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Sample records for experimentally infected european

  1. Experimental infection of Foxes with European bat Lyssaviruses type-1 and 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biarnais Mélanie

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since 1954, there have been in excess of 800 cases of rabies as a result of European Bat Lyssaviruses types 1 and 2 (EBLV-1, EBLV-2 infection, mainly in Serotine and Myotis bats respectively. These viruses have rarely been reported to infect humans and terrestrial mammals, as the only exceptions are sheep in Denmark, a stone marten in Germany and a cat in France. The purpose of this study was to investigate the susceptibility of foxes to EBLVs using silver foxes (Vulpes vulpes as a model. Results Our experimental studies have shown that the susceptibility of foxes to EBLVs is low by the intramuscular (IM route, however, animals were sensitive to intracranial (IC inoculation. Mortality was 100% for both EBLV-1 (~4.5 logs and EBLV-2 (~3.0 logs delivered by the IC route. Virus dissemination and inflammatory infiltrate in the brain were demonstrated but virus specific neutralising antibody (VNA was limited (log(ED50 = 0.24–2.23 and 0.95–2.39 respectively for specific EBLV-1 and EBLV-2. Foxes were also susceptible, at a low level, to peripheral (IM infection (~3.0 logs with EBLV-1 but not EBLV-2. Three out of 21 (14.3% foxes developed clinical signs between 14 and 24 days post-EBLV-1 infection. None of the animals given EBLV-2 developed clinical disease. Conclusion These data suggest that the chance of a EBLV spill-over from bat to fox is low, but with a greater probability for EBLV-1 than for EBLV-2 and that foxes seem to be able to clear the virus before it reaches the brain and cause a lethal infection.

  2. Experimental infection of pigs with two East European variants of Type 1 PRRSV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Larsen, Lars Erik; Heegaard, Peter M. H.

    , 7, 10, 14, 17, 21 and 24 days post infection (dpi). The pigs infected with the “Bor59” virus developed higher body temperature and more severe clinical symptoms compared to the other three groups, although the clinical signs in general were mild. The acute phase response was measured in serum...... samples as an objective indicator of infection. Acute phase protein C-reactive protein (CRP) showed an increase in levels in pigs infected with the Eastern European viruses with an earlier rise for Bor59 than for Ili6, both peaking at 10 dpi. In contrast, the CRP level did not increase significantly...... in neither the subtype 1 virus inoculated pigs nor the sham-inoculated controls. Acute phase protein haptoglobin showed a very early increase in Bor59 infected pigs, peaking at 3 dpi, while no increase was observed in Ili6 infected pigs. All of the virus inoculated pigs seroconverted, as measured by IPMA...

  3. Immunohistochemical and biochemical characteristics of BSE and CWD in experimentally infected European red deer (Cervus elaphus elaphus

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    Dagleish Mark P

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cause of the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE epidemic in the United Kingdom (UK was the inclusion of contaminated meat and bone meal in the protein rations fed to cattle. Those rations were not restricted to cattle but were also fed to other livestock including farmed and free living deer. Although there are no reported cases to date of natural BSE in European deer, BSE has been shown to be naturally or experimentally transmissible to a wide range of different ungulate species. Moreover, several species of North America's cervids are highly susceptible to chronic wasting disease (CWD, a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE that has become endemic. Should BSE infection have been introduced into the UK deer population, the CWD precedent could suggest that there is a danger for spread and maintenance of the disease in both free living and captive UK deer populations. This study compares the immunohistochemical and biochemical characteristics of BSE and CWD in experimentally-infected European red deer (Cervus elpahus elaphus. Results After intracerebral or alimentary challenge, BSE in red deer more closely resembled natural infection in cattle rather than experimental BSE in small ruminants, due to the lack of accumulation of abnormal PrP in lymphoid tissues. In this respect it was different from CWD, and although the neuropathological features of both diseases were similar, BSE could be clearly differentiated from CWD by immunohistochemical and Western blotting methods currently in routine use. Conclusion Red deer are susceptible to both BSE and CWD infection, but the resulting disease phenotypes are distinct and clearly distinguishable.

  4. Experimental infection of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) with Northern European bluetongue virus serotype 8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drolet, Barbara S; Reister, Lindsey M; Rigg, Tara D; Nol, Pauline; Podell, Brendan K; Mecham, James O; VerCauteren, Kurt C; van Rijn, Piet A; Wilson, William C; Bowen, Richard A

    2013-10-25

    Bluetongue (BT) is an insect-transmitted, economically important disease of domestic and wild ruminants. Although only five of the 26 reported bluetongue virus (BTV) serotypes are considered endemic to the USA, 10 exotic serotypes have been isolated primarily in the southeastern region of the country since 1999. For an exotic BTV serotype to become endemic there must be susceptible animal species and competent vectors. In the USA, sheep and white-tailed deer (WTD) are the primary sentinel livestock and wildlife species, respectively. In 2006, BTV-8 was introduced into Northern Europe and subsequently overwintered, causing unprecedented livestock disease and mortality during the 2006-2007 vector seasons. To assess the risk of the European strain of BTV-8 to North American WTD, and understand the role they could play after a similar introduction, eight bluetongue-seronegative WTD were inoculated with BTV-8. Body temperatures and clinical signs were recorded daily. Blood samples were analyzed for BTV RNA with quantitative real time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), serum analyzed for BTV antibodies by cELISA, and tissues taken for histopathology and qRT-PCR. All eight deer became infected and developed moderate to severe clinical disease from days 8 to 15. Peak viremia was from day 7 to 10 with detectable titers through the end of the study (28 days) in most deer. Serum antibody was detected by day 6, peaked by day 10 and continued through day 28. We conclude that North American WTD are highly susceptible to BTV-8 and would act as clinical disease sentinels and amplifying hosts during an outbreak. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Natural and experimental infection of sheep with European bat lyssavirus type-1 of Danish bat origin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tjørnehøj, Kirsten; Fooks, A.R.; Agerholm, J.S.

    2006-01-01

    In 1998 and 2002, European bat lyssavirus type-1 (EBLV-1) was demonstrated in brain tissue of five Danish sheep suffering from micrological disorders. Four of the five sheep also had encephalic listeriosis. The animals originated from four flocks on pastures within a limited area of western Jutla...

  6. Experimental infection of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss with viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus isolates from European marine and farmed fishes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skall, Helle Frank; Slierendrecht, W.J.; King, J.A.

    2004-01-01

    The susceptibility of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss to infection with various isolates of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) was examined. A total of 8 experiments with rainbow trout ranging from 0.6 to 6.2 g was conducted for 139 isolates originating from wild marine fishes...... in European waters (115 isolates), farmed turbot from Scotland and Ireland (2 isolates), and farmed rainbow trout (22 isolates). The isolates were tested by immersion and/or intraperitoneal injection either as pooled or single isolates. The isolates from wild marine fishes did not cause mortality by immersion...... while some of the isolates caused mortality when injected. All VHSV isolates from farmed rainbow trout caused significant mortality by immersion. Currently, pathogenicity trials are the only way to differentiate VHSV isolates from wild marine fishes and farmed rainbow trout. The 2 farmed turbot isolates...

  7. Tolerance of fungal infection in European water frogs exposed to Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis after experimental reduction of innate immune defenses

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    Woodhams Douglas C

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While emerging diseases are affecting many populations of amphibians, some populations are resistant. Determining the relative contributions of factors influencing disease resistance is critical for effective conservation management. Innate immune defenses in amphibian skin are vital host factors against a number of emerging pathogens such as ranaviruses and the amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd. Adult water frogs from Switzerland (Pelophylax esculentus and P. lessonae collected in the field with their natural microbiota intact were exposed to Bd after experimental reduction of microbiota, skin peptides, both, or neither to determine the relative contributions of these defenses. Results Naturally-acquired Bd infections were detected in 10/51 P. lessonae and 4/19 P. esculentus, but no disease outbreaks or population declines have been detected at this site. Thus, this population was immunologically primed, and disease resistant. No mortality occurred during the 64 day experiment. Forty percent of initially uninfected frogs became sub-clinically infected upon experimental exposure to Bd. Reduction of both skin peptide and microbiota immune defenses caused frogs to gain less mass when exposed to Bd than frogs in other treatments. Microbiota-reduced frogs increased peptide production upon Bd infection. Ranavirus was undetectable in all but two frogs that appeared healthy in the field, but died within a week under laboratory conditions. Virus was detectable in both toe-clips and internal organs. Conclusion Intact skin microbiota reduced immune activation and can minimize subclinical costs of infection. Tolerance of Bd or ranavirus infection may differ with ecological conditions.

  8. Experimental Infection of Sheep using Infective Larvae (L3 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Experimental Infection of Sheep using Infective Larvae (L3) harvested from the Faeces of Naturally Infected Swayne's Hartebeest ( Alcelaphus buselaphus swaynei ) at Senkele Swayne's Hartebeest Sanctuary, Ethiopia.

  9. 2016 European guideline on Mycoplasma genitalium infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, J S; Cusini, M; Gomberg, M; Moi, H

    2016-10-01

    Mycoplasma genitalium infection contributes to 10-35% of non-chlamydial non-gonococcal urethritis in men. In women, M. genitalium is associated with cervicitis and pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). Transmission of M. genitalium occurs through direct mucosal contact. Asymptomatic infections are frequent. In women, symptoms include vaginal discharge, dysuria or symptoms of PID - abdominal pain and dyspareunia. In men, urethritis, dysuria and discharge predominates. Besides symptoms, indication for laboratory test is a high-risk sexual behaviour. Diagnosis is achievable only through nucleic acid amplification testing (NAAT). If available, NAAT diagnosis should be followed with an assay for macrolide resistance. Therapy for M. genitalium is indicated if M. genitalium is detected or on an epidemiological basis. Doxycycline has a low cure rate of 30-40%, but does not increase resistance. Azithromycin has a cure rate of 85-95% in macrolide susceptible infections. An extended course appears to have a higher cure rate. An increasing prevalence of macrolide resistance, most likely due to widespread use of azithromycin 1 g single dose without test of cure, is drastically decreasing the cure rate. Moxifloxacin can be used as second-line therapy, but resistance is increasing. Uncomplicated M. genitalium infection should be treated with azithromycin 500 mg on day one, then 250 mg on days 2-5 (oral), or josamycin 500 mg three times daily for 10 days (oral). Second line treatment and treatment for uncomplicated macrolide resistant M. genitalium infection is moxifloxacin 400 mg od for 7-10 days (oral). For third line treatment of persistent M. genitalium infection after azithromycin and moxifloxacin doxycycline 100 mg two times daily for 14 days can be tried and may cure 30%. Pristinamycin 1 g four times daily for 10 days (oral) has a cure rate of app. 90%. Complicated M. genitalium infection (PID, epididymitis) is treated with moxifloxacin 400 mg od for 14 days. © 2016 European

  10. Experimental Trichomonas infection: Morphological aspects

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    E. N. Shumkova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Growth tendency the asymptomatic forms of an urogenital trichomoniasis, frequency of complications from reproductive organs, uncertainty of many aspects of the violations of a spermatogenesis influencing reproductive function all this proves need of search of the urogenital trichomoniasis adequate experimental model. Lack of the corresponding experimental model is limited by our opportunities for carrying out the standardized, controlled researches on studying of transmission, pathogenesis, the immune answer, therapy and development of vaccines at a triсhomonas infection.Objective is studying action of Trichomonas vaginalis on a spermatogenny epithelium the mature of individuals of guinea pigs in the conditions of sharp and chronic experience.Materials and methods. Experiments are made on the “Reproductive System (Guinea Pigs + Trichomonas vaginalis” modeling the natural course of an infection. In experiment 2 groups of animals: 1st (n = 8 – experimental, 2nd (n = 8 – control were formed. Against the background of the reduction of the immune status (hydrocortisone 125 mg/kg intramuscularly 1 time in day during 2 days the animals of the 1st group were injected intraurethral suspension containing 1 × 106 Trichomonas on 0.5 ml of culture medium, the animals of the 2nd group – 0.5 ml of medium. Under the condition of the acute experiment the animals were sacrificed on day 9 (the middle of the cycle of spermatogenesis – I experienced group and on day 30 (full spermatogenic cycle – II experimental group. The control animals were slaughtered in the same period. The material for histological study was prepared by the traditional way.Results. In an experimental model of “Reproductive system (guinea pigs + T. vaginalis”, staging and degree of disturbance of spermatogenesis, depending on the duration of trichomonas infection were shown. So, in acute experience morphological changes correspond to changes in the

  11. Experimental Ascaris suum infection in Yankasa lambs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of experimental Ascaris suum infection in Yankasa lambs were investigated. Twenty four (24) Yankasa lambs aged 6-8 months were purchased and randomly divided into two groups (1 and 2). The lambs in group 1, consisting of 16 animals, were orally infected with 1500 infective A. suum eggs daily for seven ...

  12. Experimental infection of European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) and house sparrows (Passer domesticus) with pandemic 2009 H1N1 and swine H1N1 and H3N2 triple reassortant influenza viruses.

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    Nemeth, Nicole M; Oesterle, Paul T; Poulson, Rebecca L; Jones, Cheryl A; Tompkins, S Mark; Brown, Justin D; Stallknecht, David E

    2013-04-01

    European Starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) and House Sparrows (Passer domesticus) are common peridomestic passerine birds that are often associated with domestic animal production facilities. This association provides a potential means for pathogen transmission between facilities. We inoculated European Starlings and House Sparrows with three non-avian influenza virus strains: two swine isolates (H1N1 and H3N2) and one human isolate representing the H1N1 pandemic strain that originated from swine. No viral shedding was observed in House Sparrows, and shedding was minimal and transient in two of 12 (17%) European Starlings. One of these two infected Starlings seroconverted 14 days after inoculation. These results suggest that these two passerine species are minimally susceptible to current influenza viruses in domestic pigs and therefore pose a negligible risk for transmission between or within swine production facilities.

  13. PMWS: Experimental model and co-infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allan, G. M.; McNeilly, F.; Ellis, J

    2004-01-01

    and pneumonia and typical histological lesions include lymphocytic depletion and multinucleated giant cell formation in lymph nodes, degeneration and necrosis of hepatocytes, and multifocal lymphohistocytic interstitial pneumonia. This communication will review the results of experimental infections...

  14. Comparative haematological changes in experimentally infected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A comparative study of haematological changes in Savannah brown goats experimentally infected with Trypanosoma brucei and Trypanosoma vivax was carried out using thirty (30) goats aged between 20 and 48 months and average weight of 13.00 kg. The parameters determined before and after infection included ...

  15. Blood biochemistry responses of chickens experimentally infected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the blood biochemistry responses of cockerels experimentally infected with a velogenic Newcastle disease virus (NDV) strain, KUDU 113. One hundred Isa white cockerels were used for the study. The cockerels were obtained at day-old and randomly divided into groups A- vaccinated and infected, ...

  16. Education in infection control : A need for European certification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zingg, W.; Mutters, N. T.; Harbarth, S.; Friedrich, A. W.

    2015-01-01

    Healthcare-associated infections are common adverse events in acute-care medicine, causing significant morbidity and mortality. There has been a significant increase in the commitment to infection prevention and control (IPC) among European countries in recent years. However, there is still

  17. An experimental Schistosoma mattheei infection in man.

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    Wolmarans, C T; de Kock, K N; van der Walt, M P

    1990-12-01

    Certain aspects of the immune response of a male experimentally infected with 3-day old cercariae of a pure field strain of Schistosoma matheei were investigated. Among others, aspects such as the reaction of eosinophils, neutrophils and blood platelets after infection, were included in the study. The involvement of IgG and the cross reaction between these antibodies and S. haematobium and S. mansoni were also investigated. The phenomenon that the cercariae were, 3 days after shedding, still capable of penetrating the skin causing an inflammatory response was studied. The results lend some support to the surmise that a pure S. mattheei infection in humans is incapable of any egg production.

  18. 2015 European guideline on the management of Chlamydia trachomatis infections.

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    Lanjouw, E; Ouburg, S; de Vries, H J; Stary, A; Radcliffe, K; Unemo, M

    2016-04-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis infections, which most frequently are asymptomatic, are major public health concerns globally. The 2015 European C. trachomatis guideline provides: up-to-date guidance regarding broader indications for testing and treatment of C. trachomatis infections; a clearer recommendation of using exclusively-validated nucleic acid amplification tests for diagnosis; advice on (repeated) C. trachomatis testing; the recommendation of increased testing to reduce the incidence of pelvic inflammatory disease and prevent exposure to infection; and recommendations to identify, verify and report C. trachomatis variants. Improvement of access to testing, test performance, diagnostics, antimicrobial treatment and follow-up of C. trachomatis patients are crucial to control its spread. For detailed background, evidence base and discussions, see the background review for the present 2015 European guideline on the management of Chlamydia trachomatis infections (Lanjouw E, et al. Int J STD AIDS. 2015). © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. Reduction in undiagnosed HIV infection in the European Union/European Economic Area, 2012 to 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Sighem, Ard; Pharris, Anastasia; Quinten, Chantal; Noori, Teymur; Amato-Gauci, Andrew J

    2017-01-01

    It is well-documented that early HIV diagnosis and linkage to care reduces morbidity and mortality as well as HIV transmission. We estimated the median time from HIV infection to diagnosis in the European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA) at 2.9 years in 2016, with regional variation. Despite evidence of a decline in the number of people living with undiagnosed HIV in the EU/EEA, many remain undiagnosed, including 33% with more advanced HIV infection (CD4 < 350 cells/mm3). PMID:29208159

  20. Experimental Proteus mirabilis Burn Surface Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-02-01

    mirabilis Burn Surface Infection Albert T. McManus, PhD; Charles G. McLeod, Jr, DVM; Arthur D. Mason, Jr, MD * We established a human burn Isolate of...William J1. Northam. Peter A. lDorsaneo, and Paulette langlinais MS. model may be useful in evaluation of experimental antibi - prov ided technical support

  1. Experimental Salmonella typhimurium infections in rats. I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougen, H P; Jensen, E T; Klausen, B

    1989-01-01

    The course of experimentally induced Salmonella typhimurium infection was studied in three groups of inbred LEW rats: homozygous +/+, athymic rnu/rnu and isogeneic thymus-grafted rnu/rnu rats. In the first experiment the animals were inoculated intraperitoneally with 10(8) bacteria and all animals...

  2. Experimental Ascaris suum infection in Yankasa lambs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aliyu.jibril

    2017-04-11

    Apr 11, 2017 ... Experimental Ascaris suum infection in Yankasa lambs: Parasitological and pathological observations. I Isah. 1. *, JO Ajanusi. 1. , NP Chiezey. 2. , LB Tekdek. 3. & B Mohammed. 4. 1. Department of Veterinary Parasitology and Entomology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine,. Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, ...

  3. Experimental Campylobacter Jejuni Infection in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-03-01

    Blaser MJI Black RE. Duncan DJ, Amer I. Campylobacter Clements ML, Robins-Brone R, Lim Y-L. Duration of jejuni -specific serum antibodies are elevated in...SUBTITLE 5 FUNDING •4UMBERS Experimental Campylobacter jejuni Infection 86PP6826 in Humans 61102A 30161102BS13 AB6. AUTHOR(S)DA328 Robert E. Black...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES Contract Title: Studies of the Outer Membrane Proteins of Campylobacter Jejuni for Vaccine Development ൔa• DISTRIBUTION

  4. Nonlinear hierarchical modeling of experimental infection data.

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    Singleton, Michael D; Breheny, Patrick J

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we propose a nonlinear hierarchical model (NLHM) for analyzing longitudinal experimental infection (EI) data. The NLHM offers several improvements over commonly used alternatives such as repeated measures analysis of variance (RM-ANOVA) and the linear mixed model (LMM). It enables comparison of relevant biological properties of the course of infection including peak intensity, duration and time to peak, rather than simply comparing mean responses at each observation time. We illustrate the practical benefits of this model and the insights it yields using data from experimental infection studies on equine arteritis virus. Finally, we demonstrate via simulation studies that the NLHM substantially reduces bias and improves the power to detect differences in relevant features of the infection response between two populations. For example, to detect a 20% difference in response duration between two groups (n=15) in which the peak time and peak intensity were identical, the RM-ANOVA test had a power of just 11%, and LMM a power of just 12%. By comparison, the nonlinear model we propose had a power of 58% in the same scenario, while controlling the Type I error rate better than the other two methods. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. CD36 deficiency attenuates experimental mycobacterial infection

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    Min-Oo Gundula

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Members of the CD36 scavenger receptor family have been implicated as sensors of microbial products that mediate phagocytosis and inflammation in response to a broad range of pathogens. We investigated the role of CD36 in host response to mycobacterial infection. Methods Experimental Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG infection in Cd36+/+ and Cd36-/- mice, and in vitro co-cultivation of M. tuberculosis, BCG and M. marinum with Cd36+/+ and Cd36-/-murine macrophages. Results Using an in vivo model of BCG infection in Cd36+/+ and Cd36-/- mice, we found that mycobacterial burden in liver and spleen is reduced (83% lower peak splenic colony forming units, p Cd36-/- animals. Intracellular growth of all three mycobacterial species was reduced in Cd36-/- relative to wild type Cd36+/+ macrophages in vitro. This difference was not attributable to alterations in mycobacterial uptake, macrophage viability, rate of macrophage apoptosis, production of reactive oxygen and/or nitrogen species, TNF or interleukin-10. Using an in vitro model designed to recapitulate cellular events implicated in mycobacterial infection and dissemination in vivo (i.e., phagocytosis of apoptotic macrophages containing mycobacteria, we demonstrated reduced recovery of viable mycobacteria within Cd36-/- macrophages. Conclusions Together, these data indicate that CD36 deficiency confers resistance to mycobacterial infection. This observation is best explained by reduced intracellular survival of mycobacteria in the Cd36-/- macrophage and a role for CD36 in the cellular events involved in granuloma formation that promote early bacterial expansion and dissemination.

  6. Rhinovirus genome evolution during experimental human infection.

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    Samuel Cordey

    Full Text Available Human rhinoviruses (HRVs evolve rapidly due in part to their error-prone RNA polymerase. Knowledge of the diversity of HRV populations emerging during the course of a natural infection is essential and represents a basis for the design of future potential vaccines and antiviral drugs. To evaluate HRV evolution in humans, nasal wash samples were collected daily for five days from 15 immunocompetent volunteers experimentally infected with a reference stock of HRV-39. In parallel, HeLa-OH cells were inoculated to compare HRV evolution in vitro. Nasal wash in vivo assessed by real-time PCR showed a viral load that peaked at 48-72 h. Ultra-deep sequencing was used to compare the low-frequency mutation populations present in the HRV-39 inoculum in two human subjects and one HeLa-OH supernatant collected 5 days post-infection. The analysis revealed hypervariable mutation locations in VP2, VP3, VP1, 2C and 3C genes and conserved regions in VP4, 2A, 2B, 3A, 3B and 3D genes. These results were confirmed by classical sequencing of additional samples, both from inoculated volunteers and independent cell infections, and suggest that HRV inter-host transmission is not associated with a strong bottleneck effect. A specific analysis of the VP1 capsid gene of 15 human cases confirmed the high mutation incidence in this capsid region, but not in the antiviral drug-binding pocket. We could also estimate a mutation frequency in vivo of 3.4x10(-4 mutations/nucleotides and 3.1x10(-4 over the entire ORF and VP1 gene, respectively. In vivo, HRV generate new variants rapidly during the course of an acute infection due to mutations that accumulate in hot spot regions located at the capsid level, as well as in 2C and 3C genes.

  7. VI European Summer School on Experimental Nuclear Astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    The European Summer School on Experimental Nuclear Astrophysics has reached the sixth edition, marking the tenth year's anniversary. The spirit of the school is to provide a very important occasion for a deep education of young researchers about the main topics of experimental nuclear astrophysics. Moreover, it should be regarded as a forum for the discussion of the last-decade research activity. Lectures are focused on various aspects of primordial and stellar nucleosynthesis, including novel experimental approaches and detectors, indirect methods and radioactive ion beams. Moreover, in order to give a wide educational offer, some lectures cover complementary subjects of nuclear astrophysics such as gamma ray astronomy, neutron-induced reactions, short-lived radionuclides, weak interaction and cutting-edge facilities used to investigate nuclear reactions of interest for astrophysics. Large room is also given to young researcher oral contributions. Traditionally, particular attention is devoted to the participation of students from less-favoured countries, especially from the southern coast of the Mediterranean Sea. The school is organised by the Catania Nuclear Astrophysics research group with the collaboration of Dipartimento di Fisica e Astromomia - Università di Catania and Laboratori Nazionali del Sud - Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare.

  8. Vitamin D and airway infections: a European perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zittermann, Armin; Pilz, Stefan; Hoffmann, Harald; März, Winfried

    2016-03-24

    Vitamin D has immuno-modulatory properties, and deficient levels of circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (vitamin D status in Europe and updates results of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) regarding vitamin D and airway infections such as tuberculosis (TB) and acute upper respiratory tract infection. In Europe, the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency is up to 37% in the general population and up to 80% in nursing home residents and non-European immigrants. Half of TB patients have a migration background. While results of RCTs do not support the concept of beneficial adjunctive effects of vitamin D supplements in anti-TB treatment [odds ratio (OR) = 0.86; 95% CI 0.62-1.19], the few published RCTs on the prophylaxis of TB suggest some protective vitamin D effects in individuals with deficient circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels. Regarding acute respiratory tract infection, RCTs indicate a significant risk reduction by vitamin D supplements [OR = 0.65; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.50-0.85]. There is evidence that daily administration is more effective than high-dose bolus administration [OR = 0.48 (95% CI 0.30-0.77) vs. OR = 0.87 (95% CI 0.67-1.14)] and that individuals with deficient or insufficient (30-50 nmol/l) circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels benefit most. Several vitamin D effects on innate immunity may explain these protective effects. In summary, there is possible evidence from RCTs for protective vitamin D effects on TB and likely evidence for protective effects on acute airway infection. Since vitamin D deficiency is prevalent in Europe, especially in institutionalised individuals and non-European immigrants, daily oral vitamin D intake, e.g. 1000 international units, is an inexpensive measure to ensure adequate vitamin D status in individuals at risk.

  9. The European Network of Analytical and Experimental Laboratories for Geosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freda, Carmela; Funiciello, Francesca; Meredith, Phil; Sagnotti, Leonardo; Scarlato, Piergiorgio; Troll, Valentin R.; Willingshofer, Ernst

    2013-04-01

    Integrating Earth Sciences infrastructures in Europe is the mission of the European Plate Observing System (EPOS).The integration of European analytical, experimental, and analogue laboratories plays a key role in this context and is the task of the EPOS Working Group 6 (WG6). Despite the presence in Europe of high performance infrastructures dedicated to geosciences, there is still limited collaboration in sharing facilities and best practices. The EPOS WG6 aims to overcome this limitation by pushing towards national and trans-national coordination, efficient use of current laboratory infrastructures, and future aggregation of facilities not yet included. This will be attained through the creation of common access and interoperability policies to foster and simplify personnel mobility. The EPOS ambition is to orchestrate European laboratory infrastructures with diverse, complementary tasks and competences into a single, but geographically distributed, infrastructure for rock physics, palaeomagnetism, analytical and experimental petrology and volcanology, and tectonic modeling. The WG6 is presently organizing its thematic core services within the EPOS distributed research infrastructure with the goal of joining the other EPOS communities (geologists, seismologists, volcanologists, etc...) and stakeholders (engineers, risk managers and other geosciences investigators) to: 1) develop tools and services to enhance visitor programs that will mutually benefit visitors and hosts (transnational access); 2) improve support and training activities to make facilities equally accessible to students, young researchers, and experienced users (training and dissemination); 3) collaborate in sharing technological and scientific know-how (transfer of knowledge); 4) optimize interoperability of distributed instrumentation by standardizing data collection, archive, and quality control standards (data preservation and interoperability); 5) implement a unified e-Infrastructure for data

  10. Comparative virulence of reproductive diseases caused by type 1 (European-like) and type 2 (North American-like) porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in experimentally infected pregnant gilts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, K; Seo, H W; Park, C; Kang, I; Youn, S-K; Lee, S Y; Kim, S-H; Chae, C

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the virulence of type 1 and type 2 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) as assessed by the level of viral replication, viral distribution and apoptosis in stillborn fetuses and live-born piglets from infected pregnant gilts. Type 1 or type 2 PRRSV was given intranasally to pregnant gilts at 3 weeks before the expected date of parturition. Regardless of virus genotype, PRRSV-infected gilts farrowed between 102 and 109 days of gestation, while control uninfected gilts carried the pregnancy to term and farrowed at 114-115 days of gestation. There were no significant differences in the mean number of virus-infected cells per unit area of tissue when type 1 and type 2 virus infections were compared between stillborn fetuses and live-born piglets. Stillborn fetuses from the type 1 PRRSV-infected pregnant gilts had a significantly higher mean number of apoptotic cells per unit area of thymus (P = 0.013) than those from type 2 PRRSV-infected pregnant gilts. Significant differences in virulence were not observed between types 1 and 2 PRRSV in terms of female reproductive failure, although thymic apoptosis differed in stillborn fetuses from type 1 and type 2 PRRSV-infected pregnant gilts. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Symptomatic Capillaria plica infection in a young European cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Moreno; Messina, Nicoletta; Ariti, Gaetano; Riggio, Francesca; Perrucci, Stefania

    2011-10-01

    An 8-month-old owned European cat showing abdominal pain, fever, distended painful bladder and urinary blockage was presented. Intravenous fluids were immediately administered and, after sedation, a urinary catheter was applied. Blood and urine analysis revealed cystitis and a moderate-to-severe degree of renal failure. About 20 thread-like nematodes, identified as Capillaria plica larvae and fragments of adult stages, were found in the urine sediment. After treatment with an oral formulation of fenbendazole at 25 mg/kg q 12 h for 10 days, urinary signs and bladder worms disappeared. Cases of Capillaria species bladder worms in cats are rarely reported and most infected cats show no clinical signs, presumably because of a low parasite burden. In the present study, feline capillariosis was associated to urethral obstruction, severe difficulties in urination, cystitis and renal failures. Copyright © 2011 ISFM and AAFP. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A European perspective on intravascular catheter-related infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouza, E; San Juan, R; Muñoz, P

    2004-01-01

    The laboratory workload, microbiological techniques and aetiology of catheter-related infections in European hospitals are mostly unknown. The present study (ESGNI-005) comprised a 1-day (22 October 2001), laboratory-based, point-prevalence survey based on a questionnaire completed by microbiology...... by these institutions was 121,363,800, and the estimated number of admissions during 2000 was 6,712,050. The total number of catheter tips processed during 2000 was 142,727, or 21/1,000 admissions, of which 23.7% were considered to be positive in the institutions using semiquantitative or quantitative techniques....... Overall, EU centres received significantly more catheter tip samples/1,000 admissions and had a significantly higher rate of 'positivity' (p...

  13. The pathology observed in experimental Fasciola gigantica infected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pathological lesions were observed in four Fasciola gigantica infected Yankasa sheep that died at the 10th, 11th and 12th week post-infection in an experimental infection at the Reproduction unit of the National Animal production Research institute, Shika-Zaria, Nigeria. The experiment involved twelve Yankasa sheep that ...

  14. PLASMODIUM BERGHEI: CYCLICAL TRANSMISSIONS BY EXPERIMENTALLY INFECTED ANOPHELES QUADRIMACULATUS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    YOELI, M; MOST, H; BONE, G

    1964-06-26

    A number of strains of Plasmodium berghei were isolated from sporozoites of Anopheles dureni. Laboratory-bred Anopheles quadrimaculatus fed on carriers of the newly isolated strains showed overwhelming midgut infections and moderate or mild salivary gland infections. Successive cyclic transmissions by the bite of experimentally infected A. quadrimaculatus in laboratorybred tree rats (Thamnomys surdaster) were carried out.

  15. European bat lyssavirus infection in Spanish bat populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra-Cobo, Jordi; Amengual, Blanca; Abellán, Carlos; Bourhy, Hervé

    2002-04-01

    From 1992 to 2000, 976 sera, 27 blood pellets, and 91 brains were obtained from 14 bat species in 37 localities in Spain. Specific anti-European bat lyssavirus 1 (EBL1)-neutralizing antibodies have been detected in Myotis myotis, Miniopterus schreibersii, Tadarida teniotis, and Rhinolophus ferrumequinum in the region of Aragon and the Balearic Islands. Positive results were also obtained by nested reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction on brain, blood pellet, lung, heart, tongue, and esophagus-larynx-pharynx of M. myotis, Myotis nattereri, R. ferrumequinum, and M. schreibersii. Determination of nucleotide sequence confirmed the presence of EBL1 RNA in the different tissues. In one colony, the prevalence of seropositive bats over time corresponded to an asymmetrical curve, with a sudden initial increase peaking at 60% of the bats, followed by a gradual decline. Banded seropositive bats were recovered during several years, indicating that EBL1 infection in these bats was nonlethal. At least one of this species (M. schreibersii) is migratory and thus could be partially responsible for the dissemination of EBL1 on both shores of the Mediterranean Sea.

  16. [American and European legislation on bioethics evaluation of clinical experimentation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scuderi, G

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the existing legislation for evaluating the bioethics of clinical trials (drug studies conducted on humans after completion of drug testing on animals). The legislation is presented in chronologic order; thus that of the United States is presented first, followed by a description of the European Union legislation, which includes a brief comment on Italian legislation. The rationale for informed consent and the specific requirements are addressed. Ethical committees are discussed in terms of their membership, responsibilities, and methods of revision. The paper concludes with a comparison between the USA and the European Union legislations.

  17. Experimental Infections Of Domestic Rabbits ( Oryctolagus cuniculus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian Journal of Animal Production ... Comparative study of single infections of domestic rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) with Nigerian isolates of Trypanosoma brucei (Gboko strain), and Trypanosoma congolense (Binchi ... Eighteen rabbits of 10-14 weeks old weighing between 600-1200 grams were used for the study.

  18. Experimental Infection of Sheep using Infective Lar- vae (L3 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vet. J., 2014, 18 (2), 71-81 ther research is recommended to determine the impact of multiple-species habitat ... to be reservoir hosts of helminth infections than wild species (Cook et al., 1979;. Richardson and Demarias .... coincidentally there was also a positive relationship, Regression statistics. (R²=0.6696) between total ...

  19. Ethnic Heritage Studies: Northern European Foods. Experimental Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freepartner, Susan

    This teaching guide focuses on the Northern European food heritage. It is part of the Louisville Area Ethnic Heritage Studies Project described in ED 150 043. The materials are designed to foster communication across intercultural/ethnic lines. The objective of this unit is to gain familiarity with and appreciate foods from Scandinavia, the Soviet…

  20. Ethnic Heritage Studies: Southern European Foods. Experimental Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freepartner, Susan

    This teaching guide focuses on the Southern European food heritage. It is part of the Louisville Area Ethnic Heritage Studies Project described in ED 150 043. The project materials are designed to foster communication across intercultural/ethnic lines. The objective of this unit is to gain familiarity with and appreciate foods from Spain, France,…

  1. Parasitological and molecular diagnosis in experimental Strongyloides venezuelensis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula, Fabiana Martins; Sitta, Renata Barnabé; Malta, Fernanda Mello; Gottardi, Maiara; Corral, Marcelo Andreetta; Gryschek, Ronaldo César Borges; Chieffi, Pedro Paulo

    2013-01-01

    Strongyloides venezuelensis is a parasitic nematode of rats which is frequently used as a model to study human and animal strongyloidiasis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between parasitological and molecular diagnosis in Strongyloides venezuelensis infection. PCR assays were used to detect S. venezuelensis DNA in fecal samples obtained from experimentally infected Rattus norvegicus. The results showed a higher sensitivity of the PCR assay in detecting the infection compared to parasitological methods.

  2. Infections in orthopaedic surgery : clinical and experimental studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogely, Henri Charles

    2000-01-01

    The diagnostic difficulties, variability in outcome and the heterogeinity of the problem of orthopaedic infections stimulated the author to a study of the literature, and several clinical and experimental studies. The diagnosis prosthesis-related infection can only be reached with an acceptable

  3. Changes in microbiota during experimental human Rhinovirus infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstra, J. J.; Matamoros, S.; van de Pol, M. A.; de Wever, B.; Tanck, M. W.; Wendt-Knol, H.; Deijs, M.; van der Hoek, L.; Wolthers, K. C.; Molenkamp, R.; Visser, C. E.; Sterk, P. J.; Lutter, R.; de Jong, M. D.

    2015-01-01

    Human Rhinovirus (HRV) is responsible for the majority of common colds and is frequently accompanied by secondary bacterial infections through poorly understood mechanisms. We investigated the effects of experimental human HRV serotype 16 infection on the upper respiratory tract microbiota. Six

  4. Experimental transmission of bovine spongiform encephalopathy to European red deer (Cervus elaphus elaphus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reid Hugh W

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE, a member of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE, primarily affects cattle. Transmission is via concentrate feed rations contaminated with infected meat and bone meal (MBM. In addition to cattle, other food animal species are susceptible to BSE and also pose a potential threat to human health as consumption of infected meat products is the cause of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans, which is invariably fatal. In the UK, farmed and free ranging deer were almost certainly exposed to BSE infected MBM in proprietary feeds prior to legislation banning its inclusion. Therefore, although BSE has never been diagnosed in any deer species, a possible risk to human health remains via ingestion of cervine products. Chronic wasting disease (CWD, also a TSE, naturally infects several cervid species in North America and is spreading rapidly in both captive and free-ranging populations. Results Here we show that European red deer (Cervus elaphus elaphus are susceptible to intra-cerebral (i/c challenge with BSE positive cattle brain pool material resulting in clinical neurological disease and weight loss by 794–1290 days and the clinical signs are indistinguishable to those reported in deer with CWD. Spongiform changes typical of TSE infections were present in brain and accumulation of the disease-associated abnormal prion protein (PrPd was present in the central and peripheral nervous systems, but not in lymphoid or other tissues. Western immunoblot analysis of brain material showed a similar glycosylation pattern to that of BSE derived from infected cattle and experimentally infected sheep with respect to protease-resistant PrP isoforms. However, the di-, mono- and unglycosylated bands migrated significantly (p Conclusion This study shows that deer are susceptible to BSE by intra-cerebral inoculation and display clinical signs and vacuolar pathology that are similar to those

  5. Status of infection control policies and organisation in European hospitals, 2001: the ARPAC study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Struelens, M.J.; Wagner, D.; Bruce, J.; MacKenzie, F.M.; Cookson, B.; Voss, A.; Broek, P.J.J.A. van den; Gould, I.

    2006-01-01

    Patient safety in hospital care depends on effective infection control (IC) programmes. The Antimicrobial Resistance Prevention and Control (ARPAC) study assessed the organisation, components and human resources of IC programmes in European hospitals. A questionnaire survey of policies and

  6. Protective effects of pidotimod against experimental bacterial infections in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppi, G; Falcone, A; Manzardo, S

    1994-12-01

    Pidotimod ((R)-3-[(S)-(5-oxo-2-pyrrolidinyl) carbonyl]-thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid, PGT/1A, CAS 121808-62-6) protected mice against experimental bacterial infections in different experimental models. In all tests the drug's effect was measured as protection from death. The activity of pidotimod was evident and statistically significant after 5 administrations before the bacterial challenges. Pidotimod was active against many bacterial species infections, its active dosages ranging from 0.01 to 100 mg/kg i.p. x 5 times. Pidotimod showed against some bacterial infections a protection similar or better than those of bestatin, N-acetylmuramyl-L-Ala-D-isoGlu-OH and tuftsin. It showed high protection against bacterial infections in cyclophosphamide-immunodepressed mice. Finally, pidotimod showed an additive or synergic activity in combination with beta-lactam antibiotics (cefotaxime, ampicillin) against bacterial infections in mice.

  7. Experimental rhinovirus infection in COPD: implications for antiviral therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunawardana, Natasha; Finney, Lydia; Johnston, Sebastian L; Mallia, Patrick

    2014-02-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major public health problem and will be one of the leading global causes of mortality over the coming decades. Much of the morbidity, mortality and health care costs of COPD are attributable to acute exacerbations, the commonest causes of which are respiratory infections. Respiratory viruses are frequently detected in COPD exacerbations but direct proof of a causative relationship has been lacking. We have developed a model of COPD exacerbation using experimental rhinovirus infection in COPD patients and this has established a causative relationship between virus infection and exacerbations. In addition it has determined some of the molecular mechanisms linking virus infections to COPD exacerbations and identified potential new therapeutic targets. This new data should stimulate research into the role of antiviral agents as potential treatments for COPD exacerbations. Testing of antiviral agents has been hampered by the lack of a small animal model for rhinovirus infection and experimental rhinovirus infection in healthy volunteers has been used to test treatments for the common cold. Experimental rhinovirus infection in COPD subjects offers the prospect of a model that can be used to evaluate the effects of new treatments for virus-induced COPD exacerbations, and provide essential data that can be used in making decisions regarding large scale clinical trials. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Background review for the '2015 European guideline on the management of Chlamydia trachomatis infections'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanjouw, E; Ouburg, S; de Vries, H J; Stary, A; Radcliffe, K; Unemo, M

    2015-11-24

    SummaryChlamydia trachomatis infections are major public health concerns globally. Of particular grave concern is that the majority of persons with anogenital Chlamydia trachomatis infections are asymptomatic and accordingly not aware of their infection, and this silent infection can subsequently result in severe reproductive tract complications and sequelae. The current review paper provides all background, evidence base and discussions for the 2015 European guideline on the management of Chlamydia trachomatis infections (Lanjouw E, et al. Int J STD AIDS 2015). Comprehensive information and recommendations are included regarding the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of anogenital, pharyngeal and conjunctival Chlamydia trachomatis infections in European countries. However, Chlamydia trachomatis also causes the eye infection trachoma, which is not a sexually transmitted infection. The 2015 European Chlamydia trachomatis guideline provides up-to-date guidance regarding broader indications for testing and treatment of Chlamydia trachomatis infections; clearer recommendation of using validated nucleic acid amplification tests only for diagnosis; advice on (repeated) Chlamydia trachomatis testing; recommendation of increased testing to reduce the incidence of pelvic inflammatory disease and prevent exposure to infection and recommendations to identify, verify and report Chlamydia trachomatis variants. Improvement of access to testing, test performance, diagnostics, antimicrobial treatment and follow-up of Chlamydia trachomatis patients are crucial to control its spread. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Experimental Infections of Wild Birds with West Nile Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Pérez-Ramírez

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Avian models of West Nile virus (WNV disease have become pivotal in the study of infection pathogenesis and transmission, despite the intrinsic constraints that represents this type of experimental research that needs to be conducted in biosecurity level 3 (BSL3 facilities. This review summarizes the main achievements of WNV experimental research carried out in wild birds, highlighting advantages and limitations of this model. Viral and host factors that determine the infection outcome are analyzed in detail, as well as recent discoveries about avian immunity, viral transmission, and persistence achieved through experimental research. Studies of laboratory infections in the natural host will help to understand variations in susceptibility and reservoir competence among bird species, as well as in the epidemiological patterns found in different affected areas.

  10. Experimental Infections of Wild Birds with West Nile Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Ramírez, Elisa; Llorente, Francisco; Jiménez-Clavero, Miguel Ángel

    2014-01-01

    Avian models of West Nile virus (WNV) disease have become pivotal in the study of infection pathogenesis and transmission, despite the intrinsic constraints that represents this type of experimental research that needs to be conducted in biosecurity level 3 (BSL3) facilities. This review summarizes the main achievements of WNV experimental research carried out in wild birds, highlighting advantages and limitations of this model. Viral and host factors that determine the infection outcome are analyzed in detail, as well as recent discoveries about avian immunity, viral transmission, and persistence achieved through experimental research. Studies of laboratory infections in the natural host will help to understand variations in susceptibility and reservoir competence among bird species, as well as in the epidemiological patterns found in different affected areas. PMID:24531334

  11. How European centres diagnose, treat, and prevent CIED infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bongiorni, Maria Grazia; Marinskis, Germanas; Lip, Gregory Y H

    2012-01-01

    kind of skin antisepsis, but only 42.2% use chlorhexidine. In case of local infection, 43.5% of centres perform lead extraction as first approach. In the case of systemic infection or evidence of lead or valvular endocarditis, 95% of centres treat these conditions by extracting the leads, which...

  12. Infectivity of Trichinella papuae for experimentally infected red foxes (Vulpes vulpes)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Webster, P.; Malakauskas, A.; Kapel, C. M O

    2002-01-01

    To evaluate infectivity for carnivores as well as other biological characteristics of the newly described Trichinella papuae, eight red foxes were experimentally infected with the parasite. Five weeks after inoculation, T. papuae larvae were recovered from nine different muscle types. The larvae...

  13. Experimental Theileria lestoquardi infection in sheep: Biochemical and hematological changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaghfoori, Saeed; Mohri, Mehrdad; Razmi, Gholamreza

    2017-09-01

    Malignant theileriosis (Theileria lestoquardi infection) is a hemoparasitic tick-borne disease that affects both wild and domestic small ruminants. The aim of this study was to evaluate biochemical and hematological characteristics of sheep after being experimentally infected by T. lestoquardi. T. lestoquardi infection was induced in seven Baluchi sheep of six-to-eight months old via experimentally-infected Hyalomma anatolicum adult ticks. Biochemical and hematological parameters were measured twice a week during the three weeks' post infection. Twenty-three biochemical analytes and seven hematological ones were measured. After three to four days infection, body temperature rose above 40(°)C. Maximum and minimum parasitaemia were 3.3% and 0.28%, respectively. Piroplasms and schizont were seen on average from days 7.2 and 4 post infection, respectively. The concentrations and activities of Alb, HDL, ALT, T3, T4, Ca, Fe, Mg, iP, WBC, RBC, PCV, Hb, Plt, neutrophil and lymphocytes significantly decreased (P≤0.05) during experimental infection. However, concentrations and activities of BT, GGT, Glu, BUN, Crea, FIB and Cu significantly increased (P≤0.05). There was no significant change in the serum amounts of Chol, LDL, TG, VLDL and Zn. The observed hypoalbuminemia and increase of FIB concentrations referred to pro-inflammatory cytokines production. Moreover, the raising of GGT activity indicates liver damage, cholestatic disorders or schizont infiltration. The disease stress and corticosteroids are suspected to cause the Glu concentration increase. The present study is aimed at improving the knowledge of malignant theileriosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Nocardia brasiliensis: from microbe to human and experimental infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas-Carmona, M C

    2000-09-01

    Nocardia brasiliensis is a Gram-positive bacterium that lives as a saprophyte in soil. In this article the physical properties, chemical composition and taxonomic position of this species is reviewed. Human infections and an experimental model of actinomycetoma in BALB/c mice as well as the host-immune response is described.

  15. Are European lobsters (Homarus gammarus) susceptible to infection by a temperate Hematodinium sp.?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Charlotte E; Rowley, Andrew F

    2015-05-01

    Hematodinium spp. infect over 40 species of crustaceans worldwide, but have not been reported to infect the European lobster, Homarus gammarus. In this study, Hematodinium parasites (a mixture of uni- and multinucleate trophont-like stages) were taken from donor crabs (Cancer pagurus) and injected into juvenile H. gammarus. Juvenile C. pagurus were also injected with the same inoculum. Haemolymph was taken at regular intervals and examined for the presence of Hematodinium using light microscopy and PCR, in two separate experiments of duration 4 and 8months. All lobsters were negative for Hematodinium whilst the C. pagurus challenged became infected. It is concluded that European lobsters are not susceptible to infection with a clade of Hematodinium that infects C. pagurus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Cardiac complication after experimental human malaria infection: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Druilhe Pierre

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A 20 year-old healthy female volunteer participated in a clinical Phase I and IIa safety and efficacy trial with candidate malaria vaccine PfLSA-3-rec adjuvanted with aluminium hydroxide. Eleven weeks after the third and last immunization she was experimentally infected by bites of Plasmodium falciparum-infected mosquitoes. When the thick blood smear became positive, at day 11, she was treated with artemether/lumefantrine according to protocol. On day 16 post-infection i.e. two days after completion of treatment, she woke up with retrosternal chest pain. She was diagnosed as acute coronary syndrome and treated accordingly. She recovered quickly and her follow-up was uneventful. Whether the event was related to the study procedures such as the preceding vaccinations, malaria infection or antimalarial drugs remains elusive. However, the relation in time with the experimental malaria infection and apparent absence of an underlying condition makes the infection the most probable trigger. This is in striking contrast, however, with the millions of malaria cases each year and the fact that such complication has never been reported in the literature. The rare occurrence of cardiac events with any of the preceding study procedures may even support a coincidental finding. Apart from acute coronary syndrome, myocarditis can be considered as a final diagnosis, but the true nature and patho-physiological explanation of the event remain unclear.

  17. Ocular pathological changes in hamsters experimentally infected with Schistosoma mansoni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, H I H; Ashour, D S; Abou Rayia, D M; Ali, A L

    2016-11-01

    Ocular lesions have been reported in patients with schistosomiasis; however, the problem with studying schistosomal infection of the human eye is that biopsies are almost impossible to take, and histopathological examination of suspicious lesions can only be undertaken post-mortem or after enucleation. This work aimed to study the possible effects and pathogenesis of schistosomiasis on the eye. This study involved 55 hamsters; five hamsters remained non-infected and the remaining 50 hamsters were infected with Schistosoma mansoni cercariae. Infected hamsters were sacrificed on weeks 8, 12, 16 and 20 post-infection (pi). Eye sections were prepared and stained for histopathological and immunohistochemical studies. Histopathological changes detected in hamsters infected after 16 and 20 weeks included looseness and oedema of the innermost retinal layers together with hyperplastic polypoid growth. Neither eggs nor granulomata were detected in eye sections throughout the experimental period. Deposition of S. mansoni antigen was revealed in 35% of infected hamsters. Later, on weeks 16 and 20 pi, moderate subepithelial conjuctival deposits and marked subchoroidal and scleral deposition were detected. In conclusion, the deposition of schistosomal antigen and immune complexes may play a pivotal role in the ocular changes that occur in schistosomiasis, even in the absence of detectable Schistosoma eggs. Schistosomiasis should be suspected in cases with unexplained ophthalmological findings, especially in endemic areas.

  18. Pathogenicity of avian malaria in experimentally-infected Hawaii Amakihi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Carter T.; Dusek, Robert J.; Woods, K.L.; Iko, W.M.

    2000-01-01

    The introduction of avian malaria (Plasmodium relictum) and mosquitoes (Culex quinquefasciatus) to the Hawaiian Islands (USA) is believed to have played a major role in the decline and extinction of native Hawaiian honeycreepers (Drepanidinae). This introduced disease is thought to be one of the primary factors limiting recovery of honeycreepers at elevations below 1,200 m where native forest habitats are still relatively intact. One of the few remaining species of honeycreepers with a wide elevational distribution is the Hawaii Amakihi (Hernignathus virens). We measured morbidity and mortality in experimentally-infected Hawaii Amakihi that were captured in a high elevation, xeric habitat that is above the current range of the mosquito vector. Mortality among amakihi exposed to a single infective mosquito bite was 65% (13/20). All infected birds had significant declines in food consumption and a corresponding loss in body weight over the 60 day course of the experiment. Gross and microscopic lesions in birds that succumbed to malaria included enlargement and discoloration of the spleen and liver and parasitemias as high as 50% of circulating erythrocytes. Mortality in experimentally-infected amakihi was similar to that observed in Apapane (Himnatione sanguinea) and lower than that observed in Iiwi (Vestiaria coccinea) infected under similar conditions with the same parasite isolate. We conclude that the current elevational and geographic distribution of Hawaiian honeycreepers is determined by relative susceptibility to avian malaria.

  19. Experimental model for Porphyromonas gingivalis infection in animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eke, P I; Rotimi, V O; Laughon, B E

    1996-03-01

    A virulence model suitable for studying the dynamics of Porphyromonas gingivalis infection, including the pathogenicity of P. gingivalis in experimentally induced infections of multiple organs was developed using mouse and hamster. Virulence of P. gingivalis strains was expressed contrastingly in subcutaneous (sc) infection in the Murine abscess model (MAM) and the Hamsters abscess model (HAM). Subcutaneous infection in the MAM was characterized by a gravity abscess, spreading from the primary site of inoculation downwards, frequently erupting as a secondary lesion. In contract, s.c. P. gingivalis infection in HAM was characterized as a palpable localized abscess at the primary site of inoculation. When the Semi-Solid Agar (SSA) was added to the mono-culture of P. gingivalis, reproducibility of infection in both models was enhanced. P. gingivalis culture supplemented with haemin, or combined with oral Actinomyces viscosus had its virulence overtly enhanced and often fatal in the MAM. Menadione, Eh reducing agents and mixture with the Streptococcus or A. neaslundii did not potentiate virulence in either mode. Transtracheal challenge of the lungs of hamster with P. gingivalis initiated an early pneumonitis and later sequelae of necrosis and abscess formation. Also, abscess was induced by direct inoculation of P. gingivalis in the muscles, liver and testes, but did not induce intra-abdominal abscesses. In conclusion, the HAM applied with the SSA procedure caused a localized P. gingivalis tissue infection with practical advantages for quantitative and qualitative studies of P. gingivalis infections. This study also demonstrates the pathogenic potential of P. gingivalis by reproducing similar infections in multiple anatomical sites.

  20. Experimental Babesia gibsoni infection in coyotes (Canis latrans).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evers, Holly V; Kocan, A Alan; Reichard, Mason V; Meinkoth, James H

    2003-10-01

    Four 5 mo old captive raised coyotes (Canis latrans) were experimentally inoculated with approximately 1 x 10(6) Babesia gibsoni organisms. Parasites were detected 1 wk post-inoculation in all coyotes with maximum parasitemia of 8-11% occurring at 34 wk. Parasitemias remained at or above 1% for at least 12 wk and were still detectable 20 wk post-inoculation. All experimentally infected coyotes developed pale mucous membranes, splenomegaly, and a positive heme reaction in urine while one coyote exhibited mild depression and inappetence. Infected coyotes also developed a regenerative anemia, thrombocytopenia, and neutropenia. The mild clinical signs coupled with the high level and long duration of parasitemia indicate that coyotes could serve as reservoirs for B. gibsoni. Entrance of this foreign parasite into the United States suggests the need for strict quarantines and thorough health and blood film examinations for imported animals.

  1. Gastritis induced by Helicobacter pylori infection in experimental rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elseweidy, Mohamed M; Taha, Mona M; Younis, Nahla N; Ibrahim, Khadiga S; Hamouda, Hamdi A; Eldosouky, Mohamed A; Soliman, Hala

    2010-10-01

    Gastritis, an inflammation of gastric mucosa, may be due to many pathological factors and infection, such as with Helicobacter pylori. The use of experimental models of gastritis is important to evaluate the biochemical changes and study chemotherapeutic intervention. In a previous study we demonstrated an acute gastritis model induced by iodoacetamide. Our objective in this study was to evaluate a new gastritis model induced by H. pylori infection in experimental rats in terms of certain biomarkers in serum and mucosal tissues in addition to histopathological examination. Gastritis was induced in 20 albino Wistar rats by H. pylori isolated from antral biopsy taken from a 49-year-old male patient endoscopically diagnosed as having H. pylori infection. Another ten rats were used as controls. Serum gastrin, pepsinogen I activity, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and gastric mucosal myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) were measured. Immunostaining for inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), nitrotyrosine and DNA fragmentation were used to further evaluate H. pylori-induced gastritis. Serum gastrin, IL-6, mucosal MPO activity, and PGE(2) demonstrated significant increases joined with a decreased serum pepsinogen I activity (P gastritis models demonstrated massive oxidative stress and pronounced injury in mucosal tissue. Since our model in rats reflected the clinical picture of H. pylori infection, it can be considered as a consistent model to study chemotherapeutic intervention for this type of gastritis.

  2. Infection control--a European research perspective for the next decade.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dettenkofer, M.; Ammon, A.; Astagneau, P.; Dancer, S.J.; Gastmeier, P.; Harbarth, S.; Humphreys, H.; Kern, W.V.; Lyytikainen, O.; Sax, H.; Voss, A.; Widmer, A.F.

    2011-01-01

    A symposium was held in June 2009 near Freiburg in Germany. Twenty-nine attendees from several European countries participated, most of whom are actively involved in research and hospital infection prevention and control. The following topics were presented and discussed: isolation and screening for

  3. Mono- and combined antimicrobial agents efficiency in experimental wound infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Наталія Ігорівна Філімонова

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Modern problems of antibiotic therapy are shown by wide range of side effects, both on organism and microbiological levels: the spread of allergies, toxic for organ systems reactions, dysbiosis development, and resistant pathogens formation and dissemination. Therefore the necessity of search for new effective drugs with significant antimicrobial activity applied for the wounds treatment arises. Development of combined remedies on the background of different origin antimicrobial agents’ derivatives is one of the fight directions against infectious diseases in the skin pathology. Recently among the existing antimicrobial agents one should focus on antiseptic drugs, due to degenerative and dysfunctional effect on microbial cell.Aim of research. The comparison of mono- and combined antimicrobial agents chemotherapeutic efficiency in the treatment of localized purulent infection under experimental conditions.Metods. The study of chemotherapeutic efficiency was carried out on the model of localized purulent Staphylococcus infection on albino mice weighting 14 – 16 g. S.aureus ATCC 25923 strains were used as infectious agents. The contamination was performed subcutaneously to the right side of mice’s skin after depilation. The animals were randomly divided into 4 groups: the 1st group – infected mice without treatment (control; the 2nd group – infected mice treated with a ciprofloxacin; the 3rd group – infected mice treated with a Ciprofloxacin and Decamethoxin combination; the 4th group – infected mice treated with a combined drug on the base of mutual prodrugs (Hexamethylenetetramine and Phenyl salicylate.Results. The efficiency of mono- and combined antimicrobial agents under experimental Staphylococcus wound infection conditions was studied. It was found that localized purulent staph center was formed more slowly in comparison with control and mono preparation use (2nd group of animals. The average index of skin lesions in comparison

  4. Heterogeneous infectiousness in guinea pigs experimentally infected with Trypanosoma cruzi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Neyra, Ricardo; Borrini Mayorí, Katty; Salazar Sánchez, Renzo; Ancca Suarez, Jenny; Xie, Sherrie; Náquira Velarde, Cesar; Levy, Michael Z

    2016-02-01

    Guinea pigs are important reservoirs of Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative parasite of Chagas disease, and in the Southern Cone of South America, transmission is mediated mainly by the vector Triatoma infestans. Interestingly, colonies of Triatoma infestans captured from guinea pig corrals sporadically have infection prevalence rates above 80%. Such high values are not consistent with the relatively short 7-8 week parasitemic period that has been reported for guinea pigs in the literature. We experimentally measured the infectious periods of a group of T. cruzi-infected guinea pigs by performing xenodiagnosis and direct microscopy each week for one year. Another group of infected guinea pigs received only direct microscopy to control for the effect that inoculation by triatomine saliva may have on parasitemia in the host. We observed infectious periods longer than those previously reported in a number of guinea pigs from both the xenodiagnosis and control groups. While some guinea pigs were infectious for a short time, other "super-shedders" were parasitemic up to 22 weeks after infection, and/or positive by xenodiagnosis for a year after infection. This heterogeneity in infectiousness has strong implications for T. cruzi transmission dynamics and control, as super-shedder guinea pigs may play a disproportionate role in pathogen spread. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of praziquantel on experimental Schistosoma bovis infection in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, M V; Monrad, J; Christensen, N O

    1996-03-01

    The effect of praziquantel against experimental Schistosoma bovis infection in West African Dwarf goats was investigated. Thirty goats were exposed to 2000 cercariae each and 15 of those received a praziquantel treatment (60 mg kg-1) 13 weeks post-infection. One day, 1 week and 4 weeks post-treatment representative goats from each group were killed and worms were recovered by perfusion. For comparison, parasite-free control animals were monitored, some of which were given praziquantel. Every second week during the study, faecal samples were collected. The cure rate was 100% 1 day, 99.4% 1 week and 95.7% 4 weeks post-treatment. Tissue egg counts were significantly reduced (P < 0.001) 4 weeks post-treatment in all parts of the intestines, but not in the liver. Faecal egg counts were reduced by 84.1% 1 week and by 98.3% 3 weeks after treatment, the reduction being highly significant both 1 week 3 weeks after treatment (P < 0.001). Overall strong correlations between the number of worm pairs, tissue egg counts and the final faecal egg count were observed, indicating that the faecal egg counts during infection and following treatment can be used as a guideline for the pathology associated with the infection.

  6. Circulating levels of cyclooxygenase metabolites in experimental Trypanosoma cruzi infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita L. Cardoni

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available TRYPANOSOMA cruzi induces inflammatory reactions in several tissues. The production of prostaglandin F2α, 6-keto-prostaglandin F1α and thromboxane B2, known to regulate the immune response and to participate in inflammatory reactions, was studied in mice experimentally infected with T. cruzi. The generation of nitric oxide (NO, which could be regulated by cyclooxygenase metabolites, was also evaluated. In the acute infection the extension of inflammatory infiltrates in skeletal muscle as well as the circulating levels of cyclooxygenase metabolites and NO were higher in resistant C3H mice than in susceptible BALB/c mice. In addition, the spontaneous release of NO by spleen cells increased earlier in the C3H mouse strain. In the chronic infections, the tissue inflammatory reaction was still prominent in both groups of mice, but a moderate increase of thromboxane B2 concentration and in NO released by spleen cells was observed only in C3H mice. This comparative study shows that these mediators could be mainly related to protective mechanisms in the acute phase, but seem not to be involved in its maintenance in the chronic T. cruzi infections.

  7. Experimental rhinovirus infection in human volunteers exposed to ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, F.W.; Dubovi, E.J.; Harder, S.; Seal, E. Jr.; Graham, D.

    1988-05-01

    We studied 24 young adult male volunteers experimentally inoculated with type 39 rhinovirus to determine whether the course of viral infection was modified by exposure to moderate levels of ozone (0.3 ppm for 6 h per day) over the 5 days after virus inoculation. No differences in rhinovirus titers in nasal secretions, recruitment of neutrophils into nasal secretions, levels of interferon in nasal lavage fluid, in vitro lymphocyte proliferative responses to rhinovirus antigen, or levels of convalescent serum neutralizing antibody to type 39 rhinovirus were demonstrated in relation to ozone exposure. The level and pattern of ozone exposure used in this experiment had no demonstrable adverse effects on the immune responses necessary to limit and terminate rhinovirus infection of the upper respiratory tract.

  8. Experimental rhinovirus infection in human volunteers exposed to ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, F W; Dubovi, E J; Harder, S; Seal, E; Graham, D

    1988-05-01

    We studied 24 young adult male volunteers experimentally inoculated with type 39 rhinovirus to determine whether the course of viral infection was modified by exposure to moderate levels of ozone (0.3 ppm for 6 h per day) over the 5 days after virus inoculation. No differences in rhinovirus titers in nasal secretions, recruitment of neutrophils into nasal secretions, levels of interferon in nasal lavage fluid, in vitro lymphocyte proliferative responses to rhinovirus antigen, or levels of convalescent serum neutralizing antibody to type 39 rhinovirus were demonstrated in relation to ozone exposure. The level and pattern of ozone exposure used in this experiment had no demonstrable adverse effects on the immune responses necessary to limit and terminate rhinovirus infection of the upper respiratory tract.

  9. Histopathological changes in sheep experimentally infected with Babesia ovis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habela, M A; Reina, D; Navarrete, I; Redondo, E; Hernández, S

    1991-01-01

    Histopathological study was made of 12 Merino sheep - five splenectomized and seven intact - experimentally infected with Babesia ovis. Non-purulent encephalitis; initially exudative and subsequently interstitial pneumonia; pericarditis, myocarditis and haemorrhagic endocarditis; centrilobular necrotic hepatitis; hyperplasia of the lymphoreticular system; necrosis and vascular changes in adrenal glands were observed. The kidney was the most severely affected organ, exhibiting acute tubular necrosis typical of kidney shock syndrome. The lesions observed were suggestive of hypovolemic shock culminating in haemorrhagic diathesis owing to consumptive coagulopathy. Additionally, the massive release of catabolites from lysis and necrosis apparently produced endotoxic shock.

  10. The European politics of animal experimentation: From Victorian Britain to 'Stop Vivisection'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germain, Pierre-Luc; Chiapperino, Luca; Testa, Giuseppe

    2017-08-01

    This paper identifies a common political struggle behind debates on the validity and permissibility of animal experimentation, through an analysis of two recent European case studies: the Italian implementation of the European Directive 2010/63/EC regulating the use of animals in science, and the recent European Citizens' Initiative (ECI) 'Stop Vivisection'. Drawing from a historical parallel with Victorian antivivisectionism, we highlight important threads in our case studies that mark the often neglected specificities of debates on animal experimentation. From the representation of the sadistic scientist in the XIX century, to his/her claimed capture by vested interests and evasion of public scrutiny in the contemporary cases, we show that animals are not simply the focus of the debate, but also a privileged locus at which much broader issues are being raised about science, its authority, accountability and potential misalignment with public interest. By highlighting this common socio-political conflict underlying public controversies around animal experimentation, our work prompts the exploration of modes of authority and argumentation that, in establishing the usefulness of animals in science, avoid reenacting the traditional divide between epistemic and political fora. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Characteristics of HPV infection over time in European women who are HIV-1 positive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heard, I; Cubie, H A; Mesher, D; Sasieni, P

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of the study were to investigate high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) infection and type distribution in women infected with HIV-1, and to determine the relevance of HR-HPV positivity and persistence/loss to the development of high-grade cervical disease. A total of 518 European women infected with HIV attending for routine gynaecological care consented to 6-monthly follow-up visits over 3 years, with surveillance of cytology, colposcopy and histopathology, where relevant, and longer follow-up, where possible. European women infected with HIV attending for routine gynaecological care. 518 European women infected with HIV attending for gynaecological care in 6 hospital-based European centres - Dublin, Edinburgh, London, Milan, Paris, and Warsaw. Cervical screening was achieved by liquid-based cytology (LBC) of brush samples in PreservCyt® medium. The HPV testing of residual samples was performed by Hybrid-Capture II, with genotyping of positives using the HPV Line Blot Assay. Histology results were accessed where available. Description of high risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) infection and type distribution in HIV-1 infected women. The estimated prevalence at baseline of any HR-HPV type was 49.5% (46.3-52.8%): 10.2% for HPV 16 and 4.3% for HPV 18. The prevalence increased with increasing immunosuppression. Multiple infections were detected in 26.8%. HR-HPV genotypes were detected in 34.9% of cases with normal cytology, in 77.2% of cases with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance/low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (ASCUS/LSIL) and in 90.8% of cases with high-grade SIL (HSIL). The prevalence of HPV 16 in HSIL was 38.5%, with the three most common types thereafter having prevalence rates of 19.2% (HPV 58), 19.2% (HPV 53) and 16.6% (HPV 52). The overall persistence of any high-risk type was 55.8%. We found that 6 months persistence of HPV 16 occurred in 24 women. Seven cases of high-grade cervical disease developed, and all

  12. The Pathology of Experimental Rhoodococcus equi infection in foals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karima Al-Salihi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The pathology of experimental Rhodococcus equi (R. equi infection in 2-8 weeks-old-foal is studied. For this purpose, twenty foals were divided into three groups, and given R. equi intratracheally (1st group, through gastric route (2nd group and through umbilicus by contamination (3rd group. A control group of foals were given a Phosphate buffered Saline (PBS. Pulmonary and intestinal lesions were seen in foals of all infected groups. Grossly, there were multiple, variable-sized abscesses diffusely scattered throughout the lung parenchyma, in addition to the presence of different stages of pneumonia with variable-sized areas of consolidation and emphysema. Intestinal lesions were evident as engorgement of mesenteric blood vessels, subserosal hemorrhages seen along the intestinal tract especially the small intestine, in addition to enlargement of lymph nodes (mesenteric, bronchial and mediastinal. Some lymph nodes were edematous, have circular foci of caseous necrosis and some of them were filled with yellowish, thick creamy pus. The microscopic lesions were basically similar in all foals of the experimental groups, but varied depending on the time of death or euthanasia and included: acute pulmonary congestion, acute suppurative broncho-pneumonia, chronic pyogranulomatous pneumonia, and emphysematous and atelectatic area. There were focal necrosis of the pulmonary parenchyma and numerous bacterial colonies seen free or as aggregates within the cytoplasm of many histiocytes. Also, there were focal interstitial thickening of the alveolar septae. The pleura and interlobular septae were thickened due to cellular infiltration.

  13. Neospora caninum infection in birds: experimental infections in chicken and embryonated eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuta, P I; Mineo, T W P; Carrasco, A O T; Godoy, G S; Pinto, A A; Machado, R Z

    2007-12-01

    Neospora caninum causes economical impact in cattle-raising farms since it is implicated as the major cause of bovine abortions. Although infection by the parasite has been widely described in mammals, the role of birds in its life-cycle is still obscure. Therefore, this work aimed to evaluate the infection by N. caninum in different chicken models. Experimental infections were conducted in 7-day-old chicks, laying hens and embryonated eggs, where samples were analysed for parasite burden, IgG antibodies and lesions promoted. Chickens demonstrated an asymptomatic infection, although with seroconversion and systemic replication of the parasite. In laying hens, no signs of vertical transmission were observed. However, embryonated eggs inoculated by the allantoic cavity route demonstrated susceptibility to infection, with mortality rates around 50% independent of the inoculum dose. Additionally, dogs became infected after ingestion of different amounts of inoculated eggs, producing either oocysts or specific IgG antibodies. The results herein presented demonstrate that chickens may be intermediate hosts of N. caninum and that embryonated eggs could be a useful model to study the parasite's biology.

  14. Improving Diagnosis and Treatment of Staphylococcus aureus Infections : Experimental Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. van den Berg (Sanne)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Staphylococcus aureus is an opportunistic pathogen that causes a variety of infections, ranging from mild skin infections like furuncles and impetigo, to severe, lifethreatening infections including endocarditis, osteomyelitis and pneumonia. Invasive infections are

  15. Medication use in European primary care patients with lower respiratory tract infection: an observational study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamoen, Marleen; Broekhuizen, Berna DL; Little, Paul; Melbye, Hasse; Coenen, Samuel; Goossens, Herman; Butler, Chris C; Francis, Nick A; Verheij, Theo JM

    2014-01-01

    Background It is largely unknown what medication is used by patients with lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI). Aim To describe the use of self-medication and prescribed medication in adults presenting with LRTI in different European countries, and to relate self-medication to patient characteristics. Design and setting An observational study in 16 primary care networks in 12 European countries. Method A total of 2530 adult patients presenting with LRTI in 12 European countries filled in a diary on any medication used before and after a primary care consultation. Patient characteristics related to self-medication were determined by univariable and multivariable logistic regression analysis. Results The frequency and types of medication used differed greatly between European countries. Overall, 55.4% self-medicated before consultation, and 21.5% after consultation, most frequently with paracetamol, antitussives, and mucolytics. Females, non-smokers, and patients with more severe symptoms used more self-medication. Patients who were not prescribed medication during the consultation self-medicated more often afterwards. Self-medication with antibiotics was relatively rare. Conclusion A considerable amount of medication, often with no proven efficacy, was used by adults presenting with LRTI in primary care. There were large differences between European countries. These findings should help develop patient information resources, international guidelines, and international legislation concerning the availability of over-the-counter medication, and can also support interventions against unwarranted variations in care. In addition, further research on the effects of symptomatic medication is needed. PMID:24567621

  16. A European survey relating to cancer therapy and neutropenic infections: Nurse and patient viewpoints.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Leonard, Kay

    2011-09-25

    PURPOSE: Severe neutropenia and febrile neutropenia (FN) are the major causes of morbidity, treatment interruptions and dose reductions in patients undergoing chemotherapy. The European Oncology Nursing Society (EONS) conducted an European survey to evaluate nurse perspectives on prevention of infection and FN in this setting, and how much they educate their patients about this. A separate survey explored these issues in patients receiving chemotherapy. METHODS: 217 nurse participants were identified by EONS from the membership database and 473 cancer patients who were receiving\\/had received chemotherapy were identified through patient advocacy groups. Questionnaires were completed anonymously online for both surveys. RESULTS: More than 90% of the nurses agreed that preventing infections including FN is extremely\\/very important for a successful chemotherapy outcome and said that they, or other health professionals in their practice, advised patients about these issues. Most (90%) indicated that they favoured giving treatment to protect against FN and infections in chemotherapy patients at risk, rather than treating infection after it develops, but 82% expressed concern over patient concordance with measures employed. A substantial proportion of patients reported emergency room visits, hospitalization and\\/or chemotherapy delays or changes as a result of neutropenia, infection or FN. However, only 44% said that their infection risk was discussed with them before starting chemotherapy. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that nurses recognise the importance of reducing the risk of infection and FN in patients undergoing chemotherapy, as well as the need to educate patients. However, results of the patient survey suggest a need for better patient education.

