project are: to monitor the major parameters of cycle chemistry in a range of fossil-fired plants; to compare the monitored parameters with the interim guidelines. The project team designed and constructed state-of-the-art instrumentation and data acquisition systems to measure and record continuously the chemical parameters specified in the interim consensus guidelines (ICG). The team then installed and operated these systems at four utility power plants. Nine international organizations conducted parallel monitoring efforts on 29 generating units. An industrial fossil plant group of 14 utilities and boiler and turbine manufacturers reviewed the monitoring results from each of the plants as did the participating international organizations. 137 figs., 43 tabs.

  7. INNOVATIVE FRESH WATER PRODUCTION PROCESS FOR FOSSIL FUEL PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James F. Klausner; Renwei Mei; Yi Li; Mohamed Darwish; Diego Acevedo; Jessica Knight

    2003-09-01

    This report describes the annual progress made in the development and analysis of a Diffusion Driven Desalination (DDD) system, which is powered by the waste heat from low pressure condensing steam in power plants. The desalination is driven by water vapor saturating dry air flowing through a diffusion tower. Liquid water is condensed out of the air/vapor mixture in a direct contact condenser. A thermodynamic analysis demonstrates that the DDD process can yield a fresh water production efficiency of 4.5% based on a feed water inlet temperature of only 50 C. An example is discussed in which the DDD process utilizes waste heat from a 100 MW steam power plant to produce 1.51 million gallons of fresh water per day. The main focus of the initial development of the desalination process has been on the diffusion tower. A detailed mathematical model for the diffusion tower has been described, and its numerical implementation has been used to characterize its performance and provide guidance for design. The analysis has been used to design a laboratory scale diffusion tower, which has been thoroughly instrumented to allow detailed measurements of heat and mass transfer coefficient, as well as fresh water production efficiency. The experimental facility has been described in detail.

  8. Silicon alleviates the deleterious salt effect on tomato plant growth by improving plant water status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Aranda, Mercedes R; Jurado, Oliva; Cuartero, Jesús

    2006-07-01

    In order to investigate the role of Si in alleviating the deleterious effects of salinity on tomato plant growth, the tomato cultivar Moneymaker was grown with 0 or 80mM NaCl combined with 0 and 2.5mM Si. Plant growth parameters, salt accumulation in plant tissues and plant water relations were analysed. Si treatment did not alter salt input into the plant or salt distribution between plant organs. There were non-significant differences in plant water uptake, but plant water content in salinised plants supplied with Si was 40% higher than in salinised plants that were not supplied with Si. Plants treated with NaCl alone showed a reduction in plant dry weight and total plant leaf area of 55% and 58%, respectively, while the reduction in plants treated with NaCl plus Si was only 31% and 22%, respectively. Leaf turgor potential and net photosynthesis rates were 42% and 20% higher in salinised plants supplied with Si than in salinised plants that were not supplied with Si. Water use efficiency calculated from instantaneous gas exchange parameters and as the ratio between plant dry matter and plant water uptake were, respectively, 17% and 16% higher in salinised plants supplied with Si. It can be concluded that Si improves the water storage within plant tissues, which allows a higher growth rate that, in turn, contributes to salt dilution into the plant, mitigating salt toxicity effects.

  9. The Use of Water Plants for Storm Water Runoff Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Varneckaitė

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The popularity of using water plants for storm water runoff treatment has been largely due to the fact that pond and wetland based systems offer the advantages of providing a relatively passive, natural, low-maintenance and operationally simple treatment solution while enhancing habitat and aesthetic values at the same time. While ponds are generally effective at removing coarse suspended sediments, they are less effective at removing finer particulates and dissolved contaminants. To provide enhanced treatment, a wetland can be placed downstream of a pond.Article in Lithuanian

  10. Monitoring cycle water chemistry in fossil plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aschoff, A.F.; Sopocy, D.M.; Eglar, D.T. (Sargent and Lundy, Chicago, IL (United States)); Jonas, O. (Jonas, Inc., Wilmington, DE (United States)); Rice, J.K. (Rice (James K.), Chartered (United States)); Stauffer, C.C.; Allmon, W.E. (Babcock and Wilcox Co., Alliance, OH (United States))

    1991-10-01

    In June 1986, EPRI published the Interim Consensus Guidelines on Fossil Plant Cycle Chemistry.'' Previously published Volume 1 of the final report presents information obtained during a field monitoring program, using state-of-the-art monitoring and data acquisition systems, at four utility units representing different types of design, operation, metallurgy, and chemical treatment. A separate report, Volume 2, will be published giving the results of a parallel monitoring effort conducted by nine international organizations representing 29 generating units of various types. The present Volume 3 presents the conclusions and recommendations of the water chemistry monitoring project at four fossil-fired stations. The three volumes comprising this final report for this project will furnish the basis for subsequent modification and reissue of guidelines on fossil plant cycle chemistry. (VC)

  11. Role of chromatin in water stress responses in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Soon-Ki; Wagner, Doris

    2014-06-01

    As sessile organisms, plants are exposed to environmental stresses throughout their life. They have developed survival strategies such as developmental and morphological adaptations, as well as physiological responses, to protect themselves from adverse environments. In addition, stress sensing triggers large-scale transcriptional reprogramming directed at minimizing the deleterious effect of water stress on plant cells. Here, we review recent findings that reveal a role of chromatin in water stress responses. In addition, we discuss data in support of the idea that chromatin remodelling and modifying enzymes may be direct targets of stress signalling pathways. Modulation of chromatin regulator activity by these signaling pathways may be critical in minimizing potential trade-offs between growth and stress responses. Alterations in the chromatin organization and/or in the activity of chromatin remodelling and modifying enzymes may furthermore contribute to stress memory. Mechanistic insight into these phenomena derived from studies in model plant systems should allow future engineering of broadly drought-tolerant crop plants that do not incur unnecessary losses in yield or growth. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Removal of fluoride contamination in water by three aquatic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmakar, Sukalpa; Mukherjee, Joydeep; Mukherjee, Somnath

    2016-01-01

    Phytoremediation, popularly known as 'green technology' has been employed in the present investigation to examine the potential of fluoride removal from water by some aquatic plants. Fluoride contamination in drinking water is very much prevalent in different parts of the world including India. Batch studies were conducted using some aquatic plants e.g., Pistia stratiotes, Eichhornia crassipes, and Spirodela polyrhiza which profusely grow in natural water bodies. The experimental data exhibited that all the above three aquatic floating macrophytes could remove fluoride to some relative degree of efficiency corresponding to initial concentration of fluoride 3, 5, 10, 20 mg/l after 10 days exposure time. Result showed that at lower concentration level i.e., 3 mg/L removal efficiency of Pistia stratiotes (19.87%) and Spirodela polyrhiza (19.23%) was found to be better as compared to Eichhornia crassipes (12.71%). Some of the physiological stress induced parameters such as chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll, carotenoid, total protein, catalase, and peroxidase were also studied to explore relative damage within the cell. A marginal stress was imparted among all the plants for lower concentration values (3 mg/L), whereas at 20 mg/l, maximum damage was observed.

  13. Plant metabolomics: from experimental design to knowledge extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Amit; Umashankar, Shivshankar; Swarup, Sanjay

    2013-01-01

    Metabolomics is one of the most recent additions to the functional genomics approaches. It involves the use of analytical chemistry techniques to provide high-density data of metabolic profiles. Data is then analyzed using advanced statistics and databases to extract biological information, thus providing the metabolic phenotype of an organism. Large variety of metabolites produced by plants through the complex metabolic networks and their dynamic changes in response to various perturbations can be studied using metabolomics. Here, we describe the basic features of plant metabolic diversity and analytical methods to describe this diversity, which includes experimental workflows starting from experimental design, sample preparation, hardware and software choices, combined with knowledge extraction methods. Finally, we describe a scenario for using these workflows to identify differential metabolites and their pathways from complex biological samples.

  14. Innovative Fresh Water Production Process for Fossil Fuel Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James F. Klausner; Renwei Mei; Yi Li; Jessica Knight; Venugopal Jogi

    2005-09-01

    This project concerns a diffusion driven desalination (DDD) process where warm water is evaporated into a low humidity air stream, and the vapor is condensed out to produce distilled water. Although the process has a low fresh water to feed water conversion efficiency, it has been demonstrated that this process can potentially produce low cost distilled water when driven by low grade waste heat. This report describes the annual progress made in the development and analysis of a Diffusion Driven Desalination (DDD) system. A dynamic analysis of heat and mass transfer demonstrates that the DDD process can yield a fresh water production of 1.03 million gallon/day by utilizing waste heat from a 100 MW steam power plant based on a condensing steam pressure of only 3 Hg. The optimum operating condition for the DDD process with a high temperature of 50 C and sink temperature of 25 C has an air mass flux of 1.5 kg/m{sup 2}-s, air to feed water mass flow ratio of 1 in the diffusion tower, and a fresh water to air mass flow ratio of 2 in the condenser. Operating at these conditions yields a fresh water production efficiency (m{sub fW}/m{sub L}) of 0.031 and electric energy consumption rate of 0.0023 kW-hr/kg{sub fW}. Throughout the past year, the main focus of the desalination process has been on the direct contact condenser. Detailed heat and mass transfer analyses required to size and analyze these heat and mass transfer devices are described. The analyses agree quite well with the current data. Recently, it has been recognized that the fresh water production efficiency can be significantly enhanced with air heating. This type of configuration is well suited for power plants utilizing air-cooled condensers. The experimental DDD facility has been modified with an air heating section, and temperature and humidity data have been collected over a range of flow and thermal conditions. It has been experimentally observed that the fresh water production rate is enhanced when air

  15. Stable isotopes in plant physiology: using water isotopes to study water fluxes in a temperate forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlein, C.; Wolf, A.; Caylor, K. K.

    2013-12-01

    Drought has profound consequences on vegetation, including decreases in instantaneous carbon uptake; damage that limits future uptake for the life of the plant; mortality that can lead to large sources of carbon to the atmosphere; and shifts in biogeography that alter future potential for carbon uptake and capacitance. These processes are largely absent from global models, for lack of understanding in how co-occurring plants compete for water, weak understanding of how plant hydraulics is coordinated to minimize risk of drought, and few empirical data to constrain superior models of these processes. Here we present the results of a large-scale field experiment at Silas Little Experimental Forest (NJ), where rainwater was diverted from a 10m^2 area around selected trees from two different species (either oak or pine trees) and either re-injected (control plots), discarded (drought plots) or replaced by isotopically labeled water (isotope plots). We sampled heavily the drought plots and collected valuable information on tree hydraulics under drought conditions, such as water potentials of soil, leaf and stem, photosynthetic rate or sap flow. At the isotope plots, we followed the injected water within the injection trees and the surrounding ones. In particular, using an innovative setup for in-situ measurement paired with a laser spectrometer, we studied the isotopes effects within the tree xylem, which gave us a better understanding of water uptake by the roots and its transport to the leaves. By tracking the labeled water in the surrounding trees, we were also able to quantify the importance of plant competition for water availability below ground. We show here the importance of understanding all the phases of the water transport in the biosphere to help constraining climate models.

  16. Experimental data from an oxygen plant for Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schallhorn, P. A.; Colvin, J.; Sridhar, K. R.; Ramohalli, Kumar

    1991-01-01

    Experimental data are presented on various aspects of the plant operation intended to produce oxygen from the atmospheric carbon dioxide at any Martian site. A solid electrolytic cell is used in the tubular geometry. Anaerobic carbon dioxide is procured from a gas vendor and is used at a pressure of 1 bar (entrance to the plant). The variables include the voltage applied to the cell, the temperature of the cell, the current density, the flow rate and the duty-cycle. The oxygen production rates have been consistent with the specifications of the cell manufacturer. It is projected that a plant weighing between 145 and 197 kg can be built to produce 10 kg of oxygen per day. Various operational characteristics such as cell poisoning, carbon formation, nitrogen embrittlement, local current densities exceeding the breakdown potential for the cell material, reliability, risk, are all being quantitatively assessed.

  17. INNOVATIVE FRESH WATER PRODUCTION PROCESS FOR FOSSIL FUEL PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James F. Klausner; Renwei Mei; Yi Li; Jessica Knight

    2004-09-01

    An innovative Diffusion Driven Desalination (DDD) process was recently described where evaporation of mineralized water is driven by diffusion within a packed bed. The energy source to drive the process is derived from low pressure condensing steam within the main condenser of a steam power generating plant. Since waste heat is used to drive the process, the main cost of fresh water production is attributed to the energy cost of pumping air and water through the packed bed. This report describes the annual progress made in the development and analysis of a Diffusion Driven Desalination (DDD) system. A combined thermodynamic and dynamic analysis demonstrates that the DDD process can yield a fresh water production of 1.03 million gallon/day by utilizing waste heat from a 100 MW steam power plant based on a condensing steam pressure of only 3'' Hg. Throughout the past year, the main focus of the desalination process has been on the diffusion tower and direct contact condenser. Detailed heat and mass transfer analyses required to size and analyze these heat and mass transfer devices are described. An experimental DDD facility has been fabricated, and temperature and humidity data have been collected over a range of flow and thermal conditions. The analyses agree quite well with the current data and the information available in the literature. Direct contact condensers with and without packing have been investigated. It has been experimentally observed that the fresh water production rate is significantly enhanced when packing is added to the direct contact condensers.

  18. Urban Water-Quality Management. Purchasing Aquatic Plants

    OpenAIRE

    French, Sue (Sue C.); Fox, Laurie; Andruczyk, Mike; Gilland, Traci; Swanson, Lynette

    2009-01-01

    Aquatic plants are essential for a healthy and environmentally balanced water garden. Whether you are installing a new water feature or renovating an existing one, proper plant selection is critical. The following steps will help you select and purchase aquatic plants.

  19. Experimental study of the hypoglycemic effect of some antidiabetic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Román-Ramos, R; Flores-Sáenz, J L; Partida-Hernández, G; Lara-Lemus, A; Alarcón-Aguilar, F

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to look for the hypoglycemic effect of 12 plants most used in Mexico for controlling diabetes mellitus. The studies were realized in 27 rabbits submitted weekly to glucose tolerance tests after gastric administration of water, tolbutamide or a preparation of the plant. The results showed that tolbutamide and studied plants (except Aloe barbadensis) decreased significantly (p less than 0.05) the area under glucose tolerance curve, in relation with the water control. The strongest effect was yielded by Psacalium peltatum (27.9%), followed by Curcubita ficifolia (26.4%), Lepechinia caulescens (26.0%), Opuntia streptacantha (21.4%), Slanum verbascifolum (21.1%), Teucrium cubense (19.4%), Cecropia obtusifolia (18.9%), Phaseolus vulgaris (18.5%), Tecoma stans (17.5%), Eriobotrya japonica (17.2%), Salpianthus macrodonthus (15.0%), tolbutamide (14.3%), and Aloe barbadensis (1.4%). Our results point out that the majority of the plants most used by the Mexican population to control diabetes mellitus have an evident hypoglycemic action.

  20. Water in the physiology of plant: thermodynamics and kinetic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Cocucci

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Molecular properties of water molecule determine its role in plant physiology. At molecular level the properties of water molecules determine the behaviour of other plant molecules; in particular its physic characteristics are important in the operativeness of macromolecules and in plant thermoregulation. Plant water supply primarily dependent on thermodynamics properties in particular water chemical potential and its components, more recently there are evidences that suggest an important role in the water kinetic characteristics, depending, at cell membrane level, in particular plasmalemma, on the presence of specific water channel, the aquaporines controlled in its activity by a number of physiological and biochemical factors. Thermodynamics and kinetic factors controlled by physiological, biochemical properties and molecular effectors, control water supply and level in plants to realize their survival, growth and differentiation and the consequent plant production.

  1. Experimental approaches to study plant cell walls during plant-microbe interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Ye; Petti, Carloalberto; Williams, Mark A; DeBolt, Seth

    2014-01-01

    Plant cell walls provide physical strength, regulate the passage of bio-molecules, and act as the first barrier of defense against biotic and abiotic stress. In addition to providing structural integrity, plant cell walls serve an important function in connecting cells to their extracellular environment by sensing and transducing signals to activate cellular responses, such as those that occur during pathogen infection. This mini review will summarize current experimental approaches used to study cell wall functions during plant-pathogen interactions. Focus will be paid to cell imaging, spectroscopic analyses, and metabolic profiling techniques.

  2. Integral water treatment plant modeling: improvements for particle processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawler, Desmond F; Nason, Jeffrey A

    2005-09-01

    An update of research on particle behavior in water treatment plants first performed 25 years ago under the direction of Charles O'Melia is provided. The earlier work involved mathematical modeling of the changes in particle size distributions in the flocculation and sedimentation processes in water treatment plants. The current model includes corrections for short-range interactions between particles as they approach one another. These corrections severely reduce the expected collision frequency between particles that are very different in size and, therefore, substantially change the model predictions. Both experimental and field measurements of particle size distributions are provided; such measurements were unavailable in the earlier work and represent a touchstone to reality for the modeling efforts. The short-range model successfully fits experimental results for flocculation when the mechanism of particle destabilization is charge neutralization. However, the model does not account for the creation of new solids by precipitation either when hydrolyzing salts of aluminum or iron are added for particle destabilization by "sweep floc" destabilization or lime is added to remove calcium and magnesium as calcium carbonate and magnesium hydroxide in softening. The flocculent sedimentation model yields results that are in strong qualitative agreement with typical field measurements.

  3. Improvement of growth rate of plants by bubble discharge in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahata, Junichiro; Takaki, Koichi; Satta, Naoya; Takahashi, Katsuyuki; Fujio, Takuya; Sasaki, Yuji

    2015-01-01

    The effect of bubble discharge in water on the growth rate of plants was investigated experimentally for application to plant cultivation systems. Spinach (Spinacia oleracea), radish (Raphanus sativus var. sativus), and strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) were used as specimens to clarify the effect of the discharge treatment on edible parts of the plants. The specimens were cultivated in pots filled with artificial soil, which included chicken manure charcoal. Distilled water was sprayed on the artificial soil and drained through a hole in the pots to a water storage tank. The water was circulated from the water storage tank to the cultivation pots after 15 or 30 min discharge treatment on alternate days. A magnetic compression-type pulsed power generator was used to produce the bubble discharge with a repetition rate of 250 pps. The plant height in the growth phase and the dry weight of the harvested plants were improved markedly by the discharge treatment in water. The soil and plant analyzer development (SPAD) value of the plants also improved in the growth phase of the plants. The concentration of nitrate nitrogen, which mainly contributed to the improvement of the growth rate, in the water increased with the discharge treatment. The Brix value of edible parts of Fragaria × ananassa increased with the discharge treatment. The inactivation of bacteria in the water was also confirmed with the discharge treatment.

  4. Development of fuzzy logic algorithm for water purification plant

    OpenAIRE

    SUDESH SINGH RANA; SUDESH SINGH RANA

    2015-01-01

    This paper propose the design of FLC algorithm for industrial application such application is water purification plant. In the water purification plant raw water or ground water is promptly purified by injecting chemical at rates related to water quality. The feed of chemical rates judged and determined by the skilled operator. Yagishita et al.[1] structured a system based on fuzzy logic so that the feed rate of the coagulant can be judged automatically without any skilled operator. We perfor...

  5. Elevated carbon dioxide: impacts on soil and plant water relations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kirkham, M. B

    2011-01-01

    .... Focusing on this critical issue, Elevated Carbon Dioxide: Impacts on Soil and Plant Water Relations presents research conducted on field-grown sorghum, winter wheat, and rangeland plants under elevated CO2...

  6. Capital Cost: Pressurized Water Reactor Plant Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-06-01

    The investment cost study for the 1139-MW(e) pressurized water reactor (PWR) central station power plant consists of two volumes. This volume includes in addition to the foreword and summary, the plant description and the detailed cost estimate.

  7. NOAA NOS SOS, EXPERIMENTAL - Water Temperature

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA NOS SOS server is part of the IOOS DIF SOS Project. The stations in this dataset have water temperature data. *These services are for testing and evaluation...

  8. NOAA NOS SOS, EXPERIMENTAL - Water Level

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA NOS SOS server is part of the IOOS DIF SOS Project. The stations in this dataset have water surface height above a reference datum. *These services are for...

  9. Suitable indicators using stem diameter variation-derived indices to monitor the water status of greenhouse tomato plants

    OpenAIRE

    Meng, Zhaojiang; Duan, Aiwang; Chen, Deli; Dassanayake, Kithsiri Bandara; Wang, Xiaosen; Liu, Zugui; LIU Hao; Gao, Shengguo

    2017-01-01

    It is very important to seek a simple nondestructive method to continuously measure plant water status for irrigation scheduling. Changes in stem diameter in response to plant water status and soil water content (SWC) were experimentally investigated during the growing seasons of 2011/2012 and 2012/2013 in pot-cultivated tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) plants in a plastic greenhouse. This study was conducted to determine suitable SDV (stem diameter variation)-derived indices as indicators...

  10. On fuzzy control of water desalination plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Titli, A. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 31 - Toulouse (France); Jamshidi, M. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Olafsson, F. [Institute of Technology, Norway (Norway)

    1995-12-31

    In this report we have chosen a sub-system of an MSF water desalination plant, the brine heater, for analysis, synthesis, and simulation. This system has been modelled and implemented on computer. A fuzzy logic controller (FLC) for the top brine temperature control loop has been designed and implemented on the computer. The performance of the proposed FLC is compared with three other conventional control strategies: PID, cascade and disturbance rejection control. One major concern on FLC`s has been the lack of stability criteria. An up to-date survey of stability of fuzzy control systems is given. We have shown stability of the proposed FLC using the Sinusoidal Input Describing Functions (SIDF) method. The potential applications of fuzzy controllers for complex and large-scale systems through hierarchy of rule sets and hybridization with conventional approaches are also investigated. (authors)

  11. Real-time analysis of water movement in plant sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokota, Harumi; Furukawa, Jun; Tanoi, Keitaro [Graduate School, Tokyo Univ. (Japan)

    2000-07-01

    To know the effect of drought stress on two cultivars of cowpea, drought tolerant (DT) and drought sensitive (DS), and to estimate vanadium treatment on plant activity, we performed real time{sup 18}F labeled water uptake measurement by PETIS. Fluoride-18 was produced by bombarding a cubic ice target with 50 MeV protons using TIARA AVF cyclotron. Then {sup 18}F labeled water was applied to investigate water movement in a cowpea plant. Real time water uptake manner could be monitored by PETIS. After the analysis by PETIS, we also measured the distribution of {sup 18}F in a whole plant by BAS. When a cowpea plant was treated with drought stress, there was a difference in water uptake manner between DT and DS cultivar. When a cowpea plant was treated with V for 20 hours before the water uptake experiment, the total amount of {sup 18}F labeled water absorption was found to be drastically decreased. (author)

  12. Potential Study of Water Extraction from Selected Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa S.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Water is absorbed by the roots of a plant and transported subsequently as a liquid to all parts of the plant before being released into the atmosphere as transpiration. In this study, seven(7selected plant species collected from urban, rural and forested areas were studied and characterized. The water was collected using transparent plastic bag that being tied to the tree branches. Then, the vapouris water trapped inside the plastic bag and through the condensation process, it become water droplets. Water quality parameters such as temperature, pH value, DO, turbidity, colour, magnesium, calcium, nitrate and chloride were analyzed. The analysis was compared to drinking water quality standard set by the Ministry of Health Malaysia. Based on the results, it shows that banana leaf has a higher rate of water extraction compared to others. Thus, the plant can be categorised as a helpful guide for emergency use of water or as an alternative source to survival.

  13. Region 9 NPDES Facilities - Waste Water Treatment Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Point geospatial dataset representing locations of NPDES Waste Water Treatment Plant Facilities. NPDES (National Pollution Discharge Elimination System) is an EPA permit program that regulates direct discharges from facilities that discharge treated waste water into waters of the US. Facilities are issued NPDES permits regulating their discharge as required by the Clean Water Act. A facility may have one or more outfalls (dischargers). The location represents the facility or operating plant.

  14. Region 9 NPDES Facilities 2012- Waste Water Treatment Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Point geospatial dataset representing locations of NPDES Waste Water Treatment Plant Facilities. NPDES (National Pollution Discharge Elimination System) is an EPA permit program that regulates direct discharges from facilities that discharge treated waste water into waters of the US. Facilities are issued NPDES permits regulating their discharge as required by the Clean Water Act. A facility may have one or more outfalls (dischargers). The location represents the facility or operating plant.

  15. Accidental release of fluoride into experimental pond and accumulation in sediments, plants, algae, molluscs, and fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudo, A.; Garrec, J.P.

    1983-09-01

    The fate of fluoride in a simulated accidental release into an experimental pond was observed for 30 days in Grenoble, France. The components investigated were water, sediments, plants, algae, molluscs, and fish. Twenty-four hours after the release, most (99.8%) of the fluoride was distributed in the physical components (water and sediments), and the biological agents contained only 0.2% of the fluoride released. Despite an exposure to hot spots of 5000 ppm at the beginning of the accidental release, no visible toxic effects were observed on the biological components such as plants, algae, molluscs, and fish. The effects of the physical components in the defluoridation showed a significant role in the control the accidental release of fluoride in the aquatic system.

  16. Experimental warming decreases arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal colonization in prairie plants along a Mediterranean climate gradient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Wilson

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF provide numerous services to their plant symbionts. Understanding climate change effects on AMF, and the resulting plant responses, is crucial for predicting ecosystem responses at regional and global scales. We investigated how the effects of climate change on AMF-plant symbioses are mediated by soil water availability, soil nutrient availability, and vegetation dynamics. Methods: We used a combination of a greenhouse experiment and a manipulative climate change experiment embedded within a Mediterranean climate gradient in the Pacific Northwest, USA to examine this question. Structural equation modeling (SEM was used to determine the direct and indirect effects of experimental warming on AMF colonization. Results: Warming directly decreased AMF colonization across plant species and across the climate gradient of the study region. Other positive and negative indirect effects of warming, mediated by soil water availability, soil nutrient availability, and vegetation dynamics, canceled each other out. Discussion: A warming-induced decrease in AMF colonization would likely have substantial consequences for plant communities and ecosystem function. Moreover, predicted increases in more intense droughts and heavier rains for this region could shift the balance among indirect causal pathways, and either exacerbate or mitigate the negative, direct effect of increased temperature on AMF colonization.

  17. Drinking water treatment plant costs and source water quality: An updated case study (2013-2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watershed protection can play an important role in producing safe drinking water. However, many municipalities and drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) lack the information on the potential benefits of watershed protection as an approach to improving source water quality. This...

  18. MONITORING ON PLANT LEAF WATER POTENTIAL USING NIR SPECTROSCOPY FOR WATER STRESS MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diding Suhandy

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The performance of the calibration model with temperature compensation for on-plant leaf water potential (LWP determination in tomato plants was evaluated. During a cycle of water stress, the on-plant LWP measurement was conducted. The result showed that the LWP values under water stress and recovery from water stress could be monitored well. It showed that a real time monitoring of the LWP values using NIR spectroscopy could be possible.   Keywords: water stress, real time monitoring of leaf water potential, NIR spectroscopy, plant response-based

  19. Possible effects of regulating hydroponic water temperature on plant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2010-12-29

    Dec 29, 2010 ... production of antioxidants in cells exposed to heat stress. EFFECTS OF REGULATING HYDROPONIC WATER. TEMPERATURE ON NUTRIENT UPTAKE AND. ACCUMULATION IN PLANT TISSUES. Plant nutrients have a great potential for increasing yield and are capable of promoting plant growth ( ...

  20. An Update on Modifications to Water Treatment Plant Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water treatment plant (WTP) model is an EPA tool for informing regulatory options. WTP has a few versions: 1). WTP2.2 can help in regulatory analysis. An updated version (WTP3.0) will allow plant-specific analysis (WTP-ccam) and thus help meet plant-specific treatment objectives...

  1. Grass plants crop water consumption model in urban parks located ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The most important issue is the to use of urban space to increase the number and size of green areas. As well as another important issue is to work towards maintaining these spaces. One such important effort is to meet the water needs of plants. Naturally, the amount of water needed by plants depends on the species.

  2. A nuclear magnetic resonance study of plant-water relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinders, J.E.A.

    1987-01-01

    Water is one of the most important constituents of a plant. It is the medium in which many biological reactions take place and nutrients are transported throughout the plant in aqueous solutions. Because it serves as a hydrogen donor In photosynthesis water can be considered as one of the

  3. Higher Plants in life support systems: design of a model and plant experimental compartment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hezard, Pauline; Farges, Berangere; Sasidharan L, Swathy; Dussap, Claude-Gilles

    The development of closed ecological life support systems (CELSS) requires full control and efficient engineering for fulfilling the common objectives of water and oxygen regeneration, CO2 elimination and food production. Most of the proposed CELSS contain higher plants, for which a growth chamber and a control system are needed. Inside the compartment the development of higher plants must be understood and modeled in order to be able to design and control the compartment as a function of operating variables. The plant behavior must be analyzed at different sub-process scales : (i) architecture and morphology describe the plant shape and lead to calculate the morphological parameters (leaf area, stem length, number of meristems. . . ) characteristic of life cycle stages; (ii) physiology and metabolism of the different organs permit to assess the plant composition depending on the plant input and output rates (oxygen, carbon dioxide, water and nutrients); (iii) finally, the physical processes are light interception, gas exchange, sap conduction and root uptake: they control the available energy from photosynthesis and the input and output rates. These three different sub-processes are modeled as a system of equations using environmental and plant parameters such as light intensity, temperature, pressure, humidity, CO2 and oxygen partial pressures, nutrient solution composition, total leaf surface and leaf area index, chlorophyll content, stomatal conductance, water potential, organ biomass distribution and composition, etc. The most challenging issue is to develop a comprehensive and operative mathematical model that assembles these different sub-processes in a unique framework. In order to assess the parameters for testing a model, a polyvalent growth chamber is necessary. It should permit a controlled environment in order to test and understand the physiological response and determine the control strategy. The final aim of this model is to have an envi

  4. Electrophysiological assessment of water stress in fruit-bearing woody plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos-Rojas, Liliana; Tapia, Franco; Gurovich, Luis A

    2014-06-15

    Development and evaluation of a real-time plant water stress sensor, based on the electrophysiological behavior of fruit-bearing woody plants is presented. Continuous electric potentials are measured in tree trunks for different irrigation schedules, inducing variable water stress conditions; results are discussed in relation to soil water content and micro-atmospheric evaporative demand, determined continuously by conventional sensors, correlating this information with tree electric potential measurements. Systematic and differentiable patterns of electric potentials for water-stressed and no-stressed trees in 2 fruit species are presented. Early detection and recovery dynamics of water stress conditions can also be monitored with these electrophysiology sensors, which enable continuous and non-destructive measurements for efficient irrigation scheduling throughout the year. The experiment is developed under controlled conditions, in Faraday cages located at a greenhouse area, both in Persea americana and Prunus domestica plants. Soil moisture evolution is controlled using capacitance sensors and solar radiation, temperature, relative humidity, wind intensity and direction are continuously registered with accurate weather sensors, in a micro-agrometeorological automatic station located at the experimental site. The electrophysiological sensor has two stainless steel electrodes (measuring/reference), inserted on the stem; a high precision Keithley 2701 digital multimeter is used to measure plant electrical signals; an algorithm written in MatLab(®), allows correlating the signal to environmental variables. An electric cyclic behavior is observed (circadian cycle) in the experimental plants. For non-irrigated plants, the electrical signal shows a time positive slope and then, a negative slope after restarting irrigation throughout a rather extended recovery process, before reaching a stable electrical signal with zero slope. Well-watered plants presented a

  5. Modelling of water potential and water uptake rate of tomato plants in the greenhouse: preliminary results.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruggink, G.T.; Schouwink, H.E.; Gieling, Th.H.

    1988-01-01

    A dynamic model is presented which predicts water potential and water uptake rate of greenhouse tomato plants using transpiration rate as input. The model assumes that water uptake is the resultant of water potential and hydraulic resistance, and that water potential is linearly related to water

  6. A new Experimental Rig for Oil Burning on Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brogaard, Nicholas L.; Sørensen, Martin X.; Fritt-Rasmussen, Janne

    2014-01-01

    A new experimental apparatus, the Crude Oil Flammability Apparatus (COFA), has been developed to study in-situ burning of crude and pure oils spilled on water in a controlled laboratory environment with large water-to-oil ratios. The parameters and phenomena studied for an asphaltic crude oil...

  7. Experimental plant communities develop phylogenetically overdispersed abundance distributions during assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Eric; Jenkins, Tania; Fergus, Alexander J F; Roscher, Christiane; Fischer, Markus; Petermann, Jana; Weisser, Wolfgang W; Schmid, Bernhard

    2013-02-01

    The importance of competition between similar species in driving community assembly is much debated. Recently, phylogenetic patterns in species composition have been investigated to help resolve this question: phylogenetic clustering is taken to imply environmental filtering, and phylogenetic overdispersion to indicate limiting similarity between species. We used experimental plant communities with random species compositions and initially even abundance distributions to examine the development of phylogenetic pattern in species abundance distributions. Where composition was held constant by weeding, abundance distributions became overdispersed through time, but only in communities that contained distantly related clades, some with several species (i.e., a mix of closely and distantly related species). Phylogenetic pattern in composition therefore constrained the development of overdispersed abundance distributions, and this might indicate limiting similarity between close relatives and facilitation/complementarity between distant relatives. Comparing the phylogenetic patterns in these communities with those expected from the monoculture abundances of the constituent species revealed that interspecific competition caused the phylogenetic patterns. Opening experimental communities to colonization by all species in the species pool led to convergence in phylogenetic diversity. At convergence, communities were composed of several distantly related but species-rich clades and had overdispersed abundance distributions. This suggests that limiting similarity processes determine which species dominate a community but not which species occur in a community. Crucially, as our study was carried out in experimental communities, we could rule out local evolutionary or dispersal explanations for the patterns and identify ecological processes as the driving force, underlining the advantages of studying these processes in experimental communities. Our results show that

  8. Experimental water droplet impingement data on modern aircraft surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadakis, Michael; Breer, Marlin D.; Craig, Neil C.; Bidwell, Colin S.

    1991-01-01

    An experimental method has been developed to determine the water droplet impingement characteristics on two- and three-dimensional aircraft surfaces. The experimental water droplet impingement data are used to validate particle trajectory analysis codes that are used in aircraft icing analyses and engine inlet particle separator analyses. The aircraft surface is covered with thin strips of blotter paper in areas of interest. The surface is then exposed to an airstream that contains a dyed-water spray cloud. The water droplet impingement data are extracted from the dyed blotter paper strips by measuring the optical reflectance of each strip with an automated reflectometer. Preliminary experimental and analytical impingement efficiency data are presented for a NLF(1)-0414F airfoil, s swept MS(1)-0317 airfoil, a swept NACA 0012 wingtip and for a Boeing 737-300 engine inlet model.

  9. Experimental program plan for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    The US Department of Energy has prepared this Experimental Program Plan for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (EPP) to provide a summary of the DOE experimental efforts needed for the performance assessment process for the WIPP, and of the linkages of this process to the appropriate regulations. The Plan encompasses a program of analyses of the performance of the planned repository based on scientific studies, including tests with transuranic waste at laboratory sites, directed at evaluating compliance with the principal regulations governing the WIPP. The Plan begins with background information on the WIPP project, the requirements of the LWA (Land Withdrawal Act), and its objective and scope. It then presents an overview of the regulatory requirements and the compliance approach. Next are comprehensive discussions of plans for compliance with disposal regulations, followed by the SWDA (Solid Waste Disposal Act) and descriptions of activity programs designed to provide information needed for determining compliance. Descriptions and justifications of all currently planned studies designed to support regulatory compliance activities are also included.

  10. An experimental study on recovering heat from domestic drain water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadan, Mohamad; Al Shaer, Ali; Haddad, Ahmad; Khaled, Mahmoud

    2016-07-01

    This paper concerns an experimental study on a system of heat recovery applied to domestic drain water pipes. The concept suggested consists of using the heat still present in the drain water as a preheating/heating source to the cold water supply of the building. To proceed, an appropriate experimental setup is developed and a coil heat exchanger is used as heat transfer device in the recovery system. Several scenarios are simulated and corresponding parameters are recorded and analyzed. It was shown that the suggested recovery concept can considerably preheat the cold water supply and then decrease the energy consumption. Particularly, up to 8.6 kW of heat were recovered when the cold water supply is initially at 3 °C.

  11. Light scattering by particles in water theoretical and experimental foundations

    CERN Document Server

    Jonasz, Miroslaw

    2007-01-01

    Light scattering-based methods are used to characterize small particles suspended in water in a wide range of disciplines ranging from oceanography, through medicine, to industry. The scope and accuracy of these methods steadily increases with the progress in light scattering research. This book focuses on the theoretical and experimental foundations of the study and modeling of light scattering by particles in water and critically evaluates the key constraints of light scattering models. It begins with a brief review of the relevant theoretical fundamentals of the interaction of light with condensed matter, followed by an extended discussion of the basic optical properties of pure water and seawater and the physical principles that explain them. The book continues with a discussion of key optical features of the pure water/seawater and the most common components of natural waters. In order to clarify and put in focus some of the basic physical principles and most important features of the experimental data o...

  12. Modelling of a Small Scale Waste Water Treatment Plant (SSWWTP)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. OLIVER OSUAGWA

    2014-06-01

    Jun 1, 2014 ... source of energy. Future effort will be focus on improving the efficiency of energy used in the waste water [3]. Aim. The aim of this project is to bring into existence a Small Scale Waste Water. Treatment Plant that can convert a waste water with high Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and high Biological ...

  13. Models of Water Transport in the Soil-Plant System: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molz, Fred J.

    1981-10-01

    and plasmodesmata. The development, interpretation, and application of these models over the past decade is presented in some detail. It can be argued that contemporary models of water transport in plant tissue are oversimplified. However, they have been subjected to some successful testing and they provide a framework within which to devise experiments. Moreover, the recent development of sophisticated experimental techniques should result in more detailed model testing during the 1980's.

  14. Experimental pollinator decline affects plant reproduction and is mediated by plant mating system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ørjan Totland

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available There is growing concern that current pollinator decline will affect the reproduction of plant species, potentially driving a decline in plant population densities. We experimentally tested whether a reduction in flower visitation caused a reduction in fertilization rate in several species, and whether any reduction in fecundity of species depends on their degree of reproductive dependence on pollinators and their attractiveness for pollinators. We recorded visitation rate, fertilization rate, seed weight, flower size and density of nineteen insect-pollinated perennial herbs inside thirty 2 x 2 m dome-shaped cages covered with fishnet (experimental plots and in thirty control plots in a Norwegian hay meadow. We used a bagging experiment to estimate the ability of the study species to produce seeds in the absence of pollinators. The visitation rate for fifteen of nineteen study species was lower inside cages than outside and only three of the fifteen species showed significantly reduced fertilization rates in the experimental plots. The magnitude of reduction in fertilization rate was positively related to the degree of pollinator dependence, but not to their attractiveness for pollinators or to the reduction in visitation rate. Seed weight was not affected by the experiment. The lack of an overall effect of reduced pollinator visitation on fertilization rate suggests that some species may be robust to a pollinator decline that could increase pollen limitation on plant reproduction. Our results suggest that species with greater pollinator dependence are more vulnerable to pollinator loss. NOTE: Supporting information to this article may be found in the left menu.

  15. Scenarios for low carbon and low water electric power plant ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the water-energy nexus, water use for the electric power sector is critical. Currently, the operational phase of electric power production dominates the electric sector's life cycle withdrawal and consumption of fresh water resources. Water use associated with the fuel cycle and power plant equipment manufacturing phase is substantially lower on a life cycle basis. An outstanding question is: how do regional shifts to lower carbon electric power mixes affect the relative contribution of the upstream life cycle water use? To test this, we examine a range of scenarios comparing a baseline with scenarios of carbon reduction and water use constraints using the MARKet ALlocation (MARKAL) energy systems model with ORD's 2014 U.S. 9-region database (EPAUS9r). The results suggest that moving toward a low carbon and low water electric power mix may increase the non-operational water use. In particular, power plant manufacturing water use for concentrating solar power, and fuel cycle water use for biomass feedstock, could see sharp increases under scenarios of high deployment of these low carbon options. Our analysis addresses the following questions. First, how does moving to a lower carbon electricity generation mix affect the overall regional electric power water use from a life cycle perspective? Second, how does constraining the operational water use for power plants affect the mix, if at all? Third, how does the life cycle water use differ among regions under

  16. Water recovery using waste heat from coal fired power plants.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb, Stephen W.; Morrow, Charles W.; Altman, Susan Jeanne; Dwyer, Brian P.

    2011-01-01

    The potential to treat non-traditional water sources using power plant waste heat in conjunction with membrane distillation is assessed. Researchers and power plant designers continue to search for ways to use that waste heat from Rankine cycle power plants to recover water thereby reducing water net water consumption. Unfortunately, waste heat from a power plant is of poor quality. Membrane distillation (MD) systems may be a technology that can use the low temperature waste heat (<100 F) to treat water. By their nature, they operate at low temperature and usually low pressure. This study investigates the use of MD to recover water from typical power plants. It looks at recovery from three heat producing locations (boiler blow down, steam diverted from bleed streams, and the cooling water system) within a power plant, providing process sketches, heat and material balances and equipment sizing for recovery schemes using MD for each of these locations. It also provides insight into life cycle cost tradeoffs between power production and incremental capital costs.

  17. Experimental analysis of blast mitigation associated with water sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakrajsek, Andrew J.; Miklaszewski, Eric J.; Guildenbecher, Daniel R.; Son, Steven F.

    2012-03-01

    An explosion yielding a blast wave can cause catastrophic damage to a building and its personnel. This threat defines an immediate importance for understanding blast mitigation techniques via readily available materials. An unconfined mass of water in the form of a free flowing sheet has been experimentally tested and analyzed as a readily available mitigant. A single water sheet, with an approximate sheet thickness of 3 mm, was experimentally tested with an explosively driven shock tube at three different standoff distances. At the strongest shock strength considered, the water sheet decreased the peak overpressure of the blast wave by 80% and the impulse by 60%. Additionally, the peak overpressure transmitted through the water sheet was roughly constant regardless of standoff distance and explosive strength.

  18. Experimental studies toward the characterization of Inmetro's circulating water channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, A. M.; Alho, A. T. P.; Garcia, D. A.; Farias, M. H.; Massari, P. L.; Silva, V. V. S.

    2016-07-01

    Circulating water channels are facilities which can be used for conducting environmental, metrological and engineering studies. The Brazilian National Institute of Metrology-INMETRO has a water channel of innovative design, and the present work deals with the prior experimental investigation of its hydrodynamics performance. By using the optical technique PIV - Particle Image Velocimetry, under certain conditions, the velocity profile behavior in a region inside the channel was analyzed in order to evaluate the scope of applicability of such bench.

  19. Use of reclaimed water for power plant cooling.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veil, J. A.; Environmental Science Division

    2007-10-16

    Freshwater demands are steadily increasing throughout the United States. As its population increases, more water is needed for domestic use (drinking, cooking, cleaning, etc.) and to supply power and food. In arid parts of the country, existing freshwater supplies are not able to meet the increasing demands for water. New water users are often forced to look to alternative sources of water to meet their needs. Over the past few years, utilities in many locations, including parts of the country not traditionally water-poor (e.g., Georgia, Maryland, Massachusetts, New York, and North Carolina) have needed to reevaluate the availability of water to meet their cooling needs. This trend will only become more extreme with time. Other trends are likely to increase pressure on freshwater supplies, too. For example, as populations increase, they will require more food. This in turn will likely increase demands for water by the agricultural sector. Another example is the recent increased interest in producing biofuels. Additional water will be required to grow more crops to serve as the raw materials for biofuels and to process the raw materials into biofuels. This report provides information about an opportunity to reuse an abundant water source -- treated municipal wastewater, also known as 'reclaimed water' -- for cooling and process water in electric generating facilities. The report was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Innovations for Existing Plants research program (Feeley 2005). This program initiated an energy-water research effort in 2003 that includes the availability and use of 'nontraditional sources' of water for use at power plants. This report represents a unique reference for information on the use of reclaimed water for power plant cooling. In particular, the database of reclaimed water user facilities described in Chapter 2 is the first comprehensive national effort

  20. NPDES Permit for Crow Nation Water Treatment Plants in Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Under NPDES permit MT-0030538, the U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs is authorized to discharge from the Crow Agency water treatment plants via the wastewater treatment facility located in Bighorn County, Montana to the Little Bighorn River.

  1. Safe Drinking Water Information System (SDWIS) Sewer Treatment Plants

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This is a point feature dataset showing the locations of sewer treatment plants. These facility locations are part of the safe drinking water information system...

  2. Crow Municipal Rural & Industrial Pilot Water Treatment Plant NPDES Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Under NPDES permit MT-0031827, the Crow Indian Tribe is authorized to discharge from the Crow Municipal Rural & Industrial (MR&I) Pilot Water Treatment Plant in Bighorn County, Montana to the Bighorn River.

  3. LBA-ECO CD-02 Oxygen Isotopes of Plant Tissue Water and Atmospheric Water Vapor

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set reports the oxygen isotope signatures of water extracted from plant tissue (xylem from the stems and leaf tissue) and of atmospheric water...

  4. LBA-ECO CD-02 Oxygen Isotopes of Plant Tissue Water and Atmospheric Water Vapor

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set reports the oxygen isotope signatures of water extracted from plant tissue (xylem from the stems and leaf tissue) and of atmospheric water vapor from...

  5. Review of 'plant available water' aspects of water use efficiency ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SPAC), with particular emphasis on processes in the soil, has greatly enhanced understanding of the system, thereby enabling the formulation of a quantitative model relating the water supply from a layered soil profile to water demand; the ...

  6. Impacts of invasive alien plants on water quality, with particular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We review the current state of knowledge of quantified impacts of invasive alien plants on water quality, with a focus on South Africa. In South Africa, over 200 introduced plant species are regarded as invasive. Many of these species are particularly prominent in riparian ecosystems and their spread results in native species ...

  7. Impacts of invasive alien plants on water quality, with particular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-04-18

    Apr 18, 2012 ... Eutrophication leads to gradual changes in the plant and animal populations, the development of potentially toxic algal blooms and therefore a slow decline in water and habitat quality (Kalff,. 2002). The level of impact that litter from invasive alien plants has on nutrient cycles is determined by vegetative ...

  8. Modelling of a Small Scale Waste Water Treatment Plant (SSWWTP ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One of the most important environmental problems faced by the world today is waste handling and due to variation in waste water with respect to homes. The two main treatment used here are the aerobic and the anaerobic treatment process. The processes are brought to increase the efficiency of the plant. The plant has ...

  9. Assessment of water sources to plant growth in rice based cropping systems by stable water isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahindawansha, Amani; Kraft, Philipp; Racela, Heathcliff; Breuer, Lutz

    2016-04-01

    Rice is one of the most water-consuming crops in the world. Understanding water source utilization of rice will help us to improve water use efficiency (WUE) in paddy management. The objectives of our study are to evaluate the isotopic compositions of surface ponded water, soil water, irrigation water, groundwater, rain water and plant water and based on stable water isotope signatures to evaluate the contributions of various water sources to plant growth (wet rice, aerobic rice and maize) together with investigating the contribution of water from different soil horizons for plant growth in different maturity periods during wet and dry seasons. Finally we will compare the water balances and crop yields in both crops during both seasons and calculate the water use efficiencies. This will help to identify the most efficient water management systems in rice based cropping ecosystems using stable water isotopes. Soil samples are collected from 9 different depths at up to 60 cm in vegetative, reproductive and matured periods of plant growth together with stem samples. Soil and plant samples are extracted by cryogenic vacuum extraction. Root samples are collected up to 60 cm depth from 10 cm intercepts leading calculation of root length density and dry weight. Groundwater, surface water, rain water and irrigation water are sampled weekly. All water samples are analyzed for hydrogen and oxygen isotope ratios (d18O and dD) using Los Gatos Research DLT100. Rainfall records, ground water level, surface water level fluctuations and the amount of water irrigated in each field will be measured during the sampling period. The direct inference approach which is based on comparing isotopic compositions (dD and d18O) between plant stem water and soil water will be used to determine water sources taken up by plant. Multiple-source mass balance assessment can provide the estimated range of potential contributions of water from each soil depth to root water uptake of a crop. These

  10. Power plant intakes performance in low flow water bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasser M. Shawky

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to study the hot water recirculation at the power plants intakes due to the discharge from the plant cooling system into a low flow receiving water body. To achieve this objective, a 3Dnumerical model was employed to study the effect of the main parameters in this phenomena such as the plant intake length (L, the distance between the plant intake and outfall (S, the water depth under the intake skimmer wall (h and the water depth just upstream the intake (D on the recirculation of hot water to the plant intake. Eight scenarios were tested and two mathematical formulas accounting for the effect of these parameters on the hot water concentration at the plant intake were deduced. Physical model tests were carried out to verify the accuracy of the two deduced formulas. The study results indicated that the measured thermal concentrations in the physical model tests coincide with those calculated by the two above-mentioned mathematical formulas.

  11. Straw gasification biochar increases plant available water capacity and plant growth in coarse sandy soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Veronika; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Petersen, Carsten Tilbæk

    Gasification biochar (GB) contains recalcitrant carbon that can contribute to soil carbon sequestration and soil quality improvement. However, the impact of GB on plant available water capacity (AWC) and plant growth in diverse soil types needs further reserach. A pot experiment with spring barley...... of plant biomass under both water regimes, most likely due to reduced mechanical impedance to root growth. No positive effects on plant growth were achieved by addition of WGB. Our results suggest that SGB has a great global potential to increase crop productivity on coarser soil types changing...

  12. Experimental observation of internal water curing of concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lura, Pietro; Jensen, Ole Mejlhede

    2007-01-01

    Internal water curing has a significant effect on concrete. In addition to affecting hydration and moisture distribution, it influences most concrete properties, such as strength, shrinkage, cracking, and durability. The following paper is an overview of experimental methods to study internal water...... curing of concrete and its consequences. The special techniques needed to study internal water curing are dealt with along with the consequences of this process. Examples of applications are given and new measuring techniques that may potentially be applied to this field are addressed....

  13. Estimating plant root water uptake using a neural network approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qiao, D M; Shi, H B; Pang, H B

    2010-01-01

    Water uptake by plant roots is an important process in the hydrological cycle, not only for plant growth but also for the role it plays in shaping microbial community and bringing in physical and biochemical changes to soils. The ability of roots to extract water is determined by combined soil...... and plant characteristics, and how to model it has been of interest for many years. Most macroscopic models for water uptake operate at soil profile scale under the assumption that the uptake rate depends on root density and soil moisture. Whilst proved appropriate, these models need spatio-temporal root...... but has not yet been addressed. This paper presents and tests such an approach. The method is based on a neural network model, estimating the water uptake using different types of data that are easy to measure in the field. Sunflower grown in a sandy loam subjected to water stress and salinity was taken...

  14. THMs assessment in Khuzestan rural water treatment plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Ahmadi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The trihalomethanes (THMs concentration was investigated in some of rural water treatment plants in Khuzestan. Materials and Methods: Fifteen of the water treatment plants with the same drinking water source (Karoon river were selected for analysis of THMs to assess the levels and the relationship between THMs and total organic carbon (TOC, pH, temperature, chlorination dose, and free chlorine residue. Results: THMs ranged from 1.8 to 219 mg/l in winter and 1.7 to 98 in summer, where the level in some treatment plants is higher than the Maximum Concentration Level (MCL. The ratio of total THMs levels was significantly correlated with temperature, pH, chlorination dose, and free chlorine residue, but negative correlation with TOC. Conclusion: Epidemiological studies using total THMs levels should be considered in the analysis of water treatment plant′s results, and regulatory check of this parameter with drinking water guidelines.

  15. A co-beneficial system using aquatic plants: bioethanol production from free-floating aquatic plants used for water purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soda, S; Mishima, D; Inoue, D; Ike, M

    2013-01-01

    A co-beneficial system using constructed wetlands (CWs) planted with aquatic plants is proposed for bioethanol production and nutrient removal from wastewater. The potential for bioethanol production from aquatic plant biomass was experimentally evaluated. Water hyacinth and water lettuce were selected because of their high growth rates and easy harvestability attributable to their free-floating vegetation form. The alkaline/oxidative pretreatment was selected for improving enzymatic hydrolysis of the aquatic plants. Ethanol was produced with yields of 0.14-0.17 g-ethanol/ g-biomass in a simultaneous saccharification and fermentation mode using a recombinant Escherichia coli strain or a typical yeast strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Subsequently, the combined benefits of the CWs planted with the aquatic plants for bioethanol production and nutrient removal were theoretically estimated. For treating domestic wastewater at 1,100 m(3)/d, it was inferred that the anoxic-oxic activated sludge process consumes energy at 3,200 MJ/d, whereas the conventional activated sludge process followed by the CW consumes only 1,800 MJ/d with ethanol production at 115 MJ/d.

  16. Experimental Evaluation of Alternative Mix Water for Concrete: Case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents a comparison of seawater and laboratory brine on concrete using experimental methods. The seawater employed was obtained from Escravos in the coast of Atlantic Ocean in Nigeria. A concrete mix of 1:2:4and water/cement ratio of 0.6 was adopted. The cube samples measured ...