  17. Electromagnetic radiation influence on clinical course of experimental wound infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pronina Е.А.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The article gives close attention to the study of electromagnetic radiation influence (EMR at the frequency of molecular spectrum absorption and radiation (MSAR of nitric oxide (150 GHz and atmospheric oxygen (129 GHz on the clinical course of experimental wound infection caused by antibiotic-sensitive and antibiotic-resistant strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The panoramic spectrometric measuring complex, developed in Saratov Scientific Research Institute of Measuring Equipment was used while carrying out the research. Electromagnetic vibrations of extremely high frequencies were stimulated in this complex imitating the atmospheric oxygen and nitric oxide absorption and radiation molecular spectrum structure. The experiments proved the fact that exposure to radiation at the frequency of molecular spectrum absorption and radiation (MSAR of nitric oxide and atmospheric oxygen had positive impact on the course of traumatic process

  18. Infection control in the management of highly pathogenic infectious diseases: consensus of the European Network of Infectious Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brouqui, Philippe; Puro, Vincenzo; Fusco, Francesco M

    2009-01-01

    The European Network for Infectious Diseases (EUNID) is a network of clinicians, public health epidemiologists, microbiologists, infection control, and critical-care doctors from the European member states, who are experienced in the management of patients with highly infectious diseases. We aim ...

  19. Analysis of the 2015 American and European guidelines for the management of infective endocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tattevin, P; Mainardi, J-L

    2016-12-01

    The optimal management of infective endocarditis requires a broad range of expertise (infectious disease specialists, cardiologists, microbiologists, cardiac surgeons, and intensivists). Given the low level of evidence currently available to support the management of infective endocarditis, international guidelines have always been particularly awaited and rather well implemented. Their cautious analysis of the medical literature and the range of expertise combined within the groups in charge of these guidelines are usually broadly acknowledged and respected. The publications, a few weeks apart, of the 2015 updates of the American and European guidelines, was quite disturbing. Indeed, several discrepancies on major therapeutic propositions were observed, including empirical treatment (penicillin M+penicillin A+gentamicin for Europeans in acutely ill patients; penicillin A+beta-lactamase inhibitor+gentamicin for Americans), or first-line treatment for the most common pathogen responsible for endocarditis in 2016, Staphylococcus aureus (trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole+clindamycin as an alternative in the European guidelines, while this regimen is not even mentioned in the American guidelines). Other discrepancies were observed, although less significant: the role of positron emission tomography labelled with 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose and administration modalities for aminoglycosides. We aimed to detail the main changes brought upon by these guidelines, their discrepancies, and the 'pros' and 'cons' that may help you select the best treatment regimen for your patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Influence of body condition on influenza a virus infection in mallard ducks: Experimental infection data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsnoe, D.M.; Ip, Hon S.; Owen, J.C.

    2011-01-01

    Migrating waterfowl are implicated in the global spread of influenza A viruses (IAVs), and mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) are considered a particularly important IAV reservoir. Prevalence of IAV infection in waterfowl peaks during autumn pre-migration staging and then declines as birds reach wintering areas. Migration is energetically costly and birds often experience declines in body condition that may suppress immune function. We assessed how body condition affects susceptibility to infection, viral shedding and antibody production in wild-caught and captive-bred juvenile mallards challenged with low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV) H5N9. Wild mallards (n = 30) were separated into three experimental groups; each manipulated through food availability to a different condition level (-20%, -10%, and normal ??5% original body condition), and captive-bred mallards (n = 10) were maintained at normal condition. We found that wild mallards in normal condition were more susceptible to LPAIV infection, shed higher peak viral loads and shed viral RNA more frequently compared to birds in poor condition. Antibody production did not differ according to condition. We found that wild mallards did not differ from captive-bred mallards in viral intensity and duration of infection, but they did exhibit lower antibody titers and greater variation in viral load. Our findings suggest that reduced body condition negatively influences waterfowl host competence to LPAIV infection. This observation is contradictory to the recently proposed condition-dependent hypothesis, according to which birds in reduced condition would be more susceptible to IAV infection. The mechanisms responsible for reducing host competency among birds in poor condition remain unknown. Our research indicates body condition may influence the maintenance and spread of LPAIV by migrating waterfowl. ?? 2011 Arsnoe et al.

  1. Preservation of thermalhydraulic and severe accident experimental data produced by the European Commission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pla, Patricia; Ammirabile, Luca; Pascal, Ghislain; Annunziato, Alessandro [European Commission Joint Research Centre, Petten (Netherlands). Inst. for Energy and Transport; European Commission Joint Research Centre, Ispra (Italy). Inst. for the Protection and Security of the Citizen

    2014-07-15

    The experimental data recorded in Integral Effect Test Facilities (ITFs) are traditionally used in order to validate Best Estimate (BE) system codes and to investigate the behaviour of Nuclear Power Plants (NPP) under accident scenarios. In the same way, facilities dedicated to specific thermalhydraulic (TH) Severe Accident (SA) phenomena are used for the development and improvement of specific analytical models and codes used in the SA analysis for Light Water Reactors (LWR). The extent to which the existing reactor safety experimental databases are preserved was well known and frequently debated and questioned in the nuclear community. The Joint Research Centre (JRC) of the European Commission (EC) has been deeply involved in several projects for experimental data production and experimental data preservation. The paper is presenting these large EC initiatives on the production of experimental data and its storage in the JRC STRESA node. The objective of the paper is to further disseminate and promote the usage of the database containing these experimental data and to demonstrate long-term importance of well maintained experimental databases. At present time the Nuclear Reactor Safety Assessment Unit (NRSA) of the JRC Institute of Energy and Transport in Petten is engaged in the development of a new STRESA tool to secure EU storage for SA experimental data and calculations. The target is to keep the main features of the existing STRESA structure but using the new informatics technologies that are nowadays available and providing new capabilities. The development of this new STRESA tool should be completed by the end of 2014. (orig.)

  2. Dialysis and Renal Transplantation in HIV-Infected Patients: a European Survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trullas, Joan Carles; Mocroft, Amanda; Cofan, Federico

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES:: To determine prevalence and characteristics of end-stage renal diseases (ESRD) [dialysis and renal transplantation (RT)] among European HIV-infected patients. METHODS:: Cross-sectional multicenter survey of EuroSIDA clinics during 2008. RESULTS:: Prevalence of ESRD was 0.5%. Of 122...... was the reason for exclusion from RT waiting list in 22.4% of cases. All the RT recipients were all alive at the time of the survey. Acute rejection was reported in 8 patients (30%). Functioning graft was present in 21 (80%). CONCLUSIONS:: This is the first multinational cross-sectional study of ESRD among...... European HIV population. Low prevalence of ESRD was found. Two-thirds of patients were excluded from RT for non-HIV/AIDS-related pathologies. Most patients had a functioning graft despite a high acute rejection rate....

  3. Coccidian and nematode infections influence prevalence of antibody to myxoma and rabbit hemorrhagic disease viruses in European rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertó-Moran, Alejandro; Pacios, Isabel; Serrano, Emmanuel; Moreno, Sacramento; Rouco, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    The interaction among several parasites in European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) is crucial to host fitness and to the epidemiology of myxomatosis and rabbit hemorrhagic disease. These diseases have caused significant reductions in rabbit populations on the Iberian Peninsula. Most studies have focused on the epidemiology and pathogenesis of these viruses individually, and little is known about interactions between these viruses and other parasites. Taking advantage of an experimental restocking program in Spain, the effects of coccidian and nematode infections on the probability of having detectable antibody to myxoma and rabbit hemorrhagic disease viruses were tested in European wild rabbits. For 14 mo, we monitored rabbit abundance and parasite loads (coccidia and nematodes) in three reintroduced rabbit populations. While coccidian and nematode loads explained seasonal antibody prevalences to myxoma virus, the pattern was less clear for rabbit hemorrhagic disease. Contrary to expectations, prevalence of antibody to myxoma virus was inversely proportional to coccidian load, while nematode load seemed to play a minor role. These results have implications for viral disease epidemiology and for disease management intended to increase rabbit populations in areas where they are important for ecosystem conservation.

  4. Harmonisation of the acute respiratory infection reporting system in the Czech Republic with the European community networks.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kyncl, J.; Paget, W.J.; Havlickova, M.; Kriz, B.

    2005-01-01

    Respiratory virus activity is detected in Europe each winter, yet the precise timing and size of this activity is highly unpredictable. The impact of influenza infection and/or acute respiratory infection in European countries is continuously monitored through a variety of surveillance systems. All

  5. European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases: update of the treatment guidance document for Clostridium difficile infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Debast, S.B.; Bauer, M.P.; Kuijper, E.J.

    2014-01-01

    In 2009 the first European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infection (ESCMID) treatment guidance document for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) was published. The guideline has been applied widely in clinical practice. In this document an update and review on the comparative effectiveness

  6. European multicenter study on antimicrobial resistance in bacteria isolated from companion animal urinary tract infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marques, Cátia; Gama, Luís Telo; Belas, Adriana

    2016-01-01

    of antimicrobial resistant bacteria causing urinary tract infection (UTI) in companion animals in Europe. The antimicrobial susceptibility of 22 256 bacteria isolated from dogs and cats with UTI was determined. Samples were collected between 2008 and 2013 from 16 laboratories of 14 European countries....... The prevalence of antimicrobial resistance of the most common bacteria was determined for each country individually in the years 2012-2013 and temporal trends of bacteria resistance were established by logistic regression. RESULTS: The aetiology of uropathogenic bacteria differed between dogs and cats. For all...

  7. Experimental infection and co-infection of dogs with Anaplasma platys and Ehrlichia canis: hematologic, serologic and molecular findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diniz PPVP

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rhipicephalus sanguineus is a ubiquitous tick responsible for transmitting Ehrlichia canis and most likely Anaplasma platys to dogs, as either single or co-infections. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of either simultaneous or sequential experimental infections with E. canis and A. platys on hematological and serological parameters, duration of infection, and efficacy of doxycycline therapy in dogs infected with one or both organisms. Six dogs per group were either uninfected, A. platys infected, E. canis infected, A. platys and E. canis co-infected, A. platys infected and E. canis challenged or E. canis infected and A. platys challenged at day 112 post-infection (PI. Doxycycline treatment was initiated at 211 days PI, followed by dexamethasone immunosuppression beginning 410 days PI. Results Initially, transient decreases in hematocrit occurred in all groups infected with E. canis, but the mean hematocrit was significantly lower in the A. platys and E. canis co-infected group. All dogs except the controls developed marked thrombocytopenia after initial infection followed by gradually increased platelet counts by 112 days PI in groups with the single infections, while platelet counts remained significantly lower in the A. platys and E. canis co-infected group. Both sequential and simultaneous infections of A. platys and E. canis produced an enhanced humoral immune response to A. platys when compared to infection with A. platys alone. Likewise, co-infection with E. canis and A. platys resulted in a more persistent A. platys infection compared to dogs infected with A. platys only, but nearly all A. platys infected dogs became A. platys PCR negative prior to doxycycline treatment. E. canis infected dogs, whether single or co-infected, remained thrombocytopenic and E. canis PCR positive in blood for 420 days. When treated with doxycycline, all E. canis infected dogs became E. canis PCR negative and the

  8. Parvovirus infection in a Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) and in a European wildcat (Felis silvestris silvestris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasieri, J; Schmiedeknecht, G; Förster, C; König, M; Reinacher, M

    2009-01-01

    A Eurasian lynx and a European wildcat from the same wildlife park were submitted for necropsy examination after sudden death and after death following a clinical history of lethargy, respectively. Neither animal had been vaccinated against feline parvovirus (feline panleukopenia virus). Feral domestic cats were widespread in the area of the wildlife park and a number of these animals that had been captured had recently died from parvovirus infection. Gross and microscopical findings in the two non-domestic felids were consistent with feline parvovirus infection and this was confirmed by immunohistochemistry and polymerase chain reaction. The introduction of feline parvovirus into captive non-domestic felid populations could pose a threat to their health and survival. Vaccination of captive non-domestic felids is therefore recommended.

  9. FATAL ACINETOBACTER BAUMANNII INFECTION IN THE CRITICALLY ENDANGERED EUROPEAN MINK (MUSTELA LUTREOLA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano-Terriza, David; Guerra, Rafael; Mozos, Elena; Rodríguez-Sánchez, Belén; Borge, Carmen; García-Bocanegra, Ignacio

    2017-03-01

    The present study reports the first case of fatal Acinetobacter baumannii infection in the critically endangered European mink ( Mustela lutreola ). Gross examination revealed a severe, diffuse hemorrhagic pneumonia and generalized congestion as main features. Microscopically, the main lesions were an acute, severe fibrinous-hemorrhagic pneumonia associated with proliferation of coccobacilli and generalized acute-subacute congestion. Cultures yielded A. baumannii ; the species was confirmed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry and the strain presented a multidrug-resistant pattern. The results are not only of conservation concern but also of public health concern given A. baumannii is one of the most important pathogens implicated in nosocomial infections in humans.

  10. Nosocomial rotavirus infection: An up to date evaluation of European studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervasi, G.; Capanna, A.; Mita, V.; Zaratti, L.; Franco, E.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Rotavirus (RV) is worldwide considered as the most important viral agent of acute gastroenteritis in children less than 5 y. Since 2006, the availability of anti-RV vaccines has deeply modified the incidence and economic burden of RV infection. In Europe, some countries have introduced an anti-RV vaccination program in the last 10 y. Although community acquired RV (CARV) disease is the most studied condition of RV infection, recently some authors have highlighted the importance of nosocomial RV (nRV) disease as an emerging public health issue. The aim of this review is to summarize the epidemiology of both CARV and nRV, in order to discuss the difficulty of a clear evaluation of the burden of the disease in absence of comparable data. In particular, we focused our attention to European studies regarding nRV in terms of divergences related to definition, report of incidence rate and methodological issues. PMID:27185183

  11. Diseases and causes of death in European bats: dynamics in disease susceptibility and infection rates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin Mühldorfer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bats receive increasing attention in infectious disease studies, because of their well recognized status as reservoir species for various infectious agents. This is even more important, as bats with their capability of long distance dispersal and complex social structures are unique in the way microbes could be spread by these mammalian species. Nevertheless, infection studies in bats are predominantly limited to the identification of specific pathogens presenting a potential health threat to humans. But the impact of infectious agents on the individual host and their importance on bat mortality is largely unknown and has been neglected in most studies published to date. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Between 2002 and 2009, 486 deceased bats of 19 European species (family Vespertilionidae were collected in different geographic regions in Germany. Most animals represented individual cases that have been incidentally found close to roosting sites or near human habitation in urban and urban-like environments. The bat carcasses were subjected to a post-mortem examination and investigated histo-pathologically, bacteriologically and virologically. Trauma and disease represented the most important causes of death in these bats. Comparative analysis of pathological findings and microbiological results show that microbial agents indeed have an impact on bats succumbing to infectious diseases, with fatal bacterial, viral and parasitic infections found in at least 12% of the bats investigated. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data demonstrate the importance of diseases and infectious agents as cause of death in European bat species. The clear seasonal and individual variations in disease prevalence and infection rates indicate that maternity colonies are more susceptible to infectious agents, underlining the possible important role of host physiology, immunity and roosting behavior as risk factors for infection of bats.

  12. Storage of gastrointestinal nematode infective larvae for species preservation and experimental infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chylinski, C; Cortet, J; Sallé, G; Jacquiet, P; Cabaret, J

    2015-02-01

    Techniques to preserve the infective third-stage larvae (L3) of gastrointestinal nematodes are of considerable interest to preserve rare species and to maintain a stable source for routine experimental infections. This study compares the relative pros and cons of the two most common techniques, cryopreservation and refrigeration by comparing how they influence consequent infection outcome parameters in terms of life-history traits and fitness as a function of time using the gastrointestinal nematode of sheep Haemonchus contortus as a study species. Establishment capacity was found to be significantly reduced in cryopreserved stocks of L3 compared to refrigerated stocks, but this was followed by significant increases in their fecundity. Refrigeration did not affect L3 stocks consequent fitness by 16 months (the maximum examined) although they did incur a significant reduction in establishment, followed once again by an augmentation in fecundity. The study highlights potential areas for bias in comparing studies using L3 larvae maintained for different periods of time under different techniques.

  13. Dissemination of Salmonella enteritidis by experimentally-infected pigeons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ÁH Albuquerque

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Two groups of domestic pigeons (Columba livia were experimentally infected orally with doses of 9.5 x10(7 and 9.5 x10(9 CFU/mL (group A and B, respectively of a Salmonella Enteritidis (SE strain isolated from chickens. None of the used doses caused mortality of the inoculated birds; however, the pathogen was successfully recovered from the liver and spleen of group B birds on day 7 post-inoculation (dpi. Pathogen shedding, as evaluated through cloacal swabs, occurred in both groups until the 14th day of observation (p <0.05. Among all fecal samples collected from group B (n=4, three different birds shed the pathogen in their feces, out of which two were positive on 3 dpi and one on 7 dpi. The same number of fecal samples was evaluated in group A and only one bird shed the pathogen, on 7 and 14 dpi. The concentration of the microorganism in the feces was lower in group A than any sample from Group B. Salmonella Enteritidis isolated from chickens, when inoculated in pigeons, may be recovered from feces, cloacal swabs and organs, and these birds may contaminate poultry causing economic losses as well as posing a risk to the public health.

  14. Haematological changes in Nile tilapia experimentally infected with Enterococcus sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ML. Martins

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the haematological changes in Nile tilapia experimentally infected with 1 x 10³ and 1 x 10(6 colony-forming units (CFU/mL of Enterococcus sp. in the swim bladder. The experiment consisted of four treatments in triplicates: non-injected fish (NI; fish injected with 1 mL of sterile saline solution 0.65% (SAL; fish injected with 1 x 10³ and 1 x 10(6 CFU/mL of Enterococcus diluted in 1 mL sterile saline. Twenty-four hours after injection, the fish were anesthetized and the blood collected. The haematological tests included red blood cell (RBC and white blood cell (WBC counts, hematocrit, number of total thrombocytes, and differential counting of WBC. Fish injected with 1 x 10(6 CFU/mL of Enterococcus showed a higher number of thrombocytes than the other treatments. White blood cell and lymphocyte numbers increased significantly in fish injected with 1 x 10(6 CFU/mL of Enterococcus when compared to non-injected control. There was significant increase in the number of neutrophils in saline injected fish and reduced number of monocytes after injections with 1 x 10(6 CFU/mL of Enterococcus. Hematocrit increased in fish injected with 1 x 10³ and 1 x 10(6 CFU/mL of Enterococcus.

  15. Pathology of experimental Escherichia coli infection in mice: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . Mice were sacrificed after 72hrs and the glands examined bacteriological and histologically. Positive bacteriological and histological results were required for a diagnosis of infection. The infective dose fifty (ID50) for the nine stereotypes ...

  16. Genetic resistance to experimental Cooperia oncophora infections in calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albers, G.A.A.

    1981-01-01

    The variation in resistance of cattle to gastro-intestinal nematode infection was investigated in three experiments. Bull calves, aged three months and reared under uniform conditions, were artificially infected with infective larvae of Cooperia oncophora, a moderately

  17. Performance of commercially available serological diagnostic tests to detect Leishmania infantum infection on experimentally infected dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Cortés, Alhelí; Ojeda, Ana; Todolí, Felicitat; Alberola, Jordi

    2013-01-31

    Leishmania infantum (syn. Leishmania chagasi) is the etiological agent of a widespread serious zoonotic disease that affects both humans and dogs. Prevalence and incidence of the canine infection are important parameters to determine the risk and the ways to control this reemergent zoonosis. Unfortunately, there is not a gold standard test for Leishmania infection. Our aim was to assess the operative validity of commercial tests used to detect antibodies to Leishmania in serum samples from experimental infections. Three ELISA tests (LEISCAN(®) Leishmania ELISA Test, INGEZIM(®) LEISHMANIA, and INGEZIM(®) LEISHMANIA VET), three immunochromatographic tests (INGEZIM(®) LEISHMACROM, SNAP(®) Leishmania, and WITNESS(®) Leishmania), and one IFAT were evaluated. LEISCAN(®) Leishmania ELISA test achieved the highest sensitivity and accuracy (both 0.98). Specificity was 1 for all tests except for IFAT. All tests but IFAT obtained a positive predictive value of 1, while the maximum negative predictive value was achieved by LEISCAN(®) Leishmania ELISA Test (0.93). The best positive likelihood ratio was obtained by INGEZIM(®) LEISHMANIA VET (30.26), while the best negative likelihood ratio was obtained by LEISCAN(®) Leishmania ELISA Test (0.02). The highest diagnostic odds ratio was achieved by LEISCAN(®) Leishmania ELISA Test (729.00). The largest area under the ROC curve was obtained by LEISCAN(®) Leishmania ELISA Test (0.981). Quantitative ELISA based tests performmed better than qualitative tests ("Rapid Tests"), and the test best suited to detect Leishmania in infected dogs and to provide clinically useful information was LEISCAN(®) Leishmania ELISA Test. This and other results point also to the need of revising the status of IFAT as a gold standard for the diagnosis of leishmaniasis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Infectivity and temperature tolerance of non-encapsulating Trichinella zimbabwensis in experimentally infected red foxes (Vulpes vulpes)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hurníková, Z.; Dubinský, P.; Mukaratirwa, S.

    2004-01-01

    The non-encapsulating Trichinella zimbabwensis was evaluated for infectivity in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), the larval distribution and cold tolerance in fox muscle tissue. Six red foxes were experimentally infected with T. zimbabwensis larvae. Five weeks after inoculation, muscle larvae were...... recovered from 9 different muscle types using artificial digestion method. The establishment of infection in all infected red foxes demonstrated the ability of T. zimbabwensis to complete its life cycle in a carnivore mammal host. The larvae recovered from fox muscle tissue were infective to mice, they have...

  19. European Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups are Associated with Cerebrospinal Fluid Biomarkers of Inflammation in HIV Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, David C.; Kallianpur, Asha R.; Ellis, Ronald J.; Bush, William S.; Letendre, Scott; Franklin, Donald; Grant, Igor; Hulgan, Todd

    2017-01-01

    Background Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups are ancestry-related patterns of single-nucleotide polymorphisms that are associated with differential mitochondrial function in model systems, neurodegenerative diseases in HIV-negative populations, and chronic complications of HIV infection, including neurocognitive impairment. We hypothesized that mtDNA haplogroups are associated with neuroinflammation in HIV-infected adults. Methods CNS HIV Antiretroviral Therapy Effects Research (CHARTER) is a US-based observational study of HIV-infected adults who underwent standardized neurocognitive assessments. Participants who consented to DNA collection underwent whole blood mtDNA sequencing, and a subset also underwent lumbar puncture. IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α (high-sensitivity), and IP-10 were measured in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) by immunoassay. Multivariable regression of mtDNA haplogroups and log-transformed CSF biomarkers were stratified by genetic ancestry using whole-genome nuclear DNA genotyping (European [EA], African [AA], or Hispanic ancestry [HA]), and adjusted for age, sex, antiretroviral therapy (ART), detectable CSF HIV RNA, and CD4 nadir. A total of 384 participants had both CSF cytokine measures and genetic data (45% EA, 44% AA, 11% HA, 22% female, median age 43 years, 74% on ART). Results In analyses stratified by the 3 continental ancestry groups, no haplogroups were significantly associated with the 4 biomarkers. In the subgroup of participants with undetectable plasma HIV RNA on ART, European haplogroup H participants had significantly lower CSF TNF-α (P = 0.001). Conclusions Lower CSF TNF-α may indicate lower neuroinflammation in the haplogroup H participants with well-controlled HIV on ART. PMID:28317034

  20. Avian toxoplasmosis: experimental infection of chicken and pigeon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biancifiori, F; Rondini, C; Grelloni, V; Frescura, T

    1986-01-01

    Two groups of 13 new-laying hens each were infected by crop-route with 5000 and 50,000 infective oocysts of T. gondii. Four groups of 5 pigeons each were inoculated by crop-route with 50, 500, 1000 and 5000 infective oocysts. To each group of infected birds suitable controls were added. Hens from the experiment with 5000 infective oocysts were apparently resistant to the infection and they had no clinical signs in the succeeding 40 days p.i. Hens from the experiment with 50,000 infective oocysts showed an egg-drop and mortality in embryonated eggs, especially during the first 2 weeks p.i. Isolation of the parasite was unsuccessfully attempted from 720 embryonated eggs, produced by infected groups, and tested on various days p.i. and at different stages of infection. The parasite was isolated from the brain, heart, liver, spleen and lung of infected birds 7 and 15 days p.i.; 40 days p.i. it was evident only in brain and heart. IgG onset and mean course were monitored by ELISA and high titers were reached by both groups. Pigeons from groups 500, 1000 and 5000 developed rapidly progressive clinical signs as diarrhea, trembling, incoordination, torticollis and death. They had enlargement of liver and spleen and focal necrosis, nodular features in the crop. Pigeons from expt 50 had no clinical signs in spite of the presence of the parasite in their organs for over 45 days p.i. Parasite was isolated from brain, heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney, crop and muscles from all infected groups. Histopathological and ultrastructural features revealed the presence of multiplying tachizoites even within cells of the crop. Seroconversion, as monitored by ELISA, was recorded in all infected groups although high ELISA-titres were never reached. One of the negative controls from expt 5000 developed specific antibodies but the parasite was not isolated from its organs.

  1. The European Paediatric Mycology Network (EPMyN): Towards a Better Understanding and Management of Fungal Infections in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warris, Adilia

    The European Paediatric Mycology Network (EPMyN) was launched in 2014 to create a European platform for research and education in the field of paediatric mycology. The EPMyN aims to address the lack of paediatric specific evidence and knowledge needed to (1) improve the management and outcome of invasive fungal infections in children and neonates and to (2) enhance and develop paediatric antifungal stewardship programmes.

  2. Experimental infection of horses with West Nile virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunning, Michel L; Bowen, Richard A; Cropp, C Bruce; Sullivan, Kevin G; Davis, Brent S; Komar, Nicholas; Godsey, Marvin S; Baker, Dale; Hettler, Danielle L; Holmes, Derek A; Biggerstaff, Brad J; Mitchell, Carl J

    2002-04-01

    A total of 12 horses of different breeds and ages were infected with West Nile virus (WNV) via the bites of infected Aedes albopictus mosquitoes. Half the horses were infected with a viral isolate from the brain of a horse (BC787), and half were infected with an isolate from crow brain (NY99-6625); both were NY99 isolates. Postinfection, uninfected female Ae. albopictus fed on eight of the infected horses. In the first trial, Nt antibody titers reached >1:320, 1:20, 1:160, and 1:80 for horses 1 to 4, respectively. In the second trial, the seven horses with subclinical infections developed Nt antibody titers >1:10 between days 7 and 11 post infection. The highest viremia level in horses fed upon by the recipient mosquitoes was approximately 460 Vero cell PFU/mL. All mosquitoes that fed upon viremic horses were negative for the virus. Horses infected with the NY99 strain of WNV develop low viremia levels of short duration; therefore, infected horses are unlikely to serve as important amplifying hosts for WNV in nature.

  3. The role of IL-12 in experimental Trypanosoma cruzi infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.S. Silva

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Host resistance to Trypanosoma cruzi infection is dependent on both natural and acquired immune responses. During the early acute phase of infection in mice, natural killer (NK cell-derived IFN-g is involved in controlling intracellular parasite replication, mainly through the induction of nitric oxide biosynthesis by activated macrophages. We have shown that IL-12, a powerful inducer of IFN-g production by NK cells, is synthesized soon after trypomastigote-macrophage interaction. The role of IL-12 in the control of T. cruzi infection in vivo was determined by treating infected mice with anti-IL-12 monoclonal antibody (mAb and analyzing both parasitemia and mortality during the acute phase of infection. The anti-IL-12 mAb-treated mice had higher levels of parasitemia and mortality compared to control mice. Also, treatment of infected mice with mAb specific for IFN-g or TNF-a inhibited the protective effect of exogenous IL-12. On the other hand, TGF-ß and IL-10 produced by infected macrophages inhibited the induction and effects of IL-12. Therefore, while IL-12, TNF-a and IFN-g correlate with resistance to T. cruzi infection, TGF-ß and IL-10 promote susceptibility. These results provide support for a role of innate immunity in the control of T. cruzi infection. In addition to its protective role, IL-12 may also be involved in the modulation of T. cruzi-induced myocarditis, since treatment of infected mice with IL-12 or anti-IL-12 mAb leads to an enhanced or decreased inflammatory infiltrate in the heart, respectively. Understanding the role of the cytokines produced during the acute phase of T. cruzi infection and their involvement in protection and pathogenesis would be essential to devise new vaccines or therapies.

  4. Changes in leaf phenology of three European oak species in response to experimental climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Xavier; Roy, Jacques; Sonié, Laurette; Chuine, Isabelle

    2010-06-01

    *Because the phenology of trees is strongly driven by environmental factors such as temperature, climate change has already altered the vegetative and reproductive phenology of many species, especially in the temperate zone. Here, we aimed to determine whether projected levels of warming for the upcoming decades will lead to linear changes in the phenology of trees or to more complex responses. *We report the results of a 3-yr common garden experiment designed to study the phenological response to artificial climate change, obtained through experimental warming and reduced precipitation, of several populations of three European oaks, two deciduous species (Quercus robur, Quercus pubescens) and one evergreen species (Quercus ilex), in a Mediterranean site. *Experimental warming advanced the seedlings' vegetative phenology, causing a longer growing season and higher mortality. However, the rate of advancement of leaf unfolding date was decreased with increasing temperature. Conversely, soil water content did not affect the phenology of the seedlings or their survival. *Our results show that the phenological response of trees to climate change may be nonlinear, and suggest that predictions of phenological changes in the future should not be built on extrapolations of current observed trends.

  5. Effect of Experimental Coccidiosis Infections on Body Weight Gain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The pathological effect of coccidiosis on sperm production of the male chickens had not been previously studied. It is note-worthy that coccidiosis infection in broiler males showed no degenerative changes in the seminiferous tubules and testis. In both cross and longitudinal sections of the testis of the infected male, there ...

  6. Experimental infection of squirrel monkeys with nipah virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marianneau, Philippe; Guillaume, Vanessa; Wong, Thong; Badmanathan, Munisamy; Looi, Ren Yih; Murri, Severine; Loth, Philippe; Tordo, Noel; Wild, Fabian; Horvat, Branka; Contamin, Hugues

    2010-03-01

    We infected squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) with Nipah virus to determine the monkeys' suitability for use as primate models in preclinical testing of preventive and therapeutic treatments. Infection of squirrel monkeys through intravenous injection was followed by high death rates associated with acute neurologic and respiratory illness and viral RNA and antigen production.

  7. Preferential infection sites of Cysticercus bovis in cattle experimentally infected with Taenia saginata eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Welber D Z; Santos, Thaís R; Soares, Vando E; Nunes, Jorge L N; Mendonça, Rafael P; de Lima, Roberto C A; Sakamoto, Cláudio A M; Costa, Gustavo H N; Thomaz-Soccol, Vanete; Oliveira, Gilson P; Costa, Alvimar J

    2011-02-01

    The preferential sites of infection of Cysticercus bovis were evaluated in the skeletal muscle and entrails of 25 cattle that were experimentally infected with Taenia saginata (2×10(4) eggs). Two other animals were not inoculated (control). Ninety days after inoculation, all the cattle were euthanized. The carcasses were deboned and dissected into 26 anatomical sections (masseter muscles, brain, tongue, esophagus, heart, diaphragm, lungs, liver, kidneys, spleen, top sirloin butt, bottom sirloin butt, outside round, top (inside) round, transversus abdominus, top sirloin cap, strip loin, full tenderloin, eye of round, knuckle, shoulder clod, foreshank, shank, chuck, back ribs, and tail muscles). The dissected tissues were sliced into 5mm sections. From the 25 cattle, 9258 C. bovis (cysticerci) were recovered; 75.02% (6946) of these were recovered from skeletal muscles and 24.98% (2312) from the entrails. A high parasitism level was found in the shoulder clod (12.55%), heart (11.02%), liver (9.48%), masseter muscles (8.51%), chuck (8.25%), strip loin and full tenderloin (7.26%), knuckle (6.63%), and back ribs (5.53%), totaling 69.23% (5738) of all of the detected cysticerci. On the other hand, there was a low C. bovis parasitism level in the brain, spleen, tail muscles, kidneys, esophagus, and diaphragm, representing just 3.9% of the total number of cysticerci. Given these results, we conclude that specific skeletal musculature regions, such as the shoulder blade, chuck, strip loin and full tenderloin, knuckle, back ribs and top round, which are not officially examined in many countries, are effective sites to efficiently screen C. bovis infection. To date, these regions have not been considered as preferential sites of C. bovis infection. Based on our work, however, these regions deserve greater attention from health inspectors because they contained a greater number of Cysticercus than the other regions of carcasses that are parasitized by T. saginata larvae

  8. A. Hepatica in European ground squirrel (Citellus Citellus compared to other experimental animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blagojević Miloš

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available European ground squirrel is the only representative of its genus in Serbia. It is used as experimental animal in microbioogy, parasitology, pharmacology and immunology. The objective of this work was to investigate a part of cardiovascular system of ground squirrel so in that way to contribute to a better knowledge of this animal body structure and accordingly to comparative anatomy in general. The investigation included 6 ground squirrels, of both gender, body weight 200-300 grams. For obtaining the liver arterial vascularization, after exsanguination of the animal, contrast mass of gelatin coloured with tempera was injected into abdominal aorta (Aorta abdominalis. After injecting, the blood vessels were prepared and photographed. In ground squirrel A. celiaca is odd, larger vessel that exits the abdominal aorta. It is divided into three branches: A. lienalis, A. gastrica sinistra and A. hepatica. A. hepatica is divided into A. hepatica propria and A. gastroduodenalis. A. hepatica propria further gives A. cystica, Rami cardiaci and small branches for Lnn. portales. A. gastroduodenalis is divided into A. pancreaticoduodenalis and A. gastroepiploica dextra. A. celiaca in nutria and rat is an odd artery, divided into A. lienalis, A. gastrica sinistra and A. hepatica. In rabbits, celiac artery (A. celiaca is divided into A. lienalis and short trunk from which A. gastrica sinistra and A. Hepatica emerge. A. celiaca in golden hamster does not exist in the form of tripus coeliacus (A. lienalis, A. gastrica sinistra and A. hepatica, but from A. celiaca it is firstly separated A. hepatica, and then short trunk from which A. gastrica sinistra and A. Lienalis emerge. In guinea-pig, from abdominal aorta a joint tree branches off into A. celiaca and A. mesenterica cranialis (Truncus celiacomesentericus. Based on the above mentioned results, it can be concluded that A. celiaca in European ground squirrel, nutria and rat branches from abdominal aorta as a

  9. Streptococcus pyogenes Infection in a Free-Living European Hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklinos, Lydia H V; Efstratiou, Androulla; Macgregor, Shaheed K; John, Shinto K; Hopkins, Timothy; Cunningham, Andrew A; Lawson, Becki

    2015-12-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes, a common pathogen of humans, was isolated from the carcass of a free-living European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus) found in northern England in June 2014. The animal had abscessation of the deep right cervical lymph node, mesenteric lymph nodes and liver. The S. pyogenes strain isolated from the lesions, peritoneal and pleural cavities was characterised as emm 28, which can be associated with invasive disease in humans. This is the first known report of S. pyogenes in a hedgehog and in any free-living wild animal that has been confirmed by gene sequencing. As close associations between wild hedgehogs and people in England are common, we hypothesise that this case might have resulted from anthroponotic infection.

  10. Experimental fetal and transplacental Neospora infection in the nonhuman primate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, B C; Conrad, P A; Sverlow, K W; Tarantal, A F; Hendrickx, A G

    1994-08-01

    Neospora is a newly recognized Toxoplasma-like protozoan that causes spontaneous abortion and/or neonatal disease in a wide range of animals. The purpose of this study was to determine the susceptibility of primates to Neospora infection. In experiment 1, two rhesus macaque fetuses were inoculated in utero at gestational day 65 with 1 x 10(6) culture-derived Neospora tachyzoites. A control fetus was given uninfected vehicle. The fetuses were removed by hysterotomy between 13 and 22 days postinoculation. In experiment 2, two pregnant macaques were inoculated intramuscularly and intravenously on gestational day 43 with a total of 1.6 x 10(7) culture-derived tachyzoites. A pregnant control macaque was given uninfected vehicle. The fetuses were removed by hysterotomy between 67 to 70 days postinoculation. Fetal tissues were collected for in vitro parasite isolation, histopathology, and Neospora immunohistochemistry. Fetal blood was examined for Neospora-specific antibody titers using an indirect fluorescent antibody test. Neospora infections were confirmed in all fetuses that received tachyzoites either directly or via transplacental infection. In experiment 1, infected fetuses had reduced amniotic fluid volumes, marked protozoal amnionitis and dermatitis, and a mild multifocal encephalitis. Infected fetuses from experiment 2 had a chronic multifocal necrotizing nonsuppurative meningoencephalitis with microcavitation, that was confined to the cerebrum, and a mild multifocal necrotizing amnionitis. In both experiments, Neospora tachyzoites were detected in association with lesions in fetal tissues by immunohistochemistry, and the parasites were reisolated in vitro. IgG Neospora antibody titers were detected in blood from all infected fetuses, whereas Neospora-specific IgM and IgA titers were found in one and three fetuses, respectively. Results indicate that nonhuman primates are susceptible to transplacental Neospora infection. The fetal lesions after transplacental

  11. Experimental infection of pregnant gilts with swine hepatitis E virus

    OpenAIRE

    Kasorndorkbua, Chaiyan; Thacker, Brad J.; Halbur, Patrick G.; Guenette, Denis K.; Buitenwerf, Ryan M.; Royer, Ryan L.; Meng, Xiang-Jin

    2003-01-01

    To determine the effect of swine hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection on pregnant gilts, their fetuses, and offspring, 12 gilts were intravenously inoculated with swine HEV. Six gilts, who were not inoculated, served as controls. All inoculated gilts became actively infected and shed HEV in feces, but vertical transmission was not detected in the fetuses. There was no evidence of clinical disease in the gilts or their offspring. Mild multifocal lymphohistiocytic hepatitis was observed in 4 of 12...

  12. Histopathological evaluation of the efficacy of antifungals for experimental Trichosporon bloodstream infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasai, Daisuke; Okubo, Yoichiro; Ishiwatari, Takao; Sugita, Takashi; Kaneko, Takehiko; Murayama, Somay Yamagata; Shimamura, Tsuyoshi; Shinozaki, Minoru; Hasegawa, Chikako; Mitsuda, Aki; Tochigi, Naobumi; Wakayama, Megumi; Nemoto, Tetsuo; Shibuya, Kazutoshi

    2013-01-01

    The efficacy of polyene macrolides to treat experimental Trichosporon bloodstream infection was evaluated by histopathological examination and viable cell counts in the kidneys of infected mice. Viable cell counts on the 5th day after infection confirmed that liposomal amphotericin B (L-AMB) is a more effective treatment than fluconazole (FLC) for mice infected with an azole-resistant strain of Trichosporon. Histological examination revealed that the administration of L-AMB induced a transformation from acute purulent inflammation caused by both azole-susceptible and -resistant strain infections to a chronic and subsiding form, whereas FLC failed to convert the acute inflammation induced by the azole-resistant strain to a subsiding form. Our results demonstrate that polyene macrolides can be used as an alternative therapy for infection of azole-resistant strains of Trichosporon and that histopathological evaluation is useful for elucidating the pathophysiology of an experimental Trichosporon infection.

  13. Human factors requirements for telerobotic command and control: The European Space Agency experimental programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Robert J.

    1991-01-01

    Space Telerobotics research, performed under contract to the European Space Agency (ESA), concerning the execution of human factors experiments, and ultimately leading to the development of a telerobotics test bed, has been carried out since 1985 by a British Consortium consisting of British Aerospace, the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority and, more recently, the UK National Advanced Robotics Research Centre. The principal aim of the first study of the series was to derive preliminary requirements for a teleoperation servicing system, with reference to two mission model scenarios. The first scenario introduced the problem of communications time delays, and their likely effect on the ground-based operator in control of a manipulator system on board an unmanned servicing vehicle in Low Earth Orbit. In the second scenario, the operator was located on the NASA Orbiter aft flight deck, supervising the control of a prototype manipulator in the 'servicing' of an experimental payload in the cargo bay area. Human factors analyses centered on defining the requirements for the teleoperator workstation, such as identifying basic ergonomic requirements for workstation and panel layouts, defining teleoperation strategies, developing alphanumeric and graphic screen formats for the supervision or direct control of the manipulator, and the potential applications of expert system technology. The second study for ESA involved an experimental appraisal of some of the important issues highlighted in the first study, for which relevant human factors data did not exist. Of central importance during the second study was the issue of communications time delays and their effect on the manual control of a teleoperated manipulator from a ground-based command and control station.

  14. Anguillicola crassus (Nematoda, Dracunculoidea) infections of European eel (Anguila anguilla) in the Netherlands : epidemiology, pathogenensis and pathobiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haenen, O.L.M.

    1995-01-01


    In the 1980s an eel parasitic nematode, Anguillicola crassus (Nematoda, Dracunculoidea), which infects the swimbladder of European eels ( Anguilla anguilla ) and other freshwater fish species, was introduced into The Netherlands. This thesis

  15. [Experimental and natural infection with the enzootic leukosis virus of cattle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofírek, B; Horín, P; Granátová, M; Machatková, M; Franz, J; Svoboda, I; Blecha, J

    1986-03-01

    A trial was performed with heifers at the age of six to seven months. The animals were experimentally infected with the lymphocytes of a virus-productive donor. Infection was produced in all the nine cases, as demonstrated by means of the positive syncytial test. As indicated by the results of the trial, the antibodies to the enzootic bovine leucosis virus (BLV) were produced soon after experimental infection. A high sensitivity of the serum-neutralization test and the ELISA method was demonstrated in this connection: by these methods, the antibodies were identified already two to three weeks after experimental infection whereas by the immunodiffusion test they could be detected only after five weeks. Twenty-four animals were exposed to natural contact infection. Within 270 days of the trial, the disease after contact was recorded only in one heifer out of the four that were in close contact with the experimentally infected animals. In this case, as compared with experimental infection, the antibodies were produced much later--after 85 to 93 days. Leucosis was recorded in none of the remaining animals. The reasons why such a favourable result was obtained were the thorough disinfection of the stables after blood collections and the strict observance of the aseptic conditions. The results of experimental infection in three cows were identical with those obtained in young cattle. In the experimentally infected dairy cows, antibodies in milk were determined by the ELISA method. As found, in milk the antibodies to BLV appear two to three weeks later than they do in serum. The ELISA method of BLV antibody detection can be used for the identification of infected animals in herds where enzootic bovine leucosis occurs.

  16. Using experimental human influenza infections to validate a viral dynamic model and the implications for prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, S C; You, S H; Liu, C Y; Chio, C P; Liao, C M

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this work was to use experimental infection data of human influenza to assess a simple viral dynamics model in epithelial cells and better understand the underlying complex factors governing the infection process. The developed study model expands on previous reports of a target cell-limited model with delayed virus production. Data from 10 published experimental infection studies of human influenza was used to validate the model. Our results elucidate, mechanistically, the associations between epithelial cells, human immune responses, and viral titres and were supported by the experimental infection data. We report that the maximum total number of free virions following infection is 10(3)-fold higher than the initial introduced titre. Our results indicated that the infection rates of unprotected epithelial cells probably play an important role in affecting viral dynamics. By simulating an advanced model of viral dynamics and applying it to experimental infection data of human influenza, we obtained important estimates of the infection rate. This work provides epidemiologically meaningful results, meriting further efforts to understand the causes and consequences of influenza A infection.

  17. Cardiac plexus of dogs experimentally infected with Trypanosoma cruzi: inflammatory lesions and quantitative studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo V. Caliari

    1995-03-01

    Full Text Available Qualitative and quantitative aspects of the superficial and profound cardiac plexus of dogs experimentally infected with Be-62 and Be-78 strains of Trypanosoma cruzi were studied. Animals were autopsied in the acute phase of infection. The inflammatory process, lesions and number of parasites were more intense and frequent in animals infected with the Be-78 strain than in those infected with Be-62. Despite this, no statistically significant differences could be found between the number of neuron bodies in the ganglia of infected and control dogs.

  18. Transcriptome-wide characterization of human cytomegalovirus in natural infection and experimental latency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shu; Caviness, Katie; Buehler, Jason; Smithey, Megan; Nikolich-Žugich, Janko; Goodrum, Felicia

    2017-11-20

    The transcriptional program associated with herpesvirus latency and the viral genes regulating entry into and exit from latency are poorly understood and controversial. Here, we developed and validated a targeted enrichment platform and conducted large-scale transcriptome analyses of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection. We used both an experimental hematopoietic cell model of latency and cells from naturally infected, healthy human subjects (clinical) to define the breadth of viral genes expressed. The viral transcriptome derived from experimental infection was highly correlated with that from clinical infection, validating our experimental latency model. These transcriptomes revealed a broader profile of gene expression during infection in hematopoietic cells than previously appreciated. Further, using recombinant viruses that establish a nonreactivating, latent-like or a replicative infection in CD34+ hematopoietic progenitor cells, we defined classes of low to moderately expressed genes that are differentially regulated in latent vs. replicative states of infection. Most of these genes have yet to be studied in depth. By contrast, genes that were highly expressed, were expressed similarly in both latent and replicative infection. From these findings, a model emerges whereby low or moderately expressed genes may have the greatest impact on regulating the switch between viral latency and replication. The core set of viral genes expressed in natural infection and differentially regulated depending on the pattern of infection provides insight into the HCMV transcriptome associated with latency in the host and a resource for investigating virus-host interactions underlying persistence.

  19. First attempt to produce experimental Campylobacter concisus infection in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabenhus, R.; Stenram, U.; Andersen, L.P.

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To infect mice with atypical Campylobacter concisus (C. concisus) for the first time. METHODS: Three separate experiments were conducted in order to screen the ability of five clinical C. concisus isolates of intestinal origin and the ATCC 33237 type strain of oral origin to colonize...

  20. Experimental toxoplasma gondii infection in grey seals (Halichoerus grypus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gajadhar, A. A.; Measures, L.; Forbes, L. B.

    2004-01-01

    Laboratory-reared animals were used to assess the susceptibility of seals (Halichoerus grypus) to Toxoplasma gondii infection. Four seals were each orally inoculated with 100 or 10,000 oocysts of T. gondii (VEG strain), and another 4 seals served as negative controls. Occasionally, mild behavioral...

  1. Progression of experimental chronic Aleutian mink disease virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Trine Hammer; Chriél, Mariann; Hansen, Mette Sif

    2016-01-01

    Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) is found world-wide and has a major impact on mink health and welfare by decreasing reproduction and fur quality. In the majority of mink, the infection is subclinical and the diagnosis must be confirmed by serology or polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Increased...

  2. 0f chemotherapy in goats experimentally infected with

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    'Y58' stock. The goats were monitored serologically by using antigen-ELISA and Antibody-ELISA before and after Berenil treatment for a period lasting about sixty two days. The mean prepatent period before trypanosomes were detected in their bloodstreams was five days post-infection; circulating antigens and antibodies ...

  3. Salmonella Enteritidis experimental infection in chickens: Effects of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis is a food borne pathogen of humans causing food-poisoning and sometimes deaths. In order to control egg-borne transmission of Salmonella Enteritidis to humans, prompt and accurate detection of infected poultry flocks is essential. This paper examined the effects of challenge dose ...

  4. Histopathological changes during experimental infections of calves with Cooperia punctata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, R R; Gennari, S M; Guerra, J L; Contieri, M B; Abdalla, A L; Vitti, D M S S

    2004-06-01

    Eleven male two-month-old Holstein calves were used to determine the pathological changes induced by a Cooperia punctata infection. After weaning, ten calves received a single oral dose of 45,000 C. punctata infective larvae. One calf remained as a non-infected control. Groups of two calves were killed on days 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35 post-infection (p.i.) for determination of worm burdens and histopathological evaluation. The small intestine was sub-divided into three sections of approximately equal length, and representative samples of mucosa were fixed in 10% formalin, cut, and stained with haematoxylin-eosin. Samples of intestinal contents and mucosal digests were taken and fixed in 10% formalin for an estimation of total worm burdens. An increase in the number of adult parasites and a decrease in the number of larvae were observed with time (P<0.001). A higher concentration of worms was found in the first segment of the small intestine during the five weeks of observation. Histology showed larvae in the intestinal mucosa on day 7 p.i., with a discrete increase in the cellular response. Adult worms and a marked cellular infiltrate with eosinophils and neutrophils were present on day 21 p.i., and these persisted until day 35 p.i. Microcysts resulting from worm destruction were observed from day 21 p.i.

  5. Experimental infection of Ethiopian highland sheep by different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    concentration, RBC counts and PCV values between exotic and indigenous animals but these physiological values were not recorded for different species and breeds of indigenous animals in Ethiopia. Information is also lacking about the effects of GI nematodes infection on these physiological parameters. (Bekele Tafesse ...

  6. Effects of experimental Neisseria meningitis W135 infection on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the effects of Neisseria menigitidis W135 infection via intraperitoneal route on plasma free tryptophan concentration, brain serotonin and 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid (5-HIAA) levels in albino mice fed normal and tryptophan-enriched diets. The kinetics of appearance of viable bacteria in the blood, ...

  7. Early stage leucocytosis in Nigerian pigs experimentally infected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sequential leukocyte changes associated with early phase of Trypanosoma brucei infection were investigated in indigenous Nigerian pigs. This was with the view to providing further hematological basis for effective chemotherapy of natural porcine trypanosomosis and to assessing the possible roles of leukocytes in ...

  8. A New Experimental Infection Model in Ferrets Based on Aerosolised Mycobacterium bovis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyanne McCallan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There is significant interest in developing vaccines to control bovine tuberculosis, especially in wildlife species where this disease continues to persist in reservoir species such as the European Badger (Meles meles. However, gaining access to populations of badgers (protected under UK law is problematic and not always possible. In this study, a new infection model has been developed in ferrets (Mustela furo, a species which is closely related to the badger. Groups of ferrets were infected using a Madison infection chamber and were examined postmortem for the presence of tuberculous lesions and to provide tissue samples for confirmation of Mycobacterium bovis by culture. An infectious dose was defined, that establishes infection within the lungs and associated lymph nodes with subsequent spread to the mesentery lymph nodes. This model, which emphasises respiratory tract infection, will be used to evaluate vaccines for the control of bovine tuberculosis in wildlife species.

  9. Quantification of HTLV-I proviral load in experimentally infected rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kindt Thomas J

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Levels of proviral load in HTLV-1 infected patients correlate with clinical outcome and are reasonably prognostic. Adaptation of proviral load measurement techniques is examined here for use in an experimental rabbit model of HTLV-1 infection. Initial efforts sought to correlate proviral load with route and dose of inoculation and with clinical outcome in this model. These methods contribute to our continuing goal of using the model to test treatments that alleviate virus infection. Results A real-time PCR assay was used to measure proviral load in blood and tissue samples from a series of rabbits infected using HTLV-1 inocula prepared as either cell-free virus particles, infected cells or blood, or by naked DNA injection. Proviral loads from asymptomatically infected rabbits showed levels corresponding to those reported for human patients with clinically silent HTLV-1 infections. Proviral load was comparably increased in 50% of experimentally infected rabbits that developed either spontaneous benign or malignant tumors while infected. Similarly elevated provirus was found in organs of rabbits with experimentally induced acute leukemia/lymphoma-like disease. Levels of provirus in organs taken at necropsy varied widely suggesting that reservoirs of infections exist in non-lymphoid organs not traditionally thought to be targets for HTLV-1. Conclusion Proviral load measurement is a valuable enhancement to the rabbit model for HTLV-1 infection providing a metric to monitor clinical status of the infected animals as well as a means for the testing of treatment to combat infection. In some cases proviral load in blood did not reflect organ proviral levels, revealing a limitation of this method for monitoring health status of HTLV-1 infected individuals.

  10. Quantification of HTLV-I proviral load in experimentally infected rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Tong-Mao; Hague, Bishop; Caudell, David L; Simpson, R Mark; Kindt, Thomas J

    2005-01-01

    Background Levels of proviral load in HTLV-1 infected patients correlate with clinical outcome and are reasonably prognostic. Adaptation of proviral load measurement techniques is examined here for use in an experimental rabbit model of HTLV-1 infection. Initial efforts sought to correlate proviral load with route and dose of inoculation and with clinical outcome in this model. These methods contribute to our continuing goal of using the model to test treatments that alleviate virus infection. Results A real-time PCR assay was used to measure proviral load in blood and tissue samples from a series of rabbits infected using HTLV-1 inocula prepared as either cell-free virus particles, infected cells or blood, or by naked DNA injection. Proviral loads from asymptomatically infected rabbits showed levels corresponding to those reported for human patients with clinically silent HTLV-1 infections. Proviral load was comparably increased in 50% of experimentally infected rabbits that developed either spontaneous benign or malignant tumors while infected. Similarly elevated provirus was found in organs of rabbits with experimentally induced acute leukemia/lymphoma-like disease. Levels of provirus in organs taken at necropsy varied widely suggesting that reservoirs of infections exist in non-lymphoid organs not traditionally thought to be targets for HTLV-1. Conclusion Proviral load measurement is a valuable enhancement to the rabbit model for HTLV-1 infection providing a metric to monitor clinical status of the infected animals as well as a means for the testing of treatment to combat infection. In some cases proviral load in blood did not reflect organ proviral levels, revealing a limitation of this method for monitoring health status of HTLV-1 infected individuals. PMID:15910683

  11. Recrudescent Campylobacter jejuni infection in an immunocompetent adult following experimental infection with a well-characterized organism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baqar, Shahida; Tribble, David R; Carmolli, Marya; Sadigh, Katrin; Poly, Frederic; Porter, Chad; Larsson, Catherine J; Pierce, Kristen K; Guerry, Patricia; Darsley, Michael; Kirkpatrick, Beth

    2010-01-01

    The recrudescence of infection with Campylobacter jejuni after appropriate antibiotic treatment has not been previously reported in an immunocompetent adult. We present the complete clinical, microbiologic, and immunologic evaluation of a closely monitored healthy male with recrudescent C. jejuni infection occurring in the absence of immunodeficiency following experimental infection with a well-characterized strain. After antibiotic treatment, the initial infection was clinically cleared and microbiologically undetectable. Subsequently, two episodes of recrudescence occurred, with no change in in vitro antibiotic sensitivity being detected. The immune responses of the individual were compared to those of other participants in the experimental infection study: innate immune responses, including fecal cytokines and C-reactive protein, were intact; however, measures of Campylobacter-specific adaptive immune responses were absent, including serum antibodies, antibody-secreting cells, and in vitro gamma interferon responses. No primary or secondary immunodeficiency was identified. Recrudescent Campylobacter infections after treatment may be more common than has previously been appreciated. This work adds to our understanding of the human immune response to natural Campylobacter infection and reiterates the importance of pathogen-specific adaptive immune responses to this globally important pathogen.

  12. Recrudescent Campylobacter jejuni Infection in an Immunocompetent Adult following Experimental Infection with a Well-Characterized Organism▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baqar, Shahida; Tribble, David R.; Carmolli, Marya; Sadigh, Katrin; Poly, Frederic; Porter, Chad; Larsson, Catherine J.; Pierce, Kristen K.; Guerry, Patricia; Darsley, Michael; Kirkpatrick, Beth

    2010-01-01

    The recrudescence of infection with Campylobacter jejuni after appropriate antibiotic treatment has not been previously reported in an immunocompetent adult. We present the complete clinical, microbiologic, and immunologic evaluation of a closely monitored healthy male with recrudescent C. jejuni infection occurring in the absence of immunodeficiency following experimental infection with a well-characterized strain. After antibiotic treatment, the initial infection was clinically cleared and microbiologically undetectable. Subsequently, two episodes of recrudescence occurred, with no change in in vitro antibiotic sensitivity being detected. The immune responses of the individual were compared to those of other participants in the experimental infection study: innate immune responses, including fecal cytokines and C-reactive protein, were intact; however, measures of Campylobacter-specific adaptive immune responses were absent, including serum antibodies, antibody-secreting cells, and in vitro gamma interferon responses. No primary or secondary immunodeficiency was identified. Recrudescent Campylobacter infections after treatment may be more common than has previously been appreciated. This work adds to our understanding of the human immune response to natural Campylobacter infection and reiterates the importance of pathogen-specific adaptive immune responses to this globally important pathogen. PMID:19923572

  13. Diversity and prevalence of metastrongyloid nematodes infecting the red panda (Ailurus fulgens) in European zoos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertelsen, Mads F; Meyland-Smith, Frederik; Willesen, Jakob L; Jefferies, Ryan; Morgan, Eric R; Monrad, Jesper

    2010-09-20

    Metastrongyloid induced pneumonia has been described sporadically in the red panda (Ailurus fulgens). Early descriptions in pandas recently imported to the USA from China involved parasites morphologically similar to Angiostrongylus spp. and Crenosomatidae. More recently, four cases of severe verminous pneumonia associated with Angiostrongylus vasorum have been reported from European zoos. A coprological survey of the red panda population within European zoos was conducted in 2008. Faecal samples from 115 pandas originating from 54 zoos were collected on 3 consecutive days. Using Baermann technique, 40 animals (35%) from 20 zoos (37%) were found to shed metastrongyloid first stage larvae (L(1)). Based on their morphology and size, the L(1) observed could be divided into three morphologically distinct types: (1) a Crenosoma sp. type (n=5, overall prevalence: 4.3%), (2) an A. vasorum type (n=3, 2.6%), and (3) an unidentified metastrongyloid species, similar to, but morphologically distinct from A. vasorum (n=32, 27.8%). Further confirmation of species identification was provided by PCR amplification and sequencing of the 18S rRNA gene, which confirmed three different species. The novel Crenosoma species was most genetically analogous to Crenosoma mephitidis and the unidentified metastrongyloid species was most similar to Stenurus minor and Torynurus convulutus. Routine and quarantine health care of red pandas in captivity should take account of the risk of Angiostrongylus and Crenosoma infection in endemic areas, but should also be cognisant of the widespread presence of an apparently less pathogenic species of lungworm. The identity of the two potentially novel species is subject to further work.

  14. European Experimental Re-Entry Testbed EXPERT: Qualification of Payloads for Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratti, F.; Gavira, J.; Thirkettle, A. C.; Erba, F.; Muylaert, J.-M.; Walpot, L.; Rembiasz, J. M.

    2009-01-01

    The European Experimental Re-entry Test-bed EXPERT is developed by the European Space Agency (ESA) as part of its General Technological Research Program (GSTP). The aim of EXPERT is to improve the understanding of critical aero-thermodynamic phenomena associated with hypersonic re-entry flights. The EXPERT project provides an opportunity to the scientific community and industries throughout Europe to propose and perform experiments in order to obtain aero-thermodynamic data for the validation of numerical models and of ground to flight extrapolation methodologies. During the last years an intense activity has been performed at ESA in order to select the most suitable experiments, bring them to a mature design, manufacture the qualification model and qualify the experiments for flight. ESA staffs coordinated and supported the work of the principal investigators of the experiments from European institutions and industrial organizations in order to maximize the scientific output in compliance with the budget resources made available to the EXPERT project and the programmatic constraints. EXPERT is a re-entry capsule having the shape of a blunted cone. The front part consists of a nose made of ceramic material developed at DLR Stuttgart. No ablative material is implemented so as not to contaminate the specific measurements of Payloads on board. The ceramic nose hosts a set of experiments: the Flush Air Data System (FADS) developed by HTG aiming at collecting free flow data required for post flight analysis, the pyrometer PYREX developed at IRS in Stuttgart collecting data on the temperature and heat flux of the ceramic nose, and the IRS spectrometer RESPECT aiming at resolving the different species generated in the plasma region during re-entry. The sides of the blunted cone are protected by a metallic thermal protection system in which several experiments are located. Two Payloads developed by IRS and VKI are dedicated to the measurement of catalytic effects. One aims

  15. Assessment of Domestic Goats as Models for Experimental and Natural Infection with the North American Isolate of Rickettsia slovaca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukovsky-Akhsanov, Nicole; Keating, M Kelly; Spivey, Pamela; Lathrop, George W; Powell, Nathaniel; Levin, Michael L

    2016-01-01

    Rickettsia slovaca is a tick-borne human pathogen that is associated with scalp eschars and neck lymphadenopathy known as tick-borne lymphadenopathy (TIBOLA) or Dermacentor-borne necrosis erythema and lymphadenopathy (DEBONEL). Originally, R. slovaca was described in Eastern Europe, but since recognition of its pathogenicity, human cases have been reported throughout Europe. European vertebrate reservoirs of R. slovaca remain unknown, but feral swine and domestic goats have been found infected or seropositive for this pathogen. Recently, a rickettsial pathogen identical to R. slovaca was identified in, and isolated from, the American dog tick, Dermacentor variabilis. In previous experimental studies, this organism was found infectious to guinea pigs and transovarially transmissible in ticks. In this study, domestic goats (Capra hircus) were experimentally inoculated with the North American isolate of this R. slovaca-like agent to assess their reservoir competence-the ability to acquire the pathogens and maintain transmission between infected and uninfected ticks. Goats were susceptible to infection as demonstrated by detection of the pathogen in skin biopsies and multiple internal tissues, but the only clinical sign of illness was transient fever noted in three out of four goats, and reactive lymphoid hyperplasia. On average, less than 5% of uninfected ticks acquired the pathogen while feeding upon infected goats. Although domestic goats are susceptible to the newly described North American isolate of R. slovaca, they are likely to play a minor role in the natural transmission cycle of this pathogen. Our results suggest that goats do not propagate the North American isolate of R. slovaca in peridomestic environments and clinical diagnosis of infection could be difficult due to the brevity and mildness of clinical signs. Further research is needed to elucidate the natural transmission cycle of R. slovaca both in Europe and North America, as well as to identify a

  16. Assessment of Domestic Goats as Models for Experimental and Natural Infection with the North American Isolate of Rickettsia slovaca.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Lukovsky-Akhsanov

    Full Text Available Rickettsia slovaca is a tick-borne human pathogen that is associated with scalp eschars and neck lymphadenopathy known as tick-borne lymphadenopathy (TIBOLA or Dermacentor-borne necrosis erythema and lymphadenopathy (DEBONEL. Originally, R. slovaca was described in Eastern Europe, but since recognition of its pathogenicity, human cases have been reported throughout Europe. European vertebrate reservoirs of R. slovaca remain unknown, but feral swine and domestic goats have been found infected or seropositive for this pathogen. Recently, a rickettsial pathogen identical to R. slovaca was identified in, and isolated from, the American dog tick, Dermacentor variabilis. In previous experimental studies, this organism was found infectious to guinea pigs and transovarially transmissible in ticks. In this study, domestic goats (Capra hircus were experimentally inoculated with the North American isolate of this R. slovaca-like agent to assess their reservoir competence-the ability to acquire the pathogens and maintain transmission between infected and uninfected ticks. Goats were susceptible to infection as demonstrated by detection of the pathogen in skin biopsies and multiple internal tissues, but the only clinical sign of illness was transient fever noted in three out of four goats, and reactive lymphoid hyperplasia. On average, less than 5% of uninfected ticks acquired the pathogen while feeding upon infected goats. Although domestic goats are susceptible to the newly described North American isolate of R. slovaca, they are likely to play a minor role in the natural transmission cycle of this pathogen. Our results suggest that goats do not propagate the North American isolate of R. slovaca in peridomestic environments and clinical diagnosis of infection could be difficult due to the brevity and mildness of clinical signs. Further research is needed to elucidate the natural transmission cycle of R. slovaca both in Europe and North America, as well as

  17. Experimental treatment with sodium stibogluconate of hamsters infected with Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi and Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis

    OpenAIRE

    Elizabeth M. de Figueiredo; Silva,Jaime Costa e; Brazil,Reginaldo P

    1999-01-01

    The present paper reports the experimental treatment of hamsters infected with Leishmania chagasi and Leishmania amazonensis with sodium stibogluconate (20mg/kg/day x 20 days). Only with L. chagasi did the treatment result in the complete elimination of parasites from the spleen. However, no parasitological cure was achieved in hamsters infected with L. amazonensis.O presente trabalho é um relato do tratamento experimental de hamsters infectado com Leishmania chagasi e Leishmania amazonensis ...

  18. Histopathology and the inflammatory response of European perch, Perca fluviatilis muscle infected with Eustrongylides sp. (Nematoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dezfuli, Bahram S; Manera, Maurizio; Lorenzoni, Massimo; Pironi, Flavio; Shinn, Andrew P; Giari, Luisa

    2015-04-15

    The European perch, Perca fluviatilis L. is a common paratenic host of dioctophymatid nematodes belonging to the genus Eustrongylides. In this host, once infected oligochaetes, which serve as the first intermediate host, are ingested, Eustrongylides migrates through the intestine and is frequently encountered within the musculature, free within the body cavity, or encapsulated on the viscera. The current study details the first Italian record of Eustrongylides sp. with larvae reported in the muscle of P. fluviatilis. Uninfected and nematode-infected muscle tissues of perch were fixed and prepared for histological evaluation and electron microscopy. Some sections were subjected to an indirect immunohistochemical method using anti-PCNA, anti-piscidin 3 and anti-piscidin 4 antibodies. A total of 510 P. fluviatilis (TL range 15-25 cm) from Lake Trasimeno, Perugia were post-mortemed; 31 individuals had encysted nematode larvae within their musculature (1-2 worms fish(-1)). Histologically, larvae were surrounded by a capsule with an evident acute inflammatory reaction. Muscle degeneration and necrosis extending throughout the sarcoplasm, sarcolemmal basal lamina, endomysial connective tissue cells and capillaries was frequently observed. Within the encapsulating reaction, macrophage aggregates (MAs) were seen. Immunohistochemical staining with the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) revealed numerous PCNA-positive cells within the thickness of the capsule and in the immediate vicinity surrounding Eustrongylides sp. larvae (i.e. fibroblasts and satellite cells), suggesting a host response had been initiated to repair the nematode-damaged muscle. Mast cells (MCs) staining positively for piscidin 3, were demonstrated for the first time in response to a muscle-infecting nematode. The piscidin 3 positive MC's were seen principally in the periphery of the capsule surrounding the Eustrongylides sp. larva. A host tissue response to Eustrongylides sp. larvae infecting the

  19. Metabolomic profiling in cattle experimentally infected with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeroen De Buck

    Full Text Available The sensitivity of current diagnostics for Johne's disease, a slow, progressing enteritis in ruminants caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP, is too low to reliably detect all infected animals in the subclinical stage. The objective was to identify individual metabolites or metabolite profiles that could be used as biomarkers of early MAP infection in ruminants. In a monthly follow-up for 17 months, calves infected at 2 weeks of age were compared with aged-matched controls. Sera from all animals were analyzed by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry. Spectra were acquired, processed, and quantified for analysis. The concentration of many metabolites changed over time in all calves, but some metabolites only changed over time in either infected or non-infected groups and the change in others was impacted by the infection. Hierarchical multivariate statistical analysis achieved best separation between groups between 300 and 400 days after infection. Therefore, a cross-sectional comparison between 1-year-old calves experimentally infected at various ages with either a high- or a low-dose and age-matched non-infected controls was performed. Orthogonal Projection to Latent Structures Discriminant Analysis (OPLS DA yielded distinct separation of non-infected from infected cattle, regardless of dose and time (3, 6, 9 or 12 months after infection. Receiver Operating Curves demonstrated that constructed models were high quality. Increased isobutyrate in the infected cattle was the most important agreement between the longitudinal and cross-sectional analysis. In general, high- and low-dose cattle responded similarly to infection. Differences in acetone, citrate, glycerol and iso-butyrate concentrations indicated energy shortages and increased fat metabolism in infected cattle, whereas changes in urea and several amino acids (AA, including the branched chain AA, indicated increased protein turnover. In conclusion, metabolomics

  20. EXPERIMENTAL-INFECTION IN MICE WITH BACILLUS-LICHENIFORMIS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerholm, J.S.; Jensen, H.E.; Jensen, N.E.

    1995-01-01

    The pathogenicity of Bacillus licheniformis was assessed in normal and immunodepressed BALB/c mice. The animals were challenged intravenously with 4 x 10(7) colony forming units of B, licheniformis (ATCC 14580) and both normal and immunodepressed mice were susceptible. However, the infection was ...... could be identified in tissue sections by immunostaining. Immunohistochemically, B, licheniformis was demonstrated in hepatic and pulmonic macrophages, and from some animals the bacteria were also reisolated....

  1. Food additives and Hymenolepis nana infection: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Nouby, Kholoud A; Hamouda, Hala E; Abd El Azeem, Mona A; El-Ebiary, Ahmad A

    2009-12-01

    The effect of sodium benzoate (SB) on the pathogenesis of Hymenolepis nana (H. nana) and its neurological manifestations was studied in the present work. One hundred and thirty five mice were classified into three groups. GI: received SB alone. GII: received SB before & after infection with H. nana and GIII: infected with H. nana. All groups were subjected to parasitological, histopathological, immunohistochemical and biochemical assays. The results revealed a significant decrease in IL-4 serum level with a significant increase in gamma amino butyric acid (GABA) and decrease in zinc brain levels in GI, while GII showed non significant increase in IL-4 level that resulted in a highly significant increase in the mean number of cysticercoids and adult worms with delayed expulsion as compared to GIII. This was reflected on histopathological and immunohistochemical changes in the brain. Also, there was a highly significant increase in GABA and decrease in zinc brain levels in GII to the degree that induced behavioral changes. This emphasizes the possible synergistic effect of SB on the neurological manifestations of H. nana and could, in part, explain the increased incidence of behavioral changes in children exposed to high doses of SB and unfortunately have H. nana infection.

  2. Invertebrate predation on egg masses of the European cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis: An experimental approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Catarina P. P.; Fernández-Álvarez, Fernando Á.; Villanueva, Roger

    2018-01-01

    The eggs of the European cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis, develop attached to the seafloor in shallow water habitats and possess a relatively thick black capsule that protects them from the surrounding environment. Since embryological development may take several months, eggs are vulnerable to a variety of threats present in shallow waters, including predation. This study investigates predation of S. officinalis eggs by benthic invertebrates. Twenty-eight invertebrate species from 6 different phyla and with diverse feeding habits were tested as potential predators under laboratory conditions. We also investigated how the feeding traits of these species are related to the mechanical ability to break the egg capsule and prey upon cuttlefish embryos. Species that fed on cuttlefish eggs were the sea snail Bolinus brandaris, the crab Cancer pagurus, the hermit crab Dardanus arrosor, the lobster Homarus gammarus, the invasive blue crab Callinectes sapidus, the shrimp Squilla mantis, the sea urchins Echinus melo, Cidaris sp. and Paracentrotus lividus and the starfish Astropecten aranciacus. It is of note that C. sapidus is a potential predatory crab, which raises the concern that this invasive species may constitute a novel threat for cuttlefish eggs as more populations become established in NE Atlantic waters. Of the biological traits examined, prey capture tools in the tested species best explained the experimental feeding results, suggesting that predation of S. officinalis eggs was determined generally by a mechanical factor and highlighting the importance of the protective egg capsule against predators. However, chemosensory factors are likely to be implicated as well. Thus, this work contributes to the understanding of the ecology of early life stages of cuttlefish and the factors that can affect offspring survival and subsequently impact the recruitment of this species.

  3. HIV Infection in Migrant Populations in the European Union and European Economic Area in 2007-2012: An Epidemic on the Move.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernando, Victoria; Alvárez-del Arco, Débora; Alejos, Belén; Monge, Susana; Amato-Gauci, Andrew J; Noori, Teymur; Pharris, Anastasia; del Amo, Julia

    2015-10-01

    Migrants are considered a key group at risk for HIV infection. This study describes the epidemiology of HIV and the distribution of late HIV presentation among migrants within the European Union/European Economic Area during 2007-2012. HIV cases reported to European Surveillance System (TESSy) were analyzed. Migrants were defined as people whose geographical origin was different than the reporting country. Multiple logistic regression was used to model late HIV presentation. Overall, 156,817 HIV cases were reported, of which 60,446 (38%) were migrants. Of these, 53% were from Sub-Saharan Africa, 12% from Latin America, 9% from Western Europe, 7% from Central Europe, 5% from South and Southeast Asia, 4% from East Europe, 4% from Caribbean, and 3% from North Africa and Middle East. Male and female migrants from Sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America had higher odds of late HIV presentation than native men and women. Migrants accounted for 40% of all HIV notifications in 2007 versus 35% in 2012. HIV cases in women from Sub-Saharan Africa decreased from 3725 in 2007 to 2354 in 2012. The number of HIV cases from Latin America peaked in 2010 to decrease thereafter. HIV diagnoses in migrant men who have sex with men increased from 1927 in 2007 to 2459 in 2012. Migrants represent two-fifths of the HIV cases reported and had higher late HIV presentation. HIV epidemic in migrant populations in European Union/European Economic Area member states is changing, probably reflecting the global changes in the HIV pandemic, the impact of large-scale ART implementation, and migration fluctuations secondary to the economic crisis in Europe.

  4. Alteration in the endogenous intestinal flora of swiss webster mice by experimental Angiostrongylus costaricensis infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandack Nobre

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available The association between worm infections and bacterial diseases has only recently been emphasized. This study examined the effect of experimental Angiostrongylus costaricensis infection on endogenous intestinal flora of Swiss Webster mice. Eight mice aging six weeks were selected for this experiment. Four were infected with A. costaricensis and the other four were used as controls. Twenty eight days after the worm infection, all mice in both groups were sacrificed and samples of the contents of the ileum and colon were obtained and cultured for aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. In the mice infected with A. costaricensis there was a significant increase in the number of bacteria of the endogenous intestinal flora, accompanied by a decrease in the number of Peptostreptococcus spp. This alteration in the intestinal flora of mice infected by the nematode may help to understand some bacterial infections described in humans.

  5. Coxsackievirus infections in pregnant women with a parallel experimental model infection showing possible effects on coarse of pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borsanyiova M.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of our work was firstly to determine the prevalence of anti-coxsackievirus antibodies during pregnancy. 217 serum samples were tested for antibodies by virus neutralization test against coxsackieviruses (CV B1–B6, A7 and A9. The second aim was to investigate experimental transmission of virus to the fetus during pregnancy. Methods. Virus Neutralization Test, RT-PCR. Results. In the serological study, paired blood serum samples from 217 pregnant women were studied for antibodies against coxsackievirus serotypes (CVB1–CVB6, CVA7 and CVA9 in sera of pregnant women from selected areas of the Slovak Republic. Coxsackievirus B4 (CVB4 infection was most prevalent, followed by CVB3, CVA7, CVA9, CVB5, CVB2, CVB1 while coxsackievirus B6 (CVB6 was scarce. In 30 out of 217 cases (13.82 % current infection was recorded. In the experimental murine study, in the second week of gravidity we observed presence of enteroviral RNA in the placenta and the intestine of the dead fetuses of the mice. Conclusions. Anti-CV antibodies were prevalent in the pregnant mothers indicating circulation of these viruses in the population. Current infection was shown in 13.82 % of studied cases. Presence of virus RNA in the organs of the unborn fetuses in the experimental infection indicates the possibility of transfer of the coxsackievirus B4-E2 infection from mother to child during antenatal development

  6. Study of the pathogenic potential of Dientamoeba fragilis in experimentally infected mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman K. El-Gayar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Dientamoebafragilis (D. fragilis is a protozoan parasite whose pathogenic potential is still disputable. The aim of this study was to illustrate the pathogenicity of D. fragilis infection and to determine the infective dose for experimental mice infection. Three groups of mice (8/each were orally inoculated with in vitro cultured D. fragilis. The infected groups (G1- G3 received 103, 105 and 4 × 106 D. fragilis/0.5 ml culture, respectively. A control group (G4 only received parasite-free culture. Two weeks post-inoculation all mice were euthanized for histopathological examination. All mice of G3 (100% and three mice of G2 (37.5% were infected, and the results were confirmed by PCR and different staining methods. On the other hand, all mice from group G1 showed a completely negative result. Histopathological examination of the colon and caecum of the highly infected group G3 showed active colitis, with infiltration of mixed inflammatory cells such as eosinophils, neutrophils and lymphocytes within the lamina propria of the intestinal wall. The parasite was not invading the colonic mucosa. This study revealed that infection with D. fragilis is dose-dependent. Moreover, a dose of 105 D. fragilis/mouse or higher is necessary to infect mice through the oral route. In addition, this route of infection, although non-invasive, can induce severe inflammatory changes to the colonic and caecal mucosa in experimentally infected mice.

  7. Experimental Trypanosoma evansi infection in South American coati (Nasua nasua): hematological, biochemical and histopathological changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, H M; Alessi, A C; Marques, L C; Santana, A E; Aquino, L P C T; Menezes, R F; Moraes, M A V; Machado, R Z

    2002-03-01

    The course of an experimental Trypanosoma evansi infection in coatis (Nasua nasua, carnivora, Procyonidae) was followed for 262 days. Hematological analysis of the infected coatis revealed a marked decline in hemoglobin, packed-cell volume, and total erythrocyte count. An intense anemia followed the first wave of parasitemia and persisted until the end of the experimental period. Biochemical analysis showed increased serum levels of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase and decreased albumin. The main histopathological features consisted of myocarditis with the presence of degenerate cardiac fibers and meningoencephalitis. This study has shown that coatis infected with T. evansi develop a chronic disease.

  8. Brain infection following experimental Staphylococcus aureus sepsis in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Lærke Boye; Iburg, Tine Moesgaard; Nielsen, Ole Lerberg

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Sepsis is a major problem in humans and both the incidence and mortality is increasing. Multiple microabcesses can be found in the brain of septic patients. Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most common causes of sepsis and brain abscesses. S. aureus is also a frequent cause...... pigs were kept as controls. The pigs were euthanized in groups of four at either 6, 12, 24 or 48 h post infection. The brain was collected from all the animals and examined histologically. Results: All the inoculated pigs developed sepsis and 7 out of 12 animals had microabscesses in the prosencephalon...

  9. Experimental Infection of Cats and Dogs with West Nile Virus

    OpenAIRE

    Austgen, Laura E.; Bowen, Richard A.; Bunning, Michel L.; Davis, Brent S.; Mitchell, Carl J.; Chang, Gwong-Jen J.

    2004-01-01

    Domestic dogs and cats were infected by mosquito bite and evaluated as hosts for West Nile virus (WNV). Viremia of low magnitude and short duration developed in four dogs but they did not display signs of disease. Four cats became viremic, with peak titers ranging from 103.0 to 104.0 PFU/mL. Three of the cats showed mild, non-neurologic signs of disease. WNV was not isolated from saliva of either dogs or cats during the period of viremia. An additional group of four cats were exposed to WNV o...

  10. Immunobiological characterization of Graphidium strigosum experimental infection in rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuquerella, M; Alunda, J M

    2009-01-01

    An experimental infection of rabbits with a wild isolate of the gastric nematode Graphidium strigosum was carried out. Animals (3.5 months age) were infected with 1,000 L3 administered by bucoesophagic catheter (five rabbits) or kept as uninfected control group (five animals). The infection was maintained for 3 months. Along the experimental period, some parasitological, hematological and immunological parameters were determined. Prepatent period of the infection ranged from 30 to 38 days and, at necropsy, average adult helminth counts were 430.75 +/- 126.12. No significant variations were found in packed cell volume, leukocyte, and eosinophil counts along the experimental period. Infection elicited a clear serum-specific IgG response, estimated by ELISA, during patency. Pooled sera from the patent period of the infection recognized some soluble antigens, particularly, a 67-kDa protein. Experimentally infected animals did not show cross recognition between G. strigosum, Haemonchus contortus, and Teladorsagia circumcincta. However, Western blot analysis with hyperimmune sera against H. contortus raised in rabbits and lambs showed cross reactivity between this helminth species and G. strigosum.

  11. Experimental infection of raccoons (Procyon lotor) with West Nile virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root, J Jeffrey; Bentler, Kevin T; Nemeth, Nicole M; Gidlewski, Thomas; Spraker, Terry R; Franklin, Alan B

    2010-10-01

    To characterize the responses of raccoons to West Nile virus (WNV) infection, we subcutaneously exposed them to WNV. Moderately high viremia titers (≤ 10(4.6) plaque forming units [PFU]/mL of serum) were noted in select individuals; however, peak viremia titers were variable and viremia was detectable in some individuals as late as 10 days post-inoculation (DPI). In addition, fecal shedding was prolonged in some animals (e.g., between 6 and 13 DPI in one individual), with up to 10(5.0) PFU/fecal swab detected. West Nile virus was not detected in tissues collected on 10 or 16 DPI, and no histologic lesions attributable to WNV infection were observed. Overall, viremia profiles suggest that raccoons are unlikely to be important WNV amplifying hosts. However, this species may occasionally shed significant quantities of virus in feces. Considering their behavioral ecology, including repeated use of same-site latrines, high levels of fecal shedding could potentially lead to interspecies fecal-oral WNV transmission.

  12. Natural and experimental evidence of viscerotropic infection caused by Leishmania tropica from North Sinai, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doha, Said A; Shehata, Magdi G; Fahmy, Adel R; Samy, Abdallah M

    2014-08-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a neglected clinical form that is quite prevalent in Eastern North parts of the country in Sinai Peninsula. Leishmania tropica was identified by previous reports as the causative agent responsible for viscerotropic infections in-patients and experimental animals. Here, we reported the viscerotropic infections from naturally infected rodent Gerbillus pyramidum floweri collected from North-Sinai. Footpad and tail lesions, spleenomegaly, and malformed dark-colored spleen were the characteristic CL symptoms. The spleen of the rodent found positive to amastigote impression smear. ITS-1 DNA was sequenced and revealed 100% identity of the strain in the current study to the other L. tropica sequences identified from the patients with the suspected CL and inhabited the same study area. The current findings confirmed the susceptibility of gerbil to L. tropica, and raise the concerns for the role of rodents as accidental host suffering the infections. The susceptibility of wild and experimental rodents to the same L. tropica strain was also investigated; BALB/c and G. pyramidum were more susceptible to L. tropica (24.33 ± 4.37 and 25 ± 4.58 days post-infection, respectively). Similar viscerotropic pathologies were reported in experimental infection of only golden hamster (≈ 120 days post-infection), and G. p. floweri (≈ 160 days post-infection).

  13. Electoral Mobilization for European Parliament Elections – A Portuguese Quasi-Experimental Plan for The 2004/2009 Elections

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Sá

    2014-01-01

    The European Parliament (EP) elections have registered high rates of abstention and Portugal is no different from all the other EU countries. From a relational marketing paradigm, we have tried to define the concept of local proximity-based political communication, the grounds for a research program based on a quasi-experimental plan aimed at verifying a set of assumptions on the effects of local proximity-based political communication on the mobilization of Portuguese voters for the EP e...

  14. Bovine mastitis caused by Listeria monocytogenes: characteristics of natural and experimental infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourry, A; Poutrel, B; Rocourt, J

    1995-08-01

    Experimental mastitis induced with a single intramammary injection of Listeria monocytogenes was compared with two naturally occurring cases. Four strains of L. monocytogenes, two of serotype 1/2a and two of serotype 4b were used for the experimental infections and two diametrically opposed quarters of four cows were inoculated with 300 cfu. Bacteriological examination and somatic cell counts of quarter foremilk samples were performed weekly for at least 6 months after challenge. All the inoculated quarters developed chronic subclinical mastitis with occasional clinical episodes. The results were similar to those observed in natural listeria mastitis. Four experimentally infected quarters were treated during lactation (gentamicin and cloxacillin) or at "drying-off" (cloxacillin), or at both times. Only one of four quarters was cured after treatment only at "drying-off". All experimental and naturally infected animals were slaughtered and bacteriological examination was performed on liver, spleen and supramammary, iliac and mesenteric lymph nodes. L. monocytogenes strains were isolated from the supramammary lymph nodes of two experimentally and two naturally infected cows and from an iliac lymph node from one of the naturally infected cows. The epidemiological data were supported by serotyping, lysotyping and DNA macro-restriction analysis. The experimental model of listeria mastitis mimics spontaneous cases and should be useful in further studies of listeria mastitis.

  15. Experimental Infection of the Skin in the Hamster Simulating Human Impetigo IV. Cellular Responses after Streptococcal and Staphylococcal Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dajani, Adnan S.; Wannamaker, Lewis W.

    1972-01-01

    Various cellular responses to skin infections in an experimental animal model were explored. Total leukocyte counts varied after group A streptococcal infections, but a depression was commonly seen after M type 12 impetigo. Staphylococcus aureus infections resulted in moderate leukocytosis. A marked neutrophilia was universal with streptococcal or staphylococcal disease. A positive nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) response appeared 24 hr after infection, reached a peak in 48 hr, and then declined. This occurred in the absence of extensive cellulitis or bacteremia. An increase in the percentage and absolute number of NBT-positive neutrophils occurred. M type 57 streptococcus produced a more strongly positive NBT test than did M type 12. Cell-free filtrates of a broth culture of M type 57 streptococcus produced NBT responses in hamsters comparable to the responses seen after injection of live organisms. These studies indicate the usefulness of this animal model to study various parameters of the NBT test. PMID:4117885

  16. Experimental infection of meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus) with sheep scrapie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, CM; Schneider, Jay R.; Pedersen, Janice C.; Heisey, Dennis M.; Johnson, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    Meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus) are permissive to chronic wasting disease (CWD) infection, but their susceptibility to other transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) is poorly characterized. In this initial study, we intracerebrally challenged 6 meadow voles with 2 isolates of sheep scrapie. Three meadow voles acquired a TSE after the scrapie challenge and an extended incubation period. The glycoform profile of proteinase K-resistant prion protein (PrP(res)) in scrapie-sick voles remained similar to the sheep inocula, but differed from that of voles clinically affected by CWD. Vacuolization patterns and disease-associated prion protein (PrP(Sc)) deposition were generally similar in all scrapie-affected voles, except in the hippocampus, where PrP(Sc) staining varied markedly among the animals. Our results demonstrate that meadow voles can acquire a TSE after intracerebral scrapie challenge and that this species could therefore prove useful for characterizing scrapie isolates.

  17. Genetic Resistance to Scrapie Infection in Experimentally Challenged Goats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacroux, Caroline; Perrin-Chauvineau, Cécile; Corbière, Fabien; Aron, Naima; Aguilar-Calvo, Patricia; Torres, Juan Maria; Costes, Pierrette; Brémaud, Isabelle; Lugan, Séverine; Schelcher, François; Barillet, Francis

    2014-01-01

    In goats, several field studies have identified coding mutations of the gene encoding the prion protein (I/M142, N/D146, S/D146, R/Q211, and Q/K222) that are associated with a lower risk of developing classical scrapie. However, the data related to the levels of resistance to transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) of these different PRNP gene mutations are still considered insufficient for developing large-scale genetic selection against scrapie in this species. In this study, we inoculated wild-type (WT) PRNP (I142R154R211Q222) goats and homozygous and/or heterozygous I/M142, R/H154, R/Q211, and Q/K222 goats with a goat natural scrapie isolate by either the oral or the intracerebral (i.c.) route. Our results indicate that the I/M142 PRNP polymorphism does not provide substantial resistance to scrapie infection following intracerebral or oral inoculation. They also demonstrate that H154, Q211, and K222 PRNP allele carriers are all resistant to scrapie infection following oral exposure. However, in comparison to WT animals, the H154 and Q211 allele carriers displayed only moderate increases in the incubation period following i.c. challenge. After i.c. challenge, heterozygous K222 and a small proportion of homozygous K222 goats also developed the disease, but with incubation periods that were 4 to 5 times longer than those in WT animals. These results support the contention that the K222 goat prion protein variant provides a strong but not absolutely protective effect against classical scrapie. PMID:24284317

  18. Current status of the European contribution to the Remote Data Access System of the ITER Remote Experimentation Centre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Tommasi, G., E-mail: detommas@unina.it [Fusion for Energy, 08019 Barcelona (Spain); Consorzio CREATE/DIETI, Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Via Claudio 21, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Manduchi, G. [Consorzio RFX, Corso Stati Uniti 4, Padova 35127 (Italy); Muir, D.G. [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3EA (United Kingdom); Ide, S.; Naito, O.; Urano, H. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Naka Fusion Institute, Naka, Ibaraki 311-0193 (Japan); Clement-Lorenzo, S. [Fusion for Energy, 08019 Barcelona (Spain); Nakajima, N. [BA IFERC Project Team, Rokkasho-mura, Aomori 039-3212 (Japan); Ozeki, T. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Naka Fusion Institute, Naka, Ibaraki 311-0193 (Japan); Sartori, F. [Fusion for Energy, 08019 Barcelona (Spain)

    2015-10-15

    The ITER Remote Experimentation Centre (REC) is one of the projects under implementation within the BA agreement. The final objective of the REC is to allow researchers to take part in the experimentation on ITER from a remote location. Before ITER first operations, the REC will be used to evaluate ITER-relevant technologies for remote participation. Among the different software tools needed for remote participation, an important one is the Remote Data Access System (RDA), which provides a single software infrastructure to access data stored at the remotely participating experiment, regardless of the geographical location of the users. This paper introduces the European contribution to the RDA system for the REC.

  19. Wildlife disease reservoirs: the epidemiology of Mycobacterium bovis infection in the European badger (Meles meles) and other British mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delahay, R J; Cheeseman, C L; Clifton-Hadley, R S

    2001-01-01

    Mycobacterium bovis infection has been confirmed in a wide range of mammals hosts throughout the world. The European badger (Meles meles) and the brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula) are implicated as significant sources of infection for domestic cattle in the UK and New Zealand respectively. The risk of transmission of infection between a wildlife population and domestic animals will be determined by both the epidemiology of the disease and the ecology of the host. In the UK, surveys by the UK Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (MAFF) have identified M. bovis infection in deer (Cervus sp., Capreolus sp., Dama sp.), red fox (Vulpes vulpes), mink (Mustela vison), feral ferret (Mustela furo), mole (Talpa europaea), brown rat (Rattus norvegicus) and feral cat (Felis catus). However, the potential contribution to cattle herd breakdowns, of reservoirs of M. bovis infection in mammals other than the badger is poorly understood and is the subject of current research. In contrast, M. bovis infection in the badger has been the subject of a long term ecological and epidemiological study at Woodchester Park in South-West England, where the prevalence and distribution of infection in a wild population has been intensively monitored. The pattern of infection in the population and potential risks to cattle, are profoundly influenced by badger social organization and behaviour. The pattern of land use and cattle farming practices in the UK brings badgers into close contact with domestic animals and provides conditions that may enhance the likelihood of disease transfer. Copyright 2001 Harcourt Publishers Ltd.

  20. Trypanosoma cruzi-Trypanosoma rangeli co-infection ameliorates negative effects of single trypanosome infections in experimentally infected Rhodnius prolixus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Jennifer K; Graham, Andrea L; Elliott, Ryan J; Dobson, Andrew P; Triana Chávez, Omar

    2016-08-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi, causative agent of Chagas disease, co-infects its triatomine vector with its sister species Trypanosoma rangeli, which shares 60% of its antigens with T. cruzi. Additionally, T. rangeli has been observed to be pathogenic in some of its vector species. Although T. cruzi-T. rangeli co-infections are common, their effect on the vector has rarely been investigated. Therefore, we measured the fitness (survival and reproduction) of triatomine species Rhodnius prolixus infected with just T. cruzi, just T. rangeli, or both T. cruzi and T. rangeli. We found that survival (as estimated by survival probability and hazard ratios) was significantly different between treatments, with the T. cruzi treatment group having lower survival than the co-infected treatment. Reproduction and total fitness estimates in the T. cruzi and T. rangeli treatments were significantly lower than in the co-infected and control groups. The T. cruzi and T. rangeli treatment group fitness estimates were not significantly different from each other. Additionally, co-infected insects appeared to tolerate higher doses of parasites than insects with single-species infections. Our results suggest that T. cruzi-T. rangeli co-infection could ameliorate negative effects of single infections of either parasite on R. prolixus and potentially help it to tolerate higher parasite doses.

  1. Paradoxium irvingi n.gen. n.sp. (Microsporidia) infecting the musculature of European pink shrimp Pandalus montagui.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stentiford, G D; Ross, S H; Kerr, R; Bass, D; Bateman, K S

    2015-09-01

    This paper utilises histological, ultrastructure and molecular phylogenetic data to describe a novel genus and species (Paradoxium irvingi n.gen., n.sp.) within clade 5 of the phylum Microsporidia. The parasite infects the musculature of the pink shrimp Pandalus montagui captured from United Kingdom waters. The novel microsporidium is morphologically and phylogenetically dissimilar to its nearest phylogenetic branch relative Thelohania butleri infecting the sister shrimp taxon Pandalus jordani. Furthermore, it is morphologically distinct from the type species of the genus Thelohania, Thelohania giardi infecting European brown shrimp Crangon crangon. Since phylogenetic data pertaining to type T. giardi is not currently available, our discovery places some doubt on the likelihood that T. butleri represents the proposed surrogate for the type taxon. Further it demonstrates potential for significant morphological plasticity in this clade of muscle-infecting microsporidians of crustaceans which contains the genera Myospora, Cucumispora, Thelohania, and now Paradoxium. Since it cannot be stated with certainty that T. butleri (or other taxa within the clade) represent true close relatives of T. giardi, clarity on this issue will only occur with re-discovery and genotyping of type T. giardi infecting C. crangon from European waters. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Association between HLA-Ⅱgene polymorphism and Helicobacter pylori infection in Asian and European population: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingqiu; Zhang, Qun; Liu, Yali; Han, Jian; Ma, Xingming; Luo, Yanping; Liang, Yaling; Zhang, Lifeng; Hu, Yonghao

    2015-05-01

    It is generally considered that HLA-Ⅱ genes contribute to the Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection and disease development process. To perform a meta-analysis to explore the relationship between HLA-Ⅱgene polymorphism and host susceptibility to Hp infection. Relevant cohort studies, case-control studies and cross-sectional studies were identified by searching Cochrane Library, PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science and CBM up to July 2014. The data were extracted and methodological quality of the studies were evaluated. RevMan5.0 software was used to perform statistical analysis. In Asian population, HLA-DQB1*0303 acted as the protective gene in Hp infection (statistically significant pooled OR = 0.54) and the susceptible genes in Hp infection involved HLA-DQB1*0401, HLA-DQA1*0103 and HLA-DQA1*0301 (statistically significant pooled OR and 95%CI were 3.34(1.93,5.77), 1.64(1.16,2.33) and 2.03(1.20,3.44) respectively). No statistically significant difference between DQB1*0303, HLA-DQA1*0103 and DQA1*0301 and Hp infection in European population (P>0.05). And no statistically significant difference (P>0.05) in the overall effect of the association between the rest of HLA-Ⅱalleles and Hp infection. In Asian population, the protective gene HLA-DQB1*0303 and the susceptible genes HLA-DQB1*0401, HLA-DQA1*0103 and HLA-DQA1*0301 in Hp infection were established by meta-analysis. And there was no HLA-Ⅱallele was found to associate with Hp infection among European population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Histopathological study of experimental and natural infections by Trypanosoma cruzi in Didelphis marsupialis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carlos Araujo Carreira

    1996-10-01

    Full Text Available Didelphis marsupialis, the most important sylvatic reservoir of Trypanosoma cruzi, can also maintain in their anal scent glands the multiplicative forms only described in the intestinal tract of triatomine bugs. A study of 21 experimentally and 10 naturally infected opossums with T. cruzi was undertaken in order to establish the histopathological pattern under different conditions. Our results showed that the inflammation was predominantly lymphomacrophagic and more severe in the naturally infected animals but never as intense as those described in Chagas' disease or in other animal models. The parasitism in both groups was always mild with very scarce amastigote nests in the tissues. In the experimentally infected animals, the inflammation was directly related to the presence of amastigotes nests. Four 24 days-old animals, still in embryonic stage, showed multiple amastigotes nests and moderate inflammatory reactions, but even so they survived longer and presented less severe lesions than experimentally infected adult mice. Parasites were found in smooth, cardiac and/or predominantly striated muscles, as well as in nerve cells. Differing from the experimentally infected opossums parasitism in the naturally infected animals predominated in the heart, esophagus and stomach. Parasitism of the scent glands did not affect the histopathological pattern observed in extraglandular tissues.

  4. Persistent immune responses in late infection and after treatment in experimental Schistosoma bovis infections in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sörén, K; Monrad, J; Johansen, M V; Lindberg, R

    2009-06-01

    This study explored host immune responses and their possible relationship to the anti-fecundity phenomenon in Schistosoma bovis-infected goats. The design comprised a primary infection with or without treatment at week (wk) 13, and with or without challenge at wk 36. Necropsy was performed at 36 or 52wk. Serum levels of anti-egg IgG, and anti-worm IgG and IgM, were measured by ELISA. In chronic infection, anti-worm antibodies stayed high, reflecting persisting worm burdens, whereas anti-egg IgG remained high despite minimized egg excretion. After treatment, anti-worm IgM and anti-egg IgG were minimized, but anti-worm IgG remained above the values of the uninfected controls. Histopathology showed lowered numbers of perioval granulomas in chronic infection and resolution of liver fibrosis with time, but intestinal lymphoplasmacytic perivasculitis and hepatic eosinophilic infiltrates were maintained at wk 52. Significant splenic plasmacytosis persisted after treatment. The results indicated that persistent immune responses, in chronically infected and in treated goats, may explain sustained worm fecundity depression at challenge infection.

  5. Natural and experimental oral infection of nonhuman primates by bovine spongiform encephalopathy agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bons, N; Mestre-Frances, N; Belli, P; Cathala, F; Gajdusek, D C; Brown, P

    1999-03-30

    Experimental lemurs either were infected orally with the agent of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) or were maintained as uninfected control animals. Immunohistochemical examination for proteinase-resistant protein (prion protein or PrP) was performed on tissues from two infected but still asymptomatic lemurs, killed 5 months after infection, and from three uninfected control lemurs. Control tissues showed no staining, whereas PrP was detected in the infected animals in tonsil, gastrointestinal tract and associated lymphatic tissues, and spleen. In addition, PrP was detected in ventral and dorsal roots of the cervical spinal cord, and within the spinal cord PrP could be traced in nerve tracts as far as the cerebral cortex. Similar patterns of PrP immunoreactivity were seen in two symptomatic and 18 apparently healthy lemurs in three different French primate centers, all of which had been fed diets supplemented with a beef protein product manufactured by a British company that has since ceased to include beef in its veterinary nutritional products. This study of BSE-infected lemurs early in their incubation period extends previous pathogenesis studies of the distribution of infectivity and PrP in natural and experimental scrapie. The similarity of neuropathology and PrP immunostaining patterns in experimentally infected animals to those observed in both symptomatic and asymptomatic animals in primate centers suggests that BSE contamination of zoo animals may have been more widespread than is generally appreciated.

  6. Cysticercosis in experimentally and naturally infected pigs: parasitological and immunological diagnosis

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    Márcia R.M. da Silva

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Our objective was to evaluate the diagnosis of swine cysticercosis by examining "ante mortem" (inspection of the tongue, "post mortem" (inspection and detailed necropsy and ELISA for research in serum of antibodies (Ab-ELISA and antigens (Ag-ELISA. Seven (7 pigs were experimentally infected orally with eggs of Taenia solium and another 10 were naturally infected. In the pigs experimentally infected, inspection of the tongue was negative in all animals, in the routine inspection detailed necropsy and cysticercis were identified in all of them. In pigs with heavy natural infection, inspection of the tongue identified cysticerci in two (20%, while at inspection with necropsy the parasites were identified in large quantities in all animals. In ELISA for antibody search (Ab-ELISA TS-14 recombinant protein was used, and in search for antigen (Ag-ELISA a monoclonal antibody against this protein. In animals experimentally infected, blood was collected weekly for 140 days. The Ab-ELISA identified an increase in titers of antibody to cysticerci 21 days after infection, and at the end of the experimental period six animals (86% were positive to the test. The search for circulating antigens (Ag-ELISA was positive in two pigs 28 to 91 days after infection. All naturally infected pigs were positive for Ag-ELISA and Ab-ELISA. The search for antibodies and antigens by ELISA in serum from 30 pigs of a local farm and without history of cysticercosis was negative. Thus, the use of TS-14 antigen in ELISA test (Ab-ELISA can be useful for the diagnosis of cysticercosis in pigs with low infection.

  7. TYPHUS FEVER AMONG RECENT IMMIGRANTS : EXPERIMENTAL DEMONSTRATION OF THE IDENTITY OF THIS DISEASE WITH EUROPEAN EPIDEMIC TYPHUS FEVER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olitsky, P K

    1921-09-30

    It is experimentally demonstrated in the guinea pig that the blood from an infected Czecho-Slovakian arriving at the Port of New York from Italy contained the virus of typhus fever and that this strain is identical with the epidemic virus present in man and louse in Poland.

  8. Travel-related infection in European travelers, EuroTravNet 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warne, Ben; Weld, Leisa H; Cramer, Jakob P; Field, Vanessa K; Grobusch, Martin P; Caumes, Eric; Jensenius, Mogens; Gautret, Philippe; Schlagenhauf, Patricia; Castelli, Francesco; Lalloo, David G; Ursing, Johan; Chappuis, François; von Sonnenburg, Frank; López-Vélez, Rogelio; Rapp, Christophe; Smith, Kitty C; Parola, Philippe; Gkrania-Klotsas, Effrossyni

    2014-01-01

    Limited data exist on infectious diseases imported to various locations in Europe, particularly after travel within the continent. To investigate travel-related disease relevant to Europe that is potentially preventable through pre-travel intervention, we analyzed the EuroTravNet database of 5,965 ill travelers reported by 16 centers in "Western" Europe in 2011. There were 54 cases of vaccine-preventable disease, mostly hepatitis A (n = 16), typhoid fever (n = 11), and measles (n = 8); 6 cases (including 3 measles cases) were associated with travel within "Western" Europe. Malaria was the most commonly diagnosed infection (n = 482, 8.1% of all travel-related morbidity). Among patients with malaria, the military most commonly received pre-travel advice (95%), followed by travelers for missionary, volunteer, research, or aid work (81%) but travelers visiting friends and relatives (VFRs) were least likely to receive pre-travel advice (21%). The vast majority (96%) of malaria patients were resident in "Western" Europe, but over half (56%) were born elsewhere. Other significant causes of morbidity, which could be reduced through advice and behavioral change, include Giardia (n = 221, 3.7%), dengue (n = 146, 2.4%), and schistosomiasis (n = 131, 2.2%). Of 206 (3.5%) travelers with exposure in "Western" Europe, 75% were tourists; the highest burden of disease was acute gastrointestinal infection (35% cases). Travel from "Eastern" Europe (n = 132, 2.2%) was largely associated with migration-related travel (53%); among chronic infectious diseases, tuberculosis was frequently diagnosed (n = 20). Travelers VFRs contributed the largest group of malaria patients (46%), but also had the lowest documented rate of pre-travel health advice in this subset (20%). Overall, 44% of nonimmigrant ill travelers did not receive pre-travel advice. There is a burden of infectious diseases in travelers attending European health centers that is potentially

  9. Immunopathological assessments of human Blastocystis spp. in experimentally infected immunocompetent and immunosuppresed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Hafeez, Ekhlas H; Ahmad, Azza K; Abdelgelil, Noha H; Abdellatif, Manal Z M; Kamal, Amany M; Hassanin, Kamel M A; Abdel-Razik, Abdel-Razik H; Abdel-Raheem, Ehab M

    2016-05-01

    Blastocystis spp., one of the most common parasites colonizing the human intestine, is an extracellular, luminal protozoan with controversial pathogenesis. The host's immune response against Blastocystis spp. infection has also not been defined yet. Therefore, this research aimed to assess the potential pathogenicity of this parasite and its ability to modulate the immune response in experimental infected immunocompetent and immunosuppresed mice. These results demonstrated that the infected immunosuppressed mice were more affected than infected immunocompetent mice. Histopathological examination of the small intestine in the infected immunosuppressed mice showed that Blastocystis spp. infiltrated all the layers. Moreover, the epithelia showed exfoliation and inflammatory cell infiltration in submucosa compared to that of the infected immunocompetent mice. As well, examination of the large intestine of the infected immunosuppressed group showed severe goblet cell hyperplasia. Blastocystis spp. infiltrated all the large intestine layers compared to that of the infected immunocompetent group. Furthermore, there was a significant upregulation of the expression of proinflammatory cytokines: interleukin 12 (IL-12) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) in the infected immunosuppressed mice compared to that of the infected immunocompetent ones (p ≤ 0.004 and p ≤ 0.002, respectively). However, the expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-4 and IL-10) was significantly downregulated in the infected immunosuppressed group compared to that of the infected immunocompetent group one at 10 days postinfection (p ≤ 0.002 and p ≤ 0.001, respectively). The results of this study revealed that Blastocystis spp. affected the production of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in both groups of mice compared to healthy normal (naive) group. Additionally, these data showed that there was a significant upregulation (p ≤ 0.005) of the locally

  10. Praziquantel treatment decreases Schistosoma mansoni genetic diversity in experimental infections.

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    Regina Coeli

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis has a considerable impact on public health in many tropical and subtropical areas. In the new world, schistosomiasis is caused by the digenetic trematode Schistosoma mansoni. Chemotherapy is the main measure for controlling schistosomiasis, and the current drug of choice for treatment is praziquantel (PZQ. Although PZQ is efficient and safe, its repetitive large-scale use in endemic areas may lead to the selection of resistant strains. Isolates less susceptible to PZQ have been found in the field and selected for in the laboratory. The impact of selecting strains with a decreased susceptibility phenotype on disease dynamics and parasite population genetics is not fully understood. This study addresses the impact of PZQ pressure on the genetics of a laboratory population by analyzing frequency variations of polymorphic genetic markers. METHODOLOGY: Infected mice were treated with increasing PZQ doses until the highest dose of 3 × 300 mg/Kg was reached. The effect of PZQ treatment on the parasite population was assessed using five polymorphic microsatellite markers. Parasitological and genetic data were compared with those of the untreated control. After six parasite generations submitted to treatment, it was possible to obtain a S. mansoni population with decreased susceptibility to PZQ. In our experiments we also observed that female worms were more susceptible to PZQ than male worms. CONCLUSIONS: The selective pressure exerted by PZQ led to decreased genetic variability in S. mansoni and increased endogamy. The understanding of how S. mansoni populations respond to successive drug pressure has important implications on the appearance and maintenance of a PZQ resistance phenotype in endemic regions.

  11. Natural and experimental West Nile virus infection in five raptor species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, Nicole; Gould, Daniel; Bowen, Richard; Komar, Nicholas

    2006-01-01

    We studied the effects of natural and/or experimental infections of West Nile virus (WNV) in five raptor species from July 2002 to March 2004, including American kestrels (Falco sparverius), golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos), red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis), barn owls (Tyto alba), and great horned owls (Bubo virginianus). Birds were infected per mosquito bite, per os, or percutaneously by needle. Many experimentally infected birds developed mosquito-infectious levels of viremia (>10(5) WNV plaque forming units per ml serum) within 5 days postinoculation (DPI), and/ or shed virus per os or per cloaca. Infection of organs 15-27 days postinoculation was infrequently detected by virus isolation from spleen, kidney, skin, heart, brain, and eye in convalescent birds. Histopathologic findings varied among species and by method of infection. The most common histopathologic lesions were subacute myocarditis and encephalitis. Several birds had a more acute, severe disease condition represented by arteritis and associated with tissue degeneration and necrosis. This study demonstrates that raptor species vary in their response to WNV infection and that several modes of exposure (e.g., oral) may result in infection. Wildlife managers should recognize that, although many WNV infections are sublethal to raptors, subacute lesions could potentially reduce viability of populations. We recommend that raptor handlers consider raptors as a potential source of WNV contamination due to oral and cloacal shedding.

  12. Isolation of Trichophyton mentogrophytes var mentogrophytes from naturally infected laboratory albino rats: experimental infection and treatment in rabbits

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    N. A. Issa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study demonstrated for the first time the occurrence of dermatophytosis in naturally infected rats and from asymptomatic and from breeding boxes of white rats kept in animal housing of college of Veterinary Medicine, University of Dohuk, Iraq. The prevalence rate of infection was (28%, clinically infected rats characterized by appearance of scaly ovoid type lesions with crusty edge and patch of hair loss mostly seen on the back, neck and face of the infected rats, itching was reported in some rats. Only one species of the trichophyton, T. mentogrophytes var mentogrophytes was isolated with growth rate (85.71% of samples collected from clinically infected rats, and (28.57% from asymptomatic and from breeding cages, the growth was observed within the 21 days at 25ºC on Sabouraud's Dextrose Agar. Lacto phenol cotton blue staining slides of T. mentogrophytes var mentogrophytes revealed both microconidia and macroconidia. Microconidia found in numerous numbers often in dense cluster which were hyaline, smooth walled and predominantly spherical to sub spherical in shape, varying numbers of chlamydoconidia. Spiral hyphae and smooth, thin walled clavate shaped multicelled macroconidia were also present. The study also dealt with experimental infection in rabbits with T. mentogrophytes var mentogrophytes and treated by two drugs, natural herbal preparation of acidic pomegranate (Punica granatum fruit and synthetic nystatine ointment. The complete recovery of lesions was recorded after 14 days and 21 days of topical application of a pomegranate and nystatine ointment for 5 successive days respectively.

  13. Experimental Hendra virus infection of dogs: virus replication, shedding and potential for transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, D J; Riddell, S; Klein, R; Arkinstall, R; Haining, J; Frazer, L; Mottley, C; Evans, R; Johnson, D; Pallister, J

    2017-01-01

    Characterisation of experimental Hendra virus (HeV) infection in dogs and assessment of associated transmission risk. Beagle dogs were exposed oronasally to Hendra virus/Australia/Horse/2008/Redlands or to blood collected from HeV-infected ferrets. Ferrets were exposed to oral fluids collected from dogs after canine exposure to HeV. Observations made and samples tested post-exposure were used to assess the clinical course and replication sites of HeV in dogs, the infectivity for ferrets of canine oral fluids and features of HeV infection in dogs following contact with infective blood. Dogs were reliably infected with HeV and were generally asymptomatic. HeV was re-isolated from the oral cavity and virus clearance was associated with development of virus neutralising antibody. Major sites of HeV replication in dogs were the tonsils, lower respiratory tract and associated lymph nodes. Virus replication was documented in canine kidney and spleen, confirming a viraemic phase for canine HeV infection and suggesting that urine may be a source of infectious virus. Infection was transmitted to ferrets via canine oral secretions, with copy numbers for the HeV N gene in canine oral swabs comparable to those reported for nasal swabs of experimentally infected horses. HeV is not highly pathogenic for dogs, but their oral secretions pose a potential transmission risk to people. The time-window for transmission risk is circumscribed and corresponds to the period of acute infection before establishment of an adaptive immune response. The likelihood of central nervous system involvement in canine HeV infection is unclear, as is any long-term consequence. © 2017 Australian Veterinary Association.

  14. Real time reverse transcription (RRT)-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods for detection of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza virus and European swine influenza A virus infections in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slomka, Marek J; Densham, Anstice L E; Coward, Vivien J; Essen, Steve; Brookes, Sharon M; Irvine, Richard M; Spackman, Erica; Ridgeon, Jonathan; Gardner, Rebecca; Hanna, Amanda; Suarez, David L; Brown, Ian H

    2010-09-01

    There is a requirement to detect and differentiate pandemic (H1N1) 2009 (H1N1v) and established swine influenza A viruses (SIVs) by real time reverse transcription (RRT) PCR methods. First, modify an existing matrix (M) gene RRT PCR for sensitive generic detection of H1N1v and other European SIVs. Second, design an H1 RRT PCR to specifically detect H1N1v infections. RRT PCR assays were used to test laboratory isolates of SIV (n = 51; 37 European and 14 North American), H1N1v (n = 5) and avian influenza virus (AIV; n = 43). Diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were calculated for swabs (n = 133) and tissues (n = 116) collected from field cases and pigs infected experimentally with SIVs and H1N1v. The "perfect match" M gene RRT PCR was the most sensitive variant of this test for detection of established European SIVs and H1N1v. H1 RRT PCR specifically detected H1N1v but not European SIVs. Validation with clinical specimens included comparison with virus isolation (VI) as a "gold standard", while field infection with H1N1v in swine was independently confirmed by sequencing H1N1v amplified by conventional RT PCR. "Perfect match" M gene RRT PCR had 100% sensitivity and 95.2% specificity for swabs, 93.6% and 98.6% for tissues. H1 RRT PCR demonstrated sensitivity and specificity of 100% and 99.1%, respectively, for the swabs, and 100% and 100% for the tissues. Two RRT PCRs for the purposes of (i) generic detection of SIV and H1N1v infection in European pigs, and for (ii) specific detection of H1N1v (pandemic influenza) infection were validated.

  15. Hematologic profile of hematophagous Desmodus rotundus bats before and after experimental infection with rabies virus

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    Marilene Fernandes de Almeida

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Hematophagous Desmodus rotundus bats play an important role in the rabies lifecycle. This study describes the hematological profile of these bats before and after experimental infection with rabies virus. Methods Cells counts were performed in a Neubauer chamber. Results The average values of erythrocytes and leucocytes counts in blood before experimental infections were 9.97 × 106mm3 and 4.80 × 103mm3, respectively. Neutrophils represented 69.9% of white blood cells and the lymphocytes represented 26.9%. Following the experimental infections, the average numbers of erythrocytes and leucocytes was 9.43 × 106mm3 and 3.98 × 103mm3, respectively. Neutrophils represented 40% of white blood cells and the lymphocytes represented 59%. Conclusions The hematological profile given in this study can serve as reference values for D. rotundus bats.

  16. Experimental infection with Escherichia coli 0149 : F4ac in weaned piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Gerda M.; Frydendahl, Kai; Svendsen, Ove

    2006-01-01

    The outcome of experimental intestinal infections with enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is dependent on several factors. An important factor is adhesion of the challenge strain to the intestinal mucosa. The test for susceptibility towards ETEC adhesion has so far been made by an intestinal...... adhesion test made after slaughter of piglets. However, in an experimental infection study with the purpose to obtain diarrhoeic piglets, it would be an advantage to test for susceptibility prior to experimentation. The Mucin 4 gene on porcine chromosome 13 has been proposed as a candidate gene......-gastric intubated with 10(9) CFU of ETEC O149:F4ac and 23 age-matched piglets, both susceptible and resistant, were used as non-infected controls. Of susceptible piglets, challenged with ETEC 0149:F4ac, 74% had ETEC O149:F4ac-associated diarrhoea first day after first challenge, which were significantly higher...

  17. Eimeria stiedai: Metabolism of lipids, proteins and glucose in experimentally infected rabbits, Oryctolagus cuniculus

    OpenAIRE

    Freitas, Fagner L. C.; Yamamoto, Beatriz L.; Freitas, Wagner L. C; Almeida, Katyane S; Machado, Rosangela Z. [UNESP; Machado, Célio R. [UNESP

    2010-01-01

    Rabbits were experimentally infected with sporulated Eimeria stiedai oocysts. A total of 50 white adult rabbits, New Zealand race, were distributed into two groups: Group A was infected with 1x10 4 sporulated Eimeria stiedai oocysts, while group B was inoculated with distilled water as a control. The animals generally displayed increased levels of total protein, globulin, total cholesterol, LDL-c and triacylglycerols; however, total levels of liver lipids and HDL-c decreased, and plasma gluco...

  18. Experimental Infection of Rabbits with Rabbit and Genotypes 1 and 4 Hepatitis E Viruses

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, H. X.; Zheng, L.; Liu, Y. B.; Zhao, C. Y.; Harrison, T. J.; Ma, Y. Y.; Sun, S. H.; Zhang, J. G.; Wang, Y. C.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A recent study provided evidence that farmed rabbits in China harbor a novel hepatitis E virus (HEV) genotype. Although the rabbit HEV isolate had 77-79% nucleotide identity to the mammalian HEV genotypes 1 to 4, their genomic organization is very similar. Since rabbits are used widely experimentally, including as models of infection, we investigated whether they constitute an appropriate animal model for human HEV infection. METHODS: Forty-two SPF rabbits were divided randomly in...

  19. Cranberry juice and combinations of its organic acids are effective against experimental urinary tract infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Heidi Dorthe; Struve, Carsten; Christensen, Søren Brøgger

    2017-01-01

    The antibacterial effect of cranberry juice and the organic acids therein on infection by uro28 pathogenic Escherichia coli was studied in an experimental mouse model of urinary tract infection (UTI). Reduced bacterial counts were found in the bladder (P ... juice. Commercially available cranberry juice cocktail also significantly reduced (P juice (P juice, were tested...... in combination and individually. The four organic acids also decreased bacterial levels in the bladder when administered together (P plus citric acid (P plus quinic acid (P

  20. Experimental Andes virus infection in deer mice: characteristics of infection and clearance in a heterologous rodent host.

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    Jessica R Spengler

    Full Text Available New World hantaviruses can cause hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome with high mortality in humans. Distinct virus species are hosted by specific rodent reservoirs, which also serve as the vectors. Although regional spillover has been documented, it is unknown whether rodent reservoirs are competent for infection by hantaviruses that are geographically separated, and known to have related, but distinct rodent reservoir hosts. We show that Andes virus (ANDV of South America, carried by the long tailed pygmy rice rat (Oligoryzomys longicaudatus, infects and replicates in vitro and in vivo in the deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus, the reservoir host of Sin Nombre virus (SNV, found in North America. In experimentally infected deer mice, viral RNA was detected in the blood, lung, heart and spleen, but virus was cleared by 56 days post inoculation (dpi. All of the inoculated deer mice mounted a humoral immune response by 14 dpi, and produced measurable amounts of neutralizing antibodies by 21 dpi. An up-regulation of Ccl3, Ccl4, Ccl5, and Tgfb, a strong CD4⁺ T-cell response, and down-regulation of Il17, Il21 and Il23 occurred during infection. Infection was transient with an absence of clinical signs or histopathological changes. This is the first evidence that ANDV asymptomatically infects, and is immunogenic in deer mice, a non-natural host species of ANDV. Comparing the immune response in this model to that of the immune response in the natural hosts upon infection with their co-adapted hantaviruses may help clarify the mechanisms governing persistent infection in the natural hosts of hantaviruses.

  1. Experimental infection of dogs with Leishmania and saliva as a model to study Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis.

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    Dirceu Joaquim Costa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis (CVL is a zoonotic disease caused by Leishmania infantum, transmitted by the bite of Lutzomyia longipalpis sand flies. Dogs are the main domestic reservoir of the parasite. The establishment of an experimental model that partially reproduces natural infection in dogs is very important to test vaccine candidates, mainly regarding those that use salivary proteins from the vector and new therapeutical approaches. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this report, we describe an experimental infection in dogs, using intradermal injection of Leishmania infantum plus salivary gland homogenate (SGH of Lutzomyia longipalpis. Thirty-five dogs were infected with 1×10(7 parasites combined with five pairs of Lutzomyia longipalpis salivary glands and followed for 450 days after infection and clinical, immunological and parasitological parameters were evaluated. Two hundred and ten days after infection we observed that 31,4% of dogs did not display detectable levels of anti-Leishmania antibodies but all presented different numbers of parasites in the lymph nodes. Animals with a positive xenodiagnosis had at least 3,35×10(5 parasites in their lymph nodes. An increase of IFN-γ and IL-10 levels was detected during infection. Twenty two percent of dogs developed symptoms of CVL during infection. CONCLUSION: The infection model described here shows some degree of similarity when compared with naturally infected dogs opening new perspectives for the study of CVL using an experimental model that employs the combination of parasites and sand fly saliva both present during natural transmission.

  2. Effects of Experimental Sarcocystis neurona-Induced Infection on Immunity in an Equine Model

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    S. Rochelle Lewis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sarcocystis neurona is the most common cause of Equine Protozoal Myeloencephalitis (EPM, affecting 0.5–1% horses in the United States during their lifetimes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the equine immune responses in an experimentally induced Sarcocystis neurona infection model. Neurologic parameters were recorded prior to and throughout the 70-day study by blinded investigators. Recombinant SnSAG1 ELISA for serum and CSF were used to confirm and track disease progression. All experimentally infected horses displayed neurologic signs after infection. Neutrophils, monocytes, and lymphocytes from infected horses displayed significantly delayed apoptosis at some time points. Cell proliferation was significantly increased in S. neurona-infected horses when stimulated nonspecifically with PMA/I but significantly decreased when stimulated with S. neurona compared to controls. Collectively, our results suggest that horses experimentally infected with S. neurona manifest impaired antigen specific response to S. neurona, which could be a function of altered antigen presentation, lack of antigen recognition, or both.

  3. Efficacy of different instrumentation techniques on reducing Enterococcus faecalis infection in experimentally infected root canals

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    Ebru Özsezer Demiryürek

    2014-03-01

    Conclusion: This study indicates that instruments with a greater taper play an important role in maximizing the effectiveness of mechanical preparation. However, since using mechanical instrumentation alone is insufficient to completely eliminate root canal infection, the use of complementary antibacterial compounds is necessary.

  4. Persistence of experimental Rocio virus infection in the golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus

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    Daniele Freitas Henriques

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Rocio virus (ROCV is an encephalitic flavivirus endemic to Brazil. Experimental flavivirus infections have previously demonstrated a persistent infection and, in this study, we investigated the persistence of ROCV infection in golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus. The hamsters were infected intraperitoneally with 9.8 LD50/0.02 mL of ROCV and later anaesthetised and sacrificed at various time points over a 120-day period to collect of blood, urine and organ samples. The viral titres were quantified by real-time-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR. The specimens were used to infect Vero cells and ROCV antigens in the cells were detected by immunefluorescence assay. The levels of antibodies were determined by the haemagglutination inhibition technique. A histopathological examination was performed on the tissues by staining with haematoxylin-eosin and detecting viral antigens by immunohistochemistry (IHC. ROCV induced a strong immune response and was pathogenic in hamsters through neuroinvasion. ROCV was recovered from Vero cells exposed to samples from the viscera, brain, blood, serum and urine and was detected by qRT-PCR in the brain, liver and blood for three months after infection. ROCV induced histopathological changes and the expression of viral antigens, which were detected by IHC in the liver, kidney, lung and brain up to four months after infection. These findings show that ROCV is pathogenic to golden hamsters and has the capacity to cause persistent infection in animals after intraperitoneal infection.

  5. Development of an experimental model of infected bone void in the ulna of rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos Azi, Matheus; Kfuri Junior, Mauricio; Martinez, Roberto; Salata, Luis Antonio; Paccola, Cleber Antonio Jansen

    2012-01-01

    Objective Develop a model that allowed the study of bone regeneration in infection conditions. Method A 15 mm defect was surgically created in the rabbit ulna and inoculated with 5x108 colony-forming units (CFU) of S. aureus. Surgical debridement was performed two weeks after and systemic gentamicin was administered for four weeks. Animals were followed up to 12 weeks to evaluate infection control and bone regeneration. Result Bone regeneration was inferior to 25% of the defect in radiological and histological analysis. Conclusion Infected bone defect of 15 mm in the rabbit ulna was unable to achieve full regeneration without further treatment. Level of Evidence V, Experimental Study. PMID:24453593

  6. Persistence of viral RNA in the brain of experimentally infected mice with coxsackievirus B5

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    Sobotova Z.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to follow the persistence of viral RNA in selected organs of experimentally infected with coxsackievirus (CV B5 strains from different sources such as a patient’s sample, an environmental sample and a prototype virus strain. Methods . CD-1 mice were infected with CVB5 strain Faulkner the prototype, CVB5 – isolate from treated sewage waste and isolate from patient’s stool sample both identified as CVB5. The viral RNA was detected by RT-PCR using enterovirus primers specific for the non-coding 5' region. Results . We observed presence of RNA in the brain and heart of mice infected with isolate from patient’s stool at day 45 post infection (p. i.. Conclusion. We conclude that CVB5 persists in the brain and heart after oral infection of CD1 mice. The relevance of viral persistence maybe related viral origin and the genetics

  7. Comparison of detection methods for Toxoplasma gondii in naturally and experimentally infected swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Dolores E; Chirukandoth, Sreekumar; Dubey, J P; Lunney, Joan K; Gamble, H Ray

    2006-10-10

    Results from recent serological surveys and epidemiological studies show that pigs raised in a variety of management systems can be carriers of the tissue cyst stage of Toxoplasma gondi. This parasite can be transmitted to humans through the consumption of improperly prepared pork, making detection and removal of infected swine carcasses from the food chain an important food safety issue. Several methods are available for detection of T. gondii infected swine, including serological assays, polymerase chain reaction, and animal bioassays. The aim of the present study was to compare the detection sensitivities of six of these commonly used methods for detection of T. gondii infection in tissues from naturally and experimentally infected pigs. The results indicate that a serum-based ELISA is the most sensitive method, of those tested, for detection of T. gondii infected swine.

  8. Clinical pathology of experimental Schistosoma curassoni infections in sheep and goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vercruysse, J; Fransen, J; Southgate, V R; Rollinson, D; Majeleine, W

    1988-05-01

    The clinical pathology of Schistosoma curassoni infection in sheep and goats was studied for 22 weeks following experimental infection with 7000 and 4000 cercariae, respectively. Excretion of eggs began at week 7 after infection: in goats the numbers increased to 30 to 50 eggs per gram faeces (epg) at weeks 8 to 18, followed by a reduction. In a pregnant goat, epg values increased markedly before and after parturition. The mean faecal egg counts in sheep were lower than in goats, increasing to a maximum level of 30 epg at weeks 16 and 17 after infection. Infected sheep maintained growth rates roughly comparable with controls, whereas infected goats failed to gain as much weight as the controls. Infected goats and sheep produced eosinophil counts of about 3 x 10(3) mm-3, five and eight weeks after infection, respectively. Sheep developed a progressive anaemia from week 11 after infection, in goats blood values remained within normal limits. Differences in serum protein concentration were observed between infected and uninfected goats about nine weeks after infection, but not in sheep. Increased total protein values, hyperglobulinaemia and lowered albumin to globulin ratios were features of infected goats. Serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, glutamate pyruvate transaminase, gamma-glutamyl transferase, total lactate dehydrogenase and bilirubin were not significantly changed. The mean recovery in sheep was 608 worms, in goats 428 worms, but the total tissue egg counts were higher in the latter. Of the total eggs deposited in the goats 92 per cent were found in the liver with 51.5 per cent in the ovine liver. The histopathological changes were studied.

  9. Diurnal fluctuations in nematode egg excretion in naturally and in experimentally infected chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongrak, Kalyakorn; Gauly, Matthias; Daş, Gürbüz

    2015-03-15

    We investigated whether nematode egg excretion through feces of naturally or experimentally infected chickens follow certain patterns within a day, which may allow determining the most appropriate sampling time for the highest parasite egg concentration. Feces samples (n=864) from chickens (n=36) with naturally occurring mixed nematode infections (trials N1, N2) or with an experimental Ascaridia galli infection (E) were collected quantitatively every 4h for four consecutive days. Number of eggs per gram of feces (EPG) was determined, and accumulative egg output (AEO) at each sampling time as well as total number of eggs excreted within 24h (eggs per day, EPD) were then estimated. At the end of the collection period, the hens were necropsied and their worm burdens determined. Naturally infected hens harbored Heterakis gallinarum (100%), Capillaria spp. (95.7%) and A. galli (91.3%). The experimental A. galli infection produced patent infections in all the birds. In general, both fecal egg concentration (EPG) and the amount of feces increased (P0.05) between effects of sampling hours and days on EPG and AEO, suggesting the existence of repeatable diurnal fluctuations within each day. Although an association between climatic parameters (e.g., ambient temperature and relative humidity) and the nematode egg excretion was quantified, a causal relationship could not be demonstrated. We conclude that nematode egg excretion through chicken feces in both natural and experimental infections shows repeatable diurnal fluctuations, which may indicate adaptive strategies by nematodes and eventually favor parasite spread. Since analytic sensitivity of fecal egg counts suffers from low egg concentrations in feces, samples taken during the daytime have a higher diagnostic value. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Pedagogical experimentations about participating science, in a european class, in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgio, Marion

    2015-04-01

    A european class is, in France, a class in which we teach a subject in a foreign language, for example science in English. I led, in my European class, during a seven weeks session, group work activities about different participating science actions. There were groups composed of three or four 16 years old students. Each group chose one type of participating science activity among : - Leading a visioconference with an IODP mission on board the Joides Resolution. - Being part of a "science songs community" with Tom Mc Fadden They divided the work and some of them studied the websites and contacted the actors to present the pedagogical or scientific background of their subject. Others had a concrete production like the organization of a visioconference with the Joides Resolution or the creation of a pedagogical song about geology. I will present some results of their work and explain the students motivation linked to this active learning method.

  11. Dynamic distribution and tissue tropism of classical swine fever virus in experimentally infected pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Classical swine fever (CSF), caused by the Classical swine fever virus (CSFV), is an Office International des Epizooties (OIE) notifiable disease. However, we are far from fully understand the distribution, tissue tropism, pathogenesis, replication and excretion of CSFV in pigs. In this report, we investigated the dynamic distribution and tissue tropism of the virus in internal organs of the experimentally infected pigs using real-time RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry (IHC). Results A relative quantification real-time PCR was established and used to detect the virus load in internal organs of the experimentally infected pigs. The study revealed that the virus was detected in all 21 of the internal organs and blood collected from pigs at day 1 to day 8 post infections, and had an increasing virus load from day 1 to day 8 post infections. However, there was irregular distribution virus load in most internal organs over the first 2 days post infection. Blood, lymphoid tissue, pancreas and ileum usually contain the highest viral loads, while heart, duodenum and brain show relatively low viral loads. Conclusions All the data suggest that CSFV had an increasing virus load from day 1 to day 8 post infections in experimentally infected pigs detected by real-time RT-PCR, which was in consistent with the result of the IHC staining. The data also show that CSFV was likely to reproduce in blood, lymphoid tissue, pancreas and the ileum, while unlikely to replicate in the heart, duodenum and brain. The results provide a foundation for further clarification of the pathogenic mechanism of CSFV in internal organs, and indicate that blood, lymphoid tissue, pancreas and ileum may be preferred sites of acute infection. PMID:21535885

  12. Training infection control and hospital hygiene professionals in Europe, 2010: agreed core competencies among 33 European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusaferro, S; Cookson, B; Kalenic, S; Cooper, T; Fabry, J; Gallagher, R; Hartemann, P; Mannerquist, K; Popp, W; Privitera, G; Ruef, C; Viale, P; Coiz, F; Fabbro, E; Suetens, C; Varela Santos, C

    2014-12-11

    The harmonisation of training programmes for infection control and hospital hygiene (IC/HH) professionals in Europe is a requirement of the Council recommendation on patient safety. The European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control commissioned the 'Training Infection Control in Europe' project to develop a consensus on core competencies for IC/HH professionals in the European Union (EU). Core competencies were drafted on the basis of the Improving Patient Safety in Europe (IPSE) project's core curriculum (CC), evaluated by questionnaire and approved by National Representatives (NRs) for IC/HH training. NRs also re-assessed the status of IC/HH training in European countries in 2010 in comparison with the situation before the IPSE CC in 2006. The IPSE CC had been used to develop or update 28 of 51 IC/HH courses. Only 10 of 33 countries offered training and qualification for IC/HH doctors and nurses. The proposed core competencies are structured in four areas and 16 professional tasks at junior and senior level. They form a reference for standardisation of IC/HH professional competencies and support recognition of training initiatives.

  13. Electoral Mobilization for European Parliament Elections – A Portuguese Quasi-Experimental Plan for The 2004/2009 Elections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge De Sá

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The European Parliament (EP elections have registered high rates of abstention and Portugal is no different from all the other EU countries. From a relational marketing paradigm, we have tried to define the concept of local proximity-based political communication, the grounds for a research program based on a quasi-experimental plan aimed at verifying a set of assumptions on the effects of local proximity-based political communication on the mobilization of Portuguese voters for the EP elections of 2004 and 2009. The results are clear: the proximity-based political communication generated significant electoral mobilization in those two elections.

  14. Inferring biomarkers for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection and disease progression in cattle using experimental data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magombedze, Gesham; Shiri, Tinevimbo; Eda, Shigetoshi; Stabel, Judy R.

    2017-03-01

    Available diagnostic assays for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) have poor sensitivities and cannot detect early stages of infection, therefore, there is need to find new diagnostic markers for early infection detection and disease stages. We analyzed longitudinal IFN-γ, ELISA-antibody and fecal shedding experimental sensitivity scores for MAP infection detection and disease progression. We used both statistical methods and dynamic mathematical models to (i) evaluate the empirical assays (ii) infer and explain biological mechanisms that affect the time evolution of the biomarkers, and (iii) predict disease stages of 57 animals that were naturally infected with MAP. This analysis confirms that the fecal test is the best marker for disease progression and illustrates that Th1/Th2 (IFN-γ/ELISA antibodies) assays are important for infection detection, but cannot reliably predict persistent infections. Our results show that the theoretical simulated macrophage-based assay is a potential good diagnostic marker for MAP persistent infections and predictor of disease specific stages. We therefore recommend specifically designed experiments to test the use of a based assay in the diagnosis of MAP infections.

  15. Potential Role of Carvedilol in the Cardiac Immune Response Induced by Experimental Infection with Trypanosoma cruzi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Luciano Horta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Trypanosoma cruzi causes a cardiac infection characterized by an inflammatory imbalance that could become the inciting factor of the illness. To this end, we evaluated the role of carvedilol, a beta-blocker with potential immunomodulatory properties, on the immune response in C57BL/6 mice infected with VL-10 strain of T. cruzi in the acute phase. Animals (n=40 were grouped: (i not infected, (ii infected, (iii infected + carvedilol, and (iv not infected + carvedilol. We analyzed parameters related to parasitemia, plasma levels of TNF, IL-10, and CCL2, and cardiac histopathology after the administration of carvedilol for 30 days. We did not observe differences in the maximum peaks of parasitemia in the day of their detection among the groups. The plasma TNF was elevated at 60 days of infection in mice treated or not with carvedilol. However, we observed a decreased CCL2 level and increased IL-10 levels in those infected animals treated with carvedilol, which impacted the reduction of the inflammatory infiltration in cardiac tissue. For this experimental model, carvedilol therapy was not able to alter the levels of circulating parasites but modulates the pattern of CCL2 and IL-10 mediators when the VL10 strain of T. cruzi was used in C57BL6 mice.

  16. Immunologic responses in corn snakes (Pantherophis guttatus) after experimentally induced infection with ferlaviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neul, Annkatrin; Schrödl, Wieland; Marschang, Rachel E; Bjick, Tina; Truyen, Uwe; von Buttlar, Heiner; Pees, Michael

    2017-04-01

    OBJECTIVE To measure immunologic responses of snakes after experimentally induced infection with ferlaviruses. ANIMALS 42 adult corn snakes (Pantherophis guttatus) of both sexes. PROCEDURES Snakes were inoculated intratracheally with genogroup A (n = 12), B (12), or C (12) ferlavirus (infected groups) or cell-culture supernatant (6; control group) on day 0. Three snakes from each infected group were euthanized on days 4, 16, 28, and 49, and 3 snakes from the control group were euthanized on day 49. Blood samples were collected from live snakes on days -6 (baseline), 4, 16, 28, and 49. Hematologic tests were performed and humoral responses assessed via hemagglutination-inhibition assays and ELISAs. Following euthanasia, gross pathological and histologic evaluations and virus detection were performed. RESULTS Severity of clinical signs of and immunologic responses to ferlavirus infection differed among snake groups. Hematologic values, particularly WBC and monocyte counts, increased between days 4 and 16 after infection. A humoral response was identified between days 16 and 28. Serum IgM concentrations increased from baseline earlier than IgY concentrations, but the IgY relative increase was higher at the end of the study. The hemagglutination-inhibition assay revealed that the strongest reactions in all infected groups were against the strain with which they had been infected. Snakes infected with genogroup A ferlavirus had the strongest immune response, whereas those infected with genogroup B had the weakest responses. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results of this experimental study suggested that the ferlavirus strain with the highest virulence induced the weakest immune response in snakes.

  17. Pulmonary artery haemorrhage in newborn calves following bluetongue virus serotype 8 experimental infections of pregnant heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinelle, Ludovic; Dal Pozzo, Fabiana; Sarradin, Pierre; De Leeuw, Ilse; De Clercq, Kris; Thys, Christine; Thiry, Etienne; Saegerman, Claude

    2013-12-27

    The emergence of bluetongue disease (BT) among livestock in Europe in 2006 raised many questions including the occurrence and epidemiological significance of foetal infections in cattle. To clarify these aspects, vaccinated and unvaccinated pregnant heifers were sequentially infected twice in an isolation facility (biosafety level 3) with a northern European outbreak strain of Bluetongue virus serotype 8 (BTV-8). The study was terminated 2 months after calving with necropsy of the dams and their offspring. The cattle were monitored throughout the study by clinical scoring and for the presence of circulating neutralising antibodies, and after calving for the presence of infectious virus and viral RNA in blood and milk. Four calves, one born from a vaccinated dam and three from non-vaccinated ones, that were infected at 120 days of gestation had obvious haemorrhage of the pulmonary artery at necropsy. Although haemorrhage of the pulmonary artery is highly characteristic of BT, viral RNA was not detected in any of these calves. Furthermore, although none of the calves born from heifers infected prior to mid-gestation had teratogenic BTV typical brain lesions, some had lesions at birth suggestive of in utero BTV infection. Despite the lack of viral RNA detection, the presence of haemorrhage of the pulmonary artery deserves to be reported as a new observation in the context of the multiple investigations having as main subject the BTV placental crossing in cattle. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Experimental porcine rubulavirus (La Piedad-Michoacan virus) infection in pregnant gilts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Jáuregui, P; Ramírez Mendoza, H; Mercado García, C; Moreno-López, J; Kennedy, S

    2004-01-01

    Porcine rubulavirus (La Piedad-Michoacan virus) (PoRV-LPMV) is a member of the Paramyxoviridae family that causes encephalitis in young piglets and infertility in adult sows and boars. Infertility in sows naturally infected by PoRV-LPMV is characterized by an increased number of returns to oestrus, stillbirths and mummified fetuses. In this study, nine seronegative gilts were inoculated intranasally with the PAC-3 strain of PoRV-LPMV at week 6 or 10 of gestation. These animals were then killed at weeks 8 or 15 of gestation (seven gilts) or after natural parturition (two gilts). Four control gilts were mock-infected at gestation week 6 or 10 and killed between 2 and 4 weeks later. Gross lesions of focal congestion and haemorrhage were seen in the placenta and endometrium of one gilt infected at gestation week 6 and one infected at gestation week 10. PoRV-LPMV was isolated, at 2-6 weeks post-inoculation (pi), from lung, tonsils, ovary, placenta, uterus and lymph nodes of three of the gilts infected at gestation week 6 and at 2-3 weeks pi from lung, tonsil and ovary of two gilts infected at gestation week 10. Many of the fetuses of eight infected gilts were smaller than normal and had dermal ecchymoses. Dehydrated or mummified fetuses were present in six of the infected gilts but not in any control animal. PoRV-LPMV was isolated from brain, lung and liver of fetuses from two gilts infected at gestation week 6, and from two infected at gestation week 10. These results indicate that, after experimental infection, PoRV can replicate in tissues of seronegative pregnant gilts, cross the placenta, and cause fetal death and mummification.

  19. Analysis of experimental mink enteritis virus infection in mink: in situ hybridization, serology, and histopathology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uttenthal, Åse; Larsen, S; Lund, E

    1990-01-01

    Strand-specific hybridization probes were used in in situ hybridization studies to localize cells containing mink enteritis virus (MEV) virion DNA or MEV replicative-form DNA and mRNA. Following the experimental MEV infection of 3-month-old unvaccinated mink, a significant increase in serum antib...

  20. Schmallenberg virus detection in bovine semen after experimental infection of bulls.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poel, van der W.H.M.; Parlevliet, J.M.; Verstraten, E.R.A.M.; Kooi, E.A.; Hakze-van der Honing, van der R.W.; Stockhofe-Zurwieden, N.

    2014-01-01

    To study Schmallenberg virus (SBV) excretion in bovine semen after experimental infection, two bulls were inoculated subcutaneously with a SBV isolate (1 ml Vero cell culture 106 TCID50). After inoculation (at day 0), semen was collected daily from both animals for 21 days and samples were tested

  1. Detection of infectious laryngotracheitis virus by real-time PCR in naturally and experimentally infected chickens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhao

    Full Text Available Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT is an acute, highly contagious upper-respiratory infectious disease of chickens. In this study, a real-time PCR method was developed for fast and accurate detection and quantitation of ILTV DNA of chickens experimentally infected with ILTV strain LJS09 and naturally infected chickens. The detection lower limit of the assay was 10 copies of DNA. There were no cross reactions with the DNA and RNA of infectious bursal disease virus, chicken anemia virus, reticuloendotheliosis virus, avian reovirus, Newcastle disease virus, and Marek's disease virus. The real-time PCR was reproducible as the coefficients of variation of reproducibility of the intra-assay and the inter-assay were less than 2%. The real-time PCR was used to detect the levels of the ILTV DNA in the tissues of specific pathogen free (SPF chickens infected with ILTV at different times post infection. ILTV DNA was detected by real-time PCR in the heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney, larynx, tongue, thymus, glandular stomach, duodenum, pancreatic gland, small intestine, large intestine, cecum, cecal tonsil, bursa of Fabricius, and brain of chickens in the infection group and the contact-exposure group. The sensitivity, specificity, and reproducibility of the ILTV real-time PCR assay revealed its suitability for detection and quantitation of ILTV in the samples from clinically and experimentally ILTV infected chickens.