  17. Emergency membrane contactor based absorption system for ammonia leaks in water treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Jiahui; Fang, Xuliang; He, Yiliang; Jin, Qiang

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Because of the suspected health risks of trihalomethanes (THMs), more and more water treatment plants have replaced traditional chlorine disinfection process with chloramines but often without the proper absorption system installed in the case of ammonia leaks in the storage room. A pilot plant membrane absorption system was developed and installed in a water treatment plant for this purpose. Experimentally determined contact angle, surface tension, and corrosion tests indicated that the sulfuric acid was the proper choice as the absorbent for leaking ammonia using polypropylene hollow fiber membrane contactor. Effects of several operating conditions on the mass transfer coefficient, ammonia absorption, and removal efficiency were examined, including the liquid concentration, liquid velocity, and feed gas concentration. Under the operation conditions investigated, the gas absorption efficiency over 99.9% was achieved. This indicated that the designed pilot plant membrane absorption system was effective to absorb the leaking ammonia in the model storage room. The removal rate of the ammonia in the model storage room was also experimentally and theoretically found to be primarily determined by the ammonia suction flow rate from the ammonia storage room to the membrane contactor. The ammonia removal rate of 99.9% was expected to be achieved within 1.3 h at the ammonia gas flow rate of 500 m3/h. The success of the pilot plant membrane absorption system developed in this study illustrated the potential of this technology for ammonia leaks in water treatment plant, also paved the way towards a larger scale application.

  18. Design and optimization of an experimental bioregenerative life support system with higher plants and silkworms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Enzhu; Bartsev, Sergey I.; Zhao, Ming; Liu, Professor Hong

    The conceptual scheme of an experimental bioregenerative life support system (BLSS) for planetary exploration was designed, which consisted of four elements - human metabolism, higher plants, silkworms and waste treatment. 15 kinds of higher plants, such as wheat, rice, soybean, lettuce, mulberry, et al., were selected as regenerative component of BLSS providing the crew with air, water, and vegetable food. Silkworms, which producing animal nutrition for crews, were fed by mulberry-leaves during the first three instars, and lettuce leaves last two instars. The inedible biomass of higher plants, human wastes and silkworm feces were composted into soil like substrate, which can be reused by higher plants cultivation. Salt, sugar and some household material such as soap, shampoo would be provided from outside. To support the steady state of BLSS the same amount and elementary composition of dehydrated wastes were removed periodically. The balance of matter flows between BLSS components was described by the system of algebraic equations. The mass flows between the components were optimized by EXCEL spreadsheets and using Solver. The numerical method used in this study was Newton's method.

  19. Safe corrosion inhibitor for treating cooling water on heat power engineering plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaeva, L. A.; Khasanova, D. I.; Mukhutdinova, E. R.; Safin, D. Kh.; Sharifullin, I. G.

    2017-08-01

    Heat power engineering (HPE) consumes significant volumes of water. There are, therefore, problems associated with corrosion, biological fouling, salt deposits, and sludge formation on functional surfaces of heat power equipment. One of the effective ways to solve these problems is the use of inhibitory protection. The development of new Russian import-substituting environmentally friendly inhibitors is very relevant. This work describes experimental results on the OPC-800 inhibitor (TU 2415-092-00206 457-2013), which was produced at Karpov Chemical Plant and designed to remove mineral deposits, scale, and biological fouling from the surfaces of water-rotation node systems on HPE objects. This reagent is successfully used as an effective corrosion inhibitor in the water recycling systems of Tatarstan petrochemical enterprises. To save fresh make-up water, the circulating system is operated in a no-blow mode, which is characterized by high evaporation and salt content coefficients. It was experimentally found that corrosion rate upon treatment of recycled water with the OPC-800 inhibitor is 0.08-0.10 mm/year. HPE mainly uses inhibitors based on oxyethylidene diphosphonic (OEDPA) and nitrilotrimethylphosphonic (NTMPA) acids. The comparative characteristic of inhibition efficiency for OPC-800 and OEDF-Zn-U2 is given. The results obtained indicate that OPC-800 can be used as an inhibitor for treatment of cooling water in HPE plants. In this case, it is necessary to take into account the features of water rotation of a thermal power plant.

  20. Impact of environmental traders on water markets: An experimental analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tisdell, John G.

    2010-03-01

    This paper reports the results of a series of economic experiments in which an environmental agency with a stochastic demand function enters an existing water market to buy or sell water for instream use. Previous experimental studies have examined the use of tenders to reduce water extractions and social suasion to maintain aggregate flow levels and compared imposing minimum flow restrictions with subsidizing downstream water use and the allocation of tradeable minimum flow rights. The important contribution of this paper is that it explores the consequence of having an environmental agency enter an existing water market. In this paper we explore the consequences of (1) formally allocating tradeable water rights to the environmental agency, (2) allocating funding to purchase water as required, and (3) having the trading actions of the environmental agency a matter of public record. The research, while contextualized to water markets in this paper, addresses an important and timely issue that could have implication beyond water markets. In pollution permit markets, for example, there is the question of what the impact on the market would be if a government agency were to begin buying back permits, particularly if this represented a relatively large volume of trades and entered into such purchases on a needs basis.

  1. Uptake of water from soils by plant roots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raats, P.A.C.

    2007-01-01

    Uptake of water by plant roots can be considered at two different Darcian scales, referred to as the mesoscopic and macroscopic scales. At the mesoscopic scale, uptake of water is represented by a flux at the soil¿root interface, while at the macroscopic scale it is represented by a sink term in the

  2. The role of plant cuticle in water loss protection

    OpenAIRE

    MACKOVÁ, Jana

    2010-01-01

    A central aim of this thesis was studying plant regulation of transpiration water loss. I focused first on changes in cuticular water permeability and second, on changes in cuticular chemical composition under simulated drought stress. Finally, the obtained findings were capitalized on in a case study of altitudinal distribution of congeneric treeline species.

  3. White root tips supply plants with oxygen, water and nutrients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvelink, E.; Kierkels, T.

    2016-01-01

    The main, most important function of roots belonging to horticultural crops is the uptake of water and nutrients. Healthy roots are essential for a healthy plant. After all, if the uptake of water and nutrients is not functioning properly, then other aspects also leave a lot to be desired

  4. Water-integrated scheduling of batch process plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pulluru, Sai Jishna; Akkerman, Renzo

    2017-01-01

    Efficient water management is becoming increasingly important in production systems, but companies often do not have any concrete strategies to implement. While there are numerous technological options for improving water efficiency in process plants, there is a lack of effective decision support to

  5. Phosphate Removal and Recovery using Drinking Water Plant Waste Residuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water treatment plants are used to provide safe drinking water. In parallel, however, they also produce a wide variety of waste products which, in principle, could be possible candidates as resources for different applications. Calcium carbonate is one of such residual waste in ...

  6. SIMULATION OF SOME PARAMETERS OF PLANT WATER RELATION IN MAIZE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A ANDA

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Investigations on simulation of plant temperature and stomatal resistance in maize by using the microclimate simulation model of Goudriaan (1977 were carried out at Keszthely Agrometeorological Research Station, during the growing season of 2001. The size of plot was 0.5 ha, because of parallel investigations done on the elements of microclimate. To facilitate the validation of the model field observations were measured. Two watering levels, rainfed plots with natural rainfall only, and irrigated plant stand were applied in simulation study. We irrigated the plants by using the amounts of crop water stress index with +drop irrigation system. The limit value for watering was the CWSI >0,25. In summer of 2001 the weather was dry and hot. The lack of water was substituted by 170 mm irrigation water on 4 occasions. To validate the model the root mean square deviation (RMSD between a number of pairs of simulated and measured microclimate elements was applied. The estimation of plant temperature was very accurate, the error of simulation was below 0.5 degree for noon irrigated plots and 0.3 degree for irrigated ones. The accuracy in stomatal resistance simulation was weaker than that of plant temperature, the error was 5.9 % for nonirrigated, and 21 % for irrigated plots. The estimation of stomatal resistance for irrigated plants need further refinement, but this requires changes in the basic equations of the model.

  7. Plants for water recycling, oxygen regeneration and food production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubenheim, D. L.

    1991-01-01

    During long-duration space missions that require recycling and regeneration of life support materials the major human wastes to be converted to usable forms are CO2, hygiene water, urine and feces. A Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) relies on the air revitalization, water purification and food production capabilities of higher plants to rejuvenate human wastes and replenish the life support materials. The key processes in such a system are photosynthesis, whereby green plants utilize light energy to produce food and oxygen while removing CO2 from the atmosphere, and transpiration, the evaporation of water from the plant. CELSS research has emphasized the food production capacity and efforts to minimize the area/volume of higher plants required to satisfy all human life support needs. Plants are a dynamic system capable of being manipulated to favour the supply of individual products as desired. The size and energy required for a CELSS that provides virtually all human needs are determined by the food production capacity. Growing conditions maximizing food production do not maximize transpiration of water; conditions favoring transpiration and scaling to recycle only water significantly reduces the area, volume, and energy inputs per person. Likewise, system size can be adjusted to satisfy the air regeneration needs. Requirements of a waste management system supplying inputs to maintain maximum plant productivity are clear. The ability of plants to play an active role in waste processing and the consequence in terms of degraded plant performance are not well characterized. Plant-based life support systems represent the only potential for self sufficiency and food production in an extra-terrestrial habitat.

  8. Potential for polyhydroxyalkanoate production on German or European municipal waste water treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittmann, T; Steinmetz, H

    2016-08-01

    Biopolymers, which are made of renewable raw materials and/or biodegradable residual materials present a possible alternative to common plastic. A potential analysis, based on experimental results in laboratory scale and detailed data from German waste water treatment plants, showed that the theoretically possible production of biopolymers in Germany amounts to more than 20% of the 2015 worldwide biopolymer production. In addition a profound estimation regarding all European Union member states showed that theoretically about 115% of the actual worldwide biopolymer production could be produced on European waste water treatment plants. With an upgraded biopolymer production and a theoretically reachable biopolymer proportion of around 60% of the cell dry weight a total of 1,794,656tPHAa or approximately 236% of today's biopolymer production could be produced on waste water treatment plants in the European Union, using primary sludge as raw material only. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. System configuration for advanced water management in power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Queirazza, G.; Sigon, F.; Zagano, C. [Ente Nazionale per l`Energia Elettrica, Milan (Italy)

    1995-12-01

    Water ie required for power plant operation and electricity generation. The water demand is steadily increasing depending on the enrgy pro-capite demand, the available or innovative technologies for power generation and the need for emissions control. Water management is also required to comply with the regulatory trends and it agrees with the guidelines for the sustainable development, as recommended at the Rio conference (Agenda 21). In order to assess the design and the operating alternatives for the water system of power plants and the impact of innovative technologies, a simulation code has been developed. The ENEL proprietary WATERSOFT code is presented in this paper. Some significant results will be presented and discussed, within the frame of improving the water management and optimizing the overall performances of the actual water systems.

  10. Optimal control of a waste water cleaning plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellina V. Grigorieva

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a model of a waste water treatment plant is investigated. The model is described by a nonlinear system of two differential equations with one bounded control. An optimal control problem of minimizing concentration of the polluted water at the terminal time T is stated and solved analytically with the use of the Pontryagin Maximum Principle. Dependence of the optimal solution on the initial conditions is established. Computer simulations of a model of an industrial waste water treatment plant show the advantage of using our optimal strategy. Possible applications are discussed.

  11. Naegleria fowleri in cooling waters of power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerva, L.; Kasprzak, W.; Mazur, T.

    1982-01-01

    Six strains of nonvirulent and three strains of virulent variants of Naegleria fowleri amoebae were isolated from the examined cooling water samples from 9 power plants. The virulent variants were obtained solely from effluents discharged from power plants with a closed-circuit cooling N. fowleri was not detected outside the reach of the thermal pollution. A disinfection of out-flowing cooling water seems to be an unnecessary investment in our climate. Warm discharge water should under no conditions be used directly for sports and recreational purposes.

  12. Naegleria fowleri in cooling waters of power plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerva, L; Kasprzak, W; Mazur, T

    1982-01-01

    Six strains of nonvirulent and three strains of virulent variants of Naegleria fowleri amoebae were isolated from the examined cooling water samples from 9 power plants. The virulent variants were obtained solely from effluents discharged from power plants with a closed-circuit cooling N. fowleri was not detected outside the reach of the thermal pollution. A disinfection of out-flowing cooling water seems to be an unnecessary investment in our climate. Warm discharge water should under no conditions be used directly for sports and recreational purposes.

  13. Review of 'plant available water' aspects of water use efficiency ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tions for crop-ecotope specific upper and lower limits of available water; the identification of the harmful rootzone devel- opment effects of compacted layers in fine sandy soils caused by cultivation, and amelioration procedures to prevent these effects; and management strategies to combat excessive water losses by deep ...

  14. Modeling coupled nitrogen and water use strategies of plant productivity through hydraulic traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackay, D. S.; Savoy, P.; Pleban, J. R.; Tai, X.; Ewers, B. E.; Sperry, J.; Weinig, C.

    2016-12-01

    Changes in heat, nutrient, and drought stresses create novel environments that threaten the health of forests and viability of crop production. Here a trait-based conceptual model finds tradeoffs in maximum hydraulic conductance (Kmax), root to leaf area ratio (RLA) and vulnerability to cavitation (VC) based on the energy costs of acquiring water and nitrogen (N) to support gross primary production (GPP). The atmosphere supplies carbon to and demands water from plants via their stomata. The demand for water increases at higher temperatures due to increased vapor pressure deficits. The lost water is replenished by a passive wicking process that pulls water and N from the soil into roots and up water-filled xylem tubes. When water is in short supply the cost of getting it is high as measured by a decline in K and stomatal closure. Soil N dynamics also influence plant water use. When N is abundant, plants grow low VC fine roots with lower specific root length (m g-1), low Kmax, and maintain a relatively low RLA. In low N environments, N is costly and fine roots gain efficiency by building less robust (or higher VC) xylem with higher Kmax and higher RLA. What happens when the cost of acquiring water changes from high to low under low and high N costs? We incorporated the conceptual model into TREES, which couples whole plant hydraulics to carbon allocation, root-rhizosphere expansion/contraction and, also new for this study, a rhizosphere-root centric microbe-plant N dynamics. We used two experimental studies (drought, N) and two drought-prone fluxnet sites to test the conceptual model at individual plant and regional scales, respectively, and with frequent short versus infrequent long dry periods. When water was not limiting the hydraulic tradeoffs suppressed differences in GPP between the N use strategies. When water was in short supply, however, low RLA&VC plants dropped GPP early during drought because of low Kmax. Since these plants had low VC roots they also

  15. Water vulnerabilities for existing coal-fired power plants.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elcock, D.; Kuiper, J.; Environmental Science Division

    2010-08-19

    This report was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Existing Plants Research Program, which has an energy-water research effort that focuses on water use at power plants. This study complements the Existing Plants Research Program's overall research effort by evaluating water issues that could impact power plants. Water consumption by all users in the United States over the 2005-2030 time period is projected to increase by about 7% (from about 108 billion gallons per day [bgd] to about 115 bgd) (Elcock 2010). By contrast, water consumption by coal-fired power plants over this period is projected to increase by about 21% (from about 2.4 to about 2.9 bgd) (NETL 2009b). The high projected demand for water by power plants, which is expected to increase even further as carbon-capture equipment is installed, combined with decreasing freshwater supplies in many areas, suggests that certain coal-fired plants may be particularly vulnerable to potential water demand-supply conflicts. If not addressed, these conflicts could limit power generation and lead to power disruptions or increased consumer costs. The identification of existing coal-fired plants that are vulnerable to water demand and supply concerns, along with an analysis of information about their cooling systems and related characteristics, provides information to help focus future research and development (R&D) efforts to help ensure that coal-fired generation demands are met in a cost-effective manner that supports sustainable water use. This study identified coal-fired power plants that are considered vulnerable to water demand and supply issues by using a geographical information system (GIS) that facilitated the analysis of plant-specific data for more than 500 plants in the NETL's Coal Power Plant Database (CPPDB) (NETL 2007a) simultaneously with 18 indicators of water demand and supply. Two types of demand indicators were

  16. Importance of water quality in container plant production

    Science.gov (United States)

    John M. Ruter

    2013-01-01

    High substrate pH is a major problem for producers of container-grown plants and seedlings. The primary cause of high substrate pH is irrigation water with high alkalinity. Alkalinity is defined as the capacity of water to neutralize acids. Some alkalinity in irrigation water is beneficial as it serves as a buffer to large swings in pH levels, but high alkalinity in...

  17. USE of mine pool water for power plant cooling.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veil, J. A.; Kupar, J. M .; Puder, M. G.

    2006-11-27

    Water and energy production issues intersect in numerous ways. Water is produced along with oil and gas, water runs off of or accumulates in coal mines, and water is needed to operate steam electric power plants and hydropower generating facilities. However, water and energy are often not in the proper balance. For example, even if water is available in sufficient quantities, it may not have the physical and chemical characteristics suitable for energy or other uses. This report provides preliminary information about an opportunity to reuse an overabundant water source--ground water accumulated in underground coal mines--for cooling and process water in electric generating facilities. The report was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), which has implemented a water/energy research program (Feeley and Ramezan 2003). Among the topics studied under that program is the availability and use of ''non-traditional sources'' of water for use at power plants. This report supports NETL's water/energy research program.

  18. Plant production and water purification efficiency by rice and umbrella plants grown in a floating culture system under various water environmental conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Miyazaki, Akira; Kubota, Fumitake; Agata, Waichi; Yamamoto, Yoshinori; Song, Xiangfu

    2000-01-01

    The floating culture system was originally designed with a purpose of developing a new cropping area by growing plants on the water surface; in addition, this system can also be used as a technique for water purification by allowing plants to absorb nutrients from the eutrophied water. We investigated here the specific differences in water purification effect and plant productivity of rice and umbrella plants both of which were grown on the surface of the waters with various levels of eutroph...

  19. Simultaneous removal of water and BTEX from feed gas for a cryogenic plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, S.; Lee, S.; Evans, M.; Chen, R.

    1999-07-01

    The removal of water and benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, xylene (BTEX) from the feed gas of a cryogenic plant is critical in order to avoid precipitation of these components in the cold section of the plant. The design of the Hannibal Gas Plant in Sfax, Tunisia, accomplishes the removal of water and BTEX simultaneously. The plant receives 7.1 million Nm{sub 3}/day of feed gas and produces high heating value pipeline quality sales gas by removing nitrogen in the cold box. A methyl diethanol amine (MDEA) treating system at the front end of the plant is designed to remove carbon dioxide. The glycol system takes the saturated gas from the MDEA contactor and reduces the water content to 7 lb/MMscf. The glycol system is also designed to remove more than half of the BTEX from the feed gas so that these aromatic components will not precipitate in the cold section of the plant. GPA experimental data were used to fit the interaction parameters for the computer simulator used to design the glycol system. The results of the plant performance test verify the validity of the design.

  20. Preliminary experimental study of liquid lithium water interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    You, X.M.; Tong, L.L.; Cao, X.W., E-mail: caoxuewu@sjtu.edu.cn

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Explosive reaction occurs when lithium temperature is over 300 °C. • The violence of liquid lithium water interaction increases with the initial temperature of liquid lithium. • The interaction is suppressed when the initial water temperature is above 70 °C. • Steam explosion is not ignorable in the risk assessment of liquid lithium water interaction. • Explosion strength of liquid lithium water interaction is evaluated by explosive yield. - Abstract: Liquid lithium is the best candidate for a material with low Z and low activation, and is one of the important choices for plasma facing materials in magnetic fusion devices. However, liquid lithium reacts violently with water under the conditions of loss of coolant accidents. The release of large heats and hydrogen could result in the dramatic increase of temperature and pressure. The lithium–water explosion has large effect on the safety of fusion devices, which is an important content for the safety assessment of fusion devices. As a preliminary investigation of liquid lithium water interaction, the test facility has been built and experiments have been conducted under different conditions. The initial temperature of lithium droplet ranged from 200 °C to 600 °C and water temperature was varied between 20 °C and 90 °C. Lithium droplets were released into the test section with excess water. The shape of lithium droplet and steam generated around the lithium were observed by the high speed camera. At the same time, the pressure and temperature in the test section were recorded during the violent interactions. The preliminary experimental results indicate that the initial temperature of lithium and water has an effect on the violence of liquid lithium water interaction.

  1. [Microbiological studies of the significance of natural and simulated water transmission in the evaluation of UV plants for water disinfection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuker, G; Hingst, V

    1990-10-01

    The efficiency of UV-irradiation for water disinfection was tested using an UV-plant with constant flow between 0.7 and 11.5 m3/h. Within the range of water transmission (254 nm) between 40% and 98% (1 cm), which naturally was found in tap water, water from the Neckar river and biologically treated sewage water in an amount of 96%, 78% and ca. 60%, simulation was performed by artificial addition of fluorescein to demineralized water. Data obtained show similar results for the reduction of E. faecium and C. albicans, which were used as test strains. The investigation show no major discrepancies in the range of transmission from 80-96%, which is relevant for tap water disinfection. Water transmission at 254 nm was confirmed as important factor for UV-irradiation. Also found suitable was fluorescein for simulation of the natural water transmission without affecting the test strains. Thus UV-sensitivity of test strains could be detected by combination of flow rate and simulated water transmission using fluorescein. P. aeruginosa and E. coli were found to be more UV-sensitive than S. enteritidis and S. marcescens. UV-resistance increased on the scale from E. faecium, S. aureus, M. luteus up to C. albicans. The efficiency of an UV-plant can be experimentally defined by a specific combination of flow rate (up to a certain amount) and water transmission. Thus the question can be answered whether and UV-plant is able to fulfill the specific requirements in use. These results, regarding the artificial variation of transmission values, are to be considered important for the specification of an additional measure of safety for minimal irradiation exposure times.

  2. Book of Abstracts of the XII Portuguese-Spanish Symposium on Plant Water Relations (2014)

    OpenAIRE

    Coelho, Renato R. P.; Vaz, Margarida M.

    2014-01-01

    Contents PLENARY CONFERENCES AND THEMATIC CONFERENCES Molecular Mechanisms of Plant Adaptation to Drought Water Relations in the Irrigation Scheduling of Olive Orchards Physiological Limits for Plant-Based Water Stress Indicators Water Use in Montado Ecosystems Hydrological, Engineering and Physiological Approaches to Water Conservation From Leaf to Whole Plant Water Use Efficiency: Solving the Gaps Efficient Use of Water Under Mediterranean Conditions: Agronomic Too...

  3. Wetlands: Water, Wildlife, Plants, and People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandas, Steve

    1992-01-01

    Describes wetlands and explains their importance to man and ecology. Delineates the role of water in wetlands. Describes how wetlands are classified: estuarine, riverine, lacustrine, palustrine, and marine. Accompanying article is a large, color poster on wetlands. Describes an activity where metaphors are used to explore the functions of…

  4. Plants Clean Air and Water for Indoor Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Wolverton Environmental Services Inc., founded by longtime government environmental scientist B.C. "Bill" Wolverton, is an environmental consulting firm that gives customers access to the results of his decades of cutting-edge bioremediation research. Findings about how to use plants to improve indoor air quality have been published in dozens of NASA technical papers and in the book, "How to Grow Fresh Air: 50 Houseplants That Purify Your Home or Office." The book has now been translated into 12 languages and has been on the shelves of bookstores for nearly 10 years. A companion book, "Growing Clean Water: Nature's Solution to Water Pollution," explains how plants can clean waste water. Other discoveries include that the more air that is allowed to circulate through the roots of the plants, the more effective they are at cleaning polluted air; and that plants play a psychological role in welfare in that people recover from illness faster in the presence of plants. Wolverton Environmental is also working in partnership with Syracuse University, to engineer systems consisting of modular wicking filters tied into duct work and water supplies, essentially tying plant-based filters into heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. Also, the company has recently begun to assess the ability of the EcoPlanter to remove formaldehyde from interior environments. Wolverton Environmental is also in talks with designers of the new Stennis Visitor's Center, who are interested in using its designs for indoor air-quality filters

  5. PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES OF DWARF COCONUT PLANTS UNDER WATER DEFICIT IN SALT - AFFECTED SOILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALEXANDRE REUBER ALMEIDA DA SILVA

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to characterize the physiological acclimation responses of young plants of the dwarf coconut cultivar ̳Jiqui Green‘ associated with tolerance to conditions of multiple abiotic stresses (drought and soil salinity, acting either independently or in combination. The study was conducted under controlled conditions and evaluated the following parameters: leaf gas exchange, quantum yield of chlorophyll a fluorescence, and relative contents of total chlorophyll (SPAD index. The experiment was conducted under a randomized block experimental design, in a split plot arrangement. In the plots, plants were exposed to different levels of water stress, by imposing potential crop evapotranspiration replacement levels equivalent to 100%, 80%, 60%, 40%, and 20%, whereas in subplots, plants were exposed to different levels of soil salinity (1.72, 6.25, 25.80, and 40.70 dS m - 1 . Physiological mechanisms were effectively limited when water deficit and salinity acted separately and/or together. Compared with soil salinity, water stress was more effective in reducing the measured physiological parameters. The magnitudes of the responses of plants to water supply and salinity depended on the intensity of stress and evaluation period. The physiological acclimation responses of plants were mainly related to stomatal regulation. The coconut tree has a number of physiological adjustment mechanisms that give the species partial tolerance to drought stress and/or salt, thereby enabling it to revegetate salinated areas, provided that its water requirements are at least partially met.

  6. Experimental Study Of Fog Water Harvesting By Stainless Steel Mesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikhil R. Pawar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The collection of fog water is a simple and sustainable technology to get hold of fresh water for various purposes. In areas where a substantial amount of fog can be obtained it is feasible to set up a stainless steel as well as black double layer plastic mesh structure for fog water harvesting. The mesh structure is directly exposed to the weather and the fog containing air is pushed through the active mesh surface by the wind. Afterward fog droplets are deposited on the active mesh area which combines to form superior droplets and run down into a gutter to storage by gravity. Fog water harvesting rates show a discrepancy from site to site. The scope of this experimental work is to review fog collection at SCOE Pune campus and to examine factors of success. This study is to synthesize the understanding of fog water harvesting in the institutional era and to analyze its benefits and boundaries for future development. The rate of fog water harvesting depends on the science of fog physics chemistry and its starring role in the hydrological cycle. This technology runs on zero energy and zeroes pollution level with cost of the benefit. The collected or treated clear water mainly could be used for different purposes as per requirement. For further development this technology public as well as government participation is needed.

  7. Does pre-dawn water potential reflect conditions of equilibrium in plant and soil water status?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellin, Arne

    1999-02-01

    Variation in base water potential ( Ψb, a daily maximum level of plant water potential, which is presumed to correspond to the equilibrium between soil and plant water potentials) was examined in shoots of Picea abies and Vaccinium myrtillus with respect to soil (available water storage, water potential, temperature) and atmospheric (temperature, relative humidity, vapour pressure deficit) conditions. The available soil water storage (W tr) accounted for 77% of the dynamics of Ψb, while the influence of atmospheric factors became evident under high evaporative demand. Ψb was not always observable immediately before dawn, but on 30% of observation days, the recovery continued up to an hour or two after dawn. Full equilibrium between soil and plant water potentials in P. abies in northern conditions is rather improbable by dawn in summer-time, because of the shortness of the dark period and probable night-time transpiration in the case of high atmospheric vapour pressure deficit.

  8. Microbial pathogens in source and treated waters from drinking water treatment plants in the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    An occurrence survey was conducted on selected pathogens in source and treated drinking water collected from 25 drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) in the United States. Water samples were analyzed for the protozoa Giardia and Cryptosporidium (EPA Method 1623); the fungi Asp...

  9. Crop modeling: Studying the effect of water stress on the driving forces governing plant water potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Emmerik, T. H. M.; Mirfenderesgi, G.; Bohrer, G.; Steele-Dunne, S. C.; Van De Giesen, N.

    2015-12-01

    Water stress is one of the most important environmental factors that influence plant water dynamics. To prevent excessive water loss and physiological damage, plants can regulate transpiration by adjusting the stomatal aperture. This enhances survival, but also reduced photosynthesis and productivity. During periods of low water availability, stomatal regulation is a trade-off between optimization of either survival or production. Water stress defence mechanisms lead to significant changes in plant dynamics, e.g. leaf and stem water content. Recent research has shown that water content in a corn canopy can change up to 30% diurnally as a result of water stress, which has a considerable influence on radar backscatter from a corn canopy [1]. This highlighted the potential of water stress detection using radar. To fully explore the potential of water stress monitoring using radar, we need to understand the driving forces governing plant water potential. For this study, the recently developed the Finite-Element Tree-Crown Hydrodynamic model version 2 (FETCH2) model is applied to a corn canopy. FETCH2 is developed to resolve the hydrodynamic processes within a plant using the porous media analogy, allowing investigation of the influence of environmental stress factors on plant dynamics such as transpiration, photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, and leaf and stem water content. The model is parameterized and evaluated using a detailed dataset obtained during a three-month field experiment in Flevoland, the Netherlands, on a corn canopy. [1] van Emmerik, T., S. Steele-Dunne, J. Judge and N. van de Giesen: "Impact of Diurnal Variation in Vegetation Water Content on Radar Backscatter of Maize During Water Stress", Geosciences and Remote Sensing, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 52, issue 7, doi: 10.1109/TGRS.2014.2386142, 2015.

  10. An organic profile of a pressurised water reactor secondary plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eeden, Nestor van; Stwayi, Mandisibuntu; Gericke, Gerhard [Eskom Holdings SOC Ltd., Western Cape (South Africa). Koeberg Power Station

    2012-07-15

    Make-up water addition to the steam/water cycle at Koeberg Nuclear Power Station usually results in a corresponding increase of the chloride concentration in the steam generator blowdown system. During plant transients, when higher than normal make-up is required to the secondary plant, the concentration of chloride occasionally exceeds the limiting value for the station chemistry performance indicator. Irrespective of this, the demineralised water make-up supply tanks, which are routinely analysed for chloride, are within all recognised acceptable standards for secondary water make-up and therefore these tanks do not initially appear to be the source of chloride contamination. Water treatment at the plant relies essentially on ion exchange, which has been proven to be very effective in removing inorganic ionic species such as chloride. Organic compounds are less effectively removed by ion exchange and may pass through the treatment system, and these organics can reside undetected in the make-up water tanks. Historically, the elevated chloride concentration following high system make-up has been attributed to chlorinated organic compounds known as trihalomethanes being present in the make-up water tanks, but no rigorous study had been undertaken. As it has been assumed that the majority of chloride in the secondary system originates from the make-up water organic impurities, it was considered important to confirm this by compiling an organic profile of the secondary plant. The use of organic additives was also taken into account in the profile. This work has confirmed the contribution from trihalomethanes and has also found that other organochlorides contribute even more significantly to the overall chloride inventory of the secondary plant. (orig.)

  11. Experimental mobile water reuse; Unidade movel experimental em reuso de agua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunha, Maria de Fatima Rodrigues da; Santiago, Vania Maria Junqueira; Machado, Mara de Barros; Cerqueira, Ana Claudia Figueiras Pereira de; Florido, Priscilla Lopes; Iwane, Tsutomo; Coelho, Eloisia B.A.P.; Souza, Rodrigo Suhett de; Tomaz, Ailton Fonseca [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    The search for environmental excellence in PETROBRAS and the need to minimize water use dictated by Law 9433/97 led to corporate guidelines to promote initiatives for the effective management of water resources, triggering a series of actions and projects. The Center for Research and Development - CENPES has as a priority research lines enable the reduction of water consumption in the oil industry through the reuse of effluent. The Mobile Unit for Experimental Water Reuse is a pioneer project in the world, in its format and purpose, was developed by CENPES in partnership with E and P - Process Engineering Ltda. and with e participation of the managements of Refine, SMES and Engineering. The main objective support initiatives aimed at reuse deployments Units of Operations (refineries and terminals, for example), by defining the best route technology for water treatment and wastewater. The Mobile Unit is composed of two trucks with pilot scale equipment that can test up to 90 technological solutions for water treatment and reuse. The station can test spot, the Company's refinery, processes to remove solids, organic load removal, and processes aimed at polishing and demineralization, simulating the operating conditions specific to the different characteristics of water and wastewater, with view to producing high quality water-compatible reuse in cooling towers or steam generation. From these tests CENPES may indicate the best alternative technically and economically for water reuse in design for industrial facilities, reducing time and cost of testing pilots. The field of knowledge in water reuse is an important asset to the sustainability of the Oil and Gas industry. Sustainable use of water resources is a goal of permanent PETROBRAS. (author)

  12. Enabling sustainable urban water management through governance experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, J J; Brown, R R; Farrelly, M A; de Haan, F J

    2013-01-01

    A shift towards sustainable urban water management is widely advocated but poorly understood. There is a growing body of literature claiming that social learning is of high importance in restructuring conventional systems. In particular, governance experimentation, which explicitly aims for social learning, has been suggested as an approach for enabling the translation of sustainability ideas into practice. This type of experimentation requires a very different dynamic within societal relations and necessitates a changed role for professionals engaged in such a process. This empirically focused paper investigates a contemporary governance experiment, the Cooks River Sustainability Initiative, and determines its outcome in terms of enabling social learning for attaining sustainable water practice in an urban catchment. Drawing on the qualitative insights of the actors directly involved in this novel process, this paper provides evidence of changes in individual and collective understanding generated through diverse forms of social interaction. Furthermore, the research reveals perceived key-factors that foster and/or hamper the execution of this new form of experimentation, including project complexity, resource intensity and leadership. Overall, this paper highlights that, while implementation of governance experimentation in a conventional setting can be highly challenging, it can also be highly rewarding in terms of learning.

  13. Macroscopic modeling of plant water uptake: soil and root resistances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Tomas; Votrubova, Jana; Dohnal, Michal; Dusek, Jaromir

    2014-05-01

    The macroscopic physically-based plant root water uptake (RWU) model, based on water-potential-gradient formulation (Vogel et al., 2013), was used to simulate the observed soil-plant-atmosphere interactions at a forest site located in a temperate humid climate of central Europe and to gain an improved insight into the mutual interplay of RWU parameters that affects the soil water distribution in the root zone. In the applied RWU model, the uptake rates are directly proportional to the potential gradient and indirectly proportional to the local soil and root resistances to water flow. The RWU algorithm is implemented in a one-dimensional dual-continuum model of soil water flow based on Richards' equation. The RWU model is defined by four parameters (root length density distribution, average active root radius, radial root resistance, and the threshold value of the root xylem potential). In addition, soil resistance to water extraction by roots is related to soil hydraulic conductivity function and actual soil water content. The RWU model is capable of simulating both the compensatory root water uptake, in situations when reduced uptake from dry layers is compensated by increased uptake from wetter layers, and the root-mediated hydraulic redistribution of soil water, contributing to more natural soil moisture distribution throughout the root zone. The present study focusses on the sensitivity analysis of the combined soil water flow and RWU model responses in respect to variations of RWU model parameters. Vogel T., M. Dohnal, J. Dusek, J. Votrubova, and M. Tesar. 2013. Macroscopic modeling of plant water uptake in a forest stand involving root-mediated soil-water redistribution. Vadose Zone Journal, 12, 10.2136/vzj2012.0154.

  14. Water Footprint Assessment in Waste Water Treatment Plant: Indicator of the sustainability of urban water cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez Llanos, Eva; Durán Barroso, Pablo; Matías Sánchez, Agustín; Fernández Rodríguez, Santiago; Guzmán Caballero, Raúl

    2017-04-01

    The seventeen Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) represent a challenge for citizens and countries around the world by working together to reduce social inequality, to fight poverty and climate change. The Goal six water and sanitation aims for ensuring, among others, the protection and restoration of water-related ecosystem (target 6.6) and encouraging the water use efficiency (target 6.3). The commitment to this goal is not only the development of sanitation infrastructure, but also incorporates the necessity of a sustainable and efficient management from ecological and economic perspectives. Following this approach, we propose a framework for assessing the waste water treatment plant (WWTP) management based on the Water Footprint (WF) principles. The WF as indicator is able to highlight the beneficial role of WWTPs within the environment and provide a complementary information to evaluate the impact of a WWTP regarding to the use of freshwater and energy. Therefore, the footprint family provides an opportunity to relate the reduction of pollutant load in a WWTP and the associated consumptions in terms of electricity and chemical products. As a consequence, the new methodology allows a better understanding of the interactions among water and energy resources, economic requirements and environmental risks. Because of this, the current technologies can be improved and innovative solutions for monitoring and management of urban water use can be integrated. The WF was calculated in four different WWTP located in the North East of Extremadura (SW Spain) which have activated sludge process as secondary treatment. This zone is characterized by low population density but an incipient tourism development. The WF estimation and its relationship with the electricity consumption examines the efficiency of each WWTP and identifies the weak points in the management in terms of the sustainability. Consequently, the WF establishes a benchmark for multidisciplinary decision

  15. Whole-system responses of experimental plant communities to climate extremes imposed in different seasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Boeck, Hans J; Dreesen, Freja E; Janssens, Ivan A; Nijs, Ivan

    2011-02-01

    • Discrete climate events such as heat waves and droughts can have a disproportionate impact on ecosystems relative to the temporal scale over which they occur. Research oriented towards (extreme) events rather than (gradual) trends is therefore urgently needed. • Here, we imposed heat waves and droughts (50-yr return time) in a full factorial design on experimental plant communities in spring, summer or autumn. Droughts were created by removing the controlled water table (rainout shelters prevented precipitation), while heat waves were imposed with infrared heaters. • Measurements of whole-system CO(2) exchange, growth and biomass production revealed multiple interactions between treatments and the season in which they occurred. Heat waves had only small and transient effects, with infrared imaging showing little heat stress because of transpirational cooling. If heat waves were combined with drought, negative effects observed in single factor drought treatments were exacerbated through intensified soil drying, and heat stress in summer. Plant recovery from stress differed, affecting the biomass yield. • In conclusion, the timing of extreme events is critical regarding their impact, and synergisms between heat waves and drought aggravate the negative effects of these extremes on plant growth and functioning. © 2010 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2010 New Phytologist Trust.

  16. Experimental investigation on water quality standard of Yangtze River water source heat pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Zenghu; Tong, Mingwei; Kun, Lin

    2012-01-01

    Due to the surface water in the upper reaches of Yangtze River in China containing large amounts of silt and algae, high content of microorganisms and suspended solids, the water in Yangtze River cannot be used for cooling a heat pump directly. In this paper, the possibility of using Yangtze River, which goes through Chongqing, a city in southwest China, as a heat source-sink was investigated. Water temperature and quality of the Yangtze River in the Chongqing area were analyzed and the performance of water source heat pump units in different sediment concentrations, turbidity and algae material conditions were tested experimentally, and the water quality standards, in particular surface water conditions, in the Yangtze River region that adapt to energy-efficient heat pumps were also proposed. The experimental results show that the coefficient of performance heat pump falls by 3.73% to the greatest extent, and the fouling resistance of cooling water in the heat exchanger increases up to 25.6% in different water conditions. When the sediment concentration and the turbidity in the river water are no more than 100 g/m3 and 50 NTU respectively, the performance of the heat pump is better, which can be used as a suitable river water quality standard for river water source heat pumps.

  17. Experimental Design Plant and Soil Measurement Data, Colorado Plateau, 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These plant and soil data were collected by Timothy M. Wertin and Sasha C. Reed in the spring, summer, and fall of 2011 at a climate manipulation experiment site...

  18. Do rock fragments participate to plant water and mineral nutrition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korboulewsky, Nathalie; Tétégan, Marion; Besnault, Adeline; Cousin, Isabelle

    2010-05-01

    Rock fragments modify soil properties, and can be a potential reservoir of water. Besides, recent studies showed that this coarse soil fraction is chemically active, release nutrients, and could therefore be involved in biogeochemical nutrient cycles. However, these studies carried out on rock fragments, crushed pebbles or mineral particles do not answer the question whether the coarse soil fraction has significant nutritive functions. Only a couple of studies were conducted on plants, one on grass and the other on coniferous seedlings. This present work attempted to assess if pebbles may act as water and nutrient sources for poplar saplings, a deciduous species. Remoulded soils were set up in 5 L-pots with three percentages of pebbles: 0, 20, and 40% in volume. We used, as substrate either fine earth or sand (quartz), and as rock fragments either calcareous or inert pebbles (quartz). Additional modalities were settled with sand mixed with 20 and 40% pebbles enriched with nutrients. Both fine earth and calcareous pebbles were collected from the Ap horizon of a calcareous lacustrine limestone silty soil located in the central region of France. After cleaning, all pebbles were mixed to reach a bulk density in pots of 1.1 g/cm3 for the fine earth and 1.5 g/cm3 for the sand. Ten replicates were settled per modality, and one cutting of Populus robusta was planted in each. The experiment was conducted under controlled conditions. All pots were saturated at the beginning of the experiment, then irrigated by capillarity and controlled to maintain a moderate water stress. Growth and evapotranspiration were followed regularly, while water stress status was measured by stomatal conductivity every day during two drying periods of 10 days. After three months, plants were collected, separated in below- and above-ground parts for biomass and cation analysis (Ca, Mg, K). Results showed that pebbles can participate to plant nutrition, but no reduction of water stress was observed

  19. Experimentation with a reverse osmosis plant powered by renewable energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segura, L.; Gomez, A. [Las Palmas de Gran Canaria Univ., Las Palmas (Spain). Dept. of Process Engineering; Nuez, I. [Las Palmas de Gran Canaria Univ., Las Palmas (Spain). Dept. of Electronic and Automatic Engineering

    2006-07-01

    This paper described a set of tests conducted in a reverse osmosis plant powered by renewable energy sources. Variations on feed flow, reject flow, recovery and power consumption were investigated. The plant has a production of over 115 m{sup 3} per day. During the experiments, the plant was required to operate at variable loading conditions. An energy recovery system was then developed to operate effectively with the observed variable load conditions. The system was incorporated within the reject flow system and was comprised of a Pelton turbine matched to the axis of an asynchronous energy generator. The system was designed to avoid making changes to the actual hydraulic circuit of the plant. Recovery system failures did not necessitate plant stoppages during the testing period. Simulations conducted to assess the energy system showed that optimal performance of the plant was between 16 and 18 kW with a working pressure of between 57 to 67 bars. Results also suggested that installing the system in the evacuation brine line would maximize the use of kinetic energy. It was concluded that energy recovery systems are ideal for use in seawater installations where functioning pressure levels are high. 14 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs.

  20. The radiochemistry of nuclear power plants with light water reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neeb, K.H.

    1997-12-31

    In this book, radioactivity and the chemical reactions of radionuclides within the different areas of a nucler power plant are discussed. The text concentrates on commercially operated light water reactors which currently represent the greatest fraction by far of the world`s nuclear power capacity. This book is not only intended for experts working in the various fields of radiochemistry in nuclear power plants. It also provides an overview of the topics dealt with for the operators of nuclear power plants, for people working in design and development and safety-related areas, as well as for those working in licensing and supervision. (orig.)

  1. Plant hydraulic traits govern forest water use and growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheny, Ashley; Bohrer, Gil; Fiorella, Rich; Mirfenderesgi, Golnazalsadat

    2016-04-01

    Biophysical controls at the leaf, stem, and root levels govern plant water acquisition and use. Suites of sometimes co-varying traits afford plants the ability to manage water stress at each of these three levels. We studied the contrasting hydraulic strategies of red oaks (Q. rubra) and red maples (A. rubrum) in northern Michigan, USA. These two species differ in stomatal regulation strategy and xylem architecture, and are thought to root at different depths. Water use was monitored through sap flux, stem water storage, and leaf water potential measurements. Depth of water acquisition was determined on the basis of stable oxygen and hydrogen isotopes from xylem water samples taken from both species. Fifteen years of bole growth records were used to compare the influence of the trees' opposing hydraulic strategies on carbon acquisition and growth. During non-limiting soil moisture conditions, transpiration from red maples typically exceeded that of red oak. However, during a 20% soil dry down, transpiration from red maples decreased by more than 80%, while transpiration from red oaks only fell by 31%. Stem water storage in red maple also declined sharply, while storage in red oaks remained nearly constant. The more consistent isotopic compositions of xylem water samples indicated that oaks can draw upon a steady, deep supply of water which red maples cannot access. Additionally, red maple bole growth correlated strongly with mean annual soil moisture, while red oak bole growth did not. These results indicate that the deeper rooting strategy of red oaks allowed the species to continue transpiration and carbon uptake during periods of intense soil water limitation, when the shallow-rooted red maples ceased transpiration. The ability to root deeply could provide an additional buffer against drought-induced mortality, which may permit some anisohydric species, like red oak, to survive hydrologic conditions that would be expected to favor survival of more isohydric

  2. Acute Genotoxic Effects of Effluent Water of Thermo-Power Plant “Kosova” In Tradescantia Pallida

    OpenAIRE

    I. R. Elezaj, L.B.Millaku, R.H. Imeri-Millaku, Q.I. Selimi, and K. Rr. Letaj

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was the evaluation of acute genotoxic effect of effluent water of thermo-power plant by means of Tradescantia root tips micronucleus test (MN), mitotic index and cell aberrations.   Tradescantia, was experimentally treated (for 24 h), with effluent water of thermo-power plant in different dilution ratios (negative control – distilled water; primary untreated effluent water and 1:1; 1:2; 1:3; 1:4; 1:5; 1:6 and 1:7 respectively). Number of aberrant cells, and frequency of ...

  3. Measurements and simulations of water transport in maize plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinlein, Florian; Klein, Christian; Thieme, Christoph; Priesack, Eckart

    2017-04-01

    In Central Europe climate change will become manifest in the increase of extreme weather events like flash floods, heat waves and summer droughts, and in a shift of precipitation towards winter months. Therefore, regional water availability will alter which has an effect on future crop growth, water use efficiency and yields. To better estimate these effects accurate model descriptions of transpiration and other parts of the water balance are important. In this study, we determined transpiration of four maize plants on a field of the research station Scheyern (about 40km North of Munich) by means of sap flow measurement devices (ICQ International Pty Ltd, Australia) using the Heat-Ratio-Method: two temperature probes, 0.5 cm above and below a heater, detect a heat pulse and its speed which facilitates the calculation of sap flow. Additionally, high resolution changes of stem diameters were measured with dendrometers (DD-S, Ecomatik). The field was also situated next to an eddy covariance station which provided latent heat fluxes from the soil-plant system. We also performed terrestrial laser scans of the respective plants to extract the plant architectures. These structures serve as input for our mechanistic transpiration model simulating the water transport within the plant. This model, which has already been successfully applied to single Fagus sylvatica L. trees, was adapted to agricultural plants such as maize. The basic principle of this model is to solve a 1-D Richards equation along the graph of the single plants. A comparison between the simulations and the measurements is presented and discussed.

  4. Financial analysis of experimental releases conducted at Glen Canyon Dam during water year 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poch, L. A.; Veselka, T. D.; Palmer, C. S.; Loftin, S.; Osiek, B. (Decision and Information Sciences); (Western Area Power Administration)

    2012-07-16

    This report examines the financial implications of experimental flows conducted at the Glen Canyon Dam (GCD) in water year 2011. It is the third report in a series examining financial implications of experimental flows conducted since the Record of Decision (ROD) was adopted in February 1997 (Reclamation 1996). A report released in January 2011 examined water years 1997 to 2005 (Veselka et al. 2011), and a report released in August 2011 examined water years 2006 to 2010 (Poch et al. 2011). An experimental release may have either a positive or negative impact on the financial value of energy production. This study estimates the financial costs of experimental releases, identifies the main factors that contribute to these costs, and compares the interdependencies among these factors. An integrated set of tools was used to compute the financial impacts of the experimental releases by simulating the operation of the GCD under two scenarios, namely, (1) a baseline scenario that assumes both that operations comply with the ROD operating criteria and the experimental releases that actually took place during the study period, and (2) a 'without experiments' scenario that is identical to the baseline scenario of operations that comply with the GCD ROD, except it assumes that experimental releases did not occur. The Generation and Transmission Maximization (GTMax) model was the main simulation tool used to dispatch GCD and other hydropower plants that comprise the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects (SLCA/IP). Extensive data sets and historical information on SLCA/IP powerplant characteristics, hydrologic conditions, and Western Area Power Administration's (Western's) power purchase prices were used for the simulation. In addition to estimating the financial impact of experimental releases, the GTMax model was also used to gain insights into the interplay among ROD operating criteria, exceptions that were made to criteria to accommodate the

  5. Invasive alien plants and water resources in South Africa: current understanding, predictive ability and research challenges

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gorgens, AHM

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Predictions that invasive alien Plants would use significant amounts of water were a major factor in the establishment of South Africa's Working for Water programme, which aims to protect water resources by clearing these plants. The predictions...

  6. Recovery of Alum Coagulant from Water Treatment Plant Sludge: A Greener Approach for Water Purification

    OpenAIRE

    Smita Joshi; Kriti Shrivastava

    2011-01-01

    The present work is based on Alum Recovery from the sludge obtained from Shyamala Water Treatment Plant by Acidic and Alkaline methods. In the acidic and alkaline method, the maximum recovery of alum coagulant is found to be 84.18% and 76.98% respectively. The recovered alum is as efficient as commercial alum and can be used again as coagulant for Water Treatment. This recovery can solve the vast problem of WTP (Water Treatment Plant) sludge management together with the problem of water pollu...

  7. Scenarios for low carbon and low water electric power plant operations: implications for upstream water use

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The dataset includes all data used in the creation of figures and graphs in the paper: "Scenarios for low carbon and low water electric power plant operations:...

  8. Experimental measurements of the cavitating flow after horizontal water entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tat Nguyen, Thang; Hai, Duong Ngoc; Quang Thai, Nguyen; Phuong, Truong Thi

    2017-10-01

    Water-entry cavitating flow is of considerable importance in underwater high-speed applications. That is because of the drag-reduction effect that concerns the presence of a cavity around moving objects. Though the study of the flow has long been carried out, little data are documented in literature so far. Besides, currently, in the case of unsteady flow, experimental measurements of some flow parameters such as the cavity pressure still encounter difficulties. Hence continuing research efforts are of important significance. The objective of this study is to investigate experimentally the unsteady cavitating flow after the horizontal water entry of projectiles. An experimental apparatus has been developed. Qualitative and quantitative optical visualizations of the flow have been carried out by using high-speed videography. Digital image processing has been applied to analyzing the recorded flow images. Based on the known correlations between the ellipsoidal super-cavity’s size and the corresponding cavitation number, the cavity pressure has been measured by utilizing the data of image processing. A comparison between the partial- and super-cavitating flow regimes is reported. The received results can be useful for the design of high-speed underwater projectiles.

  9. Waste Water Treatment Plants and the Smart Grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halvgaard, Rasmus; Tychsen, Peter; Munk-Nielsen, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    power production. The energy-heavy processes for waste water transport and treatment could potentially provide a flexible operation with storage capabilities and be a valuable asset to a Smart Grid. In order to enable Waste Water Treatment Plants (WWTPs) as flexible prosumers in the future Smart Grid......, we must update their process control system to model based predictive control that monitors the changed flexible operation and plans ahead. The primary aim of a WWTP is to treat the incoming waste water as much as possible to ensure a sufficient effluent water quality and protect the environment...... of the recipient. The secondary aim is to treat the waste water using as little energy as possible. In the future waste water will be considered an energy resource, that contains valuable nutrients convertible to green biogas and in turn electricity and heat. In a Smart Grid consuming or producing energy...

  10. Species divergence and trait convergence in experimental plant community assembly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fukami, T.; Bezemer, T.M.; Mortimer, S.R.; Van der Putten, W.H.

    2005-01-01

    Despite decades of research, it remains controversial whether ecological communities converge towards a common structure determined by environmental conditions irrespective of assembly history. Here, we show experimentally that the answer depends on the level of community organization considered. In

  11. Gravity research on plants: use of single cell experimental models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youssef eChebli

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Future space missions and implementation of permanent bases on Moon and Mars will greatly depend on the availability of ambient air and sustainable food supply. Therefore, understanding the effects of altered gravity conditions on plant metabolism and growth is vital for space missions and extra-terrestrial human existence. In this mini-review we summarize how plant cells are thought to perceive changes in magnitude and orientation of the gravity vector. The particular advantages of several single celled model systems for gravity research are explored and an overview over recent advancements and potential use of these systems is provided.