  2. Pathology of Experimental Encephalitozoon cuniculi Infection in Immunocompetent and Immunosuppressed Mice in Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafidh I. Al-Sadi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to evaluate pathology of experimental Encephalitozoon cuniculi (Iraqi isolate infection in normal and immunosuppressed mice. Pathological changes were not seen in negative control mice while secondary bacterial infections were noted in the lungs, kidneys, and heart of mice given dexamethasone. Typical E. cuniculi infection lesions were found in brain, livers, lungs, and kidneys of mice given 107  E. cuniculi spores/mouse orally. These lesions were in the form of nonsuppurative meningoencephalitis with vasculitis in brain, interstitial inflammation with infiltration of both lymphocytes and plasma cells in lung tissue, and nonsuppurative interstitial (focal and diffuse nephritis, presence of vacuole containing mature and immature spores in enterocytes within the tips of villi, and lymphoiod hyperplasia of the white pulp and vasculitis of the intratrabecular vessels. Mice that were given 107  E. cuniculi spores/mouse orally showed lesions similar to those observed in the previous group (vasculitis and granulomas but the lesions were more severe and widespread. In conclusion, this is the first report of experimental E. cuniculi infection induced by E. cuniculi isolated from a naturally infected rabbit in Iraq and that infection became more severe and widespread upon the administration of dexaethasone.

  3. Experimental Infection of Taenia saginata eggs in Bali Cattle: Distribution and Density of Cysticercus bovis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyoman Sadra Dharmawan

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to observe the development, distribution, and infection density ofTaenia saginata metacestodes in Bali cattle. Three Bali cattle were experimentally infected with T. saginataeggs which were collected from taeniasis patients. The experimental animal was inoculated with : i1000,00 T. saginata; ii 500,000 eggs; and iii 1,000,000 eggs, respectivelly 100,000 (cattle 1, 500,000(cattle 2, and 1,000,000 (cattle 3 T. saginata eggs, respectively. To observe the development of cysticerci,all cattle were slaughtered at 24 weeks post infection. To observe their distribution and density, slicingwas done to the cattle?s tissues. The study results showed that cysts were found distributed to all muscletissues and some visceral organs such as heart, diaphragm, lungs, and kidney of the cattle infected with100,000 and 500,000 T. saginata eggs. Density of the cyst was in the range of 11 to 95 cysts per 100 gramsof tissue. The highest density was noted in the heart (58/100 grams and in diaphragm (55/100 grams.This study has confirmed that T. saginata eggs derived from taeniasis patient in Bali, if infected to Balicattle can develop and spread to all muscle tissues and some visceral organs. From this study it wasconcluded that it is necessary to include the heart in the meat inspection at slaughter house for possibilityof T. saginata cyst infection.$?

  4. Experimental infection of Artibeus intermedius with a vampire bat rabies virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obregón-Morales, Cirani; Aguilar-Setién, Álvaro; Perea Martínez, Leonardo; Galvez-Romero, Guillermo; Martínez-Martínez, Flor Olivia; Aréchiga-Ceballos, Nidia

    2017-06-01

    Experimental infection of Artibeus intermedius, the great fruit-eating bat, was performed with vampire bat rabies isolates. Bats (n=35) were captured in the wild and quarantined prior to experimental infection. No rabies antibodies were detected by rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test (RFFIT) prior to infection. Three doses of rabies virus (RV) and three different routes of infection were used. One out of 35 bats died without showing any clinical signs at day 14 and was positive for rabies. None of the 34 other bats showed clinical signs for rabies, but high antibody titers were detected post-inoculation, suggesting either innate immune response to the vampire bat rabies virus or possible pre-exposure to RV and inoculation leading to a booster effect. Rabies virus was detected by hemi-nested RT-PCR (hnRT-PCR) in the brain (n=3), stomach (n=1) of bats that were negative by immunofluorescence and that survived rabies infection. The bat that died on day 14 was positive by hnRT-PCR on the brain, heart and liver. These results suggest that either previous non-lethal exposure to RV or natural low susceptibility to vampire bat viruses somehow protected Artibeus intermedius from clinical rabies infection leading to a marginal lethality effect on this bats species population in the wild. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Detection of Toxoplasma gondii DNA in sera samples of mice experimentally infected

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Langoni

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Detection of Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii DNA in blood can help to diagnose the disease in its acute phase; however, it must be considered that hemoglobin, present in blood, can inhibit polymerase activity, making impracticable the detection of DNA in samples. Mice were experimentally infected via oral route with ME49 and BTU2 strains cysts and RH strain tachyzoites; polymerase chain reaction was used to detect T. gondii DNA in mice sera 18, 24, 48, 96, and 192 hours post infection (PI. Toxoplama gondii DNA was detected in only one animal infected with BTU2 strain, genotype III (isolated from a dog with neurological signs 18 hours PI. The agent's DNA was not detected in any sample of the other experimental groups. New studies must be carried out to verify the technique sensitivity in researches on this agent's genetic material using sera samples of acute-phase toxoplasmosis patients, especially in cases of immunosuppression.

  6. Efficacy of toltrazuril against experimental infections with Eimeria labbeana and E. columbarum in racing pigeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Reeth, K; Vercruysse, J

    1993-01-01

    The efficacy of toltrazuril against heavy experimental Eimeria labbeana and E. columbarum infections in racing pigeons was investigated. Pigeons were treated with toltrazuril at a dose of 20 mg/kg body weight before, during, and after the pre-patent period. In pigeons treated during pre-patency (1-5 days postinoculation [PI]), a 99.9% reduction in oocyst output was observed at day 7 PI. Treatment during patency (6-7 days PI) resulted in an interruption of oocyst shedding within 3 to 4 days. Pigeons treated with toltrazuril up to 14 days before the experimental infection showed on average a reduction of more than 97% in the number of oocysts in individual fecal samples. Finally, at reinfection, the immune response of pigeons previously treated during pre-patency was not altered compared with the response of infected unmedicated controls.

  7. Daptomycin for the treatment of osteomyelitis and orthopaedic device infections: real-world clinical experience from a European registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malizos, K; Sarma, J; Seaton, R A; Militz, M; Menichetti, F; Riccio, G; Gaudias, J; Trostmann, U; Pathan, R; Hamed, K

    2016-01-01

    Osteomyelitis is a serious infection predominantly caused by Gram-positive bacteria, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Orthopaedic device-related infections are complex and require a careful combination of surgical intervention and antimicrobial therapy. Daptomycin, a cyclic lipopeptide, effectively penetrates soft tissue and bone and demonstrates rapid concentration-dependent bactericidal activity against Gram-positive pathogens. This retrospective, non-interventional study evaluated clinical outcomes in patients with osteomyelitis or orthopaedic device infections treated with daptomycin from the European Cubicin® Outcomes Registry and Experience (EU-CORE(SM)) study. Patients were treated between January 2006 and April 2012, with follow-up to 2014. Clinical outcomes were assessed as success (cured or improved), failure or non-evaluable. Of 6,075 patients enrolled, 638 (median age, 63.5 years) had primary infections of osteomyelitis or orthopaedic device infections, 224 had non-prosthetic osteomyelitis, 208 had osteomyelitis related to a permanent or temporary prosthetic device, and 206 had orthopaedic device infections. The most commonly isolated pathogen was S. aureus (214 [49.1 %]; 24.8 % were MRSA). Overall, 455 (71.3 %) patients had received previous antibiotic therapy. Patients underwent surgical interventions, including tissue (225 [35.3 %]) and bone (196 [30.7 %]) debridement, as part of their treatment. Clinical success rates were 82.7 % and 81.7 % in S. aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococcal infections. Adverse events (AEs) and serious AEs assessed as possibly related to daptomycin were observed in 6.7 % and 1.9 % of patients, respectively. Daptomycin was discontinued by 5.5 % of patients due to AEs and 10 (1.6 %) deaths were reported. In conclusion, daptomycin was effective and safe in patients with osteomyelitis or orthopaedic device infections.

  8. Experimental infection with the small intestinal trematode, Haplorchis pumilio, in young dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Sofie; Nguyen, Lan Anh Thi; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2013-01-01

    Fishborne zoonotic trematodes (FZT) are highly prevalent in Southeast Asia. Recent studies on the role of domestic animals in the transmission of FZT in Northern Vietnam found that dogs, mainly infected with Haplorchis pumilio, contributed widely to the transmission of FZT. On this background, we...... conducted an experimental infection with H. pumilio to elucidate population dynamics and host reactions in dogs. Eight household-reared dogs (3-6 months old), were each orally infected with 500 H. pumilio metacercariae obtained by artificial digestion of naturally infected fish. Another eight dogs were...... included as uninfected controls. Faecal examination for eggs was performed twice weekly using a sieving and sedimentation technique. Body temperature and weight of the dogs were measured as was total white blood cells, blood eosinophils and packed cell volume. Subsets of dogs were examined post...

  9. Induced expression of the antimicrobial peptide melittin inhibits experimental infection by Mycoplasma gallisepticum in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarev, Vassili N; Stipkovits, Laszlo; Biro, Judit; Miklodi, Dora; Shkarupeta, Marina M; Titova, Galina A; Akopian, Tatiana A; Govorun, Vadim M

    2004-05-01

    The in vivo action of the antimicrobial peptide melittin, expressed from a recombinant plasmid vector, on chickens experimentally infected with Mycoplasma gallisepticum was studied. The plasmid vector pBI/mel2/rtTA includes the melittin gene under the control of an inducible tetracycline-dependent human cytomegalovirus promoter and the gene coding for the trans-activation protein rtTA. Aerosol administration of the vector, followed by infecting the chickens with M. gallisepticum 1226, is shown to inhibit development of infection. The inhibitory action was confirmed by a complex of clinical, pathomorphological, histological and serological studies, and also by comparing the M. gallisepticum reisolation frequency from the respiratory tract and internal organs. The data suggest that plasmid vectors expressing genes of antimicrobial peptides can be considered as potential agents for the prevention and treatment of mycoplasma infections in poultry farming.

  10. Lactation curve and milk quality of goats experimentally infected with Trypanosoma vivax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Francisco Canindé; de Paiva, Kaliane Alessandra Rodrigues; Coelho, Wesley Adson Costa; Nunes, Francisco Vítor Aires; da Silva, Jardel Bezerra; de Gouveia Mendes da Escóssia Pinheiro, Carolina; de Macêdo Praça, Layanne; Silva, Jean Berg Alves; Alves Freitas, Carlos Iberê; Batista, Jael Soares

    2016-08-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of Trypanosoma vivax infection on the shape of the lactation curve and the milk quality of dairy goats experimentally infected with T. vivax. In total, twenty Saanen goats, aged 26-30 months and the same number of calving (two calvings), were divided into two experimental groups: an infected group, consisting of ten goats intravenously infected with 0.5 ml of blood containing approximately 1.25 × 10(5) trypomastigotes of T. vivax and ten uninfected animals as the control group. Clinical tests and hematocrit, parasitemia, and serum biochemistry evaluations were performed on all of the goats. Milk production was measured daily for 152 days by hand milking the goats and weighing the milk. Every seven days, physiochemical analyses were performed to evaluate the milk. Wood's nonlinear model was used to analyze the lactation curve parameters. The infected goats had high levels of parasitemia and hyperthermia, significantly reduced hematocrit, serum total protein, albumin, and glucose levels and increased cholesterol and urea concentrations. Wood's model indicated that the milk production of goats in the infected group declined sharply over a short period of time and produced a flattened yield curve and significant difference (P physico-chemical properties of the milk, including the fat content, defatted dry extracts (DDE) and protein content, decreased significantly (P < 0.05) in the goats in the infected group compared with those in the control group. The T. vivax-infected goats showed reduction in milk production, persistence of lactation, and fat levels, the defatted dry extract (DDE) content, and protein, changing the quality of milk. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. An immunohistochemical study of Flexibacter psychrophilus infection in experimentally and naturally infected rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evensen, O.; Lorenzen, Ellen

    1996-01-01

    An immunohistochemical method is described for the detection of Flexibacter psychrophilus in formalin-fixed, parafiin-wax-embedded fry of rainbow trout. Rabbit antiserum as well as rainbow trout hyperimmune serum were used in the study. The distribution and tissue localization of the bacterium...... and experimentally infected fry showed that there was a localization of bacteria in the monocyte-macrophage system, in skin lesions, and in the retina and the choroid gland of the eye. The dermal changes included superficial or deep ulcers extending to the subcutaneous tissue or the musculature accompanied...... polymorphonuclear) cells. F. psychrophilus infection in rainbow trout fry involves the monocyte-macrophage system extensively, and the concurrent localization of bacteria in the skin ulcers and retinal inflammation points to the probable involvement of the bacterium in the development of the lesions which...

  12. High prevalence of Trichinella nativa infection in wolf (Canis lupus populations of Tvier and Smoliensk regions of European Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casulli A.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Domestic and sylvatic trichinellosis have frequently been documented in European regions of Russia, with the highest prevalence reported in wolves (Canis lupus. From 1998 to 2000, 75 carcasses of wolves shot by hunters were tested for Trichinella larvae, and 73 (97.3 % of them were found to be positive. This very high prevalence of infection, the highest ever detected in a natural population of carnivores, could be explained by the human impact on the natural ecosystem. In fact, the diet of wolves living in the region under study mainly consists of carcasses of dogs and wolves, which are left in the forest or used as bait by hunters.

  13. Early weight development of goats experimentally infected with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyssa N Malone

    Full Text Available Johne's disease is an infectious chronic inflammatory bowel disease in ruminants. The key factor for the management of this disease is an early positive diagnosis. Unfortunately, most diagnostics detect animals with Johne's disease in the clinical stage with positive serology and/or positive fecal cultures. However, for effective management of the disease within herds, it is important to detect infected animals as early as possible. This might only be possible with the help of parameters not specific for Johne's disease but that give an early indication for chronic infections such as weight development. Here we report our findings on the development of total body weight and weight gain during the first six months of goats experimentally infected to induce Johne's disease. Twenty dairy goat kids age 2 to 5 days were included in this study. Goats were divided into two groups: a negative control group and a positive infected group. The weight was obtained weekly throughout the study. Goats of the positive group were infected at the age of seven weeks. We detected significant changes in weight gain and total body weight as early as one week after infection. Differences are significant throughout the six month time period. Weight as a non-specific parameter should be used to monitor infection especially in studies on Johne's disease using the goat model. Our study suggests that goats with Johne's disease have a reduced weight gain and reduced weight when compared with healthy goats of the same age.

  14. Infectivity of DWV associated to flower pollen: experimental evidence of a horizontal transmission route.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Mazzei

    Full Text Available Deformed wing virus (DWV is a honeybee pathogen whose presence is generally associated with infestation of the colony by the mite Varroa destructor, leading to the onset of infections responsible for the collapse of the bee colony. DWV contaminates bee products such as royal jelly, bee-bread and honey stored within the infected hive. Outside the hive, DWV has been found in pollen loads collected directly from infected as well as uninfected forager bees. It has been shown that the introduction of virus-contaminated pollen into a DWV-free hive results in the production of virus-contaminated food, whose role in the development of infected bees from virus-free eggs has been experimentally demonstrated. The aim of this study was twofold: (i to ascertain the presence of DWV on pollen collected directly from flowers visited by honeybees and then quantify the viral load and (ii determine whether the virus associated with pollen is infective. The results of our investigation provide evidence that DWV is present on pollen sampled directly from visited flowers and that, following injection in individuals belonging to the pollinator species Apis mellifera, it is able to establish an active infection, as indicated by the presence of replicating virus in the head of the injected bees. We also provide the first indication that the pollinator species Osmia cornuta is susceptible to DWV infection.

  15. Antibody and inflammatory responses in laying hens with experimental primary infections of Ascaridia galli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcos-Atxutegi, C; Gandolfi, B; Arangüena, T; Sepúlveda, R; Arévalo, M; Simón, F

    2009-04-06

    Ascaridia galli, an intestinal nematode that affects hens and other domestic and wild birds, causes economic losses in avian exploitations. The present work shows that A. galli stimulates a strong antibody response as well as an intense inflammatory reaction, in the intestinal mucous of experimentally infected Lohmann Brown laying hens. IgG antibodies against soluble extracts of A. galli embrionated eggs and adult worms, were detected in both blood and yolks eggs from infected hens during a period of 105 days after the infection. This indicates that hens transfer to their offspring a part of the IgG antibodies produced when they become infected. The antigens responsible for the stimulation of specific IgG were molecules of 30-34, 44-54 and 58-90 kDa, while in the yolk eggs of infected hens a reactivity directed against antigens of molecular weight (M(w)) lower than 50 kDa was detected. Histology revealed traumatic lesions with leukocyte infiltration, and inflammation of the intestinal wall of the infected hens after 105 days of initial infection. The possible influence of the immune and inflammatory response on the population dynamics of the parasite is discussed.

  16. Experimental susceptibility of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar and turbot Scophthalmus maximus to European freshwater and marine isolates of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    King, J.A.; Snow, M.; Skall, Helle Frank

    2001-01-01

    pathogenicity to Atlantic salmon. Virus was detected in some mortalities, however, demonstrating viral entry and replication. European marine VHS virus isolates do not appear to pose an imminent threat to the Atlantic salmon culture industry. Turbot were found to be refractive or of low susceptibility to marine...... of turbot culture to the VHS virus isolates that are enzootic to the European marine environment.......A number of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia (VHS) virus isolates of European marine origin were shown to be of low pathogenicity or non-pathogenic to Atlantic salmon parr by waterborne infection. A reference freshwater VHS virus isolate known to be highly pathogenic to rainbow trout was also of low...

  17. Imaging experimental infective endocarditis with indium-111-labeled blood cellular components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riba, A.L.; Thakur, M.L.; Gottschalk, A.; Andriole, V.T.; Zaret, B.L.

    1979-02-01

    The capability of radionuclide imaging to detect experimental aortic valve infective endocarditis was assessed with indium-111 (/sup 111/In)-labeled blood cells. Sequential cardiac imaging and tissue distribution studies were obtained in 17 rabbits with infective endocarditis after administration of /sup 111/-In-platelets and in five after /sup 111/In-polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Forty-eight to 72 hours after platelet administration, in vivo imaging demonstrated abnormal /sup 111/In uptake in all animals in the region of the aortic valve in an anatomically distinct pattern. Images of the excised heart showed discrete cardiac uptake conforming to the in vivo image and gross pathological examination. /sup 111/In platelet uptake in vegetations from the 17 animals averaged 240 +- 41 times greater than that in normal myocardium and 99 +- 15 times greater uptake in blood. In contrast, /sup 111/In-leukocyte cardiac imaging showed no abnormal aortic valve uptake 24 hours after tracer administration and the lesion myocardium activity ratio was only 5 +- 2 (3 +- 1 for lesion/blood activity). Four normal rabbits demonstrated neither positive /sup 111/In platelet scintigraphs nor abnormal cardiac tissue uptake. Likewise, noncellular /sup 111/In was not concentrated to any significant extent in three animals with infective endocarditis.This study demonstrates that /sup 111/In platelet, but not leukocyte cardiac imaging, is a sensitive technique for detecting experimental infective endocarditis. The imaging data conform to the cellular pathology of the infective endocarditis vegetation.

  18. Imaging experimental infective endocarditis with indium-111-labeled blood cellular components. [Rabbits, aortic valve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riba, A.L.; Thakur, M.L.; Gottschalk, A.; Andriole, V.T.; Zaret, B.L.

    1979-02-01

    The capability of radionuclide imaging to detect experimental aortic valve infective endocarditis was assessed with indium-111 (/sup 111/In)-labeled blood cells. Sequential cardiac imaging and tissue distribution studies were obtained in 17 rabbits with infective endocarditis after administration of /sup 111/In-platelets and in five after /sup 111/In-polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Forty-eight to 72 hours after platelet administration, in vivo imaging demonstrated abnormal /sup 111/In uptake in all animals in the region of the aortic valve in an anatomically distinct pattern. Images of the excised heart showed discrete cardiac uptake conforming to the in vivo image and gross pathological examination. /sup 111/In-platelet uptake in vegetations from the 17 animals averaged 240 +- 41 times greater than that in normal myocardium and 99 +- 15 times greater uptake in blood. In contrast, /sup 111/In-leukocyte cardiac imaging showed no abnormal aortic valve uptake 24 hours after tracer administration and the lesion myocardium activity ratio was only 5 +- 2 (3 +- 1 for lesion/blood activity). Four normal rabbits demonstrated neither positive /sup 111/In-platelet scintigraphs nor abnormal cardiac tissue uptake. Likewise, noncellular /sup 111/In was not concentrated to any significant extent in three animals with infective endocarditis. This study demonstrates that /sup 111/In-platelet, but not leukocyte cardiac imaging, is a sensitive technique for detecting experimental infective endocarditis. The imaging data conform to the cellular pathology of the infective endocarditis vegetation.

  19. Early-life adversity accelerates cellular ageing and affects adult inflammation: Experimental evidence from the European starling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettle, Daniel; Andrews, Clare; Reichert, Sophie; Bedford, Tom; Kolenda, Claire; Parker, Craig; Martin-Ruiz, Carmen; Monaghan, Pat; Bateson, Melissa

    2017-01-17

    Early-life adversity is associated with accelerated cellular ageing during development and increased inflammation during adulthood. However, human studies can only establish correlation, not causation, and existing experimental animal approaches alter multiple components of early-life adversity simultaneously. We developed a novel hand-rearing paradigm in European starling nestlings (Sturnus vulgaris), in which we separately manipulated nutritional shortfall and begging effort for a period of 10 days. The experimental treatments accelerated erythrocyte telomere attrition and increased DNA damage measured in the juvenile period. For telomere attrition, amount of food and begging effort exerted additive effects. Only the combination of low food amount and high begging effort increased DNA damage. We then measured two markers of inflammation, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and interleukin-6, when the birds were adults. The experimental treatments affected both inflammatory markers, though the patterns were complex and different for each marker. The effect of the experimental treatments on adult interleukin-6 was partially mediated by increased juvenile DNA damage. Our results show that both nutritional input and begging effort in the nestling period affect cellular ageing and adult inflammation in the starling. However, the pattern of effects is different for different biomarkers measured at different time points.

  20. Metabolomic profiling of faecal extracts from Cryptosporidium parvum infection in experimental mouse models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josephine S Y Ng Hublin

    Full Text Available Cryptosporidiosis is a gastrointestinal disease in humans and animals caused by infection with the protozoan parasite Cryptosporidium. In healthy individuals, the disease manifests mainly as acute self-limiting diarrhoea, but may be chronic and life threatening for those with compromised immune systems. Control and treatment of the disease is challenged by the lack of sensitive diagnostic tools and broad-spectrum chemotherapy. Metabolomics, or metabolite profiling, is an emerging field of study, which enables characterisation of the end products of regulatory processes in a biological system. Analysis of changes in metabolite patterns reflects changes in biochemical regulation, production and control, and may contribute to understanding the effects of Cryptosporidium infection in the host environment. In the present study, metabolomic analysis of faecal samples from experimentally infected mice was carried out to assess metabolite profiles pertaining to the infection. Gas-chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS carried out on faecal samples from a group of C. parvum infected mice and a group of uninfected control mice detected a mean total of 220 compounds. Multivariate analyses showed distinct differences between the profiles of C. parvum infected mice and uninfected control mice,identifying a total of 40 compounds, or metabolites that contributed most to the variance between the two groups. These metabolites consisted of amino acids (n = 17, carbohydrates (n = 8, lipids (n = 7, organic acids (n = 3 and other various metabolites (n = 5, which showed significant differences in levels of metabolite abundance between the infected and uninfected mice groups (p < 0.05. The metabolites detected in this study as well as the differences in abundance between the C. parvum infected and the uninfected control mice, highlights the effects of the infection on intestinal permeability and the fate of the metabolites as a result of nutrient scavenging by the

  1. Schmallenberg virus infection in South American camelids: Field and experimental investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Claudia; Beer, Martin; Hoffmann, Bernd

    2015-11-18

    During the first epizootic wave of the novel, teratogenic Schmallenberg virus (SBV, Orthobunyavirus) in ruminants in Northern Europe, serological evidence of a previous SBV-infection demonstrated that South American camelids (SAC) are also susceptible to SBV. However, their potential role in SBV spread remains unknown. To investigate the prevalence and course of SBV-infection in SAC, a German field study and an animal trial with three llamas and three alpacas were conducted. From September 2012 to December 2013, 313 of 502 SAC (62.35%) were found SBV seropositive, but negative for SBV-RNA. The estimated between-district (94.23% of 52) and median within-district (71.43%) and herd (73.13%) SBV seroprevalence in German SAC was similar to the seroprevalence reported in cattle herds and sheep flocks at the time. An age of >1 year was found a statistically significant risk factor for SBV-infection, which could be explained by the spatio-temporal spread of SBV in Germany during the study period. No clinical signs or an increase of abortion and congenital malformation associated with SBV-infection in SAC were reported by the study participants. Similar to SBV-infected ruminants, SBV-RNAemia in experimentally SBV-infected SAC was detected for a short time between days 3 and 7 after infection (dpi), and seroconversion occurred between 9 and 21 dpi. Despite the similar virological and serological results, the lack of clinical signs and congenital malformation associated with SBV-infection suggests that SBV causes subclinical infection in SAC. However, their role as reservoirs in the spread of SBV has to be further investigated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The Jules Horowitz reactor (JHR), a European material testing reactor (MTR), with extended experimental capabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballagny, A.; Bergamaschi, Y.; Bouilloux, Y.; Bravo, X.; Guigon, B.; Rommens, M.; Tremodeux, P. [CEA Cadarache, Dir. de l' Energie Nucleaire DEN, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)]|[CEA Saclay Dir. de l' Energie Nucleaire DEN, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France)

    2003-07-01

    The Jules Horowitz Reactor (JHR) is the European MTR (Material Testing Reactor) designed to provide, after 2010, the necessary knowledge for keeping the existing power plants in operation and to design innovative reactors types with new objectives such as: minimizing the radioactive waste production, taking into account additional safety requirements, preventing risks of nuclear proliferation... To achieve such an ambitious objective. The JHR is designed with a high flexibility in order to satisfy the current demand from European industry, research and to be able to accommodate future requirements. The JHR will offer a wide range of performances and services in gathering, in a single site at Cadarache, all the necessary functionalities and facilities for an effective production of results: e.g. fuel fabrication laboratories, preparation of the instrumented devices, interpretation of the experiments, modelling. The JHR must rely on a top level scientific environment based on experts teams from CEA and EC and local universities. With a thermal flux of 7,4.10{sup 14} ncm{sup -2} s{sup -1} and a fast flux of 6,4.10{sup 14} ncm{sup -2}s{sup -1}, it is possible to carry out irradiation experiments on materials and fuels whatever the reactor type considered. It will also be possible to carry out locally, fast neutron irradiation to achieve damage effect up to 25 dpa/year. (dpa = displacement per atom.) The study of the fuels behavior under accidental conditions, from analytical experiments, on a limited amount of irradiated fuel, is a major objective of the project. These oriented safety tests are possible by taking into account specific requirements in the design of the facility such as the tightness level of the containment building, the addition of an alpha hot cell and a laboratory for on line fission products measurement. (authors)

  3. Persistence of viral RNA in the brain of experimentally infected mice with coxsackievirus B5

    OpenAIRE

    Sobotova Z.; Marosova L.; Badurova M.; Sojka M.; Borsanyiova M.; Stipalova D.; Bopegamage S.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of our study was to follow the persistence of viral RNA in selected organs of experimentally infected with coxsackievirus (CV) B5 strains from different sources such as a patient’s sample, an environmental sample and a prototype virus strain. Methods . CD-1 mice were infected with CVB5 strain Faulkner the prototype, CVB5 – isolate from treated sewage waste and isolate from patient’s stool sample both identified as CVB5. The viral RNA was detected by RT-PCR using enterovirus primers sp...

  4. Experimental infections with rifampicin-resistant Clostridium perfringens strains in broiler chickens using isolator facilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karl; Bjerrum, Lotte; Nauerby, Birgitte

    2003-01-01

    Experimental infection studies were carried out on the ability of three Clostridium perfringens type A rifampicin-resistant strains to colonize the intestinal tract of broiler chickens kept in isolators from 1-day-old. Various doses of C. perfringens were given orally at 22 days, 9 days or at 1 day...... replaced by naturally occurring strains of C. perfringens in all groups but they persisted for considerably longer in chickens inoculated at 1-day-old or at 9 days than those at 22 days, indicating a possible resistance to colonization with increasing age. The findings emphasize the difficulties...... of establishing a reproducible model for infection with C. perfringens in broiler chickens....

  5. Cranberry juice and combinations of its organic acids are effective against experimental urinary tract infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Heidi Dorthe; Struve, Carsten; Christensen, Søren Brøgger

    2017-01-01

    The antibacterial effect of cranberry juice and the organic acids therein on infection by uro28 pathogenic Escherichia coli was studied in an experimental mouse model of urinary tract infection (UTI). Reduced bacterial counts were found in the bladder (P ... juice. Commercially available cranberry juice cocktail also significantly reduced (P juice (P juice, were tested...... administered singly, did not have any effect in the UTI model. Apparently, the antibacterial effect of the organic acids from cranberry juice on UTI can be obtained by administering a combination of malic acid and either citric or quinic acid. This study show for the first time that cranberry juice reduce E...

  6. Experimental Infection of Snakes with Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola Causes Pathological Changes That Typify Snake Fungal Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorch, Jeffrey M; Lankton, Julia; Werner, Katrien; Falendysz, Elizabeth A; McCurley, Kevin; Blehert, David S

    2015-11-17

    Snake fungal disease (SFD) is an emerging skin infection of wild snakes in eastern North America. The fungus Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola is frequently associated with the skin lesions that are characteristic of SFD, but a causal relationship between the fungus and the disease has not been established. We experimentally infected captive-bred corn snakes (Pantherophis guttatus) in the laboratory with pure cultures of O. ophiodiicola. All snakes in the infected group (n = 8) developed gross and microscopic lesions identical to those observed in wild snakes with SFD; snakes in the control group (n = 7) did not develop skin infections. Furthermore, the same strain of O. ophiodiicola used to inoculate snakes was recovered from lesions of all animals in the infected group, but no fungi were isolated from individuals in the control group. Monitoring progression of lesions throughout the experiment captured a range of presentations of SFD that have been described in wild snakes. The host response to the infection included marked recruitment of granulocytes to sites of fungal invasion, increased frequency of molting, and abnormal behaviors, such as anorexia and resting in conspicuous areas of enclosures. While these responses may help snakes to fight infection, they could also impact host fitness and may contribute to mortality in wild snakes with chronic O. ophiodiicola infection. This work provides a basis for understanding the pathogenicity of O. ophiodiicola and the ecology of SFD by using a model system that incorporates a host species that is easy to procure and maintain in the laboratory. Skin infections in snakes, referred to as snake fungal disease (SFD), have been reported with increasing frequency in wild snakes in the eastern United States. While most of these infections are associated with the fungus Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola, there has been no conclusive evidence to implicate this fungus as a primary pathogen. Furthermore, it is not understood why the

  7. Public health risk analysis of European bat lyssavirus infection in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takumi, K.; Lina, P.H.C.; Poel, van der W.H.M.; Kramps, J.A.; Giessen, van der J.W.B.

    2009-01-01

    We present the frequency and the nature of contact incidents of the Serotine bat, Eptesicus serotinus, with humans and with companion animals (specifically cats and dogs), in The Netherlands between 2000 and 2005. Out of 17 bats in bite contact with humans, five tested positive for European bat

  8. European multicenter study on antimicrobial resistance in bacteria isolated from companion animal urinary tract infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marques, Cátia; Gama, Luís Telo; Belas, Adriana; Bergström, Karin; Beurlet, Stéphanie; Briend-Marchal, Alexandra; Broens, Els M; Costa, Marta; Criel, Delphine; Damborg, Peter; van Dijk, Marloes A M; van Dongen, A.M.; Dorsch, Roswitha; Espada, Carmen Martin; Gerber, Bernhard; Kritsepi-Konstantinou, Maria; Loncaric, Igor; Mion, Domenico; Misic, Dusan; Movilla, Rebeca; Overesch, Gudrun; Perreten, Vincent; Roura, Xavier; Steenbergen, Joachim; Timofte, Dorina; Wolf, Georg; Zanoni, Renato Giulio; Schmitt, Sarah; Guardabassi, Luca; Pomba, Constança

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is a growing concern regarding the increase of antimicrobial resistant bacteria in companion animals. Yet, there are no studies comparing the resistance levels of these organisms in European countries. The aim of this study was to investigate geographical and temporal trends of

  9. Spread of hepatitis C virus among European injection drug users infected with HIV: A phylogenetic analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Asten, Liselotte; Verhaest, Inge; Lamzira, Saida; Hernandez-Aguado, Ildefonso; Zangerle, Robert; Boufassa, Faroudy; Rezza, Giovanni; Broers, Barbara; Robertson, J. Roy; Brettle, Raymond P.; McMenamin, Jim; Prins, Maria; Cochrane, Alexandra; Simmonds, Peter; Coutinho, Roel A.; Bruisten, Sylvia

    2004-01-01

    To describe the spread of hepatitis C virus (HCV) among HCV/human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-coinfected injection drug users (IDUs), the molecular epidemiology of HCV was studied among 108 IDUs from 7 European countries. Phylogenetic analysis based on the NS5B region showed great sequence

  10. Experimental infections with Mycoplasma agalactiae identify key factors involved in host-colonization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Baranowski

    Full Text Available Mechanisms underlying pathogenic processes in mycoplasma infections are poorly understood, mainly because of limited sequence similarities with classical, bacterial virulence factors. Recently, large-scale transposon mutagenesis in the ruminant pathogen Mycoplasma agalactiae identified the NIF locus, including nifS and nifU, as essential for mycoplasma growth in cell culture, while dispensable in axenic media. To evaluate the importance of this locus in vivo, the infectivity of two knock-out mutants was tested upon experimental infection in the natural host. In this model, the parental PG2 strain was able to establish a systemic infection in lactating ewes, colonizing various body sites such as lymph nodes and the mammary gland, even when inoculated at low doses. In these PG2-infected ewes, we observed over the course of infection (i the development of a specific antibody response and (ii dynamic changes in expression of M. agalactiae surface variable proteins (Vpma, with multiple Vpma profiles co-existing in the same animal. In contrast and despite a sensitive model, none of the knock-out mutants were able to survive and colonize the host. The extreme avirulent phenotype of the two mutants was further supported by the absence of an IgG response in inoculated animals. The exact role of the NIF locus remains to be elucidated but these data demonstrate that it plays a key role in the infectious process of M. agalactiae and most likely of other pathogenic mycoplasma species as many carry closely related homologs.

  11. Studies on vertical transmission of Trichinella spiralis in experimentally infected guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva, Eliana; Fiel, Cesar; Bernat, Gisele; Muchiut, Sebastián; Steffan, Pedro

    2017-08-01

    An experimental study to enhance knowledge on the capability of Trichenella spiralis to pass from guinea pigs to progeny at different periods of pregnancy or lactation was performed. For this purpose, 18 female adult guinea pigs were inoculated with 100 or 1000 T. spiralis muscle larvae (ML) during early, late gestation and during lactation period. The presence of T. spiralis (ML) in mothers and newborns was studied through enzymatic digestion from muscle samples. ML were observed in 9 of 42 newborn guinea pigs and levels of infection were significantly higher when infections of mothers were done during late gestation (p = 0.0046) with the high infective dose (p = 0.0043). T. spiralis ML were not recovered from any of the newborns from mothers infected in the lactation period. Ten out of 18 infected mothers presented larvae 1 in their mammary glands. Muscle samples from the tongue and the masseter showed the highest larval burdens. These observations confirm previous reports on that ML of T. spiralis are capable to pass through placental tissues to reach and encyst in striated muscle groups of newborn guinea pigs. This study may also reinforce the importance of preventive programs to control trichinellosis in those endemic areas where pregnant women would have high risk of infection.

  12. Experimental Infections with Mycoplasma agalactiae Identify Key Factors Involved in Host-Colonization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranowski, Eric; Bergonier, Dominique; Sagné, Eveline; Hygonenq, Marie-Claude; Ronsin, Patricia; Berthelot, Xavier; Citti, Christine

    2014-01-01

    Mechanisms underlying pathogenic processes in mycoplasma infections are poorly understood, mainly because of limited sequence similarities with classical, bacterial virulence factors. Recently, large-scale transposon mutagenesis in the ruminant pathogen Mycoplasma agalactiae identified the NIF locus, including nifS and nifU, as essential for mycoplasma growth in cell culture, while dispensable in axenic media. To evaluate the importance of this locus in vivo, the infectivity of two knock-out mutants was tested upon experimental infection in the natural host. In this model, the parental PG2 strain was able to establish a systemic infection in lactating ewes, colonizing various body sites such as lymph nodes and the mammary gland, even when inoculated at low doses. In these PG2-infected ewes, we observed over the course of infection (i) the development of a specific antibody response and (ii) dynamic changes in expression of M. agalactiae surface variable proteins (Vpma), with multiple Vpma profiles co-existing in the same animal. In contrast and despite a sensitive model, none of the knock-out mutants were able to survive and colonize the host. The extreme avirulent phenotype of the two mutants was further supported by the absence of an IgG response in inoculated animals. The exact role of the NIF locus remains to be elucidated but these data demonstrate that it plays a key role in the infectious process of M. agalactiae and most likely of other pathogenic mycoplasma species as many carry closely related homologs. PMID:24699671

  13. Expression of circulating leucocytes before, during and after myiasis by Dermatobia hominis in experimentally infected rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Jomara M; Pereira, Mônica C T; Evangelista, Luciene G; Leite, Antônio C R

    2007-01-01

    Expression of circulating white blood cells was investigated in rats (Rattus norvegicus) experimentally infected with larvae of Dermatobia hominis, the human bot fly. Leucocytes were counted prior to infection (control group) as well as at 6, 10, 15, 20 and 28 days post-infection (dpi) and at 7, 15, 30 and 60 days post-larval emergence (dple). Total leucocyte numbers did not differ markedly among the groups. Significant differences were registered when values from control and animals harboring each larval stage of D. hominis were compared; with crescent rank: L1-, L2-, control and L3-infected groups. Leucocyte numbers were significantly higher in the control, 15, 20 or 28 dpi groups than in the 6 dpi animals. Higher counts were observed in control, L2- or L3-infected rats than L1-infected animals. Neutrophils, eosinophils and both large and small lymphocytes were also counted and analyzed. Basophils and monocytes were insufficient in number to permit statistical studies. These results stimulate the continuity of the studies about the host-parasite relationship in the dermatobiosis.

  14. The effect of salinity on experimental infections of a Hematodinium sp. in blue crabs, Callinectes sapidus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffey, Anna H; Li, Caiwen; Shields, Jeffrey D

    2012-06-01

    The parasitic dinoflagellate Hematodinium sp. parasitizes blue crabs along the Atlantic seaboard of the United States. Infections in blue crabs have only been reported from waters where salinity is >11 practical salinity units (psu). Blue crabs maintain a hyperosmotic internal concentration at low salinities (0-5 psu), roughly comparable to 24 psu, and should be capable of maintaining an infection in low-salinity waters even if Hematodinium spp. cells are intolerant of low salinities. We tested this notion by observing the effect of low salinity on the progression of disease in crabs experimentally infected with the parasite. Blue crabs were acclimated to 5 psu or 30 psu salinity treatments. They were inoculated with Hematodinium sp. and necropsied 3, 7, 10, and 15 days post-inoculation. The low-salinity treatment did not have an effect on the proliferation of Hematodinium sp. infections in blue crabs; moreover, a greater proportion of infections in crabs in the low-salinity treatment developed dinospore stages than did those in the high-salinity treatment, indicating that salinity may affect the development of the parasite. However, dinospores from in vitro cultures rapidly became inactive when held in salinities <15 psu. Our experiments indicate that Hematodinium spp. can develop in blue crabs at low salinities, but that the parasite is incapable of transmission in this environment, which explains the lack of natural infections in crabs at low salinities.

  15. Clinico-biochemical responses of dogs to experimental infection with Babesia canis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Konto

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: A study on the clinical and biochemical parameters of Nigerian dogs experimentally infected with Babesia canis was conducted. Materials and Methods: A total of ten naive dogs of both sex and aged between 6 months to 1 year, were used for the study. They were divided into two groups of five each- A (control and B (infected. Dogs in group B were infected with 1ml of Babesia canis positive infectious inoculum, while those in group A were left as uninfected control. Following infection, clinical and biochemical responses were analyzed in group B and compared with those in group A. Results: Clinical signs were observed on the infected dogs 2 days post infection, which included fever (100%, increase in pulse (80%, tachycardia (60% and inappetence (100%; followed by anorexia (40% and lethargy (100% on day 3; on the fourth day, pallor of the mucous membrane of the mouth and eye (100% and emaciation (100%; on day five, muscle tremor (20% and respiratory distress (20%; on day six, nervousness (20%, drooling salivation (20% and haemoglobinuria (80; on day seven, mucoid ocular discharge (40%; followed by the death of one dog on day 8 post infection. Other clinical signs recorded between days 1-14 post infection were ascites, edematous swelling of the whole body and hair erection. The biochemical changes showed that there was a significant (p < 0.05 rise in alkaline phosphatase (ALP values in infected dogs (58.50±1.4 compared with the control group (51.67±1.6. Also, there was a significant rise (p < 0.05 in the alanine amino transferase (ALT values of infected group (15.70±1. 8 compared with the control values (8.27±2.0. However, the mean values for creatinine of infected group (78.10±1.2 was significantly lower (p < 0.05 than that of the control (91.73±1.3. Similarly, the glucose levels for infected group (3.80±2.3 were significantly (p < 0.05 lower than that of control (5.35±2.1. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the disease runs an acute

  16. Marginal vitamin A deficiency in pigs experimentally infected with Trichuris suis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, S; Saeed, I; Jensen, S K

    2001-01-01

    The development of an experimental model for marginal vitamin A deficiency in humans is of major interest, enabling the elucidation of possible interactions with helminth infections. We established a useful experimental model for human vitamin A deficiency in young pigs; deficiency was induced...... through a depletion method encompassing both sow and offspring. We report on a 2 x 2 study in which 18-week-old vitamin A deficient pigs and vitamin A sufficient littermates were infected with both of the intestinal nematodes Trichuris suis and Ascaris suum and followed for 14 weeks through 32 weeks...... of age. Forty-nine pigs were followed with respect to bodyweight, liver biopsies and blood samples for retinol concentration and faecal samples for parasite eggs and worms. Liver and serum concentrations of vitamin A were significantly diminished in the vitamin A deficient (VAD) group as compared...

  17. Anatomopathological study in BALB/c mice brains experimentally infected with Toxoplasma gondii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Gontijo da Silva

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis is one of the most important diseases of the nervous central system, leading to severe symptoms and, many times, irreversible sequelae. This work demonstrated the main anatomopathological lesions caused by Toxoplasma gondii in brains from experimentally infected BALB/c mice. We analyzed 51 cases of mice that developed toxoplasmosis after experimental infection by intraperitoneal inoculation of blood, amniotic liquid and cerebrospinal fluid from fetuses, newly born children and pregnant women with clinical and laboratory signals of toxoplasmosis. In all experiments where we detected the parasite in mice we also detected pathological lesions in the animal brains with great polymorphism between experiments. Edema was the most found lesion in all cases. Besides, it was possible to demonstrate the inflammatory process in 82.4% of cases and necrosis in 64.7% of cases, in agreement with the literature that describes severe neurological damage in its hosts.

  18. Antibody response against Trichinella spiralis in experimentally infected rats is dose dependent

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Domestic pigs are the main representatives of the domestic cycle of Trichinella spiralis that play a role in transmission to humans. In Europe, backyard pigs of small household farms are the most important risks for humans to obtain trichinellosis. Rats might play a role in the transmission of Trichinella spiralis from domestic to sylvatic animals and vice versa. In order to be able to investigate the role of wild rats in the epidemiology of T. spiralis in The Netherlands, we studied the dynamics of antibody response after T. spiralis infections in experimental rats, using infection doses ranging from very low (10 muscle larvae, ML, per rat) to very high (16 000 ML per rat). To evaluate the feasibility of rats surviving high infection doses with T. spiralis, clinical and pathological parameters were quantified. Serological tools for detecting T. spiralis in rats were developed to quantitatively study the correlation between parasite load and immunological response. The results show that an infection dose-dependent antibody response was developed in rats after infection with as low as 10 ML up to a level of 10 000 ML. A positive correlation was found between the number of recovered ML and serum antibody levels, although specific measured antibody levels correspond to a wide range of LPG values. Serum antibodies of rats that were infected even with 10 or 25 ML could readily be detected by use of the T. spiralis western blot 2 weeks post infection. We conclude that based on these low infection doses, serologic tests are a useful tool to survey T. spiralis in wild rats. PMID:22129040

  19. Experimental infection of snakes with Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola causes pathological changes that typify snake fungal disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorch, Jeffrey M.; Lankton, Julia S.; Werner, Katrien; Falendysz, Elizabeth A.; McCurley, Kevin; Blehert, David S.

    2015-01-01

    Snake fungal disease (SFD) is an emerging skin infection of wild snakes in eastern North America. The fungus Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola is frequently associated with the skin lesions that are characteristic of SFD, but a causal relationship between the fungus and the disease has not been established. We experimentally infected captive-bred corn snakes (Pantherophis guttatus) in the laboratory with pure cultures of O. ophiodiicola. All snakes in the infected group (n = 8) developed gross and microscopic lesions identical to those observed in wild snakes with SFD; snakes in the control group (n = 7) did not develop skin infections. Furthermore, the same strain of O. ophiodiicola used to inoculate snakes was recovered from lesions of all animals in the infected group, but no fungi were isolated from individuals in the control group. Monitoring progression of lesions throughout the experiment captured a range of presentations of SFD that have been described in wild snakes. The host response to the infection included marked recruitment of granulocytes to sites of fungal invasion, increased frequency of molting, and abnormal behaviors, such as anorexia and resting in conspicuous areas of enclosures. While these responses may help snakes to fight infection, they could also impact host fitness and may contribute to mortality in wild snakes with chronic O. ophiodiicola infection. This work provides a basis for understanding the pathogenicity of O. ophiodiicola and the ecology of SFD by using a model system that incorporates a host species that is easy to procure and maintain in the laboratory.

  20. Metabolic and histopathological profile of Rattus norvegicus (Wistar) experimentally infected by Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Chen, 1935).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Juberlan Silva; Lúcio, Camila dos Santos; Bonfim, Tatiane Cristina dos Santos; Junior, Arnaldo Maldonado; Tunholi, Victor Menezes; Tunholi-Alves, Vinícius Menezes; Mota, Esther Maria; Simões, Raquel de Oliveira; Santana, André Campos; Hooper, Cleber; Pinheiro, Jairo; Bóia, Marcio Neves

    2014-02-01

    Eosinophilic meningitis is a disease characterized by increased eosinophils in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), which is the most commonly caused by invasion of the central nervous system by helminths, as occurs in Angiostrongylus cantonensis infections. The rodent Rattus norvegicus is the definitive natural host and humans act as accidental hosts and can become infected by eating raw or undercooked snails or food contaminated with infective L3 larvae. Recently in Brazil there have been four cases of eosinophilic meningitis due to ingestion of infected Achatina fulica. To evaluate biochemical and histopathological changes caused by this parasite, R. norvegicus were experimentally infected with 100 L3 larvae of A. cantonensis. After the anesthetic procedure, serum from the rodents was collected from the inferior vena cava for evaluation of the levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALKP), gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), total protein and its fractions. During the necropsy, the liver was collected and weighed. Then a 1-g fragment was extracted from the major lobe to quantify the hepatic glycogen and fragment remainder was taken from the same lobe and fixed in Milloning's formalin for histopathological examination. Additionally, helminths were collected from the brain and lungs of the rodents. The activities of AST, ALT, ALKP and GGT in the serum and hepatic glycogen increased in response to infection, while the levels of globulin and total protein increased only in the eighth week of infection and there was a reduction in the levels of serum glucose. Albumin and bilirubin concentrations remained stable during the experiment. Infection with A. cantonensis caused metabolic and histopathological changes in the rodents. This study can contribute to a better understanding of the relationship between A. cantonensis and R. norvegicus. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Macrophage activation associated with chronic murine cytomegalovirus infection results in more severe experimental choroidal neovascularization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott W Cousins

    Full Text Available The neovascular (wet form of age-related macular degeneration (AMD leads to vision loss due to choroidal neovascularization (CNV. Since macrophages are important in CNV development, and cytomegalovirus (CMV-specific IgG serum titers in patients with wet AMD are elevated, we hypothesized that chronic CMV infection contributes to wet AMD, possibly by pro-angiogenic macrophage activation. This hypothesis was tested using an established mouse model of experimental CNV. At 6 days, 6 weeks, or 12 weeks after infection with murine CMV (MCMV, laser-induced CNV was performed, and CNV severity was determined 4 weeks later by analysis of choroidal flatmounts. Although all MCMV-infected mice exhibited more severe CNV when compared with control mice, the most severe CNV developed in mice with chronic infection, a time when MCMV-specific gene sequences could not be detected within choroidal tissues. Splenic macrophages collected from mice with chronic MCMV infection, however, expressed significantly greater levels of TNF-α, COX-2, MMP-9, and, most significantly, VEGF transcripts by quantitative RT-PCR assay when compared to splenic macrophages from control mice. Direct MCMV infection of monolayers of IC-21 mouse macrophages confirmed significant stimulation of VEGF mRNA and VEGF protein as determined by quantitative RT-PCR assay, ELISA, and immunostaining. Stimulation of VEGF production in vivo and in vitro was sensitive to the antiviral ganciclovir. These studies suggest that chronic CMV infection may serve as a heretofore unrecognized risk factor in the pathogenesis of wet AMD. One mechanism by which chronic CMV infection might promote increased CNV severity is via stimulation of macrophages to make pro-angiogenic factors (VEGF, an outcome that requires active virus replication.

  2. Quantification of Pasteurella multocida in experimentally infected pigs using a real-time PCR assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tocqueville, V; Kempf, I; Paboeuf, F; Marois-Créhan, C

    2017-06-01

    The aim of the study was to quantify Pasteurella multocida in experimentally infected pigs using a new qPCR assay based on the sodA gene and validated with 35 P. multocida strains, including strains isolated from pigs with pneumonia, clinically healthy pigs (nasal cavities), and human infections. The specificity of the test was verified with a collection of 60 strains of bacterial species other than P. multocida. The estimated detection threshold was 10 genome equivalents per microliter. The amplification efficiency and value of the correlation coefficients were 95.5% (±3.5%) and 0.995 (±0.005), respectively. Analysis of P. multocida suspensions in Buffered Peptone Water Broth and of samples prepared from lungs experimentally spiked with P. multocida revealed detection thresholds of 1.4CFU/μl and 8.4CFU/μl, respectively. In live pigs, experimentally-infected, approximately 10(5), 10(7) and 10(8)genomeequivalents/ml of P. multocida DNA was detected on Day 8 post-infection in the nasal cavities, tonsils and trachea samples, respectively. In dead pigs, approximatively 10(7)genomeequivalents/ml of P. multocida DNA was detected in the lung tissue with pneumonia. The qPCR assay's diagnostic specificity and sensitivity were 100% and 96%, respectively. This new qPCR assay should be a very useful tool for controlling enzootic pneumonia and studying the dynamics of infections in pig herds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Excretion of (3H)prednisolone in clinically normal and experimentally infected bovine udders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geleta, J.N.; Shimoda, W.; Mercer, H.D.

    1984-08-01

    The excretion rate of (3H)prednisolone from clinically normal and experimentally infected udders of 10 lactating cows was studied. Each quarter of 6 cows was injected with a single dose of (3H)prednisolone mixed with non-radioactive prednisolone equivalent to 10 mg in 10 ml of peanut oil base. Each of the remaining 4 cows was given 40 mg of nonradioactive prednisolone and (3H)prednisolone in 60% ethanol IV. Control and postadministration samples of blood, milk, and urine were examined for radioactivity. The effects of (3H)prednisolone were evaluated in the same cows, first in clinically normal udders, then 2 weeks later in udders experimentally infected with Streptococcus agalactiae. Absorption and elimination of prednisolone were the same before and after induced infection. Within 3 hours after intramammary injection, 95% of the labeled prednisolone was absorbed systemically, less than 5% of this dose was recovered in milk, and 29% was excreted in urine. After IV injection of (3H)prednisolone, less than 0.2% of the total radioactivity was recovered in milk and less than 46% was excreted in urine. Clinical mastitis induced by S agalactiae was moderate. Circulating blood leukocytes and somatic cells in the milk of normal cows remained essentially unchanged. The leukocyte response to induced infection was rapid in blood and milk. Large numbers of leukocytes were noticed in the milk and a severe leukopenia occurred. Prednisolone treatment did not alter the number of somatic cells in milk or reduce the inflammatory response of experimentally infected cows.

  4. Excretion of [3H]prednisolone in clinically normal and experimentally infected bovine udders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geleta, J N; Shimoda, W; Mercer, H D

    1984-08-01

    The excretion rate of [3H]prednisolone from clinically normal and experimentally infected udders of 10 lactating cows was studied. Each quarter of 6 cows was injected with a single dose of [3H]prednisolone mixed with non-radioactive prednisolone equivalent to 10 mg in 10 ml of peanut oil base. Each of the remaining 4 cows was given 40 mg of nonradioactive prednisolone and [3H]prednisolone in 60% ethanol IV. Control and postadministration samples of blood, milk, and urine were examined for radioactivity. The effects of [3H]prednisolone were evaluated in the same cows, first in clinically normal udders, then 2 weeks later in udders experimentally infected with Streptococcus agalactiae. Absorption and elimination of prednisolone were the same before and after induced infection. Within 3 hours after intramammary injection, 95% of the labeled prednisolone was absorbed systemically, less than 5% of this dose was recovered in milk, and 29% was excreted in urine. After IV injection of [3H]prednisolone, less than 0.2% of the total radioactivity was recovered in milk and less than 46% was excreted in urine. Clinical mastitis induced by S agalactiae was moderate. Circulating blood leukocytes and somatic cells in the milk of normal cows remained essentially unchanged. The leukocyte response to induced infection was rapid in blood and milk. Large numbers of leukocytes were noticed in the milk and a severe leukopenia occurred. Prednisolone treatment did not alter the number of somatic cells in milk or reduce the inflammatory response of experimentally infected cows.

  5. Population dynamics of the minute intestinal trematode Haplorchis pumilio following experimental infection of young dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Sofie; Nguyen, Lan Anh; Thamsborg, Stig Milan

    2011-01-01

    to have the highest intensity of infection and contribute the most to the contamination of the environment with FZT eggs in the Nam Dinh province - a highly endemic area for FZTs. Given the free roaming and fish-eating behaviour of many dogs in rural Vietnam controlling the infection in dogs represents......Fishborne zoonotic trematodes (FZT) are highly prevalent in Southeast Asia. Recent studies on domestic animal’s role in the transmission of FZT in Northern Vietnam found that the most prevalent FZT was Haplorchis pumilio. The importance of dogs, cats and pigs was assessed, and dogs were found...... a major challenge. In particular knowledge is needed on the importance of the dog as reservoir to make evidence-based recommendations for control of FZT. On this background, we conducted an experimental infection in dogs with H. pumilio to elucidate population dynamics and host reactions. Eight household...

  6. Nutritional Status Driving Infection by Trypanosoma cruzi: Lessons from Experimental Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Malafaia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the scientific knowledge about protein-energy and micronutrient malnutrition in the context of Chagas disease, especially in experimental models. The search of articles was conducted using the electronic databases of SciELO (Scientific Electronic Library Online, PubMed and MEDLINE published between 1960 and March 2010. It was possible to verify that nutritional deficiencies (protein-energy malnutrition and micronutrient malnutrition exert a direct effect on the infection by T. cruzi. However, little is known about the immunological mechanisms involved in the relationship “nutritional deficiencies and infection by T. cruzi”. A hundred years after the discovery of Chagas disease many aspects of this illness still require clarification, including the effects of nutritional deficiencies on immune and pathological mechanisms of T. cruzi infection.

  7. [Experimental infection of goats with Schistosoma bovis and S. curassoni: comparative pathogenic effects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labbo, R; Boulanger, D; Brémond, P; Chippaux, J P

    2007-03-01

    Specific mortality and morbidity have been quantified in goats experimentally infected with Schistosoma bovis or S. curassoni strains from Niger. The study involved nine animals followed during 380 days after infection with, respectively, 1,800 or 2,400 cercariae. S. bovis was significatively more pathogenic than S. curossoni in terms of mortality, weight loss and packed cell volume decrease. In addition, the intensity of clinical symptoms was significatively and positively correlated to the levels of fecal egg excretion. Compared to non-infected controls, a growth differential of, respectively, 1,600 and 880 grams per month should incite to consider S. bovis and S. curassoni as parasites of serious economical impact in sahelian countries.

  8. Therapy of the experimental infection by Strongyloides venezuelensis in rats with injectable ivermectin or levamizole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubens Campos

    1989-02-01

    Full Text Available For the therapy of human strongyloidiasis, are necessary effective drugs to eliminate both larvae and adult worm parasitism, which may also be used by parenteral route, to obviate the particular conditions presented by many patients. A study based on the experimental infection by Strongyloides venezuelensis in rats was done, administering injectable ivermectin or levamizole. Both drugs were shown to be active, when used in single doses of 0.2 to 0.5 mg/kg of ivermectin, or 26 mg/kg for levamizole. Ivermectin was slightly more effective as far as larval stage of the infection is concerned, and the same happened for levamisole for the adult worm stage. Promising perspectives are visualized to improve the therapy of patients with serious disseminated infection by Strongyloides stercoralis.

  9. Food quality affects secondary consumers even at low quantities: an experimental test with larval European lobster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherina L Schoo

    Full Text Available The issues of food quality and food quantity are crucial for trophic interactions. Although most research has focussed on the primary producer-herbivore link, recent studies have shown that quality effects at the bottom of the food web propagate to higher trophic levels. Negative effects of poor food quality have almost exclusively been demonstrated at higher food quantities. Whether these negative effects have the same impact at low food availability in situations where the majority if not all of the resources are channelled into routine metabolism, is under debate. In this study a tri-trophic food chain was designed, consisting of the algae Rhodomonas salina, the copepod Acartia tonsa and freshly hatched larvae of the European lobster Homarus gammarus. The lobster larvae were presented with food of two different qualities (C:P ratios and four different quantities to investigate the combined effects of food quality and quantity. Our results show that the quality of food has an impact on the condition of lobster larvae even at very low food quantities. Food with a lower C:P content resulted in higher condition of the lobster larvae regardless of the quantity of food. These interacting effects of food quality and food quantity can have far reaching consequences for ecosystem productivity.

  10. Experimental studies of food choices and palatability responses in European subjects exposed to the Umami taste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellisle, France; France, Bellisle

    2008-01-01

    In the Western world, consumers have only recently learned to discriminate the Umami taste, although they have enjoyed its contribution to the palatability of traditional dishes for centuries. The flavor enhancing properties of MSG have been scientifically investigated in European subjects. By adding MSG to such foods as soups, their content in sodium can be decreased without altering palatability, thus favoring a net decrease in sodium intake. Consumers presented with a novel food often have to get accustomed to the new taste before they acquire a preference for the food. A study showed that when such novel foods are added with some appropriate amount of MSG, consumers acquire a preference for them more rapidly. In elderly persons, the addition of MSG to nutritionally valuable foods (soups, vegetables, starches) did induce an increase of intake of MSG-added foods. Total meal size, however, was not affected, since the increased intake of MSG-containing foods was followed by a decreased consumption of foods served later in the meal, such as desserts. The same observations were repeated in hospitalized diabetic patients. Again, the patients ingested more healthy MSG-containing foods and less of other foods, with the same total meal energy intake. These two studies suggested that MSG could be used to stimulate appropriate food choices in certain populations.

  11. Food Quality Affects Secondary Consumers Even at Low Quantities: An Experimental Test with Larval European Lobster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoo, Katherina L.; Aberle, Nicole; Malzahn, Arne M.; Boersma, Maarten

    2012-01-01

    The issues of food quality and food quantity are crucial for trophic interactions. Although most research has focussed on the primary producer – herbivore link, recent studies have shown that quality effects at the bottom of the food web propagate to higher trophic levels. Negative effects of poor food quality have almost exclusively been demonstrated at higher food quantities. Whether these negative effects have the same impact at low food availability in situations where the majority if not all of the resources are channelled into routine metabolism, is under debate. In this study a tri-trophic food chain was designed, consisting of the algae Rhodomonas salina, the copepod Acartia tonsa and freshly hatched larvae of the European lobster Homarus gammarus. The lobster larvae were presented with food of two different qualities (C∶P ratios) and four different quantities to investigate the combined effects of food quality and quantity. Our results show that the quality of food has an impact on the condition of lobster larvae even at very low food quantities. Food with a lower C∶P content resulted in higher condition of the lobster larvae regardless of the quantity of food. These interacting effects of food quality and food quantity can have far reaching consequences for ecosystem productivity. PMID:22442696

  12. Research exemption/experimental use in the European Union: patents do not block the progress of science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaenichen, Hans-Rainer; Pitz, Johann

    2014-11-06

    In the public debate about patents, specifically in the area of biotechnology, the position has been taken that patents block the progress of science. As we demonstrate in this review, this is not the case in the European Union (EU). The national patent acts of the EU member states define research and experimental use exemptions from patent infringement that allow sufficient room for research activities to promote innovation. This review provides a comparative overview of the legal requirements and the extent and limitations of experimental use exemptions, including the so-called Bolar provision, in Germany, the United Kingdom, France, Spain, Italy, and The Netherlands. The legal framework in the respective countries is illustrated with reference to practical examples concerning tests on patent-protected genetic targets and antibodies. Specific questions concerning the use of patent-protected research tools, the outsourcing of research activities, and the use of preparatory and supplying acts for experimental purposes that are necessary for conducting experiments are covered. Copyright © 2015 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  13. The Healing Effect of Licorice on Pseudomonas aeruginosa Infected Burn Wounds in Experimental Rat Model

    OpenAIRE

    Tanideh, Nader; Rokhsari, Pedram; Mehrabani, Davood; Mohammadi Samani, Soleiman; Sabet Sarvestani, Fatemeh; Ashraf, Mohammad Javad; Koohi Hosseinabadi, Omid; Shamsian, Shahram; AHMADI, Nasrollah

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Burn is still one of the most devastating injuries in emergency medicine while improvements in wound healing knowledge and technology have resulted into development of new dressings. This study was undertaken to evaluate the healing effect of licorice in Pseudomonas aeruginosa infected burn wounds of experimental rat model. METHODS One hundred and twenty female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly allocated to 4 equal groups. Group A received silver sulfadiazine ointment, Group B rece...

  14. Treatment of pigs experimentally infected with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Pasteurella multocida, and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae with various antibiotics.

    OpenAIRE

    Stipkovits, L.; Miller, D; Glavits, R; Fodor, L; Burch, D

    2001-01-01

    The authors have performed a comparative study of the efficacy of various in-feed medications for the treatment of 5- to 6-week-old specific pathogen-free (SPF) piglets experimentally infected on day 1 with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, on day 8 with Pasteurella multocida (serotype A), and on day 15 with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (serotype 2). The treatment started on day 9 and continued for 12 consecutive days, then the piglets were euthanized for examination of macroscopic, histologic, an...

  15. Effect of resinous extract from Commiphora swynnertonii (Burrt) on experimental coccidial infection in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakari, Gaymary G; Max, Robert A; Mdegela, Robinson H; Phiri, Elliot C J; Mtambo, Mkumbukwa M A

    2013-02-01

    A crude resinous extract from Commiphora swynnertonii was tested against an experimental coccidial infection in local chickens. A total of 80 growing chickens were randomly assigned into five groups, which received different treatments. Chickens in G1 were not infected with coccidian oocysts and therefore served as a negative control. All chickens in G2, G3, G4 and G5 were infected through oral administration of coccidian oocysts suspension at a dosed rate of 1.5 × 10(4) Eimeria spp. oocysts per bird. Starting from day 3 post-infection (p.i), chickens in different groups were treated for 7 consecutive days as follows: G1 and G2 (positive control) received 5 ml of normal saline as placebo, G3 and G4 were given the extract at 400 and 800 mg/kg bodyweight whereas G5 received anticoccidial drug. Clinical signs, bodyweights, oocysts counts and mortality rates were observed regularly. Results showed that oral administration of the resinous extract to chickens with coccidiosis significantly reduced mortality rate from 94 to 25 % and oocysts counts from 1.03 × 10(5) to 6.55 × 10(3) oocysts/g faeces (p < 0.05). Also a body condition score chart indicated less severe clinical signs of the disease in the groups which received the extract. Mean daily body weights were slightly reduced by the administration of the extract but this effect disappeared by day 7 p.i. These findings clearly indicate that resinous extract from C. swynnertonii has significant anticoccidial effect against experimental Eimeria spp. infection in chickens. A larger field trial to validate the use of the extract in chickens naturally infected with Eimeria spp. is required.

  16. Carbohydrate-rich high-molecular-mass antigens are strongly recognized during experimental Histoplasma capsulatum infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrine Sales Massafera Tristão

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: During histoplasmosis, Histoplasma capsulatum soluble antigens (CFAg can be naturally released by yeast cells. Because CFAg can be specifically targeted during infection, in the present study we investigated CFAg release in experimental murine histoplasmosis, and evaluated the host humoral immune response against high-molecular-mass antigens (hMMAg. >150 kDa, the more immunogenic CFAg fraction. METHODS: Mice were infected with 2.2x10(4 H. capsulatum IMT/HC128 yeast cells. The soluble CFAg, IgG anti-CFAg, IgG anti-hMMAg, and IgG-hMMAg circulating immune complexes (CIC levels were determined by enzymelinked immunosorbent assay, at days 0, 7, 14, and 28 post-infection. RESULTS: We observed a progressive increase in circulating levels of CFAg, IgG anti-CFAg, IgG anti-hMMAg, and IgG-hMMAg CIC after H. capsulatum infection. The hMMAg showed a high percentage of carbohydrates and at least two main immunogenic components. CONCLUSIONS: We verified for the first time that hMMAg from H. capsulatum IMT/HC128 strain induce humoral immune response and lead to CIC formation during experimental histoplasmosis.

  17. Cellular immune responses of the rat to experimental infection with Dermatophilus congolensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodman, J P; Morrow, A M; Heron, I

    1990-11-01

    The host cell-mediated immune response was examined following experimentally-induced infection of rats with Dermatophilus congolensis, the causal agent of the skin disease dermatophilosis. Mononuclear cells (MC) isolated from Wistar rats 10 days following the induction of a third infection underwent a strong and specific proliferative response, as assessed by a [3H]thymidine incorporation assay, when cultured with various concentrations of inactivated D. congolensis cocci. Using specific monoclonal antibodies in an indirect fluorescent antibody test, this in vitro response was found to be characterised by a large expansion of the W3/25 (T-helper phenotype) population to form 56% of the total. Finally, the primed and stimulated MC were assessed for their ability to produce factors capable of inhibiting macrophage migration. The culture supernatants of D. congolensis-stimulated MC from infected rats caused significant migration inhibition of normal rat peritoneal exudate cells, whilst the supernatants of similarly-stimulated MC from naive rats failed to cause significant inhibition. The results show that a MC subpopulation becomes primed following experimentally-induced infection with D. congolensis and becomes activated after subsequent, in vitro, exposure.

  18. Experimental basis for the clinical epidemiology of fungal infections. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffner, A

    1989-10-01

    Based on the concept that the agents of deep fungal infections can be divided into primary pathogens and opportunists the experimental basis for the clinical epidemiology of mycoses is outlined. Kinetics of experimental infections with opportunists and primary pathogens discriminate between the two fungal categories. Natural resistance eliminates opportunists and prevents the establishment of progressive infection in the normal host. Primary pathogens call upon mechanisms of adoptive cell mediated immunity for their control. Therefore athymic mice which are not more susceptible to opportunists than control mice, cannot control infection with primary pathogens. In order to induce comparable overwhelming opportunistic mycoses with reasonable challenge doses, non-specific phagocytic resistance has to be eliminated. In agreement with in vivo studies, in vitro studies of the susceptibility of fungi to killing by phagocytes point out, that the susceptibility of the tissue phase of fungi to killing by "immunologically unarmed" phagocytes discriminates between opportunists and primary pathogens. In order to restrain primary pathogenic fungi, phagocytes have also in vitro to call upon adoptive, T cell-dependent immune mechanisms, which appear superfluous for control of opportunists. This difference explains the discrepant opportunistic proclivities of the two fungal categories. Patients with defective phagocytic defenses are prone to opportunistic mycoses, while deficient cell mediated immunity results in a greater vulnerability to primary pathogens.

  19. Semen variables of sheep (Ovis aries) experimentally infected with Toxoplasma gondii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, W D Z; Costa, A J; Souza, F A; Rodrigues, J D F; Costa, G H N; Soares, V E; Silva, G S

    2009-04-01

    The influence of Toxoplasma gondii on semen variables and sperm morphology of sheep was evaluated in eight reproductive males distributed into three experimental groups: GI, three sheep inoculated with 2.0x10(5) of P strain oocytes; GII, three sheep infected with 1.0x10(6) of RH strain tachyzoites and; GIII two control sheep. Clinical (rectal temperature, cardiac and respiratory frequencies), parasite and serology exams (IIF) were realized. Sperm variables (volume, motility, vigor and concentration) and semen morphology for each sheep were also evaluated. Thus, semen and blood collections were assessed on post-inoculation days (PIDs)-1,3,5,7,11,14 and weekly thereafter up to PID 70. Clinical alterations were observed (hypothermia and anorexia) in infected sheep from groups GI and GII. Parasitic outbreaks were detected in five sheep. All the infected sheep produced antibodies against T. gondii from PID 5 onwards, reaching a peak of 4096 and 8192 for group GI and GII sheep, respectively. Differences (P<0.05) were observed regarding the ejaculate volume between the inoculated groups (oocytes and tachyzoites) and control. Even though experimental toxoplasmic infection resulted in clinical symptomology in the inoculated sheep, the minimal alterations in sperm pathologies could not be directly attributed to T. gondii.

  20. Protein profile of lambs experimentally infected with Haemonchus contortus and supplemented with selenium and copper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fausto, Guilherme Costa; Pivoto, Felipe Lamberti; Costa, Márcio Machado; dos Anjos Lopes, Sônia Terezinha; França, Raqueli Teresinha; Molento, Marcelo Beltrão; Minervino, Antonio Humberto Hamad; da Rocha, João Batista Teixeira; Leal, Marta Lizandra do Rêgo

    2014-08-05

    Gastrointestinal nematodes cause significant economic losses in the sheep industry, with frequent reports of anthelmintic resistance. Therefore, alternative methods to control these parasites are necessary. Thus, the aim of the present study was to assess the effect of treatment with selenium and copper on the protein profile of sheep that were experimentally infected with Haemonchus contortus. Twenty-eight lambs were experimentally infected with H. contortus and divided into four experimental groups as follow: G1--untreated animals; G2--treated with sodium selenite; G3--treated with copper; G4--treated with sodium selenite and copper. The serum protein, body weight and egg count per gram of feces (EPG) were assessed at the baseline and after 20, 40, 60 and 80 days. The parasite burden was assessed 80 days after the beginning of the experiment. Higher levels of total protein and gamma globulin were observed in the lambs treated with sodium selenite and copper on D80. Copper acted as a growth promoter. The copper-supplemented groups exhibited higher daily and total weight gain. The association of selenium and copper altered the protein profile of sheep. Copper and selenium supplementation reduced EPG and worm burden at the end of the experiment. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate the positive effect of the combined parenteral supplementation of Se and Cu on H. contortus infection. This injectable supplementation could be used as an auxiliary method to control H. contortus in sheep.