  12. Chloride regulates leaf cell size and water relations in tobacco plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco-Navarro, Juan D; Brumós, Javier; Rosales, Miguel A; Cubero-Font, Paloma; Talón, Manuel; Colmenero-Flores, José M

    2016-02-01

    Chloride (Cl(-)) is a micronutrient that accumulates to macronutrient levels since it is normally available in nature and actively taken up by higher plants. Besides a role as an unspecific cell osmoticum, no clear biological roles have been explicitly associated with Cl(-) when accumulated to macronutrient concentrations. To address this question, the glycophyte tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. var. Habana) has been treated with a basal nutrient solution supplemented with one of three salt combinations containing the same cationic balance: Cl(-)-based (CL), nitrate-based (N), and sulphate+phosphate-based (SP) treatments. Under non-saline conditions (up to 5 mM Cl(-)) and no water limitation, Cl(-) specifically stimulated higher leaf cell size and led to a moderate increase of plant fresh and dry biomass mainly due to higher shoot expansion. When applied in the 1-5 mM range, Cl(-) played specific roles in regulating leaf osmotic potential and turgor, allowing plants to improve leaf water balance parameters. In addition, Cl(-) also altered water relations at the whole-plant level through reduction of plant transpiration. This was a consequence of a lower stomatal conductance, which resulted in lower water loss and greater photosynthetic and integrated water-use efficiency. In contrast to Cl(-), these effects were not observed for essential anionic macronutrients such as nitrate, sulphate, and phosphate. We propose that the abundant uptake and accumulation of Cl(-) responds to adaptive functions improving water homeostasis in higher plants. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  13. Water-Wisteria as an ideal plant to study heterophylly in higher aquatic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gaojie; Hu, Shiqi; Yang, Jingjing; Schultz, Elizabeth A; Clarke, Kurtis; Hou, Hongwei

    2017-08-01

    The semi-aquatic plant Water-Wisteria is suggested as a new model to study heterophylly due to its many advantages and typical leaf phenotypic plasticity in response to environmental factors and phytohormones. Water-Wisteria, Hygrophila difformis (Acanthaceae), is a fast growing semi-aquatic plant that exhibits a variety of leaf shapes, from simple leaves to highly branched compound leaves, depending on the environment. The phenomenon by which leaves change their morphology in response to environmental conditions is called heterophylly. In order to investigate the characteristics of heterophylly, we assessed the morphology and anatomy of Hygrophila difformis in different conditions. Subsequently, we verified that phytohormones and environmental factors can induce heterophylly and found that Hygrophila difformis is easily propagated vegetatively through either leaf cuttings or callus induction, and the callus can be easily transformed by Agrobacterium tumefaciens. These results suggested that Hygrophila difformis is a good model plant to study heterophylly in higher aquatic plants.

  14. Modelling total sewage water discharge to a regional treatment plant.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witter, J.V.; Stricker, H.

    1986-01-01

    In the Netherlands, sewage water is often treated on a regional basis. In case of combined systems that are spread within a large region of several hundreds of square kilometers, reduction of the hydraulic capacity of the regional treatment plant seems possible, because of space-time variations in

  15. Growing under water - how plants cope with low CO2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ole; Hinke, Anne Bækbo; Konnerup, Dennis

    2017-01-01

    Aquatic plants are never short of water but instead they are challenged with low light and slow movement of oxygen (O₂) and carbon dioxide (CO₂). In the present paper, we focus on CO₂ limitation of underwater photosynthesis and the various strategies to overcome the limitation resulting from evol...

  16. Teaching about Water Relations in Plant Cells: An Uneasy Struggle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinska, Lilianna; Rybska, Eliza; Sobieszczuk-Nowicka, Ewa; Adamiec, Malgorzata

    2016-01-01

    University students often struggle to understand the role of water in plant cells. In particular, osmosis and plasmolysis appear to be challenging topics. This study attempted to identify student difficulties (including misconceptions) concerning osmosis and plasmolysis and examined to what extent the difficulties could be revised during a plant…

  17. Classroom Techniques to Illustrate Water Transport in Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakrim, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    The transport of water in plants is among the most difficult and challenging concepts to explain to students. It is even more difficult for students enrolled in an introductory general biology course. An easy approach is needed to demonstrate this complex concept. I describe visual and pedagogical examples that can be performed quickly and easily…

  18. Uptake of antibiotics from irrigation water by plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azanu, David; Mortey, Christiana; Darko, Godfred

    2016-01-01

    The capacity of carrot (Daucus corota L.) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), two plants that are usually eaten raw, to uptake tetracycline and amoxicillin (two commonly used antibiotics) from irrigated water was investigated in order to assess the indirect human exposure to antibiotics through...

  19. Balancing Waste Water Treatment Plant Load Using Branch and Bound

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nooijen, R.R.P.; Kolechkina, A.G.

    2016-01-01

    The problem of smoothing dry weather inflow variations for
    a Waste Water Treatment Plant (WWTP) that receives sewage from
    multiple mixed sewer systems is presented, together with a first rough
    solution algorithm. A simplification followed by a naive translation into
    a zero-one linear

  20. Ultrasonic Sensing of Plant Water Needs for Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Gómez Álvarez-Arenas

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Fresh water is a key natural resource for food production, sanitation and industrial uses and has a high environmental value. The largest water use worldwide (~70% corresponds to irrigation in agriculture, where use of water is becoming essential to maintain productivity. Efficient irrigation control largely depends on having access to reliable information about the actual plant water needs. Therefore, fast, portable and non-invasive sensing techniques able to measure water requirements directly on the plant are essential to face the huge challenge posed by the extensive water use in agriculture, the increasing water shortage and the impact of climate change. Non-contact resonant ultrasonic spectroscopy (NC-RUS in the frequency range 0.1–1.2 MHz has revealed as an efficient and powerful non-destructive, non-invasive and in vivo sensing technique for leaves of different plant species. In particular, NC-RUS allows determining surface mass, thickness and elastic modulus of the leaves. Hence, valuable information can be obtained about water content and turgor pressure. This work analyzes and reviews the main requirements for sensors, electronics, signal processing and data analysis in order to develop a fast, portable, robust and non-invasive NC-RUS system to monitor variations in leaves water content or turgor pressure. A sensing prototype is proposed, described and, as application example, used to study two different species: Vitis vinifera and Coffea arabica, whose leaves present thickness resonances in two different frequency bands (400–900 kHz and 200–400 kHz, respectively, These species are representative of two different climates and are related to two high-added value agricultural products where efficient irrigation management can be critical. Moreover, the technique can also be applied to other species and similar results can be obtained.

  1. Photoelectrochemical water splitting standards, experimental methods, and protocols

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Zhebo; Miller, Eric

    2014-01-01

    This book outlines many of the techniques involved in materials development and characterization for photoelectrochemical (PEC) - for example, proper metrics for describing material performance, how to assemble testing cells and prepare materials for assessment of their properties, and how to perform the experimental measurements needed to achieve reliable results towards better scientific understanding. For each technique, proper procedure, benefits, limitations, and data interpretation are discussed. Consolidating this information in a short, accessible, and easy to read reference guide will allow researchers to more rapidly immerse themselves into PEC research and also better compare their results against those of other researchers to better advance materials development. This book serves as a "how-to" guide for researchers engaged in or interested in engaging in the field of photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting. PEC water splitting is a rapidly growing field of research in which the goal is to deve...

  2. Plant aquaporins: multifunctional water and solute channels with expanding roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyerman, S. D.; Niemietz, C. M.; Bramley, H.

    2002-02-01

    There is strong evidence that aquaporins are central components in plant water relations. Plant species possess more aquaporin genes than species from other kingdoms. According to sequence similarities, four major groups have been identified, which can be further divided into subgroups that may correspond to localization and transport selectivity. They may be involved in compatible solute distribution, gas-transfer (CO2, NH3) as well as in micronutrient uptake (boric acid). Recent advances in determining the structure of some aquaporins gives further details on the mechanism of selectivity. Gating behaviour of aquaporins is poorly understood but evidence is mounting that phosphorylation, pH, pCa and osmotic gradients can affect water channel activity. Aquaporins are enriched in zones of fast cell division and expansion, or in areas where water flow or solute flux density would be expected to be high. This includes biotrophic interfaces between plants and parasites, between plants and symbiotic bacteria or fungi, and between germinating pollen and stigma. On a cellular level aquaporin clusters have been identified in some membranes. There is also a possibility that aquaporins in the endoplasmic reticulum may function in symplasmic transport if water can flow from cell to cell via the desmotubules in plasmodesmata. Functional characterization of aquaporins in the native membrane has raised doubt about the conclusiveness of expression patterns alone and need to be conducted in parallel. The challenge will be to elucidate gating on a molecular level and cellular level and to tie those findings into plant water relations on a macroscopic scale where various flow pathways need to be considered.

  3. Plant water potential improves prediction of empirical stomatal models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William R L Anderegg

    Full Text Available Climate change is expected to lead to increases in drought frequency and severity, with deleterious effects on many ecosystems. Stomatal responses to changing environmental conditions form the backbone of all ecosystem models, but are based on empirical relationships and are not well-tested during drought conditions. Here, we use a dataset of 34 woody plant species spanning global forest biomes to examine the effect of leaf water potential on stomatal conductance and test the predictive accuracy of three major stomatal models and a recently proposed model. We find that current leaf-level empirical models have consistent biases of over-prediction of stomatal conductance during dry conditions, particularly at low soil water potentials. Furthermore, the recently proposed stomatal conductance model yields increases in predictive capability compared to current models, and with particular improvement during drought conditions. Our results reveal that including stomatal sensitivity to declining water potential and consequent impairment of plant water transport will improve predictions during drought conditions and show that many biomes contain a diversity of plant stomatal strategies that range from risky to conservative stomatal regulation during water stress. Such improvements in stomatal simulation are greatly needed to help unravel and predict the response of ecosystems to future climate extremes.

  4. Experimental investigation of stabilization of flowing water temperature with a water-PCM heat exchanger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charvat Pavel

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Experiments have been carried out in order to investigate the stabilization of water temperature with a water-PCM heat exchanger. The water-PCM heat exchanger was of a rather simple design. It was a round tube, through which the water flowed, surrounded with an annular layer of PCM. The heat exchanger was divided into one meter long segments (modules and the water temperature was monitored at the outlet of each of the segments. A paraffin-based PCM with the melting temperature of 42 °C was used in the experiments. The experimental set-up consisted of two water reservoirs kept at different temperatures, the water-PCM heat exchanger, PC controlled valves and a data acquisition system. As the first step a response to a step change in the water temperature at the inlet of the heat exchanger was investigated. Subsequently, a series of experiments with a square wave change of temperature at the inlet of the exchanger were carried out. The square wave temperature profile was achieved by periodic switching between the two water reservoirs. Several amplitudes and periods of temperature square wave were used. The results of experiments show that a water-PCM heat exchanger can effectively be used to stabilize the flowing water temperature when the inlet temperature changes are around the melting range of the PCM.

  5. Hydraulic modelling of drinking water treatment plant operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. C. Rietveld

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The flow through a unit of a drinking water treatment plant is one of the most important parameters in terms of a unit's effectiveness. In the present paper, a new EPAnet library is presented with the typical hydraulic elements for drinking water treatment processes well abstraction, rapid sand filtration and cascade and tower aeration. Using this treatment step library, a hydraulic model was set up, calibrated and validated for the drinking water treatment plant Harderbroek. With the actual valve position and pump speeds, the flows were calculated through the several treatment steps. A case shows the use of the model to calculate the new setpoints for the current frequency converters of the effluent pumps during a filter backwash.

  6. Culture Methodology for Experimental Investigations Involving Rooted Submersed Aquatic Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-11-01

    Regrowth of hydrilla from axillary buds . J. Aquat. Plant Manage. 18:27-29. Langeland, K. A., Sutton, D. L. and Canfield, D. E., Jr. 1983. Growth response...Barko, Hardin, and Matthews 1982). Room temperatures (20 -25 C) are adequate for most species; however, some of the more subtropically occurring, exotic...species (e.g. H. verticillata) may benefit from higher temperatures (Van, Hailer, and Garrard 1978; Bowes, Holaday, and Hailer 1979; Barko and Smart

  7. Solar power plant performance evaluation: simulation and experimental validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natsheh, E. M.; Albarbar, A.

    2012-05-01

    In this work the performance of solar power plant is evaluated based on a developed model comprise photovoltaic array, battery storage, controller and converters. The model is implemented using MATLAB/SIMULINK software package. Perturb and observe (P&O) algorithm is used for maximizing the generated power based on maximum power point tracker (MPPT) implementation. The outcome of the developed model are validated and supported by a case study carried out using operational 28.8kW grid-connected solar power plant located in central Manchester. Measurements were taken over 21 month's period; using hourly average irradiance and cell temperature. It was found that system degradation could be clearly monitored by determining the residual (the difference) between the output power predicted by the model and the actual measured power parameters. It was found that the residual exceeded the healthy threshold, 1.7kW, due to heavy snow in Manchester last winter. More important, the developed performance evaluation technique could be adopted to detect any other reasons that may degrade the performance of the P V panels such as shading and dirt. Repeatability and reliability of the developed system performance were validated during this period. Good agreement was achieved between the theoretical simulation and the real time measurement taken the online grid connected solar power plant.

  8. Water Extraction from Coal-Fired Power Plant Flue Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce C. Folkedahl; Greg F. Weber; Michael E. Collings

    2006-06-30

    The overall objective of this program was to develop a liquid disiccant-based flue gas dehydration process technology to reduce water consumption in coal-fired power plants. The specific objective of the program was to generate sufficient subscale test data and conceptual commercial power plant evaluations to assess process feasibility and merits for commercialization. Currently, coal-fired power plants require access to water sources outside the power plant for several aspects of their operation in addition to steam cycle condensation and process cooling needs. At the present time, there is no practiced method of extracting the usually abundant water found in the power plant stack gas. This project demonstrated the feasibility and merits of a liquid desiccant-based process that can efficiently and economically remove water vapor from the flue gas of fossil fuel-fired power plants to be recycled for in-plant use or exported for clean water conservation. After an extensive literature review, a survey of the available physical and chemical property information on desiccants in conjunction with a weighting scheme developed for this application, three desiccants were selected and tested in a bench-scale system at the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC). System performance at the bench scale aided in determining which desiccant was best suited for further evaluation. The results of the bench-scale tests along with further review of the available property data for each of the desiccants resulted in the selection of calcium chloride as the desiccant for testing at the pilot-scale level. Two weeks of testing utilizing natural gas in Test Series I and coal in Test Series II for production of flue gas was conducted with the liquid desiccant dehumidification system (LDDS) designed and built for this study. In general, it was found that the LDDS operated well and could be placed in an automode in which the process would operate with no operator intervention or

  9. Combined air conditioning and tap water heating plant using CO{sub 2} as refrigerant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adriansyah, W. [Institut Teknologi Bandung, West Java (Indonesia). Thermodynamic Research Laboratory

    2004-07-01

    A combined air conditioning and tap water heating plant using carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) as refrigerant has been investigated theoretically and experimentally. The system is suitable for countries with year around cooling demand, such as Indonesia or Singapore, and a need for hot tap water. A unique CO{sub 2} transcritical cycle characteristic for heating process can afford an improvement to a CO{sub 2} air conditioning system when rejected heat from the system is recovered. Some parameters affecting performance of the combined system are discussed. (author)

  10. Impacts of fresh and aged biochars on plant available water and water use efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ability of soils to hold sufficient plant available water (PAW) between rainfall events is critical to crop productivity. Most studies indicate that biochar amendments decrease soil bulk density and increase soil water retention. However, limited knowledge exists regarding biochars ability to in...

  11. Lead uptake of water plants in water stream at Kiteezi landfill site ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was twofold: (i) to quantify the lead (Pb) uptake by two water plants reeds (Phragmites australis) and papyrus (Cyperus papyrus) in water stream at Kiteezi landfill site, Kampala (Uganda) and (ii) to compare the two species in Pb uptake downstream. As such, leachate samples were collected at the ...

  12. Water stress amelioration and plant growth promotion in wheat plants by osmotic stress tolerant bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, U; Chakraborty, B N; Chakraborty, A P; Dey, P L

    2013-05-01

    Soil microorganisms with potential for alleviation of abiotic stresses in combination with plant growth promotion would be extremely useful tools in sustainable agriculture. To this end, the present study was initiated where forty-five salt tolerant bacterial isolates with ability to grow in high salt medium were obtained from the rhizosphere of Triticum aestivum and Imperata cylindrica. These bacteria were tested for plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria traits in vitro such as phosphate solubilization, siderophore, ACC deaminase and IAA production. Of the forty-five isolates, W10 from wheat rhizosphere and IP8 from blady grass rhizosphere, which tested positive in all the tests were identified by morpholological, biochemical and 16SrDNA sequencing as Bacillus safensis and Ochrobactrum pseudogregnonense respectively and selected for in vivo studies. Both the bacteria could promote growth in six varieties of wheat tested in terms of increase in root and shoot biomass, height of plants, yield, as well as increase in chlorophyll content. Besides, the wheat plants could withstand water stress more efficiently in presence of the bacteria as indicated by delay in appearance of wilting symptoms increases in relative water content of treated water stressed plants in comparison to untreated stressed ones, and elevated antioxidant responses. Enhanced antioxidant responses were evident as elevated activities of enzymes such as catalase, peroxidase, ascorbate peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione reductase as well as increased accumulation of antioxidants such as carotenoids and ascorbate. Results clearly indicate that the ability of wheat plants to withstand water stress is enhanced by application of these bacteria which also function as plant growth promoting rhizobacteria.

  13. Software and Hardware Complex of Experimental Plant for Pulp and Paper Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton A. Kaverin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the process of developing the software and hardware complex in the programming environment LabVIEW for study and identification of plant operation modes that simulates the real manufacturing process of preparing paper pulp. The specific feature of the developed software complex is its connection with the technological process of the experimental plant by a programming logic controller.

  14. Pilot plant comparison study of two commercial nanofiltration membranes in a drinking water treatment plant

    OpenAIRE

    Ribera, Gemma; Llenas Argelaguet, Laia; Rovira, Miquel; Pablo Ribas, Joan de; Martínez Lladó, Xavier

    2012-01-01

    A wide range of commercial membranes were tested and compared at laboratory scale in order to select the most appropriate for improving the final water quality of a real drinking water treatment plant (DWTP). Most of the membranes tested showed a reduction of trihalomethanes formation potential (THMFP) higher than 90%. In this work, several NF membranes were tested at laboratory scale in order to evaluate the most suitable NF membrane to reduce THMFP. NF270 (Dow Chemical) and ESNA1LF2 (Hydran...

  15. Growth of castor bean plant under different types of wastewaters and soil water levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Lúcia Antunes de Lima

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This work evaluated the effect of different levels of water into the soil and types of treated wastewaters from industries of Campina Grande city, Paraíba state, on the growth of castor bean plant, variety BRS Nordestina. The experiment was conducted in greenhouse of the National Center of Research of Cotton. The experimental design was in entirely randomized blocks with 15 treatments in scheme of additional factorial analysis [(4 x 3 + 3] with three replications, having the following factors: three types of treated wastewaters and water of provisioning (A1 = IPELSA - Industry of Cellulose and Paper of Paraíba S/A; A2 = COTEMINAS - Industry of improvement of cotton fiber S/A; A3 = ILCASA - Industry of dairy products of Grande S/A (LEBOM; A4 = Water of the network of public provisioning of Campina Grande city, three levels of available soil water (AW (N1 = 100%, N2 = 80% and N3 = 70% and three controls, one for each AW with water of provisioning and with inorganic fertilizer in the foundation (A4C. In order to evaluate the growth of the castor bean plant during a period of 135 days, biweekly measures of the plant height, diameter of the stem and total foliar area variables were accomplished. For all growth variables there were significant interactions among the studied factors, denoting the interdependence among them, what was reflected on the growth of the plants. The castor bean plant, variety BRS Nordestina, responded well to irrigation with treated wastewater, especially from COTEMINAS industry mainly when associated to the level of 100% of the available soil water.

  16. Study on the TOC concentration in raw water and HAAs in Tehran's water treatment plant outlet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoochani, Mahboobeh; Rastkari, Noushin; Nabizadeh Nodehi, Ramin; Mahvi, Amir Hossein; Nasseri, Simin; Nazmara, Shahrokh

    2013-11-12

    A sampling has been undertaken to investigate the variation of haloacetic acids formation and nature organic matter through 81 samples were collected from three water treatment plant and three major rivers of Tehran Iran. Changes in the total organic matter (TOC), ultraviolet absorbance (UV254), specific ultraviolet absorbance (SUVA) were measured in raw water samples. Haloacetic acids concentrations were monitored using a new static headspace GC-ECD method without a manual pre-concentration in three water treatment plants. The average concentration of TOC and HAAs in three rivers and three water treatment plants in spring, summer and fall, were 4, 2.41 and 4.03 mg/L and 48.75, 43.79 and 51.07 μg/L respectively. Seasonal variation indicated that HAAs levels were much higher in spring and fall.

  17. STUDY OF HIGH RATE SEDIMENTATION TANK IN WATER TREATMENT PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R SHA MANSOURI

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sedimentation is considered as an important process in removing turbidity produced in water and wastewater plants. Gravity sedimentation is usually the first method considered in water treatment system. However, required overflow rates (OFRs to remove turbidity in the conventional clarifiers are too low. Therefore, the shallow depth sedimentation concept was studied remove turbidity in order to increase OFRs of gravity setting equipment. Methods: Using a pilot with parallel plates with effect area 1.5 m2 and 1.5 m depth. The independent parameters such as OFRs, sludge concentration and turbidity were evaluated for turbidity removal. The pilot is located in Isfahan Water Treatment Plant. Results: The efficacy of pilot for turbidity 10-50 NTU is equal to 50 percent (P<0.01. The maximum removal efficiency at sludge concentration 270 ml/lit was obtained (P<0.01. A nonlinear relationship exists between removal efficiency (TR%, sludge concentration (Sc over flowrates (OFR and influent turbidity (Tu in pilot. Discussion: By using high rate sedimentation tank in water treatment plant, detection time reduced from 3 hours to 20-30 minute, turbidity removal increased up to 30 percent in compare with conventional sedimentation. Also, it has economic benefits and high efficiency.

  18. Modifying rainfall patterns in a Mediterranean shrubland: system design, plant responses, and experimental burning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, Antonio; Ramírez, David A; Resco, Víctor; Velasco, Ángel; Moreno, José M

    2012-11-01

    Global warming is projected to increase the frequency and intensity of droughts in the Mediterranean region, as well as the occurrence of large fires. Understanding the interactions between drought, fire and plant responses is therefore important. In this study, we present an experiment in which rainfall patterns were modified to simulate various levels of drought in a Mediterranean shrubland of central Spain dominated by Cistus ladanifer, Erica arborea and Phillyrea angustifolia. A system composed of automatic rainout shelters with an irrigation facility was used. It was designed to be applied in vegetation 2 m tall, treat relatively large areas (36 m2), and be quickly dismantled to perform experimental burning and reassembled back again. Twenty plots were subjected to four rainfall treatments from early spring: natural rainfall, long-term average rainfall (2 months drought), moderate drought (25% reduction from long-term rainfall, 5 months drought) and severe drought (45% reduction, 7 months drought). The plots were burned in late summer, without interfering with rainfall manipulations. Results indicated that rainfall manipulations caused differences in soil moisture among treatments, leading to reduced water availability and growth of C. ladanifer and E. arborea in the drought treatments. However, P. angustifolia was not affected by the manipulations. Rainout shelters had a negligible impact on plot microenvironment. Experimental burns were of high fire intensity, without differences among treatments. Our system provides a tool to study the combined effects of drought and fire on vegetation, which is important to assess the threats posed by climate change in Mediterranean environments.

  19. Modifying rainfall patterns in a Mediterranean shrubland: system design, plant responses, and experimental burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, Antonio; Ramírez, David A.; Resco, Víctor; Velasco, Ángel; Moreno, José M.

    2012-11-01

    Global warming is projected to increase the frequency and intensity of droughts in the Mediterranean region, as well as the occurrence of large fires. Understanding the interactions between drought, fire and plant responses is therefore important. In this study, we present an experiment in which rainfall patterns were modified to simulate various levels of drought in a Mediterranean shrubland of central Spain dominated by Cistus ladanifer, Erica arborea and Phillyrea angustifolia. A system composed of automatic rainout shelters with an irrigation facility was used. It was designed to be applied in vegetation 2 m tall, treat relatively large areas (36 m2), and be quickly dismantled to perform experimental burning and reassembled back again. Twenty plots were subjected to four rainfall treatments from early spring: natural rainfall, long-term average rainfall (2 months drought), moderate drought (25% reduction from long-term rainfall, 5 months drought) and severe drought (45% reduction, 7 months drought). The plots were burned in late summer, without interfering with rainfall manipulations. Results indicated that rainfall manipulations caused differences in soil moisture among treatments, leading to reduced water availability and growth of C. ladanifer and E. arborea in the drought treatments. However, P. angustifolia was not affected by the manipulations. Rainout shelters had a negligible impact on plot microenvironment. Experimental burns were of high fire intensity, without differences among treatments. Our system provides a tool to study the combined effects of drought and fire on vegetation, which is important to assess the threats posed by climate change in Mediterranean environments.

  20. Financial analysis of experimental releases conducted at Glen Canyon Dam during water years 1997 through 2005.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veselka, T. D.; Poch, L. A.; Palmer, C. S.; Loftin, S.; Osiek, B.; Decision and Information Sciences; Western Area Power Administration

    2010-04-21

    Because of concerns about the impact that Glen Canyon Dam (GCD) operations were having on downstream ecosystems and endangered species, the Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation) conducted an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) on dam operations (DOE 1996). New operating rules and management goals for GCD that had been specified in the Record of Decision (ROD) (Reclamation 1996) were adopted in February 1997. In addition to issuing new operating criteria, the ROD mandated experimental releases for the purpose of conducting scientific studies. This paper examines the financial implications of the experimental flows that were conducted at the GCD from 1997 to 2005. An experimental release may have either a positive or negative impact on the financial value of energy production. This study estimates the financial costs of experimental releases, identifies the main factors that contribute to these costs, and compares the interdependencies among these factors. An integrated set of tools was used to compute the financial impacts of the experimental releases by simulating the operation of the GCD under two scenarios, namely, (1) a baseline scenario that assumes operations comply with the ROD operating criteria and experimental releases that actually took place during the study period, and (2) a ''without experiments'' scenario that is identical to the baseline scenario of operations that comply with the GCD ROD, except it assumes that experimental releases did not occur. The Generation and Transmission Maximization (GTMax) model was the main simulation tool used to dispatch GCD and other hydropower plants that comprise the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects (SLCA/IP). Extensive data sets and historical information on SLCA/IP power plant characteristics, hydrologic conditions, and Western Area Power Administration's (Western's) power purchase prices were used for the simulation. In addition to estimating the financial impact of experimental

  1. Plant genetic and molecular responses to water deficit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Salvi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Plant productivity is severely affected by unfavourable environmental conditions (biotic and abiotic stresses. Among others, water deficit is the plant stress condition which mostly limits the quality and the quantity of plant products. Tolerance to water deficit is a polygenic trait strictly dependent on the coordinated expression of a large set of genes coding for proteins directly involved in stress-induced protection/repair mechanisms (dehydrins, chaperonins, enzymes for the synthesis of osmoprotectants and detoxifying compounds, and others as well as genes involved in transducing the stress signal and regulating gene expression (transcription factors, kinases, phosphatases. Recently, research activities in the field evolved from the study of single genes directly involved in cellular stress tolerance (functional genes to the identification and characterization of key regulatory genes involved in stress perception and transduction and able to rapidly and efficiently activate the complex gene network involved in the response to stress. The complexity of the events occurring in response to stress have been recently approached by genomics tools; in fact the analysis of transcriptome, proteome and metabolome of a plant tissue/cell in response to stress already allowed to have a global view of the cellular and molecular events occurring in response to water deficit, by the identification of genes activated and co-regulated by the stress conditions and the characterization of new signalling pathways. Moreover the recent application of forward and reverse genetic approaches, trough mutant collection development, screening and characterization, is giving a tremendous impulse to the identification of gene functions with key role in stress tolerance. The integration of data obtained by high-throughput genomic approaches, by means of powerful informatic tools, is allowing nowadays to rapidly identify of major genes/QTLs involved in stress tolerance

  2. Experimental critical parameters of plutonium metal cylinders flooded with water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    Forty-nine critical configurations are reported for experiments involving arrays of 3 kg plutonium metal cylinders moderated and reflected by water. Thirty-four of these describe systems assembled in the laboratory, while 15 others are derived critical parameters inferred from 46 subcritical cases. The arrays included 2x2xN, N = 2, 3, 4, and 5, in one program and 3x3x3 configurations in a later study. All were three-dimensional, nearly square arrays with equal horizontal lattice spacings but a different vertical lattice spacing. Horizontal spacings ranged from units in contact to 180 mm center-to-center; and vertical spacings ranged from about 80 mm to almost 400 mm center-to-center. Several nearly-equilateral 3x3x3 arrays exhibit an extremely sensitive dependence upon horizontal separation for identical vertical spacings. A line array of unreflected and essentially unmoderated canned plutonium metal units appeared to be well subcritical based on measurements made to assure safety during the manual assembly operations. All experiments were performed at two widely separated times in the mid-1970s and early 1980s under two programs at the Rocky Flats Plant`s Critical Mass Laboratory.

  3. Plant reproduction systems in microgravity: experimental data and hypotheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordyum, E. L.

    Elucidation of the possibilities for higher plants to realize complete ontogenesis, from seed to seed, and to propagate by seeds in microgravity, is a fundamental task of space biology connected with the working of the CELSS program. At present, there are results of only 6 spaceflight experiments with Arabidopsis thaliana, an ephemeral plant which will flower and fruit in orbit. Morphogenesis of generative organs occurs normally in microgravity, but unlike the ground control, buds and flowers mainly contain sterile elements of the androecium and gynoecium which degenerate at different stages of development in microgravity. Cytological peculiarities of male and female sterility in microgravity are similar to those occurring naturally during sexual differentiation. Many of the seed formed in microgravity are: 1) nutritional deficiency, 2) insufficient light, 3) intensification of the influence of the above-mentioned factors by microgravity, 4) disturbances of a hormonal nature, and 5) the absence of pollination and fertilization. Possible ways for testing these hypotheses and obtaining viable seeds in microgravity are discussed.

  4. Experimental stability analysis of different water-based nanofluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barison Simona

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the recent years, great interest has been devoted to the unique properties of nanofluids. The dispersion process and the nanoparticle suspension stability have been found to be critical points in the development of these new fluids. For this reason, an experimental study on the stability of water-based dispersions containing different nanoparticles, i.e. single wall carbon nanohorns (SWCNHs, titanium dioxide (TiO2 and copper oxide (CuO, has been developed in this study. The aim of this study is to provide stable nanofluids for selecting suitable fluids with enhanced thermal characteristics. Different dispersion techniques were considered in this study, including sonication, ball milling and high-pressure homogenization. Both the dispersion process and the use of some dispersants were investigated as a function of the nanoparticle concentration. The high-pressure homogenization was found to be the best method, and the addition of n-dodecyl sulphate and polyethylene glycol as dispersants, respectively in SWCNHs-water and TiO2-water nanofluids, improved the nanofluid stability.

  5. Experimental versus modelled water use in mature Norway spruce (Picea abies exposed to elevated CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian eLeuzinger

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Rising levels of atmospheric CO2 have often been reported to reduce plant water use. Such behaviour is also predicted by standard equations relating photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, and atmospheric CO2 concentration, which form the core of global dynamic vegetation models (DGVMs. Here, we provide first results from a free air CO2 enrichment (FACE experiment with naturally growing, mature (35 m Picea abies (L. (Norway spruce and compare them to simulations by the DGVM LPJ-GUESS. We monitored sap flow, stem water deficit, stomatal conductance, leaf water potential and soil moisture in five 35-40 m tall CO2-treated (550 ppm trees over two seasons. Using LPJ-GUESS, we simulated this experiment using climate data from a nearby weather station. While the model predicted a stable reduction of transpiration of between 9 and 18 % (at concentrations of 550-700ppm atmospheric CO2, the combined evidence from various methods characterising water use in our experimental trees suggest no changes in response to future CO2 concentrations. The discrepancy between the modelled and the experimental results may be a scaling issue: while dynamic vegetation models correctly predict leaf-level responses, they may not sufficiently account for the processes involved at the canopy and ecosystem scale, which could mitigate the first-order stomatal response.

  6. Planting stress in newly planted jack pine and white spruce. 1. Factors influencing water uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossnickle, S C

    1988-03-01

    Bareroot jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) seedlings (2 + 0) and bareroot white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss) transplants (1 1/2 + 1 1/2) were taken from cold storage and planted on a clearcut forest site in northeastern Ontario on several dates between May 6 and June 5 during which period soil temperature at 15 cm depth increased from 0 to 18 degrees C. Additional cold-stored trees were transferred to a greenhouse where they were grown in pots for 0, 7 or 28 days and then placed with their roots in aerated water maintained at one of a range of constant temperatures between 0 and 22 degrees C. In both species, daytime xylem pressure potentials (Psi(x)) and needle conductances (g(wv)) decreased with decreasing soil or water temperature. At all root temperatures, g(wv) was lower, and Psi(x) higher, in jack pine than in white spruce. After 28 days in the greenhouse, g(wv) of jack pine seedlings, and Psi(x) of white spruce, was higher than in plants just removed from cold storage. In both species, water-flow resistance through the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum (RSPAC) increased as root temperature decreased. At all root temperatures, RSPAC was higher in plants just removed from cold storage than in plants grown in the greenhouse for 28 days, during which time many new unsuberized roots were formed. At root temperatures above 10 degrees C, RSPAC of both species was higher in trees newly planted in mineral soil than in trees with roots in aerated water; presumably because the roots of planted trees had limited hydraulic contact with the soil. On the day following removal from cold storage, relative plant water flow resistance increased, in both species, more rapidly with declining root temperature than could be accounted for by the change with temperature in the viscosity of water, thus indicating an effect of temperature on root permeability. The same effect was evident in jack pine seedlings, but not white spruce transplants, that had been grown for 28 days in

  7. Plant species diversity affects infiltration capacity in an experimental grassland through changes in soil properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, C.; Tischer, J.; Roscher, C.; Eisenhauer, N.; Ravenek, J.; Gleixner, G.; Attinger, S.; Jensen, B.; Kroon, de H.; Mommer, L.; Scheu, S.; Hildebrandt, A.

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims Soil hydraulic properties drive water distribution and availability in soil. There exists limited knowledge of how plant species diversity might influence soil hydraulic properties. Methods We quantified the change in infiltration capacity affected by soil structural variables

  8. Composite Transport Model and Water and Solute Transport across Plant Roots: An Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangmin X. Kim

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The present review examines recent experimental findings in root transport phenomena in terms of the composite transport model (CTM. It has been a well-accepted conceptual model to explain the complex water and solute flows across the root that has been related to the composite anatomical structure. There are three parallel pathways involved in the transport of water and solutes in roots – apoplast, symplast, and transcellular paths. The role of aquaporins (AQPs, which facilitate water flows through the transcellular path, and root apoplast is examined in terms of the CTM. The contribution of the plasma membrane bound AQPs for the overall water transport in the whole plant level was varying depending on the plant species, age of roots with varying developmental stages of apoplastic barriers, and driving forces (hydrostatic vs. osmotic. Many studies have demonstrated that the apoplastic barriers, such as Casparian bands in the primary anticlinal walls and suberin lamellae in the secondary cell walls, in the endo- and exodermis are not perfect barriers and unable to completely block the transport of water and some solute transport into the stele. Recent research on water and solute transport of roots with and without exodermis triggered the importance of the extension of conventional CTM adding resistances that arrange in series (epidermis, exodermis, mid-cortex, endodermis, and pericycle. The extension of the model may answer current questions about the applicability of CTM for composite water and solute transport of roots that contain complex anatomical structures with heterogeneous cell layers.

  9. Experimental wave attenuation study over flexible plants on a submerged slope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zegao; Yang, Xiaoyu; Xu, Yuanzhao; Ding, Meiling; Lu, Haixiang

    2017-12-01

    Using plants is a kind of environmentally-friendly coastal protection to attenuate wave energy. In this paper, a set of experiments were conducted to investigate the wave attenuation performance using flexible grasses on a submerged slope, and the wave attenuation coefficient for these experiments was calculated for different still water depths, slope and grass configurations. It was found that the slope plays a significant role in wave attenuation. The wave attenuation coefficient increases with increasing relative row number and relative density. For a small relative row number, the two configurations from the slope top to its toe and from the slope toe to its top performed equally to a large extent. For a medium relative row number, the configuration from the slope toe to its top performed more poorly than that from the slope top to its toe; however, it performed better than that from the slope top to its toe for a high relative row number. With a single row of grasses close to the slope top from the slope toe, the wave attenuation coefficient shows double peaks. With increasing grass rows or still water depth, the grass location corresponding to the maximum wave attenuation coefficient is close to the slope top. The dimensional analysis and the least square method were used to derive an empirical equation of the wave attenuation coefficient considering the effect of relative density, the slope, the relative row number and the relative location of the middle row, and the equation was validated to experimental data.

  10. Commissioning of the water demineralization plant of Atucha II Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schonbrod, B.; Grasso, G.; Ormando, M., E-mail: bschonbrod@na-sa.com.ar, E-mail: ggrasso@na-sa.com.ar, E-mail: mormando@na-sa.com.ar [Nucleoelectrica Argentina S.A., Central Nuclear Atucha II, Lima/Zarate, Provincia de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Chocron, M.; Rodriguez, I.; Lagamma, A.M., E-mail: chocron@cnea.gov.ar, E-mail: irodriguez@cnea.gov.ar, E-mail: lagamma@cnea.gov.ar [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2010-07-01

    In Argentina there are two operating Nuclear Power Reactors and a third one is being constructed. Embalse NPP is a 648 Mwe CANDU®-600 type pressurized heavy water reactor (PHWR), designed and built by Atomic Energy of Canada (AECL) and in commercial operation since 1984. Atucha I is a Pressurized Vessel Heavy Water Reactor (PVHWR) of 340 Mwe, in operation since 1974, and Atucha II (also PHWR) of 740 Mwe is in advanced construction state, both of them designed by SIEMENS-KWU. All of these Nuclear Power Plants are operated by Nucleoelectrica Argentina (N.A.S.A.). The Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (C.N.E.A.) is the R and D nuclear institution in the country that, among many other topics, provides technical support to the plants. Although the Atucha II project has suffered some years of delay, pressure tests are expected to be carried out by the end of the year 2010 and in that sense, water chemistry related activities, specifications, chemistry manuals, laboratories organization and personnel training are acquiring importance. The demineralized water needed for the secondary and auxiliary systems is obtained by means of a demineralization plant, which purifies water from Parana River up to nuclear grade. This plant was designed by Degremont in 1979 and consists of a preliminary treatment by coagulation - flocculation and gravel filters, and subsequent demineralization with ion exchange resins. For the commissioning of the demineralization plant, preliminary tests in the chemical laboratory are performed. The flocculator is simulated using a Jar-Test, different coagulants and coagulation aids are tested with the objective of selecting the best product and defining its optimum dosage. The coagulated water is filtered by means of a funnel with filtration paper and sand. The clarified water thus obtained is treated by ion exchange resins, the train consisting of a cationic, an anionic and a mixed bed. The purpose of the laboratory experiments is to test the resins

  11. Development of maize and palisadegrass plants cultivated in intercrop under water deficit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Coelho de Araujo

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the development and productive traits of palisadegrass single cultivated or intercropped with corn, in addition to corn intercropped with pasture, under water deficit at different development stages of the plants. It was used a complete block experimental design with split plots and three replicates. Periods of water deficit were placed in the plots and types of cultivation were placed in the subplots. Irrigation was stopped at germination and initial tillering of palisadegrass and at V4 and V15 stages of corn and returned when soil moisture was 40% of available water capacity. Tiller density and palisadegrass height were evaluated weekly. Dry matter (DM of fractions of herbage mass as well as leaf area of the plants were evaluated at corn tasseling and when grains reached physiological maturity. Components of corn production were determined in the second sampling. In palisadegrass, water influenced only tillering, which was reduced in the plots in which water defict was forced at the moment of germination or at the beginning of tilering, in both cultivation systems. Plant height and DM production were affected only by cultivation, reducing when intercropped with corn. Evaluated production components did not influence corn grain productivity, which was similar in all treatments (average of 10,145 kg/ha. Palisadegrass plants produce more DM in single cultivation than intercropped with corn. Water deficit during germination and initial tillering reduces tillering of palisadegrass during establishment phase. Water deficit, applied in this trial, does not reduce DM yield in palisadegrass or corn.

  12. Recent Experimental Advances to Determine (noble) Gases in Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipfer, R.; Brennwald, M. S.; Huxol, S.; Mächler, L.; Maden, C.; Vogel, N.; Tomonaga, Y.

    2013-12-01

    In aquatic systems noble gases, radon, and bio-geochemically conservative transient trace gases (SF6, CFCs) are frequently applied to determine water residence times and to reconstruct past environmental and climatic conditions. Recent experimental breakthroughs now enable ● to apply the well-established concepts of terrestrial noble gas geochemistry in waters to the minute water amounts stored in sediment pore space and in fluid inclusions (A), ● to determine gas exchange processes on the bio-geochemical relevant time scales of minutes - hours (B), and ● to separate diffusive and advective gas transport in soil air (C). A. Noble-gas analysis in water samples (techniques that combine crushing and sieving speleothem samples in ultra-high-vacuum to a specific grain size allow to separate air and water-bearing fluid inclusions and thus enables noble-gas-based reconstruction of environmental conditions from water masses as small as 1mg [2]. B. The coupling of noble gas analysis with approaches of gas chromatography permits combined analysis of noble gases and other gases species (e.g., SF6, CFCs, O2, N2) from a single water sample. The new method substantially improves ground water dating by SF6 and CFCs as excess air is quantified from the same sample and hence can adequately be corrected for [3]. Portable membrane-inlet mass spectrometers enable the quasi-continuous and real-time analysis of noble gases and other dissolved gases directly in the field, allowing, for instance, quantification of O2 turnover rates on small time scales [4]. C. New technical developments perfect 222Rn analysis in water by the synchronous the determination of the short-lived 220Rn. The combined 220,222Rn analysis sheds light on the emanation behaviour of radon by identifying soil water content to be the crucial control of 220Rn occurrence in the environment, e.g., making an argument why 220Rn is not detectable in water, but in soil air. As 220Rn occurrence is of 'very local origin

  13. Significance of Plant Root Microorganisms in Reclaiming Water in CELSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubenheim, David L.; Greene, Catherine; Wignarajah, Kanapathipillai; Kliss, Mark H. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    Since many microorganisms demonstrate the ability to quickly break down complex mixtures of waste and environmental contaminants, examining their potential use for water recycling in a closed environment is appealing. Water contributes approximately 90 percent of the life sustaining provisions in a human space habitat. Nearly half of the daily water requirements will be used for personal hygiene and dish washing. The primary contaminants of the used "gray" water will be the cleansing agents or soaps used to carry out these functions. Reclaiming water from the gray water waste streams is one goal of the NASA program, Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS). The microorganisms of plane roots are well documented to be of a beneficial effect to promote plant growth. Most plants exhibit a range of bacteria and fungi which can be highly plant-specific. In our investigations with lettuce grown in hydroponic culture, we identified a microflora of normal rhizosphere. When the roots were exposed to an anionic surfactant, the species diversity changed, based on morphological characteristics, with the numbers of species being reduced from 7 to 2 after 48 hours of exposure. In addition, the species that became dominant in the presence of the anionic surfactant also demonstrated a dramatic increase in population density which corresponded to the degradation of the surfactant in the root zone. The potential for using these or other rhizosphere bacteria as a primary or secondary waste processor is promising, but a number of issues still warrant investigation; these include but are not limited to: (1) the full identification of the microbes, (2) the classes of surfactants the microbes will degrade, (3) the environmental conditions required for optimal processing efficiency and (4) the ability of transferring the microbes to a non-living solid matrix such as a bioreactor.

  14. Changes in water quality in the Owabi water treatment plant in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akoto, Osei; Gyamfi, Opoku; Darko, Godfred; Barnes, Victor Rex

    2017-03-01

    The study was conducted on the status of the quality of water from the Owabi water treatment plant that supplies drinking water to Kumasi, a major city in Ghana, to ascertain the change in quality of water from source to point-of-use. Physico-chemical, bacteriological water quality parameters and trace metal concentration of water samples from five different treatment points from the Owabi water treatment plant were investigated. The raw water was moderately hard with high turbidity and colour that exceeds the WHO guideline limits. Nutrient concentrations were of the following order: NH3 < NO2 - < NO3 - < PO4 3- < SO4 2- and were all below WHO permissible level for drinking water in all the samples at different stages of treatment. Trace metal concentrations of the reservoir were all below WHO limit except chromium (0.06 mg/L) and copper (0.24 mg/L). The bacteriological study showed that the raw water had total coliform (1,766 cfu/100 mL) and faecal coliform (257 cfu/100 mL) that exceeded the WHO standard limits, rendering it unsafe for domestic purposes without treatment. Colour showed strong positive correlation with turbidity ( r = 0.730), TSS ( r ≥ 0.922) and alkalinity (0.564) significant at p < 0.01. The quality of the treated water indicates that colour, turbidity, Cr and Cu levels reduced and fall within the WHO permissible limit for drinking water. Treatment process at the water treatment plant is adjudged to be good.

  15. Improvement of water desalination technologies in reverse osmosis plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vysotskii, S. P.; Konoval'chik, M. V.; Gul'ko, S. E.

    2017-07-01

    The strengthening of requirements for the protection of surface-water sources and increases in the cost of reagents lead to the necessity of using membrane (especially, reverse osmosis) technologies of water desalination as an alternative to ion-exchange technologies. The peculiarities of using reverse osmosis technologies in the desalination of waters with an increased salinity have been discussed. An analogy has been made between the dependence of the adsorptive capacity of ion-exchange resins on the reagent consumption during ion exchange and the dependence of the specific ion flux on the voltage in the electrodialysis and productivity of membrane elements on the excess of the pressure of source water over the osmotic pressure in reverse osmosis. It has been proposed to regulate the number of water desalination steps in reverse osmosis plants, which makes it possible to flexibly change the productivity of equipment and the level of desalinization, depending on the requirements for the technological process. It is shown that the selectivity of reverse osmotic membranes with respect to bivalent ions (calcium, magnesium, and sulfates) is approximately four times higher than the selectivity with respect to monovalent ions (sodium and chlorine). The process of desalination in reverse osmosis plants depends on operation factors, such as the salt content and ion composition of source water, the salt content of the concentrate, and the temperatures of solution and operating pressure, and the design features of devices, such as the length of the motion of the desalination water flux, the distance between membranes, and types of membranes and turbulators (spacers). To assess the influence of separate parameters on the process of reverse osmosis desalination of water solutions, we derived criteria equations by compiling problem solution matrices on the basis of the dimensional method, taking into account the Huntley complement. The operation of membrane elements was

  16. Plant-wide control strategy for improving produced water treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Zhenyu; Pedersen, Simon; Durdevic, Petar

    2016-01-01

    This work focuses on investigation and development of an innovative Produced Water Treatment (PWT) technology for offshore oil & gas production by employing the model-based plant-wide control strategy. The key contributions lie in two folds: (i) the advanced anti-slug analysis and control...... quality in a continuous and real-time manner. However, this new solution relies on the availability of reliable Oilin-Water (OiW) real-time measuring technologies, which apparently are still quite challenging and un-matured....

  17. Modeling Halophytic Plants in APEX for Sustainable Water and Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeRuyter, T.; Saito, L.; Nowak, B.; Rossi, C.; Toderich, K.

    2013-12-01

    A major problem for irrigated agricultural production is soil salinization, which can occur naturally or can be human-induced. Human-induced, or secondary salinization, is particularly a problem in arid and semi-arid regions, especially in irrigated areas. Irrigated land has more than twice the production of rainfed land, and accounts for about one third of the world's food, but nearly 20% of irrigated lands are salt-affected. Many farmers worldwide currently seasonally leach their land to reduce the soil salt content. These practices, however, create further problems such as a raised groundwater table, and salt, fertilizer, and pesticide pollution of nearby lakes and groundwater. In Uzbekistan, a combination of these management practices and a propensity to cultivate 'thirsty' crops such as cotton has also contributed to the Aral Sea shrinking nearly 90% by volume since the 1950s. Most common agricultural crops are glycophytes that have reduced yields when subjected to salt-stress. Some plants, however, are known as halophytic or 'salt-loving' plants and are capable of completing their life-cycle in higher saline soil or water environments. Halophytes may be useful for human consumption, livestock fodder, or biofuel, and may also be able to reduce or maintain salt levels in soil and water. To assess the potential for these halophytes to assist with salinity management, we are developing a model that is capable of tracking salinity under different management practices in agricultural environments. This model is interdisciplinary as it combines fields such as plant ecology, hydrology, and soil science. The US Department of Agriculture (USDA) model, Agricultural Policy/Environmental Extender (APEX), is being augmented with a salinity module that tracks salinity as separate ions across the soil-plant-water interface. The halophytes Atriplex nitens, Climacoptera lanata, and Salicornia europaea are being parameterized and added into the APEX model database. Field sites

  18. Calibration of SWAT model for woody plant encroachment using paired experimental watershed data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Lei; Zou, Chris B.; Will, Rodney E.; Stebler, Elaine

    2015-04-01

    Globally, rangeland has been undergoing a transition from herbaceous dominated grasslands into tree or shrub dominated woodlands with great uncertainty of associated changes in water budget. Previous modeling studies simulated the impact of woody plant encroachment on hydrological processes using models calibrated and constrained primarily by historic streamflow from intermediate sized watersheds. In this study, we calibrated the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT model), a widely used model for cropping and grazing systems, for a prolifically encroaching juniper species, eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana), in the south-central Great Plains using species-specific biophysical and hydrological parameters and in situ meteorological forcing from three pairs of experimental watersheds (grassland versus eastern redcedar woodland) for a period of 3-years covering a dry-to-wet cycle. The multiple paired watersheds eliminated the potentially confounding edaphic and topographic influences from changes in hydrological processes related to woody encroachment. The SWAT model was optimized with the Shuffled complexes with Principal component analysis (SP-UCI) algorithm developed from the Shuffled Complexes Evolution (SCE_UA). The mean Nash-Sutcliff coefficient (NSCE) values of the calibrated model for daily and monthly runoff from experimental watersheds reached 0.96 and 0.97 for grassland, respectively, and 0.90 and 0.84 for eastern redcedar woodland, respectively. We then validated the calibrated model with a nearby, larger watershed undergoing rapid eastern redcedar encroachment. The NSCE value for monthly streamflow over a period of 22 years was 0.79. We provide detailed biophysical and hydrological parameters for tallgrass prairie under moderate grazing and eastern redcedar, which can be used to calibrate any model for further validation and application by the hydrologic modeling community.

  19. SOLAR WATER DISINFECTION IN NORTHEAST BRAZIL: KINETICS OF THE PROCESS AND THE STUDY FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF A PILOT PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LORNA FALCÃO FÉLIX

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available An experimental and numerical study of decontamination efficiency was carried through to evaluate the application of solar energy in water treatment in Northeast Brazil. The methodology used was the one proposed by Solar Water Disinfection (SODIS. Contaminated water samples were collected at the community of Robalo, Sergipe State, Brazil, which is characterized by poverty, social exclusion and a high incidence of waterborne diseases. The method used for pre- and post-disinfection microbiological analyses was the Colilert® QuantiTray (IDEXX one. The results show that the efficiency of the disinfection process reached 80 to 100%, however a post-treatment increase in colony counts was observed in some samples. The experimental results were treated numerically, to give disinfection kinetics, thus allowing theoretical and experimental data to be compared. This study further presents considerations for the development of an experimental pilot plant for water disinfection using SODIS.

  20. Drinking water treatment plant costs and source water quality: An updated case study (2013-2016) Abstract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watershed protection can play an important role in producing safe drinking water. However, many municipalities and drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) lack the information on the potential benefits of watershed protection as an approach to improving source water quality. This...

  1. Modeling gravity effects on water retention and gas transport characteristics in plant growth substrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deepagoda Thuduwe Kankanamge Kelum, Chamindu; Jones, Scott B.; Tuller, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Growing plants to facilitate life in outer space, for example on the International Space Station (ISS) or at planned deep-space human outposts on the Moon or Mars, has received much attention with regard to NASA’s advanced life support system research. With the objective of in situ resource...... utilization to conserve energy and to limit transport costs, native materials mined on Moon or Mars are of primary interest for plant growth media in a future outpost, while terrestrial porous substrates with optimal growth media characteristics will be useful for onboard plant growth during space missions....... Due to limited experimental opportunities and prohibitive costs, liquid and gas behavior in porous substrates under reduced gravity conditions has been less studied and hence remains poorly understood. Based on ground-based measurements, this study examined water retention, oxygen diffusivity and air...

  2. [Research-oriented experimental course of plant cell and gene engineering for undergraduates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaofei, Lin; Rong, Zheng; Morigen, Morigen

    2015-04-01

    Research-oriented comprehensive experimental course for undergraduates is an important part for their training of innovation. We established an optional course of plant cell and gene engineering for undergraduates using our research platform. The course is designed to study the cellular and molecular basis and experimental techniques for plant tissue culture, isolation and culture of protoplast, genetic transformation, and screening and identification of transgenic plants. To develop undergraduates' ability in experimental design and operation, and inspire their interest in scientific research and innovation consciousness, we integrated experimental teaching and practice in plant genetic engineering on the tissue, cellular, and molecular levels. Students in the course practiced an experimental teaching model featured by two-week teaching of principles, independent experimental design and bench work, and ready-to-access laboratory. In this paper, we describe the contents, methods, evaluation system and a few issues to be solved in this course, as well as the general application and significance of the research-oriented experimental course in reforming undergraduates' teaching and training innovative talents.

  3. Suitable indicators using stem diameter variation-derived indices to monitor the water status of greenhouse tomato plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Zhaojiang; Duan, Aiwang; Chen, Deli; Dassanayake, Kithsiri Bandara; Wang, Xiaosen; Liu, Zugui; Liu, Hao; Gao, Shengguo

    2017-01-01

    It is very important to seek a simple nondestructive method to continuously measure plant water status for irrigation scheduling. Changes in stem diameter in response to plant water status and soil water content (SWC) were experimentally investigated during the growing seasons of 2011/2012 and 2012/2013 in pot-cultivated tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) plants in a plastic greenhouse. This study was conducted to determine suitable SDV (stem diameter variation)-derived indices as indicators of tomato plant water status for irrigation scheduling. The experiment was designed as a two-factor randomized block using the SWC and growth stages as variables. The SWC was controlled at 70-80% (well-watered), 60-70% (slightly deficit watered), 50-60% (moderately deficit watered) of the field capacity (FC), and the prescribed growing stages were vegetative, flowering and fruit-forming, and harvesting stages. Regression analysis showed that the SD6 (the difference between the stem diameter value at 06:00 am and the initial sensor reading) was closely related to the SWC (p<0.01) during rapid vegetative growth, whereas the MDS (the maximum daily shrinkage) was closely related to the SWC (p<0.01) during slow vegetative growth. Our results suggest that SDV-derived indicators can be used for determining plant water status and for scheduling irrigation at different growth/developmental stages.

  4. Water cycle and its management for plant habitats at reduced pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rygalov, Vadim Y.; Fowler, Philip A.; Wheeler, Raymond M.; Bucklin, Ray A.

    2004-01-01

    Experimental and mathematical models were developed for describing and testing temperature and humidity parameters for plant production in bioregenerative life support systems. A factor was included for analyzing systems operating at low (10-101.3 kPa) pressure to reduce gas leakage and structural mass (e.g., inflatable greenhouses for space application). The expected close relationship between temperature and relative humidity was observed, along with the importance of heat exchanger coil temperature and air circulation rate. The presence of plants in closed habitats results in increased water flux through the system. Changes in pressure affect gas diffusion rates and surface boundary layers, and change convective transfer capabilities and water evaporation rates. A consistent observation from studies with plants at reduced pressures is increased evapotranspiration rates, even at constant vapor pressure deficits. This suggests that plant water status is a critical factor for managing low-pressure production systems. The approach suggested should help space mission planners design artificial environments in closed habitats.

  5. Experimental Study on Feasibility of Non Potable Water with Lime on Properties of Ppc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy Babu, G.; Madhusudana Reddy, B.; Ramana, N. V.; Sudharshan Reddy, B.

    2017-08-01

    This research aimed to investigate feasibility of outlet water of water treatment plant and limewater on properties of Portland pozzolana cement (PPC). Twenty water treatment plants were found out in the Bhimavaram municipality region in West Godavari district, Andhra Pradesh, India. Approximately, each plant supplying potable water about 4000 to 5000 L/day. All plants are extracting ground water and treating through Reverse Osmosis (RO) process. At outlet, huge quantity of wasted water is being discharged into side drains in Bhimavaram municipality. One typical treatment plant was selected, and water at outlet was collected and Physical and chemical analysis was carried out as per producer described in APHA. The effect of plant outlet water(POW), lime water(LM), and plant outlet water with lime (POWL) on physical properties i.e., setting times, compressive strength, and flexural strength of Portland pozzolana Cement (PPC) were studied in laboratory and compared same with reference specimens i.e., made with Distilled Water (DW) as mixing water. No significant change was observed in initial and finial setting time in POW, LW, and (POWL) as compared with reference specimens made with distilled water (DW). Compressive strength was significantly increased with LW and (POWL) specimens compared to that of reference specimens. XRD technique was employed to study the mineralogical analysis.

  6. 77 FR 3009 - Knowledge and Abilities Catalog for Nuclear Power Plant Operators: Advanced Boiling Water Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Knowledge and Abilities Catalog for Nuclear Power Plant Operators: Advanced Boiling Water Reactors..., ``Knowledge and Abilities Catalog for Nuclear Power Plant Operators: Advanced Boiling Water Reactors.'' DATES...

  7. Self-supporting power plant. Capturing evaporated water and save energy a new source of water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daal, Ludwin; Vos, Frank de [KEMA Netherlands BV, Arnhem (Netherlands). Process and Cooling Water; KEMA Energy Consulting Co.Ltd, Beijing (China); Wageningen Univ. (Netherlands). Environmental Systems Analysis; Heijboer, Rob [KEMA Netherlands BV, Arnhem (Netherlands). Process and Cooling Water; Bekker, Bert [KEMA Energy Consulting Co.Ltd, Beijing (China); Gao, Xiu Xiu [Wageningen Univ. (Netherlands). Environmental Systems Analysis

    2013-07-01

    One of the major challenges of this century is the provision of water for a growing population and industry. The shortage in water resources in arid areas requires the availability of more efficient and cheaper water production processes. In some arid regions water is even more important than electricity. A large source of water is found in the form of evaporated water emitted from different industrial processes. If for example 20% of the evaporated water from the flue gas stream of a coal fired power plant would be captured, the plant would be self-supporting from a process water point of view. This is about 30m{sup 3} of water per hour. The results of the proof of principle project (2001-2008) show that >40% recovery can be achieved. Also an overall energy efficiency improvement can be achieved for industrial plants that reheat their flue gases. Calculations show that this can be about 1% overall efficiency for a coal fired power plant utilizing flue gas reheating. With an installed capacity of more than 600GWe in China, this energy saving results in a very large economic and fuel (coal) impact. This energy efficiency will most likely be the driving force to implement the technology in both water rich and water poor regions. For the capture of evaporated water no chemicals are used, there is no waste water formed and corrosion attack in stacks is mitigated. These results have led to the set up of a large international project named CapWa which aims to produce a membrane modular system suitable for industrial applications within 2-3years. The produced demin water from this system should be competitive with existing demin water technologies. The starting point will be the water vapour selective composite membranes that are developed in the proof of principle project. The CapWa project started in 2010 and consists of 14 partners of which 9 from the EU, 3 from the African continent and 2 from the Middle East.

  8. Robust Instrumentation[Water treatment for power plant]; Robust Instrumentering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wik, Anders [Vattenfall Utveckling AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2003-08-01

    Cementa Slite Power Station is a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) with moderate steam data; 3.0 MPa and 420 deg C. The heat is recovered from Cementa, a cement industry, without any usage of auxiliary fuel. The Power station commenced operation in 2001. The layout of the plant is unusual, there are no similar in Sweden and very few world-wide, so the operational experiences are limited. In connection with the commissioning of the power plant a R and D project was identified with the objective to minimise the manpower needed for chemistry management of the plant. The lean chemistry management is based on robust instrumentation and chemical-free water treatment plant. The concept with robust instrumentation consists of the following components; choice of on-line instrumentation with a minimum of O and M and a chemical-free water treatment. The parameters are specific conductivity, cation conductivity, oxygen and pH. In addition to that, two fairly new on-line instruments were included; corrosion monitors and differential pH calculated from specific and cation conductivity. The chemical-free water treatment plant consists of softening, reverse osmosis and electro-deionisation. The operational experience shows that the cycle chemistry is not within the guidelines due to major problems with the operation of the power plant. These problems have made it impossible to reach steady state and thereby not viable to fully verify and validate the concept with robust instrumentation. From readings on the panel of the online analysers some conclusions may be drawn, e.g. the differential pH measurements have fulfilled the expectations. The other on-line analysers have been working satisfactorily apart from contamination with turbine oil, which has been noticed at least twice. The corrosion monitors seem to be working but the lack of trend curves from the mainframe computer system makes it hard to draw any clear conclusions. The chemical-free water treatment has met all

  9. Effects of experimental snowmelt and rain on dispersal of six plant species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarneel, J. M.

    2016-01-01

    Water flows affect dispersal of propagules of many plant species, and rivers and streams are therefore very important dispersal vectors. However, small water flows such as trough rain and snowmelt are much more common, but their effects on dispersal are barely studied. The importance of this form of

  10. Financial Analysis of Experimental Releases Conducted at Glen Canyon Dam during Water Year 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graziano, D. J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Poch, L. A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Veselka, T. D. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-11-01

    This report examines the financial implications of experimental flows conducted at the Glen Canyon Dam (GCD) in water year (WY) 2015. It is the seventh report in a series examining the financial implications of experimental flows conducted since the Record of Decision (ROD) was adopted in February 1997 (Reclamation 1996). A report released in January 2011 examined WYs 1997 to 2005 (Veselka et al. 2011); a report released in August 2011 examined WYs 2006 to 2010 (Poch et al. 2011); a report released June 2012 examined WY 2011 (Poch et al. 2012); a report released April 2013 examined WY 2012 (Poch et al. 2013); a report released June 2014 examined WY 2013 (Graziano et al. 2014); and a report released September 2015 examined WY 2014 (Graziano et al. 2015). An experimental release may have either a positive or negative impact on the financial value of energy production. Only one experimental release was conducted at GCD in WY 2015; specifically, a high flow experimental (HFE) release conducted in November 2014. For this experimental release, financial costs of approximately $2.1 million were incurred because the HFE required sustained water releases that exceeded the powerplant’s maximum flow rate. In addition, during the month of the experiment, operators were not allowed to shape GCD power production to either follow firm power customer loads or to respond to market prices. This study identifies the main factors that contribute to HFE costs and examines the interdependencies among these factors. It applies an integrated set of tools to estimate financial impacts by simulating the GCD operations under two scenarios: (1) a baseline scenario that mimics both HFE operations during the experiment and during the rest of the year when it complies with the 1996 ROD operating criteria, and (2) a “without experiments” scenario that is identical to the baseline except it assumes that the HFE did not occur. The Generation and Transmission Maximization (GTMax) model was the

  11. Local adaptation of plant viruses: lessons from experimental evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elena, Santiago F

    2017-04-01

    For multihost pathogens, adaptation to multiple hosts has important implications for both applied and basic research. At the applied level, it is one of the main factors determining the probability and severity of emerging disease outbreaks. At the basic level, it is thought to be a key mechanism for the maintenance of genetic diversity both in host and pathogen species. In recent years, a number of evolution experiments have assessed the fate of plant virus populations replicating within and adapting to one single or to multiple hosts species. A first group of these experiments tackled the existence of trade-offs in fitness and virulence for viruses evolving either within a single hosts species or alternating between two different host species. A second set of experiments explored the role of genetic variability in susceptibility and resistance to infection among individuals from the same host species in the extent of virus local adaptation and of virulence. In general, when a single host species or genotype is available, these experiments show that local adaptation takes place, often but not always associated with a fitness trade-off. However, alternating between different host species or infecting resistant host genotypes may select for generalist viruses that experience no fitness cost. Therefore, the expected cost of generalism, arising from antagonistic pleiotropy and other genetic mechanisms generating fitness trade-offs between hosts, could not be generalized and strongly depend on the characteristics of each particular pathosystem. At the genomic level, these studies show pervasive convergent molecular evolution, suggesting that the number of accessible molecular pathways leading to adaptation to novel hosts is limited. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Basic versus applied research: Julius Sachs (1832-1897) and the experimental physiology of plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutschera, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    The German biologist Julius Sachs was the first to introduce controlled, accurate, quantitative experimentation into the botanical sciences, and is regarded as the founder of modern plant physiology. His seminal monograph Experimental-Physiologie der Pflanzen (Experimental Physiology of Plants) was published 150 y ago (1865), when Sachs was employed as a lecturer at the Agricultural Academy in Poppelsdorf/Bonn (now part of the University). This book marks the beginning of a new era of basic and applied plant science. In this contribution, I summarize the achievements of Sachs and outline his lasting legacy. In addition, I show that Sachs was one of the first biologists who integrated bacteria, which he considered to be descendants of fungi, into the botanical sciences and discussed their interaction with land plants (degradation of wood etc.). This "plant-microbe-view" of green organisms was extended and elaborated by the laboratory botanist Wilhelm Pfeffer (1845-1920), so that the term "Sachs-Pfeffer-Principle of Experimental Plant Research" appears to be appropriate to characterize this novel way of performing scientific studies on green, photoautotrophic organisms (embryophytes, algae, cyanobacteria).

  13. Analysis of selected elements in water in the drinking water preparation plants in Belgrade, Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antanasijević Davor Z.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Belgrade's water supply relies mainly on the River Sava and groundwater supply wells, which are located in the vicinity of the river and Ada Ciganlija. In this paper, the content of aluminum, boron, chromium, manganese, cobalt, nickel, copper, zinc, arsenic, cadmium, barium and lead was analyzed in raw water as well as drinking water distributed by the Water Supply and Sewage of Belgrade. A total of 14 samples were examined from all water treatment plants that are part of the distribution system. The measurements were conducted using the inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS technique. The aim of this research was to examine the effectiveness of drinking water preparation process in the plants belonging to the Water Supply and Sewage of Belgrade. The content of certain elements varies considerably in raw water (river and groundwater: the concentration of boron in river water is two to three times lower than the concentration in groundwater; the concentration of arsenic in river water is ten to twenty five times lower than the concentration in groundwater; the concentration of aluminum in all groundwater samples was below the detection limit of the instrument (0.50 μg/dm3, whilst in the river water the content of aluminum was about 50 μg/dm3 and the concentration of manganese in the river water was up to 10 times lower than the concentrations in groundwater. In all drinking water samples the concentration of the elements were bellow the maximum allowed levels according to the Serbian regulations. Correlation coefficients determined for boron, manganese, cobalt, nickel, copper, zinc, arsenic, barium and lead, which were analyzed in raw waters, show that four groups of elements can be distinguished. Boron, manganese, arsenic and barium are related to each other and probably have a common natural origin; copper and lead probably have a common anthropogenic origin; correlation of nickel and cobalt was observed, while zinc was not in

  14. Computational Analysis of Sedimentation Process in the Water Treatment Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulus; Suriati; Situmorang, M.; Zain, D. M.

    2017-09-01

    This study aims to determine how the distribution of sludge concentration and velocity of water flow in the water treatment plant in equilibrium state. The problems are solved by implementing the finite element method to a momentum transport equation which is a basic differential equation that is used for liquid-solid mixtures with high solid concentrations. In the finite element method, the flow field is broken down into a set of smaller fluid elements. The domain is considered as a container in the space of three-dimensional (3D). The sludge concentration distribution as well as the water flow velocity distribution in the inlet, central and outlet are different. The results of numerical computation are similar compared to the measurement results.

  15. Policy Brief: Enhancing water-use efficiency of thermal power plants in India: need for mandatory water audits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batra, R.K. (ed.)

    2012-12-15

    This policy brief discusses the challenges of water availability and opportunity to improve the water use efficiency in industries specially the thermal power plants. It presents TERI’s experience from comprehensive water audits conducted for thermal power plants in India. The findings indicate that there is a significant scope for saving water in the waste water discharge, cooling towers, ash handling systems, and the township water supply. Interventions like recycling wastewater, curbing leakages, increasing CoC (Cycles of concentration) in cooling towers, using dry ash handling etc., can significantly reduce the specific water consumption in power plants. However, the first step towards this is undertaking regular water audits. The policy brief highlights the need of mandatory water audits necessary to understand the current water use and losses as well as identify opportunities for water conservation, reduction in specific water consumption, and an overall improvement in water use efficiency in industries.

  16. Results from four Pinus patula water planting trials in the summer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Planting with water is used by some forestry companies in South Africa to reduce post-planting water stress. Four trials were implemented to test the response in survival of Pinus patula to water applied at planting. Two trials each were situated in the KwaZulu-Natal Midlands and Mpumalanga escarpment. The first trial at ...

  17. 78 FR 35330 - Initial Test Programs for Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-12

    ... COMMISSION Initial Test Programs for Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission... revision to Regulatory Guide (RG), 1.68, ``Initial Test Programs for Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Plants... Initial Test Programs (ITPs) for light water cooled nuclear power plants. ADDRESSES: Please refer to...

  18. Characterization of NORM material produced in a water treatment plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suursoo, S.; Kiisk, M.; Jantsikene, A.; Koch, R.; Isakar, K.; Realo, E. [University of Tartu, Institute of Physics (Estonia); Lumiste, L. [Tallinn University of Technology (Estonia)

    2014-07-01

    In February 2012 a water treatment plant was opened in Viimsi, Estonia. The plant is designed for removal of iron, manganese, and radium from groundwater. The first 2 years of operation have shown that the purification process generates significant amounts of materials with elevated radium levels. The treatment plant is fed by nine wells, which open to radium-rich aquifers. Purification is achieved by aeration and filtration processes. Aerated water is led through two successive filter columns, first of them is filled with MnO{sub 2} coated material FMH and filtration sand, the second one with zeolite. The plant has five parallel treatment lines with a total of 95 tons of FMH + filtration sand, and 45 tons of zeolite. The average capacity of the facility has been 2400 m{sup 3}/day. Yearly input of radium to the plant is estimated to be 325 MBq for Ra-226, and 420 MBq for Ra-228. Most of the radium (about 90%) accumulates in the filter columns. Some 8-9% of it is removed by backwash water during regular filter backwash cycles. To characterize radium accumulation and its removal by backwash in detail, treatment line no. 5 is sampled monthly for filter materials and backwash water. A steady growth of radium activity concentrations is apparent in both filter materials. In the top layer of the first stage filter (FMH+sand), Ra-226 and Ra-228 activity concentrations (per unit dry weight) reached (1540 ± 60) Bq/kg and (2510 ± 50) Bq/kg (k=2), respectively, by April 2013. At the same time, radium content in the top layer of the second stage filter (zeolite) was an order of magnitude higher: (19 600 ± 130) Bq/kg for Ra-226, and (22 260 ± 170) Bq/kg for Ra-228 (k=2). Radium is not evenly distributed throughout the filter columns. A rough estimate can be given that after 1.25 years of operation (by April 2013) the accumulated activities in treatment line no. 5 reached 1000 MBq for Ra-226 and 1200 MBq for Ra-228. Although filters are the most important type of NORM

  19. Geochemistry of ground water at the Savannah River Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marine, I.W.

    1976-09-01

    Subsurface hydrogeologic systems underlying the Savannah River Plant (SRP) were studied to determine the origin and age of the contained fluids. Three distinct systems exist beneath SRP: the Coastal Plain sediments, crystalline metamorphic basement rock, and a Triassic rock basin surrounded by the crystalline rock. The water in the Coastal Plain sediments is low in dissolved solids (approximately 30 mg/l), acidic (pH approximately 5.5), and comparatively recent. Water in the crystalline rock is high in dissolved solids (approximately 6000 mg/l), alkaline (pH approximately 8), and approximately 840,000 years old as determined by helium dating techniques. Water in the Triassic rock is highest in dissolved solids (approximately 18,000 mg/l) and is probably older than the water in the surrounding crystalline rock; a quantitative age was not determined. The origin of the water in the crystalline and Triassic rock could not be determined with certainty; however, it is not relic sea water. A detailed geologic-hydrologic history of the SRP region is presented.

  20. Plant-available soil water capacity: estimation methods and implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Montoani Silva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The plant-available water capacity of the soil is defined as the water content between field capacity and wilting point, and has wide practical application in planning the land use. In a representative profile of the Cerrado Oxisol, methods for estimating the wilting point were studied and compared, using a WP4-T psychrometer and Richards chamber for undisturbed and disturbed samples. In addition, the field capacity was estimated by the water content at 6, 10, 33 kPa and by the inflection point of the water retention curve, calculated by the van Genuchten and cubic polynomial models. We found that the field capacity moisture determined at the inflection point was higher than by the other methods, and that even at the inflection point the estimates differed, according to the model used. By the WP4-T psychrometer, the water content was significantly lower found the estimate of the permanent wilting point. We concluded that the estimation of the available water holding capacity is markedly influenced by the estimation methods, which has to be taken into consideration because of the practical importance of this parameter.

  1. Foulant characteristics comparison in recycling cooling water system makeup by municipal reclaimed water and surface water in power plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ping, Xu; Jing, Wang; Yajun, Zhang; Jie, Wang; Shuai, Si

    2015-01-01

    Due to water shortage, municipal reclaimed water rather than surface water was replenished into recycling cooling water system in power plants in some cities in China. In order to understand the effects of the measure on carbon steel corrosion, characteristics of two kinds of foulant produced in different systems were studied in the paper. Differences between municipal reclaimed water and surface water were analyzed firstly. Then, the weight and the morphology of two kinds of foulant were compared. Moreover, other characteristics including the total number of bacteria, sulfate reducing bacteria, iron bacteria, extracellular polymeric substance (EPS), protein (PN), and polysaccharide (PS) in foulant were analyzed. Based on results, it could be concluded that microbial and corrosive risk would be increased when the system replenished by municipal reclaimed water instead of surface water.

  2. Foulant Characteristics Comparison in Recycling Cooling Water System Makeup by Municipal Reclaimed Water and Surface Water in Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Ping

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to water shortage, municipal reclaimed water rather than surface water was replenished into recycling cooling water system in power plants in some cities in China. In order to understand the effects of the measure on carbon steel corrosion, characteristics of two kinds of foulant produced in different systems were studied in the paper. Differences between municipal reclaimed water and surface water were analyzed firstly. Then, the weight and the morphology of two kinds of foulant were compared. Moreover, other characteristics including the total number of bacteria, sulfate reducing bacteria, iron bacteria, extracellular polymeric substance (EPS, protein (PN, and polysaccharide (PS in foulant were analyzed. Based on results, it could be concluded that microbial and corrosive risk would be increased when the system replenished by municipal reclaimed water instead of surface water.

  3. Foulant Characteristics Comparison in Recycling Cooling Water System Makeup by Municipal Reclaimed Water and Surface Water in Power Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ping, Xu; Jing, Wang; Yajun, Zhang; Jie, Wang; Shuai, Si

    2015-01-01

    Due to water shortage, municipal reclaimed water rather than surface water was replenished into recycling cooling water system in power plants in some cities in China. In order to understand the effects of the measure on carbon steel corrosion, characteristics of two kinds of foulant produced in different systems were studied in the paper. Differences between municipal reclaimed water and surface water were analyzed firstly. Then, the weight and the morphology of two kinds of foulant were compared. Moreover, other characteristics including the total number of bacteria, sulfate reducing bacteria, iron bacteria, extracellular polymeric substance (EPS), protein (PN), and polysaccharide (PS) in foulant were analyzed. Based on results, it could be concluded that microbial and corrosive risk would be increased when the system replenished by municipal reclaimed water instead of surface water. PMID:25893132

  4. Cotransport of water and solutes in plant membranes: The molecular basis, and physiological functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars H. Wegner

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Current concepts of plant membrane transport are based on the assumption that water and solutes move across membranes via separate pathways. According to this view, coupling between the fluxes is more or less exclusively constituted via the osmotic force that solutes exert on water transport. This view is questioned here, and experimental evidence for a cotransport of water and solutes is reviewed. The overview starts with ion channels that provide pathways for both ion and water transport, as exemplified for maxi K+ channels from cytoplasmic droplets of Chara corallina. Aquaporins are usually considered to be selective for water (just allowing for slippage of some other small, neutral molecules. Recently, however, a “dual function” aquaporin has been characterized from Arabidopsis thaliana (AtPIP2.1 that translocates water and at the same time conducts cations, preferentially Na+. By analogy with mammalian physiology, other candidates for solute-water flux coupling are cation-chloride cotransporters of the CCC type, and transporters of sugars and amino acids. The last part is dedicated to possible physiological functions that could rely on solute-water cotransport. Among these are the generation of root pressure, refilling of embolized xylem vessels, fast turgor-driven movements of leaves, cell elongation (growth, osmoregulation and adjustment of buoyancy in marine algae. This review will hopefully initiate further research in the field.

  5. Plant Control of the High Performance Light Water Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlagenhaufer, Marc; Starflinger, J.; Schulenberg, T. [Institute for Nuclear and Energy Technologies, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen, Baden-Wuertemberg 76344 (Germany)

    2009-06-15

    The latest design concept of the High Performance Light Water Reactor (HPLWR) includes a thermal core in which supercritical water at 25 MPa inlet pressure is heated up from 280 deg. C reactor inlet temperature to 500 deg. C core exit temperature in three steps with intermediate coolant mixing to minimize peak cladding temperatures of the fuel rods. A direct supercritical steam cycle of the HPLWR has been designed with high, intermediate and low pressure turbines with a single reheat to 441 deg. C at 4.04 MPa pressure. Three low pressure pre-heaters and four high pressure pre-heaters are foreseen to achieve the envisaged reactor inlet temperature of 280 deg. C at full load. A feedwater tank of 603 m{sup 3} at 0.55 MPa pressure serves as an accumulator for normal and accidental conditions. The steam cycle has been modelled with APROS, developed by VTT Finland, to provide thermodynamic data and cycle efficiency values under full load and part load operation conditions as well as the transient response to load changes. A plant control system has been designed in which the reactor inlet pressure is controlled by the turbine valve, the reactor power is controlled by the feedwater pumps while the life steam temperature is controlled by control rods, and the reheat temperature is controlled by the reheater valve. Neglecting the reactivity control, the core power can also be treated as input parameter such that the life steam temperature is directly controlled by the feedwater mass flow. The plant control can handle all loading and de-loading cycles including complete shut down. A constant pressure at reactor inlet is foreseen for all load cases. Peak temperatures of the fuel pins are checked with a simplified core model. Two shut down procedures starting at 50% load are presented. A reactor scram with turbine states the safe shut down of the whole plant. To avoid hard material temperature changes, a controlled shut down procedure is designed. The rotational speed of the

  6. Experimental and Computational Study of Water Blast Mitigation Associated with Different Water Configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakrajsek, Andrew; Miklaszewski, Eric; Son, Steven

    2011-06-01

    An explosion yielding a shock wave is just one of the many threats the US faces. This threat can cause damage to equipment, structures, and cause significant risk to personnel. These threats define an immediate importance for understanding blast mitigation techniques via readily available mitigants. Specific blast mitigation techniques using water are being studied. Four fundamentally different water configurations are being considered. The fundamental mitigation mechanisms such as momentum transfer, large impedance differences, and evaporation are being explored. Laboratory testing using an explosively driven shock tube and a pressurized air shock tube are used for configurations including: solid water barriers, water sprays, water sheets, and individual droplets of water. Trends observed will be explained based on simulations coupled with known droplet breakup phenomena and analysis. We will report on experimental results and analysis, in addition to discussing the various blast mechanisms associated with each testing configuration. Funded by the Department of Homeland Security under the Center of Excellence for Explosive Detection, Mitigation and Response. Sponsor Award No. 080409/0002251.

  7. Methods and benefits of experimental seismic evaluation of nuclear power plants. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-07-01

    This study reviews experimental techniques, instrumentation requirements, safety considerations, and benefits of performing vibration tests on nuclear power plant containments and internal components. The emphasis is on testing to improve seismic structural models. Techniques for identification of resonant frequencies, damping, and mode shapes, are discussed. The benefits of testing with regard to increased damping and more accurate computer models are oulined. A test plan, schedule and budget are presented for a typical PWR nuclear power plant.

  8. Potential of Using Solar Energy for Drinking Water Treatment Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukhary, S. S.; Batista, J.; Ahmad, S.

    2016-12-01

    Where water is essential to energy generation, energy usage is integral to life cycle processes of water extraction, treatment, distribution and disposal. Increasing population, climate change and greenhouse gas production challenges the water industry for energy conservation of the various water-related operations as well as limiting the associated carbon emissions. One of the ways to accomplish this is by incorporating renewable energy into the water sector. Treatment of drinking water, an important part of water life cycle processes, is vital for the health of any community. This study explores the feasibility of using solar energy for a drinking water treatment plant (DWTP) with the long-term goal of energy independence and sustainability. A 10 MGD groundwater DWTP in southwestern US was selected, using the treatment processes of coagulation, filtration and chlorination. Energy consumption in units of kWh/day and kWh/MG for each unit process was separately determined using industry accepted design criteria. Associated carbon emissions were evaluated in units of CO2 eq/MG. Based on the energy consumption and the existing real estate holdings, the DWTP was sized for distributed solar. Results showed that overall the motors used to operate the pumps including the groundwater intake pumps were the largest consumers of energy. Enough land was available around DWTP to deploy distributed solar. Results also showed that solar photovoltaics could potentially be used to meet the energy demands of the selected DWTP, but warrant the use of a large storage capacity, and thus increased costs. Carbon emissions related to solar based design were negligible compared to the original case. For future, this study can be used to analyze unit processes of other DWTP based on energy consumption, as well as for incorporating sustainability into the DWTP design.

  9. A Study on Effect of Water Background on Canopy Spectral of Wetland Aquatic Plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guang; Tang, Peng; Cai Zhan-qing; Wang, Tian-tian; Xu, Jun-feng

    2015-10-01

    Aquatic vegetation is the core of the wetland ecosystem, and it's also the main factor influencing the wetland ecosystem functions. In recent years, satellite remote sensing technology has been widely used in the investigation, classification and protection fields of wetland vegetation resources. Because of its unique growth environment, aquatic vegetation, the canopy spectrum of aquatic vegetation will be affected by water background elements including air-water interface, plankton in the water, sediment content, transparency, water depth, sediment, and the other optically active ingredients. When the remote sensing technology for wetland aquatic vegetation canopy spectral studies, should be considered the growth environment differences between aquatic and terrestrial vegetation. However, previous studies did not get the attention it deserves. This paper choose a typical water plant (Iris tentorium Maxim) as the research object, simulate the growth environment of wetland aquatic plants, use the feature spectrometer measurements the spectral reflectance of Iris tentorium Maxim vegetation canopy under different water depth gradient background (400-2 400 nm). Experimental results show that there is a significant negative correlation between background water depth and Iris canopy reflectance. Visible light band absolute correlation coefficient is above 0.9, near infrared band absolute correlation coefficient is above 0.8. In visible light and near infrared band, with water depth increases, the Iris canopy reflectance decreases obviously. Finally based on the highest correlation band of visible light and near infrared region (505, 717, 1 075 and 2 383 nm) established the linear equation between background water depth and the canopy reflectance, obtained the related parameters.

  10. Reclaimed municipal wastewater as source of water and nutrients for plant nurseries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gori, R; Lubello, C; Ferrini, F; Nicese, F

    2004-01-01

    A three year experimental activity was carried out to evaluate the possibility of reusing Reclaimed Wastewater (RWW) in Pistoia's nursery area (Central Italy). The research was aimed at: 1. identifying the best tertiary treatment facilities in order to make the effluent in compliance with the current Italian legislation for RWW reuse, 2. evaluating the effects of RWW irrigation on some ornamental, 3. quantifying fertilizing value and environmental impacts of RWW irrigation. In this paper the results of the last year experimental activity are presented. Experimental results indicated that filtration and disinfection with peracetic acid plus UV were very effective in indicator bacteria removal; as a matter of fact, neither Escherichia coli nor Total Coliforms were detected in any samples of pilot plant effluent. Results of an agronomical experiment indicated the suitability of the tertiary effluent for the irrigation: at the end of the growing season a higher (or equal) total dry mass was detected in RWW irrigated plants than well-water (WW) irrigated ones. Finally, the tertiary effluent can be considered as an important source of fertilizer for container-grown plants. As a matter of fact RWW irrigation showed to be able to replace at least one of the traditional fertilization treatments.

  11. Experimental charcoalification of plant reproductive organs: Taphonomic implications for taxonomic information loss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lupia, R. (Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States))

    1992-01-01

    Charcoalification can preserve reproductive organs of plants in exceptional detail, but it has not been clear to what extent these taxonomically important structures suffer non-allometric size reduction during this process. To address this problem, seven angiosperm and two gymnosperm species were buried in sand and experimentally charcoalified in a muffle furnace at 325--350 degrees Celsius for two hours, and percent size reduction measured. Carpels, stamens, and petals never shrank by the same amount for a given angiosperm species. To determine the effect of different periods of heating on organs, one angiosperm species was treated for 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 6 hours. Organs continued to shrink over this entire period without reaching a plateau. This is important in designing future experiments, and in terms of interpreting fossils, since heat treatment varies across a single site in natural fires. Observations made during this study suggest that some carpels and petals never become charcoalified, that stamens are particularly susceptible to fragmentation after charcoalification, that some organs show predictable damage which is correlated with time, and that the saturation of a structure with water can significantly retard charcoalification for heat exposure of less than one hour. These factors may severely affect the entry of the charred remains into the fossil record. Despite the suggestion that female structures can be expected to shrink the least, it is impossible to prescribe quantitative correction factors to permit accurate reconstructions without constraining additional variables such as temperature and duration of heating.

  12. Physical properties of sand from the waste water treatment plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Vítěz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The work is focused on characterization of selected physical properties of sewage sand from the waste water treatment plants. Sand is transported into wastewater mainly in areas with a combined se­we­ra­ge system – principally in connection with rainfalls, in case of which it is transported through the sewerage system together with rainwater, but also (within smaller extents due to leakages of sewerage systems or bad conduct of natural persons and legal entities. The main attention was focused on basic physical parameters such as content of total solid, ash free dry mass, density and granulometry. These material parameters are very often underestimated so the set of quality data is completly missing, as well as a background for designers of wastewater treatment plants. This paper should be quite useful e.g. for the purpose of technological equipment design in the region of South Moravia.

  13. The influence of Artemisia Absinthium on neighbouring plants. (An essay of Experimental Plant Sociology No. III)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Funke, G.L.

    1943-01-01

    Eighteen species of plants, most of which were chosen at random, were sown beside a hedge of Artemisia Absinthium; they were severely injured and in one ease ( Levisticum officinale) even killed by the chemical excretions of the latter within a distance of ± 100 cm; seedlings of Artemisia

  14. Diurnal Water Table Fluctuations: An Underutilized Indicator of Ground-water Consumption by Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, J. P.; Shea, J.; Keller, J.; Butler, J. J.; Kluitenberg, G.; Whittemore, D. O.

    2005-12-01

    Hydrographs from shallow wells in areas with phreatophytes frequently display a distinctive pattern of diurnal fluctuations. Although first linked to variations in plant water use early in the last century, these diurnal fluctuations have received relatively little attention in the ecohydrology literature. In particular, little attention has been given to exploiting the information embedded in the water-level data to improve understanding of plant water use. Results from two field sites in western Kansas will be presented to demonstrate the insights that can be gleaned from these fluctuations. At one site the vegetation is representative of the native riparian-zone assemblage found over much of the Great Plains (major phreatophyte is the cottonwood [ Populus spp.]), whereas at the other site the vegetation is dominated by invasive species (salt cedar [ Tamarix spp.] and Russian olive [ Elaeagnus angustifoli]). Both sites have a network of shallow wells and neutron probe access tubes for monitoring water-table position and moisture content, respectively. The onset and termination of ground-water use by plants during the growing season is readily identifiable at both sites. Data from the first site show that the maximum depth from which phreatophytes can draw water depends on the previous hydrologic conditions experienced at the site, and not the physiological limits of the plant. Phreatophyte control actions (mulch cutting and chemical treatment) have recently been applied in a sequential fashion to a portion of the second site. The initial impact of those actions on ground-water consumption was not as large as expected, suggesting that forbs and grasses, which were not significantly impacted by these actions, also use substantial amounts of ground water. The magnitude of the diurnal fluctuations ranges appreciably between the sites, and even between wells at the same site. A portion of this difference can be attributed to variations in plant water uptake across a

  15. Phytotechnological purification of water and bio energy utilization of plant biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stom, D. I.; Gruznych, O. V.; Zhdanova, G. O.; Timofeeva, S. S.; Kashevsky, A. V.; Saksonov, M. N.; Balayan, A. E.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the possibility of using the phytomass of aquatic plants as the substrate in the microbial fuel cells and selection of microorganisms suitable for the generation of electricity on this substrate. The conversion of chemical energy of phytomass of aquatic plants to the electrical energy was carried out in a microbial fuel cells by biochemical transformation. As biological agents in the generation of electricity in the microbial fuel cells was used commercial microbial drugs “Doctor Robic 109K” and “Vostok-EM-1”. The results of evaluation of the characteristics of electrogenic (amperage, voltage) and the dynamics of the growth of microorganisms in the microbial fuel cells presents in the experimental part. As a source of electrogenic microorganisms is possible to use drugs “Dr. Robic 109K” and “Vostok-EM-1” was established. The possibility of utilization of excess phytomass of aquatic plants, formed during the implementation of phytotechnological purification of water, in microbial fuel cells, was demonstrated. The principal possibility of creating hybrid phytotechnology (plant-microbe cells), allowing to obtain electricity as a product, which can be used to ensure the operation of the pump equipment and the creation of a full cycle of resource-saving technologies for water treatment, was reviewed.

  16. Effects of planting densities on water quality improvements and Pontederia cordata's physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiao-Ming; Lu, Peng-Zhen; Chen, Jian-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Various planting densities (5, 10, or 20 plants per tank) of Pontederia cordata were water-cultivated in purifying tanks to treat polluted water. Seasonal effects of the planting densities on the water quality improvement and the morphology and physiology of the plant were analyzed. Results indicated that planting densities affected the nitrogen and phosphorus removal of water, and the morphology and physiology of plants, including activity of peroxidise and catalase, content of chlorophyll and soluble protein (SP), the length of root, stem and leaf, tiller number and root density. When planting density increased from 10 to 20 plants per tank, the morphology and physiology of plants, and the nitrogen and phosphorus removal by plants improved slowly, but caused a tiller number decline in individual plants. This variation was significant in autumn, and associated with seasonal variations of plant physiology. During autumn, there were 26 tillers in each plant with 10 plants per tank, compared to 14 tillers per plant with 20 plants per tank. Increase in the nitrogen and phosphorus contents of the plants for 5-10 plants per tank was 5.41 and 0.79 g kg(-1), compared to 1.17 and 0.12 g kg(-1) for 10-20 plants per tank, respectively.

  17. Impact of plant water uptake strategy on soil moisture and evaporation dynamics during drydown

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teuling, A.J.; Uijlenhoet, R.; Hupet, F.; Troch, P.A.A.

    2006-01-01

    Experiments have shown that plants can compensate for water stress in the upper, more densely rooted, soil layers by increasing the water uptake from deeper layers. By adapting root water uptake to water availability, plants are able to extend the period of unstressed transpiration. This strategy

  18. within plant resistance to water flow in tomato and sweet melons ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    In the evaporative flux method, measure- ments of transpiration flux and leaf water potential were used to calculate the total resistance to water flow using .... Plant resistance is modulated by changes in the status of water conducting system, ... The understanding of plant water relations in crop species have implications for ...

  19. Occurrence, molecular characterization and antibiogram of water quality indicator bacteria in river water serving a water treatment plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okeke, Benedict C., E-mail: bokeke@aum.edu [Department of Biology, Auburn University at Montgomery, P.O. Box 244023, Montgomery, AL 36124 (United States); Thomson, M. Sue [Department of Biology, Auburn University at Montgomery, P.O. Box 244023, Montgomery, AL 36124 (United States); Moss, Elica M. [Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Science, Alabama A and M University, AL 35762 (United States)

    2011-11-01

    Water pollution by microorganisms of fecal origin is a current world-wide public health concern. Total coliforms, fecal coliforms (Escherichia coli) and enterococci are indicators commonly used to assess the microbiological safety of water resources. In this study, influent water samples and treated water were collected seasonally from a water treatment plant and two major water wells in a Black Belt county of Alabama and evaluated for water quality indicator bacteria. Influent river water samples serving the treatment plant were positive for total coliforms, fecal coliforms (E. coli), and enterococci. The highest number of total coliform most probable number (MPN) was observed in the winter (847.5 MPN/100 mL) and the lowest number in the summer (385.6 MPN/100 mL). Similarly E. coli MPN was substantially higher in the winter (62.25 MPN/100 mL). Seasonal variation of E. coli MPN in influent river water samples was strongly correlated with color (R{sup 2} = 0.998) and turbidity (R{sup 2} = 0.992). Neither E. coli nor other coliform type bacteria were detected in effluent potable water from the treatment plant. The MPN of enterococci was the highest in the fall and the lowest in the winter. Approximately 99.7 and 51.5 enterococci MPN/100 mL were recorded in fall and winter seasons respectively. One-way ANOVA tests revealed significant differences in seasonal variation of total coliforms (P < 0.05), fecal coliforms (P < 0.01) and enterococci (P < 0.01). Treated effluent river water samples and well water samples revealed no enterococci contamination. Representative coliform bacteria selected by differential screening on Coliscan Easygel were identified by 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequence analysis. E. coli isolates were sensitive to gentamicin, trimethoprim/sulfamethazole, ciprofloxacin, vancomycin, tetracycline, ampicillin, cefixime, and nitrofurantoin. Nonetheless, isolate BO-54 displayed decreased sensitivity compared to other E. coli isolates. Antibiotic sensitivity

  20. CONTENT OF NITROGEN (NO3-N IN LEACHATE WATER DEPENDING ON PLANT COVERAGE OF THE SOIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateusz Kaczmarski

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of plant coverage of the soil on the amount of water moving through the soil profile and the concentration of N-NO3, as well as the volume of load components taken out from the soil. The lysimeters were cover by the following plants: cocksfoot (Dactylis glomerata L. – non-fertilized, cocksfoot (Dactylis glomerata L. and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L. – fertilized with doses 20 kg P, 50 kg K i 120 kg N·ha-1, and red clover (Trifolium pratense L. - fertilized by 20 kg P and 50 kg K·ha-1. The study was conducted in 2009–2011 in Nowosielce, Podkarpackie province. Two sub-periods were distinguished in the vegetation season. The first period included growth of plants in the first regrowth, and the second in the second one. During the experimental period the biggest amount of water moved through the soil profile in the control object, and the least in the object with the red clover. The greatest concentration of NO3-N was found in water seepage in the object with red clover. The largest load of NO3-N was stated in this object as well. It was two times bigger than the load in the control object, by 20% bigger than in the object with perennial ryegrass and by 8% bigger than in the object with fertilized cocksfoot.

  1. Water relations, nutrient content and developmental responses of Euonymus plants irrigated with water of different degrees of salinity and quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Bellot, María José; Alvarez, Sara; Castillo, Marco; Bañón, Sebastián; Ortuño, María Fernanda; Sánchez-Blanco, María Jesús

    2013-07-01

    For 20 weeks, the physiological responses of Euonymus japonica plants to different irrigation sources were studied. Four irrigation treatments were applied at 100 % water holding capacity: control (electrical conductivity (EC) plants were rewatered with the same amount and quality of irrigation water as the control plants. Despite the differences in the chemical properties of the water used, the plants irrigated with NaCl and WW showed similar alterations in growth and size compared with the control even at the end of the recovery period. Leaf number was affected even when the EC of the irrigation water was of 1.7 dS m(-1) (IW), indicating the salt sensitivity of this parameter. Stomatal conductance (gs) and photosynthesis (Pn), as well as stem water potential (Ψstem), were most affected in plants irrigated with the most saline waters (NaCl and WW). At the end of the experiment the above parameters recovered, while IW plants showed similar values to the control. The higher Na(+) and Cl(+) uptake by NaCl and WW plants led them to show osmotic adjustment throughout the experiment. The highest amount of boron found in WW plants did not affect root growth. Wastewater can be used as a water management strategy for ornamental plant production, as long as the water quality is not too saline, since the negative effect of salt on the aesthetic value of plants need to be taken into consideration.

  2. Plant-wide Control Strategy for Improving Produced Water Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Zhenyu; Pedersen, Simon; Løhndorf, Petar Durdevic

    2016-01-01

    This work focuses on investigation and development of an innovative Produced Water Treatment (PWT) technology for offshore oil & gas production by employing the model-based plant-wide control strategy. The key contributions lie in two folds: (i) the advanced anti-slug analysis and control...... by focusing on the upstream well-pipeline-riser systems; (ii) optimization of controlling topside separation processes, which includes both the three-phase separator and de-oiling hydrocyclone facilities. A new PWT control strategy, named direct efficiency control, has been proposed for guarantee of the PWT...... quality in a continuous and real-time manner. However, this new solution relies on the availability of reliable Oilin-Water (OiW) real-time measuring technologies, which apparently are still quite challenging and un-matured....

  3. Plants reverse warming effect on ecosystem water balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavaleta, Erika S; Thomas, Brian D; Chiariello, Nona R; Asner, Gregory P; Shaw, M Rebecca; Field, Christopher B

    2003-08-19

    Models predict that global warming may increase aridity in water-limited ecosystems by accelerating evapotranspiration. We show that interactions between warming and the dominant biota in a grassland ecosystem produced the reverse effect. In a 2-year field experiment, simulated warming increased spring soil moisture by 5-10% under both ambient and elevated CO2. Warming also accelerated the decline of canopy greenness (normalized difference vegetation index) each spring by 11-17% by inducing earlier plant senescence. Lower transpirational water losses resulting from this earlier senescence provide a mechanism for the unexpected rise in soil moisture. Our findings illustrate the potential for organism-environment interactions to modify the direction as well as the magnitude of global change effects on ecosystem functioning.

  4. The impact of water use fees on dispatching and water requirements for water-cooled power plants in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Kelly T; Blackhurst, Michael F; King, Carey W; Webber, Michael E

    2014-06-17

    We utilize a unit commitment and dispatch model to estimate how water use fees on power generators would affect dispatching and water requirements by the power sector in the Electric Reliability Council of Texas' (ERCOT) electric grid. Fees ranging from 10 to 1000 USD per acre-foot were separately applied to water withdrawals and consumption. Fees were chosen to be comparable in cost to a range of water supply projects proposed in the Texas Water Development Board's State Water Plan to meet demand through 2050. We found that these fees can reduce water withdrawals and consumption for cooling thermoelectric power plants in ERCOT by as much as 75% and 23%, respectively. To achieve these water savings, wholesale electricity generation costs might increase as much as 120% based on 2011 fuel costs and generation characteristics. We estimate that water saved through these fees is not as cost-effective as conventional long-term water supply projects. However, the electric grid offers short-term flexibility that conventional water supply projects do not. Furthermore, this manuscript discusses conditions under which the grid could be effective at "supplying" water, particularly during emergency drought conditions, by changing its operational conditions.

  5. Dielectric spectroscopic studies on the water hyacinth plant collected from agriculture drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahani, Ragab; Atia, Fatma; Al Neklawy, Mohammed M.; Fahem, Amin

    2016-06-01

    The present paper aims to investigate the sensitivity of dielectric spectroscopy to changes in concentrations of pollutants (heavy metals and metal oxides) uptake by the water hyacinth plant collected from agriculture wastewater drainage. The measurements were carried out on the dried root and shoot plant parts before and after subjecting to different microwave heating powers for different times. Dielectric properties of the untreated root were investigated at temperature range (30-90 °C). X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF) results showed that the concentration of metals and metals oxides are higher in plant root than in plant shoot. Accordingly, the obtained dielectric properties were found to depend on the applied electric field frequency, magnitude of heating power as well as concentrations of pollutants. Analysis of experimental data represented by the imaginary part of the dielectric modulus M″ (ω) revealed to the presence of three different relaxation processes. The lower frequency relaxation process was associated to charge carriers conduction whereas those appeared at higher frequencies were associated to different types of interfacial polarization. The plant ability for removing heavy metals and metal oxides from the aquatic environments would be enhanced upon subjecting to microwave heating power with 400 W for 30 min.

  6. Occurrence, molecular characterization and antibiogram of water quality indicator bacteria in river water serving a water treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okeke, Benedict C; Thomson, M Sue; Moss, Elica M

    2011-11-01

    Water pollution by microorganisms of fecal origin is a current world-wide public health concern. Total coliforms, fecal coliforms (Escherichia coli) and enterococci are indicators commonly used to assess the microbiological safety of water resources. In this study, influent water samples and treated water were collected seasonally from a water treatment plant and two major water wells in a Black Belt county of Alabama and evaluated for water quality indicator bacteria. Influent river water samples serving the treatment plant were positive for total coliforms, fecal coliforms (E. coli), and enterococci. The highest number of total coliform most probable number (MPN) was observed in the winter (847.5 MPN/100 mL) and the lowest number in the summer (385.6 MPN/100 mL). Similarly E. coli MPN was substantially higher in the winter (62.25 MPN/100 mL). Seasonal variation of E. coli MPN in influent river water samples was strongly correlated with color (R(2)=0.998) and turbidity (R(2)=0.992). Neither E. coli nor other coliform type bacteria were detected in effluent potable water from the treatment plant. The MPN of enterococci was the highest in the fall and the lowest in the winter. Approximately 99.7 and 51.5 enterococci MPN/100 mL were recorded in fall and winter seasons respectively. One-way ANOVA tests revealed significant differences in seasonal variation of total coliforms (Pcoliforms (Pcoliform bacteria selected by differential screening on Coliscan Easygel were identified by 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequence analysis. E. coli isolates were sensitive to gentamicin, trimethoprim/sulfamethazole, ciprofloxacin, vancomycin, tetracycline, ampicillin, cefixime, and nitrofurantoin. Nonetheless, isolate BO-54 displayed decreased sensitivity compared to other E. coli isolates. Antibiotic sensitivity pattern can be employed in microbial source tracking. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. PILOT PLANT STUDY ON NATURAL WATER COAGULANTS AS COAGULAN AIDS FOR WATER SUPPLY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B BINA

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Natural plant coagulants have an important role to play in provision of portable water to rural communities in the developing world. The plant material that their coagulation properties have been confirmed in previous lab scale studies and can be found widely in Iran was selected as coagulant aids. Pilot plant study was done to evaluate the efficiency of natural material such as Starch/Gum Tragacanth, Fenugreek and Yeast as coagulant aids in conjunction with comercial alum. Methods: The pilot was placed in Isfahan Water Treatment Plant (IWTP and efficiency of these materials in removal of turbidity from raw water enters the IWTP was evaluated. The results indicated while these materials were used as coagulant aids in concentration of 1-5 mg/l conjunction with alum are able to reduced the turbidity and final residuals turbidity meets the standards limits. Results: The coagulation efficiency of these material were found to be effected by certain physico-chemical factors, namely, concentration of suspended solids, divalent cation metal and time of agitation. The relative importance of these variable was evaluated. The results of COD test proved that the natural coagulant aids in the optimum doses produce no any significant organic residual. Discussion: Economical considerations showed that using of these material as coagulant aids can cause reduction in alum consumption and in some cases are more econmical than synthetic polyelectrolyte.

  8. Estimating plant water uptake source depths with optimized stable water isotope labeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeger, Stefan; Weiler, Markus

    2016-04-01

    Depth profiles of pore water stable isotopes in soils in conjunction with measurements of stable water isotopes (SWI) in plant transpiration allow the estimation of the contributions of different soil depths to plant water uptake (PWU).
 However, SWI depth profiles that result from the variations of SWI in natural precipitation may lead to highly ambiguous results, i.e. the same SWI signature in transpiration could result from different PWU patterns or SWI depth profiles. The aim of this study was to find an optimal stable water isotope depth profile to estimate plant water uptake patterns and to compare different PWU source depth estimation methods. We used a new soil water transport model including fractionation effects of SWI and exchange between the vapor and liquid phase to simulate different irrigation scenarios. Different amounts of water with differing SWI signatures (glacier melt water, summer precipitation water, deuterated water) were applied in order to obtain a wide variety of SWI depth profiles. Based on these simulated SWI depth profiles and a set of hypothetical PWU patterns, the theoretical SWI signatures of the respective plant transpiration were computed. In the next step, two methods - Bayesian isotope mixing models (BIMs) and optimization of a parametric distribution function (beta function) - were used to estimate the PWU patterns from the different SWI depth profiles and their respective SWI signatures in the resulting transpiration. Eventually, the estimated and computed profiles were compared to find the best SWI depth profile and the best method. The results showed, that compared to naturally occurring SWI depth profiles, the application of multiple, in terms of SWI, distinct labeling pulses greatly improves the possible spatial resolution and at the same time reduces the uncertainty of PWU estimates.
 For the PWU patterns which were assumed for this study, PWU pattern estimates based on an optimized parametric distribution function

  9. Plant Foods versus Compounds in Carcinogenesis: Observational versus Experimental Human Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampman, E.; Arts, I.C.W.; Hollman, P.C.H.

    2003-01-01

    The protective role of plant foods and its constituents in cancer prevention is under renewed debate since the results of recent observational studies on colorectal cancer as well as large-scale human experimental studies on colorectal adenoma recurrence are disappointing. However, most short-term

  10. Life Cycle Assessment of Waste Water Treatment Plants in Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greg Mcnamara

    2016-09-01

      The Urban Wastewater Treatment Directive 91/271/EEC introduced a series of measures for the purpose of protecting the environment from the adverse effects of effluent discharge from wastewater treatment plants.  There are environmental costs associated with attaining the required level of water quality set out in the directive such as greenhouse gas emissions due to energy production, and ecotoxicity from sludge application to land.  The goal of this study is to assess the environmental costs in an Irish context, focusing specifically on the effects of variation in scale and discharge limitation. Life cycle assessment is the analytical tool used to evaluate the environmental impact.  The life cycle impact assessment methodology developed by the Centre of Environmental Science, Leiden University (2010 has been adopted and implemented using GaBi 6.0 life cycle assessment software.  Two plants of varying size and location were chosen for the study. The study found that energy consumption and sludge application to land are the largest contributors to the overall environmental impact associated with the treatment process at both plants.  Economies of scale were observed in energy usage during secondary aeration.   