  1. [Case report: Porcine circovirus type 2 infection in an European wild boar (Sus scrofa) in the state of Brandenburg, Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, C; Neumann, G; Grütze, I; Engelhardt, A; Mirle, C; Ehlert, F; Hlinak, A

    2003-10-01

    This case represents the first case of Porcine Circovirus Type 2 (PCV-2)--infection in a free living European wild boar associated with morphological lesions, which are regarded as characteristic for Postweaning Multisystemic Wasting Syndrome (PMWS) in domestic pigs. The animal, an approximately 10 month old male, was found dead in a rural area within the state of Brandenburg, Germany. The closest commercial pig farm is located in 3 km distance from the spot where the carcass was found. At necropsy, the animal was found to be in a runted condition. Morphological investigation revealed two lesion complexes. Firstly, lymphatic depletion was present in different organs. Mainly the white pulp of the spleen was affected, where lymph follicles and periarteriolar lymphatic sheaths were nearly completely depleted of lymphoid cells. The former lymphatic areas could only be identified by the presence of histiocytic cells. Secondly, there were widely distributed lesions indicative of a bacterial septicemia i.e. purulent-necrotizing lymphadenitis, pulpous hyperplasia of the spleen, miliary lytic liver necroses and foci of fibrinous pneumonia. Within the lesions, bacterial colonies were found (short Gram-negative rods). Bacteriology revealed a septicemic Salmonella choleraesuis var. Kunzendorf--infection. Virologically, the animal was tested with negative results for Classical Swine Fever Virus and PRRSV. The unusual depletion of the lymphatic tissue mainly in the spleen led to the suspicion of a PCV-2 infection. Typical circoviral particles were found by negative-contrast electron microscopy in samples from spleen and lymph nodes. Using a commercial antiserum against Porcine Circovirus, positive staining was found by fluorescence microscopy in tonsils, spleen and lymph nodes. Finally, the virus was identified to be PCV-2 by species-specific PCR. The presented case rises the questions if PCV-2 is endemic in the European wild boar population at least in certain areas, if it is

  2. The impact of citizenship on intermarriage: Quasi-experimental evidence from two European Union Eastern enlargements

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    Davide Azzolini

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: According to assimilation theory, the more immigrants are integrated within host countries the more likely they are to intermarry. However, status exchange theory argues instead that when integration is low, immigrants may use intermarriage as a means of improving their integration prospects in host countries, in which case an increase in levels of integration would reduce immigrants' propensity to intermarry. Objective: To test these two hypotheses, this paper assesses the causal effect of a positive shift in immigrants' level of integration, namely the acquisition of citizenship, on intermarriage in Italy. Over the past 20 years Italy has experienced an unprecedented growth in intermarriage involving primarily Eastern European women. Methods: We study two EU Eastern enlargements, following which citizens of the new EU member countries became EU citizens and thus experienced a marked improvement in their legal status. We apply the synthetic control method to data on marriages between native men and foreign women. Results: We find that the acquisition of citizenship has a significant negative impact on immigrant women's propensity to marry native men. That impact is much greater for immigrants coming from less affluent countries. Conclusions: Our results support the status exchange hypothesis. This can be explained by the poor socioeconomic integration and precarious legal status of immigrants in Italy. Contribution: The growth of intermarriage per se cannot be seen as an indicator of greater immigrant integration. The negative impact of citizenship acquisition on immigrants' propensity to intermarry also calls for a rethinking of the role of institutions such as marriage and citizenship in the process of immigrant integration.

  3. Effects of atmospheric ammonia on young pigs experimentally infected with Ascaris suum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drummond, J.G.; Curtis, S.E.; Simon, J.; Norton, H.W.

    1981-06-01

    Effects of atmospheric ammonia at 69.4 mg/m3 (100 ppm) on productive performance and respiratory tract health of young pigs (starting body weight averaged 7.5 kg) experimentally infected with Ascaris suum (50,000 embryonated ova administered by gavage when pigs were 5 weeks of age) were studied in 5 trials of 4 weeks each (when pigs were 5 to 9 weeks of age). Effects of atmospheric-ammonia exposure and ascarid infection on growth were additive. Compared with controls, percentage reductions in average daily gain were 32%, 28%, and 61% for ammonia-exposed, ascarid-infected, and combined ammonia plus ascarid groups, respectively. Ammonia exposure or ascarid infection alone depressed feed disappearance by 18%. Effects of the 2 factors were additive, resulting in a 35% reduction in feed disappearance. Pigs exposed to the combined factors had an average gain/feed ratio of 0.518, which was less than that of control pigs (0.546), but was greater than that of pigs exposed to atmospheric ammonia (0.489) or pigs infected with ascarids (0.501) alone. Liver scarring, due to larval migration, was not affected by ammonia exposure. Larval migration through the respiratory tract was not confirmed histopathologically in pigs killed 4 weeks after inoculation. A supplementary experiment was conducted which demonstrated that residual evidence of previous pulmonary larval migration was present 2 weeks after inoculation.

  4. Mucosal Immune Responses of Mice Experimentally Infected with Pygidiopsis summa (Trematoda: Heterophyidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Jong-Yil; Park, Young-Jin; Park, Jae-Hwan; Jung, Bong-Kwang

    2014-01-01

    Mucosal immune responses against Pygidiopsis summa (Trematoda: Heterophyidae) infection were studied in ICR mice. Experimental groups consisted of group 1 (uninfected controls), group 2 (infection with 200 metacercariae), and group 3 (immunosuppression with Depo-Medrol and infection with 200 metacercariae). Worms were recovered in the small intestine at days 1, 3, 5, and 7 post-infection (PI). Intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL), mast cells, and goblet cells were counted in intestinal tissue sections stained with Giemsa, astra-blue, and periodic acid-Schiff, respectively. Mucosal IgA levels were measured by ELISA. Expulsion of P. summa from the mouse intestine began to occur from days 3-5 PI which sustained until day 7 PI. The worm expulsion was positively correlated with proliferation of IEL, mast cells, goblet cells, and increase of IgA, although in the case of mast cells significant increase was seen only at day 7 PI. Immunosuppression suppressed all these immune effectors and inhibited worm reduction in the intestine until day 7 PI. The results suggested that various immune effectors which include IEL, goblet cells, mast cells, and IgA play roles in regulating the intestinal mucosal immunity of ICR mice against P. summa infection. PMID:24623878

  5. Galectin-3: A Friend but Not a Foe during Trypanosoma cruzi Experimental Infection

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    Aline A. da Silva

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Trypanosoma cruzi interacts with host cells, including cardiomyocytes, and induces the production of cytokines, chemokines, metalloproteinases, and glycan-binding proteins. Among the glycan-binding proteins is Galectin-3 (Gal-3, which is upregulated after T. cruzi infection. Gal-3 is a member of the lectin family with affinity for β-galactose containing molecules; it can be found in both the nucleus and the cytoplasm and can be either membrane-associated or secreted. This lectin is involved in several immunoregulatory and parasite infection process. Here, we explored the consequences of Gal-3 deficiency during acute and chronic T. cruzi experimental infection. Our results demonstrated that lack of Gal-3 enhanced in vitro replication of intracellular parasites, increased in vivo systemic parasitaemia, and reduced leukocyte recruitment. Moreover, we observed decreased secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines in spleen and heart of infected Gal-3 knockout mice. Lack of Gal-3 also led to elevated mast cell recruitment and fibrosis of heart tissue. In conclusion, galectin-3 expression plays a pivotal role in controlling T. cruzi infection, preventing heart damage and fibrosis.

  6. Cardiac plexus of dogs experimentally infected with Trypanosoma cruzi: inflammatory lesions and quantitative studies

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    Marcelo V. Caliari

    1995-03-01

    Full Text Available Qualitative and quantitative aspects of the superficial and profound cardiac plexus of dogs experimentally infected with Be-62 and Be-78 strains of Trypanosoma cruzi were studied. Animals were autopsied in the acute phase of infection. The inflammatory process, lesions and number of parasites were more intense and frequent in animals infected with the Be-78 strain than in those infected with Be-62. Despite this, no statistically significant differences could be found between the number of neuron bodies in the ganglia of infected and control dogs.Foi realizado estudo qualitativo e quantitativo dos plexos cardíacos superficiais e profundos em cães inoculados com o Trypanosoma cruzi das cepas Be-62 e Be-78 e sacrificados na fase aguda. O processo inflamatório, as lesões e o parasitismo dos plexos foram mais intensos e frequentes nos animais inoculados com a cepa Be-78 do que naqueles inoculados com a cepa Be- 62. Apesar deste fato, não foi verificada diferença estatisticamente significativa entre o número de corpos de neurônio por gânglio dos animais chagásicos e os controles.

  7. Testing sex ratio theory with the malaria parasite Plasmodium mexicanum in natural and experimental infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Allison T; Schall, Jos J

    2014-04-01

    The malaria parasite (Plasmodium) life history accords well with the assumptions of local mate competition (LMC) of sex ratio theory. Within a single meal of the blood-feeding vector, sexually dimorphic gametocyte cells produce gametes (females produce one, males several) that mate and undergo sexual recombination. The theory posits several factors drive the Plasmodium sex ratio: male fecundity (gametes/male gametocyte), number and relative abundance of parasite clones, and gametocyte density. We measured these traits for the lizard malaria parasite, Plasmodium mexicanum, with a large sample of natural infections and infections from experiments that manipulated clonal diversity. Sex ratio in single-clone infections was slightly female-biased, but matched predictions of theory for this low-fecundity species. Sex ratio was less female-biased in clonally diverse infections as predicted by LMC for the experimental, but not natural infections. Gametocyte density was not positively related to sex ratio. These results are explained by the P. mexicanum life history of naturally low clonal diversity and high gametocyte production. This is the first study of a natural malaria system that examines all traits relevant to LMC in individual vertebrate hosts and suggests a striking example of sex ratio theory having significance for human public health. © 2013 The Author(s). Evolution © 2013 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  8. Clinico-pathological studies in cattle experimentally infected with Taenia saginata eggs : research communication

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    A. Oryan

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available Calves 1-2 months old were experimentally infected with eggs of Taenia saginata and clinical and haematological deviations, development and distribution of cysticerci and pathological changes were recorded. The calves infected with 5 000, 10 000 or 50 000 eggs showed an increase in pulse and respiratory rates. The animals that received 50 000 eggs had significantly increased pulse (p<0.05 and respiratory rates (p<0.005. The symptoms were more severe in young, 30-day-old calves infected with 50 000 eggs. Haemoglobin concentration, haematocrit values and red blood cell count decreased, but white blood cell count increased slightly. Lymphocytes and eosinophils also increased up to 88%and 14% (p<0.05, respectively. Most of the cysticerci were not fully formed 1 month post-infection, but at 2 months the cysts were fully mature and at 4 months, some cysts had degenerated. There was no uniformpattern of distribution of cysticerci in the body of infected calves, but the most commonly affected sites were masseter and heart muscles, followed by diaphragm, tongue and other skeletal muscles. The maximum concentration of 8-14 cysticerci per 10 g of tissue was recorded in masseter muscles and heart. The affected parts revealed tissue reactions that included pressure atrophy, necrosis and fibrosis. Microscopically, the lesions comprised infiltration with lymphocytes, plasma cells, eosinophils and macrophages, fibrosis, necrosis and calcification. The tissue reaction was severe in calves infected with 50 000 eggs. The severity of clinical signs, haematological and pathological changes depended mostly on the age of the animals and dose of infection.

  9. Experimental Infection of Rabbits with Rabbit and Genotypes 1 and 4 Hepatitis E Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hongxia; Zheng, Lin; Liu, Yunbo; Zhao, Chenyan; Harrison, Tim J.; Ma, Yuyuan; Sun, Shuhua; Zhang, Jingang; Wang, Youchun

    2010-01-01

    Background A recent study provided evidence that farmed rabbits in China harbor a novel hepatitis E virus (HEV) genotype. Although the rabbit HEV isolate had 77–79% nucleotide identity to the mammalian HEV genotypes 1 to 4, their genomic organization is very similar. Since rabbits are used widely experimentally, including as models of infection, we investigated whether they constitute an appropriate animal model for human HEV infection. Methods Forty-two SPF rabbits were divided randomly into eleven groups and inoculated with six different isolates of rabbit HEV, two different doses of a second-passage rabbit HEV, and with genotype 1 and 4 HEV. Sera and feces were collected weekly after inoculation. HEV antigen, RNA, antibody and alanine aminotransferase in sera and HEV RNA in feces were detected. The liver samples were collected during necropsy subject to histopathological examination. Findings Rabbits inoculated with rabbit HEV became infected with HEV, with viremia, fecal virus shedding and high serum levels of viral antigens, and developed hepatitis, with elevation of the liver enzyme, ALT. The severity of disease corresponded to the infectious dose (genome equivalents), with the most severe hepatic disease caused by strain GDC54-18. However, only two of nine rabbits infected with HEV genotype 4, and none infected with genotype 1, developed hepatitis although six of nine rabbits inoculated with the genotype 1 HEV and in all rabbits inoculated with the genotype 4 HEV seroconverted to be positive for anti-HEV IgG antibody by 14 weeks post-inoculation. Conclusions These data indicate that rabbits are an appropriate model for rabbit HEV infection but are not likely to be useful for the study of human HEV. The rabbit HEV infection of rabbits may provide an appropriate parallel animal model to study HEV pathogenesis. PMID:20161794

  10. Experimental infection of rabbits with rabbit and genotypes 1 and 4 hepatitis E viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hongxia; Zheng, Lin; Liu, Yunbo; Zhao, Chenyan; Harrison, Tim J; Ma, Yuyuan; Sun, Shuhua; Zhang, Jingang; Wang, Youchun

    2010-02-11

    A recent study provided evidence that farmed rabbits in China harbor a novel hepatitis E virus (HEV) genotype. Although the rabbit HEV isolate had 77-79% nucleotide identity to the mammalian HEV genotypes 1 to 4, their genomic organization is very similar. Since rabbits are used widely experimentally, including as models of infection, we investigated whether they constitute an appropriate animal model for human HEV infection. Forty-two SPF rabbits were divided randomly into eleven groups and inoculated with six different isolates of rabbit HEV, two different doses of a second-passage rabbit HEV, and with genotype 1 and 4 HEV. Sera and feces were collected weekly after inoculation. HEV antigen, RNA, antibody and alanine aminotransferase in sera and HEV RNA in feces were detected. The liver samples were collected during necropsy subject to histopathological examination. Rabbits inoculated with rabbit HEV became infected with HEV, with viremia, fecal virus shedding and high serum levels of viral antigens, and developed hepatitis, with elevation of the liver enzyme, ALT. The severity of disease corresponded to the infectious dose (genome equivalents), with the most severe hepatic disease caused by strain GDC54-18. However, only two of nine rabbits infected with HEV genotype 4, and none infected with genotype 1, developed hepatitis although six of nine rabbits inoculated with the genotype 1 HEV and in all rabbits inoculated with the genotype 4 HEV seroconverted to be positive for anti-HEV IgG antibody by 14 weeks post-inoculation. These data indicate that rabbits are an appropriate model for rabbit HEV infection but are not likely to be useful for the study of human HEV. The rabbit HEV infection of rabbits may provide an appropriate parallel animal model to study HEV pathogenesis.

  11. Experimental infection of rabbits with rabbit and genotypes 1 and 4 hepatitis E viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongxia Ma

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A recent study provided evidence that farmed rabbits in China harbor a novel hepatitis E virus (HEV genotype. Although the rabbit HEV isolate had 77-79% nucleotide identity to the mammalian HEV genotypes 1 to 4, their genomic organization is very similar. Since rabbits are used widely experimentally, including as models of infection, we investigated whether they constitute an appropriate animal model for human HEV infection. METHODS: Forty-two SPF rabbits were divided randomly into eleven groups and inoculated with six different isolates of rabbit HEV, two different doses of a second-passage rabbit HEV, and with genotype 1 and 4 HEV. Sera and feces were collected weekly after inoculation. HEV antigen, RNA, antibody and alanine aminotransferase in sera and HEV RNA in feces were detected. The liver samples were collected during necropsy subject to histopathological examination. FINDINGS: Rabbits inoculated with rabbit HEV became infected with HEV, with viremia, fecal virus shedding and high serum levels of viral antigens, and developed hepatitis, with elevation of the liver enzyme, ALT. The severity of disease corresponded to the infectious dose (genome equivalents, with the most severe hepatic disease caused by strain GDC54-18. However, only two of nine rabbits infected with HEV genotype 4, and none infected with genotype 1, developed hepatitis although six of nine rabbits inoculated with the genotype 1 HEV and in all rabbits inoculated with the genotype 4 HEV seroconverted to be positive for anti-HEV IgG antibody by 14 weeks post-inoculation. CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that rabbits are an appropriate model for rabbit HEV infection but are not likely to be useful for the study of human HEV. The rabbit HEV infection of rabbits may provide an appropriate parallel animal model to study HEV pathogenesis.

  12. Antibiotic embedded absorbable prosthesis for prevention of surgical mesh infection: experimental study in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Grau, J M; Morales-Conde, S; González Galán, V; Martín Cartes, J A; Docobo Durantez, F; Padillo Ruiz, F J

    2015-04-01

    Ventral hernias are a common problem in a general surgery and hernioplasty is an integral part of a general surgeon's practice. The use of prosthetic material has drastically reduced the risk of recurrence, but has introduced additional potential complications such as surgical wound infections, adhesion formation, graft rejection, etc. The development of a wound infection in a hernia that is repaired with a prosthetic material is a grave complication, often requiring removal of the prosthesis. This experimental study examined efficacy of completely absorbable, hydrophilic, PGA-TMC (polyglycolic acid-trimethylene carbonate) prosthesis impregnated with antibiotic for reduction of infectious complications. Antibiotic-impregnated PGA-TMC prostheses were placed intraperitoneally in 90 Wistar white rats that were randomized and distributed into four groups. Group 0 (23 rats): there were placed PGA-TMC prosthesis without antibiotic impregnation (control group). Group 1 (25 rats): meshes were placed and infected later with 1 × 10(8) UFC of S. aureus/1 ml/2 cm(2) (Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538 American Type Culture Collection, Rockville, MD). Group 2 (21 rats): cefazolin-impregnated prostheses were placed (1 g × 100 ml, at the rate of 1 ml/cm(2) of prosthesis) and were subsequently infected with the same bacterial inoculate. Group 3 (21 rats): cefazolin-impregnated prostheses with double quantity of cefazolin and infected. A week later these animals were killed and specimens were extracted for bacterial quantification and histological studies. Evident decrease of bacterial colonization was observed in series 2 and 3 [the ones impregnated with cefazolin, in comparison with the group 1 (infected without previous antibiotic impregnation)] with statistically significant results (p prosthesis when placing it in contact with intraabdominal viscera. However, cefazolin impregnation of the mesh has reduced an adhesion formation, mostly when the infection reached a

  13. Helicobacter pylori infection reduces disease severity in an experimental model of multiple sclerosis

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    Katherine eCook

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent research has demonstrated that infection with the bacterial pathogen Helicobacter pylori is less common amongst patients with multiple sclerosis (MS, an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS. We compared the prevalence of H. pylori amongst MS patients and healthy controls, and also investigated the impact of this infection on an animal model for MS, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE.The H. pylori status of 71 MS patients and 42 healthy controls was determined by serology. Groups of C57BL/6 mice were infected with H. pylori, or given a placebo, prior to inducing EAE. Clinical scores were assessed for all mice, and spleens and spinal cord tissue were harvested. CD4+ T cell subsets were quantified by flow cytometry, and T cell proliferation assays were performed.In MS patients the seroprevalence of H. pylori was half that of healthy controls (p=0.018. Over three independent experiments, prior H. pylori infection had a moderate effect in reducing the severity of EAE (p = 0.012. In line with this, the antigen-specific T cell proliferative responses of infected animals were significantly reduced (p=0.001, and there was a 4-fold reduction in the number of CD4+ cells in the CNS. CD4+ populations in both the CNS and the spleens of infected mice also contained greatly reduced proportions of IFNγ+, IL-17+, T-bet+, and RORγt+ cells, but the proportions of Foxp3+ cells were equivalent. There were no differences in the frequency of splenic CD4+cells expressing markers of apoptosis between infected and uninfected animals.H. pylori was less prevalent amongst MS patients. In mice, the infection exerted some protection against EAE, inhibiting both Th1 and Th17 responses. This could not be explained by the presence of increased numbers of Foxp3+ regulatory T cells, or T cell apoptosis. This is the first direct experimental evidence showing that H. pylori may provide protection against inflammatory demyelination

  14. Young Sprague Dawley rats infected by Plasmodium berghei: A relevant experimental model to study cerebral malaria.

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    Sokhna Keita Alassane

    Full Text Available Cerebral malaria (CM is the most severe manifestation of human malaria yet is still poorly understood. Mouse models have been developed to address the subject. However, their relevance to mimic human pathogenesis is largely debated. Here we study an alternative cerebral malaria model with an experimental Plasmodium berghei Keyberg 173 (K173 infection in Sprague Dawley rats. As in Human, not all infected subjects showed cerebral malaria, with 45% of the rats exhibiting Experimental Cerebral Malaria (ECM symptoms while the majority (55% of the remaining rats developed severe anemia and hyperparasitemia (NoECM. These results allow, within the same population, a comparison of the noxious effects of the infection between ECM and severe malaria without ECM. Among the ECM rats, 77.8% died between day 5 and day 12 post-infection, while the remaining rats were spontaneously cured of neurological signs within 24-48 hours. The clinical ECM signs observed were paresis quickly evolving to limb paralysis, global paralysis associated with respiratory distress, and coma. The red blood cell (RBC count remained normal but a drastic decrease of platelet count and an increase of white blood cell numbers were noted. ECM rats also showed a decrease of glucose and total CO2 levels and an increase of creatinine levels compared to control rats or rats with no ECM. Assessment of the blood-brain barrier revealed loss of integrity, and interestingly histopathological analysis highlighted cyto-adherence and sequestration of infected RBCs in brain vessels from ECM rats only. Overall, this ECM rat model showed numerous clinical and histopathological features similar to Human CM and appears to be a promising model to achieve further understanding the CM pathophysiology in Humans and to evaluate the activity of specific antimalarial drugs in avoiding/limiting cerebral damages from malaria.

  15. Histological assessment of granulomas in natural and experimental Schistosoma mansoni infections using whole slide imaging.

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    Kátia B Amaral

    Full Text Available The pathology of schistosomiasis mansoni, a neglected tropical disease of great clinical and socioeconomic importance, results from the parasite eggs that become trapped in host tissues, particularly in the liver and intestines. Continuous antigenic stimulation from these eggs leads to recruitment of inflammatory cells to the sites of infection with formation of periovular granulomas. These complex structures have variable size and composition and are the most striking histopathological feature of schistosomiasis mansoni. However, evaluation of granulomas by conventional microscopy methods is time-consuming and limited, especially in large-scale studies. Here, we used high resolution Whole Slide Imaging (WSI, which allows fast scanning of entire histological slides, and multiple morphometric evaluations, to assess the granulomatous response elicited in target organs (liver, small and large intestines of two models of schistosomiasis mansoni. One of the advantages of WSI, also termed virtual microscopy, is that it generates images that simultaneously offer high resolution and a wide field of observation. By using a model of natural (Nectomys squamipes, a wild reservoir captured from endemic areas in Brazil and experimental (Swiss mouse infection with Schistosoma mansoni, we provided the first detailed WSI characterization of granulomas and other pathological aspects. WSI and quantitative analyses enabled a fast and reliable assessment of the number, evolutional types, frequency and areas of granulomas and inflammatory infiltrates and revealed that target organs are differentially impacted by inflammatory responses in the natural and experimental infections. Remarkably, high-resolution analysis of individual eosinophils, key cells elicited by this helminthic infection, showed a great difference in eosinophil numbers between the two infections. Moreover, features such as the intestinal egg path and confluent granulomas were uncovered. Thus, WSI may

  16. Young Sprague Dawley rats infected by Plasmodium berghei: A relevant experimental model to study cerebral malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keita Alassane, Sokhna; Nicolau-Travers, Marie-Laure; Menard, Sandie; Andreoletti, Olivier; Cambus, Jean-Pierre; Gaudre, Noémie; Wlodarczyk, Myriam; Blanchard, Nicolas; Berry, Antoine; Abbes, Sarah; Colongo, David; Faye, Babacar; Augereau, Jean-Michel; Lacroux, Caroline; Iriart, Xavier; Benoit-Vical, Françoise

    2017-01-01

    Cerebral malaria (CM) is the most severe manifestation of human malaria yet is still poorly understood. Mouse models have been developed to address the subject. However, their relevance to mimic human pathogenesis is largely debated. Here we study an alternative cerebral malaria model with an experimental Plasmodium berghei Keyberg 173 (K173) infection in Sprague Dawley rats. As in Human, not all infected subjects showed cerebral malaria, with 45% of the rats exhibiting Experimental Cerebral Malaria (ECM) symptoms while the majority (55%) of the remaining rats developed severe anemia and hyperparasitemia (NoECM). These results allow, within the same population, a comparison of the noxious effects of the infection between ECM and severe malaria without ECM. Among the ECM rats, 77.8% died between day 5 and day 12 post-infection, while the remaining rats were spontaneously cured of neurological signs within 24-48 hours. The clinical ECM signs observed were paresis quickly evolving to limb paralysis, global paralysis associated with respiratory distress, and coma. The red blood cell (RBC) count remained normal but a drastic decrease of platelet count and an increase of white blood cell numbers were noted. ECM rats also showed a decrease of glucose and total CO2 levels and an increase of creatinine levels compared to control rats or rats with no ECM. Assessment of the blood-brain barrier revealed loss of integrity, and interestingly histopathological analysis highlighted cyto-adherence and sequestration of infected RBCs in brain vessels from ECM rats only. Overall, this ECM rat model showed numerous clinical and histopathological features similar to Human CM and appears to be a promising model to achieve further understanding the CM pathophysiology in Humans and to evaluate the activity of specific antimalarial drugs in avoiding/limiting cerebral damages from malaria.

  17. Experimental cross-species infection of common marmosets by titi monkey adenovirus.

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    Guixia Yu

    Full Text Available Adenoviruses are DNA viruses that infect a number of vertebrate hosts and are associated with both sporadic and epidemic disease in humans. We previously identified a novel adenovirus, titi monkey adenovirus (TMAdV, as the cause of a fulminant pneumonia outbreak in a colony of titi monkeys (Callicebus cupreus at a national primate center in 2009. Serological evidence of infection by TMAdV was also found in a human researcher at the facility and household family member, raising concerns for potential cross-species transmission of the virus. Here we present experimental evidence of cross-species TMAdV infection in common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus. Nasal inoculation of a cell cultured-adapted TMAdV strain into three marmosets produced an acute, mild respiratory illness characterized by low-grade fever, reduced activity, anorexia, and sneezing. An increase in virus-specific neutralization antibody titers accompanied the development of clinical signs. Although serially collected nasal swabs were positive for TMAdV for at least 8 days, all 3 infected marmosets spontaneously recovered by day 12 post-inoculation, and persistence of the virus in tissues could not be established. Thus, the pathogenesis of experimental inoculation of TMAdV in common marmosets resembled the mild, self-limiting respiratory infection typically seen in immunocompetent human hosts rather than the rapidly progressive, fatal pneumonia observed in 19 of 23 titi monkeys during the prior 2009 outbreak. These findings further establish the potential for adenovirus cross-species transmission and provide the basis for development of a monkey model useful for assessing the zoonotic potential of adenoviruses.

  18. Efficiency of the oral, intramuscular and subcutaneous routes for the experimental infection of hamster and sheep with Schistosoma bovis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleaga, Ana; Ramajo, Vicente

    2004-09-20

    The percutaneous administration of cercariae is the usual method for experimental infections with Schistosoma bovis. These procedures are laborious and have important inconveniences when working with a large number of animals, especially if they are ruminants. In the present study, the efficiency of the oral, intramuscular and subcutaneous routes are evaluated by comparison with the percutaneous route in experimental infections with S. bovis. The infections developed in hamsters and sheep were evaluated taking as a basis the parasite burden, the concentrations of eggs in tissues and the levels of anti-Schistosoma antibodies. The oral infection failed in both hamsters and sheep. The administration of the cercariae by the intramuscular route was effective in sheep, developing infections of intensity similar to that of the infections acquired percutaneously. In hamsters, on the contrary, although all the animals developed the infection, they were very little intense. The injection of the cercariae by the subcutaneous route induces acceptable infections in hamsters and can also be an alternative route to percutaneous exposure. The levels of the anti-Schistosoma bovis antibodies detected in hamster and sheep were proportional to the number of worms present, which shows that the humoral response is a good indicator of the intensity of the infections. It can be concluded that the intramuscular route is a good alternative to the percutaneous route for experimental infections of sheep with S. bovis. Likewise, the subcutaneous route can also substitute, with some advantages, the percutaneous infections in hamsters.

  19. Molecular evolution of GB virus B hepatitis virus during acute resolving and persistent infections in experimentally infected tamarins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Takikawa, Shingo; Engle, Ronald E; Faulk, Kristina N

    2010-01-01

    GB virus B (GBV-B) causes acute hepatitis in experimentally infected tamarins. We compared evolutionary features in acute resolving and persistent GBV-B infection. We detected no evidence of evolution in four animals with clearance during weeks 9-12, whereas three animals with clearance during......(-3) substitutions per site year(-1) during weeks 1-52 and 53-104, respectively. Thus, there was a significant decrease in evolution over time, as found for hepatitis C virus. The rate of non-synonymous substitution per non-synonymous site compared with that of synonymous substitution per synonymous site decreased...... weeks 13-26 had several substitutions in their polyprotein sequence. A single tamarin had long-term GBV-B viraemia; analysis of virus recovered at weeks 2, 5, 12, 20, 26, 52 and 104 demonstrated that mutations accumulated over time. Overall, the amino acid substitution rate was 3.5x10(-3) and 1.1x10...

  20. Experimental Ascaris suum infection in the pig: worm population kinetics following single inoculations with three doses of infective eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roepstorff, A; Eriksen, L; Slotved, H C; Nansen, P

    1997-10-01

    To study population kinetics during primary Ascaris suum infections, 3 groups of 52 pigs each were inoculated with 100, 1000, or 10,000 infective eggs. In all groups, the majority of larvae was found in the liver on day 3 post inoculation (p.i.) and in the lungs on day 7 p.i. Liver white spots, caused by migrating larvae, were most numerous at day 7 p.i., whereafter they gradually healed, and only low numbers of granulation-tissue type white spots and lymphonodular white spots persisted at days 21-56 p.i. Independent of dose level, 47-58% of the inoculated eggs were recovered as larvae in the small intestine on day 10 p.i., but most larvae were eliminated at days 17-21 p.i. This elimination started earlier and removed a higher percentage of the worms with increasing inoculation dose, resulting in small strongly aggregated worm populations by day 28 p.i. (k of the negative binomial distribution was low: 0.2-0.4) without significant differences between groups. Thus, overdispersion, which is a characteristic of both porcine and human ascarosis, is found here under experimental conditions where aggregation factors like host behaviour, transmission rate, host status etc have been partly or totally controlled.

  1. Establishment of a bacterial infection model using the European honeybee, Apis mellifera L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenichi Ishii

    Full Text Available Injection of human pathogenic bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Serratia marcescens, Salmonella enterica, Staphylococcus aureus, and Listeria monocytogenes into the hemocoel of honeybee (Apis mellifera L. workers kills the infected bees. The bee-killing effects of the pathogens were affected by temperature, and the LD₅₀ values at 37°C were more than 100-fold lower than those at 15°C. Gene-disrupted S. aureus mutants of virulence genes such as agrA, saeS, arlR, srtA, hla, and hlb had attenuated bee-killing ability. Nurse bees were less susceptible than foragers and drones to S. aureus infection. Injection of antibiotics clinically used for humans had therapeutic effects against S. aureus infections of bees, and the ED₅₀ values of these antibiotics were comparable with those determined in mammalian models. Moreover, the effectiveness of orally administered antibiotics was consistent between honeybees and mammals. These findings suggest that the honeybee could be a useful model for assessing the pathogenesis of human-infecting bacteria and the effectiveness of antibiotics.

  2. Fasciola hepatica: comparative metacercarial productions in experimentally-infected Galba truncatula and Pseudosuccinea columella

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    Vignoles Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As large numbers of metacercariae of Fasciola hepatica are necessary for research, experimental infections of Galba truncatula and Pseudosuccinea columella with this digenean were carried out to determine the better intermediate host for metacercarial production and, consequently, the most profitable snail for decreasing the cost price of these larvae. Pre-adult snails (4 mm in shell height originating from two populations per lymnaeid species were individually exposed to two or five miracidia, raised at 23 °C and followed for cercarial shedding up to their death. Compared to values noted in G. truncatula, the survival of P. columella on day 30 post-exposure was significantly greater, while the prevalence of F. hepatica infection was significantly lower. In the four P. columella groups, metacercarial production was significantly greater than that noted in the four groups of G. truncatula (347–453 per cercariae-shedding snail versus 163–275, respectively. Apart from one population of G. truncatula, the use of five miracidia per snail at exposure significantly increased the prevalence of F. hepatica in P. columella and the other population of G. truncatula, whereas it did not have any clear effect on the mean number of metacercariae. The use of P. columella for experimental infections with F. hepatica resulted in significantly higher metacercarial production than that noted with G. truncatula, in spite of a lower prevalence for the former lymnaeid. This finding allows for a significant decrease in the cost price of these larvae for commercial production.

  3. Prevention of multidrug-resistant infections from contaminated duodenoscopes: Position Statement of the European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) and European Society of Gastroenterology Nurses and Associates (ESGENA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beilenhoff, Ulrike; Biering, Holger; Blum, Reinhard; Brljak, Jadranka; Cimbro, Monica; Dumonceau, Jean-Marc; Hassan, Cesare; Jung, Michael; Neumann, Christiane; Pietsch, Michael; Pineau, Lionel; Ponchon, Thierry; Rejchrt, Stanislav; Rey, Jean-François; Schmidt, Verona; Tillett, Jayne; van Hooft, Jeanin

    2017-11-01

    Patients should be informed about the benefits and risks of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP)Only specially trained and competent personnel should carry out endoscope reprocessing.Manufacturers of duodenoscopes should provide detailed instructions on how to use and reprocess their equipment.In the case of modifications to their equipment, manufacturers should provide updated instructions for use.Detailed reprocessing protocols based on the manufacturer's instructions for use should clearly lay out the different reprocessing steps necessary for each endoscope model.Appropriate cleaning equipment should be used for duodenoscopes in compliance with the manufacturer's instructions for use. Only purpose-designed, endoscope type-specific, single-use cleaning brushes should be used, to ensure optimal cleaning. As soon as the endoscope is withdrawn from the patient, bedside cleaning should be performed, followed by leak testing, thorough manual cleaning steps, and automated reprocessing, in order to: · Remove debris from external and internal surfaces;. · Prevent any drying of body fluids, blood, or debris;. · Prevent any formation of biofilms.. In addition to the leak test, visual inspection of the distal end as well as regular maintenance of duodenoscopes should be performed according to the manufacturer's instructions for use, in order to detect any damage at an early stage.The entire reprocessing procedure in endoscope washer-disinfectors (EWDs) should be validated according to the European and International Standard, EN ISO 15883. Routine technical tests of EWDs should be performed according to the validation reports.Microbiological surveillance of a proportion of the department's endoscopes should be performed every 3 months, with the requirement that all endoscopes used in the unit are tested at least once a year.In the case of suspected endoscopy-related infection, the relevant device (e. g., endoscope, EWD) should be taken out of service

  4. Buparvaquone is active against Neospora caninum in vitro and in experimentally infected mice

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    Joachim Müller

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The naphthoquinone buparvaquone is currently the only drug used against theileriosis. Here, the effects of buparvaquone were investigated in vitro and in an experimental mouse model for Neospora caninum infection. In 4-day proliferation assays, buparvaquone efficiently inhibited N. caninum tachyzoite replication (IC50 = 4.9 nM; IC100 = 100 nM. However, in the long term tachyzoites adapted and resumed proliferation in the presence of 100 nM buparvaquone after 20 days of cultivation. Parasiticidal activity was noted after 9 days of culture in 0.5 µM or 6 days in 1 µM buparvaquone. TEM of N. caninum infected fibroblasts treated with 1 µM buparvaquone showed that the drug acted rather slowly, and ultrastructural changes were evident only after 3–5 days of treatment, including severe alterations in the parasite cytoplasm, changes in the composition of the parasitophorous vacuole matrix and a diminished integrity of the vacuole membrane. Treatment of N. caninum infected mice with buparvaquone (100 mg/kg either by intraperitoneal injection or gavage prevented neosporosis symptoms in 4 out of 6 mice in the intraperitoneally treated group, and in 6 out of 7 mice in the group receiving oral treatment. In the corresponding controls, all 6 mice injected intraperitoneally with corn oil alone died of acute neosporosis, and 4 out of 6 mice died in the orally treated control group. Assessment of infection intensities in the treatment groups showed that, compared to the drug treated groups, the controls showed a significantly higher parasite load in the lungs while cerebral parasite load was higher in the buparvaquone-treated groups. Thus, although buparvaquone did not eliminate the parasites infecting the CNS, the drug represents an interesting lead with the potential to eliminate, or at least diminish, fetal infection during pregnancy.

  5. An experimental ovine Theileriosis: The effect of Theileria lestoquardi infection on cardiovascular system in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaghfoori, Saeed; Razmi, Gholam Reza; Mohri, Mehrdad; Razavizadeh, Ali Reza Taghavi; Movassaghi, Ahmad Reza

    2016-09-01

    The malignant ovine theileriosis is caused by Theileria lestoquardi, which is highly pathogenic in sheep. Theileriosis involves different organs in ruminants, but the effect of the disease on the cardiovascular system is unclear. To understand the pathogenesis of T. lestoquardi on the cardiovascular system, Baluchi breed sheep were infected with the mentioned parasite by releasing unfed adults of Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum, which were infected with T. lestoquardi. The infected sheep were clinically examined on days 0, 2, 5, 7, 10, 12, 14, 17, and 21, and the blood samples were collected for biochemical parameters measurement. At termination of the experiment, the infected sheep were euthanized and pathological examinations of heart tissue were conducted. During experimental infection of sheep with T. lestoquardi, activities of cardiac troponin I (cTnI), lactate dehydrogenase, and aspartate aminotransferase, were significantly increased (P˂0.05), while a conspicuous decrease (P˂0.05) was observed in creatine phosphokinase activities. Alterations made in biochemical factors almost coincided with the presence of piroplasm in the blood and schizont in lymph nodes. Maximum and minimum of parasitemia in the sheep stood between 3.3% and 0.28%, respectively. In addition, electrocardiography revealed sinus tachycardia, sinus arrhythmia, sino-atrial block and ST-elevation, atrial premature beat, and alteration in QRS and in T waves' amplitude. Heart histopathological examination showed hyperemia, infiltration of mononuclear inflammatory cells into interstitial tissue, endocarditis, and focal necrosis of cardiac muscle cells. In addition, in one of the sheep, definite occurrence of infarction was observed. The results indicate that T. lestoquardi infection has devastating pathological impacts on the cardiovascular system of sheep. Furthermore, measurement of the cTnI amount is a useful biochemical factor for diagnosis and for better understanding of the severity and

  6. Buparvaquone is active against Neospora caninum in vitro and in experimentally infected mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Joachim; Aguado-Martinez, Adriana; Manser, Vera; Balmer, Vreni; Winzer, Pablo; Ritler, Dominic; Hostettler, Isabel; Arranz-Solís, David; Ortega-Mora, Luis; Hemphill, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The naphthoquinone buparvaquone is currently the only drug used against theileriosis. Here, the effects of buparvaquone were investigated in vitro and in an experimental mouse model for Neospora caninum infection. In 4-day proliferation assays, buparvaquone efficiently inhibited N. caninum tachyzoite replication (IC50 = 4.9 nM; IC100 = 100 nM). However, in the long term tachyzoites adapted and resumed proliferation in the presence of 100 nM buparvaquone after 20 days of cultivation. Parasiticidal activity was noted after 9 days of culture in 0.5 µM or 6 days in 1 µM buparvaquone. TEM of N. caninum infected fibroblasts treated with 1 µM buparvaquone showed that the drug acted rather slowly, and ultrastructural changes were evident only after 3–5 days of treatment, including severe alterations in the parasite cytoplasm, changes in the composition of the parasitophorous vacuole matrix and a diminished integrity of the vacuole membrane. Treatment of N. caninum infected mice with buparvaquone (100 mg/kg) either by intraperitoneal injection or gavage prevented neosporosis symptoms in 4 out of 6 mice in the intraperitoneally treated group, and in 6 out of 7 mice in the group receiving oral treatment. In the corresponding controls, all 6 mice injected intraperitoneally with corn oil alone died of acute neosporosis, and 4 out of 6 mice died in the orally treated control group. Assessment of infection intensities in the treatment groups showed that, compared to the drug treated groups, the controls showed a significantly higher parasite load in the lungs while cerebral parasite load was higher in the buparvaquone-treated groups. Thus, although buparvaquone did not eliminate the parasites infecting the CNS, the drug represents an interesting lead with the potential to eliminate, or at least diminish, fetal infection during pregnancy. PMID:25941626

  7. Experimental infection of rabbits with bovine viral diarrhoea virus by a natural route of exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) is an important pathogen of cattle that can naturally infect a wide range of even-toed ungulates. Non-bovine hosts may represent reservoirs for the virus that have the potential to hamper BVDV eradication programs usually focused on cattle. Rabbits are very abundant in countries such as the United Kingdom or Australia and are often living on or near livestock pastures. Earlier reports indicated that rabbits can propagate BVDV upon intravenous exposure and that natural infection of rabbits with BVDV may occur but experimental proof of infection of rabbits by a natural route is lacking. Therefore, New Zealand White rabbits were exposed to a Scottish BVDV field strain intravenously, oro-nasally and by contaminating their hay with virus. None of the animals showed any clinical signs. However, the lymphoid organs from animals sacrificed at day five after exposure showed histological changes typical of transient infection with pestivirus. Most organ samples and some buffy coat samples were virus positive at day five but saliva samples remained negative. Development of antibodies was observed in all intravenously challenged animals, in all of the nebulised group and in four of six animals exposed to contaminated hay. To our knowledge this is the first report of BVDV propagation in a species other than ruminants or pigs after exposure to the virus by a natural route. However, to assess the role of rabbits as a potential reservoir for BVDV it remains to be determined whether persistent infection caused by intra-uterine infection is possible and whether BVDV is circulating in wild rabbit populations. PMID:24690167

  8. Humoral immunity through immunoglobulin M protects mice from an experimental actinomycetoma infection by Nocardia brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas-Carmona, Mario C; Pérez-Rivera, Isabel

    2004-10-01

    An experimental model of infection with Nocardia brasiliensis, used as an example of a facultative intracellular pathogen, was tested. N. brasiliensis was injected into the rear foot pads of BALB/c mice to establish an infection. Within 30 days, infected animals developed a chronic actinomycetoma infection. Batch cultures of N. brasiliensis were used to purify P61, P38, and P24 antigens; P61 is a catalase, and P38 is a protease with strong caseinolytic activity. Active and passive immunizations of BALB/c mice with these three purified soluble antigens were studied. Protection was demonstrated for actively immunized mice. However, immunity lasted only 30 days. Other groups of immunized mice were bled at different times, and their sera were passively transferred to naive recipients that were then infected with N. brasiliensis. Sera collected 5, 6, and 7 days after donor immunization conferred complete, long-lasting protection. The protective effect of passive immunity decreased when sera were collected 2 weeks after donor immunization. However, neither the early sera (1-, 2-, and 3-day sera) nor the later sera (30- or 45-day sera) prevented the infection. Hyperimmune sera with the highest levels of immunoglobulin G (IgG) to N. brasiliensis antigens did not protect at all. The antigens tested induced two IgM peaks. The first peak was present 3 days after immunization but was not antigen specific and did not transfer protection. The second peak was evident 7 days after immunization, was an IgM response, was antigen specific, and conferred protection. This results clearly demonstrate that IgM antibodies protect the host against a facultative intracellular bacterium.

  9. Pathophysiological variability of different genotypes of human Blastocystis hominis Egyptian isolates in experimentally infected rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Eman M; Hussein, Abdalla M; Eida, Mohamed M; Atwa, Maha M

    2008-04-01

    The genotyping of Blastocystis hominis clinical isolates obtained from 28 gastrointestinal symptomatic patients and 16 asymptomatic individuals were identified by polymerase chain reaction using sequenced-tagged site (STS) primers. Then, pathophysiological variability between different B. hominis genotypes was evaluated in experimentally infected rats. Only four B. hominis subtypes (1, 2, 3, and 4) were detected (18.2%, 9.1%, 54.5%, and 18.2%, respectively) in human isolates. In symptomatic isolates, subtypes 1, 3, and 4 were detected in 8 (28.6%), 16 (57.1%), and 4 (14.3%) patients, respectively. In asymptomatic isolates, subtypes 2, 3, and 4 were identified in 4 (25%), 8 (50%), and 4 (25%), respectively. Subtype 3 was the commonest in humans. Different degrees of pathological changes were found among infected rats by symptomatic subtypes compared with asymptomatic subtypes. The moderate and severe degrees of pathological changes were found only in symptomatic subtypes infected rats while mild degree was found only in asymptomatic subtypes infected rats. Only subtype 1 induced mortality rate with 25% among infected rats. On evaluation of the intestinal cell permeability in the Ussing chamber, a prominent increase in short circuit current (DeltaIsc) was found in symptomatic subtype 1 compared to symptomatic subtypes 3 and 4 infected rats. Minimal effects were found in the asymptomatic and control groups. The results proved that subtype 1 was clinically and statistically highly relevant to the pathogenicity of B. hominis while subtype 2 was irrelevant. Also, the results suggest the presence of pathogenic and nonpathogenic strains among subtypes 3 and 4.

  10. Pathology, clinical signs, and tissue distribution of Toxoplasma gondii in experimentally infected reindeer (Rangifer tarandus

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    Émilie Bouchard

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic parasite found in vertebrates worldwide for which felids serve as definitive hosts. Despite low densities of felids in northern Canada, Inuit people in some regions show unexpectedly high levels of exposure, possibly through handling and consumption of Arctic wildlife. Free-ranging caribou (Rangifer tarandus are widely harvested for food across the Canadian North, show evidence of seroexposure to T. gondii, and are currently declining in numbers throughout the Arctic. We experimentally infected three captive reindeer (conspecific with caribou with 1000, 5000 or 10,000 oocysts of T. gondii via stomach intubation to assess clinical signs of infection, pathology, and tissue distribution. An unexposed reindeer served as a negative control. Signs of stress, aggression, and depression were noted for the first two weeks following infection. By 4 weeks post infection, all infected reindeer were positive on a modified agglutination test at the highest titer tested (1:200 for antibodies to T. gondii. At 20 weeks post infection, no gross abnormalities were observed on necropsy. Following histopathology and immunohistochemistry, tissue cysts were visualized in the reindeer given the highest and lowest dose of oocysts. Focal pleuritis and alveolitis were associated with respiratory problems in reindeer given the middle dose. DNA of T. gondii was detected following traditional DNA extraction and conventional PCR on 25 mg samples from 17/33 muscles and organs, and by magnetic capture DNA extraction from 100 g samples from all 26 tissues examined. This research demonstrated that reindeer/caribou can serve as intermediate hosts for T. gondii, and that the parasite may be associated with health effects in wildlife. The presence of T. gondii in all tissues tested, many of which are commonly consumed raw, smoked, or dried in northern communities, suggests that caribou may serve as a source of human exposure to T

  11. [Hygienic and epidemiological aspects of Escherichia coli infections in light of recent epidemic in European Union countries 2011].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szot, Wojciech; Potocki, Artur; Kolarzyk, Emilia

    2011-01-01

    The events of the spring 2011 linked to the outbreak of a new strain of Eschericha coli bacteria reflected worldwide in the media. Just like two years earlier in the case of pandemic influenza A-H1N1, also this time there was panic in media, flood of news, often contradictory and mutually exclusive information and attempts to make reliable evaluations of what exactly been happening. Known for decades Eschericha coli bacterium, probably as a result of human activity (excessive use of antibiotics) appeared in the form of new, dangerous strain. What's worse, it was also shown that both European Commission and WHO agencies are having serious problems while dealing with similar, outbreak-like situations. The problem is not with dealing with epidemic itself, but rather with population hysteria, public opinion and media in general. In this article an attempt has been made to characterize the bacteria Escherichia coli, the most common form of infection and health threats, as well as a brief description of the epidemic in 2011 and actions taken by European Union and governments of countries where disease appeared.

  12. European guidelines for topical photodynamic therapy part 2: emerging indications--field cancerization, photorejuvenation and inflammatory/infective dermatoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, C A; Szeimies, R-M; Sidoroff, A; Braathen, L R

    2013-06-01

    In addition to established indications in non-melanoma skin cancer in immunocompetent patients, photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been studied for the treatment, and possible prevention, of superficial skin cancers in immunosuppressed patients. As a topical photosensitizer can be applied over large areas, PDT is also increasingly used for field cancerization in photodamaged skin, with evidence of potential to delay the development of actinic keratoses and basal cell carcinoma, although direct evidence of prevention of invasive squamous cell carcinoma remains limited. PDT has been studied in patch/plaque-stage cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, with efficacy more likely in unilesional disease. Accumulating evidence supports the use of PDT in acne and several other inflammatory/infective dermatoses including cutaneous leishmaniasis, although protocols are still to be refined. Despite proven efficacy, PDT is not widely used in viral/genital warts, where pain during treatment can be intense. PDT is a therapeutic option for photorejuvenation, with improvement in fine wrinkles, mottled hyperpigmentation, roughness and sallowness reported. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology © 2012 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  13. Response of Cytokines and Hydrogen Peroxide to Sporothrix schenckii Exoantigen in Systemic Experimental Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Danielle Cardoso Geraldo; Gonçalves, Amanda Costa; Ferreira, Lucas Souza; Manente, Francine Alessandra; Portuondo, Deivys Leandro; Vellosa, José Carlos Rebuglio; Polesi, Marisa Campos; Batista-Duharte, Alexander; Carlos, Iracilda Zeppone

    2016-04-01

    The response of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and cytokines during an experimental sporotrichosis in male Swiss mice was assessed over a period of 10 weeks by monitoring macrophage activation challenged with exoantigen (ExoAg) from the fungus Sporothrix schenckii. The studied endpoints were: H2O2 production, fungal burden at spleen, apoptosis in peritoneal macrophages, and IL-1β, IL-6, IL-2, IL-10 production. During the two first weeks of infection was observed low burden of yeast in spleen and high response of H2O2, IL-2, and IL-1β. The weeks of highest fungal burden (fourth-sixth) coincided with major apoptosis in peritoneal macrophages, normal production of IL-6 and lower production of H2O2, IL-2, and IL-1β, suggesting a role for these three last in the early control of infection. On the other hand, IL-1β (but not IL-6) was recovered since the sixth week, suggesting a possible role in the late phase of infection, contributing to the fungal clearance in conjunction with the specific mechanisms. The IL-10 was elevated until the sixth, principally in the second week. These results evidences that ExoAg is involved in the host immune modulation, influencing the S. Schenckii virulence, and its role is related with the time of the infection in the model used.

  14. Experimental infection and detection of necrotizing hepatopancreatitis bacterium in the American lobster Homarus americanus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila-Villa, Luz A; Gollas-Galván, Teresa; Martínez-Porchas, Marcel; Mendoza-Cano, Fernando; Hernández-López, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    Necrotizing hepatopancreatitis bacterium (NHPB) is an obligated intracellular bacteria causing severe hepatopancreatic damages and mass mortalities in penaeid shrimp. The worldwide distribution of penaeid shrimp as alien species threatens the life cycle of other crustacean species. The aim of the experiment was to evaluate the possibility of experimentally infecting the American lobster (Homarus americanus) with NHPB extracted from shrimp hepatopancreas. Homogenates from infected shrimp were fed by force to lobsters. Other group of lobsters was fed with homogenates of NHPB-free hepatopancreas. After the 15th day from initial inoculation, the presence of NHPB was detected by polymerase chain reaction in feces and hepatopancreas from lobsters inoculated with infected homogenates. Necrotized spots were observed in the surface of lobster hepatopancreas. In contrast, lobsters fed on NHPB-free homogenates resulted negative for NHPB. Evidence suggests the plasticity of NHPB which can infect crustacean from different species and inhabiting diverse latitudes. Considering the results, the American lobster could be a good candidate to maintain available NHPB in vivo.

  15. Experimental Infection and Detection of Necrotizing Hepatopancreatitis Bacterium in the American Lobster Homarus americanus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz A. Avila-Villa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Necrotizing hepatopancreatitis bacterium (NHPB is an obligated intracellular bacteria causing severe hepatopancreatic damages and mass mortalities in penaeid shrimp. The worldwide distribution of penaeid shrimp as alien species threatens the life cycle of other crustacean species. The aim of the experiment was to evaluate the possibility of experimentally infecting the American lobster (Homarus americanus with NHPB extracted from shrimp hepatopancreas. Homogenates from infected shrimp were fed by force to lobsters. Other group of lobsters was fed with homogenates of NHPB-free hepatopancreas. After the 15th day from initial inoculation, the presence of NHPB was detected by polymerase chain reaction in feces and hepatopancreas from lobsters inoculated with infected homogenates. Necrotized spots were observed in the surface of lobster hepatopancreas. In contrast, lobsters fed on NHPB-free homogenates resulted negative for NHPB. Evidence suggests the plasticity of NHPB which can infect crustacean from different species and inhabiting diverse latitudes. Considering the results, the American lobster could be a good candidate to maintain available NHPB in vivo.

  16. Determination of IgG avidity in BALB/c mice experimentally infected with Toxocara canis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenardie, Elizandra Roselaine; Scaini, Carlos James; Avila, Luciana Farias da Costa de; Sperotto, Rita Leal; Borsuk, Sibele; Felicetti, Cristine Dias Pires; Pepe, Michele; Berne, Maria Elisabeth Aires

    2014-01-01

    Toxocariasis is a zoonotic disease in that IgM titers can remain high for long periods making difficult to determine the stage of the disease. The aim of this study is to investigate the applicability of indirect ELISA, associated with urea, to discriminate between the acute and chronic toxocariasis. IgG avidity was evaluated in 25 BALB/c mice experimentally infected with 1000 Toxocara canis eggs. Blood samples were collected, and sera treated with 6 M urea and assayed by ELISA every two weeks. The percent IgG avidity was determined using the mean absorbance of sera treated with urea, divided by the mean absorbance of untreated sera. In the first 15 days post-inoculation, was observed a low percentage, between 7.25 and 27.5%, IgG avidity, characteristic of an acute infection. After 60 days of infection, all the mice showed between 31.4 and 58% IgG avidity, indicating a chronic infection.

  17. Experimental Leishmania major infection suppresses HIV-1 DNA vaccine induced cellular immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Tara M; Nelson, Robin; Artis, David; Scott, Phillip; Boyer, Jean D

    2004-01-01

    The AIDS epidemic in the developing world represents a major global crisis and an effective vaccine is imperative. However, many parasites are common in developing countries and can result in a state of chronic immune activation that is polarized towards a Th2 profile and which can potentially impair responses to vaccines or other infectious challenges. In this study we demonstrate that experimental Leishmania major infection of BALB/c mice inhibits responses to a DNA-based HIV-1 gag vaccine. L. major infection in BALB/c results in a polarized Th2 immune response. In this study naïve BALB/c mice immunized with the HIV-1 gag DNA vaccine mounted a cellular immune response against the vaccine antigen, HIV-1 gag. CD8+ T lymphocytes were able to respond in vitro to HIV-1 gag stimulation and secrete interferon (IFN)-gamma. However, L. major-infected, vaccinated BALB/c mice had a significantly reduced number of IFN-gamma-producing CD8+ T cells following in vitro stimulation with gag antigen. These data suggest that parasitic infection, which results in a Th2 profile, reduces the efficacy of DNA vaccines that are designed to induce antiviral CD8+ T cell responses. Copyright 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

  18. Allergy skin test responses during experimental infection with respiratory syncytial virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoner, David P; Gentile, Deborah A; Angelini, Betty; Doyle, William J

    2006-06-01

    Allergy skin testing is one of the most frequently performed physician office procedures. Many factors can affect the results of those tests, including the well-defined suppressive effect of systemic antihistamines. False-positive allergen skin test results are known to occur; however, contributing factors are not well understood. To determine whether a viral upper respiratory tract infection affects allergy skin test responsiveness. We performed skin tests with histamine and a panel of geographically relevant inhalant allergens on 16 adults before and 3, 6, and 21 days after experimental exposure to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), a virus that causes signs and symptoms of a cold. The RSV exposure, with and without documented infection, caused increased wheal and flare areas to histamine and allergen and de novo positive allergen test responses in individuals with no measurable responses at baseline. These were noted as late as 21 days after RSV exposure and may be consistent with mediation by up-regulated neurogenic inflammation during RSV infection. These results may have implications for explaining the cause of such well-known complications of RSV infection as otitis media, bronchiolitis, and asthmatic exacerbation.

  19. The Effect of Marshallagia marshalli on Serum Gastrin Concentrations in Experimentally Infected Lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradpour, Nona; Borji, Hassan; Razmi, Gholamreza; Maleki, Mohsen; Kazemi, Hossein

    2016-08-01

    :  Because there appeared to be no data available on serum gastrin concentrations in animals infected with Marshallagia marshalli, and considering the high prevalence of this parasite in livestock throughout many countries, we decided to perform research in the field using experimental infection. After surgical implantation of abomasal cannula into 10 male Baluchi sheep, each animal was orally infected with 5,000 M. marshalli larvae. Serum gastrin concentrations and abomasal pH were measured with a human ELISA kit and a PHM LE438 standard pH electrode, respectively. According to the results obtained from the study, serum gastrin increased after 14 and 21 days post-infection (dpi), while abomasal pH increased after 7 dpi and reached a maximal value 16 dpi. The increase in serum gastrin concentration was revealed 6 days after elevation in abomasal pH, which could be the result of reduced acid secretion. Generally, the present study pointed out that a limited number of M. marshalli could increase serum gastrin concentrations.

  20. Implications for a regulated replication of Borna disease virus in brains of experimentally infected Lewis rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porombka, Doris; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang; Eickmann, Markus; Herden, Christiane

    2008-04-01

    The neurotropic Borna disease virus (BDV) causes typically a persistent virus infection of the central nervous system. In order to investigate whether an adapted virus replication contributes to BDV persistence in vivo, a fast and reliable real-time RT-PCR assay was constructed to quantify the amounts of leader-containing (leBDV) as a marker for virus replication, genomic (vBDV) and nucleoprotein-(BDV-N +ssRNA)-specific RNA. Therefore, leBDV, vBDV and BDV-N +ssRNA values were determined in experimentally infected Lewis rats between 14 and 90 days post infection (dpi). Surprisingly low leBDV values were found compared to vBDV and the abundantly expressed BDV-N transcripts. vBDV multiplied only in the acute phase of infection followed by constant expression until 90 dpi. Ratios of vBDV to leBDV were 401:1 at 14 dpi and diminished to 209:1 at 90 dpi, indicating a regulated co-expression of replicative intermediates as a potential prerequisite for viral persistence.

  1. Susceptibility to Yersinia pestis experimental infection in wild Rattus rattus, reservoir of plague in Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tollenaere, C; Rahalison, L; Ranjalahy, M; Duplantier, J-M; Rahelinirina, S; Telfer, S; Brouat, C

    2010-06-01

    In Madagascar, the black rat, Rattus rattus, is the main reservoir of plague (Yersinia pestis infection), a disease still responsible for hundreds of cases each year in this country. This study used experimental plague challenge to assess susceptibility in wild-caught rats to better understand how R. rattus can act as a plague reservoir. An important difference in plague resistance between rat populations from the plague focus (central highlands) and those from the plague-free zone (low altitude area) was confirmed to be a widespread phenomenon. In rats from the plague focus, we observed that sex influenced plague susceptibility, with males slightly more resistant than females. Other individual factors investigated (weight and habitat of sampling) did not affect plague resistance. When infected at high bacterial dose (more than 10⁵ bacteria injected), rats from the plague focus died mainly within 3-5 days and produced specific antibodies, whereas after low-dose infection (plague resistance level and the course of infection in the black rat would contribute to a better understanding of plague circulation in Madagascar.

  2. Efficacy of clorsulon for the treatment of experimentally induced infections of Fasciola hepatica in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundlof, S F; Bliss, E L; Greiner, E C; Tran, T Q; Wertenberger, M A

    1991-01-01

    A dose titration study was undertaken to determine the efficacy of clorsulon against the adult stage of Fasciola hepatica in goats. Thirty-nine goats were experimentally infected with metacercariae of F hepatica. At 14 weeks after infection, each goat was assigned randomly to 1 of 5 groups. Goats in groups 1 to 4 received a single oral administration of clorsulon at dosages of 3.5, 7, 11, and 15 mg/kg of body weight, respectively. The fifth group of goats (control group) was infected with F hepatica, but were not treated with clorsulon. Postmortem examination of goats at 3 weeks after treatment revealed mean reductions in numbers of flukes of 83, 98, 99, and 100% for groups 1 to 4, respectively. Mean percentage of reduction in eggs following treatment of groups was 82, 98, 100, and 100%, respectively. The clinical effects of clorsulon in 24 goats that were not infected with F hepatica were studied. Goats in groups 1 to 3 received a single oral administration of clorsulon at dosages of 7, 21, and 35 mg/kg, respectively, every other day for a total of 3 doses/goat. Group-4 goats (control group) received a vehicle placebo. Goats in group 3 were subject to postmortem examination at 14 days after dosing. Abnormal signs or lesions that could be attributed to clorsulon were not found in any goat.

  3. Effect of wide spectrum anti-helminthic drugs upon Schistosoma mansoni experimentally infected mice

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    PANCERA Christiane Finardi

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Mebendazole, albendazole, levamisole and thiabendazole are well known as active drugs against several nematode species, and against cestodes as well, when the first two drugs are considered. None of the drugs have proven activity, however, against trematodes. We tested the effect of these drugs on the fecal shedding of schistosome eggs and the recovering of adult schistosomes, after portal perfusion in Schistosoma mansoni experimentally infected mice. Balb/c mice infected with 80 S. mansoni cercariae were divided into three groups, each in turn subdivided into four other groups, for each tested drug. The first group was treated with each one of the studied drugs 25 days after S. mansoni infection; the second group was submitted to treatment with each one of the drugs 60 days after infection. Finally, the third group, considered as control, received no treatment. No effect upon fecal shedding of S. mansoni eggs and recovering of schistosomes after portal perfusion was observed when mice were treated with either mebendazole or albendazole. Mice treated with either levamisole or thiabendazole, on the other hand, showed a significant reduction in the recovering of adult schistosomes after portal perfusion, mainly when both drugs were given during the schistosomula evolution period, i.e., 25 days after cercariae penetration, probably due to unspecific immunomodulation

  4. Aspects of resistance to experimental infection with Trypanosoma cruzi; Aspectos da resistencia a infecao experimental com Trypanosoma cruzi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias, Viviane Liotti

    2010-07-01

    Chagas disease, a zoonosis caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, has a wide distribution in Latin America and extends from the southern part of the United States to Argentina. A number of 10 million of infected people is estimated and another 25 million exposed to the risk. Although discovered over a century, Chagas disease is still a serious infection that causes great socioeconomic impact, with no effective treatment at the chronic phase and in which, a lack of scientific knowledge can be observed. The main goal of this work was that obtaining and using consomic strain of mice, the resistance could be investigated. Consomic strains were produced by programmed mating, in which the animals were monitored with DNA polymorphic markers, and one of his chromosomes was replaced by his homologue from another strain. As parental, were used, the inbred strains C57BL/6/J Unib with resistant phenotype (donor) and as receiver, the A/JUnib strain, that has a susceptible phenotype. These models were used to produce five consomic strains: for the chromosomes 7 (CSs7), 11 (CSs11), 14 (CSs14), 17 (CSs17) and 19 (CSs19), described by Passos et al. (2003) as important in controlling infection caused by the Y strain of T. cruzi. In experimental testing, the consomics were inoculated intraperitoneally at doses of 10{sup 1}, 10{sup 2}, 10{sup 3} and 10{sup 4} using as control, animals from both parental lines. In all consomics, resistance was higher than that observed in the susceptible parental. In a second protocol, the consomics were mated with scheduled associations and the progenies were challenged with inocula employing increasing doses of trypomastigotes. The resistance observed in this group was also higher than that observed in the parental with susceptible phenotype. The observed results demonstrate that the use of the consomic strains that were produced order to assess the contribution of each chromosome in the resistance, as well as the effects of association between

  5. Variability in testing policies and impact on reported Clostridium difficile infection rates: results from the pilot Longitudinal European Clostridium difficile Infection Diagnosis surveillance study (LuCID).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, K; Davis, G; Barbut, F; Eckert, C; Petrosillo, N; Wilcox, M H

    2016-12-01

    Lack of standardised Clostridium difficile testing is a potential confounder when comparing infection rates. We used an observational, systematic, prospective large-scale sampling approach to investigate variability in C. difficile sampling to understand C. difficile infection (CDI) incidence rates. In-patient and institutional data were gathered from 60 European hospitals (across three countries). Testing methodology, testing/CDI rates and case profiles were compared between countries and institution types. The mean annual CDI rate per hospital was lowest in the UK and highest in Italy (1.5 vs. 4.7 cases/10,000 patient bed days [pbds], p testing rate was highest in the UK compared with Italy and France (50.7/10,000 pbds vs. 31.5 and 30.3, respectively, p tested for CDI across all countries. Overall, only 64 % of hospitals used recommended testing algorithms for laboratory testing. Small hospitals were significantly more likely to use standalone toxin tests (SATTs). There was an inverse correlation between hospital size and CDI testing rate. Hospitals using SATT or assays not detecting toxin reported significantly higher CDI rates than those using recommended methods, despite testing similar testing frequencies. These data are consistent with higher false-positive rates in such (non-recommended) testing scenarios. Cases in Italy and those diagnosed by SATT or methods NOT detecting toxin were significantly older. Testing occurred significantly earlier in the UK. Assessment of testing practice is paramount to the accurate interpretation and comparison of CDI rates.

  6. First report of Thelazia callipaeda infection in wild European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gama, Adelina; Pires, Isabel; Canado, Márcia; Coutinho, Teresa; Lopes, Ana Patrícia; Latrofa, Maria Stefania; Cardoso, Luís; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Otranto, Domenico

    2016-05-10

    Thelazia callipaeda is a zoonotic nematode that affects the eyes of domestic and wild animals, including dogs, cats and red foxes. This parasitic eye worm is transmitted by Phortica variegata, which is a zoophilic fruit fly spread in Europe. Two wild European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) found dead in north-eastern Portugal were submitted to necropsy. Both animals presented gross lesions compatible with haemorrhagic viral disease. Eye examination revealed the presence of six worms (three in each animal, on both eyes). Out of the six nematodes, five females and one male were morphologically and molecularly identified as T. callipaeda. This is the first report of T. callipaeda in wild rabbits from Portugal, which reveals a new host for this parasite in southern Europe and emphasizes the importance of including thelaziosis in the differential diagnosis of ocular alterations in both animals and humans from areas where the eye worm is endemic.

  7. Experimental therapeutic studies of Solanum aculeastrum Dunal. on Leishmania major infection in BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laban, Linet T; Anjili, Christopher O; Mutiso, Joshua M; Ingonga, Johnstone; Kiige, Samuel G; Ngedzo, Mgala M; Gicheru, Michael M

    2015-01-01

    Solanum acueastrum Dunal. has been shown to have some chemotherapeutic value. Leaf and berry water and methanol compounds of S. acueastrum were evaluated for possible antileishmanial activity In vivo on BALB/c mice and in vitro against Leishmania major promastigotes, amastigotes and vero cells. Dry S. aculeastrum berry and leaf material were extracted in methanol and water. L. major parasites were exposed to different concentrations of S. aculeastrum fruit and leaf compounds and the IC50 on the promastigotes, percentage of infection rate of macrophages by amastigotes and the toxicological effect on vero cells were determined. BALB/c mice were infected subcutaneously with 1×10(6) promastigotes and kept for four weeks to allow for disease establishment. Infected mice were treated with fruit and leaf methanolic and water compounds, amphotericin B (AmB), and sterile phosphate buffered saline (PBS). Fruit methanol compound was most effective in inhibiting the growth of promastigotes with IC5078.62 μg/ml. Fruit water compound showed the best activity in inhibiting infection of macrophages by amastigotes. Fruit methanol compound was more toxic at Ld50=8.06 mg/ml to vero cells than amphotericin B. Analysis of variance computation indicated statistically significant difference in lesion sizes between experimental and control mice groups (P=0.0001). Splenic impression smears ANOVA indicated a highly significant difference in parasitic numbers between the experimental and the control groups (P=0.0001). The results demonstrate that compounds from S. aculeastrum have potential anti-leishmanial activities and the medicinal use of the plant poses considerable toxicity against dividing vero cells.

  8. Experimental infection of South American camelids with bluetongue virus serotype 8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Claudia; Eschbaumer, Michael; Rudolf, Miriam; König, Patricia; Keller, Markus; Bauer, Christian; Gauly, Matthias; Grevelding, Christoph G; Beer, Martin; Hoffmann, Bernd

    2012-01-27

    Bluetongue (BT) is an infectious, non-contagious disease of wild and domestic ruminants. It is caused by bluetongue virus (BTV) and transmitted by Culicoides biting midges. Since 1998, BT has been emerging throughout Europe, threatening not only the naïve ruminant population. Historically, South American camelids (SAC) were considered to be resistant to BT disease. However, recent fatalities related to BTV in captive SAC have raised questions about their role in BTV epidemiology. Data on the susceptibility of SAC to experimental infection with BTV serotype 8 (BTV-8) were collected in an animal experiment. Three alpacas (Vicugna pacos) and three llamas (Lama glama) were experimentally infected with BTV-8. They displayed very mild clinical signs. Seroconversion was first measured 6-8 days after infection (dpi) by ELISA, and neutralising antibodies appeared 10-13 dpi. BTV-8 RNA levels in blood were very low, and quickly cleared after seroconversion. However, spleens collected post-mortem were still positive for BTV RNA, over 71 days after the last detection in blood samples. Virus isolation was only possible from blood samples of two alpacas by inoculation of highly sensitive interferon alpha/beta receptor-deficient (IFNAR(-/-)) mice. An in vitro experiment demonstrated that significantly lower amounts of BTV-8 adsorb to SAC blood cells than to bovine blood cells. Although this experiment showed that SAC are generally susceptible to a BTV-8 infection, it indicates that these species play a negligible role in BTV epidemiology. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparison of Abortion and Infection after Experimental Challenge of Pregnant Bison and Cattle with Brucella abortus Strain 2308▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, S. C.; Johnson, C.