  11. Effect of textile waste water on tomato plant, Lycopersicon esculentum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marwari, Richa; Khan, T I

    2012-09-01

    In this study Sanganer town, Jaipur was selected as study area. The plants of Lycopersicon esculentum var. K 21(Tomato) treated with 20 and 30% textile wastewater were analyzed for metal accumulation, growth and biochemical parameters at per, peak and post flowering stages. Findings of the study revealed that chlorophyll content was most severely affected with the increase in metal concentration. Total chlorophyll content showed a reduction of 72.44% while carbohydrate, protein and nitrogen content showed a reduction of 46.83, 71.65 and 71.65% respectively. With the increase in waste water treatment the root and shoot length, root and shoot dry weight and total dry weight were reduced to 50.55, 52.06, 69.93, 72.42, 72.10% respectively. After crop harvesting, the fruit samples of the plants treated with highest concentration of textile waste water contained 2.570 mg g(-1)d.wt. of Zn, 0.800 mg g(-1) d.wt. Cu, 1.520 mg g(-1) d.wt. Cr and 2.010 mg g(-1) d.wt. Pb.

  12. Water Wells Monitoring Using SCADA System for Water Supply Network, Case Study: Water Treatment Plant Urseni, Timis County, Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrian-Lucian, Cococeanu; Ioana-Alina, Cretan; Ivona, Cojocinescu Mihaela; Teodor Eugen, Man; Narcis, Pelea George

    2017-10-01

    The water supply system in Timisoara Municipality is insured with about 25-30 % of the water demand from wells. The underground water headed to the water treatment plant in order to ensure equal distribution and pressure to consumers. The treatment plants used are Urseni and Ronaţ, near Timisoara, in Timis County. In Timisoara groundwater represents an alternative source for water supply and complementary to the surface water source. The present paper presents a case study with proposal and solutions for rehabilitation /equipment /modernization/ automation of water drilling in order to ensure that the entire system can be monitored and controlled remotely through SCADA (Supervisory control and data acquisition) system. The data collected from the field are designed for online efficiency monitoring regarding the energy consumption and water flow intake, performance indicators such as specific energy consumption KW/m3 and also in order to create a hydraulically system of the operating area to track the behavior of aquifers in time regarding the quality and quantity aspects.

  13. Simulating Plant Water Stress and Phenology in Seasonally Dry Tropical Forests: Plant Hydraulics and Trait-Driven Trade-Offs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, X.; Medvigy, D.; Powers, J. S.; Becknell, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    Seasonally dry tropical forests account for over 40% of the forested area in tropical and subtropical regions. Previous studies suggest that seasonal water stress is one main driver of phenology and related vegetation dynamics in seasonally dry tropical forests. Species that coexist in seasonally dry tropical forests have different plant traits, experience different degrees of plant water stress and show distinctive phenological patterns. However, the observed diversity in plant phenology and related vegetation dynamics is poorly represented in current dynamic vegetation models. In this study, we employ a new modeling approach to enhance our model skills in seasonally dry tropical forests. First, we implement a new plant hydraulic module under the framework of a state-of-the-art dynamic vegetation model, Ecosystem Demography 2 (ED2). Second, we link plant water stress with several key coordinated plant traits. Unlike previous models, the updated ED2 does not prescribe leaf phenology (deciduous or evergreen) and plant water stress is not determined by empirical water stress factors or by soil moisture alone. Instead, the model tracks more mechanistic indicators of plant water stress like leaf water potential, accounts for different abilities to tolerate water stress among plant functional types and predicts dry season leaf deciduousness and related vegetation dynamics. The updated model is then tested with in-situ meteorological data and long-term ecological observations. We also perform numerical experiments to explore the possible biases of ignoring the observed diversity in seasonally dry tropical forests. We find that (i) variations of several key plant traits (specific leaf area, wood density, turgor loss point and rooting depth) can account for the observed distinctive phenological patterns as well as inter-annual variations in vegetation growth among species. (ii) Ignoring the trait-driven trade-offs and diversity in seasonality would introduce significant

  14. How do earthworms, soil texture and plant composition affect infiltration along an experimental plant diversity gradient in grassland?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Fischer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Infiltration is a key process in determining the water balance, but so far effects of earthworms, soil texture, plant species diversity and their interaction on infiltration capacity have not been studied. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We measured infiltration capacity in subplots with ambient and reduced earthworm density nested in plots of different plant species (1, 4, and 16 species and plant functional group richness and composition (1 to 4 groups; legumes, grasses, small herbs, tall herbs. In summer, earthworm presence significantly increased infiltration, whereas in fall effects of grasses and legumes on infiltration were due to plant-mediated changes in earthworm biomass. Effects of grasses and legumes on infiltration even reversed effects of texture. We propose two pathways: (i direct, probably by modifying the pore spectrum and (ii indirect, by enhancing or suppressing earthworm biomass, which in turn influenced infiltration capacity due to change in burrowing activity of earthworms. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Overall, the results suggest that spatial and temporal variations in soil hydraulic properties can be explained by biotic processes, especially the presence of certain plant functional groups affecting earthworm biomass, while soil texture had no significant effect. Therefore biotic parameters should be taken into account in hydrological applications.

  15. Does plant diversity affect the water balance of established grassland systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leimer, Sophia; Bischoff, Sebastian; Blaser, Stefan; Boch, Steffen; Busch, Verena; Escher, Peter; Fischer, Markus; Kaupenjohann, Martin; Kerber, Katja; Klaus, Valentin; Michalzik, Beate; Prati, Daniel; Schäfer, Deborah; Schmitt, Barbara; Schöning, Ingo; Schwarz, Martin T.; Siemens, Jan; Thieme, Lisa; Wilcke, Wolfgang

    2017-04-01

    The water cycle drives nutrient cycles and plant productivity. The impact of land use on the water cycle has been extensively studied and there is experimental evidence that biodiversity modifies the water cycle in grasslands. However, the combined influences of land-use and associated biodiversity on the water cycle in established land-use systems are unclear. Therefore, we investigated how evapotranspiration (ETa), downward water flux (DF), and capillary rise (CR) in topsoil and subsoil are related to land-use and plant diversity in established, commercially managed grassland and compared these results to findings from experiments where plant diversity was manipulated. In three Central European regions ("Biodiversity Exploratories"), we studied 29 grassland plots (50 m x 50 m; 9-11 plots per region) from 2010 to 2015. The land-use types cover pasture, mown pasture, and meadow in at least triplicate per region. On each plot, we measured soil water contents, meteorological data (hourly resolution), cumulative precipitation (biweekly), plant species richness, the number of plants in the functional groups of grasses, herbs, and legumes (annually), and root biomass (once). Potential evapotranspiration (ETp) was calculated from meteorological data per plot. Missing data points of ETp and soil water contents were estimated with Bayesian hierarchical models. ETa, DF, and CR were calculated for two soil layers with a soil water balance model. The model is based on changes in soil water storage between subsequent observation dates and ETp, which was partitioned between soil layers according to root distribution. Water fluxes in annual resolution were statistically analyzed for land-use and biodiversity effects using repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA). Land-use type did not affect water fluxes. Species richness did not influence DF and CR. DF from topsoil was higher on plots with more grass species, which is opposite to the results from a manipulative

  16. AKUT-II: an experimental plant for purifying the HTR loop of combustion waste gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaujean, H.; Vygen, H.

    1976-02-15

    A plant for the separation of aerosols, krypton and tritium (AKUT) used for purifying the head end of the reprocessing of thorium-containing fuel elements from combustion waste gases is described. Data are to be collected to enable a process engineer to plan and construct a large-scale plant, and the correctness and practicability of the concept adopted is to be proved in conjunction with the JUPITER plant. It is true that the tests on the AKUT I plant confirmed that the flow scheme was basically correct, but the actual experimental operation was considerably limited by a fixed and rigid coupling to the combustion furnace. Some operational conditions were encountered which did not meet the design values. Part of the plant (krypton separation) is being tested in the USA. The German concept was taken over in the early stages of tests and adapted to existing apparatuses, the result inevitably being different experimental conditions. The AKUT II plant can now be used for consideration of the economic and safety conditions, and comparisons can be made.

  17. Experimental research of "microcable in a microconduct" system stability to effect of freezing water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreev, Vladimir A.; Burdin, Vladimir A.; Nikulina, Tatiana G.; Alekhin, Ivan N.; Gavryushin, Sergey A.; Nikulin, Aleksey G.; Praporshchikov, Denis E.

    2011-12-01

    Results of experimental researches of "optical microcable in a microduct" system stability to effect of freezing water are presented. It is shown this system is steadier to water freezing in comparison to lighten optical cable in protective polymer tube.

  18. Use of homeopathic preparations in experimental studies with abiotically stressed plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäger, Tim; Scherr, Claudia; Shah, Devika; Majewsky, Vera; Betti, Lucietta; Trebbi, Grazia; Bonamin, Leoni; Simões-Wüst, Ana Paula; Wolf, Ursula; Simon, Meinhard; Heusser, Peter; Baumgartner, Stephan

    2011-10-01

    Experimental research on the effects of homeopathic treatments on impaired plants was last reviewed in 1990. To compile a systematic review of the existing literature on basic research in homeopathy with abiotically stressed plants using predefined criteria. The literature search was carried out on publications that reported experiments on homeopathy using abiotically stressed whole plants, seeds, plant parts and cells from 1920 to 2010. Outcomes had to be measured by established procedures and statistically evaluated. Using of a Manuscript Information Score (MIS) we identified those publications that provided sufficient information for proper interpretation (MIS≥5). A further evaluation was based on the use of adequate controls to investigate specific effects of homeopathic preparations and on the use of systematic negative control experiments. A total of 34 publications with abiotically stressed plants was identified, published between 1965 and 2010. The 34 publications described a total of 37 experimental studies. Twenty-two studies included statistics, 13 had a MIS≥5, 8 were identified with adequate controls and 4 with negative control experiments. Significant and reproducible effects with decimal and centesimal potencies were found, including dilution levels beyond Avogadro's number. One experimental model was independently assessed by another research team and yielded inverted results compared to the original trial. Abiotically stressed plant models seem to be a useful approach to investigate homeopathic basic research questions, but more experimentation and especially more independent replication trials are needed. Systematic negative control experiments should be implemented on a routine basis to exclude false-positive results. Copyright © 2011 The Faculty of Homeopathy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. An experimental study on the influence of water stagnation and temperature change on water quality in a full-scale domestic drinking water system

    OpenAIRE

    Zlatanović, L.; van der Hoek, J.P.; Vreeburg, J.H.G.

    2017-01-01

    The drinking water quality changes during the transport through distribution systems. Domestic drinking water systems (DDWSs), which include the plumbing between the water meter and consumer's taps, are the most critical points in which water quality may be affected. In distribution networks, the drinking water temperature and water residence time are regarded as indicators of the drinking water quality. This paper describes an experimental research on the influence of stagnation time and tem...

  20. Phase I: the pipeline-gas demonstration plant. Demonstration plant engineering and design. Volume 18. Plant Section 2700 - Waste Water Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-05-01

    Contract No. EF-77-C-01-2542 between Conoco Inc. and the US Department of Energy provides for the design, construction, and operation of a demonstration plant capable of processing bituminous caking coals into clean pipeline quality gas. The project is currently in the design phase (Phase I). This phase is scheduled to be completed in June 1981. One of the major efforts of Phase I is the process and project engineering design of the Demonstration Plant. The design has been completed and is being reported in 24 volumes. This is Volume 18 which reports the design of Plant Section 2700 - Waste Water Treatment. The objective of the Waste Water Treatment system is to collect and treat all plant liquid effluent streams. The system is designed to permit recycle and reuse of the treated waste water. Plant Section 2700 is composed of primary, secondary, and tertiary waste water treatment methods plus an evaporation system which eliminates liquid discharge from the plant. The Waste Water Treatment Section is designed to produce 130 pounds per hour of sludge that is buried in a landfill on the plant site. The evaporated water is condensed and provides a portion of the make-up water to Plant Section 2400 - Cooling Water.

  1. Water and Plant Cells: Notes on a Teaching Scheme for O-Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenville, H. W.

    1983-01-01

    Offers suggestions for teaching some aspects of water economy in plants. These include diffusion/osmosis, water transport, the part played by turgor in structural support, and its implications for plant organs or whole plants. Several practical demonstrations/experiments are also described. (JN)

  2. 77 FR 73056 - Initial Test Programs for Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-07

    ... COMMISSION Initial Test Programs for Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission...-Cooled Nuclear Power Plants.'' This guide describes the general scope and depth that the staff of the NRC considers acceptable for Initial Test Programs (ITPs) for light water cooled nuclear power plants. DATES...

  3. Experimental and Numerical Studies of Atmosphere Water Interactions

    KAUST Repository

    Bou-Zeid, Elie

    2011-07-04

    Understanding and quantifying the interaction of the atmosphere with underlying water surfaces is of great importance for a wide range of scientific fields such as water resources management, climate studies of ocean-atmosphere exchange, and regional weat

  4. Theoretical and Experimental Analysis of the Physics of Water Rockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrio-Perotti, R.; Blanco-Marigorta, E.; Fernandez-Francos, J.; Galdo-Vega, M.

    2010-01-01

    A simple rocket can be made using a plastic bottle filled with a volume of water and pressurized air. When opened, the air pressure pushes the water out of the bottle. This causes an increase in the bottle momentum so that it can be propelled to fairly long distances or heights. Water rockets are widely used as an educational activity, and several…

  5. Acute Genotoxic Effects of Effluent Water of Thermo-Power Plant “Kosova” In Tradescantia Pallida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.R. Elezaj

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was the evaluation of acute genotoxic effect of effluent water of thermo-power plant by means of Tradescantia root tips micronucleus test (MN, mitotic index and cell aberrations.   Tradescantia, was experimentally treated (for 24 h, with effluent water of thermo-power plant in different dilution ratios (negative control – distilled water; primary untreated effluent water and 1:1; 1:2; 1:3; 1:4; 1:5; 1:6 and 1:7 respectively. Number of aberrant cells, and frequency of micronuclei (MN, in meristematic root tip cells of treated plants (Tradescantia, were significantly increased (P<0.001; P<0.001 respectively, while the mitotic index in all treated plants was progressively decreased in comparison to the negative control. The results of present study indicate that Tradescantia root-tip micronucleus assay with direct exposure of intact plants is an appropriate method which enables to detect genotoxic effects of effluent waters.

  6. [Effects of aquatic plants during their decay and decomposition on water quality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jin-Yan; Cao, Pei-Pei; Xu, Chi; Liu, Mao-Song

    2013-01-01

    Taking 6 aquatic plant species as test objects, a 64-day decomposition experiment was conducted to study the temporal variation patterns of nutrient concentration in water body during the process of the aquatic plant decomposition. There existed greater differences in the decomposition rates between the 6 species. Floating-leaved plants had the highest decomposition rate, followed by submerged plants, and emerged plants. The effects of the aquatic plant species during their decomposition on water quality differed, which was related to the plant biomass density. During the decomposition of Phragmites australis, water body had the lowest concentrations of chemical oxygen demand, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus. In the late decomposition period of Zizania latifolia, the concentrations of water body chemical oxygen demand and total nitrogen increased, resulting in the deterioration of water quality. In the decomposition processes of Nymphoides peltatum and Nelumbo nucifera, the concentrations of water body chemical oxygen demand and total nitrogen were higher than those during the decomposition of other test plants. In contrast, during the decomposition of Potamogeton crispus and Myriophyllum verticillatum, water body had the highest concentrations of ammonium, nitrate, and total phosphorus. For a given plant species, the main water quality indices had the similar variation trends under different biomass densities. It was suggested that the existence of moderate plant residues could effectively promote the nitrogen and phosphorus cycles in water body, reduce its nitrate concentration to some extent, and decrease the water body nitrogen load.

  7. DESIGN COMPARISON OF EXPERIMENTAL STORM WATER DETENTION SYSTEMS TREATING CONCENTRATED ROAD RUNOFF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Nanbakhsh

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Urban drainage systems are vital infrastructure assets, which protect our cities from flooding and transmission of waterborne diseases. The objective of this research was to assess the treatment efficiencies of experimental stormwater detention (extended storage systems receiving concentrated runoff that had been primary treated by filtration with different aggregates. Five detention systems with different packing order arrangements of aggregates and plant roots were used in the system to test the effects of gravel, sand, ecosoil, block paving and turf on the water treatment performance. Inflow water, polluted by road runoff, was collected by manual abstraction with a 2 litter beaker from randomly selected gully pots the near by main roads. Several parameters such as BOD5, NO3, PO4, NH4, SS, TS, DO, pH, EC, NTU and temperature were examined based on standard method book. Results showed that concentrations of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5 in contrast to suspended solids (SS were frequently reduced to below international secondary wastewater treatment standards. The BOD and SS concentrations within the outflow from the planted system compared to the unplanted gravel and sand systems were similar. However, BOD in the outflow of system 5 was lower than other systems. The denitrification process was not completed. This resulted in higher outflow than inflow nitrate-nitrogen concentrations. An analysis of variance indicated that some systems were similar in terms of most of their treatment performance variables including BOD and SS. It follows that there is no need to use additional aggregates with high adsorption capacities in the primary treatment stage from the water quality point of view.

  8. Investigation of Trihalomethanes in Drinking Water of Abbas Abad Water Treatment Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiani R

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Chlorination is the most common and successful method for disinfection of drinking water, especially in developing countries. However, due to the probability of formation of disinfection by-products especially Trihalomethanes (THMs that are known as hazardous and usually carcinogenic compounds, this study was conducted to assess the investigation of THMs in drinking water of Abbas Abad water treatment plant in 2015. Methods: In this study, 81 water samples were gathered during autumn season of 2015. Temperature, pH, Ec, turbidity, and residual chlorine were measured on site. After samples preparation in the laboratory, THMs concentrations were determined using gas chromatography. All statistical analyses were performed using the SPSS statistical package. Results: The results showed that the minimum and maximum mean concentrations (µg/l for bromodichloromethane were 1.47 ± 0.57 and 1.90 ± 0.26, for bromoform were 1.47 ± 0.35 and 2.36 ± 1.10, for dibromochloromethane were 1.47 ± 0.42 and 1.53 ± 0.55, and for chloroform were 3.40 ± 0.70 and 7.53 ± 1.00, and all compounds were determined for stations 1 and 3, respectively. Also comparing the mean concentrations of assessed THMs with ISIRI and World Health Organization (WHO Maximum Permissible Limits (MPL showed significant differences (P < 0.05. Thus, the mean concentrations of all Trihalomethanes compounds were significantly lower than the maximum permissible limits. Conclusions: Although the mean concentrations of THMs were lower than MPL, yet due to discharge of restaurants and gardens’ wastewater into the Abbas Abad River, pre-chlorination process of water in Abbas Abad water treatment plant, high retention time and increasing loss of foliage into the water, especially in autumn season, the formation of Trihalomethanes compounds could increase. Therefore, periodic monitoring of THMs in drinking water distribution network is recommended.

  9. 75 FR 5732 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Establishment of a Nonessential Experimental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-04

    ...; military activities; recreation; poaching and hunting; clearing of desert scrub and planting of buffelgrass... Sonoran Desert; (4) drought and associated limited food and water; and (5) small population size and... Pipe Cactus National Monument (OPCNM), Commission of Ecology and Sustainable Development for the State...

  10. Detection of toxic metals in waste water from dairy products plant using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, T; Gondal, M A

    2008-06-01

    Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) System was developed locally for determination of toxic metals in liquid samples and the system was tested for analysis of waste water collected from dairy products processing plant. The plasma was generated by focusing a pulsed Nd: YAG laser at 1064 nm on waste water samples. Optimal experimental conditions were evaluated for improving the sensitivity of our LIBS system through parametric dependence investigations. The Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) results were then compared with the results obtained using standard analytical technique such as Inductively Coupled Plasma Emission Spectroscopy (ICP). The evaluation of the potential and capabilities of LIBS as a rapid tool for liquid sample analysis are discussed in brief.

  11. Estimates of the impacts of invasive alien plants on water flows in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The adverse impacts of alien plant invasions on water flows have been a prime motivation for South Africa's Working for Water Programme. The approach used in this study builds on a previous national assessment in 1998 by incorporating factors that limit plant water-use, information from recent research and improved flow ...

  12. Impact of drought on U.S. steam electric power plant cooling water intakes and related water resource management issues.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimmell, T. A.; Veil, J. A.; Environmental Science Division

    2009-04-03

    This report was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Existing Plants Research Program, which has an energy-water research effort that focuses on water use at power plants. This study complements their overall research effort by evaluating water availability at power plants under drought conditions. While there are a number of competing demands on water uses, particularly during drought conditions, this report focuses solely on impacts to the U.S. steam electric power plant fleet. Included are both fossil-fuel and nuclear power plants. One plant examined also uses biomass as a fuel. The purpose of this project is to estimate the impact on generation capacity of a drop in water level at U.S. steam electric power plants due to climatic or other conditions. While, as indicated above, the temperature of the water can impact decisions to halt or curtail power plant operations, this report specifically examines impacts as a result of a drop in water levels below power plant submerged cooling water intakes. Impacts due to the combined effects of excessive temperatures of the returned cooling water and elevated temperatures of receiving waters (due to high ambient temperatures associated with drought) may be examined in a subsequent study. For this study, the sources of cooling water used by the U.S. steam electric power plant fleet were examined. This effort entailed development of a database of power plants and cooling water intake locations and depths for those plants that use surface water as a source of cooling water. Development of the database and its general characteristics are described in Chapter 2 of this report. Examination of the database gives an indication of how low water levels can drop before cooling water intakes cease to function. Water level drops are evaluated against a number of different power plant characteristics, such as the nature of the water source (river vs. lake or reservoir

  13. Experimental techniques for characterising water in wood covering the range from dry to fully water-saturated

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thybring, Emil Engelund; Kymäläinen, Maija; Rautkari, Lauri

    2018-01-01

    Water plays a central role in wood research, since it affects all material properties relevant to the performance of wood materials. Therefore, experimental techniques for characterising water within wood are an essential part of nearly all scientific investigations of wood materials. This review...... focuses on selected experimental techniques that can give deeper insights into various aspects of water in wood in the entire moisture domain from dry to fully water-saturated. These techniques fall into three broad categories: (1) gravimetric techniques that determine how much water is absorbed, (2......) fibre saturation techniques that determine the amount of water within cell walls, and (3) spectroscopic techniques that provide insights into chemical wood–water interactions as well as yield information on water distribution in the macro-void wood structure. For all techniques, the general measurement...

  14. How increased extreme precipitation under future climate change affects plant water stress and water availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eekhout, Joris P. C.; Hunink, Johannes E.; de Vente, Joris

    2017-04-01

    For many areas worldwide, increased rainfall intensity and frequency of extreme weather events are projected for the coming century. This will have effect on water security and soil erosion in large parts of the world. Here we present a detailed catchment-scale study, arguing that global and regional studies may be insufficiently accurate to describe actual impacts on the redistribution of water and the consequences for soil erosion. We applied a hydrological model, including infiltration excess surface runoff, coupled with an erosion model. The model was applied to 1 reference and 4 future climate scenarios (2 periods and 2 Representative Concentration Pathways), consisting of an ensemble of 9 Regional Climate Models. The climatic input for the future scenarios was bias-corrected using quantile mapping. Our results show a significant increase of plant water stress, reservoir inflow, soil erosion and reservoir sedimentation in all 4 future scenarios. Hence, a redistribution of water is expected, where agriculture may shift from rainfed to irrigated crops as a result of decreasing soil moisture and increased reservoir inflow. At the same time, reservoir sedimentation increases and threatens long-term sustainability of water storage and water security. Our results emphasize the role infiltration excess surface runoff and bias-correction methods play in the quantification of the impact of increased intense precipitation on water availability and soil erosion at the catchment scale.

  15. Plant response to environmental conditions: assessing potential production, water demand and negative effects of water deficit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francois eTardieu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews methods for analyzing plant performance and its genetic variability under a range of environmental conditions. Biomass accumulation is linked every day to available light in the PAR domain, multiplied by the proportion of light intercepted by plants and by the radiation use efficiency. Total biomass is cumulated over the duration of the considered phase (e.g. plant cycle or vegetative phase. These durations are essentially constant for a given genotype provided that time is corrected for temperature (thermal time. Several ways of expressing thermal time are reviewed. Two alternative equations are presented, based either on the effect of transpiration, or on yield components. Their comparative interests and drawbacks are discussed. The genetic variability of each term of considered equations affects yield under water deficit, via mechanisms at different scales of plant organisation and time. The effect of any physiological mechanism on yield of stressed plants acts via one of these terms, although the link is not always straightforward. Finally, I propose practical ways to compare of the productivity of genotypes in field environments, and a ‘minimum dataset’ of environmental data and traits that should be recorded for that.

  16. Linking water age and solute dynamics in streamflow at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, NH, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolo Benettin; Scott W. Bailey; John L. Campbell; Mark B. Green; Andrea Rinaldo; Gene E. Likens; Kevin J. McGuire; Gianluca Botter

    2015-01-01

    We combine experimental and modeling results from a headwater catchment at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest (HBEF), New Hampshire, USA, to explore the link between stream solute dynamics and water age. A theoretical framework based on water age dynamics, which represents a general basis for characterizing solute transport at the catchment scale, is here applied to...

  17. Methods for estimating water consumption for thermoelectric power plants in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Timothy H.; Harris, Melissa; Murphy, Jennifer C.; Hutson, Susan S.; Ladd, David E.

    2013-01-01

    Water consumption at thermoelectric power plants represents a small but substantial share of total water consumption in the U.S. However, currently available thermoelectric water consumption data are inconsistent and incomplete, and coefficients used to estimate consumption are contradictory. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has resumed the estimation of thermoelectric water consumption, last done in 1995, based on the use of linked heat and water budgets to complement reported water consumption. This report presents the methods used to estimate freshwater consumption at a study set of 1,284 power plants based on 2010 plant characteristics and operations data.

  18. Experimental investigation on the optimal performance of Zeolite-water adsorption chiller

    KAUST Repository

    Myat, Aung

    2013-02-01

    This paper presents the performance testing of Zeolite adsorption cooling system driven by low grade waste heat source extracted from prime mover\\'s exhaust, power plant\\'s exhaust and the solar energy. The adsorbent FAM Z01 is used as an adsorbent in the adsorption chiller facility. Owing to its large equilibrium pore volume, it has the high affinity for the water vapor adsorbate. The key advantages of the Zeolite adsorption cooling system are: (i) it has no moving parts rendering less maintenance, (ii) the energy efficient means of cooling by the adsorption process with a low temperature heat source, (iii) the use of vapor pipes are replaced by self actuating vapor valves rendering smaller footprint area and (iv) it is environmental friendly with low carbon footprint. The experimental investigations were carried out for Zeolite adsorption chiller at different key operating conditions namely (i) heat source temperature, (ii) the cycle time and (iii) the heat recovery time. It is investigated that performance of coefficient (COP) of this system could be as high as 0.48 while the waste heat source temperature is applicable as low as 55 °C. © 2012.

  19. Water-Related Power Plant Curtailments: An Overview of Incidents and Contributing Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCall, James [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Macknick, Jordan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Macknick, Jordan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Water temperatures and water availability can affect the reliable operations of power plants in the United States. Data on water-related impacts on the energy sector are not consolidated and are reported by multiple agencies. This study provides an overview of historical incidents where water resources have affected power plant operations, discusses the various data sources providing information, and creates a publicly available and open access database that contains consolidated information about water-related power plant curtailment and shut-down incidents. Power plants can be affected by water resources if incoming water temperatures are too high, water discharge temperatures are too high, or if there is not enough water available to operate. Changes in climate have the potential to exacerbate uncertainty over water resource availability and temperature. Power plant impacts from water resources include curtailment of generation, plant shut-downs, and requests for regulatory variances. In addition, many power plants have developed adaptation approaches to reducing the potential risks of water-related issues by investing in new technologies or developing and implementing plans to undertake during droughts or heatwaves. This study identifies 42 incidents of water-related power plant issues from 2000-2015, drawing from a variety of different datasets. These incidents occur throughout the U.S., and affect coal and nuclear plants that use once-through, recirculating, and pond cooling systems. In addition, water temperature violations reported to the Environmental Protection Agency are also considered, with 35 temperature violations noted from 2012-2015. In addition to providing some background information on incidents, this effort has also created an open access database on the Open Energy Information platform that contains information about water-related power plant issues that can be updated by users.

  20. Evaluating and Improving Water Treatment Plant Processes at Fixed Army Installations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-05-01

    Activated Alumina Defluoridation Treatment Plants, National Sanitation Foundation, p 1. - 2 9 National Interim Primary Drinking Water Regulations, 40...7 RD-I7 306 EVALUATING AND IMPROVING WATER TREATMENT PLANT 1/2PROCESSES AT FIX~ED ARMY IN..U) CONSTRUCTIONENGINEERING RESEARCH LAB (ARMY) CHAMPAIGN...Corps C rof Engineers itECHNICAL REPORT N-85/10 Construction Engineering May 1985 Research Laboratory Technology for Upgrading Water Treatment Plants

  1. Effects of water inflow on the buffer - an experimental study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaberg, Andreas (Vattenfall Power Consultant AB, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2009-08-15

    Water inflow and its effect on the buffer during installation until the backfill is completed is a major concern for the repository concept. In this study, a full-scale model with a reduced height of a deposition hole has been designed. The behaviour, after installation, of the buffer with bentonite rings and pellets at different water inflow rates has been studied. This report describes these tests and the results and conclusions that have emerged. The result shows that piping occurs in all of the tests and that the bentonite pellets has no ability to seal the water pathways as long as there is a continuous inflow of water. The wetting pattern seems predictable at the studied inflow rates. The water flows upwards at 0.01 l/min and downwards at 0.1 l/min. Large heaving of the uppermost ring occurred compared to the lowermost due to the absence of overburden pressure

  2. Experimental Investigation and Modelling of a Wet Flue Gas Desulphurisation Pilot Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiil, Søren; Michelsen, Michael Locht; Dam-Johansen, Kim

    1998-01-01

    equations, governing the description of particle size distributions of limestone in the plant, were derived. Model predictions were compared to experimental data such as gas phase concentration profiles of SO2, slurry pH-profiles, solids content of the slurry, liquid phase concentrations, and residual...... limestone in the gypsum. Simulations were found to match experimental data for the two limestone types investigated. A parameter study of the model was conducted with the purpose of validating assumptions and extracting information on wet FGD systems. The modelling tools developed may be applicable to other...

  3. Folklore therapeutic indigenous plants in periodontal disorders in India (review, experimental and clinical approach).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, V K; Venkatakrishna-Bhatt, H

    1988-04-01

    Though a number of plants and their parts are used for dental ailments among population in rural and urban areas of developing countries, in India however, the most common house-hold, road-side plants are mango (Mangifera indica), neem (Azadirachta indica; Melia azadirachta), ocimum (Ocimum basilicum), tea-dust (Camellia sinensis) and uncommonly murayya, i.e., currey leaf (Murayya koenigi) [Chopra et al. 1958, Kirtikar and Basu 1935, Nadakarni 1954, Satyavati 1984]. The leaves of these plants are folded and brushed (massage with teadust) against the teeth. Therefore, the present study is restricted only to the fleshy leaf extracts [Jindal et al. 1975] (except tea) of these plants inspite of certain limitations in the methodology and arbitrations in the microbial identification and isolation in the light of recent advances in folk dentistry. The investigation was carried out in two parts: 1) Experimental study: The efficacy of various dentifrices (commonly available in the market) and the potentiating effect of the leaf extract (LE) of the aforesaid indigenous plants when amalgamated with the tooth-paste against pathogens, were investigated. Further, the protection afforded by the said plant extracts (PE) over the conventional allopathic medicines on the human plaque cultures and gram negative bacteria from patients were studied. 2) Clinical study: The therapeutic effects of the said PE (individually) on clinical application among severely infected patients were examined.

  4. The strength of plants: theory and experimental methods to measure the mechanical properties of stems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Darshil U; Reynolds, Thomas P S; Ramage, Michael H

    2017-07-20

    From the stems of agricultural crops to the structural trunks of trees, studying the mechanical behaviour of plant stems is critical for both commerce and science. Plant scientists are also increasingly relying on mechanical test data for plant phenotyping. Yet there are neither standardized methods nor systematic reviews of current methods for the testing of herbaceous stems. We discuss the architecture of plant stems and highlight important micro- and macrostructural parameters that need to be controlled and accounted for when designing test methodologies, or that need to be understood in order to explain observed mechanical behaviour. Then, we critically evaluate various methods to test structural properties of stems, including flexural bending (two-, three-, and four-point bending) and axial loading (tensile, compressive, and buckling) tests. Recommendations are made on best practices. This review is relevant to fundamental studies exploring plant biomechanics, mechanical phenotyping of plants, and the determinants of mechanical properties in cell walls, as well as to application-focused studies, such as in agro-breeding and forest management projects, aiming to understand deformation processes of stem structures. The methods explored here can also be extended to other elongated, rod-shaped organs (e.g. petioles, midribs, and even roots). © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Polyfluorinated compounds in waste water treatment plant effluents and surface waters along the River Elbe, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, Lutz; Felizeter, Sebastian; Sturm, Renate; Xie, Zhiyong; Ebinghaus, Ralf

    2009-09-01

    Polyfluorinated compounds (PFCs) were investigated in waste water treatment plant (WWTP) effluents and surface waters of the River Elbe from samples collected in 2007. Concentrations of various PFCs, including C(4)-C(8) perfluorinated sulfonates (PFSAs), C(6) and C(8) perfluorinated sulfinates, 6:2 fluorotelomer sulfonate, C(5)-C(13) perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs), C(4) and C(8) perfluoroalkyl sulfonamides and 6:2, 8:2 and 10:2 unsaturated fluorotelomercarboxylic acids were quantified. Sum PFC concentrations of the river water ranged from 7.6 to 26.4ngL(-1), whereas sum PFC concentrations of WWTP effluents were approximately 5-10 times higher (30.5-266.3ngL(-1)), indicating that WWTPs are potential sources of PFCs in the marine environment. PFC patterns of different WWTP effluents varied depending on the origin of the waste water, whereas the profile of PFC composition in the river water was relatively constant. In both kinds of water samples, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was the major PFC, whereas perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS) was the predominant PFSA.

  6. Oxygen isotope fractionation between analcime and water - An experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Haraldur R.; Clayton, Robert N.

    1990-01-01

    The oxygen isotope fractionation between analcime and water is studied to test the feasibility of using zeolites as low-temperature thermometers. The fractionation of oxygen isotopes between natural analcime and water is determined at 300, 350, and 400 C, and at fluid pressures ranging from 1.5 to 5.0 kbar. Also, isotope ratios for the analcime framework, the channel water, and bulk water are obtained. The results suggest that the channel water is depleted in O-18 relative to bulk water by a constant value of about 5 percent, nearly independent of temperature. The analcime-water fractionation curve is presented, showing that the exchange has little effect on grain morphology and does not involve recrystallization. The exchange is faster than any other observed for a silicate. The exchange rates suggest that zeolites in active high-temperature geothermal areas are in oxygen isotopic equilibrium with ambient fluids. It is concluded that calibrated zeolites may be excellent low-temperature oxygen isotope geothermometers.

  7. A vegetation-focused soil-plant-atmospheric continuum model to study hydrodynamic soil-plant water relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Zijuan; Guan, Huade; Hutson, John; Forster, Michael A.; Wang, Yunquan; Simmons, Craig T.

    2017-06-01

    A novel simple soil-plant-atmospheric continuum model that emphasizes the vegetation's role in controlling water transfer (v-SPAC) has been developed in this study. The v-SPAC model aims to incorporate both plant and soil hydrological measurements into plant water transfer modeling. The model is different from previous SPAC models in which v-SPAC uses (1) a dynamic plant resistance system in the form of a vulnerability curve that can be easily obtained from sap flow and stem xylem water potential time series and (2) a plant capacitance parameter to buffer the effects of transpiration on root water uptake. The unique representation of root resistance and capacitance allows the model to embrace SPAC hydraulic pathway from bulk soil, to soil-root interface, to root xylem, and finally to stem xylem where the xylem water potential is measured. The v-SPAC model was tested on a native tree species in Australia, Eucalyptus crenulata saplings, with controlled drought treatment. To further validate the robustness of the v-SPAC model, it was compared against a soil-focused SPAC model, LEACHM. The v-SPAC model simulation results closely matched the observed sap flow and stem water potential time series, as well as the soil moisture variation of the experiment. The v-SPAC model was found to be more accurate in predicting measured data than the LEACHM model, underscoring the importance of incorporating root resistance into SPAC models and the benefit of integrating plant measurements to constrain SPAC modeling.

  8. Experimental and theoretic investigations of thermal behavior of a seasonal water pit heat storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Jianhua; Huang, Junpeng; Chatzidiakos, Angelos

    Seasonal heat storages are considered essential for district heating systems because they offer flexibility for the system to integrate different fluctuating renewable energy sources. Water pit thermal storages (PTES) have been successfully implemented in solar district heating plants in Denmark...

  9. Use of an infrared thermometer for assessment of plant water stress in neck orange (Citrus reticulata Blanco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayan Sdoodee

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available In general, water stress causes stomatal closure in citrus, and this leads to higher leaf temperature. Recently, it has been reported that infrared thermometry technique can be used for detecting stomatal closure indirectly to assess plant water stress. Therefore, it was proposed to apply to neck orange. An experiment was arranged as a completely randomized design. There were 3 treatments of watering levels: 1 wellwatering (W1, 2 3-day interval watering (W2, and 3 6-day interval watering (W3 with 6 replicates. Eighteen 2-year-old trees of neck orange were used, and each tree was grown in a container (0.4 m3 filled with mixed media of soil, compost and sand (1:1:1. During 18 days of the experimental period, it was found that leaf water potential and stomatal conductance of the plants in W2 and W3 treatments decreased with the progress of water stress. There was high correlation (r2 = 0.71** between leaf water potential and stomatal conductance as a linear regression (Y = 0.0044X-1.8635. Canopy temperature (Tc and air temperature (Ta of each tree were measured by an infrared thermometer, and Tc-Ta was assessed. At the end of the experimental period, it was found that Tc-Ta was significantly highest in the W3 treatment (3.5ºC followed by the of W2 treatment (2ºC, while it was lowest in the W1 treatment (1ºC. The relationship between Tc-Ta and stomatal conductance was high as polynomial (Y = 0.0002X2 0.0572X+3.9878, r2 = 0.70**. This indicated that stomatal closure or decreasing stomatal conductance caused increasing of Tc-Ta in the leaves. Hence, it suggests that infrared thermometer is a convenient device for the assessment of plant water stress in neck orange.

  10. Soil-plant water status and wine quality: the case study of Aglianico wine (the ZOViSA project)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfante, Antonello; Manna, Piero; Albrizio, Rossella; Basile, Angelo; Agrillo, Antonietta; De Mascellis, Roberto; Caputo, Pellegrina; Delle Cave, Aniello; Gambuti, Angelita; Giorio, Pasquale; Guida, Gianpiero; Minieri, Luciana; Moio, Luigi; Orefice, Nadia; Terribile, Fabio

    2014-05-01

    The terroir analysis, aiming to achieve a better use of environmental features with respect to plant requirement and wine production, needs to be strongly rooted on hydropedology. In fact, the relations between wine quality and soil moisture regime during the cropping season is well established. The ZOViSA Project (Viticultural zoning at farm scale) tests a new physically oriented approach to terroir analysis based on the relations between the soil-plant water status and wine quality. The project is conducted in southern Italy in the farm Quintodecimo of Mirabella Eclano (AV) located in the Campania region, devoted to quality Aglianico red wine production (DOC). The soil spatial distribution of study area (about 3 ha) was recognized by classical soil survey and geophysics scan by EM38DD; then the soil-plant water status was monitored for three years in two experimental plots from two different soils (Cambisol and Calcisol). Daily climate variables (temperature, solar radiation, rainfall, wind), daily soil water variables (through TDR probes and tensiometers), crop development (biometric and physiological parameters), and grape must and wine quality were monitored. The agro-hydrological model SWAP was calibrated and applied in the two experimental plots to estimate soil-plant water status in different crop phenological stages. The effects of crop water status on crop response and wine quality was evaluated in two different pedo-systems, comparing the crop water stress index with both: crop physiological measurements (leaf gas exchange, leaf water potential, chlorophyll content, LAI measurement), grape bunches measurements (berry weight, sugar content, titratable acidity, etc.) and wine quality (aromatic response). Finally a "spatial application" of the model was carried out and different terroirs defined.

  11. Comparing removal of trace organic compounds and assimilable organic carbon (AOC) at advanced and traditional water treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Jie-Chung; Lin, Chung-Yi; Han, Jia-Yun; Tseng, Wei-Biu; Hsu, Kai-Lin; Chang, Ting-Wei

    2012-06-01

    Stability of drinking water can be indicated by the assimilable organic carbon (AOC). This AOC value represents the regrowth capacity of microorganisms and has large impacts on the quality of drinking water in a distribution system. With respect to the effectiveness of traditional and advanced processing methods in removing trace organic compounds (including TOC, DOC, UV(254), and AOC) from water, experimental results indicate that the removal rate of AOC at the Cheng Ching Lake water treatment plant (which utilizes advanced water treatment processes, and is hereinafter referred to as CCLWTP) is 54%, while the removal rate of AOC at the Gong Yuan water treatment plant (which uses traditional water treatment processes, and is hereinafter referred to as GYWTP) is 36%. In advanced water treatment units, new coagulation-sedimentation processes, rapid filters, and biological activated carbon filters can effectively remove AOC, total organic carbon (TOC), and dissolved organic carbon (DOC). In traditional water treatment units, coagulation-sedimentation processes are most effective in removing AOC. Simulation results and calculations made using the AutoNet method indicate that TOC, TDS, NH(3)-N, and NO(3)-N should be regularly monitored in the CCLWTP, and that TOC, temperature, and NH(3)-N should be regularly monitored in the GYWTP.

  12. Financial Analysis of Experimental Releases Conducted at Glen Canyon Dam during Water Year 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graziano, Diane [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Poch, Leslie A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Veselka, Thomas D. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Palmer, C. S. [Colorado River Storage Project Management Center, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Loftin, S. [Colorado River Storage Project Management Center, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Osiek, B. [Colorado River Storage Project Management Center, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2014-06-01

    This report examines the financial implications of experimental flows conducted at the Glen Canyon Dam (GCD) in water year 2013. It is the fifth report in a series examining the financial implications of experimental flows conducted since the Record of Decision (ROD) was adopted in February 1997 (Reclamation 1996). A report released in January 2011 examined water years 1997 to 2005 (Veselka et al. 2011), a report released in August 2011 examined water years 2006 to 2010 (Poch et al. 2011), a report released June 2012 examined water year 2011 (Poch et al. 2012), and a report released April 2013 examined water year 2012 (Poch et al. 2013).

  13. Financial analysis of experimental releases conducted at Glen Canyon Dam during Water Year 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graziano, D. J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Center for Energy, Environmental, and Economic Systems Analysis Decision and Information Sciences Div.; Poch, L. A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Center for Energy, Environmental, and Economic Systems Analysis Decision and Information Sciences Div.; Veselka, T. D. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Center for Energy, Environmental, and Economic Systems Analysis Decision and Information Sciences Div.; Palmer, C. S. [Western Area Power Administration, Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Colorado River Storage Project Management Center; Loftin, S. [Western Area Power Administration, Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Colorado River Storage Project Management Center; Osiek, B. [Western Area Power Administration, Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Colorado River Storage Project Management Center

    2014-08-18

    This report examines the financial implications of experimental flows conducted at the Glen Canyon Dam (GCD) in water year 2013. It is the fifth report in a series examining the financial implications of experimental flows conducted since the Record of Decision (ROD) was adopted in February 1997 (Reclamation 1996). A report released in January 2011 examined water years 1997 to 2005 (Veselka et al. 2011), a report released in August 2011 examined water years 2006 to 2010 (Poch et al. 2011), a report released June 2012 examined water year 2011 (Poch et al. 2012), and a report released April 2013 examined water year 2012 (Poch et al. 2013).

  14. Experimental Study and Engineering Practice of Pressured Water Coupling Blasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. X. Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Overburden strata movement in large space stope is the major reason that induces the appearance of strong mining pressure. Presplitting blasting for hard coal rocks is crucial for the prevention and control of strong pressure in stope. In this study, pressured water coupling blasting technique was proposed. The process and effect of blasting were analyzed by orthogonal test and field practice. Results showed that the presence of pressure-bearing water and explosive cartridges in the drill are the main influence factors of the blasting effect of cement test block. The high load-transmitting performance of pore water and energy accumulation in explosive cartridges were analyzed. Noxious substances produced during the blasting process were properly controlled because of the moistening, cooling, and diluting effect of pore water. Not only the goal of safe and static rock fragmentation by high-explosive detonation but also a combination of superdynamic blast loading and static loading effect of the pressured water was achieved. Then the practice of blasting control of hard coal rocks in Datong coal mine was analyzed to determine reasonable parameters of pressured water coupling blasting. A good presplitting blasting control effect was achieved for the hard coal rocks.

  15. Plant water resource partitioning and isotopic fractionation during transpiration in a seasonally dry tropical climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Wispelaere, Lien; Bodé, Samuel; Hervé-Fernández, Pedro; Hemp, Andreas; Verschuren, Dirk; Boeckx, Pascal

    2017-01-01

    Lake Chala (3°19' S, 37°42' E) is a steep-sided crater lake situated in equatorial East Africa, a tropical semiarid area with a bimodal rainfall pattern. Plants in this region are exposed to a prolonged dry season, and we investigated if (1) these plants show spatial variability and temporal shifts in their water source use; (2) seasonal differences in the isotopic composition of precipitation are reflected in xylem water; and (3) plant family, growth form, leaf phenology, habitat and season influence the xylem-to-leaf water deuterium enrichment. In this study, the δ2H and δ18O of precipitation, lake water, groundwater, plant xylem water and plant leaf water were measured across different plant species, seasons and plant habitats in the vicinity of Lake Chala. We found that plants rely mostly on water from the short rains falling from October to December (northeastern monsoon), as these recharge the soil after the long dry season. This plant-available, static water pool is only slightly replenished by the long rains falling from February to May (southeastern monsoon), in agreement with the two water worlds hypothesis, according to which plants rely on a static water pool while a mobile water pool recharges the groundwater. Spatial variability in water resource use exists in the study region, with plants at the lakeshore relying on a water source admixed with lake water. Leaf phenology does not affect water resource use. According to our results, plant species and their associated leaf phenology are the primary factors influencing the enrichment in deuterium from xylem water to leaf water (ɛl/x), with deciduous species giving the highest enrichment, while growth form and season have negligible effects. Our observations have important implications for the interpretation of δ2H of plant leaf wax n-alkanes (δ2Hwax) from paleohydrological records in tropical East Africa, given that the temporal variability in the isotopic composition of precipitation is not

  16. Global Distribution of Plant-Extractable Water Capacity of Soil (Dunne)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: Plant-extractable water capacity of soil is the amount of water that can be extracted from the soil to fulfill evapotranspiration demands. This data set...

  17. Global Distribution of Plant-Extractable Water Capacity of Soil (Dunne)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Plant-extractable water capacity of soil is the amount of water that can be extracted from the soil to fulfill evapotranspiration demands. This data set provides an...

  18. ISLSCP II Total Plant-Available Soil Water Storage Capacity of the Rooting Zone

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides two estimates of the geographic distribution of the total plant-available soil water storage capacity of the rooting zone ("rooting zone water...

  19. Effects of gasification biochar on plant-available water capacity and plant growth in two contrasting soil types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Veronika; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Petersen, Carsten Tilbæk

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Gasification biochar (GB) contains recalcitrant carbon that can contribute to soil carbon sequestration and soil quality improvement. However, the impact of GB on plant-available water capacity (AWC) and plant growth in diverse soil types still needs to be explored. A pot experiment...... with spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) was conducted to investigate the effect of soil amendment by 1% straw and wood gasification biochar (SGB and WGB), respectively, on AWC and plant growth responses under two levels of water supply in a temperate sandy loam and a coarse sandy subsoil. In the sandy loam...

  20. Measurements of physical-chemical characteristics of dairy plant waste waters

    OpenAIRE

    Stefanović Dragoslav; Vojnović-Miloradov Mirjana; Lemić Jovan; Kurajica Milorad; Kovačević Dragana

    2008-01-01

    Characteristics of waste waters of the dairy industry are specific and differ essentially from waste waters of other branches of the food industry. The complexity of production in dairy plants with several units for different products render the problem of waste waters of this industry particularly complex. Waste waters of the AD Imlek dairy plant were sampled and their chemical characteristics were determined at different seasons of the year and at different times of the day in the years 200...

  1. Phenological synchrony between a butterfly and its host plants: Experimental test of effects of spring temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posledovich, Diana; Toftegaard, Tenna; Wiklund, Christer; Ehrlén, Johan; Gotthard, Karl

    2018-01-01

    Climate-driven changes in the relative phenologies of interacting species may potentially alter the outcome of species interactions. Phenotypic plasticity is expected to be important for short-term response to new climate conditions, and differences between species in plasticity are likely to influence their temporal overlap and interaction patterns. As reaction norms of interacting species may be locally adapted, any such climate-induced change in interaction patterns may vary among localities. However, consequences of spatial variation in plastic responses for species interactions are understudied. We experimentally explored how temperature affected synchrony between spring emergence of a butterfly, Anthocharis cardamines, and onset of flowering of five of its host plant species across a latitudinal gradient. We also studied potential effects on synchrony if climate-driven northward expansions would be faster in the butterflies than in host plants. Lastly, to assess how changes in synchrony influence host use we carried out an experiment to examine the importance of the developmental stage of plant reproductive structures for butterfly oviposition preference. In southern locations, the butterflies were well-synchronized with the majority of their local host plant species across temperatures, suggesting that thermal plasticity in butterfly development matches oviposition to host plant development and that thermal reaction norms of insects and plants result in similar advancement of spring phenology in response to warming. In the most northern region, however, relative phenology between the butterfly and two of its host plant species changed with increased temperature. We also show that the developmental stage of plants was important for egg-laying, and conclude that temperature-induced changes in synchrony in the northernmost region are likely to lead to shifts in host use in A. cardamines if spring temperatures become warmer. Northern expansion of butterfly

  2. Elevated ozone concentration decreases whole-plant hydraulic conductance and disturbs water use regulation in soybean plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei-Wei; Wang, Miao; Wang, Ai-Ying; Yin, Xiao-Han; Feng, Zhao-Zhong; Hao, Guang-You

    2017-11-30

    Elevated tropospheric ozone (O3 ) concentration has been shown to affect many aspects of plant performance including detrimental effects on leaf photosynthesis and plant growth. However, it is not known whether such changes are accompanied by concomitant responses in plant hydraulic architecture and water relations, which would have great implications for plant growth and survival in face of unfavorable water conditions. A soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) cultivar commonly used in Northeast China was exposed to non-filtered air (NF, averaged 24.0 nl l-1 ) and elevated O3 concentrations (eO3 , 40 nl l-1 supplied with NF air) in six open-top chambers for 50 days. The eO3 treatment resulted in a significant decrease in whole-plant hydraulic conductance that is mainly attributable to the reduced hydraulic conductance of the root system and the leaflets, while stem and leaf petiole hydraulic conductance showed no significant response to eO3 . Stomatal conductance of plants grown under eO3 was lower during mid-morning but significantly higher at midday, which resulted in substantially more negative daily minimum water potentials. Moreover, excised leaves from the eO3 treated plants showed significantly higher rates of water loss, suggesting a lower ability to withhold water when water supply is impeded. Our results indicate that, besides the direct detrimental effects of eO3 on photosynthetic carbon assimilation, its influences on hydraulic architecture and water relations may also negatively affect O3 -sensitive crops by deteriorating the detrimental effects of unfavorable water conditions. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  3. [Purification effects of large-area planting water hyacinth on water environment of Zhushan Bay, Lake Taihu].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guo-feng; Zhang, Zhi-yong; Yan, Shao-hua; Zhang, Ying-ying; Liu, Hai-qin; Fan, Cheng-xin

    2011-05-01

    Using water hyacinth and other fast-growing and high biomass of floating plants to purify polluted water has become an efficient and effective ecological restoration method at present. Effects of nutrients adsorption and water purification of planting water hyacinth on water quality in Zhushan Bay were studied. The results indicated that no anoxia was observed in water hyacinth planting areas because of wave disturbance and strong water exchange. Concentrations of TN and TP in water hyacinth planting areas were higher than that in the outside of stocking area (the content ranged 3.03-7.45 mg/L and 0.15-0.38 mg/L, respectively), and the content changes ranged 3.37-8.02 mg/L and 0.15-0.36 mg/L,respectively. The higher concentration of TN and TP in water indicated the water body was heavily polluted. Water hyacinth roots have a strong ability to adsorb suspended solids and algae cells, the concentration of Chl-a in stocking areas was higher than that in stocking fringe and outside, the maximum Chlorophyll in the stocking region in August was 177.01 mg/m3, and at the same time the concentrations in planting fringe and outside were 101.53 mg/m3 and 76.96 mg/m, respectively. Higher Chl-a content on water hyacinth roots indicated that water hyacinth had strong blocking effects on algae cells, and demonstrated it had a great purification effects on eutrophicated water, and it also provides a basis for the larger polluted water bodies purification in using water hyacinth.