    2011-01-01

    A comparative study was conducted using data from naive bison (n = 45) and cattle (n = 46) from 8 and 6 studies, respectively, in which a standardized Brucella abortus strain 2308 experimental challenge was administered during midgestation. The incidence of abortion, fetal infection, uterine or mammary infection, or infection in maternal tissues after experimental challenge was greater (P abort, the time between experimental challenge and abortion was shorter (P abortion did not differ (P > 0.05) between cattle and bison. The results of our study suggest that naive bison and cattle have similarities and differences after experimental exposure to a virulent B. abortus strain. Although our data suggest that bison may be more susceptible to infection with Brucella, some pathogenic characteristics of brucellosis were similar between bison and cattle. PMID:21976222

  10. INVOLVEMENT OF BACTERICIDAL FACTORS FROM THROMBIN-STIMULATED PLATELETS IN CLEARANCE OF ADHERENT VIRIDANS STREPTOCOCCI IN EXPERIMENTAL INFECTIVE ENDOCARDITIS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDERWERFF, J; ZAAT, SAJ; JOLDERSMA, W; HESS, J

    Platelets activated with thrombin release bactericidal factors. We studied the role of the susceptibility of viridans streptococci to these bactericidal factors in the development of infective endocarditis (IE). By using the experimental endocarditis rabbit model, the initial adherence and the

  11. Natural Schistosoma mansoni infection in Nectomys squamipes: histopathological and morphometric analysis in comparison to experimentally infected N. squamipes and C3H/He mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Costa-Silva

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Histopathologic and morphometric (area, perimeter, major and minor diameters analysis of hepatic granulomas isolated from twelve naturally infected Nectomys squamipes were compared to four experimentally infected ones and six C3H/He mice. Liver paraffin sections were stained for cells and extracellular matrix. Both groups of N. squamipes presented peculiar granulomas consisting predominantly of large macrophages, full of schistosome pigment, characterizing an exudative-macrophage granuloma type, smaller than the equivalent granuloma type in mouse. Naturally infected animals exhibited granulomas in different stages of development, including large number of involutional types. Morphometric analysis showed that all measurements were smaller in naturally infected animals than in other groups. The results demonstrated that both N. squamipes groups reproduced, with small variations, the hepatic granuloma aspects already described in cricetidium (Calomys callosus, showing a genetic tendency to set up strong macrophage responses and small granulomas. Unexpectedly, natural infection did not engender distinguished histopathological characteristics distinct from those derived from experimental single infection, showing changes predominantly secondary to the duration of infection. It appears that the variability of the inocula (and the number of infections? interfere more with the quantity than with the quality of the pathological changes, denoting some morpho-functional determinism in the response to schistosomal infection dependent on the animal species.

  12. Comparative efficacy of tulathromycin and tildipirosin for the treatment of experimental Mycoplasma bovis infection in calves

    OpenAIRE

    Bartram, David J.; Moyaert, Hilde; Vanimisetti, Bindu H.; Ramage, Clifford P.; Reddick, David; Stegemann, Michael R

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The objective of this negative controlled, blinded, randomised, parallel group study was to compare the efficacy of two injectable macrolide antimicrobials, tulathromycin and tildipirosin, administered by single subcutaneous injection at dose rates of 2.5 and 4.0 mg kg−1 bodyweight, respectively, in the treatment of an experimentally induced Mycoplasma bovis infection in calves. A total of 238 M. bovis‐negative calves were challenged on three consecutive days with M. bovis by endobro...

  13. Recovery of Dengue Viruses from Tissues of Experimentally Infected Rhesus Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchette, Nyven J.; Halstead, Scott B.; Nash, Donald R.; Stenhouse, Andrew C.

    1972-01-01

    A tissue explant culture technique for the recovery of dengue virus from experimentally infected monkey tissue is described and compared with tissue culture assay of tissue triturates and co-cultivation of trypsinized cells in cell cultures. The most efficient technique was one in which minced tissue was explanted in co-culture with dengue virus-susceptible LLC-MK2 monkey kidney cells. This technique shows promise of being useful for detection of virus in autopsy material from fatal dengue hemorrhagic fever cases. PMID:4627963

  14. The pathology of experimental Schistosoma curassoni infections in mice and hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vercruysse, J; Fransen, J; Southgate, V R; Rollinson, D

    1986-11-01

    The histopathology of experimental Schistosoma curassoni infections in white mice and hamsters was studied. In mice, hepatic lesions were severe with characteristic extensive perilobular fibrosis and large perilobular granulomas throughout the parenchyma. Only a few granulomas were detected in the lung, small intestine, and rectum of mice. In hamsters, lesions in the liver were limited. Few granulomas were found but the giant cell reaction was pronounced. Lesions in the lung and small intestine were minimal. Many subserosal and submucosal epithelioid cell granulomas were in the colon and rectum of hamsters. Parasites were not detected in the bladder of either mice or hamsters.

  15. EXPERIMENTAL INFECTION BY Trypanosoma vivax IN GOATS INFECÇÃO EXPERIMENTAL EM CAPRINOS COM Trypanosoma vivax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco David Nascimento Sousa

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Four goats were infected intravenously with 1.0 mL of cattle blood containing about 1.25 x 105 Trypanosoma vivax derived from spontaneous outbreak in cattle at Catolé do Rocha city, Paraíba, Brazil. Other four goats were used as controls. Parasitemia and body temperature were determined daily for 40 days. Animals were weighted each 7 days, and blood samples for blood cells counts were collected each 5 days. It was obtained a sample of liquor from each animal before death; cerebrospinal fluid samples were submitted to biochemical and cytological evaluations, density determination and parasite detection. A positive correlation was found between body temperature and parasitemia in infected animals. These animals presented anemia, leukopenia, hypoglycemia, decreased serum levels of total proteins and cholesterol, and nervous symptoms. Examination of cerebrospinal fluid resulted in decrease of glucose levels and increase in lactate dehydrogenase, cell counts and presence of the parasite. At necropsy it was found pale carcass, generalized infartation of lymphonodes, pulmonary edema, and liquid accumulation of pericardium. Histological changes were characterized by interstitial pneumonia, miocarditis, cardiac fibrosis, meningitis, and encephalitis. All observed changes confirm patogenicity of T. vivax.

    KEY WORDS: Experimental infection, trypanosomiasis, patogenicity.

    Quatro caprinos foram infectados experimentalmente por via intravenosa com 1,0 ml de sangue contendo aproximadamente 1,25 x 105 tripanossomas/ml, utilizando-se um isolado de Trypanosoma vivax de bovinos infectados naturalmente no município de Catolé do Rocha, Paraíba. A parasitemia e a temperatura foram determinadas diariamente durante quarenta dias. A cada cinco dias realizaram-se coletas de sangue para hemograma e análise bioquímica sérica. Antes do

  16. Longevity and composition of cellular immune responses following experimental Plasmodium falciparum malaria infection in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne C Teirlinck

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Cellular responses to Plasmodium falciparum parasites, in particular interferon-gamma (IFNγ production, play an important role in anti-malarial immunity. However, clinical immunity to malaria develops slowly amongst naturally exposed populations, the dynamics of cellular responses in relation to exposure are difficult to study and data about the persistence of such responses are controversial. Here we assess the longevity and composition of cellular immune responses following experimental malaria infection in human volunteers. We conducted a longitudinal study of cellular immunological responses to sporozoites (PfSpz and asexual blood-stage (PfRBC malaria parasites in naïve human volunteers undergoing single (n = 5 or multiple (n = 10 experimental P. falciparum infections under highly controlled conditions. IFNγ and interleukin-2 (IL-2 responses following in vitro re-stimulation were measured by flow-cytometry prior to, during and more than one year post infection. We show that cellular responses to both PfSpz and PfRBC are induced and remain almost undiminished up to 14 months after even a single malaria episode. Remarkably, not only 'adaptive' but also 'innate' lymphocyte subsets contribute to the increased IFNγ response, including αβT cells, γδT cells and NK cells. Furthermore, results from depletion and autologous recombination experiments of lymphocyte subsets suggest that immunological memory for PfRBC is carried within both the αβT cells and γδT compartments. Indeed, the majority of cytokine producing T lymphocytes express an CD45RO(+ CD62L(- effector memory (EM phenotype both early and late post infection. Finally, we demonstrate that malaria infection induces and maintains polyfunctional (IFNγ(+IL-2(+ EM responses against both PfRBC and PfSpz, previously found to be associated with protection. These data demonstrate that cellular responses can be readily induced and are long-lived following infection with P

  17. Establishment of macrocyclic lactone resistant Dirofilaria immitis isolates in experimentally infected laboratory dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulaski, Cassan N; Malone, John B; Bourguinat, Catherine; Prichard, Roger; Geary, Timothy; Ward, Danielle; Klei, Thomas R; Guidry, Tal; Smith, George 'Bud'; Delcambre, Brooke; Bova, Jonathan; Pepping, Jenny; Carmichael, James; Schenker, Rudolf; Pariaut, Romain

    2014-11-07

    Strains of Dirofilaria immitis suspected of lack of efficacy (LOE) to macrocyclic lactone (ML) preventive drugs have been increasingly reported in dogs by practicing veterinarians since 2005 in the Lower Mississippi Delta region. If proven, and not controlled in the early stages, the emergence of ML drug resistance threatens to become a widespread problem in the US that may limit the effectiveness of current preventive drug treatment methods. To validate practice reports, a statewide survey of Louisiana veterinarians was done to define the extent of the problem and identify focal 'hotspots' of reported ML LOEs using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) methods. The present study then utilized microfilariae (Mf) from two canine field cases from different state locations that fit criteria for a high index of suspicion of LOE against heartworms by ML drugs. Blood containing Mf from the canine field cases was used to infect and produce L3 in Aedes aegypti for experimental infection of two groups of dogs, each of which contained two laboratory dogs, one treated with prophylactic ivermectin (12 μg/kg) monthly for 6 months at twice the label dose (6 μg/kg), and one untreated control. Both treated and untreated dogs from Group I and Group II developed patent D. immitis infections by 218 DPI and 189 DPI, respectively, as evidenced by a positive occult heartworm antigen test and microfilaremia by the Knott's test. Mf counts gradually increased post-patency in test and control dogs. Infective larvae raised from microfilariae from the treated Group I dog were used to successfully establish a second generation isolate, confirming heritability of resistance in the face of a monthly ivermectin challenge dose of 24 μg/kg, given monthly for 3 months. These experimental infection studies provide in vivo evidence of the existence of ML drug resistance in dogs infected by D. immitis L3 from suspect field LOE cases in the Lower Mississippi Delta. Results encourage further work on

  18. Comparison of abortion and infection after experimental challenge of pregnant bison and cattle with Brucella abortus strain 2308

    Science.gov (United States)

    A comparative study was conducted using data from naive bison (n=45) and cattle (n=46) from 8 and 6 studies, respectively, in which a standardized Brucella abortus strain 2308 experimental challenge was administered. The incidence of abortion, fetal infection, uterine or mammary infection, or infec...

  19. Differences in intermittent and continuous fecal shedding patterns between natural and experimental Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis infections in cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this paper is to study shedding patterns of cows infected with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP). While multiple single farm studies of MAP dynamics were reported, there is not large-scale meta-analysis of both natural and experimental infections. Large difference...

  20. Experimental infection of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1 in black-headed gulls (Chroicocephalus ridibundus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Ramis (Antonio); G. van Amerongen (Geert); M.W.G. van de Bildt (Marco); L.M.E. Leijten (Lonneke); R. Vanderstichel (R.); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); T. Kuiken (Thijs)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractHistorically, highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIV) rarely resulted in infection or clinical disease in wild birds. However, since 2002, disease and mortality from natural HPAIV H5N1 infection have been observed in wild birds including gulls. We performed an experimental

  1. Diagnosis of the strongyloid nematode Strongyloides venezuelensis in experimentally infected rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, P D; Malta, F M; Meisel, D M C L; Corral, M A; Pinho, J R; Costa-Cruz, J M; Chieffi, P P; Gryschek, R C B; Paula, F M

    2016-07-01

    Strongyloides venezuelensis is an intestinal nematode of rats, frequently used as a model for studying human and animal strongyloidiasis. In the present study, we evaluated parasitological, serological and molecular methods for the diagnosis of experimental S. venezuelensis in rats, Rattus norvegicus. Blood and faecal samples were collected and analysed up to 60 days post infection (pi) with adult worm recovery occurring from 5 to 45 days pi. Using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), serum levels of IgG antibodies increased up to 28 days pi, thereafter decreasing by day 60 pi. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays detected S. venezuelensis DNA in faecal samples of rats from 5 to 21 days pi. The present study therefore represents the first step towards improving the diagnosis of experimental strongyloidiasis.

  2. Experimental Infection of Rhodnius prolixus (Hemiptera, Triatominae with Mycobacterium leprae Indicates Potential for Leprosy Transmission.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur da Silva Neumann

    Full Text Available Leprosy is a chronic dermato-neurological disease caused by infection with Mycobacterium leprae. In 2013 almost 200,000 new cases of leprosy were detected around the world. Since the first symptoms take from years to decades to appear, the total number of asymptomatic patients is impossible to predict. Although leprosy is one of the oldest records of human disease, the mechanisms involved with its transmission and epidemiology are still not completely understood. In the present work, we experimentally investigated the hypothesis that the mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus and the hemiptera Rhodnius prolixus act as leprosy vectors. By means of real-time PCR quantification of M. leprae 16SrRNA, we found that M. leprae remained viable inside the digestive tract of Rhodnius prolixus for 20 days after oral infection. In contrast, in the gut of both mosquito species tested, we were not able to detect M. leprae RNA after a similar period of time. Inside the kissing bug Rhodnius prolixus digestive tract, M. leprae was initially restricted to the anterior midgut, but gradually moved towards the hindgut, in a time course reminiscent of the life cycle of Trypanosoma cruzi, a well-known pathogen transmitted by this insect. The maintenance of M. leprae infectivity inside the digestive tract of this kissing bug is further supported by successful mice footpad inoculation with feces collected 20 days after infection. We conclude that Rhodnius prolixus defecate infective M. leprae, justifying the evaluation of the presence of M. leprae among sylvatic and domestic kissing bugs in countries endemic for leprosy.

  3. Experimental Infection of Rhodnius prolixus (Hemiptera, Triatominae) with Mycobacterium leprae Indicates Potential for Leprosy Transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Arthur da Silva; Dias, Felipe de Almeida; Ferreira, Jéssica da Silva; Fontes, Amanda Nogueira Brum; Rosa, Patricia Sammarco; Macedo, Rafael Enrique; Oliveira, José Henrique; Teixeira, Raquel Lima de Figueiredo; Pessolani, Maria Cristina Vidal; Moraes, Milton Ozório; Suffys, Philip Noel; Oliveira, Pedro L; Sorgine, Marcos Henrique Ferreira; Lara, Flavio Alves

    2016-01-01

    Leprosy is a chronic dermato-neurological disease caused by infection with Mycobacterium leprae. In 2013 almost 200,000 new cases of leprosy were detected around the world. Since the first symptoms take from years to decades to appear, the total number of asymptomatic patients is impossible to predict. Although leprosy is one of the oldest records of human disease, the mechanisms involved with its transmission and epidemiology are still not completely understood. In the present work, we experimentally investigated the hypothesis that the mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus and the hemiptera Rhodnius prolixus act as leprosy vectors. By means of real-time PCR quantification of M. leprae 16SrRNA, we found that M. leprae remained viable inside the digestive tract of Rhodnius prolixus for 20 days after oral infection. In contrast, in the gut of both mosquito species tested, we were not able to detect M. leprae RNA after a similar period of time. Inside the kissing bug Rhodnius prolixus digestive tract, M. leprae was initially restricted to the anterior midgut, but gradually moved towards the hindgut, in a time course reminiscent of the life cycle of Trypanosoma cruzi, a well-known pathogen transmitted by this insect. The maintenance of M. leprae infectivity inside the digestive tract of this kissing bug is further supported by successful mice footpad inoculation with feces collected 20 days after infection. We conclude that Rhodnius prolixus defecate infective M. leprae, justifying the evaluation of the presence of M. leprae among sylvatic and domestic kissing bugs in countries endemic for leprosy.

  4. Experimental infection of Aphanomyces invadans and susceptibility in seven species of tropical fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedeh F. Afzali

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Epizootic ulcerative syndrome (EUS causes by aquatic oomycete fungus, Aphanomyces invadans is a dangerous fish disease of a wide range of fresh and brackish water, wild and farmed fish throughout the world. The objective of the present study was to determine the susceptibility of a number of tropical fish species to the EUS and compare the severity of infection between experimental groups. Materials and Methods: Snakehead, Channa striata (Bloch, 1793; snakeskin gourami, Trichopodus pectoralis (Regan, 1910; koi carp, Cyprinus carpio (Linnaeus, 1758; broadhead catfish, Clarias macrocephalus (Günther, 1864; goldfish, Carassius auratus (Linnaeus, 1758; climbing perch, Anabas testudineus (Bloch, 1792; and Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758 were challenged by intramuscular injection using zoospores of Aphanomyces invadans (NJM9701. The infected fish skins and muscles were examined for EUS histopathological characteristics, and the results on the severity of lesions and mortality were analyzed using SPSS program. Results: All zoospore-injected fish were shown to be susceptible to the EUS infection except Nile tilapia. Although, the general histopathological pattern was similar in the zoospore-injected group, but there were some variation in granulomatous reaction, that is the presence or absence of giant cells, and time of mortality were detected. The result of statistical analysis showed that there was a significant difference between species, (c2=145.11 and p<0.01. Conclusion: Gourami, koi carp, and catfish were demonstrated to be highly susceptible while goldfish and climbing perch were found to be moderately susceptible to the EUS infection. These findings suggested that the cellular response of fish to mycotic infection and granulomatous reaction varied in different fish species, which could not be an indicator of susceptibility or resistant to the EUS itself, although it was shown that the granulation rate and the level of

  5. Responses of the reflectance indices PRI and NDVI to experimental warming and drought in European shrublands along a north-south climatic gradient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mänd, P.; Hallik, L.; Peñuelas, J.; Nilson, T.; Duce, P.; Emmett, B.A.; Beier, C.; Estiarte, M.; Garadnai, J.; Kalapos, T.; Schmidt, I.K.; Kovács-Láng, E.; Prieto, P.; Tietema, A.; Westerveld, J.W.; Kull, O.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of ground-based canopy reflectance measurements to detect changes in physiology and structure of vegetation in response to experimental warming and drought treatment at six European shrublands located along a North-South climatic gradient. We measured

  6. Cytauxzoon Infections in Wild Felids from Carpathian-Danubian-Pontic Space: Further Evidence for a Different Cytauxzoon Species in European Felids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallusová, Martina; Jirsová, Dagmar; Mihalca, Andrei D; Gherman, Călin Mircea; D'Amico, Gianluca; Qablan, Moneeb A; Modrý, David

    2016-06-01

    Parasitic protists of the genus Cytauxzoon are detected in a wide range of wild and domestic felids. Bobcats are a confirmed reservoir of Cytauxzoon felis in North America while domestic cats are susceptible hosts suffering from severe or fatal illness. Cytauxzoon infections are mainly reported from American felids and, recently, several sub-clinical and clinical findings were reported from European, Asian, and African felids. In 2014, the collection of organs of 4 Eurasian lynx and 12 wild cats from 11 Romanian localities was carried out to determine the prevalence and genetic diversity of Cytauxzoon spp. We detected an overall high prevalence of 62.5% in both species of wild felids; 50% in wild cats and 100% in Eurasian lynx. The phylogenetic analysis indicates 2 distinct clades of Cytauxzoon in felids, with all of our sequences clustering with sequences of Cytauxzoon sp./Cytauxzoon manul from Palaearctic felids. Further studies, development of new genetic markers, and experimental transmission studies are required for clarifying the taxonomy and life cycle of feline Cytauxzoon in the Old World.

  7. A European perspective on intravascular catheter-related infections: report on the microbiology workload, aetiology and antimicrobial susceptibility (ESGNI-005 Study).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouza, E.; San Juan, R.; Munoz, P.; Pascau, J.; Voss, A.; Desco, M.

    2004-01-01

    The laboratory workload, microbiological techniques and aetiology of catheter-related infections in European hospitals are mostly unknown. The present study (ESGNI-005) comprised a 1-day (22 October 2001), laboratory-based, point-prevalence survey based on a questionnaire completed by microbiology

  8. Paediatric European Network for Treatment of AIDS (PENTA) guidelines for treatment of paediatric HIV-1 infection 2015: optimizing health in preparation for adult life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bamford, A.; Turkova, A.; Lyall, H.; Foster, C.; Klein, N.; Bastiaans, D.; Burger, D.; Bernadi, S.; Butler, K.; Chiappini, E.; Clayden, P.; della Negra, M.; Giacomet, V.; Giaquinto, C.; Gibb, D.; Galli, L.; Hainaut, M.; Koros, M.; Marques, L.; Nastouli, E.; Niehues, T.; Noguera-Julian, A.; Rojo, P.; Rudin, C.; Scherpbier, H. J.; Tudor-Williams, G.; Welch, S. B.

    2018-01-01

    The 2015 Paediatric European Network for Treatment of AIDS (PENTA) guidelines provide practical recommendations on the management of HIV-1 infection in children in Europe and are an update to those published in 2009. Aims of treatment have progressed significantly over the last decade, moving far

  9. Prevalence of healthcare-associated infections in Polish adult intensive care units: summary data from the ECDC European Point Prevalence Survey of Hospital-associated Infections and Antimicrobial Use in Poland 2012-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deptuła, A; Trejnowska, E; Dubiel, G; Żukowski, M; Misiewska-Kaczur, A; Ozorowski, T; Hryniewicz, W

    2017-06-01

    Infection is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in intensive care units (ICUs) worldwide. Local epidemiological studies need to be conducted to set the priorities for surveillance and prevention programmes. To investigate the epidemiology of hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) among patients admitted to Polish adult ICUs over a three-year period. Data were collected according to the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) European Union Point Prevalence Survey of Healthcare-associated Infections and Antimicrobial Use in European Acute Care Hospitals (EU-PPS HAI & AU) protocol for 39,318 patients within 160 acute care hospitals. From this initial database, data for adult ICU patients (N=945) were filtered for further analyses. HAIs were present in 370 patients (39%) and 430 HAI episodes were recorded. The most common HAIs were respiratory tract infections (45%), usually caused by Enterobacteriaceae and Gram-negative non-fermenters. The majority (87%) of these infections were likely to be device associated. Out of 61 cases of bloodstream infection, 51% were catheter associated. These bloodstream infections were mainly caused by coagulase-negative staphylococci. Among 57 cases of surgical site infection, 42% were classified as organ/space, 33% were classified as deep incisional, and 25% were classified as superficial. The predominant micro-organisms were Enterobacteriaceae and Staphylococcus aureus. Out of 50 cases of urinary tract infection, 96% were device associated. The prevalence of HAI among Polish adult ICU patients is higher than described in similar studies, but may be partially affected by methodological differences. The proportion of device-associated infections was very high, so there is an urgent need to introduce countrywide, targeted surveillance and prevention programmes. Copyright © 2017 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Microencapsulated sorbic acid and nature-identical compounds reduced Salmonella Hadar and Salmonella Enteritidis colonization in experimentally infected chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grilli, E; Tugnoli, B; Formigoni, A; Massi, P; Fantinati, P; Tosi, G; Piva, A

    2011-08-01

    The reduction of Salmonella prevalence in broilers is a priority in European Union agricultural policies because treatment with antibiotics is forbidden by Regulation (EC) 2160/2003. Two trials were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of a microencapsulated blend of sorbic acid and nature-identical compounds (i.e., chemically synthesized botanicals; SAB) on the reduction of the cecal prevalence and contents of Salmonella enterica serovars Hadar and Enteritidis in experimentally infected chickens. In the first trial, 125 one-day-old Lohmann specific-pathogen-free chickens were assigned to one of the following treatments: negative control (not challenged and not treated), positive control (challenged and not treated), SAB0.3, SAB1, or SAB5 (challenged and treated with the microencapsulated blend included in the feed at 0.03, 0.1, or 0.5%, respectively). At 30 d of age, birds were infected with 10(6) cfu of Salmonella Hadar, and after 5, 10, or 20 d postinfection, 5, 10, and 10 birds per treatment, respectively, were killed and the cecal contents and liver and spleen samples were analyzed for Salmonella Hadar. In the second trial, 100 one-day-old Ross 708 chickens were assigned to 1 of 5 treatments: control (not treated), SAB0.3, SAB1, SAB2, or SAB5 (treated with the blend included in the feed at 0.03, 0.1, 0.2, or 0.5%, respectively). At 7 d of age, the birds were challenged with 10(5) cfu of Salmonella Enteritidis, and after 7, 14, or 24 d after challenge, 5, 5, and 10 birds per treatment, respectively, were killed and cecal contents were analyzed for Salmonella Enteritidis. Results showed that in the early stage of infection Salmonella prevalence was high in both studies, whereas at the end of the observation periods, the blends at 0.03, 0.1, and 0.5 in the challenge with Salmonella Hadar and at 0.2 and 0.5% in the challenge with Salmonella Enteritidis significantly reduced (by 2 log(10) cfu) the cecal content of Salmonella. This study showed that intestinal

  11. Arboviral infections diagnosed in a European area colonized by Aedes albopictus (2009-2013, Catalonia, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valerio, Lluís; Roure, Sílvia; Fernández-Rivas, Gema; Ballesteros, Angel-Luis; Ruiz, Jessica; Moreno, Nemesio; Bocanegra, Cristina; Sabrià, Miquel; Pérez-Quilez, Olga; de Ory, Fernando; Molina, Israel

    2015-01-01

    The invasive mosquito Aedes albopictus, with proven vectorial ability to transmit European autochthonous cycles of dengue and chikungunya virus, has currently colonized every coastal department of Eastern Spain. The main objective of the study was to define the epidemiological and clinical characteristics as well as the trends of these two arboviral diseases in a European area heavily colonized by Ae. albopictus. A voluntarily-based, prospective and multicenter surveillance study was performed in all medical units of the North Metropolitan area of Barcelona (406,000 inhabitants, Catalonia; Spain) with diagnostic capability from 2009 to 2013. Since any possible increase in arboviral cases could be justified by changes in traveling behaviors along the study period (especially longer trips) the trend showed by these two arboviral diseases was compared with that displayed by malaria cases during the same period. 38 out of 52 (73.1%) suspected cases could be serologically confirmed (IgM+): dengue 34/38 (89.5%) and chikungunya 4/38 (11.5%). No autochthonous cases were identified. The overall incidence of both arboviruses was 0.19 cases/10,000 inhabitants-year (95% CI: 0.07-0.3); dengue = 0.17 cases/10,000 inhabitants-year (95% CI: 0.05-0.3), and chikungunya = 0.02 cases/10,000 inhabitants-year (95% CI: 0.001-0.03). The Incidence Relative Risk of arboviral disease between 2009 and 2013 shown a significant trend (IRR = 1.27. IC 95%: 1.01-1.59; p = 0.043) when compared with that displayed by malaria (IRR = 1.04. IC 95%: 0.924-1.192). If no unexpected circumstances concur, the arboviral disease incidence tax would equal that of malaria about 2021-2022. The incidence of dengue and chikungunya is steadily increasing in the North Metropolitan area of Barcelona, a region densely colonized by Ae. albopictus, at the entire expense of imported cases (especially Visiting Friends and Relatives travelers). To date, no secondary autochthonous cases have been identified and, thus, they

  12. Experimental infection and transmission of Leishmania by Lutzomyia cruzi (Diptera: Psychodidae: Aspects of the ecology of parasite-vector interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Everton Falcão de Oliveira

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Several parameters should be addressed before incriminating a vector for Leishmania transmission. Those may include its ability to become infected by the same Leishmania species found in humans, the degree of attractiveness for reservoirs and humans and capacity to sustain parasite infection under laboratory conditions. This study evaluated the vectorial capacity of Lutzomyia cruzi for Leishmania infantum and gathered information on its ability to harbor L. amazonensis. Laboratory-reared Lu. cruzi were infected experimentally by feeding them on dogs infected naturally with L. infantum and hamsters infected with L. amazonensis. Sand fly attractiveness to dogs and humans was determined using wild caught insects. The expected daily survival of infected Lu. cruzi, the duration of the gonotrophic cycle, and the extrinsic incubation period were also investigated for both parasites. Vector competence was investigated for both Leishmania species. The mean proportion of female sand flies that fed on hosts was 0.40. For L. infantum and L. amazonensis, Lu. cruzi had experimental infection rates of 10.55% and 41.56%, respectively. The extrinsic incubation period was 3 days for both Leishmania species, regardless of the host. Survival expectancy of females infected with L. infantum and L. amazonensis after completing the gonotrophic cycle was 1.32 and 0.43, respectively. There was no association between L. infantum infection and sand fly longevity, but L. amazonensis-infected flies had significantly greater survival probabilities. Furthermore, egg-laying was significantly detrimental to survival. Lu. cruzi was found to be highly attracted to both dogs and humans. After a bloodmeal on experimentally infected hosts, both parasites were able to survive and develop late-stage infections in Lu. cruzi. However, transmission was demonstrated only for L. amazonensis-infected sand flies. In conclusion, Lu. cruzi fulfilled several of the requirements of vectorial

  13. The nutritional status affects the complete blood count of goats experimentally infected with Haemonchus contortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cériac, S; Jayles, C; Arquet, R; Feuillet, D; Félicité, Y; Archimède, H; Bambou, J-C

    2017-11-09

    Gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) remains the most important pathogenic constraint of small ruminant production worldwide. The improvement of the host immune response against GIN though breeding for improved animal resistance, vaccination and nutritional supplementation appear as very promising methods. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of four nutritional status differing in protein and energy levels (Hay: 5.1 MJ/Kg of dry matter (DM) and 7.6% of crude protein (CP), Ban: 8.3 MJ/Kg of DM and 7.5% of CP, Soy: 7.6 MJ/Kg of DM and 17.3% of CP, BS: 12.7 MJ/Kg of DM and 7.4% of CP) on the haematological disturbances due to Haemonchus contortus infection in Creole kid goats. No significant effect of the nutritional status was observed for faecal egg count (FEC) but the experimental infection induced haematological disturbances whose intensity and lengthening were dependent on the nutritional status. A transient marked regenerative macrocytic hypochromic anaemia as revealed by a decrease of packed cell volume (PCV), red blood cells (RBC) and hemoglobin and an increase of reticulocytes was observed in all infected groups except Hay. In this latter, the anaemia settled until the end of the experiment. Furthermore, H. contortus induced a thrombocytopenia significantly more pronounced in the group under the lowest nutritional status in term of protein (Hay and Ban). A principal component analysis revealed that the variables that discriminated the nutritional status were the average daily gain (ADG) and the PCV, considered as measures of the level of resilience to H. contortus infection. Moreover, the variables that discriminated infected and non-infected animals were mostly related to the biology of RBC (i.e. size and hemoglobin content) and they were correlated with FEC. The severity and the lengthening of the regenerative anaemia and the thrombocytopenia induced by H. contortus have been affected by the nutritional status. The protein enriched

  14. Evaluation of animal performance, feed intake, and economic losses in sheep experimentally infected with Trypanosoma vivax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parmênedes Dias de Brito

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Trypanosoma vivax is a protozoan originating from the African continent, which, although it has not yet been able to complete its biological cycle in South America, due to the absence of the tsetse fly, can still cause death in ruminants. The objective of this study was to verify the effects of T. vivax on the measurements and indices in sheep that characterize animal performance, as well as on economic losses in meat animals. Twenty intact adult male sheep were used for this study, all of approximately the same ages and weights, reared in confinement, and subjected to the same management and diet, which was balanced and supplemented with adequate minerals. The animals were divided into two groups: the control group (CG and the infected group (IG, which was inoculated intravenously with 1.3 x 105 trypomastigotes of T. vivax. Feed intake was verified daily, whereas the feed conversion (FC, feed efficiency index (FEI, and weight gain were obtained weekly. Total weight gain (TWG was determined after 70 days post-infection. The economic loss was calculated by subtracting the value obtained (IG from the expected value (CG, and the difference was expressed as a percentage. A randomized block design was used to isolate the effect of the initial weight. The means were compared by the Student “t” test at 5%. Of the 10 infected animals, one died from the parasitism, yielding a rate much lower than that observed in natural outbreaks. The groups presented similar feed intakes throughout the experimental period; however, the TWG of the infected group was significantly lower (50.7% than that of the CG. Similarly, the daily weight gain (DWG, feed conversion (FC, and feed efficiency index (FEI of the IG were significantly lower than those of the CG. In addition, the worst rates of FC and FEI coincided with parasitemia peaks and recurrences, probably due to immunological demand and tissue repair. The abdominal circumference of the infected animals was

  15. Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus Tissue Tropism and Pathogenesis in Sheep and Goats following Experimental Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Thang; Boshra, Hani; Embury-Hyatt, Carissa; Nfon, Charles; Gerdts, Volker; Tikoo, Suresh; Babiuk, Lorne A.; Kara, Pravesh; Chetty, Thireshni; Mather, Arshad; Wallace, David B.; Babiuk, Shawn

    2014-01-01

    Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a viral disease which primarily affects small ruminants, causing significant economic losses for the livestock industry in developing countries. It is endemic in Saharan and sub-Saharan Africa, the Middle East and the Indian sub-continent. The primary hosts for peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) are goats and sheep; however recent models studying the pathology, disease progression and viremia of PPRV have focused primarily on goat models. This study evaluates the tissue tropism and pathogenesis of PPR following experimental infection of sheep and goats using a quantitative time-course study. Upon infection with a virulent strain of PPRV, both sheep and goats developed clinical signs and lesions typical of PPR, although sheep displayed milder clinical disease compared to goats. Tissue tropism of PPRV was evaluated by real-time RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Lymph nodes, lymphoid tissue and digestive tract organs were the predominant sites of virus replication. The results presented in this study provide models for the comparative evaluation of PPRV pathogenesis and tissue tropism in both sheep and goats. These models are suitable for the establishment of experimental parameters necessary for the evaluation of vaccines, as well as further studies into PPRV-host interactions. PMID:24498032

  16. Avian influenza in shorebirds: experimental infection of ruddy turnstones (Arenaria interpres) with avian influenza virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jeffrey S.; Krauss, Scott; Franson, J. Christian; TeSlaa, Joshua L.; Nashold, Sean W.; Stallknecht, David E.; Webby, Richard J.; Webster, Robert G.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Low pathogenic avian influenza viruses (LPAIV) have been reported in shorebirds, especially at Delaware Bay, USA, during spring migration. However, data on patterns of virus excretion, minimal infectious doses, and clinical outcome are lacking. The ruddy turnstone (Arenaria interpres) is the shorebird species with the highest prevalence of influenza virus at Delaware Bay. Objectives: The primary objective of this study was to experimentally assess the patterns of influenza virus excretion, minimal infectious doses, and clinical outcome in ruddy turnstones. Methods: We experimentally challenged ruddy turnstones using a common LPAIV shorebird isolate, an LPAIV waterfowl isolate, or a highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus. Cloacal and oral swabs and sera were analyzed from each bird. Results: Most ruddy turnstones had pre-existing antibodies to avian influenza virus, and many were infected at the time of capture. The infectious doses for each challenge virus were similar (103·6–104·16 EID50), regardless of exposure history. All infected birds excreted similar amounts of virus and showed no clinical signs of disease or mortality. Influenza A-specific antibodies remained detectable for at least 2 months after inoculation. Conclusions: These results provide a reference for interpretation of surveillance data, modeling, and predicting the risks of avian influenza transmission and movement in these important hosts.

  17. Technetium-99m stannous pyrophosphate imaging of experimental infective endocarditis. [Rabbits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riba, A.L.; Downs, J.; Thakur, M.L.; Gottschalk, A.; Andriole, V.T.; Zaret, B.L.

    1978-07-01

    Technetium-99m stannous pyrophosphate (/sup 99m/Tc-PYP) cardiac scintigraphy was performed in 15 rabbits with experimental Streptococcus sanguis aortic-valve infective endocarditis. The animals were imaged five to seven days after the administration of bacteria, and in each case abnormal accumulation of the tracer was visualized in the region of the aortic valve. Three types of cardiac scintigraphic patterns were demonstrated: focal, multifocal, and extensive, each correlating well with the anatomical extent of the lesion as defined by gross pathology. Tissue distribution studies demonstrated a 30 +- 5.3 (mean +- SEM) fold excess of radionuclide uptake in the infective endocarditis lesion compared with that of normal myocardium. Imaging of excised hearts from four animals showed an excellent correlation with in vivo imaging as well as gross pathology. Five animals with nonbacterial thrombotic aortic valve endocarditis demonstrated similar scintigraphic and tissue distribution results. In contrast, four normal animals failed to demonstrate abnormal /sup 99m/Tc-PYP cardiac scintigrams or tissue uptake. This study demonstrates that /sup 99m/Tc-PYP cardiac scintigraphy is a sensitive technique to detect experimental aortic valve endocarditis.

  18. Proteomic analysis of Ascaridia galli. Identification of immunoreactive proteins in naturally and experimentally infected hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Miguel, Javier; Marcos-Atxutegi, Cristina; de Castello, Roberta Bottari; Carpani, Sara; Morchón, Rodrigo; Simón, Fernando

    2013-09-23

    Ascaridia galli, intestinal parasite of domestic fowl, is responsible of economic losses in avian exploitations. However, molecular mechanisms that govern avian ascaridiasis remain largely unknown. The aim of the present work was to identify proteins of A. galli recognized by the immune system of naturally and experimentally infected hens, using two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and mass spectrometry (MS). Sixteen immunoreactive proteins of A. galli were identified. These proteins are mainly related to different metabolic processes, cell motility and binding activities. The timing evolution of this recognition pattern was studied using serum samples from experimentally infected hens, allowing us to observe an early recognition of many of these antigens. Many of them were isoforms from lipid and plasminogen-binding proteins. Moreover, plasminogen-binding activity has been related in other parasites with the facilitation of intra-organic migration, which represents an important fact in avian ascaridiasis. This work represents the first proteomic study of A. galli and could contribute to explain some aspects of parasite/host relationships of avian ascaridiasis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Dynamics of Pathological and Virological Findings During Experimental Calpox Virus Infection of Common Marmosets (Callithrix jacchus

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    Anne Schmitt

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Experimental intranasal infection of marmosets (Callithrix jacchus with calpox virus results in fatal disease. Route and dose used for viral inoculation of the test animals mimics the natural transmission of smallpox, thus representing a suitable model to study pathogenesis and to evaluate new vaccines against orthopoxvirus infection. However, the pathogenic mechanisms leading to death are still unclear. Therefore, our study aimed at investigating the kinetics of pathological alterations to clarify the pathogenesis in calpox virus infection. Following intranasal inoculation with two different viral doses, common marmosets were sacrificed on days 3, 5, 7, 10 and 12 post inoculation. Collected tissue was screened using histopathology, immunohistochemistry, transmission electron microscopy, and virological assays. Our data suggest that primary replication took place in nasal and bronchial epithelia followed by secondary replication in submandibular lymph nodes and spleen. Parallel to viremia at day 7, virus was detectable in many organs, mainly located in epithelial cells and macrophages, as well as in endothelial cells. Based on the onset of clinical signs, the histological and ultrastructural lesions and the immunohistochemical distribution pattern of the virus, the incubation period was defined to last 11 days, which resembles human smallpox. In conclusion, the data indicate that the calpox model is highly suitable for studying orthopoxvirus-induced disease.

  20. Experimental intraocular infection of exotic cockerels with field strain of velogenic Newcastle disease virus in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samaila Jonathan Badau

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Experimental intraocular (conjunctival infection of exotic cockerels with a new field strain of viscerotropic velogenic Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV was conducted to explore the concurrence of some pathological changes with humoral immune responses. After the NDV infection of 4-week-old cockerels, pathologic changes and antibody responses were observed. The clinical signs observed after the artificial inoculation included inappetence, depression, diarrhea, dyspnea, wing and leg paralysis, torticollis and weight loss. Morbidity due to the NDV was 100%, but mortality was 80% by day 18-21 post-infection. Early hyperthermia followed by terminal hypothermia, decreased packed cell volume (PCV, and 231.4 folds peak-antibody response were observed. Necrotic and/or inflammatory lesions were present in the proventriculus, intestine, liver, spleen, kidney and brain. Neurologic and digestive tract perturbations occurred in 10% and 85% of cases, respectively. The disease consistently caused stunted growth, decreased PCV, and necro-inflammatroy lesions concurrent with antibody response, suggesting probable involvement of immune-mediated mechanisms and cell membrane desialylation by viral neuraminidase in the pathogenesis.

  1. Lack of viable parasites in cured 'Parma Ham' (PDO), following experimental Toxoplasma gondii infection of pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genchi, Marco; Vismarra, Alice; Mangia, Carlo; Faccini, Silvia; Vicari, Nadia; Rigamonti, Sara; Prati, Paola; Marino, Anna Maria; Kramer, Laura; Fabbi, Massimo

    2017-09-01

    Twelve Large White pigs were experimentally infected with 1000 Toxoplasma gondii oocysts/each. Serology was carried out at different time points post infection (p.i.) and animals were slaughtered at four months p.i. One of two thighs was examined for T. gondii infection status by PCR and bioassay in mice. The other thigh was processed for Parma ham production. Four thighs were examined after twelve months of curing, four after fourteen months and four were examined after sixteen months. Cured hams were analyzed by PCR, bioassay and in-vitro cultivation on Vero cells followed by real-time PCR. Pigs seroconverted from day 21 p.i. Bioassays were positive for all fresh thighs, but negative for cured hams. PCR was positive for parasite DNA from most thighs both at slaughter and post curing, but parasite growth was not observed following in vitro cultivation and real-time PCR. Results indicate that the curing process of Parma Ham (PDO), when carried out according to the Parma Ham consortium regulations, can inactivate T. gondii tissue cysts. Results would suggest that food-borne transmission of T. gondii to consumers from Parma ham can be excluded. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Efficacy of toltrazuril and ponazuril against experimental Neospora caninum infection in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottstein, B; Eperon, S; Dai, W J; Cannas, A; Hemphill, A; Greif, G

    2001-01-01

    Neosporosis is a disease affecting predominantly fetal development in cattle and dog hosts; and it may cause neuromuscular disfunction in infected newborn calves and pups. Predispositions--including, e.g. transient immunosuppression during pregnancy--may result in an increased dissemination of the parasite within the host or its offspring. Chemotherapeutic treatment of neosporosis may be an issue, provided that an appropriate drug is made available. In this respect, we describe the use of a mouse model for the evaluation of toltrazuril and ponazuril medication as a means of preventing parasite dissemination and subsequent formation of cerebral lesions. Toltrazuril- and ponazuril-treated mice were experimentally infected intraperitoneally (i.p.) with 2 x 10(6) Neospora caninum tachyzoites. The infection was monitored at three levels: clinically, by assessing symptoms, histologically, by assessing the occurrence of cerebral lesions and parasites by immunohistochemistry, and on the molecular level, by detection of parasite DNA using PCR. Chemotherapy using either toltrazuril or ponazuril, both applied in a drinking-water formulation (20 mg toltrazuril or ponazuril kg(-1) body weight day(-1)) completely prevented the formation of cerebral lesions in all treated animals, as assessed by immunohistochemistry. PCR analyses of these treated animals showed that DNA-detectability was reduced by 91% and 90% upon toltrazuril and ponazuril medication, respectively.

  3. Lipid A's structure mediates Neisseria gonorrhoeae fitness during experimental infection of mice and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Marcia M; Anderson, James E; Balthazar, Jacqueline T; Kandler, Justin L; Carlson, Russell W; Ganguly, Jhuma; Begum, Afrin A; Duncan, Joseph A; Lin, Jessica T; Sparling, P Frederick; Jerse, Ann E; Shafer, William M

    2013-11-19

    Phosphoethanolamine (PEA) on Neisseria gonorrhoeae lipid A influences gonococcal inflammatory signaling and susceptibility to innate host defenses in in vitro models. Here, we evaluated the role of PEA-decorated gonococcal lipid A in competitive infections in female mice and in male volunteers. We inoculated mice and men with mixtures of wild-type N. gonorrhoeae and an isogenic mutant that lacks the PEA transferase, LptA. LptA production conferred a marked survival advantage for wild-type gonococci in the murine female genital tract and in the human male urethra. Our studies translate results from test tube to animal model and into the human host and demonstrate the utility of the mouse model for studies of virulence factors of the human-specific pathogen N. gonorrhoeae that interact with non-host-restricted elements of innate immunity. These results validate the use of gonococcal LptA as a potential target for development of novel immunoprophylactic strategies or antimicrobial treatments. Gonorrhea is one of the most common bacterial sexually transmitted infections, and increasing antibiotic resistance threatens the use of currently available antimicrobial therapies. In this work, encompassing in vitro studies and in vivo studies of animal and human models of experimental genital tract infection, we document the importance of lipid A's structure, mediated by a single bacterial enzyme, LptA, in enhancing the fitness of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. The results of these studies suggest that novel agents targeting LptA may offer urgently needed prevention or treatment strategies for gonorrhea.

  4. Genetic Vaccination against Experimental Infection with Myotropic Parasite Strains of Trypanosoma cruzi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Fernando Araújo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In earlier studies, we reported that a heterologous prime-boost regimen using recombinant plasmid DNA followed by replication-defective adenovirus vector, both containing Trypanosoma cruzi genes encoding trans-sialidase (TS and amastigote surface protein (ASP 2, provided protective immunity against experimental infection with a reticulotropic strain of this human protozoan parasite. Herein, we tested the outcome of genetic vaccination of F1 (CB10XBALB/c mice challenged with myotropic parasite strains (Brazil and Colombian. Initially, we determined that the coadministration during priming of a DNA plasmid containing the murine IL-12 gene improved the immune response and was essential for protective immunity elicited by the heterologous prime-boost regimen in susceptible male mice against acute lethal infections with these parasites. The prophylactic or therapeutic vaccination of resistant female mice led to a drastic reduction in the number of inflammatory infiltrates in cardiac and skeletal muscles during the chronic phase of infection with either strain. Analysis of the electrocardiographic parameters showed that prophylactic vaccination reduced the frequencies of sinus arrhythmia and atrioventricular block. Our results confirmed that prophylactic vaccination using the TS and ASP-2 genes benefits the host against acute and chronic pathologies caused by T. cruzi and should be further evaluated for the development of a veterinary or human vaccine against Chagas disease.

  5. Antischistosomal activity of hederacochiside C against Schistosoma japonicum harbored in experimentally infected animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Nai-Xin; Zhu, Yuan-Jian; Zhao, Jian-Ping; Zhu, Wei-Feng; Liu, Yan-Li; Xu, Qiong-Ming; Zhuge, Hong-Xiang; Khan, Ikhlas A; Yang, Shi-Lin

    2017-04-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate whether hederacochiside C (HSC) possesses antischistosomal effects and anti-inflammatory response activities in Schistosoma japonicum-infected mice. Different concentrations of HSC were administrated to the mice infected by schistosomula or adult worm by intravenous injection twice a day for five consecutive days. The total worm burden, female worm burden, and the egg burden in liver of mice treated with 400 mg/kg HSC were fewer than those in non-treated ones. Murine immune responses following HSC treatment were investigated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). Our results indicated that 200 mg/kg HSC could reduce the expression of IgG, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-17 in comparison to infected group, exhibiting best immunomodulatory effects. In addition, scanning electron microscopical examination revealed that male worms treated with HSC lost their normal surface architecture since its surface showed extensive swelling, erosion, and peeling in tegumental regions. Remarkable amelioration was noticed in histopathological investigations, and 200 mg/kg HSC treatment could reduce the size of granulomatous inflammatory infiltrations in the liver which was reflected in nearly normalization of liver architecture. These results suggested that HSC had potential antischistosomal activity and provided a basis for subsequent experimental.

  6. Immunity to Lutzomyia whitmani Saliva Protects against Experimental Leishmania braziliensis Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Regis; Cavalcanti, Katrine; Teixeira, Clarissa; Carvalho, Augusto M; Mattos, Paulo S; Cristal, Juqueline R; Muniz, Aline C; Miranda, José Carlos; de Oliveira, Camila I; Barral, Aldina

    2016-11-01

    Previous works showed that immunization with saliva from Lutzomyia intermedia, a vector of Leishmania braziliensis, does not protect against experimental infection. However, L. braziliensis is also transmitted by Lutzomyia whitmani, a sand fly species closely related to Lu. intermedia. Herein we describe the immune response following immunization with Lu. whitmani saliva and the outcome of this response after L. braziliensis infection. BALB/c mice immunized with Lu. whitmani saliva developed robust humoral and cellular immune responses, the latter characterized by an intense cellular infiltrate and production of IFN-γ and IL-10, by both CD4+ and CD8+ cells. Mice immunized as above and challenged with L. braziliensis plus Lu. whitmani saliva displayed significantly smaller lesions and parasite load at the challenge site. This protection was associated with a higher (p<0.05) IFN-γ production in response to SLA stimulation. Long-term persisting immunity was also detected in mice immunized with Lu. whitmani saliva. Furthermore, individuals residing in an endemic area for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) presented antibody responses to Lu. whitmani saliva. However CL patients, with active lesions, displayed a lower humoral response to Lu. whitmani saliva compared to individuals with subclinical Leishmania infection. Pre-exposure to Lu. whitmani saliva induces protection against L. braziliensis in a murine model. We also show that Lu. whitmani salivary proteins are immunogenic in naturally exposed individuals. Our results reinforce the importance of investigating the immunomodulatory effect of saliva from different species of closely related sand flies.

  7. Vaccine-mediated immune responses to experimental pulmonary Cryptococcus gattii infection in mice.

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    Ashok K Chaturvedi

    Full Text Available Cryptococcus gattii is a fungal pathogen that can cause life-threatening respiratory and disseminated infections in immune-competent and immune-suppressed individuals. Currently, there are no standardized vaccines against cryptococcosis in humans, underlying an urgent need for effective therapies and/or vaccines. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of intranasal immunization with C. gattii cell wall associated (CW and/or cytoplasmic (CP protein preparations to induce protection against experimental pulmonary C. gattii infection in mice. BALB/c mice immunized with C. gattii CW and/or CP protein preparations exhibited a significant reduction in pulmonary fungal burden and prolonged survival following pulmonary challenge with C. gattii. Protection was associated with significantly increased pro-inflammatory and Th1-type cytokine recall responses, in vitro and increased C. gattii-specific antibody production in immunized mice challenged with C. gattii. A number of immunodominant proteins were identified following immunoblot analysis of C. gattii CW and CP protein preparations using sera from immunized mice. Immunization with a combined CW and CP protein preparation resulted in an early increase in pulmonary T cell infiltrates following challenge with C. gattii. Overall, our studies show that C. gattii CW and CP protein preparations contain antigens that may be included in a subunit vaccine to induce prolonged protection against pulmonary C. gattii infection.

  8. Experimental West Nile Virus Infection in Rabbits: An Alternative Model for Studying Induction of Disease and Virus Control

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    Willy W. Suen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The economic impact of non-lethal human and equine West Nile virus (WNV disease is substantial, since it is the most common presentation of the infection. Experimental infection with virulent WNV strains in the mouse and hamster models frequently results in severe neural infection and moderate to high mortality, both of which are not representative features of most human and equine infections. We have established a rabbit model for investigating pathogenesis and immune response of non-lethal WNV infection. Two species of rabbits, New Zealand White (Oryctolagus cuniculus and North American cottontail (Sylvilagus sp., were experimentally infected with virulent WNV and Murray Valley encephalitis virus strains. Infected rabbits exhibited a consistently resistant phenotype, with evidence of low viremia, minimal-absent neural infection, mild-moderate neuropathology, and the lack of mortality, even though productive virus replication occurred in the draining lymph node. The kinetics of anti-WNV neutralizing antibody response was comparable to that commonly seen in infected horses and humans. This may be explained by the early IFNα/β and/or γ response evident in the draining popliteal lymph node. Given this similarity to the human and equine disease, immunocompetent rabbits are, therefore, a valuable animal model for investigating various aspects of non-lethal WNV infections.

  9. Experimental West Nile Virus Infection in Rabbits: An Alternative Model for Studying Induction of Disease and Virus Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suen, Willy W.; Uddin, Muhammad J.; Wang, Wenqi; Brown, Vienna; Adney, Danielle R.; Broad, Nicole; Prow, Natalie A.; Bowen, Richard A.; Hall, Roy A.; Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Helle

    2015-01-01

    The economic impact of non-lethal human and equine West Nile virus (WNV) disease is substantial, since it is the most common presentation of the infection. Experimental infection with virulent WNV strains in the mouse and hamster models frequently results in severe neural infection and moderate to high mortality, both of which are not representative features of most human and equine infections. We have established a rabbit model for investigating pathogenesis and immune response of non-lethal WNV infection. Two species of rabbits, New Zealand White (Oryctolagus cuniculus) and North American cottontail (Sylvilagus sp.), were experimentally infected with virulent WNV and Murray Valley encephalitis virus strains. Infected rabbits exhibited a consistently resistant phenotype, with evidence of low viremia, minimal-absent neural infection, mild-moderate neuropathology, and the lack of mortality, even though productive virus replication occurred in the draining lymph node. The kinetics of anti-WNV neutralizing antibody response was comparable to that commonly seen in infected horses and humans. This may be explained by the early IFNα/β and/or γ response evident in the draining popliteal lymph node. Given this similarity to the human and equine disease, immunocompetent rabbits are, therefore, a valuable animal model for investigating various aspects of non-lethal WNV infections. PMID:26184326

  10. Is Salvage of Recently Infected Breast Implant After Breast Augmentation or Reconstruction Possible? An Experimental Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castus, P; Heymans, O; Melin, P; Renwart, L; Henrist, C; Hayton, E; Mordon, S; Leclère, F M

    2018-01-23

    The reinsertion of an infected implant when peri-prosthetic infection occurs early after breast augmentation or breast reconstruction remains controversial. In this experimental study, the authors tried to remove bacteria, and their biofilm, from the colonized surface of breast prostheses, without damaging their integrity. A total of 112 shell samples of silicone breast prostheses, smooth (SPSS) and textured (TPSS), were colonized by S. epidermidis (SE) or S. aureus (SA) strains, all able to produce biofilms. After 15 days, all the samples were removed from the contaminated culture broth and constituted 4 groups of 20 contaminated samples: SPSS/SE (group I), SPSS/SA (group II), TPSS/SE (group III), TPSS/SE (group IV). In another group-group SEM-, 16 colonized samples were used for documentation with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The remaining 16 samples were used to test the limits of detection of the sterility test. All samples of groups I-IV and 8 samples of group SEM were « washed » with a smooth brush in a povidone-iodine bath and rinsed with saline solution. A subset of the washed samples was sent for SEM and the others were immersed in sterile broth and were incubated at 35 °C for 3 weeks (groups I-IV). Fifteen days after contamination, all the samples in groups I-IV were colonized. In the SEM group, SEM images attested to the presence of bacteria in biofilm attached to the shells. After cleaning, SEM did not reveal any bacteria and there was no visible alteration in the outer structure of the shell. Sterility tests performed after decontamination in groups I-IV remained negative for all the samples. Breast prostheses recently contaminated with Staphylococci, frequently involved in peri-prosthetic breast implant infection and capable of producing biofilms, can be efficiently decontaminated by the procedure used in this study. Our decontamination procedure did not alter the surface structure of the prostheses. This decontamination procedure

  11. Biochemical studies in experimentally Escherichia coli infected broiler chicken supplemented with neem (Azadirachta indica leaf extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikash Sharma

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: An experimental study was conducted on 192-day-old broiler chicks for evaluating the effect of 10% neem leaf extract (NLE supplementationon biochemical parameters in chickens experimentally infected with Escherichia coli O78 at 107 CFU/0.5 ml at 7 days of age. Materials and Methods: The 192-day-old broiler chicks were procured. These chicks were divided into two groups (A and B containing 96 birds each on the 1st day. Diet of all the chicks of Group A was supplemented with 10%NLE in water, whereas chicks of Group B were given feed and water devoid of NLE supplementation throughout the experiment. After rearing for 1 week, chicks of both the groups (A and B were again divided into two subgroups (Group A into A1 and A2 and Group B into B1 and B2 of 54 and 42 birds, respectively. At the age of 7 days all the chicks of groups A1 and B1 were injected with E. coli O78 at 107 CFU/0.5 ml intraperitoneally. Blood samples were collected from six chicks from each group at day 0, 2, 4, 7, 14, 21, 28 days post-infection and serum was separated for biochemical studies. Results: There was a significant increase in serum alanine transaminase (ALT, aspartate transaminase (AST, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH activities, globulin concentration and a decrease in total protein (TP, albumin concentrations, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity in both the infected groups. However, the changes in biochemical values, i.e., ALT, AST, LDH, ALP, TP, albumin, and globulin wereof lower magnitude in NLE supplemented group suggesting hepatoprotective and cardioprotective effect of NLE. Conclusions: Fromthe present study, it is reasonable to conclude that significant increase in the value of ALT, AST, LDH, globulin, and significant decrease in the value of ALP, TP, and albumin was of lower magnitude in supplemented infected group (A1 as compared to non-supplemented infected group (B1 suggesting hepatoprotective and cardioprotective effect of NLE.

  12. Airway inflammation and illness severity in response to experimental rhinovirus infection in asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jie; Message, Simon D; Qiu, Yusheng; Mallia, Patrick; Kebadze, Tatiana; Contoli, Marco; Ward, Christine K; Barnathan, Elliot S; Mascelli, Mary Ann; Kon, Onn M; Papi, Alberto; Stanciu, Luminita A; Jeffery, Peter K; Johnston, Sebastian L

    2014-06-01

    The nature of bronchial mucosal inflammation and its physiologic and clinical significance in rhinovirus-induced asthma exacerbations is unclear. We investigated bronchial mucosal inflammatory response and its association with physiologic and clinical outcomes in an experimental model of rhinovirus-induced asthma exacerbations. We used immunohistochemistry methods to detect phenotypes of inflammatory cells infiltrating the bronchial mucosa before and after experimental rhinovirus infection in 10 subjects with asthma and 15 normal subjects. Compared with baseline, rhinovirus infection significantly increased the number of epithelial (P = .005) and subepithelial (P = .017) neutrophils in subjects with asthma only and subepithelial CD68+ macrophages in both subjects with asthma (P = .009) and normal subjects (P = .018) but more so in those with asthma (P = .021). Numbers of CD45+, CD68+, and CD20+ cells; neutrophils; and eosinophils at day 4 postinfection were positively associated with virus load (r = 0.50-0.72, P = .016-0.03). At acute infection in subjects with asthma, CD4+ cells correlated with chest symptom scores (r = 0.69, P = .029), the fall in the 10% fall in FEV1 (PC10) correlated with neutrophils (r = -0.89, P = .029), the PC10 correlated inversely with CD4+ (r = -0.67, P = .023) and CD8+ cells (r = -0.65, P = .03), the 20% fall in FEV1 was inversely associated with CD20+ cells (r = -0.65, P = .03), and higher epithelial CD8+ cell counts were significantly associated with a greater maximum fall in FEV1 (r = -0.72, P = .03), whereas higher subepithelial mast cell counts were significantly associated with a lower maximum percent fall in peak expiratory flow (r = 0.8, P = .024). In subjects with asthma, rhinovirus infection induces bronchial mucosal neutrophilia and more severe monocyte/macrophage infiltration than in normal subjects. Airway neutrophils, eosinophils, and T and B lymphocytes during infection are related to virus load and physiologic and

  13. Experimental Hyalohyphomycosis by Purpureocillium lilacinum: Outcome of the Infection in C57BL/6 Murine Models

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    Danielly C. M. de Sequeira

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpureocillium lilacinum is a filamentous, hyaline fungus considered an emerging pathogen in humans. The aim of our study was to evaluate the outcome of hyalohyphomycosis in C57BL/6 murine models inoculated with two clinical P. lilacinum isolates (S1 and S2. Each isolate was inoculated in mice randomly distributed in immunocompetent (CPT and immunosuppressed (SPS groups. Mice were evaluated at day 7, 21, and 45 after inoculation for histopathological analysis, recovery of fungal cells, and immunological studies. Histological analysis showed scarce conidia-like structures in lung tissue from CPT mice and a lot of fungal cells in SPS mice inoculated with S2 compared to mice inoculated with S1. The maximum recovery of fungal cells was seen in CPT mice inoculated with both isolates at day 7, but with mean significantly higher in those inoculated with S2 isolate. Phenotypical characterization of T cells showed TCD8+ lymphocytes predominance over TCD4+ in immunosuppressed mice infected and control groups. We also observed higher percentages of the central and effector memory/effector phenotype in CPT mice infected with S2 strain, especially in TCD8+ in the initial period of infection. Regulatory T cells showed higher percentages in immunosuppressed, predominantly after the acute phase. Our results showed that the P. lilacinum is a fungus capable to cause damages in competent and immunosuppressed experimental hosts. Furthermore, S2 isolate seems to cause more damage to the experimental host and it was possible to identify different cellular subsets involved in the mice immune response.

  14. Regulatory T cell induction during Plasmodium chabaudi infection modifies the clinical course of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

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    Alessandro S Farias

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE is used as an animal model for human multiple sclerosis (MS, which is an inflammatory demyelinating autoimmune disease of the central nervous system characterized by activation of Th1 and/or Th17 cells. Human autoimmune diseases can be either exacerbated or suppressed by infectious agents. Recent studies have shown that regulatory T cells play a crucial role in the escape mechanism of Plasmodium spp. both in humans and in experimental models. These cells suppress the Th1 response against the parasite and prevent its elimination. Regulatory T cells have been largely associated with protection or amelioration in several autoimmune diseases, mainly by their capacity to suppress proinflammatory response. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we verified that CD4(+CD25(+ regulatory T cells (T regs generated during malaria infection (6 days after EAE induction interfere with the evolution of EAE. We observed a positive correlation between the reduction of EAE clinical symptoms and an increase of parasitemia levels. Suppression of the disease was also accompanied by a decrease in the expression of IL-17 and IFN-γ and increases in the expression of IL-10 and TGF-β1 relative to EAE control mice. The adoptive transfer of CD4(+CD25(+ cells from P. chabaudi-infected mice reduced the clinical evolution of EAE, confirming the role of these T regs. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These data corroborate previous findings showing that infections interfere with the prevalence and evolution of autoimmune diseases by inducing regulatory T cells, which regulate EAE in an apparently non-specific manner.

  15. Histopathological, immunohistochemical, and molecular study of BHV-5 infection in the central nervous system of experimentally infected calves

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    Didier Q. Cagnini

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Bovine meningoencephalitis caused by BHV-5, a double-stranded DNA enveloped virus that belongs to the family Herpesviridae and subfamily Alphaherpesvirinae, is an important differential diagnosis of central nervous diseases. The aim of this study was to describe the histological changes in the central nervous system of calves experimentally infected with BHV-5 and compare these changes with the PCR and IHC results. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded central nervous system samples from calves previously inoculated with BHV-5 were microscopically evaluated and tested using IHC and PCR. All the animals presented with nonsuppurative meningoencephalitis. From 18 evaluated areas of each calf, 32.41% and 35.19% were positive by IHC and PCR, respectively. The telencephalon presented more accentuated lesions and positive areas in the PCR than other encephalic areas and was the best sampling area for diagnostic purposes. Positive areas in the IHC and PCR were more injured than IHC and PCR negative areas. The animal with neurological signs showed more PCR- and IHC-positive areas than the other animals.

  16. Infecção experimental por Trypanosoma vivax em ovinos Experimental infection by Trypanosoma vivax in sheep

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    Jael Soares Batista

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve por objetivo avaliar as alterações clínicas, hematológicas e patológicas em ovinos infectados experimentalmente com Trypanosoma vivax, utilizando-se um isolado proveniente de bovinos infectados naturalmente no município de Catolé do Rocha, Paraíba. Quatro ovinos da raça Santa Inês foram infectados por via intravenosa com 1ml de sangue contendo 1,85x10(5 tripomastigotas de T. vivax e outros quatro ovinos foram destinados ao grupo controle. A parasitemia e a temperatura foram determinadas diariamente durante 30 dias após a infecção (dpi e quinzenalmente dos 31 aos 90 dias. A cada 15 dias os animais foram pesados e realizados coletas de sangue para hemograma. Um ovino morreu aos 75 dpi, os demais animais do grupo infectado e do grupo controle foram sacrificados 90 dias após o início do experimento. T. vivax foi evidenciado a partir do 4º dpi em todos os ovinos infectados. A parasitemia foi constante até os 15 dias e irregular entre os 16 e 30 dias. Após o 30º dia não foram observados parasitas no sangue. Foi observada correlação linear positiva entre temperatura retal e parasitemia [Y=0,027x + 38,515; R²=0,9444 (PThis paper has the objective to report clinical signs, hematologic changes, and macroscopic and microscopic alterations in sheep infected experimentally with Trypanosoma vivax, isolated from an outbreak in cattle in the semiarid region of the state of Paraíba, northeastern Brazil. Four Santa Inês sheep were inoculated intravenously with 1ml of blood containing 1.85x10(5 trypomastigotes. Other 4 sheep were used as control. The presence of trypanosomes in the blood and the temperature were recorded daily during the first 30 days and fortnightly from day 31 to day 90 after infection. Also fortnightly, the sheep were weighed and blood samples were obtained for hematological analysis. One inoculated sheep died 75 days after inoculation. The other 3 inoculated and the 4 control sheep were killed 90

  17. Plasma and tissue pharmacokinetics of marbofloxacin in experimentally infected chickens with Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, H; Wang, L; Shen, X; Gu, X; Zeng, D; Zeng, Z

    2013-10-01

    The plasma and tissue pharmacokinetics of marbofloxacin in chickens experimentally infected with Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Escherichia coli were studied. Marbofloxacin was given to 66 infected chickens by oral administration at a dosage of 5 mg/kg b.w., once a day for three days. Plasma, brain, kidney, liver, lung, muscle and trachea were collected and marbofloxacin concentrations were analyzed by a high performance liquid chromatography method. In the infected chickens, maximal marbofloxacin concentrations in plasma, brain, kidney, liver, lung, muscle and trachea were 1.84, 1.33, 7.35, 5.61, 3.12, 2.98, and 4.51 g/mL (g); the elimination half-lives of marbofloxacin were 6.8, 2.74, 9.31, 8.45, 9.55, 11.53 and 5.46 h for plasma, brain, kidney, liver, lung, muscle and trachea, respectively. AUC were calculated to be 9.68, 8.04, 45.1, 27.03, 20.56, 19.47, and 32.68 μg/mL (g) for plasma, brain, kidney, liver, lung, muscle and trachea, respectively. Marbofloxacin concentration in tissues except for brain exceeded marbofloxacin concentration in plasma, with AUC(tissue) /AUC(plasma) ranging from 2.01 to 4.66 and Peak(tissue) /Peak(plasma) ranging from 1.62 to 3.99. The results showed that a marbofloxacin dosage of 5 mg/kg administered orally at 24 h intervals may provide successful treatment of chicken with MG and E. coli infection. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Restricted expression of Borna disease virus glycoprotein in brains of experimentally infected Lewis rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner-Keiss, N; Garten, W; Richt, J A; Porombka, D; Algermissen, D; Herzog, S; Baumgärtner, W; Herden, C

    2008-12-01

    Borna disease virus (BDV) induces a persistent infection in the central nervous system (CNS) accompanied by a non-purulent meningoencephalitis. BDV-infection of Lewis rats provides an important model to investigate basic principles of neurotropism, viral persistence and resulting dysfunctions. To date, the in vivo strategies of BDV to persist in the CNS are not fully understood. Viral glycoproteins are main targets of the antiviral defence implicating a controlled expression in case of persistent infections. Therefore, we analysed the expression profiles of the BDV-glycoprotein (BDV-GP) and corresponding BDV-intron II RNA in experimentally infected rat brains, focusing on their spatio-temporal occurrence, regional, cellular and intracellular locations. This was carried out by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. The expression pattern of the most abundantly expressed BDV-nucleoprotein (BDV-N) served as a reference. BDV-N mRNA was detected preferentially in the cytoplasm of neurones, whereas BDV-intron II mRNA was found predominantly in the nucleus of brain cells. The genomic RNA was restricted to the nucleus. Expression of BDV-GP was significantly lower than BDV-N expression and mainly limited to cerebral cortex, hippocampus, amygdala and thalamus. BDV-GP was restricted to larger neurones; BDV-N occurred also in astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and ependymal cells. The expression profiles of BDV-GP, BDV-N and their mRNAs are significantly different, indicating that BDV-GP expression is regulated in vivo. This might be achieved by restricted nuclear export and/or maturation of BDV-intron II mRNA or limited translation as a viral mechanism to escape from the immune response and enable persistence in the CNS.

  19. Immune responsiveness associated with experimental Encephalitozoon intestinalis infection in immunocompetent rats

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    Omalu ICJ

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Microsporidial infections have been recognized as an increasingly important infection in immuncompromised patients, particularly those infected with HIV/AIDS. This study was designed to study immune responses associated with experimental Encephalitozoon intestinalis infection in immunocompetent rats. Materials and Methods: Thirty-four Rats in 3 groups, A (Control, B (Intraperitoneal and C (Oral were given injections of 0.5 ml of 2 x 10 6 of purified spores of Encephalitotozoon intestinalis spores and were observed for serum specific IgG for 21 days using both direct and indirect ELISA. Results: In indirect ELISA, specific lgG were detected on days 7, 14 and 21 for the group B rats and on day 21 for group C and in direct ELISA method, specific lgG were detected in-group B rats on days 7 and 21, for group C rats on day 21 only, while in the control rats, specific lgG were not detected. There was no significant difference between the direct and indirect methods (df=1, X 2 , P>0.05. E. intestinalis was observed in stool samples of rats in 1/12 (08.33% on days 14 and 21 in group B, and in 4/10 (33.33%, 3/10 (25.00% and 2/10 (16.67% on days 7, 14 and 21 respectively in group C. In group A, which is the control rats, no microsporidia were observed on days 0, 7, 14 and 21. Conclusions: There were no changes in the T-lymphocyte counts of rats prior to and after inoculation with spores. Extensive lesions were observed along the intestinal walls especially on the middle and lower sections of group C rats only.

  20. [Five steps to decreasing nosocomial infections in large immature premature infants: A quasi-experimental study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García González, Ana; Leante Castellanos, José Luis; Fuentes Gutiérrez, Carmen; Lloreda García, José María; Fernández Fructuoso, José Ramón; Gómez Santos, Elisabet; García González, Verónica

    2017-07-01

    An evaluation is made of the impact of a series of five interventions on the incidence of hospital-related infections in a level iii neonatal unit. Quasi-experimental, pre-post intervention study, which included preterm infants weighing 1,500g at birth or delivered at <32 weeks gestation, admitted in the 12 months before and after the measures were implemented (January 2014). The measures consisted of: optimising hand washing, following a protocol for insertion and handling of central intravenous catheters, encouraging breastfeeding; applying a protocol for rational antibiotic use, and establishing a surveillance system for multi-resistant bacteria. The primary endpoint was to assess the incidence of hospital-acquired infections before and after implementing the interventions. Thirty-three matched patients were included in each period. There was an incidence of 8.7 and 2.7 hospital-related infections/1,000 hospital stay days in the pre- and post-intervention periods, respectively (P<.05). Additionally, patients in the treatment group showed a statistically-significant decrease in days on mechanical ventilation, use of blood products, and vasoactive drugs. The strategy, based on implementing five specific measures in a unit with a high rate of hospital-related infections, proved effective in reducing their incidence. This reduction could contribute to lowering the use of mechanical ventilation, blood products, and vasoactive drugs. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Particle and impurity transport in the Axial Symmetric Divertor Experiment Upgrade and the Joint European Torus, experimental observations and theoretical understanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angioni, C.; Carraro, L.; Dannert, T.

    2007-01-01

    Experimental observations on core particle and impurity transport from the Axial Symmetric Divertor Experiment Upgrade [O. Gruber, H.-S. Bosch, S. Gunter , Nucl Fusion 39, 1321 (1999)] and the Joint European Torus [J. Pamela, E. R. Solano, and JET EFDA Contributors, Nucl. Fusion 43, 1540 (2003......)] tokamaks are reviewed and compared. Robust general experimental behaviors observed in both the devices and related parametric dependences are identified. The experimental observations are compared with the most recent theoretical results in the field of core particle transport. (C) 2007 American Institute...

  2. Latex protein extracts from Calotropis procera with immunomodulatory properties protect against experimental infections with Listeria monocytogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Danielle Cristina de Oliveira; Ralph, Maria Taciana; Batista, Jacqueline Ellen Camelo; Silva, Diogo Manoel Farias; Gomes-Filho, Manoel Adrião; Alencar, Nylane Maria; Leal, Nilma Cintra; Ramos, Márcio Viana; Lima-Filho, Jose Vitor

    2016-06-15

    The latex from the medicinal plant Calotropis procera is often used in folk medicine against infectious and inflammatory diseases. In this study, we investigate a protein fraction with immunomodulatory properties, named LPPI, against experimental infections, in vitro and in vivo, with a virulent strain of Listeria monocytogenes. LPPI was exposed to cultured macrophages or Swiss mice and then challenged with L. monocytogenes. Peritoneal macrophages were obtained from Swiss mice, and cultured in 96-well microplates. Soluble latex proteins (LP) were subjected to fractionation by ion-exchange chromatography. The major peak (LPPI) was added into wells at 10 or 100µg/ml. Albumin (100µg/ml) was used for comparison between protein treatments. After incubation for 1h at 5% CO2/ 37°C, the supernatant was discarded and 0.2ml of L. monocytogenes overnight culture was added in the wells. Following 4h and 24h infection, the cytokine mRNA expression was evaluated as well as the number of intracellular colony forming units. Swiss mice (n=16) were injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) with LPPI (5 and 10mg/kg) while the control mice received albumin (10mg/kg) or LP (10mg/kg). After 24h, all animal groups were challenged with L. monocytogenes (10(6) CFU/ ml), also by i.p. route. LPPI was not toxic to uninfected macrophages (pMØ) and significantly increased mRNA expression of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β and iNOS. Following infection, cell viability was reduced by 50% in albumin-treated pMØ (control); but only 17% in pMØ treated with LPPI at 100µg/ml. In this case, LPPI increased expression of TNF-α and IL-6 whereas the number of bacterial colony-forming units was reduced 100-fold in comparison to control groups. Swiss mice pretreated with LPPI showed dose-dependent survival rates that reached 80%, while mice that received albumin died 1-3 days after infection. After 24h infection, leukocyte migration to the infectious foci was high in LPPI-treated mice whereas the number of viable

  3. Molecular characterisation of the early response in pigs to experimental infection with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae using cDNA microarrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Jakob; Skovgaard, Kerstin; Mortensen, Shila

    2007-01-01

    of this study was hence to characterise the transcriptional response, measured by using cDNA microarrays, in pigs 24 hours after experimental inoculation with A. pleuropneumoniae. Methods: Microarray analyses were conducted to reveal genes being differentially expressed in inflamed versus non-inflamed lung......-infected animals and 130 genes differed in expression in tracheobronchial lymph node tissue from infected versus non-infected animals. Among these genes, several have previously been described to be part of a general host response to infections encoding immune response related proteins. In inflamed lung tissue...

  4. Influence of etoposide and cyclophosphamide on the efficacy of cloxacillin and erythromycin in an experimental staphylococcal infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calame, W; van der Waals, R; Mattie, H; van Furth, R

    1989-01-01

    The effect of monocytopenia and granulocytopenia on the outgrowth of Staphylococcus aureus as well as on antibiotic efficacy was studied in an experimental thigh infection in mice. Pretreatment with etoposide reduced monocyte numbers in blood to 14% and those of granulocytes to 54% at the time of infection. Monocytopenia did not affect the proliferation of bacteria in the infected thigh or the reduction of bacterial numbers after treatment with cloxacillin or erythromycin. Pretreatment with cyclophosphamide reduced monocyte numbers to 15% and granulocyte numbers to 3%. This resulted in a marked increase in the number of bacteria at the site of infection and a decrease in the efficacy of antibiotic treatment. PMID:2764550

  5. Key priorities in the prevention and control of healthcare-associated infection: a survey of European and other international infection prevention experts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettenkofer, Markus; Humphreys, Hilary; Saenz, Henri; Carlet, Jean; Hanberger, Håkan; Ruef, Christian; Widmer, Andreas; Wolkewitz, Martin; Cookson, Barry

    2016-12-01

    Prevention and control of healthcare-associated infection (HCAI) are important within and beyond Europe. However, it is unclear which areas are considered important by HCAI prevention and control professionals. This study assesses the priorities in the prevention and control of HCAI as judged by experts in the field. A survey was conducted by the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases focussing on seven topics using SurveyMonkey(®). Through a newsletter distributed by email, about 5000 individuals were targeted throughout the world in February and March 2013. Participants were asked to rate the importance of particular topics from one (low importance) to ten (extraordinary importance), and there was no restriction on giving equal importance to more than one topic. A total of 589 experts from 86 countries participated including 462 from Europe (response rate: 11.8 %). Physicians accounted for 60 % of participants, and 57 % had ten or more years' experience in this area. Microbial epidemiology/resistance achieved the highest priority scoring with 8.9, followed by surveillance 8.2, and decolonisation/disinfection/antiseptics with 7.9. Under epidemiology/resistance, highly resistant Gram-negative bacilli scored highest (9.0-9.2). The provision of computerised healthcare information systems for the early detection of outbreaks was accorded the top priority under surveillance. The prevention of surgical site and central line infections ranked highest under the category of specific HCAI and HCAI in certain settings. Differences between regions are described. These findings reflect the concerns of experts in HCAI prevention and control. The results from this survey should inform national and international agencies on future action and research priorities.

  6. EXPERIMENTAL CHALLENGE STUDY OF FV3-LIKE RANAVIRUS INFECTION IN PREVIOUSLY FV3-LIKE RANAVIRUS INFECTED EASTERN BOX TURTLES (TERRAPENE CAROLINA CAROLINA) TO ASSESS INFECTION AND SURVIVAL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausmann, Jennifer C; Wack, Allison N; Allender, Matthew C; Cranfield, Mike R; Murphy, Kevin J; Barrett, Kevin; Romero, Jennell L; Wellehan, James F X; Blum, Stella A; Zink, M Christine; Bronson, Ellen

    2015-12-01

    The Maryland Zoo in Baltimore experienced an outbreak of Frog virus-3 (FV3)-like ranavirus during the summer of 2011, during which 14 of 27 (52%) of its captive eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina carolina) survived. To assess survival, immunity, and viral shedding, an experimental challenge study was performed in which the surviving, previously infected turtles were reinfected with the outbreak strain of FV3-like ranavirus. Seven turtles were inoculated with virus intramuscularly and four control turtles received saline intramuscularly. The turtles were monitored for 8 wk with blood and oral swabs collected for quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). During that time, one of seven (14%) inoculated turtles and none of the controls (0%) died; there was no significant difference in survival. Clinical signs of the inoculated turtles, except for the turtle that died, were mild compared to the original outbreak. Quantitative PCR for FV3-like ranavirus on blood and oral swabs was positive for all inoculated turtles and negative for all controls. The turtle that died had intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies in multiple organs. Three inoculated and two control turtles were euthanized at the end of the study. No inclusion bodies were present in any of the organs. Quantitative PCR detected FV3-like ranavirus in the spleen of a control turtle, which suggested persistence of the virus. The surviving five turtles were qPCR-negative for FV3-like ranavirus from blood and oral swabs after brumation. Quantitative PCR for Terrapene herpesvirus 1 found no association between ranavirus infection and herpesvirus loads. In conclusion, previously infected eastern box turtles can be reinfected with the same strain of FV3-like ranavirus and show mild to no clinical signs but can shed the virus from the oral cavity.

  7. Susceptibility of Carrion Crows to Experimental Infection with Lineage 1 and 2 West Nile Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Stephanie M; Brault, Aaron C; van Amerongen, Geert; Bosco-Lauth, Angela M; Romo, Hannah; Sewbalaksing, Varsha D; Bowen, Richard A; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Koraka, Penelope; Martina, Byron E E

    2015-08-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) outbreaks in North America have been characterized by substantial die-offs of American crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos). In contrast, a low incidence of bird deaths has been observed during WNV epidemic activity in Europe. To examine the susceptibility of the western European counterpart of American crows, we inoculated carrion crows (Corvus corone) with WNV strains isolated in Greece (Gr-10), Italy (FIN and Ita09), and Hungary (578/10) and with the highly virulent North American genotype strain (NY99). We also inoculated American crows with a selection of these strains to examine the strains' virulence in a highly susceptible bird species. Infection with all strains, except WNV FIN, resulted in high rates of death and high-level viremia in both bird species and virus dissemination to several organs. These results suggest that carrion crows are highly susceptible to WNV and may potentially be useful as part of dead bird surveillance for early warning of WNV activity in Europe.

  8. Hematological and cerebrospinal fluid changes in cattle naturally and experimentally infected with the bovine herpesvirus 5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio Augusto Naylor Lisbôa

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Bovine herpesvirus 5 (BoHV-5 meningoencephalitis is one of the main causes of mortality by encephalopathy in Brazilian cattle herds. However, the neurological signs observed are common to several encephalopathies and do not contribute decisively to a diagnosis. In order to verify hematological and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF changes, blood and CSF samples from naturally and experimentally infected bovines were evaluated. In natural cases (n=17, the samples were collected only once, and in experimental cases (n=7, the samples were sequentially obtained throughout disease progression. While routine methods were used to examine the samples, BoHV-5 infection was confirmed by a PCR assay. Blood analyses did not reveal any consistent hematological alterations and the leukogram results occasionally showed increases in leukocyte and segmented neutrophil. Hyperfibrinogenemia was noted in all experimentally infected calves and in half of the natural cases. Pleocytosis with mononuclear cells was a remarkable finding in CSF collected from both groups of animals and was present even in experimentally infected calves that remained asymptomatic. Therefore, CSF evaluation can be used as an auxiliary method in ante-mortem BoHV-5 diagnosis.A meningoencefalite determinada pelo herpesvírus bovino 5 (BoHV-5 é considerada uma das principais causas de mortalidade por encefalopatia em bovinos no Brasil. O diagnóstico clínico da infecção é difícil de ser realizado pois os sinais neurológicos ocasionados pela infecção com o BoHV-5 são comuns aos observados em encefalopatias bovinas de diferentes etiologias. Com o objetivo de determinar as alterações hematológicas e do líquido cefalorraquidiano, foram avaliadas amostras de sangue total e líquor colhidas de animais infectados tanto naturalmente quanto experimentalmente. Nos casos naturais da doença (n=17, as amostras foram coletadas apenas uma vez. Nos casos de infecção experimental (n=7, as amostras foram

  9. Effect of photodynamic therapy (PDT) on Enterococcus faecalis biofilm in experimental primary and secondary endodontic infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennert, Christian; Feldmann, Katharina; Haamann, Edwina; Al-Ahmad, Ali; Follo, Marie; Wrbas, Karl-Thomas; Hellwig, Elmar; Altenburger, Markus J

    2014-11-04

    To determine the antibacterial effect of photodynamic Therapy on Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) biofilms in experimentally infected human root canals in primary infections and endodontic retreatments. One hundred and sixty single-rooted extracted teeth with one root canal were prepared using ProTaper instruments. Seventy specimens were left without root canal filling and autoclaved. The root canals of another 70 specimens were filled with Thermafil and AH Plus and the root canal fillings were removed after 24 hours using ProTaper D files and plasma sterilized. The specimens were infected with a clinical isolate of E. faecalis for 72 hours. Samples were taken using sterile paper points to determine the presence of E. faecalis in the root canals. The specimens were randomly divided into groups according to their treatment with 20 teeth each and a control. In the PDT group the teeth were treated using PDT, consisting of the photosensitizer toluidine blue and the PDT light source at 635 nm. In the NaOCl (sodium hypochlorite) group the root canals were rinsed with 10 mL of 3% NaOCl. In the NaOCl-PDT group the root canals were rinsed with 10 mL of 3% of sodium hypochlorite and then treated with PDT. Samples were taken after treatments using sterile paper points. Additionally, remaining root canal filling material was recovered from the root canal walls. Survival fractions of the samples were calculated by counting colony-forming units. A one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was applied to the data to assess the effect of different treatment techniques. Antimicrobial treatment of root canals caused a significant reduction of bacterial load in all groups. NaOCl irrigation eliminated E. faecalis most effectively. PDT alone was less effective compared to NaOCl irrigation and the combination of NaOCl irrigation and PDT. CFU levels recovered from the filling material after NaOCl irrigation of the root canals were 10fold higher compared to PDT and the combination of Na

  10. [Study on hepatocyte apoptosis of domestic pigs experimentally infected with Taenia asiatica and Taenia saginata].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mou, Rong; Bao, Huai-En; Zhang, Ke; Wu, Jia-Hong; Lang, Shu-Yuan

    2012-10-30

    To investigate apoptosis in liver tissue of the domestic pigs infected with eggs of Taenia asiatica and Taenia saginata. The adult worms of T. asiatica and T. saginata were collected and identified from the taeniasis patients in Dunyun and Congjiang districts, Guizhou province. Eggs were collected from gravid proglottids and prepared by washing and centrifugation. Nineteen 20-day hybrid domestic pigs (Duroc-Yorkshire-Landrace strain) were randomly divided into T. asiatica group (6 pigs), T. saginata group (8 pigs) and control group (5 pigs). Each animal of experimental groups was infected with 1.5 x 10(5) eggs by stomach injection. On day 15, 32, 46 and 74 after infection, animals were sacrificed and liver samples were collected for further experiments. The liver tissues were sliced for glass slides and prepared for ultrathin sections. The apoptosis of hepatocytes was identified by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick and labeling. The morphological features of liver tissue were observed under transmission electron microscope. The infection rate of two experiment groups reached 100%. Better developed cysticerci were found in liver of T. asiatica group than that of T. saginata group, but the liver pathological changes caused by cysticerci were similar. On day 15 and 32 after infection, hydropic degeneration, obvious vacuolization and some balloon-like degeneration were found in hepatocytes, and focal hepatic necrosis was observed. On day 46, spotty necrosis occurred in some local liver tissues. On day 74, main damages were granulomatous reactions surrounding cysticercus and focal liver fibrosis. On day 46, apoptosis index in T. asiatica group [(15.07 +/- 3.42)6%] and T. saginata group [(17.13 +/- 1.62)5%] was considerably higher than that in the control [(9.53 +/- 1.06)%] (P saginata group [(34.20 +/- 0.73)%] was higher than that in the control [(13.60 +/- 2.26)%] (P saginata group was significantly higher than that of T. asiatica group (P

  11. Seroepidemiologic screening of Echinococcus multilocularis infection in a European area endemic for alveolar echinococcosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresson-Hadni, S; Laplante, J J; Lenys, D; Rohmer, P; Gottstein, B; Jacquier, P; Mercet, P; Meyer, J P; Miguet, J P; Vuitton, D A

    1994-12-01

    In a serologic survey for Echinococcus multilocularis infection, we screened sera from 7,884 subjects from the Doubs Departement in France, an area endemic for alveolar echinococcosis (AE) of the liver. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with a highly species-specific antigen (Em2) and an E. multilocularis crude antigen (Emc) was used for screening. An evaluation of the cost/benefit relationship of this screening, followed by therapeutic management of patients, was made and compared with the actual cost of the follow-up and treatment of the disease in symptomatic cases in this endemic area. Antibody reactions to Em2 and/or Emc made possible the detection of eight asymptomatic clinical cases (seroprevalence averaging 1/1,000), with typical lesions of active AE revealed by abdominal ultrasonography and computed tomography. All were seropositive using the Emc ELISA but two were seronegative using the Em2 ELISA. In five additional seropositive cases, the radiologic investigations revealed small calcified lesions similar to the lesions of abortive AE previously found in Alaska. The cost of this serologic screening program per screened subject and per diagnosed case averaged 50.00 French Francs (FF) (U.S. $8.60) and 60,000.00 FF (U.S. $10,909.00), respectively. The cost of diagnosis, follow-up and treatment of the patients was 5,086.00 FF (U.S. $929.00) per patient per month in the case of diseases diagnosed by the screening program and 7,086.00 FF (U.S. $1,288.00) per patient per month for patients with symptomatic AE. This survey indicates a high prevalence of AE in the target area; it confirms the long latency period of the larval growth in human AE and shows that abortive AE is present in Europe. The use of both the Emc and Em2 ELISAs seems to be better than using the Em2 ELISA alone. The cost of the hospitalization and treatment of the eight screened patients would appear to be relatively high. Even though two of them were asymptomatic, they had very

  12. Using experimental de-worming to measure the immunological and pathological impacts of lungworm infection in cane toads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick B. Finnerty

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The immunological and pathological consequences of parasite infection can be more rigorously assessed from experimental manipulation than from correlational studies of natural infections. We used anthelmintic treatment to experimentally decrease intensities of lungworm infection in captive and free-ranging wild cane toads to assess parasite impacts on host immune responses. First, we administered the anthelmintic drug Ivermectin to both infected and uninfected toads, to distinguish drug effects per se from the impacts of killing lungworms. Worms began dying and decomposing <48 h after injection. The only immunological variables that were affected by anthelmintic treatment were bactericidal capacity of the blood which increased in parasitized toads (presumably triggered by decomposing worms in the lungs, and the phagocytic capacity of blood (which increased in both infected and uninfected toads; the latter effect presumably was caused by the injection of Ivermectin per se rather than removal of parasites. Second, we looked at correlates of variation in the infection intensity induced by de-worming (in both captive and free-ranging toads over an eight-week period. Heavier lungworm infection was associated with increased phagocytic ability of the host's blood, and a reduction in the host's liver mass (and hence, energy stores. Experimental de-worming thus revealed pathological and immunological costs of the presence of lungworms, and of their removal by anthelmintic injection. Keywords: Rhinella marina, Bufo marinus, Host, Parasite, Nematode

  13. Human migration and pig/pork import in the European Union: What are the implications for Taenia solium infections?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriël, S; Johansen, M V; Pozio, E; Smit, G S A; Devleesschauwer, B; Allepuz, A; Papadopoulos, E; van der Giessen, J; Dorny, P

    2015-09-30

    Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis is a neglected zoonotic disease complex occurring primarily in developing countries. Though claimed eradicated from the European Union (EU), an increasing number of human neurocysticercosis cases is being detected. Risk factors such as human migration and movement of pigs/pork, as well as the increasing trend in pig rearing with outside access are discussed in this review. The entry of a tapeworm carrier into the EU seems a lot more plausible than the import of infected pork. The establishment of local transmission in the EU is presently very unlikely. However, considering the potential changes in risk factors, such as the increasing trend in pig farming with outdoor access, the increasing human migration from endemic areas into the EU, this situation might change, warranting the establishment of an early warning system, which should include disease notification of taeniasis/cysticercosis both in human and animal hosts. As currently human-to-human transmission is the highest risk, prevention strategies should focus on the early detection and treatment of tapeworm carriers, and should be designed in a concerted way, across the EU and across the different sectors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Experimental infection of the bat tick Carios fonsecai (Acari: Ixodidae with the rabies virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Regina Favoretto

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction This study assessed the viability of the rabies virus in the argasid tick Carios fonsecai following experimental infection. Methods The mouse inoculation test (MIT, fluorescent antibody test (FAT and polymerase chain reaction (PCR were used. The rabies virus was administered to ticks via the intra-coelomic route, and the ticks were sacrificed at different time points. Results The inoculated ticks were negative for rabies according to the MIT. Ticks macerated with rabies virus were positive according to the MIT and FAT. All of the tick lots tested by PCR were positive. Conclusions The rabies virus became unviable shortly after its inoculation into tick bodies. Ticks are not likely to play an important role in the epidemiology of rabies.

  15. Infectious Diseases in Wild Animals in Utah VI. Experimental Infection of Birds with Rickettsia rickettsii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundgren, D. L.; Thorpe, B. D.; Haskell, C. D.

    1966-01-01

    Lundgren, D. L. (University of Utah, Salt Lake City), B. D. Thorpe, and C. D. Haskell. Infectious diseases in wild animals in Utah. VI. Experimental infection of birds with Rickettsia rickettsii. J. Bacteriol. 91:963–966. 1966.—Chickens, pigeons, pheasants, sparrow hawks, red-tailed hawks, ravens, magpies, and a marsh hawk were inoculated with Rickettsia rickettsii, the etiological agent of Rocky Mountain spotted fever. The development and persistence of complement-fixing (CF) antibodies and rickettsemias were tested for in these birds. Rickettsiae were recovered from the blood of a number of birds up to the 16th day after inoculation, whereas only the pigeon was found to develop high CF antibody titers. It was concluded that certain species of birds have the potential of contributing to the dissemination of R. rickettsii in nature, and that the CF test is generally unsuitable for serological diagnosis of this organism in birds. PMID:4956338

  16. [Experimental infection of fattening swine with rotavirus: study of local immunity using coproantibodies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, S; Groom, J; Lantier, I

    1984-01-01

    Fattened pigs were experimentally infected with porcine rotavirus (OSU strain). Viral antigens found in the faeces were analysed over a period of two months (ELISA method). We have found no correlation between virus excretion and the clinical manifestation of disease. The local immunity has been analysed in the faeces by the coproantibodies antirotavirus. The different classes of antibody, G, M, A and immune complexes have been determined using the ELISA method. The level of IgA antibodies was higher (10 fold) than IgG and IgM, and the timing of the appearance of these antibodies antivirus was also different. No correlation was found between local immunity and virus excretion in the faeces.

  17. Treatment of pigs experimentally infected with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Pasteurella multocida, and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae with various antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stipkovits, L; Miller, D; Glavits, R; Fodor, L; Burch, D

    2001-10-01

    The authors have performed a comparative study of the efficacy of various in-feed medications for the treatment of 5- to 6-week-old specific pathogen-free (SPF) piglets experimentally infected on day 1 with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, on day 8 with Pasteurella multocida (serotype A), and on day 15 with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (serotype 2). The treatment started on day 9 and continued for 12 consecutive days, then the piglets were euthanized for examination of macroscopic, histologic, and pathologic lesions and for the presence of mycoplasmas and bacteria in the lungs. Based on the results of clinical observations (respiratory signs, rectal temperature, body weight gain, and feed conversion efficiency), macroscopic and histologic lesions of the lungs, and microbiologic findings, the best results were obtained by treatment of pigs with Econor + chlortetracycline, followed by Tetramutin, Pulmotil, Cyfac, and lincomycin + chlortetracycline.

  18. Experimental caprine neosporosis: the influence of gestational stage on the outcome of infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porto, Wagnner José Nascimento; Regidor-Cerrillo, Javier; Kim, Pomy de Cássia Peixoto; Benavides, Julio; Silva, Ana Clécia dos Santos; Horcajo, Pilar; Oliveira, Andrea Alice da Fonseca; Ferre, Ignacio; Mota, Rinaldo Aparecido; Ortega-Mora, Luis Miguel

    2016-02-11

    Here, we assessed outcome of experimental infection by Neospora caninum in goats intravenously inoculated with 10(6) tachyzoites of the Nc-Spain7 isolate at 40 (G1), 90 (G2) and 120 (G3) days of gestation. Infected goats had fever between 5 and 9 days post inoculation (dpi); all were seropositive at the time of abortion/birth. Foetal death occurred in G1 from 10 to 21 dpi (n = 7) and in G2 from 27 to 35 dpi (n = 4). Goats in G2 also had seropositive stillbirth (n = 1) and healthy kids (n = 2). G3 goats (n = 7) had 3 seropositive and 3 seronegative weak kids, and 2 seronegative healthy kids. Parasite DNA detection in placentomes was 100% in G2, 85.7% in G3 and in G1 was detected only in placentomes from the goats with foetal losses from 17 dpi (100%). Parasites were detected in foetal/kid brain (>85.7%) and liver (≥ 50%) of G2 and G3, and in G1 after 17 dpi (100%). The highest parasite loads were detected in the placentomes of G1 from 17 dpi and G2, and in foetal tissues of G1 from 17 dpi and G3. Multifocal necrotic lesions were observed in the placentas of the three groups, but they were larger and more frequent in G1 and G2. Similar lesions were observed in foetal tissues, but they were more frequent in G3. These findings suggest that, as observed in cattle and sheep, the clinical consequences of N. caninum in pregnant goats are dependent in part on the time of gestation when animals were infected.

  19. Human rhinovirus in experimental infection after peroral Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG consumption, a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapiovaara, Laura; Kumpu, Minna; Mäkivuokko, Harri; Waris, Matti; Korpela, Riitta; Pitkäranta, Anne; Winther, Birgit

    2016-08-01

    Data has emerged on possible beneficial effects of probiotics in respiratory tract viral infections, but it is unclear if the promising positive effects evidenced are due to a reduced viral load during infections. The aims of this work were to investigate the effect of peroral probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (American Type Culture Collection [ATCC], Accession No. 53103) consumption on human rhinovirus (HRV) load in nasopharyngeal lavage samples in experimental HRV infection, and to correlate viral load to clinical symptoms. Intranasal HRV A39 inoculation was performed on 59 adults, who had consumed juice enriched with live or heat-inactivated L. rhamnosus GG or control juice for 3 weeks prior to inoculation in a randomized, controlled, pilot trial setting. Nasopharyngeal lavage samples and symptom data were analyzed on day 0 before inoculation, and on days 2 and 5. Samples were subjected to quantitative HRV detection by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Before inoculation 9 of 59 (15%) samples presented with another HRV strain than the studied A39. There was a tendency toward the lowest HRV loads in the L. rhamnosus GG groups and the highest in placebo group (log10 copies/mL, 95% confidence interval [CI], 6.20 [5.18 to 7.40] in live, 6.30 [4.91 to 7.08] in inactivated L. rhamnosus GG, and 7.25 [5.81 to 7.52] in placebo group, p = 0.57 in day 2) in the wild-type excluded population. The HRV load positively correlated with the symptom scores on days 2 and 5 (correlation coefficient 0.61 [p GG when compared to placebo. HRV load positively correlated with the total symptom scores. © 2016 ARS-AAOA, LLC.

  20. Respiratory and neurological disease in rabbits experimentally infected with equid herpesvirus 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanitz, Fábio A; Cargnelutti, Juliana F; Anziliero, Deniz; Gonçalves, Kelley V; Masuda, Eduardo K; Weiblen, Rudi; Flores, Eduardo F

    2015-10-01

    Equid herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) is an important pathogen of horses worldwide, associated with respiratory, reproductive and/or neurological disease. A mouse model for EHV-1 infection has been established but fails to reproduce some important aspects of the viral pathogenesis. Then, we investigated the susceptibility of rabbits to EHV-1 aiming at proposing this species as an alternative model for EHV-1 infection. Weanling rabbits inoculated intranasal with EHV-1 Kentucky D (10(7) TCID50/animal) shed virus in nasal secretions up to day 8-10 post-inoculation (pi), presented viremia up to day 14 pi and seroconverted to EHV-1 (virus neutralizing titers 4 to 64). Most rabbits (75%) developed respiratory disease, characterized by serous to hemorrhagic nasal discharge and mild to severe dyspnea. Some animals (20%) presented neurological signs as circling, bruxism and opisthotonus. Six animals died during acute disease (days 3-6); infectious virus and/or viral DNA were detected in the lungs, trigeminal ganglia (TG), olfactory bulbs (OBs) and cerebral cortex/brain (CC). Histological examination showed necrohemorrhagic, multifocal to coalescent bronchointerstitial pneumonia and diffuse alveolar edema. In two rabbits euthanized at day 50 pi, latent EHV-1 DNA was detected in the OBs. Dexamethasone administration at day 50 pi resulted in virus reactivation, demonstrated by virus shedding, viremia, clinical signs, and increase in VN titers and/or by detection of virus DNA in lungs, OBs, TGs and/or CC. These results demonstrate that rabbits are susceptible to EHV-1 infection and develop respiratory and neurological signs upon experimental inoculation. Thus, rabbits may be used to study selected aspects of EHV-1 biology and pathogenesis, extending and complementing the mouse model. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Experimental infection of Balb/c nude mice with Hepatitis E virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Jianguo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several animal species can reportedly act as reservoirs for Hepatitis E virus (HEV, a zoonotic pathogen. HEV and antibody to the virus have been detected in a variety of animals including rodents. Pig and rat models for HEV have been established for HEV, but a nude mouse has not yet been developed. Methods Balb/c nude mice were inoculated with swine HEV, both orally and via intravenous injection to insure infection. Negative control and experimental contact-exposed groups of mice were also included in the study. The liver, spleen, kidney, jejunum, ileum, cecum and colon of each mouse from all three groups were collected for reverse transcription nested polymerase chain reaction (RT-nPCR detection, indirect immunofluorescence observation and histopathologic examination. The sera from nude mice were tested for anti-HEV IgG by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Activities of liver enzymes, including alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alkaline phosphatase (ALP, as well as total bilirubin (TBIL were also measured in the sera of the nude mice. Results HEV antigens and HEV RNA were detected in liver, spleen, kidney, jejunum, ileum and colon both by indirect immunofluorescence and by RT-nPCR in all of the inoculated and in one of the contact-exposed nude mice. Histopathological changes were observed in the liver and spleen of these mice. Infected mice showed increased levels of AST, ALP, and anti-HEV IgG in sera. The livers of contact-exposed mice showed obvious histopathological damage. Conclusion Nude mice could be readily infected by HEV isolated from pigs. The nude mouse may therefore be a useful animal model for studying the pathogenesis of HEV.

  2. The efficacy of antihelminthic compound; Clorsulon against experimental Schistosoma mansoni infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossallam, Shereen F; Ali, Safia M; El Zawawy, Lobna A; Said, Doaa E

    2007-04-01

    The efficacy of Clorsulon (CLS) against experimental schistosomiasis mansoni, using Praziquantel (PZQ) as a therapeutic control was evaluated. Swiss Albino mice were divided into infected non-treated control, PZQ-treated group given a single dose of 500 mg/kg four weeks post infection (PI), and infected mice treated with single, double, and triple doses of 5 mg/kg CLS per dose, one week apart starting from the 4th week PI. All animals were perfused for adults count. Parts of livers and intestines were examined for granulomata number and sizes. Pathological changes in hepatic parenchyma by H&E and Masson trichrome stains were also examined. Results revealed that a single treatment with PZQ caused a significant percentage reduction (%R) of worm load (92.68%), mean egg count in liver and intestine (91.20 & 94.01% respectively), and mean size of liver granulomata was reduced (92.06%). Regarding CLS, the worm burden was reduced proportionally with number of doses given; 87.80, 96.34 & 97.56% in single, double and triple exposures successively. Egg count in liver was decreased by 85.90, 97.01 & 96.23% respectively in treated mice. Number of intestinal granulomata was decreased by 85.28, 94.24 & 95.49% in a similar way. Size of hepatic granulomata was decreased by 89.02, 94.51 & 95.05% by 1, 2 & 3 doses consecutively. All parameters reflected non significant difference between 2 & 3 dose of CLS. The results were critically discussed.

  3. Plant essential oils against Aeromonas hydrophila: in vitro activity and their use in experimentally infected fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutili, F J; Silva, L de Lima; Gressler, L T; Gressler, L T; Battisti, E K; Heinzmann, B M; de Vargas, A C; Baldisserotto, B

    2015-07-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the in vitro antibacterial activity of the essential oils (EOs) of Hesperozygis ringens (HREO), popularly known as 'espanta-pulga' and two different species of basil, Ocimum gratissimum (OGEO) and Ocimum americanum (OAEO), as well as, the potential of these products to be used in silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen) infected with Aeromonas hydrophila. OGEO and HREO showed better antibacterial activity in vitro. Subinhibitory concentrations of all EOs inhibited haemolysis caused by Aer. hydrophila in fish erythrocytes (100% reduction for OAEO at 100 μg ml(-1) and more than 90% for HREO and OGEO at 150 μg ml(-1) ). However, OAEO and HREO showed the best survival results (75 and 70% respectively) after their use as treatment (therapeutic baths-1 h daily/5 days) in silver catfish experimentally infected with Aer. hydrophila. A second in vivo assay using healthy fish was conducted to verify the potential of the EOs (preventive baths-1 h daily/5 days) to promote fish survival. Fish exposed to HREO and OAEO and their diluent (ethanol) showed significant lower haematocrit values and higher complement system activity compared to control. Plasma cortisol level was significantly higher in the groups exposed to both EOs. There was no significant difference in survival of silver catfish challenged with Aer. hydrophila after preventive baths with HREO, OAEO and control group. All tested EOs showed in vitro antibacterial properties against Aer. hydrophila and HREO and OAEO showed potential to be used in the treatment of infected fish. These products can be used in aquaculture as therapeutic and prophylactic agents against fish pathogens, with antimicrobial and/or immunostimulant properties. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  4. An explorative study to assess the efficacy of Toltrazuril-sulfone (Ponazuril in calves experimentally infected with Neospora caninum

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    Greif Gisela

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neospora caninum is an important cause of infectious abortion and stillbirth in cattle world-wide. Infection is common and may frequently be passed from mother to calf (vertical transmission with no signs of disease. Based on our previous observation that N. caninum-infection can be efficiently controlled with Toltrazuril-sulfone (Ponazuril in experimentally infected mice, we addressed the question if efficacy could also be obtained in experimentally infected calves. Material and Methods The study included 19 calves and represents an initial explorative approach to document a basic effectiveness at first. Fifteen animals received each 2 x 108N. caninum trophozoites, half of the dose being injected intravenously and the other half subcutaneously. Efficacy of treatment was assessed using molecular detection of parasite DNA with PCR and pathological alterations by immunohistochemistry in different organs of the animals. Assessment included also clinical, serological and pathophysiological parameters. Results In those calves medicated with ponazuril (one, or six consecutive days, respectively, starting one day after infection, a complete abrogation of the parasite detectability was obtained in the brain and other organs, while 50% of non-treated calves became PCR-positive in brain and muscles. Clinically, ponazuril chemotherapy of infected calves – in comparison to non-treated infected animals – reduced symptoms (fever, but no differences were observed between treated and non-treated animals with regard to serum enzymes and metabolites. Efficacy of a six-day treament was also reflected by significantly lower anti-Neospora antibody concentrations developed after infection, when compared to non-treated animals. Conclusion Based on our findings in this initially explorative approach that indicate a basic effectiveness of ponazuril against experimental N. caninum infection in calves, we plan to follow our chemotherapeutical

  5. An explorative study to assess the efficacy of toltrazuril-sulfone (ponazuril) in calves experimentally infected with Neospora caninum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kritzner, Sandra; Sager, Heinz; Blum, Jürg; Krebber, Ralph; Greif, Gisela; Gottstein, Bruno

    2002-10-18

    Neospora caninum is an important cause of infectious abortion and stillbirth in cattle world-wide. Infection is common and may frequently be passed from mother to calf (vertical transmission) with no signs of disease. Based on our previous observation that N. caninum-infection can be efficiently controlled with toltrazuril-sulfone (ponazuril) in experimentally infected mice, we addressed the question if efficacy could also be obtained in experimentally infected calves. The study included 19 calves and represents an initial explorative approach to document a basic effectiveness at first. Fifteen animals received each 2 x 10(8) N. caninum trophozoites, half of the dose being injected intravenously and the other half subcutaneously. Efficacy of treatment was assessed using molecular detection of parasite DNA with PCR and pathological alterations by immunohistochemistry in different organs of the animals. Assessment included also clinical, serological and pathophysiological parameters. In those calves medicated with ponazuril (one, or six consecutive days, respectively, starting one day after infection), a complete abrogation of the parasite detectability was obtained in the brain and other organs, while 50% of non-treated calves became PCR-positive in brain and muscles. Clinically, ponazuril chemotherapy of infected calves--in comparison to non-treated infected animals--reduced symptoms (fever), but no differences were observed between treated and non-treated animals with regard to serum enzymes and metabolites. Efficacy of a six-day treatment was also reflected by significantly lower anti-Neospora antibody concentrations developed after infection, when compared to non-treated animals. Based on our findings in this initially explorative approach that indicate a basic effectiveness of ponazuril against experimental N. caninum infection in calves, we plan to follow our chemotherapeutical intervention strategy to control bovine neosporosis with a subsequent more

  6. Gastrointestinal trichostrongylosis can predispose ewes to clinical mastitis after experimental mammary infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavrogianni, V S; Papadopoulos, E; Gougoulis, D A; Gallidis, E; Ptochos, S; Fragkou, I A; Orfanou, D C; Fthenakis, G C

    2017-10-15

    Objective was to study, in an experimental model, the possible role of gastrointestinal nematode infection in predisposing ewes to mastitis during the lactation period. Twenty-four ewes (A or B [n=12]), free from nematode and trematode helminths, were used. Group A animals received 5000 third-stage larvae of a trichostrongylid helminth cocktail and group B ewes were unparasitised controls. Animals in group A developed gastrointestinal trichostrongylosis confirmed by >500epg in faecal samples; mean epg of group B ewes were mastitis; no ewe in group B developed clinical mastitis, but only subclinical (12 ewes) (P=0.002). M. haemolytica was isolated from 132/132 and 121/132 udder samples from group A or B, respectively (Pmastitis than in others which did not (0.709 and 0.162 versus 0.662 and 0.136, respectively; Pmastitis (in group A or B), inducible-lymphoid-follicles were observed in the teat, which were not observed in ewes with clinical disease. Total pathology scores summed over all days were 127 and 73 for group A or B ewes, respectively (maximum possible 192; Pmastitis. It is concluded that, in view of bacterial challenge, gastrointestinal trichostrongylosis and particularly Teladorsagia infection, might lead to clinical mastitis, through various pathogenetic pathways. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. An experimental Helicobacter suis infection causes gastritis and reduced daily weight gain in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bruyne, Ellen; Flahou, Bram; Chiers, Koen; Meyns, Tom; Kumar, Smitha; Vermoote, Miet; Pasmans, Frank; Millet, Sam; Dewulf, Jeroen; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Ducatelle, Richard

    2012-12-07

    Helicobacter suis is a zoonotically important bacterium, that has been associated with gastritis and ulcerative lesions of the pars oesophagea of the stomach in pigs. Its exact role in these pathologies, however, still remains controversial. Therefore, a total of 29 medicated early weaned piglets were inoculated intragastrically or orally, with a total of 2 × 10(9) viable H. suis bacteria and the effect on gastric pathology and weight gain was determined. Twenty-three medicated early weaned piglets were inoculated with a sterile culture medium and used as sham-inoculated controls. The animals were euthanized between 28 and 42 days after inoculation. Infected animals showed a more severe gastritis compared to the control group. There was also a significant reduction of approximately 60 g per day (10%) in weight gain in H. suis inoculated animals compared to the sham-inoculated control animals. In conclusion, this study demonstrates for the first time that a pure in vitro culture of H. suis not only causes gastritis but also a marked decrease of the daily weight gain in experimentally infected pigs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Experimental Oral Herpes Simplex Virus-1 (HSV-1 Co-infection in Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV-Infected Rhesus Macaques

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    Meropi Aravantinou

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Herpes simplex virus 1 and 2 (HSV-1/2 similarly initiate infection in mucosal epithelia and establish lifelong neuronal latency. Anogenital HSV-2 infection augments the risk for sexual human immunodeficiency virus (HIV transmission and is associated with higher HIV viral loads. However, whether oral HSV-1 infection contributes to oral HIV susceptibility, viremia, or oral complications of HIV infection is unknown. Appropriate non-human primate (NHP models would facilitate this investigation, yet there are no published studies of HSV-1/SIV co-infection in NHPs. Thus, we performed a pilot study for an oral HSV-1 infection model in SIV-infected rhesus macaques to describe the feasibility of the modeling and resultant immunological changes. Three SIV-infected, clinically healthy macaques became HSV-1-infected by inoculation with 4 × 108 pfu HSV-1 McKrae on buccal, tongue, gingiva, and tonsils after gentle abrasion. HSV-1 DNA was shed in oral swabs for up to 21 days, and shedding recurred in association with intra-oral lesions after periods of no shedding during 56 days of follow up. HSV-1 DNA was detected in explant cultures of trigeminal ganglia collected at euthanasia on day 56. In the macaque with lowest baseline SIV viremia, SIV plasma RNA increased following HSV-1 infection. One macaque exhibited an acute pro-inflammatory response, and all three animals experienced T cell activation and mobilization in blood. However, T cell and antibody responses to HSV-1 were low and atypical. Through rigorous assessesments, this study finds that the virulent HSV-1 strain McKrae resulted in a low level HSV-1 infection that elicited modest immune responses and transiently modulated SIV infection.

  9. Laboratory experimental infection of sheep to Ornithobilharzia turkestanicum and its confirmation using post-mortem examination and histopathology

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    gholamreza karimi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Ornithobilharzia turkestanicum from genus Ornithobilharzia genus and family Schistosomatidae is an important agent of parasitological infection in sheep. This parasite has been reported from Russia, China, Turkestan (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan, Pakistan, Iraq, Turkey and Iran. Parasitological infection due to this agent could be one of the important factors of decreasing the production rate of livestock in Iran. The purpose of this study, was to experimentally infect sheep with this parasite and confirm the infection by post-mortem examination and Histopathology which was done successfully. Twenty five sheep were used in the study of which 10 sheep were experimentally infected by Ornithobilharzia turkestanikum using subcutaneous injection and 10 sheep by skin contact method and the other 5 sheep were kept as control. Result of post-mortem and Histopathology during a one year period confirmed that all of sheep were infected and adult worm, were seen in their mesentery. Mean number of cercaria used for inducing the infection was 6425 and 462 adult worms were collected post-mortem. There was no significant relationship between the number of cercaria and adult worms collected. Male sheep were more infected than female.

  10. Health-care-associated infections in neonates, children, and adolescents: an analysis of paediatric data from the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control point-prevalence survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zingg, Walter; Hopkins, Susan; Gayet-Ageron, Angèle; Holmes, Alison; Sharland, Mike; Suetens, Carl

    2017-04-01

    In 2011-12, the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) held the first Europe-wide point-prevalence survey of health-care-associated infections in acute care hospitals. We analysed paediatric data from this survey, aiming to calculate the prevalence and type of health-care-associated infections in children and adolescents in Europe and to determine risk factors for infection in this population. Point-prevalence surveys took place from May, 2011, to November, 2012, in 1149 hospitals in EU Member States, Iceland, Norway, and Croatia. Patients present on the ward at 0800 h on the day of the survey and who were not discharged at the time of the survey were included. Data were collected by locally trained health-care workers according to patient-based or unit-based protocols. We extracted data from the ECDC database for all paediatric patients (age 0-18 years). We report adjusted prevalence for health-care-associated infections by clustering at the hospital and country level. We also calculated risk factors for development of health-care-associated infections with use of a generalised linear mixed-effects model. We analysed data for 17 273 children and adolescents from 29 countries. 770 health-care-associated infections were reported in 726 children and adolescents, corresponding to a prevalence of 4·2% (95% CI 3·7-4·8). Bloodstream infections were the most common type of infection (343 [45%] infections), followed by lower respiratory tract infections (171 [22%]), gastrointestinal infections (64 [8%]), eye, ear, nose, and throat infections (55 [7%]), urinary tract infections (37 [5%]), and surgical-site infections (34 [4%]). The prevalence of infections was highest in paediatric intensive care units (15·5%, 95% CI 11·6-20·3) and neonatal intensive care units (10·7%, 9·0-12·7). Independent risk factors for infection were age younger than 12 months, fatal disease (via ultimately and rapidly fatal McCabe scores), prolonged length of stay, and

  11. Pre-infection frequencies of equine herpesvirus-1 specific, cytotoxic T lymphocytes correlate with protection against abortion following experimental infection of pregnant mares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kydd, J H; Wattrang, E; Hannant, D

    2003-12-15

    In general, vaccines containing inactivated equine herpesvirus-1 (EHV-1) fail to prevent abortion in pregnant mares following infection with a virulent strain of EHV-1. We have tested the hypothesis that resistance to EHV-1-induced abortion in pregnant mares is associated with high frequencies of EHV-1 specific, major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I-restricted, cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) in the circulation. To test this theory, three groups of pregnant mares were assembled with varying backgrounds of infection or vaccination in an attempt to mimic the immune status of the general population. Group 1 mares (n=9) were untreated controls selected at random. Group 2 mares (n=5) were vaccinated three times intramuscularly with inactivated EHV-1. Group 3 mares (n=3) had been infected with EHV-1 on four previous occasions. The frequency of CTL in blood leucocytes was measured by limiting dilution analysis at three time points; at the beginning of pregnancy (approximately 28 weeks before infection) in the Group 2 and Group 3 mares (4-7 weeks of gestation) (Group 1 was unavailable for sampling) and then 2 weeks before (30-40 weeks of gestation) and 3 weeks after experimental infection in all the mares. Serum samples were collected to monitor complement fixing (CF) antibody titres. Mares in all three groups were infected experimentally with EHV-1 strain Ab4/8 by the intranasal route after which they were monitored clinically to determine the outcome of pregnancy and samples were collected to determine the duration of nasopharyngeal shedding and cell-associated viraemia. The untreated control mares showed low pre-infection CTL. After experimental infection, they all seroconverted, aborted and demonstrated expected clinical and virological signs. Some vaccinated mares (3/5) had elevated titres of CF antibody prior to their first vaccination. All the vaccinated mares seroconverted after vaccination and exhibited higher CTL frequencies than controls before infection

  12. Lipid and glucose metabolism of broilers (Gallus gallus domesticus experimentally infected with Eimeria acervulina Tyzzer, 1929 oocysts

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    FLC Freitas

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Lipid and glucose metabolism of 76 ten-day-old Cobb male broilers, experimentally infected with Eimeria acervulina, was studied for 30 days. Birds were distributed in 2 groups: one infected with 1x10(6 E. acervulina sporulated oocysts, and the other inoculated with distilled water. Pathological e biochemical liver changes were assessed, as well as plasma glucose concentrations and total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, VLDL, fatty-acid, and triglyceride levels in the serum. The infected broilers presented hypoglycemia associated with a reduction in liver glycogen. In addition, these birds developed fatty liver, and there were changes in all lipid classes in the serum. Lipid and glucose metabolism was dramatically changed in broilers experimentally infected with 1x10(6 E. acervulina oocysts.

  13. Acute phase response in two consecutive experimentally induced E. coli intramammary infections in dairy cows

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    Saatsi Johanna

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute phase proteins haptoglobin (Hp, serum amyloid A (SAA and lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP have suggested to be suitable inflammatory markers for bovine mastitis. The aim of the study was to investigate acute phase markers along with clinical parameters in two consecutive intramammary challenges with Escherichia coli and to evaluate the possible carry-over effect when same animals are used in an experimental model. Methods Mastitis was induced with a dose of 1500 cfu of E. coli in one quarter of six cows and inoculation repeated in another quarter after an interval of 14 days. Concentrations of acute phase proteins haptoglobin (Hp, serum amyloid A (SAA and lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP were determined in serum and milk. Results In both challenges all cows became infected and developed clinical mastitis within 12 hours of inoculation. Clinical disease and acute phase response was generally milder in the second challenge. Concentrations of SAA in milk started to increase 12 hours after inoculation and peaked at 60 hours after the first challenge and at 44 hours after the second challenge. Concentrations of SAA in serum increased more slowly and peaked at the same times as in milk; concentrations in serum were about one third of those in milk. Hp started to increase in milk similarly and peaked at 36–44 hours. In serum, the concentration of Hp peaked at 60–68 hours and was twice as high as in milk. LBP concentrations in milk and serum started to increase after 12 hours and peaked at 36 hours, being higher in milk. The concentrations of acute phase proteins in serum and milk in the E. coli infection model were much higher than those recorded in experiments using Gram-positive pathogens, indicating the severe inflammation induced by E. coli. Conclusion Acute phase proteins would be useful parameters as mastitis indicators and to assess the severity of mastitis. If repeated experimental intramammary

  14. Time course of gene expression profiling in the liver of experimental mice infected with Echinococcus multilocularis.

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    Renyong Lin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Alveolar echinococcosis (AE is a severe chronic parasitic disease which behaves like a slow-growing liver cancer. Clinical observations suggest that the parasite, Echinococcus multilocularis (E. multilocularis influences liver homeostasis and hepatic cell metabolism. However, this has never been analyzed during the time course of infection in the common model of secondary echinococcosis in experimental mice. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Gene expression profiles were assessed using DNA microarray analysis, 1, 2, 3 and 6 months after injection of E. multilocularis metacestode in the liver of susceptible mice. Data were collected at different time points to monitor the dynamic behavior of gene expression. 557 differentially expressed genes were identified at one or more time points, including 351 up-regulated and 228 down-regulated genes. Time-course analysis indicated, at the initial stage of E. multilocularis infection (month 1-2, that most of up-regulated pathways were related to immune processes and cell trafficking such as chemokine-, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK signaling, and down-regulated pathways were related to xenobiotic metabolism; at the middle stage (month 3, MAPK signaling pathway was maintained and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR signaling pathway emerged; at the late stage (month 6, most of up-regulated pathways were related to PPAR signaling pathway, complement and coagulation cascades, while down-regulated pathways were related to metabolism of xenobiotics by cytochrome P450. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis of a random selection of 19 genes confirmed the reliability of the microarray data. Immunohistochemistry analysis showed that proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA was increased in the liver of E. multilocularis infected mice from 2 months to 6 months. CONCLUSIONS: E. multilocularis metacestode definitely exerts a deep influence on liver homeostasis, by modifying a number of gene

  15. Seasonality and circadian variation of microfilaremia in dogs experimentally infected with Dirofilaria immitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovis, Léonore; Grandjean, Mélanie; Overney, Laurence; Seewald, Wolfgang; Sager, Heinz

    2017-08-30

    Periodicity, the cyclical rise and fall in microfilaria (mff) numbers in the peripheral blood over time, is observed in many filarial infections. It is correlated with the necessity for these larval stages to be ingested by the blood feeding vector before they can be transmitted to a new vertebrate host. Microfilariae of the dog heartworm Dirofilaria immitis have been described to show periodicity, but the circadian pattern does not seem to be consistent. Most publications describe the lowest mff-concentrations in the peripheral blood in the early morning, while the highest counts occurred either in the afternoon, in the late evening or shortly after midnight. Sixteen dogs were experimentally infected with D. immitis isolates originating from Italy (one isolate, 14 dogs), and the USA (two isolates, one dog each). The dogs were housed indoors with a natural light source (windows) and heating that prevented temperature-drops below 20°C during winter. When patency was reached, blood samples were collected at weekly and monthly intervals over a period of up to 3 years, and at given hours of the day (morning, noon, evening) for the duration of one year in order to determine seasonal, as well as daily variations of microfilaremia. Despite the fact that the dogs were kept indoors, there was an apparent seasonality of the D. immitis-microfilaremia, with peaks in summer and 5-49-times lower counts in winter. This difference was statistically significant and the ratio remained constant over the years, regardless of the fact that the mff-counts increased from the first to the second year of patency. Since the temperature was kept constantly in a range between 20 to 26°C (with some single outliners in both directions) the climatic conditions may not explain this observation. Therefore, day length may be the most obvious reason for the seasonality in the given study set-up. Interestingly, the Italian D. immitis-isolate lost seasonality after three passages of experimental

  16. Infecções experimentaes na Leishmaniose visceral americana Experimental infections in american visceral leishmaniasis

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    Aristides Marques da Cunha

    1938-01-01

    sôro-agglutinação, conforme mostramos em trabalho anterior, não permite a separação das especies do genero Leishmania, pois todas ellas, quando recentemente isoladas, possuem identica constituição antigenica, que se modifica depois, pela conservação longo tempo em cultura. É esse facto, que deu logar ás conclusões contradictorias a que chegaram os autores que se ocuparam do assumpto bem como os primeiros resultados que obtivemos. Deante de todos esses factos, nos julgamos autorizados a concluir como já fizemos anteriormente, que o agente da Leishmaniose visceral americana é identico á Leishmania infantum. Ao terminar, queremos deixar consignados nossos agradecimentos ao Dr. E. chagas, por ter posto a nossa disposição as culturas de Leishmania por elle isoladas, tornando possivel deste modo, a execução do presente trabalho.With cultures isolated from cases of american visceral leishmaniasis we succeeded in obtaining experimental infections in hamsters (Cricetus cricetus, rhesus monkeys (Macaca mullata and dogs. Hamsters were infected with strains obtained from man and dogs, the intraperitoneal way having been always employed. When cultures recently isolated are used, infection is obtained practically in 100% of the animals inoculated. The first negative results obtained by us may be explained by the use of cultures isolated some time before (about 7 months 0 and which had lost already their virulence. In some cases external lesions are observed represented by alterations of the skin and swelling of the paws. The skin lesions are observed on the ventral surface and consist in depilation, erythema and exudation. The skin thus affected shows to be extremely friable, rupturing at the movements of the animal when hold. On post-mortem examination, besides the lesions pointed out, the animals present enlargement of the spleen. The parasites are very numerous in the spleen, liver, bone marrow, etc. The changed skin shows considerable hypertrophy of the

  17. Pathogenesis and Immunohistochemical Studies of Caprine Pleuropneumonia in Experimentally Infected Goats

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    Umer Sadique*, Zafar Iqbal Chaudhry1, Muhammad Younus Rana2, Aftab Ahmad Anjum3, Zahoor-Ul-Hassan, Abdul Sajid and Muhammad Mushtaq

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to evaluate the pathogenesis of caprine pleuropneumonia (CPP in the experimentally inoculated goats with Mycoplasma mycoides subspecies Capri (Mmc. For this purpose, 12 goats (Group B were inoculated with bacterial isolates of Mmc while four goats were kept as untreated control (Group A. Clinical signs of the disease were recorded twice daily. Two goats from group B were sacrificed on weekly basis to demonstrate gross pathological lesions in different organs. Tissue samples from lungs, trachea, liver, heart, kidney, spleen, and small intestines were preserved for histopathological studies. The lungs and lymph nodes were preserved to demonstrate the antigen in tissue by using immuno- histochemical technique. The disease was successfully reproduced in all infected goats with severe manifestation. The clinical signs and gross lesions of the disease were mild at the beginning and became severe at the third and fourth weeks and then progressed to moderate and chronic forms. The histopathological lesions characteristic of CPP were found in all the organs. Antigen of Mmc was detected in tissue sections of lungs and lymph nodes. In conclusion, the disease was efficiently reproduced in experimental animals that showed acute septicemic form with lethal outcome.

  18. Characteristic compression strength of a brickwork masonry starting from the strength of its components. Experimental verification of analitycal equations of european codes

    OpenAIRE

    Rolando, A.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper the compression strength of a clay brickwork masonry bound with cement mortar is analyzed. The target is to obtain the characteristic compression strength of unreinforced brickwork masonry. This research try to test the validity of the analytical equations in European codes, comparing the experimental strength with the analytically obtained from the strength of its components (clay brick and cement mortar).En este artículo se analiza la resistencia a compresión de una ...

  19. Effect of Eimeria adenoeides Challenge upon the Course of an Experimental Salmonella Enteritidis Infection in Turkey Poults

    OpenAIRE

    KOINARSKI, Ventsislav; LYUTSKANOV, Mihni; URUMOVA, Valentina

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to perform a controlled experiment in order to evaluate the predisposing role of Eimeria adenoeides invasion on the appearance, development and severity of a Salmonella Enteritidis infection, with both infectious agents being field isolates obtained from spontaneous cases of the disease. Furthermore, we aimed to examine the principal epidemiological parameters of the mixed infection. The effect of an experimental Eimeria adenoeides invasion upon an artificial...

  20. Toxoplasma gondii detection and viability assays in ham legs and shoulders from experimentally infected pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Samblas, M; Vilchez, S; Racero, J C; Fuentes, M V; Osuna, A

    2016-09-01

    Epidemiological studies of toxoplasmosis show that infection in humans is mainly caused by the consumption of raw, undercooked or cured meat. Cured "Serrano" ham is a typical pork product from the Mediterranean area, highly valued for its flavour. The "Serrano" ham is prepared from pork meat and undergoes a process known as curing and a subsequent fermentation without thermal or smoking treatments. The viability of Toxoplasma gondii in hams and shoulders from experimentally infected pigs that have been subject to different curing processes has been studied in order to evaluate the best method to completely eliminate the viable protozoa. The different treatments include, i) freezing the legs and shoulders below -20 °C for 3 days before salting with marine salt, ii) salting the meat with marine salt and nitrites, iii) salting only with marine salt (traditional process) and iv) salting with marine salt and then freezing at -20 °C for 3 days after the curing period. The ham leg samples were cured for 7 months and the shoulder samples for 5 months. The presence of T. gondii in the different treatments was studied by a "magnetic-capture" method for the isolation of T. gondii DNA and a quantitative real-time PCR to estimate the T. gondii burden in the ham legs and shoulders. The infectivity capacity of T. gondii in positive samples was assayed by bioassays in mice and some physicochemical parameters, such as pH, water activity (aw) and salt content, were evaluated at the end of the curing time. In all the cases where the samples were frozen the T. gondii infectivity was eliminated. In samples in which the meat was salted in marine salt plus nitrites, the parasite viability remained for longer than in the traditional salting process. The methods described here could be useful for producers to guarantee the safety of their products. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Transcriptional Profiling of Hilar Nodes from Pigs after Experimental Infection with Actinobacillus Pleuropneumoniae

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    Shumin Yu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The gram-negative bacterium Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (APP is an inhabitant of the porcine upper respiratory tract and the causative agent of porcine pleuropneumonia (PP. In recent years, knowledge about the proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine gene expression that occurs in lung and lymph node of the APP-infected swine has been advanced. However, systematic gene expression profiles on hilar nodes from pigs after infection with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae have not yet been reported. The transcriptional responses were studied in hilar nodes (HN from swine experimentally infected with APP and the control groupusing Agilent Porcine Genechip, including 43,603 probe sets. 9,517 transcripts were identified as differentially expressed (DE at the p ≤ 0.01 level by comparing the log2 (normalized signal of the two groups named treatment group (TG and controls (CG. Eight hundred and fifteen of these DE transcripts were annotated as pig genes in the GenBank database (DB. Two hundred and seventy-two biological process categories (BP, 75 cellular components and 171 molecular functions were substantially altered in the TG compared to CG. Many BP were involved in host immune responses (i.e., signaling, signal transmission, signal transduction, response to stimulus, oxidation reduction, response to stress, immune system process, signaling pathway, immune response, cell surface receptor linked signaling pathway. Seven DE gene pathways (VEGF signaling pathway, Long-term potentiation, Ribosome, Asthma, Allograft rejection, Type I diabetes mellitus and Cardiac muscle contraction and statistically significant associations with host responses were affected. Many cytokines (including NRAS, PI3K, MAPK14, CaM, HSP27, protein phosphatase 3, catalytic subunit and alpha isoform, mediating the proliferation and migration of endothelial cells and promoting survival and vascular permeability, were activated in TG, whilst many immunomodulatory cytokines were

  2. Efficacy of extended pirlimycin therapy for treatment of experimentally induced Streptococcus uberis intramammary infections in lactating dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Stephen P; Almeida, Raul A; Gillespie, Barbara E; Ivey, Susan J; Moorehead, Hugh; Lunn, Phillip; Dowlen, Henry H; Johnson, David L; Lamar, Ken C

    2003-01-01

    Streptococcus uberis is an important cause of mastitis in dairy cows throughout the world, particularly during the dry period, around the time of calving, and during early lactation. Strategies for controlling S. uberis mastitis have not received adequate research attention and are therefore poorly defined and inadequate. Objectives of the present study were to evaluate the efficacy of extended therapy regimens with pirlimycin for treatment of experimentally induced S. uberis intramammary infections in lactating dairy cows during early lactation and to evaluate the usefulness of the S. uberis experimental infection model for evaluating antimicrobial efficacy in dairy cows. The efficacy of extended pirlimycin intramammary therapy regimens was investigated in 103 mammary glands of 68 dairy cows that became infected following experimental challenge with S. uberis during early lactation. Cows infected with S. uberis in one or both experimentally challenged mammary glands were randomly allocated to three groups, representing three different treatment regimens with pirlimycin, including 2-day (n = 21 cows, 31 mammary quarters), 5-day (n = 21 cows, 32 quarters), and 8-day (n = 26 cows, 40 quarters). For all groups, pirlimycin was administered at a rate of 50 mg of pirlimycin hydrochloride via intramammary infusion. A cure was defined as an experimentally infected mammary gland that was treated with pirlimycin and was bacteriologically negative for the presence of S. uberis at 7, 14, 21, and 28 days after treatment. Experimental S. uberis intramammary infections were eliminated in 58.1% of the infected quarters treated with the pirlimycin 2-day regimen, 68.8% for the 5-day regimen, and 80.0% for the 8-day regimen. Significant differences (P <.05) in efficacy were observed between the 2-day and 8-day treatment regimens. The number of somatic cells in milk decreased significantly following therapy in quarters for which treatment was successful in eliminating S. uberis

  3. Respiratory syncytial virus human experimental infection model: provenance, production, and sequence of low-passaged memphis-37 challenge virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-In Kim

    Full Text Available Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV is the leading cause of lower respiratory tract infections in children and is responsible for as many as 199,000 childhood deaths annually worldwide. To support the development of viral therapeutics and vaccines for RSV, a human adult experimental infection model has been established. In this report, we describe the provenance and sequence of RSV Memphis-37, the low-passage clinical isolate used for the model's reproducible, safe, experimental infections of healthy, adult volunteers. The predicted amino acid sequences for major proteins of Memphis-37 are compared to nine other RSV A and B amino acid sequences to examine sites of vaccine, therapeutic, and pathophysiologic interest. Human T- cell epitope sequences previously defined by in vitro studies were observed to be closely matched between Memphis-37 and the laboratory strain RSV A2. Memphis-37 sequences provide baseline data with which to assess: (i virus heterogeneity that may be evident following virus infection/transmission, (ii the efficacy of candidate RSV vaccines and therapeutics in the experimental infection model, and (iii the potential emergence of escape mutants as a consequence of experimental drug treatments. Memphis-37 is a valuable tool for pre-clinical research, and to expedite the clinical development of vaccines, therapeutic immunomodulatory agents, and other antiviral drug strategies for the protection of vulnerable populations against RSV disease.

  4. Respiratory syncytial virus human experimental infection model: provenance, production, and sequence of low-passaged memphis-37 challenge virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-In; DeVincenzo, John P; Jones, Bart G; Rudraraju, Rajeev; Harrison, Lisa; Meyers, Rachel; Cehelsky, Jeff; Alvarez, Rene; Hurwitz, Julia L

    2014-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of lower respiratory tract infections in children and is responsible for as many as 199,000 childhood deaths annually worldwide. To support the development of viral therapeutics and vaccines for RSV, a human adult experimental infection model has been established. In this report, we describe the provenance and sequence of RSV Memphis-37, the low-passage clinical isolate used for the model's reproducible, safe, experimental infections of healthy, adult volunteers. The predicted amino acid sequences for major proteins of Memphis-37 are compared to nine other RSV A and B amino acid sequences to examine sites of vaccine, therapeutic, and pathophysiologic interest. Human T- cell epitope sequences previously defined by in vitro studies were observed to be closely matched between Memphis-37 and the laboratory strain RSV A2. Memphis-37 sequences provide baseline data with which to assess: (i) virus heterogeneity that may be evident following virus infection/transmission, (ii) the efficacy of candidate RSV vaccines and therapeutics in the experimental infection model, and (iii) the potential emergence of escape mutants as a consequence of experimental drug treatments. Memphis-37 is a valuable tool for pre-clinical research, and to expedite the clinical development of vaccines, therapeutic immunomodulatory agents, and other antiviral drug strategies for the protection of vulnerable populations against RSV disease.

  5. Heterologous challenge with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) vaccine virus: no evidence of reactivation of previous European-type PRRS virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøtner, Anette; Nielsen, Jens; Oleksiewicz, M.B.

    1999-01-01

    In Denmark, a porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) control programme, comprising vaccination of seropositive herds with a live American type PRRSV vaccine, was started in 1996. In several of these herds, spread of vaccine virus from vaccinated 3-18 week old pigs to non...... in previously European PRRSV infected pigs after challenge with the vaccine strain seems to be the result of a boosting effect on the immune system, induced by the heterologous vaccine PRRSV strain....

  6. Age-dependent differences in cytokine and antibody responses after experimental RSV infection in a bovine model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grell, S.N.; Riber, Ulla; Tjørnehøj, Kirsten

    2005-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) causes severe respiratory disease in both infants and calves. As in humans, bovine RSV (BRSV) infections are most severe in the first 6 months of life. In this study, experimental infection with BRSV was performed in calves aged 1-5, 9-16 or 32-37 weeks. Compared...... to younger animals, older calves showed significantly less fever and lower TNFa. levels and less virus-specific IFN gamma release. In addition, blood from older animals had more mononuclear cells, more B cells and stronger BRSV-specific IgA and neutralising antibody responses to infection. A strong...

  7. Trypanosoma evansi experimental infection in the South American coati (Nasua nasua): clinical, parasitological and humoral immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, H M; Aquino, L P; Menezes, R F; Marques, L C; Moraes, M A; Werther, K; Machado, R Z

    2001-12-13

    The course of Trypanosoma evansi infection in coatis (Carnivora, Procionidae) was followed for 262 days. Parasites were detected in all infected animals from day 2 post infection until the end of the study. No correlation between temperature and parasitemia was observed. Animals of the infected group demonstrated depression, weakness, lethargy and pale mucous membranes. Indirect fluorescent antibody tests detected anti-T. evansi antibodies within 7 to 14 days post infection and showed high levels until the end of the experimental period. The persistent parasitemia in coati and their relative tolerance to clinical signs suggested that this species develops a chronic disease and plays an important role in the epidemiology of trypanosomosis due to T. evansi in enzootic regions.

  8. Experimental infection of the rabbit tick, Haemaphysalis leporispalustris, with the bacterium Rickettsia rickettsii, and comparative biology of infected and uninfected tick lineages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Luciana Helena T; Faccini, João Luiz H; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2009-04-01

    The present study consisted of two experiments that evaluated experimental infections of Haemaphysalis leporispalustris ticks by a Brazilian strain of Rickettsia rickettsii, and their effect on tick biology. In experiment I, ticks were exposed to R. rickettsii during the larval, nymphal or adult stages by feeding on rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) needle-inoculated with R. rickettsii, and thereafter reared on uninfected rabbits for the entire next tick generation. Regardless of the tick stage that acquired the infection, all subsequent tick stages were shown to be infected by PCR (infection rates varying from 1.3 to 41.7%), and were able to transmit R. rickettsii to uninfected rabbits, as demonstrated by rabbit seroconversion, guinea pig inoculation with rabbit blood, and PCR on rabbit blood. In Experiment II, ticks were exposed to R. rickettsii during the larval stage by feeding on rabbits co-infested with R. rickettsii-infected adult ticks, and thereafter reared on uninfected rabbits until the next generation of larvae. Again, all subsequent tick stages were shown to be infected by PCR (infection rates varying from 3.0 to 40.0%), and were able to transmit R. rickettsii to uninfected rabbits. Thus, it was demonstrated that larvae, nymphs, and adults of H. leporispalustris were able to acquire and maintain the R. rickettsii infection by transstadial and transovarial transmissions within the tick population, with active transmission of the bacterium to susceptible rabbits by all parasitic stages. Analyses of biological parameters of uninfected and R. rickettsii-infected tick lineages were performed in order to evaluate possible deleterious effects of R. rickettsii to the infected tick lineages. Surprisingly, all but one of the four R. rickettsii-experimental groups of the present study showed overall better biological performance than their sibling uninfected control ticks. Results of the present study showed that H. leporispalustris could support infection by a

  9. Infective larvae of five Onchocerca species from experimentally infected Simulium species in an area of zoonotic onchocerciasis in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fukuda M.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Microfilariae of five Onchocerca species, O. dewittei japonica (the causative agent of zoonotic onchocerciasis in Oita, Kyushu, Japan from wild boar (Sus scrofa, O. skrjabini and O. eberhardi from sika deer (Cervus nippon, O. lienalis from cattle, and an as yet unnamed Onchocerca sp. from wild boar, were injected intrathoracically into newly-emerged black flies of several species from Oita to search the potential vector(s of these parasites and identify their infective larvae. Development of O. dewittei japonica microfilariae to the infective larvae occurred in Simulium aokii, S. arakawae, S. bidentatum, S. japonicum, S. quinquestriatum, and S. rufibasis while development of infective larvae of O. skrjabini, O. eberhardi, and the unnamed Onchocerca sp. was observed in S. aokii, S. arakawae, and S. bidentatum. Development of O. lienalis microfilaria to infective larvae occurred in S. arakawae. Based on the morphology of infective larvae obtained, we proposed a key of identification of Onchocerca infective larvae found in Oita. We also reconsider the identification of three types of infective larvae previously recovered from Simulium species captured at cattle sheds: the large type I larvae that may be an undescribed species; the small type III identified as O. lienalis may include O. skrjabini too; the intermediary type II that may be O. gutturosa, or O. dewittei japonica, or the unnamed Onchocerca sp. of wild boar.

  10. Transcriptional analysis of immune-relevant genes in the mucus of Labeo rohita, experimentally infected with Argulus siamensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parida, Sonali; Mohapatra, Amruta; Kar, Banya; Mohanty, Jyotirmaya; Sahoo, Pramoda Kumar

    2018-03-26

    The knowledge of mucosa-associated molecular events that occur during infections is scarce despite the well-established importance of mucus in fish immunity. Using qRT-PCR, we analyzed the immune gene expression patterns in mucus of Labeo rohita experimentally infected with an ectoparasite Argulus siamensis. Mucus samples were collected at 0 h, 12 h, 24 h, 3 d, 7 d, 15 d, and 30 d post challenge of L. rohita with metanauplii of A. siamensis. All interleukins studied herein (IL 6, IL 15, and IL 1β) showed significant upregulation of expression levels in mucus of A. siamensis-infected fish compared to control samples. Further, the expression levels of molecules involved in pathogen recognition, toll like receptor 22, and pathogen presentation, β2 microglobulin, were found to be significantly upregulated in experimental samples until 7 d post challenge compared to control samples. The upregulated expression of lysozyme G at all time points post infection indicated the early activation of acute phase responses in mucus of infected L. rohita. Moreover, the expression levels of natural killer cell enhancing factor B were found to be higher in infected fish than they were in the control fish. The early upregulation of the immune genes observed herein reinforces the role of mucus as the first line of defense against pathogenic assault; furthermore, it expands our understanding of mucosal-immune responses to A. siamensis infection, which can aid development of immunological interventions.

  11. Behavioral and hormonal changes associated with the infective dose in experimental taeniasis in golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Roldan, Rosa; Hallal-Calleros, Claudia; Sciutto, Edda; Hernández, Marisela; Aguirre-Flores, Virginio; García-Jiménez, Sara; Báez-Saldaña, Armida; Flores-Pérez, Fernando Iván

    2016-07-01

    It has been reported that behavioral changes relate to infection in different parasitoses. However, the relation between the extent of the behavioral changes and the magnitude of the infection has been scarcely studied. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between different doses of infection and the behavioral changes induced in the experimental Taenia pisiformis taeniasis in golden hamsters. Groups of nine hamsters were infected with three or six T. pisiformis metacestodes. The locomotor activity was quantified daily in an open field test during the 21 days after infection; anxiety test was performed in an elevated plus-maze with a dark/light area at 7, 14 and 21 days post-infection, and serum cortisol levels were determined by radioimmunoassay before infection and at day 22 after infection. The challenge itself induced modifications on behavior and cortisol levels in hamsters, with or without successful infection (taenia development). Animals challenged with three metacestodes induced a decrease in locomotor activity and an increase in anxiety in infected animals. A higher and earlier decrease in locomotor activity and increased anxiety levels were observed in hamsters challenged with six cysticerci, which were accompanied by higher levels of sera cortisol at the end of the experiment. At necropsy, 44-55% of hamster became infected with an efficiency of implantation of 22-26%, challenged with three or six cysticerci respectively. The challenge of hamsters with metacestodes, promote behavioral changes in an extent dependent on the magnitude of the challenge, disregarding the effectiveness of the infection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Infection prevention and control in ultrasound - best practice recommendations from the European Society of Radiology Ultrasound Working Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyhsen, Christiane M; Humphreys, Hilary; Koerner, Roland J; Grenier, Nicolas; Brady, Adrian; Sidhu, Paul; Nicolau, Carlos; Mostbeck, Gerhard; D'Onofrio, Mirko; Gangi, Afshin; Claudon, Michel

    2017-12-01

    The objective of these recommendations is to highlight the importance of infection prevention and control in ultrasound (US), including diagnostic and interventional settings. Review of available publications and discussion within a multidisciplinary group consistent of radiologists and microbiologists, in consultation with European patient and industry representatives. Good basic hygiene standards are essential. All US equipment must be approved prior to first use, including hand held devices. Any equipment in direct patient contact must be cleaned and disinfected prior to first use and after every examination. Regular deep cleaning of the entire US machine and environment should be undertaken. Faulty transducers should not be used. As outlined in presented flowcharts, low level disinfection is sufficient for standard US on intact skin. For all other minor and major interventional procedures as well as all endo-cavity US, high level disinfection is mandatory. Dedicated transducer covers must be used when transducers are in contact with mucous membranes or body fluids and sterile gel should be used inside and outside covers. Good standards of basic hygiene and thorough decontamination of all US equipment as well as appropriate use of US gel and transducer covers are essential to keep patients safe. • Transducers must be cleaned/disinfected before first use and after every examination. • Low level disinfection is sufficient for standard US on intact skin. • High level disinfection is mandatory for endo-cavity US and all interventions. • Dedicated transducer covers must be used for endo-cavity US and all interventions. • Sterile gel should be used for all endo-cavity US and all interventions.