  4. Solid -liquid extraction of andrographolide from plants experimental study, kinetic reaction and model

    OpenAIRE

    Wongkittipong, Rutchadaporn; Prat, Laurent E.; Damronglerd, Somsak; Gourdon, Christophe

    2004-01-01

    Solid - liquid extraction is performed from leaves and stems of Andrographis paniculata in ethanol - water solvent, in order to obtain andrographolide. The first part of this work concerns the acquisition of the raw plant geometric and physicochemical characteristics. Then batch experiments are done in order to study the influences of the operating parameters (temperature, nature of the solvent and particles size). Furthermore, the destruction of the solute with high temperature is also st...

  5. Experimental study on total dissolved gas supersaturation in water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu QU

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available More and more high dams have been constructed and operated in China. The total dissolved gas (TDG supersaturation caused by dam discharge leads to gas bubble disease or even death of fish. Through a series of experiments, the conditions and requirements of supersaturated TDG generation were examined in this study. The results show that pressure (water depth, aeration, and bubble dissolution time are required for supersaturated TDG generation, and the air-water contact area and turbulence intensity are the main factors that affect the generation rate of supersaturated TDG. The TDG supersaturation levels can be reduced by discharging water to shallow shoals downstream of the dam or using negative pressure pipelines. Furthermore, the TDG supersaturation levels in stilling basins have no direct relationship with those in reservoirs. These results are of great importance for further research on the prediction of supersaturated TDG generation caused by dam discharge and aquatic protection.

  6. Experimental Studies of Laser-Induced Fluorescence Spectra of Plants Immunity to the Kind of Ground

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. V. Fedotov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Various external factors (pollutants available in the soil, a lack or insufficient amount of water and nutrients, etc. lead to stressful conditions of plants and impossibility of their normal development. At the early stages it is difficult to identify visually the stressful situations of plants. Therefore development of methods and devices to detect stressful states is important.A method of the laser-induced fluorescence is one of perspective methods for detection of stressful conditions of plants.In spite of quite a great number of work presenting results of the pilot studies of fluorescence spectra of vegetation, there are some important issues, which are unclear.The paper gives results of pilot studies of stability of a spectrum form of the laser-induced fluorescence of plants for different types of soil at the wavelength of excitation fluorescence of 532 nm.Results of processing fluorescence spectra of plants show:- fluorescence spectra of plants grown up under similar conditions have good repeatability of a spectra form for different samples of plants and different measurement time for each type of studied soil. The ratio value R of the fluorescence intensity at the wavelength of 685 nm to the fluorescence intensity at the wavelength of 740 nm has high stability. The standard deviation in sampling of the ratio R of different samples of a plant for one type of soil (for width of spectral ranges of recording fluorescent radiation of 10 nm lies in the range ~ 0.055 - ~ 0.12;- a difference in plant fluorescence spectra between themselves for different types of soil has the same order as a difference in fluorescence spectra of different samples of a plant for one type of soil. Difference in average value of the ratio R for different types of soil lies in the range ~ 0.01 - ~ 0.15.Thus, the value of the ratio R is steady against a type of soil and can be used to control a condition of plants.

  7. Experimental determination of cavitation thresholds in liquid water and mercury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taleyarkhan, R.P.; West, C.D. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Moraga, F. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States)

    1998-11-01

    An overview is provided on cavitation threshold measurement experiments for water and mercury. Various aspects to be considered that affect onset determination are discussed along with design specifications developed for construction of appropriate apparatus types. Both static and transient-cavitation effects were studied using radically different apparatus designs. Preliminary data are presented for cavitation thresholds for water and mercury over a range of temperatures in static and high-frequency environments. Implications and issues related to spallation neutron source target designs and operation are discussed.

  8. Experimental evaluation of admission and disposition of artificial radionuclides including transuranium elements in agricultural plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozhakhanov, T.; Lukashenko, S. [Institute of radiation safety and ecology (Kazakhstan)

    2014-07-01

    Processes of radionuclides migration and transfer to agricultural plants are quite well developed worldwide, but the information on character of accumulation of {sup 241}Am and {sup 239+240}Pu transuranium radionuclides in agricultural plants is still fragmentary. Even in generalized materials of worldwide studies, IAEA guide, accumulation coefficient (AC) can have wide range of values (5-6 orders), no data exists on radionuclides' distribution in different organs of plants and they are given for joined groups of plants and types of soils. That is why the main aim of this work was to obtain basic quantitative parameters of radionuclides' migration in 'soil-plant' system, and firs of all- for transuranium elements.. In 2010 a series of experiments with agricultural plants was started at the territory of the former Semipalatinsk Test Site aimed to investigate entry of artificial radionuclides by crop products in natural climatic conditions. To conduct the experiment for study of coefficient of radionuclides' accumulation by agricultural corps, there was chosen a land spot at the STS territory, characterized by high concentration of radionuclides: {sup 241}Am - n*10{sup 4} Bq/kg, {sup 137}Cs - n*10{sup 3} Bq/kg, {sup 90}Sr - n*10{sup 3} Bq/kg and {sup 239+240}Pu- n*10{sup 5} Bq/kg. As objects of investigation, cultures, cultivated in Kazakhstan have been selected: wheat (Triticum vulgare), barley (Hordeum vulgare), oat (Avena sativa L.), water melon (Citrullus vulgaris), melon (Cucumis melo), potato (Solanum tuberosum), eggplant (Solanum melongena), pepper (Capsicum annuum), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), sunflower (Helianthus cultus), onion (Allium cepa), carrot (Daucus carota), parsley(Petroselinum vulgare)and cabbage (Brassica oleracea). Investigated plants have been planted within the time limits, recommended for selected types of agricultural plants. Cropping system included simple agronomic and amelioration measures. Fertilizers were not

  9. The unexpected effects of wind speeds on plant water use efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schymanski, S. J.; Or, D.

    2013-12-01

    Transpiration and heat exchange by plant leaves are coupled physiological processes of significant ecohydrological importance. The common practice of modelling transpiration as an isothermal process (assuming equal leaf and air temperatures) may introduce significant bias into estimates of transpiration rates and water use efficiency (WUE, the amount of carbon gained by photosynthesis per unit of water lost by transpiration). In a recent study (Schymanski et al., 2013), we investigated effects of fluctuating irradiance (sunflecks) on leaf thermal regime and transpiration rates using a physically-based leaf model. Results suggest that leaf temperatures may deviate substantially from air temperature, leading to greatly modified transpiration rates compared to isothermal conditions. This presentation reports a systematic study of the effects of wind speed on leaf heat and gas exchange rates. Surprisingly, under certain conditions, an increase in wind speed can suppress transpiration rates. This is due to feedbacks between sensible heat flux, leaf temperature, leaf-to-air vapour pressure deficit and latent heat flux. The model predicts that for high wind velocities, the same leaf conductance (for water vapour and carbon dioxide) can be maintained with less evaporative losses. If this leaf-scale effect is consistent across most leaves, it may have profound implications for canopy-scale water use efficiency under globally decreasing wind speeds. Experimental verification of the modelling study is under way and first results will be presented.

  10. Mycorrhizal fungi enhance plant nutrient acquisition and modulate nitrogen loss with variable water regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, Timothy M; Jackson, Louise E; Cavagnaro, Timothy R

    2018-01-01

    Climate change will alter both the amount and pattern of precipitation and soil water availability, which will directly affect plant growth and nutrient acquisition, and potentially, ecosystem functions like nutrient cycling and losses as well. Given their role in facilitating plant nutrient acquisition and water stress resistance, arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi may modulate the effects of changing water availability on plants and ecosystem functions. The well-characterized mycorrhizal tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) genotype 76R (referred to as MYC+) and the mutant mycorrhiza-defective tomato genotype rmc were grown in microcosms in a glasshouse experiment manipulating both the pattern and amount of water supply in unsterilized field soil. Following 4 weeks of differing water regimes, we tested how AM fungi affected plant productivity and nutrient acquisition, short-term interception of a 15NH4+ pulse, and inorganic nitrogen (N) leaching from microcosms. AM fungi enhanced plant nutrient acquisition with both lower and more variable water availability, for instance increasing plant P uptake more with a pulsed water supply compared to a regular supply and increasing shoot N concentration more when lower water amounts were applied. Although uptake of the short-term 15NH4+ pulse was higher in rmc plants, possibly due to higher N demand, AM fungi subtly modulated NO3- leaching, decreasing losses by 54% at low and high water levels in the regular water regime, with small absolute amounts of NO3- leached (systems that are more resilient to these changes. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Comparison of corn yield response to plant water stress caused by salinity and by drought

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katerji, N.; Hoorn, van J.W.; Hamdy, A.; Mastrorilli, M.

    2004-01-01

    The effect of water stress on corn yield was studied in a salinity experiment and in a drought experiment. The plant water status was determined by measuring the pre-dawn leaf water potential regularly during the whole growing season and expressed by the water stress day index (WSDI). The yield

  12. Water osmotic absorption in Coleus blumei plants under salinity stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ozinaldo Alves de Sena

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Three month old Coleus blumei plants in pots were treated with different NaCl concentrations: 0.00, 0.25, 0.50 and 1.00%. To determine the water osmotic absorption, the plants had their stems cut at 10 cm from the soil surface. The remaining stems were linked to glass tubes by flexible rubber tubes. Readings of the water column level in the glass tubes were performed at each 30 minutes, corresponding to the water osmotic absorption, with a total of eleven readings. Other Coleus blumei, with the same age, received the NaCl concentrations, and were evaluated under field conditions in terms of transpiration and stomatal resistance. A randomized complete block analysis was used with five replications. An increase of osmotic absorption was verified for all treatments up to three hours after application. Then a proportional reversion of osmotic absorption to the increases on saline concentration was observed, with a higher effect in the treatment with NaCl 1.00%, showing the increase of water loss by the roots. During this period time, the treatment showed a normal linear growth of the osmotic absorption. Transpiration was reduced proportionally to the increase of salinity concentration.Mudas envasadas de Coleus blumei, com três meses de idade, foram submetidas a diferentes concentrações de cloreto de sódio (NaCl: 0,00; 0,25; 0,50 e 1,00%. Visando determinar a absorção osmótica, as mudas tiveram seus caules cortados a 10 cm acima do solo. Os caules remanescentes foram interligados a tubos de vidro por tubos flexíveis de borracha. Foram feitas leituras (cm a cada 30 minutos dos níveis das colunas de água nos capilares, correspondentes às absorções osmóticas de água, sendo ao todo realizadas onze leituras. Em outro momento, mudas de C. blumei, com a mesma idade das anteriores, receberam as mesmas concentrações de NaCl descritas anteriormente, e, ao ar livre, foram avaliadas em termos de transpiração e resistência estomática, usando

  13. Experimental Study of Subcritical Water Liquefaction of Biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Zhe; Toor, Saqib; Rosendahl, Lasse

    2014-01-01

    In this work, hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of wood industry residues (wood, bark, sawdust) and macroalgae for producing biofuels has been investigated under subcritical water conditions (at temperature of 300 C), with and without the presence of catalyst. The effects of catalyst and biomass type...

  14. Experimental partition determination of octanol-water coefficients of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An electrochemical method based on square wave voltammetry was developed for the measurement of octanol-water partition coefficient, LogP, for ten ferrocene derivatives. Measured LogP values ranged over two orders of magnitude, between 2.18 for 1- ferrocenylethanol and 4.38 for ferrocenyl-2-nitrophenyl.

  15. EFFECT OF SOIL WATER POTENTIAL ON TRANSPIRATION RATE IN CUCUMBER PLANTS

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Tosio; Eguchi, Hiromi; Kuroda, Masaharu; Tanaka, Akira; Koutaki, Masahiro; Ng, Ah Lek; Matsui, Tsuyoshi

    1985-01-01

    In an attempt to examine the effect of soil water potential (pF) on transpiration rate, leaf temperature of cucumber plants was measured under various conditions of soil water potential, and transpiration rate was calculated from heat balance of the leaf. Transpiration rate decreased with reduction in soil water potential; transpiration rate dropped at soil water potentials lower than pF 3.0. This fact suggests that the reduction in soil water potential restricts water uptake in roots and cau...

  16. Geographic, technologic, and economic analysis of using reclaimed water for thermoelectric power plant cooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stillwell, Ashlynn S; Webber, Michael E

    2014-04-15

    Use of reclaimed water-municipal wastewater treatment plant effluent-in nonpotable applications can be a sustainable and efficient water management strategy. One such nonpotable application is at thermoelectric power plants since these facilities require cooling, often using large volumes of freshwater. To evaluate the geographic, technologic, and economic feasibility of using reclaimed water to cool thermoelectric power plants, we developed a spatially resolved model of existing power plants. Our model integrates data on power plant and municipal wastewater treatment plant operations into a combined geographic information systems and optimization approach to evaluate the feasibility of cooling system retrofits. We applied this broadly applicable methodology to 125 power plants in Texas as a test case. Results show that sufficient reclaimed water resources exist within 25 miles of 92 power plants (representing 61% of capacity and 50% of generation in our sample), with most of these facilities meeting both short-term and long-term water conservation cost goals. This retrofit analysis indicates that reclaimed water could be a suitable cooling water source for thermoelectric power plants, thereby mitigating some of the freshwater impacts of electricity generation.

  17. STAR POLYMER/WATER SOLUTIONS: NEW EXPERIMENTAL FINDINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.Branca

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present work is to highlight a number of recent experimental results that have contributed significantly to the research area of star polymer. Firstly we will refer to a very impressive SANS work by J.Peyrelasse, C.Perreur, J.-P.Habas and J.Francois which is focused on the study of the structural properties of aqueous solutions of a star copolymer of PEO and PPO by Small Angle Neutron Scattering. Next, we will refer to some experimental advances reported in the work by R.Triolo, V.Arrighi, A.Triolo, P.Migliardo, S.Magazu, J.B.McClain, D.Betts, J.M.DeSimone, H.D.Middendorf, which deals with a study of some dynamical properties of PS-b-PFOA aggregates in supercritical CO2 by Quasi Elastic Neutron Scattering.

  18. Experimental investigation on water flow in cubic arrays of spheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, K.; Wan, J. W.; Chen, C. X.; He, L. Q.; Mei, W. B.; Zhang, M. Y.

    2013-06-01

    One-dimensional uniform flow in homogeneous porous media was experimentally investigated. Head drop experiments were conducted in four test tubes with cubic arrays of spheres in diameter 3 mm, 5 mm, 8 mm and 10 mm. The experimental results indicate that Darcy’s law should be an approximate expression by neglecting the inertial term for flow at low velocity. Nonlinearity is attributed to inertial term in porous medium before the turbulent flow emerges. Forchheimer equation with constant coefficients can well predict the flow in porous medium. The relationship between the diameter of the particles and the coefficients a and b in the equations were verified. Different Ergun type equations were used to predict the head drop and compared to the experimental data. It shows that the Irmay equation could well predict the fluid flow in cubic arrays of spheres, while the prediction of head drop by Ergun equation was much higher than observed data. It indicates that the coefficients α and β in the Ergun type equations have certain relations with porosity or the pore structure and would vary for different medium. The discontinuity observed was interpreted by transition from steady flow to weakly turbulence and compared with previous studies.

  19. Evaluation of Irrigation Methods for Highbush Blueberry. I. Growth and Water Requirements of Young Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was conducted in a new field of northern highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L. 'Elliott') to determine the effects of different irrigation methods on growth and water requirements of uncropped plants during the first 2 years after planting. The plants were grown on mulched, raised beds...

  20. The effects of Niger State water treatment plant effluent on its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of water treatment plant effluent on its receiving river (Kaduna) was examined. Samples were collected from the effluents discharge from Chanchaga water treatment plant into upstream and down stream of the receiving river monthly for six month. Samples were analyzed in the laboratory for microbial counts and ...

  1. On the interaction between fuel crud and water chemistry in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiaxin Chen [Studsvik Material AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    2000-01-01

    This report has surveyed the current understanding about the characteristics of fuel crud, its deposition and dissolution behaviour, the influences of water chemistry, and the radioactivity transport in nuclear power plants. The references were mainly sought for from the International Nuclear Information System (INIS) database and some internal reports of Studsvik Material AB. The characteristics of fuel crud from discharged fuel rods have been extensively investigated over the last three decades. Fuel crud mainly consists of iron, nickel and chromium oxides. For BWR fuel crud the main phases are hematite and nonstoichiometric nickel ferrite spinels. For PWR fuel crud the main phases are nonstoichiometric nickel ferrite and nickel metal or nickel oxide. Fuel crud is usually thin and relatively porous in the outer layer but dense in the inner layer. Important information is lacking about the adhesion property of crud particles or agglomerates on fuel rods. Little, if any, information is reported about the characteristics of fuel crud before discharging in pool. It is uncertain if the fuel crud can, after pool discharge, largely preserve its characteristics appearing during reactor operation. Deposition behaviour of corrosion products on fuel rods, in both solid particles and ionic forms in reactor water, has been well studied in the simulated reactor water environments without irradiation. The influences on deposition rate of pH, heat flux, particle size, crud concentration, and flow rate have also been studied in detail. Most of the experimental observations may be qualitatively explained by the theories developed. However, the importance of each influencing parameter remains largely unknown in the complicated reactor water environments, because irradiation, among various influencing factors, may play an important role. The behaviour of crud dissolution has been extensively studied in various reactor water environments. Generally speaking, the more easily crud

  2. Building an understanding of water use innovation adoption processes through farmer-driven experimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturdy, Jody D.; Jewitt, Graham P. W.; Lorentz, Simon A.

    irrigation and water harvesting with run-on ditches tended to improve water use efficiency. Wetting front detectors (WFD) were shown to have some potential as management tools for farmers, provided certain limitations are addressed, while drip irrigation was found to be impractical because the available drip kits were prone to malfunction and farmers believed they did not provide enough water to the plants. Farmers participating in a series of monthly, hands-on workshops that encouraged individual experimentation tended to adopt and sustain use of many introduced garden innovations. Farmers who were also seriously involved in a formalized research and experimentation process at their own homesteads became more proficient with gardening systems in general, through continual trial-and-error comparisons and making decisions based on observations, than those who were not involved. This suggests that the practice of on-going experimentation, once established, reaches beyond the limits of facilitation by researchers or extension agents, into the realm of sustainable change and livelihood improvement through adoption, adaptation and dissemination of agricultural innovations.

  3. Experimental analysis of drainage and water storage of litter layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Guevara-Escobar

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Many hydrological studies of forested ecosystems focus on the study of the forest canopy and have partitioned gross precipitation into throughfall and stemflow. However, the presence of forest litter can alter the quantities of water available for soil infiltration and runoff. Little information exists regarding the value of storage and drainage parameters for litter layers. Vegetation parameters of this kind are required in physically-based and lumped conceptual models to quatify the availabilty and distribution of water. Using a rainfall simulator and laboratory conditions two main objectives were investigated using layers of recently seneced poplar leaves, fresh grass or woodchips:

    1 Effect of rain intensity on storage. With this respect we found that: maximum storage (Cmax, defined as the detention of water immediately before rainfall cessation, increased with rainfall intensity. The magnitude of the increment was up to 0.5 mm kg−1 m−2 between the lowest (9.8 mm h−1 and highest (70.9 mm h−1 rainfall intensities for poplar leaves. Minimum storage (Cmin, defined as the detention of water after drainage ceased, was not influenced by rainfall intensity. Repeated wetting-draining cycles or layer thickness have no effect on Cmax or Cmin.

    2 The evaluation of drainage coefficient for the Rutter model. This model was found accurate to predict storage and drainage in the case of poplar leaves, was less accurate for fresh grass and resulted in overestimations for woodchips.

    Additionally, the effect of an underlaying soil matrix on lateral movement of water and storage of poplar leaves was studied. Results indicated that the soil matrix have no effect on Cmax or Cmin of the litter layer. Lateral movement of water in the poplar layer was observed at intermediate rainfall

  4. Arbuscular mycorrhizae reducing water loss in maize plants under low temperature stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xian Can; Song, Feng Bin; Liu, Tie Dong; Liu, Sheng Qun

    2010-05-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi form mutualistic mycorrhizal symbiotic associations with the roots of approximately 80% of all terrestrial plant species while facilitate the uptake of soil mineral nutrients by plants and in exchange obtain carbohydrates, thus representing a large sink for photosynthetically fixed carbon. Also, AM symbiosis increase plants resistance to abiotic stress such as chilling. In a recent study we reported that AM fungi improve low temperature stress in maize plants via alterations in host water status and photosynthesis. Here, the influence of AM fungus, Glomus etunicatum, on water loss rate and growth of maize plants was studied in pot culture under low temperature stress. The results indicated that low temperature stress significantly decreases the total fresh weight of maize plants, and AM symbiosis alleviate the water loss in leaves of maize plants.

  5. Combustion of oil on water: an experimental program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-02-01

    This study determined how well crude and fuel oils burn on water. Objectives were: (1) to measure the burning rates for several oils; (2) to determine whether adding heat improves the oils' combustibility; (3) to identify the conditions necessary to ignite fuels known to be difficult to ignite on ocean waters (e.g., diesel and Bunker C fuel oils); and (4) to evaluate the accuracy of an oil-burning model proposed by Thompson, Dawson, and Goodier (1979). Observations were made about how weathering and the thickness of the oil layer affect the combustion of crude and fuel oils. Nine oils commonly transported on the world's major waterways were tested. Burns were first conducted in Oklahoma under warm-weather conditions (approx. 30/sup 0/C) and later in Ohio under cold-weather conditions (approx. 0/sup 0/C to 10/sup 0/C).

  6. An Experimental Study of Oil / Water Flow in Horizontal Pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elseth, Geir

    2001-07-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to study the behaviour of the simultaneous flow of oil and water in horizontal pipes. In this connection, two test facilities are used. Both facilities have horizontal test sections with inner pipe diameters equal to 2 inches. The largest facility, called the model oil facility, has reservoirs of 1 m{sub 3} of each medium enabling flow rates as high as 30 m{sub 3}/h, which corresponds to mixture velocities as high as 3.35 m/s. The flow rates of oil and water can be varied individually producing different flow patterns according to variations in mixture velocity and input water cut. Two main classes of flows are seen, stratified and dispersed. In this facility, the main focus has been on stratified flows. Pressure drops and local phase fractions are measured for a large number of flow conditions. Among the instruments used are differential pressure transmitters and a traversing gamma densitometer, respectively. The flow patterns that appear are classified in flow pattern maps as functions of either mixture velocity and water cut or superficial velocities. From these experiments a smaller number of stratified flows are selected for studies of velocity and turbulence. A laser Doppler anemometer (LDA) is applied for these measurements in a transparent part of the test section. To be able to produce accurate measurements a partial refractive index matching procedure is used. The other facility, called the matched refractive index facility, has a 0.2 m{sub 3} reservoir enabling mainly dispersed flows. Mixture velocities range from 0.75 m/s to 3 m/s. The fluids in this facility are carefully selected to match the refractive index of the transparent part of the test section. A full refractive index matching procedure is carried out producing excellent optical conditions for velocity and turbulence studies by LDA. In addition, pressure drops and local phase fractions are measured. (author)

  7. Plant viruses in aqueous environment - survival, water mediated transmission and detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehle, Nataša; Ravnikar, Maja

    2012-10-15

    The presence of plant viruses outside their plant host or insect vectors has not been studied intensively. This is due, in part, to the lack of effective detection methods that would enable their detection in difficult matrixes and in low titres, and support the search for unknown viruses. Recently, new and sensitive methods for detecting viruses have resulted in a deeper insight into plant virus movement through, and transmission between, plants. In this review, we have focused on plant viruses found in environmental waters and their detection. Infectious plant pathogenic viruses from at least 7 different genera have been found in aqueous environment. The majority of the plant pathogenic viruses so far recovered from environmental waters are very stable, they can infect plants via the roots without the aid of a vector and often have a wide host range. The release of such viruses from plants can lead to their dissemination in streams, lakes, and rivers, thereby ensuring the long-distance spread of viruses that otherwise, under natural conditions, would remain restricted to limited areas. The possible sources and survival of plant viruses in waters are therefore discussed. Due to the widespread use of hydroponic systems and intensive irrigation in horticulture, the review is focused on the possibility and importance of spreading viral infection by water, together with measures for preventing the spread of viruses. The development of new methods for detecting multiple plant viruses at the same time, like microarrays or new generation sequencing, will facilitate the monitoring of environmental waters and waters used for irrigation and in hydroponic systems. It is reasonable to expect that the list of plant viruses found in waters will thereby be expanded considerably. This will emphasize the need for further studies to determine the biological significance of water-mediated transport. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of plant sterols on the lipid profile of patients with hypercholesterolaemia. Randomised, experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lloret Ángeles

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies have been conducted on supplementing the daily diet with plant sterol ester-enriched milk derivatives in order to reduce LDL-cholesterol levels and, consequently, cardiovascular risk. However, clinical practice guidelines on hypercholesterolaemia state that there is not sufficient evidence to recommend their use in subjects with hypercholesterolaemia. The main objective of this study is to determine the efficacy of the intake of 2 g of plant sterol esters a day in lowering LDL-cholesterol levels in patients diagnosed with hypercholesterolaemia. The specific objectives are: 1 to quantify the efficacy of the daily intake of plant sterol esters in lowering LDL-cholesterol, total cholesterol and cardiovascular risk in patients with hypercholesterolaemia; 2 to evaluate the occurrence of adverse effects of the daily intake of plant sterol esters; 3 to identify the factors that determine a greater reduction in lipid levels in subjects receiving plant sterol ester supplements. Methods/Design Randomised, double-blind, placebo controlled experimental trial carried out at family doctors' surgeries at three health centres in the Health Area of Albacete (Spain. The study subjects will be adults diagnosed with "limit" or "defined" hypercholesterolaemia and who have LDL cholesterol levels of 130 mg/dl or over. A dairy product in the form of liquid yoghurt containing 2 g of plant sterol ester per container will be administered daily after the main meal, for a period of 24 months. The control group will receive a daily unit of yogurt not supplemented with plant sterol esters that has a similar appearance to the enriched yoghurt. The primary variable is the change in lipid profile at 1, 3, 6, 12, 18 and 24 months. The secondary variables are: change in cardiovascular risk, adherence to the dairy product, adverse effects, adherence to dietary recommendations, frequency of food consumption, basic physical examination data, health

  9. High N, dry: Experimental nitrogen deposition exacerbates native shrub loss and nonnative plant invasion during extreme drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valliere, Justin M; Irvine, Irina C; Santiago, Louis; Allen, Edith B

    2017-10-01

    Hotter, longer, and more frequent global change-type drought events may profoundly impact terrestrial ecosystems by triggering widespread vegetation mortality. However, severe drought is only one component of global change, and ecological effects of drought may be compounded by other drivers, such as anthropogenic nitrogen (N) deposition and nonnative plant invasion. Elevated N deposition, for example, may reduce drought tolerance through increased plant productivity, thereby contributing to drought-induced mortality. High N availability also often favors invasive, nonnative plant species, and the loss of woody vegetation due to drought may create a window of opportunity for these invaders. We investigated the effects of multiple levels of simulated N deposition on a Mediterranean-type shrubland plant community in southern California from 2011 to 2016, a period coinciding with an extreme, multiyear drought in the region. We hypothesized that N addition would increase native shrub productivity, but that this would increase susceptibility to drought and result in increased shrub loss over time. We also predicted that N addition would favor nonnatives, especially annual grasses, leading to higher biomass and cover of these species. Consistent with these hypotheses, we found that high N availability increased native shrub canopy loss and mortality, likely due to the higher productivity and leaf area and reduced water-use efficiency we observed in shrubs subject to N addition. As native shrub cover declined, we also observed a concomitant increase in cover and biomass of nonnative annuals, particularly under high levels of experimental N deposition. Together, these results suggest that the impacts of extended drought on shrubland ecosystems may be more severe under elevated N deposition, potentially contributing to the widespread loss of native woody species and vegetation-type conversion. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. The use of soil electrical resistivity to monitor plant and soil water relationships in vineyards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brillante, L.; Mathieu, O.; Bois, B.; van Leeuwen, C.; Lévêque, J.

    2015-03-01

    Soil water availability deeply affects plant physiology. In viticulture it is considered a major contributor to the "terroir" effect. The assessment of soil water in field conditions is a difficult task, especially over large surfaces. New techniques are therefore required in order to better explore variations of soil water content in space and time with low disturbance and with great precision. Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) meets these requirements for applications in plant sciences, agriculture and ecology. In this paper, possible techniques to develop models that allow the use of ERT to spatialise soil water available to plants are reviewed. An application of soil water monitoring using ERT in a grapevine plot in Burgundy (north-east France) during the vintage 2013 is presented. We observed the lateral heterogeneity of ERT-derived fraction of transpirable soil water (FTSW) variations, and differences in water uptake depend on grapevine water status (leaf water potentials measured both at predawn and at solar noon and contemporary to ERT monitoring). Active zones in soils for water movements were identified. The use of ERT in ecophysiological studies, with parallel monitoring of plant water status, is still rare. These methods are promising because they have the potential to reveal a hidden part of a major function of plant development: the capacity to extract water from the soil.

  11. Modeling and experimental validation of water mass balance in a PEM fuel cell stack

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liso, Vincenzo; Araya, Samuel Simon; Olesen, Anders Christian

    2016-01-01

    management in PEM fuel cell is crucial in order to avoid an imbalance between water production and water removal from the fuel cell. In the present study, a novel mathematical zero-dimensional model has been formulated for the water mass balance and hydration of a polymer electrolyte membrane. This model...... is validated against experimental data. In the results it is shown that the fuel cell water balance calculated by this model shows better fit with experimental data-points compared with model where only steady state operation were considered. We conclude that this discrepancy is due a different rate of water......Polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells require good hydration in order to deliver high performance and ensure long life operation. Water is essential for proton conductivity in the membrane which increases by nearly six orders of magnitude from dry to fully hydrated. Adequate water...

  12. Nutrient abatement potential and abatement costs of waste water treatment plants in the Baltic Sea region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hautakangas, Sami; Ollikainen, Markku; Aarnos, Kari; Rantanen, Pirjo

    2014-04-01

    We assess the physical potential to reduce nutrient loads from waste water treatment plants in the Baltic Sea region and determine the costs of abating nutrients based on the estimated potential. We take a sample of waste water treatment plants of different size classes and generalize its properties to the whole population of waste water treatment plants. Based on a detailed investment and operational cost data on actual plants, we develop the total and marginal abatement cost functions for both nutrients. To our knowledge, our study is the first of its kind; there is no other study on this issue which would take advantage of detailed data on waste water treatment plants at this extent. We demonstrate that the reduction potential of nutrients is huge in waste water treatment plants. Increasing the abatement in waste water treatment plants can result in 70 % of the Baltic Sea Action Plan nitrogen reduction target and 80 % of the Baltic Sea Action Plan phosphorus reduction target. Another good finding is that the costs of reducing both nutrients are much lower than previously thought. The large reduction of nitrogen would cost 670 million euros and of phosphorus 150 million euros. We show that especially for phosphorus the abatement costs in agriculture would be much higher than in waste water treatment plants.

  13. Plant growth modeling at the JSC variable pressure growth chamber - An application of experimental design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Adam M.; Edeen, Marybeth; Sirko, Robert J.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the approach and results of an effort to characterize plant growth under various environmental conditions at the Johnson Space Center variable pressure growth chamber. Using a field of applied mathematics and statistics known as design of experiments (DOE), we developed a test plan for varying environmental parameters during a lettuce growth experiment. The test plan was developed using a Box-Behnken approach to DOE. As a result of the experimental runs, we have developed empirical models of both the transpiration process and carbon dioxide assimilation for Waldman's Green lettuce over specified ranges of environmental parameters including carbon dioxide concentration, light intensity, dew-point temperature, and air velocity. This model also predicts transpiration and carbon dioxide assimilation for different ages of the plant canopy.

  14. [Effects of large-area planting water hyacinth on macro-benthos community structure and biomass].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guo-Feng; Liu, Hai-Qin; Zhang, Zhi-Yong; Zhang, Ying-Ying; Yan, Shao-Hua; Zhong, Ji-Cheng; Fan, Cheng-Xin

    2010-12-01

    The effects on macro-benthos and benthos environment of planting 200 hm2 water hyacinth (E. crassipens) in Zhushan Bay, Lake Taihu, were studied during 8-10 months consecutive surveys. Results indicated that average densities of mollusca (the main species were Bellamya aeruginosa) in far-planting, near-planting and planting area were 276.67, 371.11 and 440.00 ind/m2, respectively, and biomass were 373.15, 486.57 and 672.54 g/m2, respectively, showed that average density and biomass of planting area's were higher than those of others. However, the average density and biomass of Oligochaeta (the main species was Limodrilus hoffmeisteri) and Chironomidae in planting area were lower than that of outside planting area. The density and biomass of three dominant species of benthic animal increased quickly during 8-9 months, decreased quickly in October inside and outside water hyacinth planting area. The reason of this phenomenon could be possible that lots of cyanobacteria cells died and consumed dissolve oxygen in proceed decomposing. Algae cells released lots of phosphorus and nitrogen simultaneously, so macro-benthos died in this environment. The indexes of Shannon-Weaver and Simpson indicated that water environment was in moderate polluted state. On the basis of the survey results, the large-area and high-density planting water hyacinth haven't demonstrated a great impact on macrobenthos and benthos environment in short planting time (about 6 months planting time).

  15. Embedded water-based surface heating part 2: experimental validation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    : hybrid 3D numerical model. Journal of Building Physics 33: 357-391). The thermal response of the system is tested in both long (16 h) and short (30 min) cycle experiments where the water flow alters between on and off. Temperature distribution, within the floor construction, and the heat exchange process...... at the core of the concrete slab are underestimated by up to 1.5 degrees C. Amplitudes, phase shifts, rise, and delay times at different measurement points are simulated with good precision. A sensitivity analysis is performed where material parameters and boundary conditions are analyzed. None of the tested...

  16. Experimental determination and modelling of restricted water effects on bulkcarriers

    OpenAIRE

    Laforce, E.; Vantorre, M.

    2006-01-01

    Systematic captive motion tests on scale models of Panamax bulkcaniers of three different sizes were performed for open shallow water al 10% under keel clearance, in a trapezoidal standard cross section of a canal with 27 % blockage and in a scale model of a canal with varying width. Forces were measured and modelled. A technique of validation of the models by multi-harmonic test runs was developed. The models were used for an evaluation of the influence of ship length by fast-time simulation.

  17. Simultaneous Waste Heat and Water Recovery from Power Plant Flue Gases for Advanced Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Dexin [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    2016-12-31

    This final report presents the results of a two-year technology development project carried out by a team of participants sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE). The objective of this project is to develop a membrane-based technology to recover both water and low grade heat from power plant flue gases. Part of the recovered high-purity water and energy can be used directly to replace plant boiler makeup water as well as improving its efficiency, and the remaining part of the recovered water can be used for Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD), cooling tower water makeup or other plant uses. This advanced version Transport Membrane Condenser (TMC) with lower capital and operating costs can be applied to existing plants economically and can maximize waste heat and water recovery from future Advanced Energy System flue gases with CO2 capture in consideration, which will have higher moisture content that favors the TMC to achieve higher efficiency.

  18. Analysis of trace anions in the water-steam cycle in power plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čičkarić Dragana Z.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This study offers some insight into the significance of water quality control in thermal power plants. In order to maintain high reliability indices in thermal plants and to realize the expected lifetime of these plants, high water quality should be accomplished. Also, the working tools of the analyst in thermal power plants and the types of problems, which help in solving daily tasks, are discussed. The difficulties the analyst might face are indicated. This review considers the implementation of standard control and diagnostic parameters crucial for water quality in all segments of a water-steam system. The subject of this paper was to analyze anion traces in the water-steam cycle, using a modern, highly sensitive instrumental method the method of ion chromatography (1S. Thus, the possibility of monitoring ionic species that can cause corrosion processes in the water-steam system is examined.

  19. Experimental Study of Open Water Non-Series Marine Propeller Performance

    OpenAIRE

    M. A. Elghorab; A. Abou El-Azm Aly; A. S. Elwetedy; M. A. Kotb

    2013-01-01

    Later marine propeller is the main component of ship propulsion system. For a non-series propeller, it is difficult to indicate the open water marine propeller performance without an experimental study to measure the marine propeller parameters. In the present study, the open water performance of a non-series marine propeller has been carried out experimentally. The geometrical aspects of a commercial non-series marine propeller have been measured for a propeller blade ar...

  20. In-situ nitrogen removal from the eutrophic water by microbial-plant integrated system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hui-qing; Yang, Xiao-e; Fang, Yun-ying; Pu, Pei-min; Li, Zheng-kui; Rengel, Zed

    2006-07-01

    This study was to assess the influence of interaction of combination of immobilized nitrogen cycling bacteria (INCB) with aquatic macrophytes on nitrogen removal from the eutrophic waterbody, and to get insight into different mechanisms involved in nitrogen removal. The aquatic macrophytes used include Eichhornia crassipes (summer-autumn floating macrophyte), Elodea nuttallii (winter-growing submerged macrophyte), and nitrogen cycling bacteria including ammonifying, nitrosating, nitrifying and denitrifying bacteria isolated from Taihu Lake. The immobilization carriers materials were made from hydrophilic monomers 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate (HEA) and hydrophobic 2-hydroxyethyl methylacrylate (HEMA). Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the roles of macrophytes combined with INCB on nitrogen removal from eutrophic water during different seasons. Eichhornia crassipes and Elodea nuttallii had different potentials in purification of eutrophic water. Floating macrophyte+bacteria (INCB) performed best in improving water quality (during the first experiment) and decreased total nitrogen (TN) by 70.2%, nitrite and ammonium by 92.2% and 50.9%, respectively, during the experimental period, when water transparency increased from 0.5 m to 1.8 m. When INCB was inoculated into the floating macrophyte system, the populations of nitrosating, nitrifying, and denitrifying bacteria increased by 1 to 2 orders of magnitude compared to the un-inoculated treatments, but ammonifying bacteria showed no obvious difference between different treatments. Lower values of chlorophyll a, COD(Mn), and pH were found in the microbial-plant integrated system, as compared to the control. Highest reduction in N was noted during the treatment with submerged macrophyte+INCB, being 26.1% for TN, 85.2% for nitrite, and 85.2% for ammonium at the end of 2nd experiment. And in the treatment, the populations of ammonifying, nitrosating, nitrifying, and denitrifying bacteria increased by 1 to 3 orders of

  1. In-situ nitrogen removal from the eutrophic water by microbial-plant integrated system*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hui-qing; Yang, Xiao-e; Fang, Yun-ying; Pu, Pei-min; Li, Zheng-kui; Rengel, Zed

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This study was to assess the influence of interaction of combination of immobilized nitrogen cycling bacteria (INCB) with aquatic macrophytes on nitrogen removal from the eutrophic waterbody, and to get insight into different mechanisms involved in nitrogen removal. Methods: The aquatic macrophytes used include Eichhornia crassipes (summer-autumn floating macrophyte), Elodea nuttallii (winter-growing submerged macrophyte), and nitrogen cycling bacteria including ammonifying, nitrosating, nitrifying and denitrifying bacteria isolated from Taihu Lake. The immobilization carriers materials were made from hydrophilic monomers 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate (HEA) and hydrophobic 2-hydroxyethyl methylacrylate (HEMA). Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the roles of macrophytes combined with INCB on nitrogen removal from eutrophic water during different seasons. Results: Eichhornia crassipes and Elodea nuttallii had different potentials in purification of eutrophic water. Floating macrophyte+bacteria (INCB) performed best in improving water quality (during the first experiment) and decreased total nitrogen (TN) by 70.2%, nitrite and ammonium by 92.2% and 50.9%, respectively, during the experimental period, when water transparency increased from 0.5 m to 1.8 m. When INCB was inoculated into the floating macrophyte system, the populations of nitrosating, nitrifying, and denitrifying bacteria increased by 1 to 2 orders of magnitude compared to the un-inoculated treatments, but ammonifying bacteria showed no obvious difference between different treatments. Lower values of chlorophyll a, CODMn, and pH were found in the microbial-plant integrated system, as compared to the control. Highest reduction in N was noted during the treatment with submerged macrophyte+INCB, being 26.1% for TN, 85.2% for nitrite, and 85.2% for ammonium at the end of 2nd experiment. And in the treatment, the populations of ammonifying, nitrosating, nitrifying, and denitrifying bacteria

  2. Experimental study on mixing efficiency in water supply rectangular tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, A.; Medina, V.; Mujal, A.

    2009-04-01

    Phenomenon of mixing in drinking water storage tanks and reservoirs has a direct effect on the quality of water. Creation of poor mixing zones and volume stratification can have negative effects in public health. The design of a storage tank must consider the conditions of the inlet and outlets, and also their orientation (vertical or horizontal) to prevent the formation of these zones. Experiments done in a reduced scaled-model with a rectangular base and three different inlets (two waterfalls and a pipe inlet) had the objective to decide which of these inlets achieved the best mixing efficiency. Four situations were considered while three entrances, two unsteady: filling and drawing, and two steady with different outlets. Moreover the effects of columns that support the roof of the tank were studied by running the three entrances with and without columns in the four situations. Neglecting the viscous scale effects, the time taken to mix the volume stored depends on the distance between the inlet and the opposite wall as though as its orientation. Taking into account the whole tank columns have a negative effect on mixing efficiency although they divide the flux and create local zones of turbulence around them, increasing local mixing. Using a digital treating image technique the results are found in a quantitative way.

  3. Experimental Research of Reliability of Plant Stress State Detection by Laser-Induced Fluorescence Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yury Fedotov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental laboratory investigations of the laser-induced fluorescence spectra of watercress and lawn grass were conducted. The fluorescence spectra were excited by YAG:Nd laser emitting at 532 nm. It was established that the influence of stress caused by mechanical damage, overwatering, and soil pollution is manifested in changes of the spectra shapes. The mean values and confidence intervals for the ratio of two fluorescence maxima near 685 and 740 nm were estimated. It is presented that the fluorescence ratio could be considered a reliable characteristic of plant stress state.

  4. Experimental investigation of the early interaction between cyanobacterial soil crusts and vascular plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemens Zaplata, Markus; Veste, Maik; Pohle, Ina; Schümberg, Sabine; Abreu Schonert, Iballa; Hinz, Christoph

    2016-04-01

    While there are hints that biological soil crusts (BSCs) can constitute physical barriers for the emergence of vascular plants, a conceptual approach for the quantitative evaluation of these effects is still missing. Here we present an experimental design to test the emergence of seedlings in situ with (i) capping natural intact, (ii) destroyed and (iii) removed BSC. The selected field site is directly adjacent to the constructed Hühnerwasser catchment (Lusatia, Germany). This site exists since the end of 2008 and consists of loamy sand. Serving as proxy for seedling thrust, we inserted pre-germinated seeds of three confamiliar plant species with different seed masses (members of the Fabaceae family: Lotus corniculatus L., Ornithopus sativus Brot., and Glycine max (L.) Merr.). In each treatment as well as in the control group planting depths were 10 mm. We took care that experimental plots had identical crust thickness, slightly less than 4 mm, serving as proxy for mechanical resistance. A plot became established as follows: Firstly, the pristine crusted surface was vertically cut. To the windward side the BSC remained intact (i: "with BSC" stripe). To the downwind side soil material was temporarily excavated for laterally inserting the seeds beneath the surface of the first stripe. Then at the thereby disturbed second stripe pulverised BSC material became filled as a top layer (ii: "BSC mix" stripe). From the next stripe the BSC was removed (iii: "no BSC" stripe). Thus each plot had each experimental group in spatial contiguity (within 50 cm × 50 cm). The overall 50 plots were distributed across an area of 40 m × 12 m. When individuals of a species either emerged at all stripes, "× × ×", or at no stripe of a plot, "- - -", there was no reason to suppose any effect of a crust. The "- × ×" emergence pattern (depicting the appearance of seedlings in both stripes possessing manipulated surfaces) points towards hindrance more clearly than "- × -" or "- -

  5. Topography mediates plant water stress: coupling groundwater flow and rhizosphere-xylem hydraulics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackay, D. S.; Tai, X.

    2016-12-01

    Explicit representation of groundwater movement and its subsidy to the unsaturated zone have long been recognized to affect land surface fluxes. But its impact on mediating plant safety during drought has not yet been evaluated, due to the oversimplified representation of the soil-plant-atmospheric continuum in current mainstream land surface models. Here we evaluated the interaction between groundwater processes and plant hydraulics by integrating a three-dimensional groundwater model - ParFlow with a physiologically sophisticated plant model - TREES. A series of simulation experiments using representative hillslope shapes during a general dry down period were carried out to explore the impacts of topography, soil properties, and plant traits - maximum hydraulic conductance (Kmax), root area (Ar), and vulnerability to cavitation on plant hydraulic stress and the potential feedbacks to soil water spatial dynamics. From an initial condition of uniform pressure, lateral redistribution dominated the first stage when soils were wet, resulting in various water table depths. As drought progressed, the tension wetted zone provided a water subsidy to the root zone, causing various rates of soil dry down at different locations. In the end, the root zone soil water remains stable and dry, with diurnal fluctuations induced by the hydraulic redistribution of plant roots. Plants, in general, had higher transpiration and lower hydraulic stress on concave hillslopes. The same plant growing on fine-textured soils had higher transpiration rate, and therefore stronger feedbacks to the water table depths, compared to coarse-textured soil. But these responses could further vary by plant traits. For locations with shallow water table, Kmax is the most important factor determining plant function. When soil is dry, plants with higher Ar and more resistant xylem sustained higher transpiration rates. Those promising performance suggests that the coupled model could be a powerful tool for

  6. Recycling of cattle dung, biogas plant-effluent and water hyacinth in vermiculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balasubramanian, P.R.; Bai, R.K. [Madurai Kamaraj Univ. (India)

    1995-08-01

    The efficiency of recycling cattle dung, anaerobically digested cattle dung (biogas plant-effluent) and water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) by culture of the earthworm Megascolex sp. was studied. The growth of the earthworms was increased by 156, 148 and 119% in soil supplemented with water hyacinth, cattle dung and biogas plant-effluent, respectively. The growth rate of the earthworms was increased significantly by raw cattle dung and water hyacinth over that by biodigested slurry. (author)

  7. Response of tundra plants to environmental variation during seven years of experimentally-induced permafrost thaw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, V. G.; Schuur, E.

    2016-12-01

    Seven years of warming at the Carbon in Permafrost Experimental Heating Research Project (CiPEHR) has induced dramatic environmental changes at this tussock tundra site. By 2015, soil-warmed plots thawed 35 cm more than controls and had significantly higher surface soil moisture during the growing season. Air warming using open top chambers significantly increased growing season air temperatures by 0.35°C. We examined 7 years of species-level leaf chemistry and total aboveground biomass in order to characterize the response of tundra plant species to varying environmental conditions. For this analysis, we used a multivariate framework that spanned treatments, combining principle component analysis of environmental covariates with linear mixed effect models. Overall, warm deep soils were associated with increased total aboveground biomass as well as increased inputs of litter N to surface soils. Both of these patterns were primarily driven by the tussock-forming sedge Eriophorum vaginatum. This species exhibited increased aboveground biomass and reduced nutrient resorption efficiency with permafrost thaw. Warm air temperatures at CiPEHR also increased total aboveground biomass but did not increase vascular foliar N pools or deciduous litter N pools, indicating little effect on plant-available N. Warm air temperatures may have exacerbated competition between vascular plant species, however. Leaf %N of E. vaginatum increased while Carex bigeloweii, Rubus chamaemorus, and Vaccinium uliginosum all exhibited decreased leaf %N. Warm and dry surface soil conditions were associated with decreased total aboveground biomass, vascular foliar N pools, and deciduous litter N pools. This negative relationship suggests that moisture limitation of decomposition can reduce plant-available N at this site. We found support for the theory that permafrost thaw alleviates N limitation of tundra plants but we emphasize the important roles that soil moisture, air temperature, and species

  8. Evolutions in Water Withdrawal and Consumption Factors for Thermoelectric Power Plants in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Bielicki, J. M.

    2016-12-01

    Accurate estimation of the water withdrawal and consumption rates by thermoelectric power plants is important for water resources management, planning of new electricity generation capacity additions, and understanding potential water stress on agricultural systems. But estimates of water demand by power plants are limited by the availability of temporally resolved and high quality data and are influenced by numerous aspects of the climate, cooling technology, and energy technology. In 2010, the U.S. thermoelectric power sector accounted for about 45% of the total water withdrawal—the largest end-use sector for water withdrawal in the country—but withdrawal and consumption rates are evolving with the popularity of recirculating cooling systems and fuel switching from coal to natural gas. We used data from the U.S. Energy Information Administration to derive monthly water withdrawal and consumption factors for thermoelectric power plants across the United States from 2010 to 2014 and combined that data with information on power plant design, location, and cooling systems from various sources and previous annual datasets. We developed and applied a model that relates the water use factors to cooling system designs, intake water sources, power generation technologies, boiler efficiencies, and weather conditions. We present our analysis of the factors that influence the inter-power plant, seasonal, and inter-annual variability in water-use factors and provide lessons for electricity capacity planning and regional water availability for other uses, including agriculture.

  9. Kinetic analyses of plant water relocation using deuterium as tracer - reduced water flux of Arabidopsis pip2 aquaporin knockout mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Ines, O; Graf, W; Franck, K I; Albert, A; Winkler, J B; Scherb, H; Stichler, W; Schäffner, A R

    2010-09-01

    Due to reduced evaporation and diffusion of water molecules containing heavier isotopes, leaf water possesses an elevated (18)O or (2)H steady-state content. This enrichment has been exploited in plant physiology and ecology to assess transpiration and leaf water relations. In contrast to these studies, in this work the (2)H content of the medium of hydroponically grown Arabidopsis thaliana was artificially raised, and the kinetics of (2)H increase in the aerial parts recorded during a short phase of 6-8 h, until a new equilibrium at a higher level was reached. A basic version of the enrichment models was modified to establish an equation that could be fitted to measured leaf (2)H content during uptake kinetics. The fitting parameters allowed estimation of the relative water flux q(leaf) into the Arabidopsis rosette. This approach is quasi-non-invasive, since plants are not manipulated during the uptake process, and therefore, offers a new tool for integrated analysis of plant water relations. The deuterium tracer method was employed to assess water relocation in Arabidopsis pip2;1 and pip2;2 aquaporin knockout plants. In both cases, q(leaf) was significantly reduced by about 20%. The organ and cellular expression patterns of both genes imply that changes in root hydraulic conductivity, as previously demonstrated for pip2;2 mutants, and leaf water uptake and distribution contributed in an integrated fashion to this reduced flux in intact plants.

  10. Permanent colonization of creek sediments, creek water and limnic water plants by four Listeria species in low population densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang-Halter, Evi; Schober, Steffen; Scherer, Siegfried

    2016-09-01

    During a 1-year longitudinal study, water, sediment and water plants from two creeks and one pond were sampled monthly and analyzed for the presence of Listeria species. A total of 90 % of 30 sediment samples, 84 % of 31 water plant samples and 67 % of 36 water samples were tested positive. Generally, most probable number counts ranged between 1 and 40 g-1, only occasionally >110 cfu g-1 were detected. Species differentiation based on FT-IR spectroscopy and multiplex PCR of a total of 1220 isolates revealed L. innocua (46 %), L. seeligeri (27 %), L. monocytogenes (25 %) and L. ivanovii (2 %). Titers and species compositions were similar during all seasons. While the species distributions in sediments and associated Ranunculus fluitans plants appeared to be similar in both creeks, RAPD typing did not provide conclusive evidence that the populations of these environments were connected. It is concluded that (i) the fresh-water sediments and water plants are year-round populated by Listeria, (ii) no clear preference for growth in habitats as different as sediments and water plants was found and (iii) the RAPD-based intraspecific biodiversity is high compared to the low population density.