  13. Experimental bovine infection with Taenia saginata eggs: recovery rates and cysticerci location

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carlos Minozzo

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies were carried out on the recovery rate and cysticerci location in bovines experimentally infected with Taenia saginata eggs. Three calves of 6.5 months and one with 19 months of age were infected orally with 2 x 10(4 eggs of Taenia saginata. A fifth calf served as control. After 90 days of infection, the animals were slaughtered and organs and skeletal muscles were inspected using a slicing technique every 5 mm. From the four infected calves, 702 cysticerci were recovered, of which 570 (81.2% were alive and 132 (18.8% were degenerated. The recovery rate ranged from 0.01 to 1.43% with an average of 0.88%. The cysticerci presented the following anatomical distribution: hioideos muscles 02 (0.28%, kidneys 03 (0.43%, tongue 07 (1.00%, liver 12 (1.71%, lungs 15 (2.14%, diaphragm 18 (2.56%, mastication muscles 25 (3.56%, heart 49 (6.98%, anterior muscle 323 (46.00% and posterior muscle 248 (35.33%.Foi avaliada a taxa de recuperação e localização de cisticercos em bovinos experimentalmente infectados com ovos de Taenia saginata. Três bezerros de 6,5 meses e um adulto com 19 meses de idade foram infectados, por via oral, com 2 x 10(4 ovos de Taenia saginata. Um quinto bezerro serviu como testemunha. Após 90 dias da infecção, os animais foram abatidos. Fez-se inspeção, de todos os animais, por fatiamento de órgãos e musculatura esquelética, com intervalo entre os cortes de, no máximo, cinco milímetros. Dos quatros bezerros desafiados foram recuperados 702 cisticercos sendo 570 (81,20% vivos e 132 (18,80% degenerados. A taxa de recuperação foi de 0,01% a 1,43% com média de 0,88%. Os 702 cistos encontrados apresentaram a seguinte distribuição anatômica: músculos hióideos 02 (0,28%, rins 03 (0,43%, língua 07 (1,00%, fígado 12 (1,71%, pulmões 15 (2,14%, diafragma 18 (2,56%, músculos da mastigação 25 (3,56%, coração 49 (6,98%, musculatura dianteira 323 (46,00% e musculatura traseira 248 (35,33%. Na infecção experimental

  14. Experimental infections of rabbits with proliferative and latent stages of Besnoitia besnoiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liénard, Emmanuel; Pop, Loredana; Prevot, Françoise; Grisez, Christelle; Mallet, Virginie; Raymond-Letron, Isabelle; Bouhsira, Émilie; Franc, Michel; Jacquiet, Philippe

    2015-10-01

    Cattle besnoitiosis due to Besnoitia besnoiti is spreading across Europe and is responsible for severe economic losses in newly infected herds. Experimentally speaking, rabbits have been found to be susceptible to this parasite. The adaptation of B. besnoiti to rabbits may offer a new, easier and cheaper model of investigation for this disease. This study compared the virulence between tachyzoites and bradyzoites of B. besnoiti in rabbits. Eighteen New Zealand rabbits were allocated into three groups of six animals each. The rabbits from the control (group C), "tachyzoite" (group T) and "bradyzoite" (group B) groups were subcutaneously injected in the right flank with 66 μg of ovalbumin, 6.10(6) tachyzoites (125th passage on Vero cells) and 6.10(6) bradyzoites (collected from a natural infected cow) of B. besnoiti, respectively. Clinical follow-up and blood sampling for serological survey and qPCR were performed during 10 weeks until euthanasia. Molecular and immunohistochemistry examination was achieved on 25 samples of tissue per rabbit. Seroconversion occurred in group T without any clinical signs. Rabbits of group B exhibited a febrile condition (temperature above 40 °C from day 8 to day 11 following injection) with positive qPCR in blood. Cysts of B. besnoiti were found on skin samples and organs of rabbits from group B in tissue explored with threshold cycle (Ct) values below 30. These results suggest a higher virulence of bradyzoites in rabbits than Vero cell-cultivated tachyzoites. The proposed model could be used to assess the in vivo effectiveness of vaccine or drugs against cattle besnoitiosis.

  15. Experimental infection of broiler chicks with Salmonella Typhimurium from pigeon (Columba livia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Átilla Holanda de Albuquerque

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Several cases of animal and human salmonellosis caused by the Salmonella serotype Typhimurium have been reported. In animals, subclinical infection favors pathogen dissemination through feces. In this context, the domestic pigeon (Columba livia with an asymptomatic condition may play an important role in the transmission of salmonellosis, through the elimination of contaminated feces in commercial aviaries or in poultry feed facilities, causing economic losses to the poultry industry and presenting a risk to public health. This study aimed to evaluate the mortality, clinical signs and the presence of Salmonella Typhimurium in the feces and organs of chicks previously inoculated with bacteria isolated from a pigeon. One-day-old chicks were distributed in two experimental groups (G1 and G2 of 32 birds each, and a control group of six birds. Two inocula of 0.4 and 0.7 mL with 105 and 106 colony forming units were used in G1 and G2 birds, respectively. At 1, 4, 7 and 14 days post-inoculation (dpi fecal samples were pooled from each cage and individual cloacal swabs were collected. At 14 dpi, all chicks were euthanized and samples were collected from the liver, spleen, lung, cecum and intestine for microbiological analysis. Mortality was only observed among G2 birds (6.25%. Most birds presented clinical signs of diarrhea at 4 dpi and no symptom as observed at 14 dpi. The results from cloacal swabs demonstrated bacterial elimination in 68.8% and 53.1% of G2 and G1 birds, respectively at 1 dpi. Additionally, fecal samples had elevated bacterial shedding in all four periods of observation , with a higher excretion at 4 dpi (62.5% for both groups. Among G2 birds, 74.2% were positive for the pathogen in the intestine; G1 birds presented the lowest rate of lung infection (29%, and both groups had more than 50% positivity for liver and caeca. The results revealed that infected chicks with a Salmonella Typhimurium strains isolated from pigeons may host the

  16. Effects of Non-Susceptible Hosts on the Infection with Trypanosoma cruzi of the Vector Triatoma infestans: an Experimental Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vázquez Diego P

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available We tested experimentally the effects of the presence of non-susceptible hosts on the infection with Trypanosoma cruzi of the vector Triatoma infestans. The experiment consisted in two treatments: with chickens, including two chickens (non-susceptible hosts and two infected guinea pigs (susceptible hosts, and without chickens, including only two infected guinea pigs. The hosts were held unrestrained in individual metal cages inside a closed tulle chamber. A total of 200 uninfected T. infestans third instar nymphs were liberated in each replica, collected on day 14, and examined for infection and blood meal sources on day 32-36. The additional presence of chickens relative to infected guinea pigs: (a significantly modified the spatial distribution of bugs; (b increased significantly the likelihoods of having a detectable blood meal on any host and molting to the next instar; (c did not affect the bugs' probability of death by predation; and (d decreased significantly the overall percentage of T. infestans infected with T. cruzi. The bugs collected from inside or close to the guinea pigs' cages showed a higher infection rate (71-88% than those collected from the chickens' cages (22-32%. Mixed blood meals on chickens and guinea pigs were detected in 12-21% of bugs. Although the presence of chickens would decrease the overall percentage of infected bugs in short term experiments, the high rate of host change of T. infestans would make this difference fade out if longer exposure times had been provided.

  17. Experimental infection of giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) with SAT-1 and SAT-2 foot-and-mouth disease virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vosloo, W; Swanepoel, S P; Bauman, M; Botha, B; Esterhuysen, J J; Boshoff, C I; Keet, D F; Dekker, A

    2011-04-01

    The potential role of giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) in the epidemiology and spread of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) SAT types was investigated by experimental infection and detection of virus in excretions using virus isolation on primary pig kidney cell cultures. In two experiments separated by a period of 24 months, groups of four animals were needle infected with a SAT-1 or SAT-2 virus, respectively and two in-contact controls were kept with each group. Viraemia was detected 3-9 days post-infection and virus isolated from mouth washes and faeces only occasionally up to day 13. The SAT-1 virus was transmitted to only one in-contact control animal, probably via saliva that contained virus from vesicles in the mouth of a needle-infected animal. None of the animals infected with the SAT-2 virus had any vesicles in the mouth, and there was no evidence of transmission to the in-contact controls. No virus was detected in probang samples for the duration of the experiments (60 days post-infection), indicating that persistent infection probably did not establish with either of these isolates. Giraffe most likely do not play an important role in FMD dissemination. Transmission of infection would possibly occur only during close contact with other animals when mouth vesicles are evident. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. Reappraisal of experimental infections with cercariae and schistosomula of a brazilian strain of Schistosoma mansoni in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Vilar

    Full Text Available The present investigation involves a reevaluation of previous results obtained after experimental infection of Swiss Webster mice with cercariae and schistosomula of the Schistosoma mansoni LE strain maintained under laboratory conditions. Three experimental groups of mice were considered: the animals of the first group were percutaneously (ring method infected with cercariae, those of the second were subcutaneously inoculated with cercariae and the mice of the third were inoculated by the same route with schistosomula transformed in vitro. The data obtained so far indicated that the most effective method of infection is the subcutaneous injection with schistosomula, with a mean adult worm burden recovery of 54.1% when compared to the abdominal percutaneous and subcutaneous routes of infection with cercariae, in which the values were 36.7% and 32.4%, respectively. This suggests that, in experimental infections of SW mice with a LE S. mansoni strain, the skin is to be considered an effective attrition site in the percutaneous route, whereas in the case of inoculation with cercariae, a small amount of larvae fails to be transformed into viable schistosomula, possibly due to skin phase avoidance. A brief discussion about attrition sites and elimination of larval S. mansoni worms in mice is presented.

  19. Protective effect of aspirin treatment on mouse behavior in the acute phase of experimental infection with Trypanosoma cruzi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvero-Isidre, Arturo; Morínigo-Guayuán, Sergio; Meza-Ojeda, Aaron; Mongelós-Cardozo, Marcelo; Centurión-Wenninger, Claudia; Figueredo-Thiel, Susy; Sanchez, Diego F; Acosta, Nidia

    2018-01-01

    Chagas disease is a potentially fatal disease caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, which can in some cases affect the central nervous system. The objective was to evaluate the effect of aspirin (ASA) in the behavior of mice infected with T. cruzi during the acute phase. This was an experimental study with random assignation. Twenty four BALB/c mice were divided into four groups of six animals each as follows: only ASA (OA), ASA before infection (BI), ASA after infection (AI) and only infection (OI). The strain used for infection was M/HOM/Bra/53/Y. An ASA dose of 100 mg/kg per day was administered 72 h before infection to BI group and the same dose 48 h after infection to AI group. Mice behavior in the open field test, mortality, and brain histopathology was evaluated. Data were analyzed using ANOVA, chi square test, and Kaplan-Meier with long-rank for survival analysis. In the open field test, the OA group has similar results with the BI group, in the variables of immobility and escape. Also, the OA group displayed significantly higher rates of micturition (p < 0.001) and defecation (p < 0.001) compared to infected groups. Mortality was higher in BI group (p = 0.02). The presence of T. cruzi amastigotes were higher in brain tissues of the AI and OI groups (p = 0.008). In conclusion, the administration of ASA before infection seemed to prevent behavioral changes induced by the acute infection, but it led to accelerated mortality. The study highlighted the potential importance of the pathways inhibited by ASA in the early hours of acute infection with T. cruzi.

  20. Immunoblotting using Strongyloides venezuelensis larvae, parthenogenetic females or eggs extracts for the diagnosis of experimentally infected immunosuppressed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulart de Carvalho, Edson Fernando; Neto de Sousa, José Eduardo; Gonçalves, Ana Lúcia Ribeiro; da Cunha-Junior, Jair Pereira; Costa-Cruz, Julia Maria

    2015-10-01

    The nematode Strongyloides stercoralis is responsible for strongyloidiasis in humans. Diagnosis of infection occurs through detection of larvae in feces, but low elimination of larvae often hampers the detection of disease, particularly in cases of patient immunosuppression. Immunodiagnostic tests have been developed; however obtaining S. stercoralis larvae for the production of homologous antigen extract is technically difficult. Thus, the use different developmental forms of Strongyloides venezuelensis has become an alternative method for the production of antigen extracts. The aim of this study was to evaluate immunoblotting using alkaline extracts from S. venezuelensis L3 larvae, parthenogenetic females or eggs to test detection of experimental strongyloidiasis associated with immunosuppression. Immunocompetent and immunosuppressed male rats were experimentally infected, and serum sample from all animals were obtained at 0, 5, 8 13, and 21 days post infection (d.p.i.). Immunoblotting was evaluated for use in detection of anti-S. venezuelensis IgG in both experimental rat groups. The larval extract immunoblotting profile had the most immunoreactive fractions in the immunosuppressed group beginning at 5 d.p.i., while the immunocompetent group reactivity began on 8 d.p.i. Immunoreactive protein fractions of 17 kDa present in larval alkaline extract presented as possible markers of infection in immunosuppressed rats. It is concluded that all extracts using immunoblotting have diagnostic potential in experimental strongyloidiasis, particularly larval extract in immunosuppressed individuals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Increased pulmonary secretion of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in calves experimentally infected with bovine respiratory syncytial virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rontved, C. M.; Tjørnehøj, Kirsten; Viuff, B.

    2000-01-01

    Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) is an important cause of respiratory disease among calves in the Danish cattle industry. An experimental BRSV infection model was used to study the pathogenesis of the disease in calves. Broncho alveolar lung lavage (BAL) was performed on 28 Jersey calves...

  2. Clinical presentation, convalescence, and relapse of rocky mountain spotted fever in dogs experimentally infected via tick bite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Michael L; Killmaster, Lindsay F; Zemtsova, Galina E; Ritter, Jana M; Langham, Gregory

    2014-01-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) is a tick-borne disease caused by R. rickettsii in North and South America. Domestic dogs are susceptible to infection and canine RMSF can be fatal without appropriate treatment. Although clinical signs of R. rickettsii infection in dogs have been described, published reports usually include descriptions of either advanced clinical cases or experimental infections caused by needle-inoculation of cultured pathogen rather than by tick bite. The natural progression of a tick-borne R. rickettsii infection has not been studied in sufficient detail. Here, we provide a detailed description of clinical, hematological, molecular, and serological dynamics of RMSF in domestic dogs from the day of experimental exposure to infected ticks through recovery. Presented data indicate that neither the height/duration of fever nor detection of rickettsial DNA in dogs' blood by PCR are good indicators for clinical prognosis. Only the apex and subsequent subsidence of neutrophilia seem to mark the beginning of recovery and allow predicting a favorable outcome in Rickettsia-infected dogs, even despite the continuing persistence of mucosal petechiae and skin rash. On the other hand the appropriate (doxycycline) antibiotic therapy of sufficient duration is crucial in prevention of RMSF relapses in dogs.

  3. Effects of various induced local environmental conditions and histopathological studies in experimental Dermatophilus congolensis infection on the bovine skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oduye, O O

    1975-11-01

    Although localised to the site of inoculation, experimental cutaneous streptothricosis was readily produced on scarified and/or defatted bovine skin infected with nutrient broth cultures of Dermatophilus congolensis. There was no difference in the extent and duration of lesions produced by either method. D congolensis failed to infect intact normal skin. Simulated rainfall and insect bite did not effect spread and production of generalized streptothricosis. On the other hand, localised experimental lesions regressed more rapidly when subjected to simulated rainfall. The histopathological changes were characterised by invasion of hair follicles by the germinating hyphae and mycelia of D gongolensis, accumulation of neutrophilic exudate beneath the infected epidermis, migration of some neutrophils through the epidermis resulting in intra-epidermal microabscess formation and regeneration of new epidermis from follicular sheath epithelium.

  4. IL-6 KO mice develop experimental amoebic liver infection with eosinophilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada-Villaseñor, Eréndira; Morales-Montor, Jorge; Rodríguez-Dorantes, Mauricio; Ramos-Martínez, Espiridión; Néquiz-Avendaño, Mario; Ostoa-Saloma, Pedro

    2007-12-01

    Interleukin 6 (IL-6) is a multifunctional cytokine that regulates various aspects of the immune response, such as acute phase reaction and hematopoiesis, and is an important signal that coordinates activities of liver cells, macrophages, and lymphocytes. Amoebic liver lesions have been studied, usually in hamsters, due to the problem of abscess development in mice. We report here the development of an experimental amoebic liver abscess (ALA) model in mice deficient in IL-6. Axenically grown amoebae were injected directly into the livers of C57BL/6 wild type (WT) and IL-6 KO -/- mice; the abscesses produced were counted and the inflammatory process was examined on 5, 10, and 20 days postinfection. Our results showed that IL-6 KO -/- mice develop ALA, in contrast to the WT strain, which usually do not have signs of abscess or infection. Histological analysis of the abscesses showed extended inflammatory response, mainly mediated by eosinophils, which strongly infiltrate the abscess in IL-6 K -/- mice. The present results suggest that in mice, IL-6 could play a role in the resistance against ALA.

  5. Effects of atmospheric ammonia on young pigs experimentally infected with Bordetella bronchiseptica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drummond, J.G.; Curtis, S.E.; Meyer, R.C.; Simon, J.; Norton, H.W.

    1981-06-01

    Effects of atmospheric ammonia on performance and respiratory tract health of young pigs experimentally infected with Bordetella bronchiseptica were studied. Treatments were: (1) control, (2) Bordetella inoculation (approx 10(9) bacteria/naris) alone, (3) Bordetella inoculation plus exposure to atmospheric ammonia at 34.7 mg/m3 (50 ppm), and (4) Bordetella inoculation plus exposure to atmospheric ammonia at 69.4 mg/m3 (100 ppm). Pigs weighted 8.01 kg (av) at start of treatment. Body weight and feed disappearance were measured weekly. After 4 weeks, all pigs were killed and examined grossly, and appropriate specimens were obtained for histopathologic examination. Regression models were fitted to growth, feed disappearance, and gain-to-feed data. The growth model indicated that Bordetella-inoculated pigs gained 26% less body weight than did controls, regardless of atmospheric ammonia concentration. Bordetella inoculation, regardless of ammonia exposure, reduced feed disappearance 12% below the control rate. Treatment difference was not noted in gain/feed data. Shrunken turbinates were observed in Bordetella-inoculated pigs. Shrinkage also appeared to be related directly to ammonia concentration. Rhinitis was confirmed histopathologically, and its severity was related with atmospheric ammonia concentration, but no difference was seen in the osseous core of the turbinates.

  6. Lack of prion transmission by sexual or parental routes in experimentally infected hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Rodrigo; Pritzkow, Sandra; Hu, Ping Ping; Duran-Aniotz, Claudia; Soto, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    Prion diseases are a group of neurodegenerative disorders affecting humans as well as captive and wild animals. The mechanisms and routes governing the natural spread of prions are not completely understood and several hypotheses have been proposed. In this study, we analyzed the effect of gender in prion incubation period, as well as the possibility of prion transmission by sexual and parental contact using 263K infected hamsters as a model. Our results show that males have significantly longer incubation periods compared with females when exposed to the same quantity of infectious material. Importantly, no evidence of sexual or parental prion transmission was found, even 500 d after sexual contact or birth, respectively. Western blotting and PMCA were unable to detect sub-clinical levels of PrP(Sc) in experimental subjects, suggesting a complete absence of prion transmission by these routes. Our results show that sexual and parental transmission of prions does not occur in this model. It remains to be studied whether this conclusion is valid also for other prion strains and species.

  7. Comparative efficacy of tulathromycin and tildipirosin for the treatment of experimental Mycoplasma bovis infection in calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartram, David J; Moyaert, Hilde; Vanimisetti, Bindu H; Ramage, Clifford P; Reddick, David; Stegemann, Michael R

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this negative controlled, blinded, randomised, parallel group study was to compare the efficacy of two injectable macrolide antimicrobials, tulathromycin and tildipirosin, administered by single subcutaneous injection at dose rates of 2.5 and 4.0 mg kg-1 bodyweight, respectively, in the treatment of an experimentally induced Mycoplasma bovis infection in calves. A total of 238 M. bovis-negative calves were challenged on three consecutive days with M. bovis by endobronchial deposition. Post-challenge, a total of 126 animals fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were randomly allocated to three treatment groups: tulathromycin, tildipirosin and saline. Clinical observations for signs of respiratory disease and injection site assessments were conducted daily for 14 days post-treatment. The animals were then killed, the lungs were examined for evidence of lesions, and samples collected for bacterial isolation. Calves treated with tulathromycin had a lower percentage of lung with lesions (P = 0.0079), lower mortality (P = 0.0477), fewer days with depressed demeanour (P = 0.0486) and higher body weight (P = 0.0112) than calves administered tildipirosin.

  8. Preclinical deposition of pathological prion protein in muscle of experimentally infected primates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Krasemann

    Full Text Available Prion diseases are transmissible fatal neurodegenerative disorders affecting humans and animals. A central step in disease progression is the accumulation of a misfolded form (PrP(Sc of the host encoded prion protein (PrP(C in neuronal and non-neuronal tissues. The involvement of peripheral tissues in preclinical states increases the risk of accidental transmission. On the other hand, detection of PrP(Sc in non-neuronal easy-accessible compartments such as muscle may offer a novel diagnostic tool. Primate models have proven invaluable to investigate prion diseases. We have studied the deposition of PrP(Sc in muscle and central nervous system of rhesus monkeys challenged with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD, variant CJD (vCJD and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE in preclinical and clinical stage using biochemical and morphological methods. Here, we show the preclinical presence of PrP(Sc in muscle and central nervous system of rhesus monkeys experimentally infected with vCJD.

  9. Influence of temperature regime on endocrine parameters and vitellogenesis during experimental maturation of European eel (Anguilla anguilla) females

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perez, L.; Penaranda, D.S.; Dufour, S.; Baloche, S.; Palstra, A.P.; Thillart, G.E.E.J.M.; Asturiano, J.F.

    2011-01-01

    We examined the effect of temperature in European silver eels during their maturation induced by injections of carp pituitary extract on endocrine parameters: pituitary fshß and lhß expression, plasma 17ß-estradiol (E2) and vitellogenin, estrogen receptor 1 (esr1), and vitellogenin 2 (vtg2)

  10. Mortality of American bullfrog tadpoles Lithobates catesbeianus infected by Gyrodactylus jennyae and experimentally exposed to Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paetow, Linda J; McLaughlin, J Daniel; Pauli, Bruce D; Marcogliese, David J

    2013-03-01

    The fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), which causes the disease chytridiomycosis in postmetamorphic amphibians, has been linked to amphibian population declines. Different amphibian species, however, exhibit different susceptibility to Bd pathogenicity. At the same time, agricultural pesticides commonly found contaminating aquatic habitats have been reported to increase the susceptibility of amphibians to pathogens. To investigate whether certain pesticides are able to alter the pathogenicity of Bd to larval amphibians, we exposed larval American bullfrogs Lithobates catesbeianus to end-use formulations of the herbicides atrazine or glyphosate, and then exposed them to Bd. Following the experimental exposures, a preexisting infection of the tadpoles by the monogenean ectoparasite Gyrodactylus jennyae was detected in all experimental and control tadpoles. Gyrodactylus jennyae infection intensity varied, and individuals with heavy G. jennyae infections suffered more skin erosion due to grazing by the parasite. Tadpoles experimentally exposed to Bd, or to Bd and either herbicide, had significantly reduced survival rates compared with untreated tadpoles that were only infected by G. jennyae. Increased mortality was also correlated with degree of skin erosion; survival of tadpoles with severe skin erosion was significantly reduced compared with that of tadpoles with no, or mild, skin erosion. While infected with G. jennyae, the group of tadpoles with the lowest survival rate (exposed only to Bd) included significantly more individuals exhibiting severe skin erosion and significantly fewer individuals without skin erosion, compared with the control group. These results emphasize the potential pathogenicity of gyrodactylid infections in larval amphibian hosts and suggest that concomitant exposures to Bd may enhance infections and effects of G. jennyae in bullfrog tadpoles.

  11. Effects of an experimental increase of temperature and drought on the photosynthetic performance of two ericaceous shrub species along a north-south European gradient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Llorens, L.; Penuelas, J.; Beier, C.

    2004-01-01

    Plant ecophysiological changes in response to climatic change may be different in northern and southern European countries because different abiotic factors constrain plant physiological activity. We studied the effects of experimental warming and drought on the photosynthetic performance of two...... ericaceous shrubs (Erica multiflora and Calluna vulgaris) along a European gradient of temperature and precipitation (UK, Denmark, The Netherlands, and Spain). At each site, a passive warming treatment was applied during the night throughout the whole year, whereas the drought treatment excluded rain events...... with the geographical gradient in water availability. Accordingly, there was a strong correlation between net photosynthetic rates and the accumulated rainfall over the growing season. Droughted plants showed lower leaf gas exchange rates than control plants in the four sites. Interestingly, although leaf...

  12. Experimental single and trickle infections of cattle with Taenia saginata: Studies of immunodiagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgh, H.O.; Grønvold, J.; Maeda, G.E.

    1996-01-01

    Two groups of 12 calves were given either a single infection dose of 30,000 Taenia saginata eggs (group A) or trickle infected with 12 x 2500 T saginata eggs (group B). The calves were killed 16, 22 or 54 weeks after infection and the numbers of viable and dead parasites were counted by slicing...

  13. Immune gene expression in the spleen of chickens experimentally infected with Ascaridia galli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Tina S.; Skovgaard, Kerstin; Norup, Liselotte R.

    2015-01-01

    and reagent consumption. Spleenic transcription of immunological genes was compared between infected chickens and non-infected controls at week 2, 6, and 9 p.i. corresponding to different stages of parasite development/maturation. At week 2 p.i. increased expression of IL-13 was observed in infected chickens...

  14. Treatment with high-dose antidepressants severely exacerbates the pathological outcome of experimental Escherichia coli infections in poultry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kromann, Sofie; Kudirkiene, Egle; Li, Lili

    2017-01-01

    infection in poultry. A total of 40 chickens were divided in four groups of 10 chickens each. All chickens were challenged with 4x103 colony forming units (CFU) of a tetracycline resistant E. coli strain using a surgical infection model, and subsequently treated with either high-dose sertraline...... combined with tetracycline. In conclusion high-dose treatments (four times the maximum therapeutic dose for treating human depression) with sertraline as an adjuvant for treatment of antibiotic resistant E. coli infections exacerbate the pathological outcome of infection in chickens....... the susceptibility of Escherichia coli to antibiotics. The aim of the present study was to investigate if the antimicrobial activity of sertraline could be documented under clinical settings, hereunder if sertraline could potentiate the effect of tetracycline in treatment of an experimentally induced ascending...

  15. Experimental infections of baboons (Papio spp. and vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops with Trichinella zimbabwensis and successful treatment with ivermectin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mukaratirwa

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Experimental Trichinella zimbabwensis infections were established in three baboons (Papios p.and four vervet monkeys (Cercopithecuase thiops and the clinical-pathological manifestations assessed. The infected animals showed clinical signs ranging from fever, diarrhoea, periorbitaol edema and muscular pain in varying degrees. One baboon became blind due to the infection. Levels of creatinine phosphokinase and lactated ehydrogenase increased to reach a peak on Day 42 post-infection(pifor both baboons and monkeys. Blood parameters such as packed cell volume, levels of red blood cells and white blood cells did not change significantly from the normal ranges except for the levels of eosinophils which peaked above the normal ranges at Day 28 and 56 pi in baboons and at Day 56 pi in monkeys.

  16. Trypanosoma cruzi: correlation of muscle lesions with contractile properties in the acute phase of experimental infection in mice (Mus musculus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Archila, Mario V; Muñiz, Jesús; Virgen-Ortiz, Adolfo; Newton-Sánchez, Oscar; Melnikov, Valery G; Dobrovinskaya, Oxana R

    2011-08-01

    Parasitism in skeletal muscles and myositis are commonly observed during experimental Trypanosoma cruzi infection. The effect of T. cruzi infection on contractile properties of skeletal muscles in consecutive periods of the acute infection in BALB/c mice was studied. Albarrada strain (clone 4) which was isolated in Mexico and has demonstrated a high level of blood parasitemia and parasitism in skeletal muscles was used. Isolated strips of rectus abdominis muscle were subjected to direct electrical field in vitro. Alternatively, plantaris muscles were stimulated in situ through the sciatic nerve. The peak amplitudes of a single twitch and tetanus contractions were considered to estimate the mechanical properties of muscles. Histopathological analysis was performed to correlate functional changes with the evolution of tissue parasitism and tissue injury. Contractile properties of muscles were significantly attenuated during acute T. cruzi infection. The percentage of damaged muscles rather than the character of tissue pathology affected their contractile properties significantly. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Novel experimental Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection model mimicking long-term host-pathogen interactions in cystic fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moser, Claus; van Gennip, Maria; Bjarnsholt, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Moser C, van Gennip M, Bjarnsholt T, Jensen PO, Lee B, Hougen HP, Calum H, Ciofu O, Givskov M, Molin S, Hoiby N. Novel experimental Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection model mimicking long-term host-pathogen interactions in cystic fibrosis. APMIS 2009; 117: 95-107. The dominant cause of premature...... death in patients suffering from cystic fibrosis (CF) is chronic lung infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The chronic lung infection often lasts for decades with just one clone. However, as a result of inflammation, antibiotic treatment and different niches in the lungs, the clone undergoes...... and 2003) of the chronic lung infection of one CF patient using the seaweed alginate embedment model. The results showed that the non-mucoid clones reduced their virulence over time, resulting in faster clearing of the bacteria from the lungs, improved pathology and reduced pulmonary production...

  18. The efficacy of valnemulin (Econor) in the control of disease caused by experimental infection of calves with Mycoplasma bovis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stipkovits, L; Ripley, P H; Tenk, M; Glávits, R; Molnár, T; Fodor, L

    2005-06-01

    Mycoplasma bovis infection was experimentally induced in groups of six young calves. A further group was uninfected and served as a control. Ten days after infection, medication with either enrofloxacin (Baytril, Bayer) or valnemulin (Econor, Novartis) was instituted via the milk replacer for a further 10 days, after which all calves were killed. Infection resulted in depression, pyrexia, inappetance and prominent respiratory signs. Arthritis occurred in two animals and two (unmedicated) animals died. At post-mortem examination extensive lesions were present in the lungs and M. bovis was re-isolated from infected unmedicated calves' lungs. Medication with either enrofloxacin or valnemulin resulted in a rapid diminution of clinical signs, restoration of appetite and reversal of weight loss. Isolation of Pasteurella multocida from the calves' lungs was suppressed by both medicaments. Valnemulin resulted in a more rapid reduction of clinical scores and eliminated M. bovis from the lungs more effectively than enrofloxacin.

  19. Experimental and Natural Infections of Goats with Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome Virus: Evidence for Ticks as Viral Vector.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjun Jiao

    Full Text Available Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV, the causative agent for the fatal life-threatening infectious disease, severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS, was first identified in the central and eastern regions of China. Although the viral RNA was detected in free-living and parasitic ticks, the vector for SFTSV remains unsettled.Firstly, an experimental infection study in goats was conducted in a bio-safety level-2 (BSL-2 facility to investigate virus transmission between animals. The results showed that infected animals did not shed virus to the outside through respiratory or digestive tract route, and the control animals did not get infected. Then, a natural infection study was carried out in the SFTSV endemic region. A cohort of naïve goats was used as sentinel animals in the study site. A variety of daily samples including goat sera, ticks and mosquitoes were collected for viral RNA and antibody (from serum only detection, and virus isolation. We detected viral RNA from free-living and parasitic ticks rather than mosquitoes, and from goats after ticks' infestation. We also observed sero-conversion in all members of the animal cohort subsequently. The S segment sequences of the two recovered viral isolates from one infected goat and its parasitic ticks showed a 100% homology at the nucleic acid level.In our natural infection study, close contact between goats does not appear to transmit SFTSV, however, the naïve animals were infected after ticks' infestation and two viral isolates derived from an infected goat and its parasitic ticks shared 100% of sequence identity. These data demonstrate that the etiologic agent for goat cohort's natural infection comes from environmental factors. Of these, ticks, especially the predominant species Haemaphysalis longicornis, probably act as vector for this pathogen. The findings in this study may help local health authorities formulate and focus preventive measures to contain

  20. Flow Cytometric Detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis-Specific Antibodies in Experimentally Infected and Naturally Exposed Calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridger, P. S.; Bulun, H.; Fischer, M.; Akineden, Ö.; Seeger, T.; Barth, S.; Henrich, M.; Doll, K.; Bülte, M.; Menge, C.; Bauerfeind, R.

    2013-01-01

    A desirable test to diagnose infections with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis facilitates identification of infected cattle prior to the state of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis shedding. This study aimed at adjusting a flow cytometry (FC)-based assay, using intact M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis bacteria as the antigen, for diagnosis of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis infections in calves. Serum samples were collected from experimentally infected (n = 12) and naturally exposed (n = 32) calves. Samples from five calves from positive dams were analyzed to determine the dynamics of maternal antibodies. Samples from adult cattle with defined infection status served as the standard (18 M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis shedders, 22 M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis free). After preadsorption with Mycobacterium phlei, sera were incubated with M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis and M. avium subsp. avium bacterial suspensions, respectively, followed by the separate detection of bovine IgG, IgG1, IgG2, and IgM attached to the bacterial surface. M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-specific sample/positive (S/P) ratios were compared to enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) S/P ratios. In adult cattle, the FC assay for IgG1 had a sensitivity of 78% at a specificity of 100%. Maternally acquired antibodies could be detected in calves up to 121 days of life. While all but two sera taken at day 100 ± 10 postnatum from naturally exposed calves tested negative, elevated S/P ratios (IgG and IgG1) became detectable from 44 and 46 weeks postinoculation onwards in two calves infected experimentally. Even with the optimized FC assay, M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-specific antibodies can only occasionally be detected in infected calves less than 12 months of age. The failure to detect such antibodies apparently reflects the distinct immunobiology of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis infections rather than methodological constraints. PMID:23885032

  1. Study on the use of toltrazuril to eliminate Neospora caninum in congenitally infected lambs born from experimentally infected ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed-Hussain, S S; Howe, L; Pomroy, W E; West, D M; Hardcastle, M; Williamson, N B

    2015-06-15

    To determine if toltrazuril was effective in eliminating Neospora caninum infection from congenitally infected lambs. Twenty-eight ewes were allocated to 3 groups where animals in Groups A and B were inoculated with 1 × 10(7)N. caninum tachyzoites on Day 120 of gestation and Group C was maintained as a negative control group. Lambs born from ewes in Group A were treated with toltrazuril (20mg/kg) on Days 0, 7, 14 and 21 after birth. Lambs in Groups B and C were untreated. All lambs in Groups A and B were seropositive at 12 weeks of age. At 12 weeks of age, no differences between lambs in Group A and Group B were observed in serological results (ELISA and western blot), presence of N. caninum-related brain histopathological lesions or the number of organisms detected by qPCR. Group C remained negative for serology, detection of N. caninum DNA as well as histopathology throughout the study. Results indicate that N. caninum congenitally-infected lambs had a continuing infection with N. caninum despite being treated with toltrazuril. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Experimental infection of octopus vulgaris (Cuvier, 1797) with Photobacterium damsela subsp. piscicida. Immunohistochemical tracking of antigen and tissue responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakopoulos, Vasileios; White, Daniella; Valsamidis, Michail-Aggelos; Vasilaki, Feli

    2017-03-01

    Adult common octopus individuals were intramuscularly infected with Photobacterium damsela subsp. piscicida in order to investigate if this species is sensitive to this common and important fish pathogen. The fate of the bacterial antigens and the tissue responses of Octopus vulgaris were studied employing immunohistochemical techniques. Strong reaction at the site of injection was evident from day 2 post-infection that continued until day 14. Great numbers of hemocytes that were attracted at the site of infection were involved in phagocytosis of bacteria. Very early in the infection, a transition of cells to fibroblasts and an effort to isolate the infection was observed. During the course of the study, very large necrotic cells were seen at the site of infection, whereas during the later stages hemocytes with phagocytosed bacteria were observed in well-defined pockets inside the muscle tissue. None of the internal organs tested for the presence of the bacterium were positive with the exception of the digestive gland where antigen staining was observed which was not associated with hemocyte infiltration. The high doses of bacterial cells used in this experimental infection and the lack of disease signs from Octopus vulgaris suggest that, under normal conditions, octopus is resistant to Photobacterium damsela subsp. piscicida. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Intra-uterine experimental infection by Ureaplasma diversum induces TNF-α mediated womb inflammation in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamile R. Silva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ureaplasma diversum is an opportunistic pathogen associated with uterine inflammation, impaired embryo implantation, infertility, abortions, premature birth of calves and neonatal pneumonia in cattle. It has been suggested that the intra-uterine infection by Ureaplasma diversum can cause vascular changes that hinder the success of pregnancy. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the changes of intrauterine site of A/J mice in estrus or proestrus phase inoculated with Ureaplasma diversum. The infection was monitored at 24, 48 and 72 hours by the PCR methodology to detect the Ureaplasma in the inoculation site and the profile of circulating blood cells. Morphological changes, intensity of inflammation and the production of cytokines were compared. The infected mice showed local inflammation through the production of IFN-γ and TNF-α. Ureaplasma diversum infections in the reproductive tract of studied mice seemed to be associated with the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in uterine parenchyma. The levels of TNF-α of infected mice were dependent on the bacterial load of inoculated Ureaplasma. Uterine experimental infections by Ureaplasma diversum have not been mentioned yet and herein we presented the first report of an intrauterine infection model in mice.

  4. 28 June 2012 - Members of the European Brain Council led by President Mary Baker visiting the LHC tunnel at Point 5 with Technology Department Group Leader L. Bottura and CMS experimental area with Run Coordinator M. Chamizo-Llatas.

    CERN Multimedia

    Jean-Claude Gadmer

    2012-01-01

    28 June 2012 - Members of the European Brain Council led by President Mary Baker visiting the LHC tunnel at Point 5 with Technology Department Group Leader L. Bottura and CMS experimental area with Run Coordinator M. Chamizo-Llatas.

  5. 4 July 2013- European Commission DG CONNECT Director-General R. Madelin, signing the guest book with CERN Director-General R. Heuer and visiting CMS experimental area with Collaboration Deputy Spokesperson J. Varela.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2013-01-01

    4 July 2013- European Commission DG CONNECT Director-General R. Madelin, signing the guest book with CERN Director-General R. Heuer and visiting CMS experimental area with Collaboration Deputy Spokesperson J. Varela.

  6. Highly (H5N1 and low (H7N2 pathogenic avian influenza virus infection in falcons via nasochoanal route and ingestion of experimentally infected prey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateri Bertran

    Full Text Available An experimental infection with highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI and low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI viruses was carried out on falcons in order to examine the effects of these viruses in terms of pathogenesis, viral distribution in tissues and viral shedding. The distribution pattern of influenza virus receptors was also assessed. Captive-reared gyr-saker (Falco rusticolus x Falco cherrug hybrid falcons were challenged with a HPAI H5N1 virus (A/Great crested grebe/Basque Country/06.03249/2006 or a LPAI H7N2 virus (A/Anas plathyrhynchos/Spain/1877/2009, both via the nasochoanal route and by ingestion of previously infected specific pathogen free chicks. Infected falcons exhibited similar infection dynamics despite the different routes of exposure, demonstrating the effectiveness of in vivo feeding route. H5N1 infected falcons died, or were euthanized, between 5-7 days post-infection (dpi after showing acute severe neurological signs. Presence of viral antigen in several tissues was confirmed by immunohistochemistry and real time RT-PCR (RRT-PCR, which were generally associated with significant microscopical lesions, mostly in the brain. Neither clinical signs, nor histopathological findings were observed in any of the H7N2 LPAI infected falcons, although all of them had seroconverted by 11 dpi. Avian receptors were strongly present in the upper respiratory tract of the falcons, in accordance with the consistent oral viral shedding detected by RRT-PCR in both H5N1 HPAI and H7N2 LPAI infected falcons. The present study demonstrates that gyr-saker hybrid falcons are highly susceptible to H5N1 HPAI virus infection, as previously observed, and that they may play a major role in the spreading of both HPAI and LPAI viruses. For the first time in raptors, natural infection by feeding on infected prey was successfully reproduced. The use of avian prey species in falconry husbandry and wildlife rehabilitation facilities could put valuable birds

  7. Natural and experimental infection of Caenorhabditis nematodes by novel viruses related to nodaviruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Anne Félix

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An ideal model system to study antiviral immunity and host-pathogen co-evolution would combine a genetically tractable small animal with a virus capable of naturally infecting the host organism. The use of C. elegans as a model to define host-viral interactions has been limited by the lack of viruses known to infect nematodes. From wild isolates of C. elegans and C. briggsae with unusual morphological phenotypes in intestinal cells, we identified two novel RNA viruses distantly related to known nodaviruses, one infecting specifically C. elegans (Orsay virus, the other C. briggsae (Santeuil virus. Bleaching of embryos cured infected cultures demonstrating that the viruses are neither stably integrated in the host genome nor transmitted vertically. 0.2 µm filtrates of the infected cultures could infect cured animals. Infected animals continuously maintained viral infection for 6 mo (∼50 generations, demonstrating that natural cycles of horizontal virus transmission were faithfully recapitulated in laboratory culture. In addition to infecting the natural C. elegans isolate, Orsay virus readily infected laboratory C. elegans mutants defective in RNAi and yielded higher levels of viral RNA and infection symptoms as compared to infection of the corresponding wild-type N2 strain. These results demonstrated a clear role for RNAi in the defense against this virus. Furthermore, different wild C. elegans isolates displayed differential susceptibility to infection by Orsay virus, thereby affording genetic approaches to defining antiviral loci. This discovery establishes a bona fide viral infection system to explore the natural ecology of nematodes, host-pathogen co-evolution, the evolution of small RNA responses, and innate antiviral mechanisms.

  8. Natural and experimental infection of Caenorhabditis nematodes by novel viruses related to nodaviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Félix, Marie-Anne; Ashe, Alyson; Piffaretti, Joséphine; Wu, Guang; Nuez, Isabelle; Bélicard, Tony; Jiang, Yanfang; Zhao, Guoyan; Franz, Carl J; Goldstein, Leonard D; Sanroman, Mabel; Miska, Eric A; Wang, David

    2011-01-25

    An ideal model system to study antiviral immunity and host-pathogen co-evolution would combine a genetically tractable small animal with a virus capable of naturally infecting the host organism. The use of C. elegans as a model to define host-viral interactions has been limited by the lack of viruses known to infect nematodes. From wild isolates of C. elegans and C. briggsae with unusual morphological phenotypes in intestinal cells, we identified two novel RNA viruses distantly related to known nodaviruses, one infecting specifically C. elegans (Orsay virus), the other C. briggsae (Santeuil virus). Bleaching of embryos cured infected cultures demonstrating that the viruses are neither stably integrated in the host genome nor transmitted vertically. 0.2 µm filtrates of the infected cultures could infect cured animals. Infected animals continuously maintained viral infection for 6 mo (∼50 generations), demonstrating that natural cycles of horizontal virus transmission were faithfully recapitulated in laboratory culture. In addition to infecting the natural C. elegans isolate, Orsay virus readily infected laboratory C. elegans mutants defective in RNAi and yielded higher levels of viral RNA and infection symptoms as compared to infection of the corresponding wild-type N2 strain. These results demonstrated a clear role for RNAi in the defense against this virus. Furthermore, different wild C. elegans isolates displayed differential susceptibility to infection by Orsay virus, thereby affording genetic approaches to defining antiviral loci. This discovery establishes a bona fide viral infection system to explore the natural ecology of nematodes, host-pathogen co-evolution, the evolution of small RNA responses, and innate antiviral mechanisms.

  9. Evaluation of metaphylactic RNA interference to prevent equine herpesvirus type 1 infection in experimental herpesvirus myeloencephalopathy in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Gillian A; Van de Walle, Gerlinde R; Pusterla, Nicola; Erb, Hollis N; Osterrieder, Nikolaus

    2013-02-01

    To evaluate metaphylactic RNA interference to prevent equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) infection in experimental herpesvirus myeloencephalopathy in horses and to determine whether horses infected with a neuropathogenic strain of the virus that develop equine herpesvirus myeloencephalopathy (EHM) have differences in viremia. 13 seronegative horses. EHV-1 strain Ab4 was administered intranasally on day 0, and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs [EHV-1 specific siRNAs {n = 7} or an irrelevant siRNA {6}]) were administered intranasally 24 hours before and 12, 24, 36, and 48 hours after infection. Physical and neurologic examinations, nasal swab specimens, and blood samples were collected for virus isolation and quantitative PCR assay. Data from the study were combined with data from a previous study of 14 horses. No significant difference was detected in clinical variables, viremia, or detection of EHV-1 in nasal swab specimens of horses treated with the EHV-1 targeted siRNAs (sigB3-siOri2) versus controls. No significant differences in viremia were detected between horses that developed EHM and those that did not. Administration of siRNAs targeted against EHV-1 around the time of EHV-1 infection was not protective with this experimental design. Horses infected with the neuropathogenic EHV-1 strain Ab4 that developed EHM did not have a more pronounced viremia.

  10. Florfenicol feed supplemented decrease the clinical effects of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae experimental infection in swine in México.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciprián, A; Palacios, J M; Quintanar, D; Batista, L; Colmenares, G; Cruz, T; Romero, A; Schnitzlein, W; Mendoza, S

    2012-04-01

    The therapeutic value of Florfenicol feed supplemented was evaluated in conventional pigs to eliminate consequences of chronic infection of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae. The experimental animals were pigs with an average of 16 kg, after intratracheally inoculation with M. hyopneumoniae they were divided in two experimental groups: (a) the non-medicated; and (b) the feed supplemented group (20 g Florfenicol/ton of feed) during the ensuing 35 days. The average daily weight gain of the Florfenicol-treated pigs (0.33±0.14 kg/day) was significantly higher than that of the non-treated ones (0.21±0.10 kg/day). In medicated animals was still impaired relative to that of the uninfected ones control group (0.39±0.02 kg/day). The average percentage of pneumonic gross lesions extensions' of the pigs groups was: 13.99% for M. hyopneumoniae infected non-medicated group; 1.79% M. hyopneumoniae infected, Florfenicol-treated group and, 0.56% of the uninfected control group. M. hyopneumoniae; colonization was detected at these levels in 7 and 9 members of the respective infected groups. The extent of the pneumonic lesions and M. hyopneumoniae generally was greater in the non-medicated pigs. Therefore, oral administration of Florfenicol via feed ingestion seemed to be somewhat effective in ameliorating the clinical effects of M. hyopneumoniae infection of swine. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Efficacy of domestic cooking inactivation of human hepatitis A virus in experimentally infected manila clams (Ruditapes philippinarum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascoli, F; Pezzuto, A; Buratin, A; Piovesana, A; Fortin, A; Arcangeli, G; Toffan, A

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the efficacy of domestic cooking in inactivating Manila clams experimentally infected with human hepatitis A virus (HAV). Electronic temperature probes were positioned to measure the internal temperature of Manila clams during domestic cooking. Two batches were infected with 10(7) and 10(5) TCID50  ml(-1) of HAV. The infected whole-in-shell clams were divided into three replicates and cooked on a conventional stove both singularly and in group and removed from the pan at fixed intervals. Pools of three digestive glands were examined by virus isolation for three blind passages and cell culture supernatant tested with real-time PCR. Results showed that 2-min cooking by a traditional domestic method at a temperature close to 100°C, after the opening up of the valves of all the clams, can completely devitalize the HAV in high viral load-infected clams. This is the first study on inactivation of HAV in experimentally infected Manila clams subjected to domestic cooking. At present, labelling all lagoon products as 'requiring cooking before consumption' is highly recommended, but no specifications are given on how long and at what temperature they should be cooked. Considering the high commercial value of Manila clams, our results can provide both the producers and the consumer with useful indications on how to cook clams to prevent the risk of HAV foodborne illness. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  12. Host specificity of North American Rhabdias spp. (Nematoda: Rhabdiasidae): combining field data and experimental infections with a molecular phylogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langford, Gabriel J; Janovy, John

    2013-04-01

    Lungworms of the cosmopolitan genus Rhabdias are among the most common parasites of amphibians and squamate reptiles. The present study used experimental infections, field studies, and a molecular phylogeny to determine the host specificity of 6 Rhabdias spp. that infect snakes and anurans from North America. The molecular phylogeny suggests Rhabdias ranae from Nebraska and Mississippi may represent separate, cryptic species. In addition, the phylogeny strongly supports separate clades for anuran and snake lungworms. Field studies and experimental infections indicate that snake lungworms are generalist snake parasites; however, laboratory experiments also suggest that lizards can be infected under some environmental conditions. Lungworms from anurans were found not to infect salamanders or reptiles, in nature or in the laboratory; anuran lungworm species ranged from strict host specificity, e.g., R. ranae from Nebraska, to relative generalist, e.g., Rhabdias joaquinensis from Nebraska. Overall, host specificity for species of Rhabdias does not provide support for the evolution of progressive specialization over time. For most species of lungworms, host specificity in nature appears to be limited by both ecological and physiological factors, which vary between species and their hosts. Furthermore, some lungworms, e.g., Rhabdias bakeri from Missouri, appear to be tracking host resources instead of host phylogenies, an example of ecological fitting.

  13. Oxidative Stress in Wild Boars Naturally and Experimentally Infected with Mycobacterium bovis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Gassó

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS-RNS are important defence substances involved in the immune response against pathogens. An excessive increase in ROS-RNS, however, can damage the organism causing oxidative stress (OS. The organism is able to neutralise OS by the production of antioxidant enzymes (AE; hence, tissue damage is the result of an imbalance between oxidant and antioxidant status. Though some work has been carried out in humans, there is a lack of information about the oxidant/antioxidant status in the presence of tuberculosis (TB in wild reservoirs. In the Mediterranean Basin, wild boar (Sus scrofa is the main reservoir of TB. Wild boar showing severe TB have an increased risk to Mycobacterium spp. shedding, leading to pathogen spreading and persistence. If OS is greater in these individuals, oxidant/antioxidant balance in TB-affected boars could be used as a biomarker of disease severity. The present work had a two-fold objective: i to study the effects of bovine TB on different OS biomarkers (namely superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalasa (CAT, glutathione peroxidase (GPX, glutathione reductase (GR and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS in wild boar experimentally challenged with Mycobacterium bovis, and ii to explore the role of body weight, sex, population and season in explaining the observed variability of OS indicators in two populations of free-ranging wild boar where TB is common. For the first objective, a partial least squares regression (PLSR approach was used whereas, recursive partitioning with regression tree models (RTM were applied for the second. A negative relationship between antioxidant enzymes and bovine TB (the more severe lesions, the lower the concentration of antioxidant biomarkers was observed in experimentally infected animals. The final PLSR model retained the GPX, SOD and GR biomarkers and showed that 17.6% of the observed variability of antioxidant capacity was significantly correlated

  14. Chronic Bee Paralysis Virus and Nosema ceranae Experimental Co-Infection of Winter Honey Bee Workers (Apis mellifera L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleš Gregorc

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV is an important viral disease of adult bees which induces significant losses in honey bee colonies. Despite comprehensive research, only limited data is available from experimental infection for this virus. In the present study winter worker bees were experimentally infected in three different experiments. Bees were first inoculated per os (p/o or per cuticle (p/c with CBPV field strain M92/2010 in order to evaluate the virus replication in individual bees. In addition, potential synergistic effects of co-infection with CBPV and Nosema ceranae (N. ceranae on bees were investigated. In total 558 individual bees were inoculated in small cages and data were analyzed using quantitative real time RT-PCR (RT-qPCR. Our results revealed successful replication of CBPV after p/o inoculation, while it was less effective when bees were inoculated p/c. Dead bees harbored about 1,000 times higher copy numbers of the virus than live bees. Co-infection of workers with CBPV and N. ceranae using either method of virus inoculation (p/c or p/o showed increased replication ability for CBPV. In the third experiment the effect of inoculation on bee mortality was evaluated. The highest level of bee mortality was observed in a group of bees inoculated with CBPV p/o, followed by a group of workers simultaneously inoculated with CBPV and N. ceranae p/o, followed by the group inoculated with CBPV p/c and the group with only N. ceranae p/o. The experimental infection with CBPV showed important differences after p/o or p/c inoculation in winter bees, while simultaneous infection with CBPV and N. ceranae suggesting a synergistic effect after inoculation.

  15. Chronic bee paralysis virus and Nosema ceranae experimental co-infection of winter honey bee workers (Apis mellifera L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toplak, Ivan; Jamnikar Ciglenečki, Urška; Aronstein, Katherine; Gregorc, Aleš

    2013-09-19

    Chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV) is an important viral disease of adult bees which induces significant losses in honey bee colonies. Despite comprehensive research, only limited data is available from experimental infection for this virus. In the present study winter worker bees were experimentally infected in three different experiments. Bees were first inoculated per os (p/o) or per cuticle (p/c) with CBPV field strain M92/2010 in order to evaluate the virus replication in individual bees. In addition, potential synergistic effects of co-infection with CBPV and Nosema ceranae (N. ceranae) on bees were investigated. In total 558 individual bees were inoculated in small cages and data were analyzed using quantitative real time RT-PCR (RT-qPCR). Our results revealed successful replication of CBPV after p/o inoculation, while it was less effective when bees were inoculated p/c. Dead bees harbored about 1,000 times higher copy numbers of the virus than live bees. Co-infection of workers with CBPV and N. ceranae using either method of virus inoculation (p/c or p/o) showed increased replication ability for CBPV. In the third experiment the effect of inoculation on bee mortality was evaluated. The highest level of bee mortality was observed in a group of bees inoculated with CBPV p/o, followed by a group of workers simultaneously inoculated with CBPV and N. ceranae p/o, followed by the group inoculated with CBPV p/c and the group with only N. ceranae p/o. The experimental infection with CBPV showed important differences after p/o or p/c inoculation in winter bees, while simultaneous infection with CBPV and N. ceranae suggesting a synergistic effect after inoculation.

  16. Experimental infections of Orchitophrya stellarum (Scuticociliata) in American blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus) and fiddler crabs (Uca minax).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Terrence L; Small, Hamish J; Peemoeller, Bhae-Jin; Gibbs, David A; Shields, Jeffrey D

    2013-11-01

    Outbreaks of an unidentified ciliate have occurred on several occasions in blue crabs from Chesapeake Bay held during winter months in flow-through systems. The parasite was initially thought to be Mesanophrys chesapeakensis, but molecular analysis identified it as Orchitophyra stellarum, a facultative parasite of sea stars (Asteroidea). We investigated the host-parasite association of O. stellarum in the blue crab host. Crabs were inoculated with the ciliate, or they were held in bath exposures after experimentally induced autotomy of limbs in order to determine potential mechanisms for infection. Crabs inoculated with the ciliate, or exposed to it after experimental autotomy, rapidly developed fatal infections. Crabs that were not experimentally injured, but were exposed to the ciliate, rarely developed infections; thus, indicating that the parasite requires a wound or break in the cuticle as a portal of entry. For comparative purposes, fiddler crabs, Uca minax, were inoculated with the ciliate in a dose-titration experiment. Low doses of the ciliate (10 per crab) were sometimes able to establish infections, but high intensity infections developed quickly at doses over 500 ciliates per crab. Chemotaxis studies were initiated to determine if the ciliate preferentially selected blue crab serum (BCS) over other nutrient sources. Cultures grown on medium with BCS or fetal bovine serum showed some conditioning in their selection for different media, but the outcome in choice experiments indicated that the ciliate was attracted to BCS and not seawater. Our findings indicate that O. stellarum is a facultative parasite of blue crabs. It can cause infections in exposed crabs at 10-15°C, but it requires a portal of entry for successful host invasion, and it may find injured hosts using chemotaxis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Vaccinia viruses isolated from skin infection in horses produced cutaneous and systemic disease in experimentally infected rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cargnelutti, Juliana Felipetto; Schmidt, Candice; Masuda, Eduardo Kenji; Nogueira, Paula Rochelle Kurrle; Weiblen, Rudi; Flores, Eduardo Furtado

    2012-10-01

    The susceptibility of rabbits to two isolates of Vaccinia virus (VACV) recovered from cutaneous disease in horses in Southern Brazil was investigated. Rabbits were inoculated in the ear skin with both VACV isolates, either in single or mixed infection. All inoculated animals presented local skin lesions characterized by hyperaemia, papules, vesicles, pustules and ulcers. Infectious virus was detected in the lungs and intestine of rabbits that died during acute disease. Histological examination of the skin revealed changes characteristic of those associated with members of the genus Orthopoxvirus. These results demonstrate that rabbits develop skin disease accompanied by systemic signs upon intradermal inoculation of these two equine VACV isolates, either alone or in combination, opening the way for using rabbits to study selected aspects of the biology and pathogenesis of VACV infection. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Experimental infection of the pig with Mycobacterium ulcerans: a novel model for studying the pathogenesis of Buruli ulcer disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Bolz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Buruli ulcer (BU is a slowly progressing, necrotising disease of the skin caused by infection with Mycobacterium ulcerans. Non-ulcerative manifestations are nodules, plaques and oedema, which may progress to ulceration of large parts of the skin. Histopathologically, BU is characterized by coagulative necrosis, fat cell ghosts, epidermal hyperplasia, clusters of extracellular acid fast bacilli (AFB in the subcutaneous tissue and lack of major inflammatory infiltration. The mode of transmission of BU is not clear and there is only limited information on the early pathogenesis of the disease available.For evaluating the potential of the pig as experimental infection model for BU, we infected pigs subcutaneously with different doses of M. ulcerans. The infected skin sites were excised 2.5 or 6.5 weeks after infection and processed for histopathological analysis. With doses of 2 × 10(7 and 2 × 10(6 colony forming units (CFU we observed the development of nodular lesions that subsequently progressed to ulcerative or plaque-like lesions. At lower inoculation doses signs of infection found after 2.5 weeks had spontaneously resolved at 6.5 weeks. The observed macroscopic and histopathological changes closely resembled those found in M. ulcerans disease in humans.Our results demonstrate that the pig can be infected with M. ulcerans. Productive infection leads to the development of lesions that closely resemble human BU lesions. The pig infection model therefore has great potential for studying the early pathogenesis of BU and for the development of new therapeutic and prophylactic interventions.

  19. Thymic Stromal Lymphopoietin Is Critical for Regulation of Proinflammatory Cytokine Response and Resistance to Experimental Trypanosoma congolense Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chukwunonso Onyilagha

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness poses serious threat to human and animal health in sub-Saharan Africa. Because there is currently no vaccine for preventing this disease and available drugs are not safe, understanding the mechanisms that regulate resistance and/or susceptibility to the disease could reveal novel targets for effective disease therapy and prevention. Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP plays a critical role in driving Th2 immune response. Although susceptibility to experimental Trypanosoma congolense infection in mice is associated with excessive proinflammatory responses due in part to impaired Th2 response, the role of TSLP in resistance to African trypanosomiasis has not been well studied. Here, we investigated whether TSLP is critical for maintaining Th2 environment necessary for survival of T. congolense-infected mice. We observed an increased TSLP level in mice after infection with T. congolense, suggesting a role for this cytokine in resistance to the infection. Indeed, TSLPR−/− mice were more susceptible to T. congolense infection and died significantly earlier than their wild-type (WT controls. Interestingly, serum levels of IFN-γ and TNF-α and the frequency of IFN-γ- and TNF-α-producing CD4+ T cells in the spleens and liver were significantly higher in infected TSLPR−/− mice than in the WT control mice. Susceptibility was also associated with excessive M1 macrophage activation. Treatment of TSLPR−/− mice with anti-IFN-γ mAb during infection abolished their enhanced susceptibility to T. congolense infection. Collectively, our study shows that TSLP plays a critical role in resistance to T. congolense infection by dampening the production of proinflammatory cytokines and its associated M1 macrophage activation.

  20. 19 July 2013 - Chairman of the Policy Committee, European Cancer Organisation, President, European Association for Cancer Research E. Celis visiting the ATLAS experimental cavern with ATLAS Collaboration Deputy Spokesperson, B. Heinemann and signing the Guest Book with Director for Accelerators and Technology S. Myers. Life Sciences Adviser M. Dosanjh present.

    CERN Multimedia

    Anna Pantelia

    2013-01-01

    19 July 2013 - Chairman of the Policy Committee, European Cancer Organisation, President, European Association for Cancer Research E. Celis visiting the ATLAS experimental cavern with ATLAS Collaboration Deputy Spokesperson, B. Heinemann and signing the Guest Book with Director for Accelerators and Technology S. Myers. Life Sciences Adviser M. Dosanjh present.

  1. Use of Tc-rCRP as a target for lytic antibody titration after experimental Trypanosoma cruzi infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Tatiane; Silva, Gustavo Caetano; Henrique Paiva, Priscila Moraes; Nascentes, Gabriel Antônio Nogueira; Ramirez, Luis Eduardo; Norris, Karen; Meira, Wendell Sérgio Ferreira

    2018-01-01

    Experimental Chagas disease has been used as a model to identify several host/parasite interaction factors involved in immune responses to Trypanosoma cruzi infection. One of the factors inherent to this parasite is the complement regulatory protein (Tc-CRP), a major epitope that induces production of lytic antibodies during T. cruzi infections. Previous studies have evaluated the function of Tc-CRP as an antigenic marker via ELISAs, which demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity when compared to other methods. Therefore, this study aimed to assess and compare the levels of lytic antibodies induced by this protein following experimental infection using different T. cruzi strains. Our results demonstrated that infections induced by strains isolated from vectors resulted in subpatent parasitaemia and low reactivity, as assessed by Tc-rCRP ELISAs. On the other hand, mice inoculated with T. cruzi strains isolated from patients developed patent parasitaemia, and presented elevated lytic antibodies titres, as measured by Tc-rCRP ELISA. In addition, comparison between different mouse lineages demonstrated that Balb/c mice were more reactive than C57BL/6 mice in almost all types of infections, except those infected by the AQ-4 strain. Parasites from the Hel strain generated the greatest lytic antibody response in all evaluated models. Therefore, application of sensitive techniques for monitoring immune responses would enable us to establish growth curves for lytic antibodies during the course of the infection, and allow us to discriminate between T. cruzi strains that originate from different hosts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Growth of cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV-2) in cell culture and experimental infection of goldfish Carassius auratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Takafumi; Kurita, Jun; Ozaki, Akiyuki; Sano, Motohiko; Fukuda, Hideo; Ototake, Mitsuru

    2013-09-03

    Herpesviral haematopoietic necrosis has caused great economic damage to goldfish Carassius auratus aquaculture in Japan. The existence of cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV-2), the causative agent, has also been reported from several other countries. To prevent spread to other areas, basic virological information such as viral kinetics in infected fish is essential. Experimental infection trials using reliably prepared CyHV-2 for defining viral kinetics are difficult to carry out because successful and sustainable propagation of this virus in cell culture has previously been limited. Here we describe a method for sustainable propagation of CyHV-2 in cell culture, and the results of fish infection experiments using the propagated virus. We found that goldfish fin (GFF) cells and standard Ryukin Takafumi (SRTF) cells established from goldfish fin can be used for continuous propagation of CyHV-2. Experimental infections using 2 varieties of goldfish, Ryukin and Edonishiki, were performed with the virus passaged 7 times in GFF cells. In transmission experiments with water temperature at 20°C, cumulative mortality was 30% in Ryukin infected by immersion, and 90 and 100% in Edonishiki and Ryukin intraperitoneally injected with the virus, respectively. In an experiment carried out at 25°C, 90% of Edonishiki challenged by immersion died. PCR detection of viral DNA from the organs of infected fish showed that systemic infection occurs and also that the kidney is a main viral multiplication site. Moreover, CyHV-2 was successfully re-isolated in GFF cells from the dead fish.

  3. Detection of Toxoplasma gondii Antigens in Sera and Urine of Experimentally Infected Mice by Capture ELISA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Shojaee

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Toxoplasma gondii is an apicomplexan parasite which infects a broad range of hosts. The classical diagnosis of toxoplasmosis relies on serological methods. Detection of parasite or its components could be useful tool for early diag­nosis of the infection.Methods: Fifty mice were infected by the intraperitoneal route with 5000 tachyzoites of T. gondii RH strain. Five of them sacrificed every day from day 1 up to day 7 post infection. Sera and urine of mice were tested by capture ELISA.Results: T.gondii antigens were detected from 3rd and 2nd day in serum and urine, respectively, after infection until their death on day 7.Conclusion: Antigenemia detection of antigens of parasite was possible in a short period of acute infection with T. gondii by capture ELISA.

  4. Marked induction of IL-6, haptoglobin and IFN gamma following experimental BRSV infection in young calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grell, Susanne Nedergaard; Tjørnehøj, Kirsten; Larsen, Lars Erik

    2005-01-01

    Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) has been identified worldwide as an important pathogen associated with acute respiratory disease in calves. An infection model has been developed reflecting accurately the clinical course and die, development of pathological signs during a natural BRSV-infection....... In the experiments described in the present study, calves were infected at 13-21 weeks of age and reinfected 14 weeks later. Blood samples front the entire infection period were analysed for acute phase protein (haptoglobin) by ELISA and for expression (mRNA level in peripheral blood mononuclear cells...... to the first infection with BRSV The IFNgamma response was biphasic. with an early peak at day 1-3 post infection (p.i.) and a later increase between day 5 and 8 p.i. Reinfection also resulted in an induction of IFNgamma. but without induction of clinical signs, IL-6 and haptoglobin. These results indicate...

  5. A macro- and light microscopical study of the pathology of Calicophoron microbothrium infection in experimentally infected cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mavenyengwa

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Twelve Tuli weaner steers aged 1 year were randomly subdivided into three groups of four animals and infected with different doses of Calicophoron microbothrium metacercariae. Each animal in Group I received a low dose (LD of 5 000 metacercariae, Group II a medium dose (MD of 15 000 metacercariae, Group III a high dose (HD of 25 000 metacercariae and one additional animal was kept as an uninfected control (C. After infection, one animal from each group was slaughtered on Day 28, 42, 56 and 84 post infection (pi and samples from the ileum, jejunum, duodenum, abomasum and the rumen were collected for histopathological and cytological examination. On Day 28 pi, the gross pathological lesions observed in the duodenum of the LD and the MD animals were similar and comprised duodenal thickening, corrugation, hyperaemia, petechiation and ulceration. In the HD animal the duodenal lesions were similar but more severe. The abomasal folds were severely oedematous in the MD group and nearly occluded the abomasal lumen. Moderate oedema of the abomasal folds was also present in the LD and HD animals. The gross pathological lesions regressed in all the infected groups with increasing age of infection and had disappeared completely by Day 56 pi. On Day 28 pi the histopathological lesions in the duodenum and jejunum of the LD and MD groups were similar, comprising subtotal villous atrophy, hyperplasia of Brunner's glands and Peyer's patches and moderate infiltration of eosinophils, mast cells and a few globule leukocytes, basophils and lymphocytes in the lamina propria. The HD group had total villous atrophy, severe hyperplasia and cystic dilatation of Brunner's glands, which had expanded to cover the entire submucosa. On Day 42 pi the histopathological lesions were still present in the MD and the HD groups comprising subtotal villous atrophy and hyperplasia of Brunner's glands. Heavy infiltrations of eosinophils, moderate amounts of mast cells and a few

  6. Teicoplanin-Containing Cement Spacers for Treatment of Experimental Staphylococcus aureus Joint Prosthesis Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Ismael, Farid; Bléton, Rémy; Saleh-Mghir, Azzam; Dautrey, Sophie; Massias, Laurent; Crémieux, Anne-Claude

    2003-01-01

    Using a rabbit model of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus knee-prosthesis infection, we studied the efficacy of teicoplanin cement alone or in combination with systemic intramuscular (i.m.) injections of teicoplanin. Seven days after infection, surgical debridement and removal of the infected prostheses were performed, and five rabbits were randomly assigned to one of five different treatment groups: untreated controls, prosthesis replacement by drug-free cement spacer, prosthesis r...

  7. Effect of a commercial disinfectant ('Virkon') on mouse experimental infection by Cryptosporidium parvum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ares-Mazás, E; Lorenzo, M J; Casal, J A; Fernández da Ponte, B; Castro, J A; Freire, F

    1997-06-01

    Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts obtained from naturally-infected calves were exposed to 1-10% 'Virkon' for 10-360 min, then inoculated intragastrically into coccidium-free neonatal mice. Prevalence and intensity of infection were determined seven days later by examination of intestinal homogenates. Although we were unable to abolish infectivity for the mice, the intensity of infection was considerably reduced after long periods of exposure (up to > 90%, depending on disinfectant concentration), indicating that this product may have some value for disinfection when extended exposure is possible (e.g., soaking laboratory glassware).

  8. Treatment efficacy and regulatory host responses in chronic experimental Schistosoma bovis infections in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monrad, J; Sörén, K; Johansen, M V; Lindberg, R; Ornbjerg, N

    2006-08-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the regulatory responses and the long-term effect of praziquantel treatment in chronically Schistosoma bovis-infected West African Dwarf goats. Forty-two goats were used and the design comprised a primary infection followed by treatment at week 13, challenge infection at week 36 and termination at week 52. Dependent variables included clinico-pathological data, worm numbers, faecal and tissue egg counts, and gross pathology of the liver. The results showed that primary infections remained suppressed for up to 52 weeks and, although challenge infections imposed on 36-week-old primary infections established fully, the impairment of their egg production capacity provided protection against clinico-pathological consequences measured by body weight and haemoglobin levels. The study also confirmed a high efficacy (97.7%) of praziquantel for treatment of S. bovis infection in goats and showed that anthelminthic removal of primary infections does not interfere with the ability of the goat to elicit a marked resistance to a subsequent challenge infection. Although treated goats had more fibrous scarring of livers than untreated goats, no negative effects of liver lesions were reflected in weight gains of treated goats. This study provides strong evidence for the beneficial effects of anthelminthic treatment of young domestic stock as an element of treatment and preventive programmes.

  9. Experimental infection by Yersinia ruckeri O1 biotype 2 induces brain lesions and neurological signs in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strøm, H K; Ohtani, M; Nowak, B; Boutrup, T S; Jones, B; Raida, M K; Bojesen, A M

    2017-11-17

    Pathological manifestations in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) following experimental waterborne infection with Yersinia ruckeri serotype O1 biotype 2 (strain 07111224) were investigated. Rainbow trout were exposed to 8 × 107  CFU/ml of Y. ruckeri by bath for 6 hr, and mortality was then monitored for 22 days post-infection (dpi). Organs were sampled at 3 dpi and also from moribund fish showing signs of severe systemic infection such as bleeding, exophthalmia or erratic swimming behaviour. Y. ruckeri was observed in the meninges and diencephalon of the brain, and lamina propria of ol