  11. Revised financial analysis of experimental releases conducted at Glen Canyon Dam during water years 1997 through 2005.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veselka, T. D.; Poch, L. A.; Palmer, C. S.; Loftin, S.; Osiek, B.; Decision and Information Sciences; Western Area Power Administration, Colorado River Storage Project Management Center

    2011-01-11

    Because of concerns about the impact that Glen Canyon Dam (GCD) operations were having on downstream ecosystems and endangered species, the Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation) conducted an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) on dam operations (DOE 1996). New operating rules and management goals for GCD that had been specified in the Record of Decision (ROD) (Reclamation 1996) were adopted in February 1997. In addition to issuing new operating criteria, the ROD mandated experimental releases for the purpose of conducting scientific studies. This paper examines the financial implications of the experimental flows that were conducted at the GCD from 1997 to 2005. An experimental release may have either a positive or negative impact on the financial value of energy production. This study estimates the financial costs of experimental releases, identifies the main factors that contribute to these costs, and compares the interdependencies among these factors. An integrated set of tools was used to compute the financial impacts of the experimental releases by simulating the operation of the GCD under two scenarios, namely, (1) a baseline scenario that assumes operations comply with the ROD operating criteria and experimental releases that actually took place during the study period, and (2) a 'without experiments' scenario that is identical to the baseline scenario of operations that comply with the GCD ROD, except it assumes that experimental releases did not occur. The Generation and Transmission Maximization (GTMax) model was the main simulation tool used to dispatch GCD and other hydropower plants that comprise the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects (SLCA/IP). Extensive data sets and historical information on SLCA/IP power plant characteristics, hydrologic conditions, and Western Area Power Administration's (Western's) power purchase prices were used for the simulation. In addition to estimating the financial impact of experimental releases

  12. Experimental Studies of NGNP Reactor Cavity Cooling System With Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corradini, Michael; Anderson, Mark; Hassan, Yassin; Tokuhiro, Akira

    2013-01-16

    This project will investigate the flow behavior that can occur in the reactor cavity cooling system (RCCS) with water coolant under the passive cooling-mode of operation. The team will conduct separate-effects tests and develop associated scaling analyses, and provide system-level phenomenological and computational models that describe key flow phenomena during RCCS operation, from forced to natural circulation, single-phase flow and two-phase flow and flashing. The project consists of the following tasks: Task 1. Conduct separate-effects, single-phase flow experiments and develop scaling analyses for comparison to system-level computational modeling for the RCCS standpipe design. A transition from forced to natural convection cooling occurs in the standpipe under accident conditions. These tests will measure global flow behavior and local flow velocities, as well as develop instrumentation for use in larger scale tests, thereby providing proper flow distribution among standpipes for decay heat removal. Task 2. Conduct separate-effects experiments for the RCCS standpipe design as two-phase flashing occurs and flow develops. As natural circulation cooling continues without an ultimate heat sink, water within the system will heat to temperatures approaching saturation , at which point two-phase flashing and flow will begin. The focus is to develop a phenomenological model from these tests that will describe the flashing and flow stability phenomena. In addition, one could determine the efficiency of phase separation in the RCCS storage tank as the two-phase flashing phenomena ensues and the storage tank vents the steam produced. Task 3. Develop a system-level computational model that will describe the overall RCCS behavior as it transitions from forced flow to natural circulation and eventual two-phase flow in the passive cooling-mode of operation. This modeling can then be used to test the phenomenological models developed as a function of scale.

  13. Efficiency of Traditional Water Treatment Plant and Compact Units in Removing Viruses

    OpenAIRE

    Yehia A. Osman; Waled M. El-Senousy; Adel A. El-Morsi; Mohammed K. Rashed

    2015-01-01

    The fecal bacteria have been taken as the gold standard for water industry. However, the spread of viral gastroenteritis due to drinking water have given a momentum to a recent push by microbiologists to consider viruses as important pollution indicator as fecal bacteria. Therefore, we designed a study to evaluate the efficiency of two types of water purification systems: the traditional water treatment plant and two types compact units. Both systems produced drinking waters free of bacteria,...

  14. ANALISIS PENGOLAHAN AIR TERPRODUKSI DI WATER TREATING PLANT PERUSAHAAN EKSPLOITASI MINYAK BUMI (STUDI KASUS: PT XYZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pertiwi Andaran

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The exploration and production process of oil and its supporting operations always generates waste as by-product. If they are uncontrolled, it might decrease the environmental quality. Thus, it is necessary to manage and treat the waste in order to meet the regulation standard of quality and quantity. PT XYZ is an energy company, particularly oil and gas production, which its production activity generate a large amount of waste as well as produced water. Thus, PT XYZ must have facilities or produced water handling plant which could minimize pollution caused by produced water. PT XYZ already has a system of produced water handling with recycling principle. After oil and water separation including water treating at Water Treating Plant (WTP, produced water will be used for steam injection. This is the part of enhanced oil recovery by steam flooding in Duri Field. Besides, produced water could be used as backwash water at WTP, that is Oil Removal Filter (ORF and Water Softener, which is called brine water. If the produced water and brine water is over load the capacity of oil enhanced recovery injection, it might be disposed through injection to Disposal Well and there are certain condition that produced water should be discharged into canal. The objective f this study is to analyze the performance of a water treating plant in PT XYZ. Water Treating Plant is a facility for treating produced water. Basically, WTP is on good condition and each unit has high efficiency for separating oil and water (60-99%. Horizontal velocity at pit #A of API Separator was larger than the design criteria. In addition, Water Softeners have efficiency until 99% for the hardness.

  15. Experimentally obtainable energy from mixing river water, seawater or brines with reverse electrodialysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daniilidis, Alexander; Vermaas, David; Herber, Rien; Nijmeijer, Dorothea C.

    2014-01-01

    Energy is released when feed waters with different salinity mix. This energy can be captured in reverse electrodialysis (RED). This paper examines experimentally the effect of varying feed water concentrations on a RED system in terms of permselectivity of the membrane, energy efficiency, power

  16. Experimentally obtainable energy from mixing river water, seawater or brines with reverse electrodialysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daniilidis, Alexandros; Vermaas, David A.; Herber, Rien; Nijmeijer, Kitty

    Energy is released when feed waters with different salinity mix. This energy can be captured in reverse electrodialysis (RED). This paper examines experimentally the effect of varying feed water concentrations on a RED system in terms of permselectivity of the membrane, energy efficiency, power

  17. Water impacts of CO2 emission performance standards for fossil fuel-fired power plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talati, Shuchi; Zhai, Haibo; Morgan, M Granger

    2014-10-21

    We employ an integrated systems modeling tool to assess the water impacts of the new source performance standards recently proposed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for limiting CO2 emissions from coal- and gas-fired power plants. The implementation of amine-based carbon capture and storage (CCS) for 40% CO2 capture to meet the current proposal will increase plant water use by roughly 30% in supercritical pulverized coal-fired power plants. The specific amount of added water use varies with power plant and CCS designs. More stringent emission standards than the current proposal would require CO2 emission reductions for natural gas combined-cycle (NGCC) plants via CCS, which would also increase plant water use. When examined over a range of possible future emission standards from 1100 to 300 lb CO2/MWh gross, new baseload NGCC plants consume roughly 60-70% less water than coal-fired plants. A series of adaptation approaches to secure low-carbon energy production and improve the electric power industry's water management in the face of future policy constraints are discussed both quantitatively and qualitatively.

  18. Phosphate removal from water by fly ash: factorial experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Can, Mevra Yalvac; Yildiz, Ergun

    2006-07-31

    The influence of three variables (phophate concentration, initial pH of solution (pH(0)) and the fly ash dosage) on the removal efficiency of phosphate (% E) and equilibrium pH of solution (pH(eq)) by using fly ash was studied by means of 2(3) full factorial experimental designs. The parameters coded as x(1), x(2) and x(3), consecutively(,) were used. The parameters were investigated at two levels (-1 and 1). The effects of these factors on dependent variables, namely, % E and pH(eq) were investigated. To determine the significance of effects, the analysis of variance with 95% confidence limits was used. It was shown that % E and pH(eq) obtained in this study were found to be 99.6% and 11.16, corresponding to the operating condition of 25 mg l(-1), 2 g l(-1) and 5.5 for the phosphate concentration, fly ash dosage and pH(0), respectively.

  19. Theoretical and experimental analysis of dynamic processes of pipe branch for supply water to the Pelton turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Miomir Lj.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of the analysis of pipe branch A6 to feed the Hydropower Plant ”Perućica” with integrated action Pelton turbines. The analysis was conducted experimentally (tensometric and numerically. The basis of the experimental research is the numerical finite element analysis of pipe branch A6 in pipeline C3. Pipe branch research was conducted in order to set the experiment and to determine extreme stress states. The analysis was used to perform the determination of the stress state of a geometrically complex assembly. This was done in detail as it had never been done before, even in the design phase. The actual states of the body pipe branch were established, along with the possible occurrence of water hammer accompanied by the appearance of hydraulic oscillation. This provides better energetic efficiency of the turbine devices. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR35049 and br. TR 33040

  20. Diversity and antibiotic resistance of Aeromonas spp. in drinking and waste water treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueira, Vânia; Vaz-Moreira, Ivone; Silva, Márcia; Manaia, Célia M

    2011-11-01

    The taxonomic diversity and antibiotic resistance phenotypes of aeromonads were examined in samples from drinking and waste water treatment plants (surface, ground and disinfected water in a drinking water treatment plant, and raw and treated waste water) and tap water. Bacteria identification and intra-species variation were determined based on the analysis of the 16S rRNA, gyrB and cpn60 gene sequences. Resistance phenotypes were determined using the disc diffusion method. Aeromonas veronii prevailed in raw surface water, Aeromonas hydrophyla in ozonated water, and Aeromonas media and Aeromonas puntacta in waste water. No aeromonads were detected in ground water, after the chlorination tank or in tap water. Resistance to ceftazidime or meropenem was detected in isolates from the drinking water treatment plant and waste water isolates were intrinsically resistant to nalidixic acid. Most of the times, quinolone resistance was associated with the gyrA mutation in serine 83. The gene qnrS, but not the genes qnrA, B, C, D or qepA, was detected in both surface and waste water isolates. The gene aac(6')-ib-cr was detected in different waste water strains isolated in the presence of ciprofloxacin. Both quinolone resistance genes were detected only in the species A. media. This is the first study tracking antimicrobial resistance in aeromonads in drinking, tap and waste water and the importance of these bacteria as vectors of resistance in aquatic environments is discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. An experimental comparison of leaf decomposition rates in a wide range of temperate plant species and types

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelissen, J. H.C.

    1996-01-01

    1 An experimental multispecies screening of leaf decomposition rates was undertaken in order to identify and quantify general patterns in leaf decomposition rates in functional plant types and taxa. Functional species groups were characterized using whole-plant and whole-leaf features relevant to

  2. Experimental fact-finding in CFB biomass gasification for ECN's 500 kWth pilot-plant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kersten, Sascha R.A.; Prins, W.; van der Drift, A.; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria

    2003-01-01

    CFB biomass gasification has been studied by experimentation with ECN's pilot facility and a cold-flow model of this plant. Data obtained by normal operation of this plant and the results of some special experiments have provided new insight into the behavior of circulating fluidized bed reactors

  3. Financial Analysis of Experimental Releases Conducted at Glen Canyon Dam during Water Year 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graziano, D. J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Poch, L. A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Veselka, T. D. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Palmer, C. S. [Colorado River Storage Project Management Center, Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Western Area Power Administration; Loftin, S. [Colorado River Storage Project Management Center, Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Western Area Power Administration; Osiek, B. [Colorado River Storage Project Management Center, Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Western Area Power Administration

    2015-09-01

    This report examines the financial implications of experimental flows conducted at the Glen Canyon Dam (GCD) in water year (WY) 2014. It is the sixth report in a series examining the financial implications of experimental flows conducted since the Record of Decision (ROD) was adopted in February 1997 (Reclamation 1996). A report released in January 2011 examined water years 1997 to 2005 (Veselka et al. 2011), a report released in August 2011 examined water years 2006 to 2010 (Poch et al. 2011), a report released June 2012 examined water year 2011 (Poch et al. 2012), a report released April 2013 examined water year 2012 (Poch et al. 2013), and a report released June 2014 examined water year 2013 (Graziano et al. 2014).

  4. Water retention behaviour of compacted bentonites: experimental observations and constitutive model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieudonne Anne-Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bentonite-based materials are studied as potential barriers for the geological disposal of radioactive waste. In this context, the hydro-mechanical behaviour of the engineered barrier is first characterized by free swelling conditions followed by constant volume conditions. This paper presents an experimental study conducted in order to characterize the water retention behaviour of a compacted MX-80 bentonite/sand mixture. Then, based on observations of the material double structure and the water retention mechanisms in compacted bentonites, a new water retention model is proposed. The model considers adsorbed water in the microstructure and capillary water in the aggregate-porosity. The model is calibrated and validated against the experimental data. It is used for better understanding competing effects between volume change and water uptake observed during hydration under free swelling conditions.

  5. Effects of organic amendments on water use efficiency evaluated by a stable isotope technique. A case study in experimental mine restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna Ramos, Lourdes; Delgado Huertas, Antonio; Miralles Mellado, Isabel; Solé Benet, Albert

    2017-04-01

    Water deficit and low infiltration reduce restoration success in semiarid post-mine soils, where high mortality of plants has been observed in early years of the restoration. Species that originate from arid and semi-arid regions are often considered appropriate for xeriscaping, but there have been relatively few direct measurements of main water related parameters as water use efficiency (WUE) in restoration strategies. In this respect, the goal of this study was to analyse the efficiency with which native plants use water when organic amendments and mulches are applied in mine soil restorations. The experimental design was established in a calcareous quarry in Almería (SE Spain), under arid climate. We tested two organic amendments (sewage sludge from water treatment plant and compost from vegetable residues) and gravel mulch. Three plant species were planted in 50 m2 experimental plots: Macrochloa tenacissima, Genista umbellata and Anthyllis cytisoides. Soil moisture was monitored at a depth of 0.1 m during 4 years and at the end of this period stable isotope of Carbon (δ13C), considered as an effective method to evaluate the plant intrinsic WUE, was measured. We did not observe significant differences in soil moisture among the different soil restoration treatments. With regard to WUE, species is the factor most important to establish differences. Anthyllis cytisoides showed the lowest mean δ13C values, indicating low WUE. On the contrary, Macrochloa tenacissima presented high δ13C values. Moreover, species showed higher δ13C values when gravel mulch was applied. To increase WUE in restored soils under arid conditions it is necessary to apply water conservation methods and to use the most appropriate species.

  6. Plant water use efficiency over geological time--evolution of leaf stomata configurations affecting plant gas exchange.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shmuel Assouline

    Full Text Available Plant gas exchange is a key process shaping global hydrological and carbon cycles and is often characterized by plant water use efficiency (WUE - the ratio of CO2 gain to water vapor loss. Plant fossil record suggests that plant adaptation to changing atmospheric CO2 involved correlated evolution of stomata density (d and size (s, and related maximal aperture, amax . We interpreted the fossil record of s and d correlated evolution during the Phanerozoic to quantify impacts on gas conductance affecting plant transpiration, E, and CO2 uptake, A, independently, and consequently, on plant WUE. A shift in stomata configuration from large s-low d to small s-high d in response to decreasing atmospheric CO2 resulted in large changes in plant gas exchange characteristics. The relationships between gas conductance, gws , A and E and maximal relative transpiring leaf area, (amax ⋅d, exhibited hysteretic-like behavior. The new WUE trend derived from independent estimates of A and E differs from established WUE-CO2 trends for atmospheric CO2 concentrations exceeding 1,200 ppm. In contrast with a nearly-linear decrease in WUE with decreasing CO2 obtained by standard methods, the newly estimated WUE trend exhibits remarkably stable values for an extended geologic period during which atmospheric CO2 dropped from 3,500 to 1,200 ppm. Pending additional tests, the findings may affect projected impacts of increased atmospheric CO2 on components of the global hydrological cycle.

  7. Numerical and experimental investigations of water hammers in nuclear industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Messahel

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In nuclear and petroleum industries, supply pipes are often exposed to high pressure loading which can cause to the structure high strains, plasticity and even, in the worst scenario, failure. Fast Hydraulic Transient phenomena such as Water Hammers (WHs are of this type. It generates a pressure wave that propagates in the pipe causing high stress. Such phenomena are of the order of few msecs and numerical simulation can offer a better understanding and an accurate evaluation of the dynamic complex phenomenon including fluid-structure interaction, multi-phase flow, cavitation … For the last decades, the modeling of phase change taking into account the cavitation effects has been at the centre of many industrial applications (chemical engineering, mechanical engineering, … and has a direct impact on the industry as it might cause damages to the installation (pumps, propellers, control valves, …. In this paper, numerical simulation using FSI algorithm and One-Fluid Cavitation models ("Cut-Off" and "HEM (Homogeneous Equilibrium Model Phase-Change" introduced by Saurel et al. [1] of WHs including cavitation effects is presented.

  8. Water Use and Drought Resistance of Turfgrass and Ornamental Landscape Plant Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domenghini, Jacob Cody

    2012-01-01

    In 2005, turfgrass was estimated to cover approximately 20 million ha of urbanized land. That area is increasing with rapid urbanization, stressing the importance of water conservation in the lawn and landscape industry. Turfgrasses have been identified for replacement by presumably more water-efficient ornamental plant species to conserve water.…

  9. Development of a Water Treatment Plant Operation Manual Using an Algorithmic Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Counts, Cary A.

    This document describes the steps to be followed in the development of a prescription manual for training of water treatment plant operators. Suggestions on how to prepare both flow and narrative prescriptions are provided for a variety of water treatment systems, including: raw water, flocculation, rapid sand filter, caustic soda feed, alum feed,…

  10. Performance of a water defluoridation plant in a rural area in South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2007-12-12

    Dec 12, 2007 ... This water is therefore not suitable for potable purposes because the high fluoride concentration ... process, however, is considered to be a more simple and robust process for water defluoridation, especially in a rural area. ... dation plant are estimated at approximately R1.2m. and R0.7/m3 treated water.

  11. Operating boundaries of full-scale advanced water reuse treatment plants: many lessons learned from pilot plant experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bele, C; Kumar, Y; Walker, T; Poussade, Y; Zavlanos, V

    2010-01-01

    Three Advanced Water Treatment Plants (AWTP) have recently been built in South East Queensland as part of the Western Corridor Recycled Water Project (WCRWP) producing Purified Recycled Water from secondary treated waste water for the purpose of indirect potable reuse. At Luggage Point, a demonstration plant was primarily operated by the design team for design verification. The investigation program was then extended so that the operating team could investigate possible process optimisation, and operation flexibility. Extending the demonstration plant investigation program enabled monitoring of the long term performance of the microfiltration and reverse osmosis membranes, which did not appear to foul even after more than a year of operation. The investigation primarily identified several ways to optimise the process. It highlighted areas of risk for treated water quality, such as total nitrogen. Ample and rapid swings of salinity from 850 to 3,000 mg/l-TDS were predicted to affect the RO process day-to-day operation and monitoring. Most of the setpoints used for monitoring under HACCP were determined during the pilot plant trials.

  12. Definition and experimental determination of a soil-water retention surface

    OpenAIRE

    Salager, Simon; El Youssoufi, Moulay Saïd; Saix, Christian

    2010-01-01

    International audience; This paper deals with the definition and determination methods of the soil-water retention surface (SWRS), which is the tool used to present the hydromechanical behaviour of soils to highlight both the effect of suction on the change in water and total volumes and the effect of deformation with respect to the water retention capability. An experimental method is introduced to determine the SWRS and applied to a clayey silty sand. The determination of this surface is ba...

  13. Understanding flocculation mechanism of graphene oxide for organic dyes from water: Experimental and molecular dynamics simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Liu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Flocculation treatment processes play an important role in water and wastewater pretreatment. Here we investigate experimentally and theoretically the possibility of using graphene oxide (GO as a flocculant to remove methylene blue (MB from water. Experimental results show that GO can remove almost all MB from aqueous solutions at its optimal dosages and molecular dynamics simulations indicate that MB cations quickly congregate around GO in water. Furthermore, PIXEL energy contribution analysis reveals that most of the strong interactions between GO and MB are of a van der Waals (London dispersion character. These results offer new insights for shedding light on the molecular mechanism of interaction between GO and organic pollutants.

  14. Case study for experimental validation of a new presizing tool for solar heating, cooling and domestic hot water closed systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamza Semmari

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a case study experimental validation of PISTACHE which is a new presizing tool intended for designers and planners. It facilitates pre-design and allows the evaluation of annual performance and the integration potential of solar heating, cooling and domestic hot water closed systems. This new tool has been performed in order to standardize the sizing methodology and the comparison of the SHC&DHW closed systems. The comparison framework used in PISTACHE has been performed using seasonal performance indicators that were issued and gathered from experimental data provided by several operating plants. Thus, PISTACHE is an easy graphical user interface and free downloadable tool. In order to check the reliability of the new developed tool, two configuration modes are investigated in this experimental study: a simple cooling mode (RAFSOL plant and a double cooling and heating mode (SONNENKRAFT installation. The whole validation process is performed using the GenOpt optimization program to determine the optimum set of internal parameters for PISTACHE tool.

  15. Experimental analysis of drainage and water storage of litter layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara-Escobar, A.; Gonzalez-Sosa, E.; Ramos-Salinas, M.; Hernandez-Delgado, G. D.

    2007-06-01

    Leaf litter overlying forested floors are important for erosion control and slope stability, but also reduces pasture growth in silvopastoral systems. Little information exists regarding the value of percolation and storage capacity parameters for litter layers. These estimates are needed for modelling better management practices for leaf litter. Therefore, this work measured the effect of four rainfall intensities: 9.8, 30.2, 40.4 and 70.9 mm h-1 on the hydrological response of layers of three materials: recently senesced poplar leaves, fresh grass and woodchips. Maximum storage (Cmax), defined as the detention of water immediately before rainfall cessation, increased with rainfall intensity. The magnitude of the increment was 0.2 mm between the lowest and highest rainfall intensities. Mean values of Cmax were: 1.27, 1.51, 1.67 and 1.65 mm for poplar leaves; 0.63 0.77, 0.73 and 0.76 for fresh grass and; 1.64, 2.23, 2.21 and 2.16 for woodchips. Drainage parameters were: 9.9, 8.8 and 2.2 mm-1 for poplar, grass and woodchips layers. An underlying soil matrix influenced the drainage flow from poplar leaf layers producing pseudo-Hortonian overland flow, but this occurred only when the rainfall intensity was 40.4 and 70.9 mm h-1 and accounted for 0.4 and 0.8‰ of total drainage. On the other hand, the presence of a poplar leaf layer had a damping effect on the drainage rate from the underlying soil matrix, particularly at intermediate rainfall intensities: 30.2 or 40.4 mm h-1.

  16. Assessment of volatile organic compound removal by indoor plants-a novel experimental setup

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dela Cruz, Majbrit; Müller, Renate; Svensmark, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Indoor plants can remove volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from the air. The majority of knowledge comes from laboratory studies where results cannot directly be transferred to real-life settings. The aim of this study was to develop an experimental test system to assess VOC removal by indoor...... plants which allows for an improved real-life simulation. Parameters such as relative humidity, air exchange rate and VOC concentration are controlled and can be varied to simulate different real-life settings. For example, toluene diffusion through a needle gave concentrations in the range of 0.......10-2.35 μg/L with deviations from theoretical values of 3.2-10.5 %. Overall, the system proved to be functional for the assessment of VOC removal by indoor plants with Hedera helix reaching a toluene removal rate of up to 66.5 μg/m2/h. The mode of toluene exposure (semi-dynamic or dynamic) had a significant...

  17. Kainic Acid-Induced Excitotoxicity Experimental Model: Protective Merits of Natural Products and Plant Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Shafika Mohd Sairazi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Excitotoxicity is well recognized as a major pathological process of neuronal death in neurodegenerative diseases involving the central nervous system (CNS. In the animal models of neurodegeneration, excitotoxicity is commonly induced experimentally by chemical convulsants, particularly kainic acid (KA. KA-induced excitotoxicity in rodent models has been shown to result in seizures, behavioral changes, oxidative stress, glial activation, inflammatory mediator production, endoplasmic reticulum stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and selective neurodegeneration in the brain upon KA administration. Recently, there is an emerging trend to search for natural sources to combat against excitotoxicity-associated neurodegenerative diseases. Natural products and plant extracts had attracted a considerable amount of attention because of their reported beneficial effects on the CNS, particularly their neuroprotective effect against excitotoxicity. They provide significant reduction and/or protection against the development and progression of acute and chronic neurodegeneration. This indicates that natural products and plants extracts may be useful in protecting against excitotoxicity-associated neurodegeneration. Thus, targeting of multiple pathways simultaneously may be the strategy to maximize the neuroprotection effect. This review summarizes the mechanisms involved in KA-induced excitotoxicity and attempts to collate the various researches related to the protective effect of natural products and plant extracts in the KA model of neurodegeneration.

  18. Ameliorating effects of antioxidative compounds from four plant extracts in experimental models of diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinić Svetlana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Given that oxidative stress plays a major role in pancreatic β-cell dysfunction and ultimate destruction, as well as in different complications of diabetes, therapy with antioxidants has assumed an important place in diabetes management. The relatively limited effects of established antioxidant compounds have stimulated efforts to develop new therapeutic strategies, e.g. to increase the endogenous antioxidant defenses through pharmacological modulation of key antioxidant enzymes. Plant extracts are gaining popularity in treating diabetes because many substances synthesized by higher plants and fungi possess antioxidant activities and can prevent or protect tissues against the damaging effects of free radicals. This review summarizes experimental models of diabetes and possible mechanisms that lie behind the antioxidative effects of α-lipoic acid (LA, a powerful antioxidant and compound that stimulates cellular glucose uptake, as well as of plant extracts from sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa, edible mushroom (Lactarius deterrimus and natural products containing β-glucans in the treatment of diabetes. Their roles in preventing pancreatic β-cell death and in ameliorating the effects of severe diabetic complications are discussed. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173020

  19. Antibacterial efficacy of Withania somnifera (ashwagandha) an indigenous medicinal plant against experimental murine salmonellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owais, M; Sharad, K S; Shehbaz, A; Saleemuddin, M

    2005-03-01

    In the present study, we evaluated the antibacterial activity of ashwagandha [Withania somnifera L. Dunal (Solanaceae; root and leaves)], an Indian traditional medicinal plant against pathogenic bacteria. Both aqueous as well as alcoholic extracts of the plant (root as well as leaves) were found to possess strong antibacterial activity against a range of bacteria, as revealed by in vitro Agar Well Diffusion Method. The methanolic extract was further subfractionated using various solvents and the butanolic sub-fraction was found to possess maximum inhibitory activity against a spectrum of bacteria including Salmonella typhimurium. Moreover, in contrast to the synthetic antibiotic (viz. chloramphenicol), these extracts did not induce lysis on incubation with human erythrocytes, advocating their safety to the living cells. Finally, the antibacterial efficacy of the extracts isolated from plant (both root and leaves) was determined against experimental salmonellosis in Balb/C mice. Oral administration of the aqueous extracts successfully obliterated salmonella infection in Balb/C mice as revealed by increased survival rate as well as less bacterial load in various vital organs of the treated animals.

  20. Coagulant recovery from water treatment plant sludge and reuse in post-treatment of UASB reactor effluent treating municipal wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Abhilash T; Ahammed, M Mansoor

    2014-09-01

    In the present study, feasibility of recovering the coagulant from water treatment plant sludge with sulphuric acid and reusing it in post-treatment of upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor effluent treating municipal wastewater were studied. The optimum conditions for coagulant recovery from water treatment plant sludge were investigated using response surface methodology (RSM). Sludge obtained from plants that use polyaluminium chloride (PACl) and alum coagulant was utilised for the study. Effect of three variables, pH, solid content and mixing time was studied using a Box-Behnken statistical experimental design. RSM model was developed based on the experimental aluminium recovery, and the response plots were developed. Results of the study showed significant effects of all the three variables and their interactions in the recovery process. The optimum aluminium recovery of 73.26 and 62.73 % from PACl sludge and alum sludge, respectively, was obtained at pH of 2.0, solid content of 0.5 % and mixing time of 30 min. The recovered coagulant solution had elevated concentrations of certain metals and chemical oxygen demand (COD) which raised concern about its reuse potential in water treatment. Hence, the coagulant recovered from PACl sludge was reused as coagulant for post-treatment of UASB reactor effluent treating municipal wastewater. The recovered coagulant gave 71 % COD, 80 % turbidity, 89 % phosphate, 77 % suspended solids and 99.5 % total coliform removal at 25 mg Al/L. Fresh PACl also gave similar performance but at higher dose of 40 mg Al/L. The results suggest that coagulant can be recovered from water treatment plant sludge and can be used to treat UASB reactor effluent treating municipal wastewater which can reduce the consumption of fresh coagulant in wastewater treatment.

  1. Experimental analysis on the use of condensing boilers for centralized production of domestic hot water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cirillo, E.; Lazzarin, R.; Piccininni, F.; Caliari, R. (Bari Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica Tecnica ed Impianti Termotecnici)

    1988-11-01

    The monthly performance of pulse combustion condensing boilers has been studied. The boilers are utilized in a plant for the centralized production of domestic hot water. The heating capacity is 112 kW with a daily production of 15 cubic meter of hot waters at 60 degrees centigrade. The analysis has shown the very good seasonal performance of the boilers even without a suitable plant design. The great importance of the heat distribution system has been outlined in order to reach good overall performance.

  2. Study on the TOC concentration in raw water and HAAs in Tehran’s water treatment plant outlet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    A sampling has been undertaken to investigate the variation of haloacetic acids formation and nature organic matter through 81 samples were collected from three water treatment plant and three major rivers of Tehran Iran. Changes in the total organic matter (TOC), ultraviolet absorbance (UV254), specific ultraviolet absorbance (SUVA) were measured in raw water samples. Haloacetic acids concentrations were monitored using a new static headspace GC-ECD method without a manual pre-concentration in three water treatment plants. The average concentration of TOC and HAAs in three rivers and three water treatment plants in spring, summer and fall, were 4, 2.41 and 4.03 mg/L and 48.75, 43.79 and 51.07 μg/L respectively. Seasonal variation indicated that HAAs levels were much higher in spring and fall. PMID:24283403

  3. Influence of water relations and growth rate on plant element uptake and distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greger, Maria [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Botany

    2006-02-15

    Plant uptake of Ni, Sr, Mo, Cs, La, Th, Se, Cl and I was examined to determine how plant water relations and growth rate influence the uptake and distribution of these elements in the studied plants. The specific questions were how water uptake and growth rate influenced the uptake of various nuclides and how transpiration influenced translocation to the shoot. The knowledge gained will be used in future modelling of radionuclide leakage from nuclear waste deposits entering the ecosystem via plants. The plant studied was willow, Salix viminalis, a common plant in the areas suggested for waste disposal; since there can be clone variation, two different clones having different uptake properties for several other heavy metals were used. The plants were grown in nutrient solution and the experiments on 3-month-old plants were run for 3 days. Polyethylene glycol was added to the medium to decrease the water uptake rate, a fan was used to increase the transpiration rate, and different light intensities were used to produce different growth rates. Element concentration was analysed in roots and shoots. The results show that both the uptake and distribution of various elements are influenced in different ways and to various extents by water flow and plant growth rate, and that it is not possible from the chemical properties of these elements to know how they will react. However, in most cases increased growth rate diluted the concentration of the element in the tissue, reduced water uptake reduced the element uptake, while transpiration had no effect on the translocation of elements to the shoot. The clones did not differ in terms of either the uptake or translocation of the elements, except that I was not taken up and translocated to the shoot in one of the clones when the plant water flow or growth rate was too low. Not all of the elements were found in the plant in the same proportions as they had been added to the nutrient solution.

  4. Water balance altered in cucumber plants infected with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Min; Sun, Yuming; Sun, Guomei; Liu, Xiaokang; Zhai, Luchong; Shen, Qirong; Guo, Shiwei

    2015-01-12

    Fusarium wilt is caused by the infection and growth of the fungus Fusarium oxysporum in the xylem of host plants. The physiological responses of cucumbers that are infected with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum (FOC) was studied in pot and hydroponic experiments in a greenhouse. The results showed that although water absorption and stem hydraulic conductance decreased markedly in infected plants, large amounts of red ink accumulated in the leaves of infected cucumber plants. The transpiration rate (E) and stomatal conductance (gs) of the infected plants were significantly reduced, but the E/gs was higher than healthy plants. We further found that there was a positive correlation between leaf membrane injury and E/gs, indicating that the leaf cell membrane injury increased the non-stomatal water loss from infected plants. The fusaric acid (FA), which was detected in the infected plant, resulted in damage to the leaf cell membranes and an increase in E/gs, suggesting that FA plays an important role in non-stomatal water loss. In conclusion, leaf cell membrane injury in the soil-borne Fusarium wilt of cucumber plants induced uncontrolled water loss from damaged cells. FA plays a critical role in accelerating the development of Fusarium wilt in cucumber plants.

  5. Paraheliotropism can protect water-stressed bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) plants against photoinhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastenes, Claudio; Porter, Victor; Baginsky, Cecilia; Horton, Peter; González, Javiera

    2004-12-01

    In order to estimate the importance of leaf movements on photosynthesis in well-watered and water-stressed field grown bean cultivars (Arroz Tuscola (AT), Orfeo INIA (OI), Bayos Titan (BT), and Hallados Dorado (HD)), CO2 assimilation, leaf temperature, and capacity for the maximum quantum yield recovery, measured as Fv/Fm, were assessed. Leaf water potential was lower in water-stressed compared to control plants throughout the day. Water status determined a decrease in the CO2 assimilation and stomatal conductance as light intensity and temperature increased up to maximal intensities at midday. Both parameters were lower in stressed compared to control plants. Even though high light intensity and water-stress induced stomatal closure is regarded as a photoinhibitory condition, the recovery of variable to maximal fluorescence (Fv/Fm) after 30min of darkness was nearly constant in both water regimes. In fact, higher values were observed in OI and AT when under stress. Photochemical and non-photochemical fluorescence quenching resulted in minor changes during the day and were similar between watered and stressed plants. It is concluded that paraheliotropism, present in the four bean cultivars, efficiently protects stressed plants from photoinhibition in the field and helps maintain leaf temperatures far below the ambient temperatures, however, it may also be responsible for low CO2 assimilation rates in watered plants.

  6. Sequencing Batch Reactor pilot plant in waste water treatment plants; Impiego di un impianto pilota del tipo Seguencing Batch Reactor (SBR) come strumento di gestione di impianti di depurazione in aree sensibili : Indagine preliminare

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musacco, Alessandro; Beccari, Mario [Rome, Univ. La Sapienza (Italy). Dip. di Chimica; Cecchi, Franco [Aquila, Univ. (Italy). Dip. di Chimica, Ingegneria Chimica e Materiali]|[ASPIV, Venice (Italy)

    1997-07-01

    The flexibility of Sequencing Batch Reactors is ideally suited to provide useful guidelines for reliable operation of large waste water treatment plants such as the plant at Fusina (Venice). This paper shows the preliminary results of experimental investigations carried out in a pilot scale Sequencing Batch Reactor plant. The main purpose has been to verify the effect of the addition of readily biodegradable COD from the acidogenic fermentation of the organic fraction of municipal solid wastes. This has to be considered an external carbon source for denitrification. The results underline the advantages of an integration between solid waste management and wastewater treatment.

  7. An experimental study of habitat choice by Daphnia: plants signal danger more than refuge in subtropical lakes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meerhoff, M.; Fosalba, C.; Bruzzone, C.; Noordoven, W.; Jeppesen, E.

    2006-01-01

    1. In shallow temperate lakes, submerged plants often provide refuge for pelagic zooplankton against fish predation, a mechanism with potential strong cascading effects on water transparency and on the entire ecosystem. In (sub)tropical lakes, however, the interaction between aquatic plants and

  8. Plant community structure regulates responses of prairie soil respiration to decadal experimental warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xia; Shi, Zheng; Li, Dejun; Zhou, Xuhui; Sherry, Rebecca A; Luo, Yiqi

    2015-10-01

    Soil respiration is recognized to be influenced by temperature, moisture, and ecosystem production. However, little is known about how plant community structure regulates responses of soil respiration to climate change. Here, we used a 13-year field warming experiment to explore the mechanisms underlying plant community regulation on feedbacks of soil respiration to climate change in a tallgrass prairie in Oklahoma, USA. Infrared heaters were used to elevate temperature about 2 °C since November 1999. Annual clipping was used to mimic hay harvest. Our results showed that experimental warming significantly increased soil respiration approximately from 10% in the first 7 years (2000-2006) to 30% in the next 6 years (2007-2012). The two-stage warming stimulation of soil respiration was closely related to warming-induced increases in ecosystem production over the years. Moreover, we found that across the 13 years, warming-induced increases in soil respiration were positively affected by the proportion of aboveground net primary production (ANPP) contributed by C3 forbs. Functional composition of the plant community regulated warming-induced increases in soil respiration through the quantity and quality of organic matter inputs to soil and the amount of photosynthetic carbon (C) allocated belowground. Clipping, the interaction of clipping with warming, and warming-induced changes in soil temperature and moisture all had little effect on soil respiration over the years (all P > 0.05). Our results suggest that climate warming may drive an increase in soil respiration through altering composition of plant communities in grassland ecosystems. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Sharing Benefits in Transboundary Rivers: An Experimental Case Study of Central Asian Water-Energy-Agriculture Nexus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shokhrukh-Mirzo Jalilov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cooperation in transboundary river basins is challenged by the riparian countries’ differing needs for water use. This is the case especially in Amu Darya Basin in Central Asia, where upstream Tajikistan is building the Rogun Hydropower Plant (RHP to increase its energy security, while the downstream countries oppose the plant due to the feared negative impacts to their irrigated agriculture. Several experimental scenarios illustrate how the concept of benefit sharing could be used as a framework to investigate these water-energy-agriculture linkages in a transboundary context. Using a hydro-economic model, we investigate the economic benefits of various scenarios emphasizing agricultural and/or energy production, thus benefiting the riparian countries uniquely. Subsequently, we discuss how benefit-sharing arrangements with different forms of compensations could be used as a mechanism to facilitate transboundary cooperation. Our results indicate that several scenarios have a potential to increase the total energy-agriculture benefits in the basin. Yet, agreeing on the actual benefit-sharing mechanism between the countries poses special challenges as each may require countries to give up some of their anticipated maximum potential benefits. The presented scenarios provide a potential starting point for debates over benefit-sharing arrangements across countries needing to address the water-energy-agriculture nexus.

  10. Experimental Study on the Performance of Water Source Trans-Critical CO2 Heat Pump Water Heater

    OpenAIRE

    Xiufang Liu; Changhai Liu; Ze Zhang; Liang Chen; Yu Hou

    2017-01-01

    The effect of the discharge pressure on the performance of the trans-critical CO2 heat pump with a low gas-cooler outlet temperature is experimentally investigated on a test rig of water source heat-pump water heater. The optimal discharge pressure of the trans-critical CO2 heat pump is investigated under different external operation conditions. When the tap-water temperature is low, the characteristic of the S-shape isotherm at the supercritical region has little effect on the occurrence of ...

  11. RNA Isolation from Plant Tissues: A Hands-on Laboratory Experimental Experience for Undergraduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Nianhui; Yu, Dong; Zhu, Xiaofeng

    2017-12-29

    The practice of RNA isolation in undergraduate experimental courses is rare because of the existence of robust, ubiquitous and stable ribonucleases. We reported here modifications to our original protocol for RNA isolation from plant tissues, including the recovery of nucleic acids by ethanol precipitation at 0 °C for 10 min and the assessment of RNA quality by visualizing the banding profile of the separated RNAs on a standard nondenaturing agarose gel to shorten the duration of the whole procedure and simplify the operation. As a result, the modified procedure, including RNA isolation and quality control analysis could be finished in 4 hr and divided into two sessions. Because endogenous ribonucleases released upon disruption of the organelles and vacuoles were effectively and quickly inactivated, measures were taken to protect RNA integrity throughout the whole procedure so that total RNA with high purity and integrity as well as an appropriate yield could be obtained by students. The RNA isolation protocol described here was simple, efficient, flexible, and low cost. Therefore, it is an ideal approach for undergraduates to learn about RNA techniques. The pedagogical approach of the correlation of experimental work with the rationale for the whole protocol described in this report is an effective way for undergraduates to improve their learning of the techniques of RNA isolation and analysis and the theories behind them, as well as experimental design and data analysis. © 2017 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2017. © 2017 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  12. Monitoring for the Presence of Parasitic Protozoa and Free-living Amoebae in Drinking Water Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amany Saad Amer.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Contamination of drinking water by microorganisms represents a major human health hazard in many parts of the world. The main objective of drinking water treatment is to provide microbiologically safe drinking water. The conventional drinking water treatment and disinfection has proved to be one of the major public health advances in modern times. A number of processes; namely water treatment, disinfection and changes influence the quality of drinking water delivered to the customer’s tap during transport of treated water via the distribution system. At least 325 water-associated outbreaks of parasitic protozoan disease have reported. In this study, drinking water from treatment plants evaluated for the presence of parasitic protozoa. Water samples collected from two main points: (a outlet of the water treatment plants (b distribution system at different distances from the water treatment plants. Protozoa were concentrated from each water sample by adsorption and accumulation on the nitrocellulose membrane filters (0.45 μm pore size and detected by conventional staining methods.

  13. EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES ON THE PROPERTIES OF CEMENT CONCRETE WITH WATER HYACINTH FIBRES

    OpenAIRE

    K. Akil; Parthasarathy, P.; D. Siva Shankar

    2017-01-01

    Concrete, the most abundantly used material all over the world, suffers several drawbacks such as low tensile strength, permeability to liquids and consequent corrosion of reinforcement, etc. Several admixtures have been used since ancient times to change and improve the properties and performance of the concrete. Water hyacinth is a free floating aquatic plant that infests rivers, dams, lakes and irrigation channels. It affects water flow, blocks sunlight and oxygen and completely destroys t...

  14. Water Status of Arctic Tundra Plants During the Winter-Spring Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberbauer, S. F.; Olivas, P. C.; Moser, J.; Starr, G.; Mortazavi, B.

    2012-12-01

    The arctic winter-spring transition when full snow cover rapidly changes to snow-free conditions potentially represents a time of physiological stress for tundra plants. Plants that have been subjected to freezing temperatures for several months over winter are suddenly exposed to high radiation loads from clear skies and reflection from unmelted snow. Water uptake at this time may be limited by low stem temperatures and cold or even frozen soils. Because of these potential stresses it may be advantageous for plants to delay photosynthetic activity and water loss until soils are warmer. However, given the short length of the growing season, the optimal strategy for plants may be to maximize carbon uptake and begin photosynthesis and growth as soon as possible after snowmelt. Some tundra evergreens even photosynthesize under snow cover. To test the hypothesis that plant water stress increases immediately following loss of snow cover, we investigated xylem and leaf osmotic potentials of evergreen tundra species before and immediately after snowmelt. We also compared these measurements with summer and winter measurements. Our study was conducted in moist acidic tundra near Toolik Field Station in the northern foothills of the Brooks Range, Alaska. Xylem water potentials were measured by Scholander pressure chamber and osmotic potentials by psychrometry of cell sap expressed from frozen (-80 °C) leaf tissue. Xylem water potentials under snow were generally higher than those of plants recently released from snow. Osmotic potentials measured before and after snowmelt did not show evidence of strong changes. Some species, such as Ledum palustre, maintained high water potentials both under snow and shortly after snow melt. With only a few exceptions, water potentials just after melt out were generally higher than those after soils had warmed and plants had greened up. Low water potentials (plant water status and shoot mortality during winter and the spring thaw.

  15. Physiological quality of sesame seeds produced from plants subjected to water stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronimeire Torres da Silva

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Germination and seed vigor may be influenced by several factors, such as water stress during production, which affect crops differently according to the phenological stage of the plant. The aim of this study therefore was to evaluate the physiological quality of sesame seeds from plants subjected to water stress at different phenological stages. To this end, sesame plants were subjected to water stress at the following stages: I - germination to the start of vegetative growth (T1; II - vegetative growth to flowering (T2; III - flowering to pod formation (T3; IV - fruit maturation (T4; also for stress at all stages (T5 and full irrigation (T6. By weighing and daily irrigation of the containers, levels were kept at 50% of pot capacity (CV for treatments with water deficit, and at 100% CV for treatments with no deficit. At 90 days after planting, the plants were harvested. The seeds were evaluated by germination test, first germination count, germination speed index, mean germination time, accelerated aging, electrical conductivity, seedling emergence, emergence speed index, mean time of emergence, seedling length and seedling dry weight. Sesame seeds from plants grown under water deficit display lower physiological quality. Between germination and the start of vegetative growth, and between flowering and fruit formation, the sesame is more sensitive to water stress, so that water limitation during these periods results in the production of seeds of low physiological quality.

  16. Silicon alleviates drought stress of rice plants by improving plant water status, photosynthesis and mineral nutrient absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Yao, Xiaoqin; Cai, Kunzheng; Chen, Jining

    2011-07-01

    Drought is a major constraint for rice production in the rainfed lowlands in China. Silicon (Si) has been verified to play an important role in enhancing plant resistance to environmental stress. Two near-isogenic lines of rice (Oryza sativa L.), w-14 (drought susceptible) and w-20 (drought resistant), were selected to study the effects of exogenous Si application on the physiological traits and nutritional status of rice under drought stress. In wet conditions, Si supply had no effects on growth and physiological parameters of rice plants. Drought stress was found to reduce dry weight, root traits, water potential, photosynthetic parameters, basal quantum yield (F(v)/F(0)), and maximum quantum efficiency of PSII photochemistry (F(v)/F(m)) in rice plants, while Si application significantly increased photosynthetic rate (Pr), transpiration rate (Tr), F(v)/F(0), and F(v)/F(m) of rice plants under drought stress. In addition, water stress increased K, Na, Ca, Mg, Fe content of rice plants, but Si treatment significantly reduced these nutrient level. These results suggested that silicon application was useful to increase drought resistance of rice through the enhancement of photochemical efficiency and adjustment of the mineral nutrient absorption in rice plants.

  17. The Role of Demand Response in Reducing Water-Related Power Plant Vulnerabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macknick, J.; Brinkman, G.; Zhou, E.; O'Connell, M.; Newmark, R. L.; Miara, A.; Cohen, S. M.

    2015-12-01

    The electric sector depends on readily available water supplies for reliable and efficient operation. Elevated water temperatures or low water levels can trigger regulatory or plant-level decisions to curtail power generation, which can affect system cost and reliability. In the past decade, dozens of power plants in the U.S. have curtailed generation due to water temperatures and water shortages. Curtailments occur during the summer, when temperatures are highest and there is greatest demand for electricity. Climate change could alter the availability and temperature of water resources, exacerbating these issues. Constructing alternative cooling systems to address vulnerabilities can be capital intensive and can also affect power plant efficiencies. Demand response programs are being implemented by electric system planners and operators to reduce and shift electricity demands from peak usage periods to other times of the day. Demand response programs can also play a role in reducing water-related power sector vulnerabilities during summer months. Traditionally, production cost modeling and demand response analyses do not include water resources. In this effort, we integrate an electricity production cost modeling framework with water-related impacts on power plants in a test system to evaluate the impacts of demand response measures on power system costs and reliability. Specifically, we i) quantify the cost and reliability implications of incorporating water resources into production cost modeling, ii) evaluate the impacts of demand response measures on reducing system costs and vulnerabilities, and iii) consider sensitivity analyses with cooling systems to highlight a range of potential benefits of demand response measures. Impacts from climate change on power plant performance and water resources are discussed. Results provide key insights to policymakers and practitioners for reducing water-related power plant vulnerabilities via lower cost methods.

  18. Acclimation of a terrestrial plant to submergence facilitates gas exchange under water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mommer, L.; Pedersen, O.; Visser, E. J. W.

    2004-01-01

    Flooding imposes stress upon terrestrial plants since it severely hampers gas exchange rates between the shoot and the environment. The resulting oxygen deficiency is considered to be the major problem for submerged plants. Oxygen microelectrode studies have, however, shown that aquatic plants...... maintain relatively high internal oxygen pressures under water, and even may release oxygen via the roots into the sediment, also in dark. Based on these results, we challenge the dogma that oxygen pressures in submerged terrestrial plants immediately drop to levels at which aerobic respiration is impaired....... The present study demonstrates that the internal oxygen pressure in the petioles of Rumex palustris plants under water is indeed well above the critical oxygen pressure for aerobic respiration, provided that the air-saturated water is not completely stagnant. The beneficial effect of shoot acclimation...

  19. The Conceptual Design of an Integrated Nuclearhydrogen Production Plant Using the Sulfur Cycle Water Decomposition System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farbman, G. H.

    1976-01-01

    A hydrogen production plant was designed based on a hybrid electrolytic-thermochemical process for decomposing water. The sulfur cycle water decomposition system is driven by a very high temperature nuclear reactor that provides 1,283 K helium working gas. The plant is sized to approximately ten million standard cubic meters per day of electrolytically pure hydrogen and has an overall thermal efficiently of 45.2 percent. The economics of the plant were evaluated using ground rules which include a 1974 cost basis without escalation, financing structure and other economic factors. Taking into account capital, operation, maintenance and nuclear fuel cycle costs, the cost of product hydrogen was calculated at $5.96/std cu m for utility financing. These values are significantly lower than hydrogen costs from conventional water electrolysis plants and competitive with hydrogen from coal gasification plants.

  20. Mathematical Modeling of Oscillating Water Columns Wave-Structure Interaction in Ocean Energy Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aitor J. Garrido

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Oscillating Water Column (OWC-based power take-off systems are one of the potential solutions to the current energy problems arising from the use of nuclear fission and the consumption of fossil fuels. This kind of energy converter turns wave energy into electric power by means of three different stages: firstly wave energy is transformed into pneumatic energy in the OWC chamber, and then a turbine turns it into mechanical energy and finally the turbogenerator module attached to the turbine creates electric power from the rotational mechanical energy. To date, capture chambers have been the least studied part. In this context, this paper presents an analytical model describing the dynamic behavior of the capture chamber, encompassing the wave motion and its interaction with the OWC structure and turbogenerator module. The model is tested for the case of the Mutriku wave power plant by means of experimental results. For this purpose, representative case studies are selected from wave and pressure drop input-output data. The results show an excellent matching rate between the values predicted by the model and the experimental measured data with a small bounded error in all cases, so that the validity of the proposed model is proven.

  1. SWAP Modeling Results of Monitored Soil Water Moisture Data of Irrigation Experimental Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeiliger, A.; Garsia-Orenes, F.; van den Elsen, E.; Mataix-Solera, J.; Semenov, V.

    2009-04-01

    In arid and semiarid zones of the Mediterranean regions a shortage of fresh water resources constitutes some time dramatic problem. In these regions with growing population and the scarce of rainfall irregularity in time during growing season an efficient use of water irrigation became a main challenge for future extensive agriculture development. In the frame of FP6 Water-Reuse project 516731 project a special field experimentation has been carried out in Alicante Region of Spain (Location UTM X: 693.809, Y: 4.279.922, Z: 626) on a Sandy Typic Xerofkuvent (Soil Survey Staff, 1999), Calcaric Fluvisol (WRB, FAO, 1989). with aim to investigate water regime in water repellent soils under irrigation of vine Vitus Labrusca. During field experimentation from 2006 till 2008 on 9 plots, there the same regime of irrigation water application was maintained, a monitoring of weather parameters was done by automatic meteorological station as well as a monitoring of soil water moisture was done by set of data-loggers and TDR-soil moisture sensors ECO-2 installed at different depts. SWAP model was used to simulate water regime of irrigated plots. Empirical coefficients of van Genuchten-Mualem's equations were calculated by pedotransfer functions derived from HYPRES data base using measured values of bulk density, organic matter content and soil texture. Testing of validity of the use of estimated curves was done by comparison with unsaturated soil hydraulic parameters of water retention and hydraulic conductivity measured in vitro by Wind's method on soil samples. Calibration of SWAP model for each plot was done on measured soil moisture data of irrigation events by adjusting a value of saturated hydraulic coefficient. Verification of the SWAP model was done by full range of experimental data. Similarity and non-similarity of the water regime at experimental plots as well as results of verification of SWAP model were analyzed

  2. Experimental Investigation on the Material Removal of the Ultrasonic Vibration Assisted Abrasive Water Jet Machining Ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The ultrasonic vibration activated in the abrasive water jet nozzle is used to enhance the capability of the abrasive water jet machinery. The experiment devices of the ultrasonic vibration assisted abrasive water jet are established; they are composed of the ultrasonic vibration producing device, the abrasive supplying device, the abrasive water jet nozzle, the water jet intensifier pump, and so on. And the effect of process parameters such as the vibration amplitude, the system working pressure, the stand-off, and the abrasive diameter on the ceramics material removal is studied. The experimental result indicates that the depth and the volume removal are increased when the ultrasonic vibration is added on abrasive water jet. With the increase of vibration amplitude, the depth and the volume of material removal are also increased. The other parameters of the ultrasonic vibration assisted abrasive water jet also have an important role in the improvement of ceramic material erosion efficiency.

  3. The reliability evaluation of reclaimed water reused in power plant project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jie; Jia, Ru-sheng; Gao, Yu-lan; Wang, Wan-fen; Cao, Peng-qiang

    2017-12-01

    The reuse of reclaimed water has become one of the important measures to solve the shortage of water resources in many cities, But there is no unified way to evaluate the engineering. Concerning this issue, it took Wanneng power plant project in Huai city as a example, analyzed the reliability of wastewater reuse from the aspects of quality in reclaimed water, water quality of sewage plant, the present sewage quantity in the city and forecast of reclaimed water yield, in particular, it was necessary to make a correction to the actual operation flow rate of the sewage plant. the results showed that on the context of the fluctuation of inlet water quality, the outlet water quality of sewage treatment plants is basically stable, and it can meet the requirement of circulating cooling water, but suspended solids(SS) and total hardness in boiler water exceed the limit, and some advanced treatment should be carried out. In addition, the total sewage discharge will reach 13.91×104m3/d and 14.21×104m3/d respectively in the two planning level years of the project. They are greater than the normal collection capacity of the sewage system which is 12.0×104 m3/d, and the reclaimed water yield can reach 10.74×104m3/d, which is greater than the actual needed quantity 8.25×104m3/d of the power plant, so the wastewater reuse of this sewage plant are feasible and reliable to the power plant in view of engineering.

  4. The Physical, Chemical and Microbial Quality of Treated Water in Qom s Desalination Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Yari

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectivesWater is the basis of life and health. The health of food and water supply plays an important role in human health. One of the methods of water desalination is membrane filter reverse osmosis method. This method is used for desalination of drinking water supply in Qom.MethodsThis is a descriptive, cross-sectional study designed to determine the quality of treated water in Qom desalination plant in year 2002. Inlet and outlet water samples of this plant were examined by the standard examination methods and the collected data were compared with national and international standards. Excel software was used for statistical analysis.ResultsThe results showed that the residual chlorine concentration, total hardness and fluoride concentration were lower than the minimum standard limit set for drinking water. The pH was also lower than the minimum standard limit. Microbial contamination was detected in 6% of samples.ConclusionThe results show that the acidity of water was lower than standard in whole plant. This gives corrosive properties to the water and increases the dissolution of materials, which are in contact with this water. In order to eliminate the secondary contamination, the concentration of residual chlorine should be 1 mg/l. But, none of the measurements showed a concentration as high as this value. As fluoride is an important element for health and growth of bone and teeth, especially in growing children, fluoride should be added to the drinking water. As the relationship between hardness of water and cardiovascular diseases has been established, it can be concluded that this drinking water supply can increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases in long time. Dilution of this water is recommended to adjust various factors to the standard limits and keep the total dissolved solids low.Keywords: Qom ;Water; Reverse Osmosis; Desalination Plant; Water Quality

  5. Water, Nitrogen and Plant Density Affect the Response of Leaf Appearance of Direct Seeded Rice to Thermal Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maite MARTÍNEZ-EIXARCH

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Field experiments were conducted in the Ebro Delta area (Spain, from 2007 to 2009 with two rice varieties: Gleva and Tebre. The experimental treatments included a series of seed rates, two different water management systems and two different nitrogen fertilization times. The number of leaves on the main stems and their emergence time were periodically tagged. The results indicated that the final leaf number on the main stems in the two rice varieties was quite stable over a three-year period despite of the differences in their respective growth cycles. Interaction between nitrogen fertilization and water management influenced the final leaf number on the main stems. Plant density also had a significant influence on the rate of leaf appearance by extending the phyllochron and postponing the onset of intraspecific competition after the emergence of the 7th leaf on the main stems. Final leaf number on the main stems was negatively related to plant density. A relationship between leaf appearance and thermal time was established with a strong nonlinear function. In direct-seeded rice, the length of the phyllochron increases exponentially in line with the advance of plant development. A general model, derived from 2-year experimental data, was developed and satisfactorily validated; it had a root mean square error of 0.3 leaf. An exponential model can be used to predict leaf emergence in direct-seeded rice.

  6. Biological support media influence the bacterial biofouling community in reverse osmosis water reclamation demonstration plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrera, Isabel; Mas, Jordi; Taberna, Elisenda; Sanz, Joan; Sánchez, Olga

    2015-01-01

    The diversity of the bacterial community developed in different stages of two reverse osmosis (RO) water reclamation demonstration plants designed in a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Tarragona (Spain) was characterized by applying 454-pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. The plants were fed by secondary treated effluent to a conventional pretreatment train prior to the two-pass RO system. Plants differed in the material used in the filtration process, which was sand in one demonstration plant and Scandinavian schists in the second plant. The results showed the presence of a highly diverse and complex community in the biofilms, mainly composed of members of the Betaproteobacteria and Bacteroidetes in all stages, with the presence of some typical wastewater bacteria, suggesting a feed water origin. Community similarities analyses revealed that samples clustered according to filter type, highlighting the critical influence of the biological supporting medium in biofilm community structure.

  7. Water management requirements for animal and plant maintenance on the Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, C. C.; Rasmussen, D.; Curran, G.

    1987-01-01

    Long-duration Space Station experiments that use animals and plants as test specimens will require increased automation and advanced technologies for water management in order to free scientist-astronauts from routine but time-consuming housekeeping tasks. The three areas that have been identified as requiring water management and that are discusseed are: (1) drinking water and humidity condensate of the animals, (2) nutrient solution and transpired water of the plants, and (3) habitat cleaning methods. Automation potential, technology assessment, crew time savings, and resupply penalties are also discussed.

  8. NPDES Permit for Crow Municipal Rural & Industrial Pilot Water Treatment Plant in Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Under NPDES permit MT-0031827, the Crow Indian Tribe is authorized to discharge from the Crow Municipal Rural & Industrial (MR&I) Pilot Water Treatment Plant in Bighorn County, Montana to the Bighorn River.

  9. Notification: Hotline Complaint – Drinking Water Treatment Plant at the Fort Belknap Indian Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Project #OA-FY13-0076, November 13, 2012. On March 22, 2012, the Office of Inspector General (OIG) received a hotline complaint on the construction of the Drinking Water Treatment Plant (DWTP) at the Fort Belknap Indian Community.

  10. NPDES Permit for the Blackfeet Community Water Treatment Plant in Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Under NPDES permit MT-0030643, the Blackfeet Tribe is authorized to discharge from its Blackfoot Community Water Treatment Plant in Glacier County, Montana, to an unnamed intermittent stream which flows to Two Medicine River.

  11. Water Treatment Plant Sludges--An Update of the State of the Art: Part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Water Works Association Journal, 1978

    1978-01-01

    This report outlines the state of the art with respect to nonmechanical and mechanical methods of dewatering water treatment plant sludge, ultimate solids disposal, and research and development needs. (CS)

  12. NPDES Permit for Mesa Verde National Park Water Treatment Plant in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Under NPDES permit number CO-0034462, the United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service is authorized to discharge from the Mesa Verde National Park water treatment plant, in Montezuma County, Colo.

  13. Assessment of supercritical water oxidation system testing for the Blue Grass Chemical Agent Destruction Pilot Plant

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Board on Army Science and Technology; Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences; National Research Council

    2013-01-01

    "Assessment of Supercritical Water Oxidation System Testing for the Blue Grass Chemical Agent Destruction Pilot Plant reviews and evaluates the results of the tests conducted on one of the SCWO units...

  14. Plant-wide (BSM2) evaluation of reject water treatment with a SHARON-Anammox process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volcke, Eveline; Gernaey, Krist; Vrecko, Darko

    2006-01-01

    treatment plant, reject water treatment with a combined SHARON-Anammox process seems a promising option. The simulation results indicate that significant improvements of the effluent quality of the main wastewater treatment plant can be realized. An economic evaluation of the different scenarios......In wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) equipped with sludge digestion and dewatering systems, the reject water originating from these facilities contributes significantly to the nitrogen load of the activated sludge tanks, to which it is typically recycled. In this paper, the impact of reject water...... streams on the performance of a WWTP is assessed in a simulation study, using the Benchmark Simulation Model no. 2 (BSM2), that includes the processes describing sludge treatment and in this way allows for plant-wide evaluation. Comparison of performance of a WWTP without reject water with a WWTP where...

  15. The effects of Niger State water treatment plant effluent on its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-05-16

    Kaduna). Oyeleke, S. B.* and Istifanus, N. Department of Microbiology, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Nigeria. Accepted 19 March, 2008. The effect of water treatment plant effluent on its receiving river (Kaduna) was ...

  16. Capital cost: pressurized water reactor plant. Commercial electric power cost studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-06-01

    The investment cost study for the 1139 MW(e) pressurized water reactor (PWR) central station power plant consists of two volumes. This volume contains the drawings, equipment list and site description.

  17. Optimal supervisory control of a central chilled water plant with heuristic search sequential quadratic programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jian

    2010-09-01

    A new methodology for adapting rigorous simulation programs to optimal supervisory control of a central chilled water plant is proposed in this article, which solves plant operation mode optimization and set points optimization by combining heuristic search with sequential quadratic programming. The mathematical basis of this algorithm is developed. A new derivative calculation strategy is introduced in set points optimization. This approach is applied to a central chilled water plant which consists of three chillers, two 3-cell cooling towers, three chilled water pumps and three condenser water pumps. Model verification study is performed. The optimal sequence of operation, set points of the decision variables at given load demand and weather condition are calculated. The plant performance and optimal control results are discussed.

  18. The function of advanced treatment process in a drinking water treatment plant with organic matter-polluted source water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Huirong; Zhang, Shuting; Zhang, Shenghua; Lin, Wenfang; Yu, Xin

    2017-04-01

    To understand the relationship between chemical and microbial treatment at each treatment step, as well as the relationship between microbial community structure in biofilms in biofilters and their ecological functions, a drinking water plant with severe organic matter-polluted source water was investigated. The bacterial community dynamics of two drinking water supply systems (traditional and advanced treatment processes) in this plant were studied from the source to the product water. Analysis by 454 pyrosequencing was conducted to characterize the bacterial diversity in each step of the treatment processes. The bacterial communities in these two treatment processes were highly diverse. Proteobacteria, which mainly consisted of beta-proteobacteria, was the dominant phylum. The two treatment processes used in the plant could effectively remove organic pollutants and microbial polution, especially the advanced treatment process. Significant differences in the detection of the major groups were observed in the product water samples in the treatment processes. The treatment processes, particularly the biological pretreatment and O 3 -biological activated carbon in the advanced treatment process, highly influenced the microbial community composition and the water quality. Some opportunistic pathogens were found in the water. Nitrogen-relative microorganisms found in the biofilm of filters may perform an important function on the microbial community composition and water quality improvement.

  19. Spatial and temporal evaluations of estrogenic activity in tap water served by a water plant in Wuhan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Qiang; Cao, Wen-Cheng; Xu, Liang; Chen, Yong-Zhe; Yun, Luo-Jia; Liu, Ai-Lin; Zhang, Jing; Lu, Wen-Qing

    2013-05-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the spatial and temporal characteristics of estrogenic activities in tap water served by a water plant in Wuhan, China. Tap water samples were monthly collected from the three sampling sites with different distances of distribution network from the plant during April 2010-March 2011: Min (less than 0.1km), Mid (approximately 4km) and Max (approximately 8km). Estrogenic activities of solid phase-extracted tap waters were measured by using recombinant yeast assay incorporated with and without exogenous metabolic activation system (rat liver S9 fractions) and expressed as 17β-estradiol equivalents (EEQ). Pro-estrogenic and estrogenic activity in tap water ranged from 151.4 to 1395.6pg EEQ/L and 35.2 to 1511pg EEQ/L, respectively. Average pro-estrogenic activity (680.3pg EEQ/L) was significantly higher than estrogenic activity (412.8pg EEQ/L) throughout the whole year. The pro-estrogenic activity significantly increased with the extending of distribution network, and was also statistically correlated with water temperature and pH. However, pro-estrogenic and estrogenic activity was not altered across four seasons. Our results suggest that the pro-estrogenic and estrogenic chemicals are present in tap water served by the water plant. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Analysis the Existence of Heterotrophic Bacteria in Active Water Desalination Plant Output of Kashan City, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosseindoost Gh. MSc,

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aims One of the consequences of taking ground water into surface is changing its chemical quality, specially increasing the concentration of dissolved salts. This research was performed in order to analyze growth possibility of heterotrophic bacteria in the membrane of active desalination plants in Kashan City, Iran. Instrument & Methods This descriptive cross-sectional study was done on water output of 20 active desalination plants in 2013 in Kashan City, Iran and 200 specimens of input and output water was randomly extracted from desalination plants. Awareness and education level of system operators, filter changing intervals, HPC of input and output water and chlorine concentration of input and output water were measured and recorded. Obtained data were analyzed statistically with SPSS 18 software using one-way ANOVA, Chi-square, McNemar and one-sample T tests. Findings There was a significant relation between the interval time and output HPC level of the plants (p0.05. The mean concentration of chlorine in samples of 20 desalination plants was 0.76±0.44mg/l in input water and 0.64±0.52mg/l in output water (p>0.05. Level of awareness had significant relation with the output water pollution with HPC (p0.05. Conclusion The mean level of HPC

  1. Evaluation of emerging contaminants in a drinking water treatment plant using electrodialysis reversal technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabarrón, S; Gernjak, W; Valero, F; Barceló, A; Petrovic, M; Rodríguez-Roda, I

    2016-05-15

    Emerging contaminants (EC) have gained much attention with globally increasing consumption and detection in aquatic ecosystems during the last two decades from ng/L to lower ug/L. The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence and removal of pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs), endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and related compounds in a Drinking Water Treatment Plant (DWTP) treating raw water from the Mediterranean Llobregat River. The DWTP combined conventional treatment steps with the world's largest electrodialysis reversal (EDR) facility. 49 different PhACs, EDCs and related compounds were found above their limit of quantification in the influent of the DWTP, summing up to a total concentration of ECs between 1600-4200 ng/L. As expected, oxidation using chlorine dioxide and granular activated carbon filters were the most efficient technologies for EC removal. However, despite the low concentration detected in the influent of the EDR process, it was also possible to demonstrate that this process partially removed ionized compounds, thereby constituting an additional barrier against EC pollution in the product. In the product of the EDR system, only 18 out of 49 compounds were quantifiable in at least one of the four experimental campaigns, showing in all cases removals higher than 65% and often beyond 90% for the overall DWTP process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Geographic information system applied to the estimation of the plant water status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Cristina; de la Rosa, Jose Mª; Temnani, Abdel; Pérez-Pastor, Alejandro

    2017-04-01

    The importance of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) at handling managing geospatial data is demonstrated in a large number of scientific and professionals disciplines that have an impact on the territory. Thus, in agriculture, it is a transversal tool that includes the recopilation of: (i) geographic information: soil-plant geolocated sensors in experimental fields, water and fertilizers consumption for each irrigation sector, energy consumption and digital surface models (ii) representation and analysis: obtaining temperature maps, aspect models, solar radiation, run-off and salinity, as well as hardware, software and the people who compose it, results in the optimization of resources (goods, energy and workforce) what it makes the farm more efficient and more beneficial for the environment. In addition, in this project, the use of new technologies, such as satellite imagery or drones with multispectral cameras, allow to obtain other parameters that are not observed with the naked eye, like the state of the crop in spectroradiometric terms (remote sensing), stressed crops through indexes like NDVI, that may lead to take decisions like: (i) irrigation variations (ii) early detection of fillings in droppers (iii) affected areas for a pest, helping to distribute the workforce efficiently (pesticide use in an optimal way). The main objective of GIS use in this project is to establish direct relationships between parameters taken from the soil and plant with image processing in four different crops, orange, peach, apricot trees and table grape. In this way, the leaf area index (LAI) can be calculated, assessing how different irrigation management affects: i) Control (CTL), irrigated to ensure non-limiting water conditions (120% of crop evapotranspiration) and ii) Regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) irrigated as CTL during critical periods and decreasing irrigation in non-critical periods. Acknowledgements This work has been funded by the European Union LIFE+ project

  3. Experimental Study on the Performance of Water Source Trans-Critical CO2 Heat Pump Water Heater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiufang Liu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the discharge pressure on the performance of the trans-critical CO2 heat pump with a low gas-cooler outlet temperature is experimentally investigated on a test rig of water source heat-pump water heater. The optimal discharge pressure of the trans-critical CO2 heat pump is investigated under different external operation conditions. When the tap-water temperature is low, the characteristic of the S-shape isotherm at the supercritical region has little effect on the occurrence of the optimal discharge pressure; while the mass flow rate of CO2, the suction pressure and the gas-cooler outlet temperature play a significant role in determining the emergence of the optimal discharge pressure. At the optimal discharge pressure, the COP reaches the peak; however, the corresponding heating capacity is still lower than its maximum, which is reached as the discharge pressure is slightly above the optimal discharge pressure. Reducing the tap-water flowrate or increasing the water-source temperature can increase the optimal discharge pressure. The COP is positively dependent on both the tap-water flowrate and the water-source temperature. In addition, the tap-water flowrate has a negligible influence on the maximum heating capacity while increasing the water-source temperature can greatly enhance the heating capacity.

  4. Construction of an experimental plot seeder of wheat planting and compare it by imported one

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Eskandari

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Researchers frequently include multiple cultivars and fertility levels in field experiments. Therefore, the experiments sowing operation must represent a considerable saving in time and labor, compared to hand sowing. Greater flexibility in experimental design and setup could be achieved by equipment that enables quick changes in the cultivar and fertilizer rates from one plot to the next. A satisfactory seed drill must distribute a given quantity of seed evenly over a predetermined length of coulter row, the coulters must be spaced at exact intervals and depth of sowing must be uniform. In a self-propelled type of plot seeder, no coulter should run in a wheel track as the compaction of the soil can cause observable differences in vigor between plants in such a row and those in un-compacted rows. The machine should sow in succession from a try in which a series of seed pocket separated clearly and must be put into distributer funnel by an assistant operator. The length of gap being varied according to the nature and purpose of the plot. The objectives of this experiment were 1- to design and construct a local self-propelled plot seeder and 2- To compare it with the imported (Wintersteiger plot seeder in cereal breeding programs. Materials and Methods A small-plot seeder was designed and constructed to meet this objective. The unit consists of the following basic components: a toolbar for pulling a set of six blade coulter, an air compressor for lifting and putting down the openers and metering transmission drive wheel, an operators chair and work rack, one belt seed distribution. A cone-celled and rotor seed distributor is used for seed distribution to the openers. The cone system is connected to the gearbox and allows for great flexibility in changing cultivars, crop species, and plot length. This is driven by the separate drive wheel. The cone-celled distributor sows all the seed of the sample in making one complete turn. The

  5. Primary water chemistry improvement for radiation exposure reduction at Japanese PWR Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishizawa, Eiichi [Omiya Technical Institute, Saitama-ken (Japan)

    1995-03-01

    Radiation exposure during the refueling outages at Japanese Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) Plants has been gradually decreased through continuous efforts keeping the radiation dose rates at relatively low level. The improvement of primary water chemistry in respect to reduction of the radiation sources appears as one of the most important contributions to the achieved results and can be classified by the plant operation conditions as follows

  6. UV Light Inactivation of Human and Plant Pathogens in Unfiltered Surface Irrigation Water

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Lisa A.; Worobo, Randy W.; Smart, Christine D.

    2014-01-01

    Fruit and vegetable growers continually battle plant diseases and food safety concerns. Surface water is commonly used in the production of fruits and vegetables and can harbor both human- and plant-pathogenic microorganisms that can contaminate crops when used for irrigation or other agricultural purposes. Treatment methods for surface water are currently limited, and there is a need for suitable treatment options. A liquid-processing unit that uses UV light for the decontamination of turbid...

  7. Water use in four model tropical plant associations established in the lowlands of Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Gutiérrez-Soto, Marco V.; Ewel, John J.

    2008-01-01

    We examined soil water use patterns of four model plant associations established in the North Caribbean lowlands of Costa Rica by comparing the stable hydrogen isotope composition, δD, in xylem sap and in soil water at different depths, under rainy and dry conditions. Four 5-year-old model plant associations composed of 2 tree species (Hyeronima alchorneoides and Cedrela odorata) having different architecture and phenology were studied. Average tree height was 8.9 and 7.6 m, respectively...

  8. Reuse of process water in a waste-to-energy plant: An Italian case of study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardoni, Davide; Catenacci, Arianna; Antonelli, Manuela

    2015-09-01

    The minimisation of water consumption in waste-to-energy (WtE) plants is an outstanding issue, especially in those regions where water supply is critical and withdrawals come from municipal waterworks. Among the various possible solutions, the most general, simple and effective one is the reuse of process water. This paper discusses the effectiveness of two different reuse options in an Italian WtE plant, starting from the analytical characterisation and the flow-rate measurement of fresh water and process water flows derived from each utility internal to the WtE plant (e.g. cooling, bottom ash quenching, flue gas wet scrubbing). This census allowed identifying the possible direct connections that optimise the reuse scheme, avoiding additional water treatments. The effluent of the physical-chemical wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), located in the WtE plant, was considered not adequate to be directly reused because of the possible deposition of mineral salts and clogging potential associated to residual suspended solids. Nevertheless, to obtain high reduction in water consumption, reverse osmosis should be installed to remove non-metallic ions (Cl(-), SO4(2-)) and residual organic and inorganic pollutants. Two efficient solutions were identified. The first, a simple reuse scheme based on a cascade configuration, allowed 45% reduction in water consumption (from 1.81 to 0.99m(3)tMSW(-1), MSW: Municipal Solid Waste) without specific water treatments. The second solution, a cascade configuration with a recycle based on a reverse osmosis process, allowed 74% reduction in water consumption (from 1.81 to 0.46m(3)tMSW(-1)). The results of the present work show that it is possible to reduce the water consumption, and in turn the wastewater production, reducing at the same time the operating cost of the WtE plant. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of plant diversity on primary production and species interactions in brackish water angiosperm communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salo, Tiina; Gustafsson, Camilla; Boström, Christoffer

    2009-01-01

    plant productivity in brackish water angiosperm communities, a 14 wk field experiment was conducted. Using a replacement design with a standardized initial aboveground biomass, shoots of Zostera marina, Potamogeton filiformis and P. perfoliatus were planted on a shallow, sandy bottom in replicated...

  10. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Experimental Test Site (Site 300) Potable Water System Operations Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ocampo, Ruben P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bellah, Wendy [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-03-04

    The existing Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Site 300 drinking water system operation schematic is shown in Figures 1 and 2 below. The sources of water are from two Site 300 wells (Well #18 and Well #20) and San Francisco Public Utilities Commission (SFPUC) Hetch-Hetchy water through the Thomas shaft pumping station. Currently, Well #20 with 300 gallons per minute (gpm) pump capacity is the primary source of well water used during the months of September through July, while Well #18 with 225 gpm pump capacity is the source of well water for the month of August. The well water is chlorinated using sodium hypochlorite to provide required residual chlorine throughout Site 300. Well water chlorination is covered in the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Experimental Test Site (Site 300) Chlorination Plan (“the Chlorination Plan”; LLNL-TR-642903; current version dated August 2013). The third source of water is the SFPUC Hetch-Hetchy Water System through the Thomas shaft facility with a 150 gpm pump capacity. At the Thomas shaft station the pumped water is treated through SFPUC-owned and operated ultraviolet (UV) reactor disinfection units on its way to Site 300. The Thomas Shaft Hetch- Hetchy water line is connected to the Site 300 water system through the line common to Well pumps #18 and #20 at valve box #1.

  11. LLNL Experimental Test Site (Site 300) Potable Water System Operations Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ocampo, R. P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bellah, W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-09-14

    The existing Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Site 300 drinking water system operation schematic is shown in Figures 1 and 2 below. The sources of water are from two Site 300 wells (Well #18 and Well #20) and San Francisco Public Utilities Commission (SFPUC) Hetch-Hetchy water through the Thomas shaft pumping station. Currently, Well #20 with 300 gallons per minute (gpm) pump capacity is the primary source of well water used during the months of September through July, while Well #18 with 225 gpm pump capacity is the source of well water for the month of August. The well water is chlorinated using sodium hypochlorite to provide required residual chlorine throughout Site 300. Well water chlorination is covered in the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Experimental Test Site (Site 300) Chlorination Plan (“the Chlorination Plan”; LLNL-TR-642903; current version dated August 2013). The third source of water is the SFPUC Hetch-Hetchy Water System through the Thomas shaft facility with a 150 gpm pump capacity. At the Thomas shaft station the pumped water is treated through SFPUC-owned and operated ultraviolet (UV) reactor disinfection units on its way to Site 300. The Thomas Shaft Hetch- Hetchy water line is connected to the Site 300 water system through the line common to Well pumps #18 and #20 at valve box #1.

  12. Isotope fractionation of sandy-soil water during evaporation - an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Wen-Bo; Han, Liang-Feng; Tan, Hong-Bing; Wang, Shuai

    2017-06-01

    Soil samples containing water with known stable isotopic compositions were prepared. The soil water was recovered by using vacuum/heat distillation. The experiments were held under different conditions to control rates of water evaporation and water recovery. Recoveries, δ18O and δ2H values of the soil water were determined. Analyses of the data using a Rayleigh distillation model indicate that under the experimental conditions only loosely bound water is extractable in cases where the recovery is smaller than 100 %. Due to isotopic exchange between vapour and remaining water in the micro channels or capillaries of the soil matrix, isotopic fractionation may take place under near-equilibrium conditions. This causes the observed relationship between δ2H and δ18O of the extracted water samples to have a slope close to 8. The results of this study may indicate that, in arid zones when soil that initially contains water dries out, the slope of the relationship between δ2H and δ18O values should be close to 8. Thus, a smaller slope, as observed by some groundwater and soil water samples in arid zones, may be caused by evaporation of water before the water has entered the unsaturated zone.

  13. Experimental study for quantative aging evaluation of epoxy liner in BWR nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Na, H. S. [KEPRI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Song, Y. C.; Kim, N. Y. [Korea Univ. of Educational Technology, Chonnon (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-10-01

    The purpose of this study is an experimental approach to quantitatively evaluate the aging status of epoxy coating onto containment structure in BWR nuclear power plant. Based on accelerated aging experiment for 64 days, adhesion test was performed to evaluate an physical bonding. To compare with adhesion data, both impedance data by UT and data by thermal gravimetric analysis were obtained during experiment. At almost 50% of adhesion force decrease, it was identified that aging phenamena of epoxy such as pine hole, blistering was discovered. Coating to establish aging status of epoxy, relations among three kinds of different data were analyze. By compatibility of these data, physical aging situation of as-built epoxy coating was figured out. The possibility to develop new methodology of time-dependent aging status on epoxy coating was identified.

  14. Generous hosts: What makes Madagascar periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus) the perfect experimental host plant for fastidious bacteria?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killiny, Nabil

    2016-12-01

    Although much attention has been paid to the metabolism and biosynthesis of monoterpene alkaloids in Catharanthus roseus, its value as an experimental host for a variety of agriculturally and economically important phytopathogenic bacteria warrants further study. In the present study, we evaluated the chemical composition of the phloem and xylem saps of C. roseus to infer the nutritional requirements of phloem- and xylem-limited phytopathogens. Periwinkle phloem sap consisted of a rich mixture of sugars, organic acids, amino acids, amines, fatty acids, sugar acids and sugar alcohols while xylem contained similar compounds in lesser concentrations. Plant sap analysis may lead to a better understanding of the biology of fastidious Mollicutes and their complex nutritional requirements, and to successful culture of phytoplasmas and other uncultured phloem-restricted bacteria such as Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, the causal agent of huanglongbing in citrus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. The plant secondary metabolite citral alters water status and prevents seed formation in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graña, E; Díaz-Tielas, C; López-González, D; Martínez-Peñalver, A; Reigosa, M J; Sánchez-Moreiras, A M

    2016-05-01

    Based on previous results, which showed that the secondary metabolite citral causes disturbances to plant water status, the present study is focused on demonstrating and detailing these effects on the water-related parameters of Arabidopsis thaliana adult plants, and their impact on plant fitness. Clear evidence of effects on water status and fitness were observed: plants treated with 1200 and 2400 μm citral showed decreased RWC, reduced Ψs , increased Ψw and reduced stomatal opening, even 7 days after the beginning of the experiment. Plant protection signals, such as leaf rolling or increased anthocyanin content, were also detected in these plants. In contrast, 14 days after beginning the treatment, treated plants showed signs of citral-related damage. Moreover, the reproductive success of treated plants was critically compromised, with prematurely withered flowers and no silique or seed development. This effect of citral on fitness of adult plants suggests a promising application of this natural compound in weed management by reducing the weed seed bank in the soil. © 2015 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  16. The effects of experimental warming on the timing of a plant-insect herbivore interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharouba, Heather M; Vellend, Mark; Sarfraz, Rana M; Myers, Judith H

    2015-05-01

    The phenology of many species is shifting in response to climatic changes, and these shifts are occurring at varying rates across species. This can potentially affect species' interactions and individual fitness. However, few studies have experimentally tested the influence of warming on the timing of species interactions. This is an important gap in the literature given the potential for different direct and indirect effects of temperature via phenological change. Our aim was to test the effects of warming on the western tent caterpillar (Malacosoma californicum pluviale). In addition to the direct effects of warming, we considered the two primary indirect effects mediated by warming-driven changes in its host plant, red alder (Alnus rubra): changes in resource availability due to phenological mismatch (i.e. changes in the relative timing of the interaction), and changes in resource quality associated with leaf maturation. We experimentally warmed egg masses and larvae of the western tent caterpillar placed on branches of red alder in the field. Warming advanced the timing of larval but not leaf emergence. This led to varying degrees of phenological mismatch, with larvae emerging as much as 25 days before to 10 days after the emergence of leaves. Even the earliest-emerging larvae, however, had high survival in the absence of leaves for up to 3 weeks, and they were surprisingly resistant to starvation. In addition, although warming created phenological mismatch that initially slowed the development of larvae that emerged before leaf emergence, it accelerated larval development once leaves were available. Therefore, warming had no net effect on our measures of insect performance. Our results demonstrate that the indirect effects of warming, in creating phenological mismatch, are as important to consider as the direct effects on insect performance. Although future climatic warming might influence plants and insects in different ways, some insects may be well adapted

  17. An experimental study of habitat choice by Daphnia: plants signal danger more than refuge in subtropical lakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meerhoff, Mariana; Fosalba, C.; Bruzzone, C.

    2006-01-01

    1. In shallow temperate lakes, submerged plants often provide refuge for pelagic zooplankton against fish predation, a mechanism with potential strong cascading effects on water transparency and on the entire ecosystem. In (sub)tropical lakes, however, the interaction between aquatic plants...... and predation may be more complex, particularly because fish density is high within the plant beds in such systems. 2. Using laboratory 'habitat choice' experiments, we determined the effects of three (sub)tropical free-floating plants, Eichhornia crassipes, Pistia stratiotes and Salvinia auriculata...... and the cosmopolitan submerged Ceratophyllum demersum, on horizontal movement by the water flea Daphnia obtusa. We tested for avoidance of plants in the absence and presence of alarm signals from crushed conspecifics and chemical cues from the fish Cnesterodon decemmaculatus, the fish have been subjected to different...

  18. Assessing Waste Water Treatment Plant Effluent for Thyroid Hormone Disruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Much information has been coming to light on the estrogenic and androgenic activity of chemicals present in the waste water stream and in surface waters, but much less is known about the presence of chemicals with thyroid activity. To address this issue, we have utilized two assa...

  19. Impacts of invasive alien plants on water quality, with particular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-04-18

    Apr 18, 2012 ... Red water fern. (floating). Bad odour, turbidity and reduced light m, reduced water movement (Oba Lake, Nigeria) m; increase in waterborne dis- eases; constrains agricultural, recreational and conservation activities (Zimbabwe)n. Absorption of. Fe, Cu, Ni, Pb,. Zn, Mn and Cr,. (Blesbok Spruit,. South Africa) ...

  20. EFFECT OF WATER EXTRACT OF PLANTS CONTAINING TANNIN ON IN VITRO METHAGONESIS AND FERMENTATION CHARACTERISTICS OF THE GRASS Pennisetum purpureophoides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Santoso

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of extract of plants containing tannin on in vitro CH4 production, fermentation characteristics and nutrient degradability. Six of plant leaves i.e. Gliricidia sepium, Acacia mangium, Leucaena leucocephala, Desmodium intortum, Camellia sinensis, Calliandra calothyrsus and seed of Areca catechu were extracted by using water. Experimental treatments consisted of P. purpureophoides (300±5 mg incubated alone or added with 1.2 mL of plant extracts. The in vitro neutral detergent fibre (NDF degradability was determined using the first stage technique of Tilley and Terry. The results showed that total tannin concentration of plant extract ranged from 34 to 95 g/kg DM, and was lowest in D. intortum and highest in A. mangium. Methane production was significantly (P<0.001 lower with addition of A. mangium, L. leucocephala, A. catechu, C. sinensis and C. calothyrsus extracts compared to control. Total tannin had a close relationship with CH4 production (r=-0.79. There was strong correlation between CH4 production and NDF degradability (r=0.61. It was concluded that water extracts of A. mangium, L. leucocephala, A. catechu, C. sinensis and C. calothyrsus have potential to be used as rumen manipulator in order to reduce CH4 production in ruminants.

  1. Nigella sativa – a Plant with Personality in Biochemistry and Experimental Medicine Researches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Ahmadi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Last decades often presented references to traditional medicine, or culinary use of natural resources for a better health status, prevention or treatment of different diseases. One of the natural plants came lately in the researches as a miracle salve: Nigella sativa. Also commonly known as black cumin, the most use of this plant are the seeds, such as, as powder, as oil extract, or as hydro or alcoholic extracts. Culinary usage of N. sativa is referring to the seeds used as spice. Medical usage of this plantis mostly used as oil or extracts administrated orally or intraperitoneal. The best demonstrated bioactive component is thymoquinone, an alkaloid, monotherpenoid compound, that seems to be the key of medical benefits of N. sativa. Experimental medicine proved that seeds of black cumin have health enhancement and pharmaceutical effects, being used in various disseases (cardiac, digestive and respiratory diseases; hepatic and renal tonic; inflammations; reproductive and neural disorders, analgesic; appetite stimulant; cancer prevention and treatment; spasmolytic and diabetes. Seeds (as powder, oil or hydro, alcoholic extracts have been demonstrated that have antimicrobial, antiparasitic, antitumoral, antidiabetic, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory action. N. sativa is easy to cultivate, storing, and offering diver potential of use as seed, seed oil, different type of seed extracts.

  2. The relationship between stable oxygen and hydrogen isotope ratios of water in astomatal plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Lee W.; DeNiro, Michael J.; Keeley, Jon E.; Taylor, H. P.; O'Neil, J. R.; Kaplan, I.R.

    1991-01-01

    Isotropic fractination of leaf water during transpiration is influenced by both equilibrium and kinetic factors. Previous workers have predicted that the influence of each factor varies depending upon the path of water loss,m whether centralized through stomata, or diffuse through the cuticle. We studied the relationship between the δD and δ18O values of lead and stem waters of laurel sumac, Rhus laurina (Nutt.) T. & G., and its parasite, dodder, Cuscuta subinclusa D. & H., growing in the field. Stomatal transpiration, associated with more stagnant boundary layers, predominates in R. laurina; cuticular transpiration, associated with more turbulent boundary layers, is most important in the largely astomatal C. subinclusa. We also studied the diurnal variation in the δD and δ18O values of lead waters of two astomatal plants, Chiloschista lunifera (Rchb. F.) J.J.S. and Stylites andicola Amstutz, and two stomatal plants, Tillandsia balbisiana Schult. and Lilaeopsis schaffneriana (Schlecht.) C. & R., growing with them under the same conditions in the laboratory. Slopes, m, for the relation δD = mδ18O + b were significantly higher for stem waters in C. subinclusa that for leaf waters in R. laurina (1.77), consistent with the difference in the boundary layers through which water was lost in the two species. The magnitude of diurnal heavy isotope enrichment of tissue water was smaller in C. subinclusa than in R. laurina, which is also consistent with predictions concerning evapotranspiration through difference types of boundary layers. The slopes, m, in plant waters in the laboratory experiments, conducted at high humidity, were not different than those observed during evaporation of water from pans, regardless of plant anatomy. The observation suggests that cuticular transpiration is important in influencing isotopic fractionation of water only at low humidity. Our results indicate that the isotopic composition of water vapor released by plants in arid regions may

  3. Occurrence and elimination of cyanobacterial toxins in drinking water treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeger, Stefan J; Hitzfeld, Bettina C; Dietrich, Daniel R

    2005-03-15

    Toxin-producing cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) are abundant in surface waters used as drinking water resources. The toxicity of one group of these toxins, the microcystins, and their presence in surface waters used for drinking water production has prompted the World Health Organization (WHO) to publish a provisional guideline value of 1.0 mug microcystin (MC)-LR/l drinking water. To verify the efficiency of two different water treatment systems with respect to reduction of cyanobacterial toxins, the concentrations of MC in water samples from surface waters and their associated water treatment plants in Switzerland and Germany were investigated. Toxin concentrations in samples from drinking water treatment plants ranged from below 1.0 microg MC-LR equiv./l to more than 8.0 microg/l in raw water and were distinctly below 1.0 microg/l after treatment. In addition, data to the worldwide occurrence of cyanobacteria in raw and final water of water works and the corresponding guidelines for cyanobacterial toxins in drinking water worldwide are summarized.

  4. The essential value of long-term experimental data for hydrology and water management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetzlaff, Doerthe; Carey, Sean K.; McNamara, James P.; Laudon, Hjalmar; Soulsby, Chris

    2017-04-01

    Observations and data from long-term experimental watersheds are the foundation of hydrology as a geoscience. They allow us to benchmark process understanding, observe trends and natural cycles, and are prerequisites for testing predictive models. Long-term experimental watersheds also are places where new measurement technologies are developed. These studies offer a crucial evidence base for understanding and managing the provision of clean water supplies, predicting and mitigating the effects of floods, and protecting ecosystem services provided by rivers and wetlands. They also show how to manage land and water in an integrated, sustainable way that reduces environmental and economic costs.

  5. Theoretical analysis and experimental verification of parabolic trough solar collector with hot water generation system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valan-Arasu Amirtham

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The modeling of a parabolic trough collector with hot water generation system with a well-mixed type storage tank using a computer simulation program is presented in this paper. This is followed by an experimental verification of the model and an analysis of the experimental results. The maximum difference between the predicted and the actual storage tank water temperature values is found as 9.59% only. This variation is due to the difference between the actual weather during the test period compared to hourly values and the convection losses from the collector receiver, which were not constant as accounted by the computer simulation program. .

  6. Storm water pollution prevention plan for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published the final storm water regulation on November 16, 1990. The storm water regulation is included in the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) regulations. An NPDES permit was issued for the Y-12 Plant on April 28, 1995, and was effective on July 1, 1995. The permit requires that a Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan (SWP3) be developed by December 28, 1995, and be fully implemented by July 1, 1996; this plan has been developed to fulfill that requirement. The outfalls and monitoring points described in this plan contain storm water discharges associated with industrial activities as defined in the NPDES regulations. For storm water discharges associated with industrial activity, including storm water discharges associated with construction activity, that are not specifically monitored or limited in this permit, Y-12 Plant personnel will meet conditions of the General Storm Water Rule 1200-4-10. This document presents the programs and physical controls that are in place to achieve the following objectives: ensure compliance with Section 1200-4-10-.04(5) of the TDEC Water Quality Control Regulations and Part 4 of the Y-12 Plant NPDES Permit (TN0002968); provide operating personnel with guidance relevant to storm water pollution prevention and control requirements for their facility and/or project; and prevent or reduce pollutant discharge to the environment, in accordance with the Clean Water Act (CWA) and the Tennessee Water Quality Control Act.

  7. Reflectance of vegetation, soil, and water. [effects of measurable plant parameters on multispectral signal variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegand, C. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Reflectance of crop residues, that are important in reducing wind and water erosion, was more often different from bare soil in band 4 than in bands 5, 6, or 7. The plant parameters leaf area index, plant population, plant cover, and plant height explained 95.9 percent of the variation in band 7 (reflective infrared) digital counts for cotton and 78.2 percent of the variation in digital counts for the combined crops sorghum and corn; hence, measurable plant parameters explain most of the signal variation recorded for corpland. Leaf area index and plant population are both highly correlated with crop yields; since plant population can be readily measured (or possibly inferred from seeding rates), it is useful measurement for calibrating ERTS-type MSS digital data in terms of yield.

  8. Performance Study of Reverse Osmosis Plants for Water Desalination in Bandar-Lengeh, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Zirakrad

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Reverse osmosis (RO is best known for its use in desalination (removing the salt from seawater to get fresh water, but since the early 1970s it has also been used to purify fresh water for medical, industrial, and domestic applications. The aim of this research was the performance study of reverse osmosis plants for water desalination in Bandar-Lengeh, Iran. Materials and Methods: In this study the concentrations of a number of physical, chemical and biological quality parameters in raw and treated water of Bandar-Lengeh water Desalination Plants were determined and Performance of RO plants for seawater and costal groundwater desalination were studied. There are two desalination plants in Bandar-Lengeh. Water from these plants are used for municipal supply. Total production capacity of the two RO desalination plants is 8000 m3/d. Results: The results of this study showed average values of TDS, Sodium, Chloride, Sulfate, diatomaceous and Nematodes in seawater were 37749 mg/l; 9715 mg/l; 22020 mg/l; 3067 mg/l; 24337 N/100ml and 5 N/100ml and in treated water were 1233 mg/l; 436 mg/l; 710 mg/l; 58 mg/l, 0 N/100ml and 0 N/100ml, respectively. Also the results showed average values of TDS, Sodium, Chloride and Sulfate in coastal ground water were 37131 mg/l; 9303 mg/l; 21072 mg/l; 3745 mg/l; and in treated water were 687mg/l; 253 mg/l; 389 mg/l; 19 mg/l, respectively. Conclusion: The results showed the quality of feed water and pretreatment plays an extremely important role in operational problems such as fouling of RO systems.

  9. Experimental investigation of picosecond dynamics following interactions between laser accelerated protons and water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senje, L.; Coughlan, M.; Jung, D.; Taylor, M.; Nersisyan, G.; Riley, D.; Lewis, C. L. S.; Lundh, O.; Wahlström, C.-G.; Zepf, M.; Dromey, B.

    2017-03-01

    We report direct experimental measurements with picosecond time resolution of how high energy protons interact with water at extreme dose levels (kGy), delivered in a single pulse with the duration of less than 80 ps. The unique synchronisation possibilities of laser accelerated protons with an optical probe pulse were utilized to investigate the energy deposition of fast protons in water on a time scale down to only a few picoseconds. This was measured using absorbance changes in the water, induced by a population of solvated electrons created in the tracks of the high energy protons. Our results indicate that for sufficiently high doses delivered in short pulses, intertrack effects will affect the yield of solvated electrons. The experimental scheme allows for investigation of the ultrafast mechanisms occurring in proton water radiolysis, an area of physics especially important due to its relevance in biology and for proton therapy.

  10. Effect of different water temperatures on growth of aquatic plants Salvinia natans and Ceratophyllum demersum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadija Kadhem Hreeb

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the effect of some different water temperatures on growth of aquatic plants (Salvinia natans and Ceratophyllum demersum. Methods: The aquatic plants were brought from Shatt Al-Arab River in 2016. Equal weights of aquatic plants were aquacultured in aquaria, and were exposed to three different temperatures ( 12, 22 and 32 °C. Results: The results showed that the two plants did not show significant differences with respect to their effects on pH and electrical conductivity values. Time and temperature did not affect the values of pH and electrical conductivity. The values of dissolved oxygen was significantly influenced with variation of time and temperature, while the two plants did not have significant differences on dissolved oxygen values, nitrate ion concentration and was not significantly influenced with variation of plant species or temperature or time. Plant species and temperature significantly affected phosphate ion concentration, while the time did not significantly influence the concentration of phosphate ion. Chlorophyll a content and biomass were significantly influenced with the variation of plant species, and temperature . Conclusions: Aquatic plants has a species specific respond to temperatures change in their environment. Water plant, Ceratophyllum demersum is more tolerant to temperatures change than Salvinia natans.

  11. Influence of arbuscular mycorrhizae on photosynthesis and water status of maize plants under salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Min; Tang, Ming; Chen, Hui; Yang, Baowei; Zhang, Fengfeng; Huang, Yanhui

    2008-09-01

    The influence of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus Glomus mosseae on characteristics of the growth, water status, chlorophyll concentration, gas exchange, and chlorophyll fluorescence of maize plants under salt stress was studied in the greenhouse. Maize plants were grown in sand and soil mixture with five NaCl levels (0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 g/kg dry substrate) for 55 days, following 15 days of non-saline pretreatment. Under salt stress, mycorrhizal maize plants had higher dry weight of shoot and root, higher relative chlorophyll content, better water status (decreased water saturation deficit, increased water use efficiency, and relative water content), higher gas exchange capacity (increased photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance and transpiration rate, and decreased intercellular CO(2) concentration), higher non-photochemistry efficiency [increased non-photochemical quenching values (NPQ)], and higher photochemistry efficiency [increased the maximum quantum yield in the dark-adapted state (Fv/Fm), the maximum quantum yield in the light-adapted sate (Fv'/Fm'), the actual quantum yield in the light-adapted steady state (phiPSII) and the photochemical quenching values (qP)], compared with non-mycorrhizal maize plants. In addition, AM symbiosis could trigger the regulation of the energy biturcation between photochemical and non-photochemical events reflected in the deexcitation rate constants (kN, kN', kP, and kP'). All the results show that G. mosseae alleviates the deleterious effect of salt stress on plant growth, through improving plant water status, chlorophyll concentration, and photosynthetic capacity, while the influence of AM symbiosis on photosynthetic capacity of maize plants can be indirectly affected by soil salinity and mycorrhizae-mediated enhancement of water status, but not by the mycorrhizae-mediated enhancement of chlorophyll concentration and plant biomass.

  12. Arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis alleviates detrimental effects of saline reclaimed water in lettuce plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente-Sánchez, J; Nicolás, E; Pedrero, F; Alarcón, J J; Maestre-Valero, J F; Fernández, F

    2014-07-01

    The present study evaluated the effects of inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF; Glomus iranicum var. tenuihypharum sp. nova) on the physiological performance and production of lettuce plants grown under greenhouse conditions and supplied with reclaimed water (RW; urban-treated wastewater with high electrical conductivity; 4.19 dS m(-1)). Four treatments, fresh water, fresh water plus AMF inoculation, RW and RW plus AMF inoculation, were applied and their effects, over time, analyzed. Root mycorrhizal colonization, plant biomass, leaf-ion content, stomatal conductance and net photosynthesis were assessed. Overall, our results highlight the significance of the AMF in alleviation of salt stress and their beneficial effects on plant growth and productivity. Inoculated plants increased the ability to acquire N, Ca, and K from both non-saline and saline media. Moreover, mycorrhization significantly reduced Na plant uptake. Under RW conditions, inoculated plants also showed a better performance of physiological parameters such as net photosynthesis, stomatal conductance and water-use efficiency than non-mycorrhizal plants. Additionally, the high concentration of nutrients already dissolved in reclaimed water suggested that adjustments in the calculation of the fertigation should be conducted by farmers. Finally, this experiment has proved that mycorrhization could be a suitable way to induce salt stress resistance in iceberg lettuce crops as plants supplied with reclaimed water satisfied minimum legal commercial size thresholds. Moreover, the maximum values of Escherichia coli in the reclaimed water were close to but never exceeded the international thresholds established (Spanish Royal Decree 1620/2007; Italian Decree, 2003) and hence lettuces were apt for sale.

  13. Deciphering the plant splicing code: Experimental and computational approaches for predicting alternative splicing and splicing regulatory elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anireddy S.N. Reddy

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Extensive alternative splicing (AS of precursor mRNAs (pre-mRNAs in multicellular eukaryotes increases the protein-coding capacity of a genome and allows novel ways to regulate gene expression. In fowering plants, up to 48% of intron-containing genes exhibit AS. However, the full extent of AS in plants is not yet known, as only a few high throughput RNA-Seq studies have been performed. As the cost of obtaining RNA-Seq reads continues to fall, it is anticipated that huge amounts of plant sequence data will accumulate and help in obtaining a more complete picture of AS in plants. Although it is not an onerous task to obtain hundreds of millions of reads using high throughput sequencing technologies, computational tools to accurately predict and visualize AS are still being developed and refined. This review will discuss the tools to predict and visualize transcriptome-wide AS in plants using short reads and highlight their limitations. Comparative studies of AS events between plants and animals have revealed that there are major differences in the most prevalent types of AS events, suggesting that plants and animals differ in the way they recognize exons and introns. Extensive studies have been performed in animals to identify cis-elements involved in regulating AS, especially in exon skipping. However, such studies are in their infancy in plants. Here, we review the current state of research on splicing regulatory elements (SREs and briefly discuss emerging experimental and computational tools to identify cis-elements involved in regulation of AS in plants. The availability of curated alternative splice forms in plants makes it possible to use computational tools to predict SREs involved in AS regulation, which can then be verified experimentally. Such studies will permit identification of plant-specific features involved in AS regulation and contribute to deciphering the splicing code in plants.

  14. Experimental and numerical analysis of the cooling performance of water spraying systems during a fire.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YaoHan Chen

    Full Text Available The water spray systems are effective protection systems in the confined or unconfined spaces to avoid the damage to building structures since the high temperature when fires occur. NFPA 15 and 502 have suggested respectively that the factories or vehicle tunnels install water spray systems to protect the machinery and structures. This study discussed the cooling effect of water spray systems in experimental and numerical analyses. The actual combustion of woods were compared with the numerical simulations. The results showed that although the flame continued, the cooling effects by water spraying process within 120 seconds were obvious. The results also indicated that the simulation results of the fifth version Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS overestimated the space temperature before water spraying in the case of the same water spray system.

  15. Experimental apparatus for measurement of density of supercooled water at high pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peukert Pavel

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Thermodynamic behavior of supercooled water (metastable fluid water existing transiently below the equilibrium freezing point at high pressures was subject to many recent theoretical studies. Some of them assume that a second critical point of water exists, related to two liquid phases of supercooled water: the low-density liquid and the high-density liquid. To test these theories, an original experimental cryogenic apparatus is being developed. The volume changes are measured optically in custom-treated fused-silica capillary tubes. The capillaries are placed in a metal vessel designed for pressures up to 200 MPa. The vessel is connected to a circulation thermostat enabling a rapid change of temperature to prevent freezing. A new high-vacuum device was developed for degassing of the ultrapure water sample and filling it into the measuring capillaries. The experiments will contribute to fundamental understanding of the anomalous behavior of water and to applications in meteorology, aerospace engineering, cryobiology etc.

  16. Biogeochemistry of uranium in the soil-plant and water-plant systems in an old uranium mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Favas, Paulo J.C., E-mail: pjcf@utad.pt [University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, UTAD, School of Life Sciences and the Environment, Quinta de Prados, 5000-801 Vila Real (Portugal); MARE, Marine and Environmental Sciences Centre, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, University of Coimbra, 3004-517 Coimbra (Portugal); Pratas, João [MARE, Marine and Environmental Sciences Centre, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, University of Coimbra, 3004-517 Coimbra (Portugal); University of Coimbra, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, Department of Earth Sciences, 3001-401 Coimbra (Portugal); Instituto de Geologia e Petróleo de Timor Leste, Timor-Leste (Country Unknown); Mitra, Soumita; Sarkar, Santosh Kumar [University of Calcutta, Department of Marine Science, 35, Ballygunge Circular Road, Calcutta 700019, West Bengal (India); Venkatachalam, Perumal [Periyar University, Department of Biotechnology, Salem 636 011, TN (India)

    2016-10-15

    The present study highlights the uranium (U) concentrations in water–soil–plant matrices and the efficiency considering a heterogeneous assemblage of terrestrial and aquatic native plant species to act as the biomonitor and phytoremediator for environmental U-contamination in the Sevilha mine (uraniferous region of Beiras, Central Portugal). A total of 53 plant species belonging to 22 families was collected from 24 study sites along with ambient soil and/or water samples. The concentration of U showed wide range of variations in the ambient medium: 7.5 to 557 mg kg{sup −} {sup 1} for soil and 0.4 to 113 μg L{sup −} {sup 1} for water. The maximum potential of U accumulation was recorded in roots of the following terrestrial plants: Juncus squarrosus (450 mg kg{sup −} {sup 1} DW), Carlina corymbosa (181 mg kg{sup −} {sup 1} DW) and Juncus bufonius (39.9 mg kg{sup −} {sup 1} DW), followed by the aquatic macrophytes, namely Callitriche stagnalis (55.6 mg kg{sup −} {sup 1} DW) Lemna minor (53.0 mg kg{sup −} {sup 1} DW) and Riccia fluitans (50.6 mg kg{sup −} {sup 1} DW). Accumulation of U in plant tissues exhibited the following decreasing trend: root > leaves > stem > flowers/fruits and this confirms the unique efficiency of roots in accumulating this radionuclide from host soil/sediment (phytostabilization). Overall, the accumulation pattern in the studied aquatic plants (L. minor, R. fluitans, C. stagnalis and Lythrum portula) dominated over most of the terrestrial counterpart. Among terrestrial plants, the higher mean bioconcentration factor (≈ 1 in roots/rhizomes of C. corymbosa and J. squarrosus) and translocation factor (31 in Andryala integrifolia) were encountered in the representing families Asteraceae and Juncaceae. Hence, these terrestrial plants can be treated as the promising candidates for the development of the phytostabilization or phytoextraction methodologies based on the accumulation, abundance and biomass production

  17. Peroxidase activity as an indicator of water stress in sweet pepper plants

    OpenAIRE

    Klar, Antonio Evaldo; Jadoski, Sidnei Osmar; Lima, Giusepina Pace Pereira [UNESP

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the physiological and biochemical behavior of sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) plants under different soil water availability conditions and the efficiency of the peroxidase (EC. 1.11. 1.7) activity as an indicator of water stress in plants. The experiment was carried out at the Faculdade de Ciências Agronômicas UNESP, Botucatu, SP. Sweet pepper plants were grown for 230 days after transplanting of seedlings and arranged in a completely randomized exp...

  18. Plants growth, water relations and photosynthesis of two bean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phaseolus vulgaris has a great variability regarding the tolerance to salinity. In this work, we used fluridone as a tool to study the herbicide's effect on two salt stressed bean genotypes since fluridone alters photosynthetic pigments and blocks normal abscisic acid biosynthesis under salinity. Plants from two bean genotypes ...